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1

Peat bog records of atmospheric mercury deposition  

Microsoft Academic Search

There have recently been many investigations using atmospheric mercury deposition as an indicator of the impact of industrial development, especially in the Northern Hemisphere. Thus, mosses have been used as indicators of airborne mercury pollution1,2, both wet and dry deposition have been analysed for mercury3,4, and mercury concentrations in 18O\\/16O dated ice core samples from the Greenland Ice Sheet have

Poul Pheiffer Madsen

1981-01-01

2

Possibilities for detailed dating of peat bog deposits  

SciTech Connect

Geochemical and palynological data as well as radiocarbon dating were used to study the peat bog deposits in Niinsarre bog, northeast Estonia. The aim of this study was to establish criteria for determining a detailed chronology, which is important, for example, in studying paleoevents and historical monitoring. In some cases, they can use cumulative pollen data, as well as cumulative chemical and peat bulk density data. Material was gathered for [sup 14]C dating from three parallel samples taken from cores ca. 10--20 cm apart using a Russian peat sampler. Samples for peat bulk density, palynological and chemical measurements were taken from the same cores. To measure peat bulk density, the authors used a continuous sampling method. Sampling frequency was calculated to cover layers formed over 50 yr.

Punning, J.; Ilomets, M.; Koff, T. (Inst. of Ecology and Marine Research, Tallinn (Estonia))

1993-01-01

3

Atmospheric nitrogen deposition promotes carbon loss from peat bogs.  

PubMed

Peat bogs have historically represented exceptional carbon (C) sinks because of their extremely low decomposition rates and consequent accumulation of plant remnants as peat. Among the factors favoring that peat accumulation, a major role is played by the chemical quality of plant litter itself, which is poor in nutrients and characterized by polyphenols with a strong inhibitory effect on microbial breakdown. Because bogs receive their nutrient supply solely from atmospheric deposition, the global increase of atmospheric nitrogen (N) inputs as a consequence of human activities could potentially alter the litter chemistry with important, but still unknown, effects on their C balance. Here we present data showing the decomposition rates of recently formed litter peat samples collected in nine European countries under a natural gradient of atmospheric N deposition from approximately 0.2 to 2 g.m(-2).yr(-1). We found that enhanced decomposition rates for material accumulated under higher atmospheric N supplies resulted in higher carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and dissolved organic carbon release. The increased N availability favored microbial decomposition (i) by removing N constraints on microbial metabolism and (ii) through a chemical amelioration of litter peat quality with a positive feedback on microbial enzymatic activity. Although some uncertainty remains about whether decay-resistant Sphagnum will continue to dominate litter peat, our data indicate that, even without such changes, increased N deposition poses a serious risk to our valuable peatland C sinks. PMID:17151199

Bragazza, Luca; Freeman, Chris; Jones, Timothy; Rydin, Håkan; Limpens, Juul; Fenner, Nathalie; Ellis, Tim; Gerdol, Renato; Hájek, Michal; Hájek, Tomás; Iacumin, Paola; Kutnar, Lado; Tahvanainen, Teemu; Toberman, Hannah

2006-12-06

4

The biogeochemistry of an ombrotrophic bog: Evaluation of use as an archive of atmospheric mercury deposition  

SciTech Connect

The utility of ombrotrophic bogs as archives of atmospheric mercury deposition was assessed with an investigation in Arlberg Bog, Minnesota, US. Since the use of ombrotrophic bogs as archives depends on the immobility of deposited trace metals, the authors examined the postdepositional transport processes revealed by the solid-phase distributions of mercury and ancillary metals in this bog. They modeled metal speciation in bog pore-waters as a function of pe in order to understand metal behavior in ombrotrophic peat. Specifically, they considered the effect of water movement and resultant shifts in redox potential gradients on metal retention. The results indicate that Hg and Pb are immobile in ombrotrophic peat, so their distribution can be used to determine temporal changes in deposition. To substantiate the deposition estimates determined in this study, they emphasized the importance of confirming the validity of the dating scheme, assessing the degree of horizontal homogeneity in the accumulation record, and providing evidence for retention of Hg based on geochemical modeling. As recorded in Arlberg Bog, historic atmospheric Hg deposition increased gradually after the mid-1800s, peaked between 1950 and 1960, and may have declined thereafter. Preindustrial deposition was about 4 {micro}g/m{sup 2} year and recent deposition about 19 {micro}g/m{sup 2} year. The results of this study indicate that deposition at Arlberg Bog has been influenced by a regional and/or local-scale source.

Benoit, J.M.; Fitzgerald, W.F. [Univ. of Connecticut, Groton, CT (United States). Dept. of Marine Sciences; Damman, A.W.H. [Univ. of Connecticut, Storrs, CT (United States). Dept. of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology

1998-08-01

5

Impact of catchment degree on peat properties in peat deposits of eutrophic bog  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fundamental works of many investigators show that according to the biophysical properties peat deposit (PD) is divided into 2 layers: active and inert. It is interesting to analyze the supposed changes in PD of eutrophic bog according to different data (physical, chemical and biological). The researches were carried out at two plots of one bog (points 1 and 2, positions

L. I. Inisheva; O. A. Golubina; A. V. Rodikova; N. A. Shinkeeva; A. B. Bubina

2010-01-01

6

Effects of elevated carbon dioxide and increased nitrogen deposition on bog vegetation in the Netherlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

1 We studied the effects of elevated atmospheric CO2 and increased N deposition on the plant species composition of a Sphagnum-dominated bog ecosystem in the Netherlands. Large peat monoliths (surface area 1 m2, depth 0.6 m) with intact bog vegetation were kept outdoors in large containers and were exposed to elevated CO2 or increased N deposition for three growing seasons.

Monique M. P. D. Heijmans; Frank Berendse; Wim J. Arp; Ab K. Masselink; Herman Klees; Willem De Visser; Nico Van Breemen

2001-01-01

7

Potassium limits potential growth of bog vegetation under elevated atmospheric CO2 and N deposition  

Microsoft Academic Search

The free air carbon dioxide enrichment (FACE) and N deposition experiments on four ombrotrophic bogs in Finland, Sweden, the Netherlands and Switzerland, revealed that after three years of treatment: (1) elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration had no significant effect on the biomass growth of Sphagnum and vascular species; and (2) increased N deposition reduced Sphagnum growth, because it increased the cover

MARCEL R. HOOSBEEK; NICO VAN BREEMEN; HARRI VASANDER; A. Buttlers; FRANK BERENDSE

2002-01-01

8

Controls on suppression of methane flux from a peat bog subjected to simulated acid rain sulfate deposition  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of acid rain SO42- deposition on peatland CH4 emissions was examined by manipulating SO42- inputs to a pristine raised peat bog in northern Scotland. Weekly pulses of dissolved Na2SO4 were applied to the bog over two years in doses of 25, 50, and 100 kg S ha-1 yr-1, reflecting the range of pollutant S deposition loads experienced in

Vincent Gauci; Nancy Dise; David Fowler

2002-01-01

9

Impact of catchment degree on peat properties in peat deposits of eutrophic bog  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fundamental works of many investigators show that according to the biophysical properties peat deposit (PD) is divided into 2 layers: active and inert. It is interesting to analyze the supposed changes in PD of eutrophic bog according to different data (physical, chemical and biological). The researches were carried out at two plots of one bog (points 1 and 2, positions 56° 21' NL, 84° 47' EL, Russia, Siberia). Agricultural afforestation (pine planting) was made at one of them (point 2) 60 years ago. Now this plot is absolutely identical in ground cover to 1 point, but other conditions are significantly changed. In spring bog water level is at the depth of 20cm at 2 point (at 1 point it is near water face), it lows up to 53 cm during summer time (at 1 point - up to 37 cm). According to redox conditions zone of anoxic-oxic conditions reaches meter depth at 2 points. PDs don't significantly differ in activity of ammonifiers but in activity of cellulose-lytic aerobic microflora it follows that it is more active at 2 point in PD active layer. In spite of good aeration, more favorable conditions were created also for anaerobic cellulose-fermenting microflora in PD of 2 point in comparison with 1 one. Activity analysis of denitrifying agents and microflora of other physiological groups also showed high activity of biota at the plot with afforestation amelioration. This fact was confirmed by high coefficient of mineralization. Time of drainage effect created by afforestation amelioration influenced group composition of peat organic matter which builds up PD of examined plots. According to fractional and group composition data fracture of hard-to-hydrolyze organic matters decreased during the process of microflora activating at the plot with afforestation amelioration but FA content increased. Fractional composition of nitrogen showed that content of mineral nitrogen compounds definitely increased. Thus, 60 years of surface drainage influenced composition change of peat organic matter along all PD profile. In our opinion, it is explained by rearrangement of qualitative and quantitative composition of microbic biota in consequence of alternate anoxic-oxic conditions creation along all PD of investigated eutrophic bog located in the dingle of ancient flow. Keywords: peat deposits, eutrophic bog, Siberia, microbiological processes, change of organic matter. Acknowledgements: This research was supported by RFFR (No.No. 09-05-00235, 09-05-99007), Minister of education and science (No. 02.740.11.0325).

Inisheva, L. I.; Golubina, O. A.; Rodikova, A. V.; Shinkeeva, N. A.; Bubina, A. B.

2010-05-01

10

Metalogenic Pattern for the Uraniferous Ore Deposits at the Sierrita Nuevo Leon and Tamaulipas Area.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A metalogenic pattern is proposed as a geological criterion to help in prospecting radioactive minerals accumulated in the tertiary sedimentary deposits at the Burgos Basin. Through the analysis and interpretation of the geological concepts and the mentio...

A. Hernandez H

1977-01-01

11

Raised atmospheric CO2 levels and increased N deposition cause shifts in plant species composition and production in Sphagnum bogs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Part of the missing sink in the global CO2 budget has been attributed to the positive effects of CO2 fertilization and N deposition on carbon sequestration in Northern Hemisphere terrestrial ecosystems. The genus Sphagnum is one of the most important groups of plant species sequestrating carbon in temperate and northern bog ecosystems, because of the low decomposability of the dead

Frank Berendse; Nico Van Breemen; HAkan Rydin; Alexandre Buttler; Monique Heijmans; Marcel R. Hoosbeek; John A. Lee; Edward Mitchell; Timo Saarinen; Harri Vasander; Bo Wallen

2001-01-01

12

N deposition affects N availability i n interstitial water, growth of Sphagnum and invasion of vascular plants in bog vegetation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied the effects of N deposition on shrubmoss competition and the establishment and growth of invasive Betula pubescens and Molinia caerulea in intact bog vegetation removed from a site subject to 40 kg N ha1 yr1. Mesocosms with and without introduced Betula seedlings and Molinia sprouts were kept under a roof and received an equivalent of 0, 40 and

Juul Limpens; Frank Berendse; Herman Klees

2003-01-01

13

Mid- and late Holocene dust deposition in western Europe: the Misten peat bog (Hautes Fagnes - Belgium)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dust deposition in southern Belgium is estimated from the geochemical signature of an ombrotrophic peatland. The rare earth elements (REE) and lithogenic elements concentrations, as well as Nd isotopes, were determined by HR-ICP-MS and MC-ICP-MS, respectively, along an ~6 m peat section covering 5300 yr, from 2000 to 7300 cal BP, dated by the 14C method. Changes in REE concentration in the peat correlate with those of Ti, Al, Sc and Zr that are lithogenic conservative elements, suggesting that REE are immobile in the studied peat bogs and can be used as tracers of dust deposition. Peat humification and testate amoebae were used to evaluate hydroclimatic conditions. The range of dust deposition varied from 0.03 to 4.0 g m-2 yr-1. The highest dust fluxes were observed from 2750 to 2550 cal BP and from 5150 to 4750 cal BP, and correspond to cold periods. The ϵNd values show a large variability from -13 to -5, identifying three major sources of dusts: local soils, distal volcanic and desert particles.

Allan, M.; Le Roux, G.; Piotrowska, N.; Beghin, J.; Javaux, E.; Court-Picon, M.; Mattielli, N.; Verheyden, S.; Fagel, N.

2013-10-01

14

Effects of elevated CO2 and increased N deposition on bog vegetation in the Netherlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ombrotrophic bogs are important long-term sinks for atmospheric carbon. Changes in species composition of the bog plant community may have important effects on carbon sequestration, because peat mosses ( Sphagnum ) contribute more to peat accumulation than vascular plants. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO 2<\\/sub> ) and increased nitrogen

M. M. P. D. Heijmans

2000-01-01

15

Recent atmospheric dust deposition in an ombrotrophic peat bog in Great Hinggan Mountain, Northeast China.  

PubMed

Recent deposition of atmospheric soil dust (ASD) was studied using (210)Pb-dated Sphagnum-derived peat sequences from Great Hinggan Mountain in northeast China. Physicochemical indices of peat including dry bulk density, water content, ash content, total organic carbon and mass magnetic susceptibility were measured. Acid-insoluble concentration of lithogenic metals (Al, Ca, Fe, Mn, V and Ti) were measured using ICP-AES. The basic physicochemical properties were used to assess the peat trophic status and indicated that the sections above 45-60 cm are rain-fed peat. A continuous record of ASD fluxes over the past 150 years was reconstructed based on the geochemical data obtained from the ombrotrophic zone, and the average input rate of ASD is 13.4-68.1 g m(-2) year(-1). The source of soil dust deposited in peat was dominated by the long-range transport of mineral aerosol from the drylands in north China and Mongolia. The temporal variation of ASD fluxes in the last 60 years coincides well with the meteorological records of dust storm frequency during 1954-2002 in north China. This suggests that the reconstructed sequence of atmospheric dust deposition is reliable and we can look back in time at the dust evolution before 1949. Dust storm events were observed occasionally in the late Qing dynasty, and their frequency and intensity were smaller than dust weather occurring in recent times. Four peaks of ASD fluxes were distinguished and correlated with the historical events at that time. This study presents the first atmospheric soil dust data in peat records in northeast China, and complements a global database of peat bog archives of atmospheric deposition. The results reflect the patterns of local environmental change over the past century in north China and will be helpful in formulating policies to achieve sustainable and healthy development. PMID:22664536

Bao, Kunshan; Xing, Wei; Yu, Xiaofei; Zhao, Hongmei; McLaughlin, Neil; Lu, Xianguo; Wang, Guoping

2012-06-03

16

Reconstructing historical atmospheric mercury deposition in Western Europe using: Misten peat bog cores, Belgium.  

PubMed

Four sediment cores were collected in 2008 from the Misten ombrotrophic peat bog in the Northern part of the Hautes Fagnes Plateau in Belgium. Total mercury (Hg) concentrations were analyzed to investigate the intra-site variability in atmospheric Hg deposition over the past 1,500 years. Mercury concentrations in the four cores ranged from 16 to 1,100 ?g kg(-1), with the maxima between 840 and 1,100 ?g kg(-1). A chronological framework was established using radiometric (210)Pb and (14)C dating of two cores (M1 and M4). Pollen horizons from these two cores were correlated with data from two additional cores, providing a consistent dating framework between all the sites. There was good agreement between atmospheric Hg accumulation rates in the four cores over time based on precise age dating and pollen chronosequences. The average Hg accumulation rate before the influence of human activities (from 500 to 1,300 AD) was 1.8 ± 1 ?g m(-2)y(-1) (2SD). Maximum Hg accumulation rates ranged from 90 to 200 ?g m(-2)y(-1) between 1930 and 1980 AD. During the European-North American Industrial Revolution, the mean Hg accumulation rate exceeded the pre-Industrial values by a factor of 63. Based on comparisons with historical records of anthropogenic activities in Europe and Belgium, the predominant regional anthropogenic sources of Hg during and after the Industrial Revolution were coal burning and smelter Hg emissions. Mercury accumulation rates and chronologies in the Misten cores were consistent with those reported for other European peat records. PMID:23178833

Allan, Mohammed; Le Roux, Gael; Sonke, Jeroen E; Piotrowska, Natalia; Streel, Maurice; Fagel, Nathalie

2012-11-22

17

Retention of As and Sb in ombrotrophic peat bogs: records of As, Sb, and Pb deposition at four Scottish sites  

SciTech Connect

Possible postdepositional As migration in ombrotrophic peat bogs was investigated by comparing depth profiles of As with those of Sb and Pb, two elements considered to be essentially immobile in peat, and those of redox-sensitive, potentially mobile nutrient elements such as Mn, Fe, P, and S in {sup 210}Pb-dated cores from four Scottish bogs. Concentration profiles of As were similar to those of Sb and Pb rather than these other elements, indicating that As is bound strongly to organic matter and is relatively immobile in ombrotrophic peat. Historical records of atmospheric anthropogenic As, Sb, and Pb deposition during the industrial and postindustrial periods were derived, site-specific maxima (up to 1.55, 1.33, and 45 mg m{sup -2} y{sup -1}, respectively) occurring between the late 1890s and 1960s, reflecting emissions from diverse sources such as mining and smelting, coal combustion, and also, in the case of Pb, exhaust emissions from the use of leaded gasoline. Since the mid-1980s, fluxes of Pb decreased (4-7 fold) more rapidly than those of As and Sb (2-3 fold), attributable to both the gradual elimination of leaded gasoline and recent new sources of the latter elements. Relative trends in derived anthropogenic As, Sb, and Pb deposition largely agreed with other Scottish peat and moss archive records, direct measurements of deposition, and UK emissions, i.e., four different types of data source. 36 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

Joanna M. Cloy; John G. Farmer; Margaret C. Graham; Angus B. MacKenzie [University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh (United Kingdom). School of GeoSciences

2009-03-15

18

Bog Plant Tissue Chemistry as Indicators of Regionally Elevated Atmospheric N and S Deposition in the Alberta Oil Sands Region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nitrogen oxide and sulfur oxide emission from ongoing development of oil sands in northern Alberta results in regionally elevated atmospheric deposition of N and S in an area where background deposition of both N and S is exceptionally low (less than 1 kg/ha/yr). Because bogs, which represent major landforms in the Alberta oil sands region, are believed to be N-limited and potentially sensitive to S inputs, we have been investigating the effects of elevated N deposition on C, N, and S cycling in bogs, as well as the potential of bogs to serve as monitors of N and S deposition. Toward this latter end, we have measured seasonal variation (5 sampling dates between June and October 2009) concentrations of N and S, as well as ?15N value, in leaf tissues (Picea mariana (ectomycorrhizal); Ledum groenlandicum, Oxycoccos microcarpon, Vaccinium vitis-idaea (ericoid mycorrhizal); Rubus chamaemorus, and Smilacina trifolia (nonmycorrhizal), Sphagnum (S. fuscum, S. capillifolium, S. magellanicum, S. angustifolium) moss capitula (top 1-cm of plant) and lichens (Cladina mitis and Evernia mesomorpha) at 5 bogs at distances ranging from 14 to 300 km from the heart of the oil sands mining area. Averaged across all sites and sampling dates, N concentrations in ectomycorrhizal, ericoid mycorrhizal, nonmycorrhizal, Sphagnum, and lichens was 8.6 + 0.2, 11.9 + 0.2, 26.3 + 0.6, 10.2 + 0.1, 7.2 + 0.2 mg/g, respectively; ?15N values were -10.3 + 0.1, -6.0 + 0.1, 1.7 + 0.2, -5.3 + 0.1, -4.7 + 0.1 mg/g, respectively, and S concentrations were 1.07 + 0.2, 1.31 + 0.2, 1.94 + 0.6, 1.46 + 0.2, 1.11 + 0.3 mg/g, respectively. Plant functional groups and individual species behaved differently with respect to both seasonal variation and site differences, often with significant interactions when analyzed using two-way analyses of variance. Some species exhibited seasonal variation in some aspects of plant tissue chemistry, while others did not; when a species did exhibit seasonal variation, the variation was rather consistent between sites. More importantly, however, canonical discriminant analysis (with potential variables of C, N, or S concentrations, C:N, C:S, or N:S ratios, and ?15N values) indicated that the five sites can be differentiated based on plant tissue chemistry, most clearly separating the site closest and the site farthest from the oil sands mining area. The first canonical axis explained between 66 and 91 percent of the overall variation, but the variables that were significantly correlated with the first canonical axis differed between species. We conclude that plant tissue chemistry exhibited a significant variation between plant functional groups, between species, between sites, and seasonally. Some of this variation appears to be related to distance from the heart of oil sands mining activity in northern Alberta, possibly reflecting regionally elevated atmospheric deposition of N and S. Bog plants, through analysis of tissue chemistry, have the potential to serve as biomonitors of the anticipated spread of elevated atmospheric N and S deposition as oil sands development continues to grow in northern Alberta.

Wieder, R.; Vile, M. A.; Scott, K. D.; Vitt, D. H.; Quinn, J.

2011-12-01

19

14 C AMS wiggle matching of raised bog deposits and models of peat accumulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-resolution Accelerator Mass Spectrometer (AMS) 14C dates of selected plant macrofossils from the raised bog Engbertsdijksvenen (Eastern Netherlands) show century-scale wiggles analogous to the radiocarbon calibration curve. We used three relative time scales, viz., based on depth, mass, and pollen concentration, respectively, to match the peat AMS dates to the calibration curve. This procedure is repeated for one conventionally dated

M. R. Kilian; B. van Geel; J. van der Plicht

2000-01-01

20

The Geochemistry of Ombrotrophic Sphagnum Species Growing in Different Microhabitats Of Eight German and Belgian Peat Bogs and the Regional Atmospheric Deposition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Comparing today’s atmospheric deposition records with the elemental concentration and the net-uptake rates of ombrotrophic\\u000a Sphagnum mosses from eight German and Belgian peat bogs revealed that most of all the quality and number of regularly obtained deposition\\u000a monitoring data is not satisfactory. Moreover, it seems likely that the deposition rate, determined by Sphagnum mosses, does not reliably reflect the record

Heike Kempter; Burkhard Frenzel

2007-01-01

21

Experimental nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium deposition decreases summer soil temperatures, water contents, and soil CO2 concentrations in a northern bog  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ombrotrophic peatlands depend on airborne nitrogen (N), whose deposition has increased in the past and lead to disappearance of mosses and increased shrub biomass in fertilization experiments. The response of soil water content, temperature, and carbon gas concentrations to increased nutrient loading is poorly known and we thus determined these data at the long-term N fertilization site Mer Bleue bog,

S. Wendel; T. Moore; J. Bubier; C. Blodau

2011-01-01

22

Experimental nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium deposition decreases summer soil temperatures, water contents, and soil CO2 concentrations in a northern bog  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ombrotrophic peatlands depend on airborne nitrogen (N), whose deposition has increased in the past and lead to disappearance of mosses and increased shrub biomass in fertilization experiments. The response of soil water content, temperature, and carbon gas concentrations to increased nutrient loading is poorly known and we thus determined these data at the long-term N fertilization site Mer Bleue bog,

S. Wendel; T. Moore; J. Bubier; C. Blodau

2010-01-01

23

Scottish peat bog records of atmospheric vanadium deposition over the past 150 years: comparison with other records and emission trends.  

PubMed

Cores from four Scottish ombrotrophic peat bogs were used to reconstruct the historical record of atmospheric vanadium (V) deposition in Scotland over the last 150 years. The general similarity of V and Pb concentration profile trends in (210)Pb-dated cores from each of the sites strongly suggested that V, like Pb, is essentially immobile in ombrotrophic peat. After allowance via use of the conservative element Ti for the contribution of soil dust V, the deposition of anthropogenic V was found to be greatest (? 1.3 to 2.0 mg m(-2) y(-1)) in the mid-20(th) century before decreasing to 0.1-0.3 mg m(-2) y(-1) in the early years of the 21(st) century. The latter values were in good agreement with directly measured atmospheric V fluxes at nearby sites, a finding also observed in the case of Pb. The decline in peat-core-derived fluxes for both V and Pb from 1970 to 2004, however, was not as large as the decline in official UK emission estimates for the two metals during this period. This, along with an order of magnitude discrepancy between the anthropogenic V/Pb ratios at the peat core surface and the higher values of the ratio for UK emissions in the early 2000s, suggests that the recently revised UK emissions data for V may perhaps still be overestimated and/or that some previously deposited Pb is being resuspended in the atmosphere. PMID:21103533

Cloy, Joanna M; Farmer, John G; Graham, Margaret C; MacKenzie, Angus B

2010-11-22

24

Inputs of Nitrogen to Bogs of Alberta, Canada: the Importance of Biological Nitrogen Fixation VS. Atmospheric Deposition from Oil Sands Mining  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bogs of Alberta, Canada are peatlands that are both Sphagnum-moss dominated and nutrient limited. Due to their ombrotrophic nature, nitrogen (N) is deposited only via atmospheric deposition (wet/dry) and biological N2 fixation. Historically, bogs of Alberta are unpolluted with low rates of atmospheric N deposition (< 1 kg ha-1 yr-1), as opposed to eastern Canada and western Europe where rates are considerably higher (>15 kg ha-1 yr-1). Due to the extensive rich bitumen deposits under northern Alberta, however, the Oil Sands Mining (OSM) industry has been growing exponentially since the late 1960’s. Bogs situated near OSM, therefore, are likely to experience increased N deposition and the consequences and impacts of such a phenomenon are as yet, unknown. Additional N inputs into these N-limited ecosystems may cause an imbalance in the N-cycle, specifically, biological N2 fixation. Our goal was to quantify inputs of N to the system from both rates of biological N2 fixation and bulk atmospheric deposition. In summer 2010, we used acetylene reduction assay (ARA) to indirectly measure N2 fixation rates in the four most abundant moss species: Sphagnum fuscum, S. capillifolium, S. angustifolium and Pleurozium schreberi at three bog sites varying in proximity to OSM: McMurray, McKay and Utikuma bog (51, 24 and 300 km, respectively) throughout the growing season (May-August comprising 6 sampling efforts). We measured atmospheric N deposition with ion exchange resin columns (10 per site). An ANOVA and subsequent ad hoc test indicated that Utikuma had significantly lower atmospheric N deposition rates (0.130 ± 0.19 mg m-2 d-1; µ ± SE) than both McMurray and McKay (0.337 ± 0.03 and 0.262 ± 0.03 mg m-2 da-1, respectively; F2,24 = 9.04, p<0.0012), demonstrating that sites closest to the OSM region do exhibit higher rates of atmospheric N deposition. Alternatively, for inputs of N via N2 fixation, we found that McMurray (700.6 ± 144.7 µmol m-2 da-1) had significantly higher ARA rates than McKay and Utikuma (205.8 ± 27.9 and 376.7 ± 73.9 µmol m-2 da-1, respectively; F2,264 = 7.60, p<0.0006). A one-way ANOVA showed significant differences in ARA rates among moss species (F2,263 = 7.60, p<0.0006). Duncan’s multiple range test indicated that S. fuscum and S. capillifolium hummocks had significantly higher rates (768.5 ± 138.3 and 495.8 ± 115.5 µmol m-2 da-1, respectively), as compared to S. angustifolium and P. schreberi (284.9 ± 45.5 and 24.9 ± 5.6 µmol m-2 da-1, respectively). Peak rates were recorded in mid-June and early July (678.1 ± 127.2 and 1009.7 ± 263.9 µmol m-2 da-1, respectively) across all the sites (F5,228 = 5.68, p<0.0001). This study is the first to simultaneously examine N2 fixation in a variety of mosses and atmospheric N inputs in Alberta bogs located close to OSM over a growing season. Our results suggest that despite increased N deposition, N2 fixation continues to represent the dominant input of N into Alberta’s bogs. In addition to S. fuscum and S. capillifolium being the prevalent hosts for N2-fixers, these species comprise the highest percent cover of Alberta’s bogs (~80%).

Prsa, T.; Vile, M. A.; Wieder, R.; Vitt, D. H.

2010-12-01

25

Two thousand years of atmospheric arsenic, antimony, and lead deposition recorded in an ombrotrophic peat bog profile, Jura Mountains, Switzerland  

Microsoft Academic Search

A peat core from a Swiss bog reveals significant enrichments of As, Sb and Pb extending back to Roman times, indicating that the anthropogenic fluxes of these metals have exceeded the natural fluxes for more than 2000 years. The isotopic composition of Pb provides no evidence of vertical downward Pb migration, suggesting that the bog has faithfully preserved the historical

William Shotyk; Andrij K. Cheburkin; Peter G. Appleby; Andreas Fankhauser; Jan D. Kramers

1996-01-01

26

Historical records of atmospheric metal deposition along the St. Lawrence Valley (eastern Canada) based on peat bog cores  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The recent history of atmospheric As, Cd, Ni, Pb and Zn deposition and the stable Pb isotope signatures were reconstructed from short cores collected at three peat bogs along the St. Lawrence Valley (SLV). The onset of industrial activity was recorded around 1810-1850 AD. As, Cd, Pb and, to a certain extent, Ni deposition rates reached maxima between 1940 and the early 1970s. Trace metals likely originated from coal-burning and ore smelting between 1850 and 1950 AD, and were replaced thereafter, at least in the case of Pb, by the combustion of leaded gasolines until the mid-1980s. Trace metal contents and accumulation rates were greater in the two cores recovered from the southwestern SLV than further northeast, as expected from their proximity to urban and industrial centers of eastern Canada and the U.S. Mid-West and the direction of the prevalent winds. A rapid decrease in metal accumulation rates since the 1970s suggests that mitigation policies were effective in reducing atmospheric metal emissions. Nevertheless, metal accumulation rates and stable Pb isotope signatures have not yet returned to their pre-industrial values.

Pratte, Steve; Mucci, Alfonso; Garneau, Michelle

2013-11-01

27

Reconnaissance of Colorado Front Range bogs for uranium and other elements  

SciTech Connect

Alpine bogs form along spring-fed valley floors and in steam drainages restricted by moraines, slides, and beaver dams. The bogs are generally young (Holocene) and contain a few tens of centimeters to several meters of peat and organic-rich muck. Organic matter has a great affinity for cations such as uranium; the geochemical enrichment factor between the peats and uraniferous ground water can approach 10,000 to 1. Because the bog sediments are geologically young, the uranium is in gross disequilibrium and has low radioactivity, thus it is undetectable by ground and aerial gamma surveys. Communities that derive a part of their water supplies from drainages containing uraniferous bogs face a potential health threat because the uranium is loosely bound and may easily be remobilized by ground water moving through the bogs. Reconnaissance sampling of bogs was conducted in the Colorado Front Range from the South Park area to the Colorado-Wyoming state line. Several bogs have uranium concentrations of 1000-3000 ppm, but most bogs have uranium concentrations in the 10-100 ppm range. Zinc concentrations of 100-1000 ppm are found in some bogs and many other metallic elements are present in concentrations between 10 and 100 ppm. Concentrations between 100 and 1000 ppm of some of the rare earth elements (e.g., Ce, La, Nd, Yb) were found in the Cripple Creek area.

Owen, D.E.; Schumann, R.R.; Otton, J.K.

1987-08-01

28

Past atmospheric deposition of metals in northern Indiana measured in a peat core from Cowles bog  

SciTech Connect

A peat core from a calcareous fen was used to assess past metal accumulation from atmospheric sources in northern Indiana. Total concentrations of Al, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sr, and Zn were measured at intervals along the core, which were dated by {sup 210}Pb, radiocarbon, and pollen analysis. The deposition of airborne metal particulates rose dramatically from presettlement levels as industrialization occurred upwind, with accumulation rates for some metals increasing by 2 orders of magnitude. Recent accumulation rates are about half of the peak rates of the 1970s, presumably because of emission controls and reduced production. This study, the first such record from a calcareous fen, should be less affected by postdepositional mobility than records from acidic peatlands. This method of retrospective, long-term monitoring of airborne particulates can be applied in many areas lacking such records.

Cole, K.L. (Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore, Porter (USA)); Engstrom, D.R. (Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis (USA)); Futyma, R.P. (New York State Museum, Albany (USA)); Stottlemyer, R. (Michigan Technological Univ., Houghton (USA))

1990-04-01

29

A novel geochemical approach to paleorecords of dust deposition and effective humidity: 8500 years of peat accumulation at Store Mosse (the "Great Bog"), Sweden  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Both bog surface wetness and atmospheric dust deposition are intricately linked to changes in the hydrological cycle and pairing these types of records at the same site provides complementary information. Here a peat core from Store Mosse in southern Sweden covering the last 8500 years was used to make a high-resolution paleoclimate reconstruction based on a combination of bog development, colourimetric humification and inorganic geochemistry data. The coupling of Principal Component Analysis with changepoint modelling allowed for precise linking of changes in bog surface wetness and dust deposition records.A long-term trend towards warm (and possibly wet) conditions starts ca 8150 cal yr BP and culminates with the most pronounced conditions from 6900 to 6600 cal yr BP. The most significant arid period at Store Mosse occurred between 6500 and 5600 cal yr BP during which dust deposition was significantly higher. Wetter conditions dominate from 5500 to 4980 cal yr BP as the transition from the Hypsithermal and into the Neoglacial is made. After a shift to drier conditions, humification enters a more stable period that lasts from 4525 until 3200 cal yr BP. It is during this time that the first possible anthropogenic dust signals occur at ca 4200 cal yr BP. From 3200 cal yr BP to present humification generally shows a long-term decline moving towards wetter conditions. The main exceptions are during the transition from the Neoglacial to Roman Warm Period which is registered as a significantly wetter period and two dry periods recorded 2365 to 2155 cal yr BP and 1275-1105 cal yr BP. In general, the observed changes agree well with regional records of effective humidity and temperature. The high temporal resolution of the Store Mosse record reveals that palaeoclimatic change over the last 8500 years in southern Sweden has had a complex and variable structure.

Kylander, Malin E.; Bindler, Richard; Cortizas, Antonio Martínez; Gallagher, Kerry; Mörth, Carl-Magnus; Rauch, Sebastien

2013-06-01

30

Lead in Three Peat Bog Profiles, Jura Mountains, Switzerland: Enrichment Factors, Isotopic Composition, and Chronology of Atmospheric Deposition  

Microsoft Academic Search

One metre cores were taken from three peat bogs in the Jura Mountains of Switzerland: Etang de la Gruère (EGr), La Tourbière des Genevez (TGe), and Praz Rodet (PRd). Dried peat samples were analyzed for lead (Pb) using the EMMA XRF and scandium (Sc) using INAA. Enrichment factors (EF) were calculated by normalizing to the background Pb\\/Sc ratio at EGr.

W. Shotyk; A. K. Cheburkin; P. G. Appleby; A. Fankhauser; J. D. Kramers

1997-01-01

31

A new approach for quantifying cumulative, anthropogenic, atmospheric lead deposition using peat cores from bogs: Pb in eight Swiss peat bog profiles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Peat cores taken from eight Swiss peatlands were used to calculate inventories of anthropogenic Pb using either Sc or Zr to quantify Pb derived from rock weathering. The shapes of the Pb\\/Sc and Pb\\/Zr profiles suggest that Pb was supplied exclusively by atmospheric deposition at all sites. At one of the sites (Etang de la Gruère), anthropogenic Pb was calculated

W. Shotyk; P. Blaser; A. Grünig; A. K. Cheburkin

2000-01-01

32

Recent atmospheric lead deposition recorded in an ombrotrophic peat bog of Great Hinggan Mountains, Northeast China, from 210Pb and 137Cs dating.  

PubMed

Radioactive markers are useful in dating lead deposition patterns from industrialization in peat archive. Peat cores were collected in an ombrotrophic peat bog in the Great Hinggan Mountains in Northeast China in September 2008 and dated using (210)Pb and (137)Cs radiometric techniques. The mosses in both cores were examined systematically for dry bulk density, water and ash content. Lead also was measured using atomic emission spectroscopy with inductively coupled plasma (ICP-AES). Both patterned peat profiles were preserved well without evident anthropogenic disturbance. Unsupported (210)Pb and (137)Cs decreased with the depth in both of the two sample cores. The (210)Pb chronologies were established using the constant rate of supply model (CRS) and are in good agreement with the (137)Cs time marker. Recent atmospheric (210)Pb flux in Great Hinggan Mountains peat bog was estimated to be 337 Bq m(-2)y(-1), which is consistent with published data for the region. Lead deposition rate in this region was also derived from these two peat cores and ranged from 24.6 to 55.8 mg m(-2)y(-1) with a range of Pb concentration of 14-262 microg g(-1). The Pb deposition patterns were consistent with increasing industrialization over the last 135-170 y, with a peak of production and coal burning in the last 50 y in Northeast China. This work presents a first estimation of atmospheric Pb deposition rate in peatlands in China and suggests an increasing trend of environmental pollution due to anthropogenic contaminants in the atmosphere. More attention should be paid to current local pollution problems, and society should take actions to seek a balance between economic development and environmental protection. PMID:20621757

Bao, K; Xia, W; Lu, X; Wang, G

2010-06-02

33

Experimental nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium deposition decreases summer soil temperatures, water contents, and soil CO2 concentrations in a northern bog  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ombrotrophic peatlands depend on airborne nitrogen (N), whose deposition has increased in the past and lead to disappearance of mosses and increased shrub biomass in fertilization experiments. The response of soil water content, temperature, and carbon gas concentrations to increased nutrient loading is poorly known and we thus determined these data at the long-term N fertilization site Mer Bleue bog, Ontario, during a two month period in summer. Soil temperatures decreased with NPK addition in shallow peat soil primarily during the daytime (t-test, p < 0.05) owing to increased shading, whereas they increased in deeper peat soil (t-test, p < 0.05), probably by enhanced thermal conductivity. These effects were confirmed by RMANOVA, which also suggested an influence of volumetric water contents as co-variable on soil temperature and vice versa (p < 0.05). Averaged over all fertilized treatments, the mean soil temperatures at 5 cm depth decreased by 1.3 °C and by 4.7 °C (standard deviation 0.9 °C) at noon. Water content was most strongly affected by within-plot spatial heterogeneity but also responded to both N and PK load according to RMANOVA (p < 0.05). Overall, water content and CO2 concentrations in the near-surface peat (t-test, p < 0.05) were lower with increasing N load, suggesting more rapid soil gas exchange. The results thus suggest that changes in bog ecosystem structure with N deposition have significant ramifications for physical parameters that in turn control biogeochemical processes.

Wendel, S.; Moore, T.; Bubier, J.; Blodau, C.

2011-03-01

34

Experimental nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium deposition decreases summer soil temperatures, water contents, and soil CO2 concentrations in a northern bog  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ombrotrophic peatlands depend on airborne nitrogen (N), whose deposition has increased in the past and lead to disappearance of mosses and increased shrub biomass in fertilization experiments. The response of soil water content, temperature, and carbon gas concentrations to increased nutrient loading is poorly known and we thus determined these data at the long-term N fertilization site Mer Bleue bog, Ontario, during a two month period in summer. Soil temperatures decreased with NPK addition in shallow peat soil primarily during the daytime (t-test, p<0.05) owing to increased shading, whereas they increased in deeper peat soil (t-test, p<0.05), probably by enhanced thermal conductivity. RMANOVA suggested interactions between N and PK addition in particular soil layers and strong interactions between soil temperatures and volumetric water contents (p<0.05). Averaged over all fertilized treatments, the mean soil temperatures at 5 cm depth decreased by 1.3 °C and by 4.7 °C (standard deviation 0.9 °C) at noon. Water content was most strongly affected by within-plot spatial heterogeneity but also responded to both N and PK load according to RMANOVA (p<0.05). Overall, water content and CO2 concentrations in the near-surface peat (t-test, p<0.05) were lower with increasing N load, suggesting more rapid soil gas exchange. The results thus suggest that changes in bog ecosystem structure with N deposition have significant ramifications for physical parameters that in turn control biogeochemical processes.

Wendel, S.; Moore, T.; Bubier, J.; Blodau, C.

2010-08-01

35

The geochemistry of major and selected trace elements in a forested peat bog, Kalimantan, SE Asia, and its implications for past atmospheric dust deposition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biogeochemical processes in a forested tropical peat deposit and its record of past atmospheric dust deposition were assessed using the vertical distribution of lithophilic and plant essential elements in a dated core profile from Borneo, SE Asia. Peat formation started ˜22,120 14C yr before present (BP), and Ca/Mg mass ratios of the solid peat and very low ash contents indicate a strongly ombrotrophic character throughout the deposit, implying that most of the inorganic fraction has been supplied exclusively by atmospheric inputs. Concentration profiles of Mn, Sr, and Ca suggest a very minor influence of chemical diagenesis in the underlying sediments. Silicon, Ca, Mg, P, S, and K show a strong and extended zone of enrichment in the top 200 cm of the profile, indicating that biological accumulation mechanisms are much more extensive than in temperate peat bogs. In the lower core sections, where the element distribution is dominated solely by past atmospheric deposition, average Al/Ti ratios are similar to the upper continental crust (UCC), whereas Fe is slightly enriched and Si is strongly depleted: this condition favors highly weathered tropical soil dust as the main inorganic mineral source. Significant correlation of Al, Fe, Si, S, Ca, and Ti with the lithophilic elements Y and Zr suggests that the distribution of these elements is controlled by sources of atmospheric mineral dust. The Ca/Mg, Ca/K, and Mg/K ratios of the collected rainwater samples are similar to the global average of continental rainwater and suggest a continental character for the site. This is supported by the similarity of the average concentration of Br, Mg, Ca, and S to that in temperate continental and maritime bogs in Switzerland and Scotland. The concentration profiles of Si, Fe, Al, and Ti show distinct peaks within the profile, implying enhanced dust deposition, reduced rates of peat accumulation, or possibly both owing to climatic changes during the Holocene. Enhanced dust deposition between ˜10,830 and 9060 14C yr BP is tentatively interpreted as a Younger Dryas-like event with dust fluxes of ˜10.8 mg/m 2/yr. The variations in Al/Ti and Fe/Ti profiles suggest that mineral dust sources have been changing constantly during the Holocene, with local sources being dominant between ˜7820 and 9500 14C yr BP and long-range transport (derived most likely from China) being important during the late Pleistocene and early Holocene and from ˜7820 14C yr BP to the present.

Weiss, Dominik; Shotyk, William; Rieley, Jack; Page, Susan; Gloor, Marlies; Reese, Steve; Martinez-Cortizas, Antonio

2002-07-01

36

Historical records of atmospheric Pb deposition in four Scottish ombrotrophic peat bogs: An isotopic comparison with other records from western Europe and Greenland - article no. GB2016  

SciTech Connect

Cores collected from ombrotrophic peat bogs in west central, east central, northeast and southwest Scotland were dated (C-14, Pb-210) and analyzed (ICP-OES, ICP-MS) to derive and compare their historical records of atmospheric anthropogenic Pb deposition over the past 2500 years. On the basis of Pb isotopic composition (e. g., Pb-206/Pb-207), clear indications of Pb contamination during the pre-Roman/Roman, post-Roman and medieval periods were attributed to the mining and smelting of Pb ores from Britain and elsewhere in Europe. Between the 17th and early 20th centuries, during the industrial period, the mining and smelting of indigenous Scottish Pb ores were the most important sources of anthropogenic Pb deposition at three of the sites. In contrast, at the most southerly site, influences from the use of both British Pb ores and imported Australian Pb ores (in more southern parts of Britain) since the late 19th century were evident. At each of the sites, Australian-Pb-influenced car exhaust emissions (from the 1930s to late 1990s), along with significant contributions from coal combustion (until the late 1960s and onset of the post industrial period), were evident. Atmospheric anthropogenic Pb deposition across Scotland was greatest (similar to 10 to 40 mg m{sup -2} a{sup -1}) between the late 1880s and late 1960s, increasing southward, declining to 0.44 to 5.7 mg m{sup 2} a{sup -1} by the early 2000s.

Cloy, J.M.; Farmer, J.G.; Graham, M.C.; MacKenzie, A.B.; Cook, G.T. [University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh (United Kingdom). School for Geoscience

2008-05-15

37

Nature and origins of acidity in bogs  

SciTech Connect

To elucidate the causes of acidity in bogs, all of the processes generating and consuming acidity in a small peat bog in northern Minnesota were measured. These processes include ion exchange, plant nutrient uptake, atmospheric deposition, decomposition, organic acid production, sulfate reduction, and denitrification. Organic acid production was found to be the dominant source of acidity, responsible for the low pH of bog waters and the high acidity in the outflow. Net biological uptake (NBU) is the next largest source of acidity. Ion exchange accounts for only about 40% of the NBU-acidity. Plant uptake and ion exchange are much larger sources of acidity on an annual basis, but much of this acidity is neutralized by decomposition. Sulfate reduction and denitrification are quantitatively unimportant at this site because inputs (NO/sub 3//sup -/ and SO/sub 4/=) are low. Bog water samples and peat cores from bogs across northeastern North America were analyzed to determine if geographic trends in the rates of acidity-generating and -consuming processes exist. Rates of organic acid production varied little across the transect. Higher values of NBU-acidity were observed in maritime bogs than in midcontinental bogs. The effects of transformations of sulfur and nitrogen on the hydrogen-ion cycle were examined in detail. Nitrate appears to be taken up by bryophytes and little is lost to denitrification. Alkalinity from nitrate uptake is low. In contrast, there is a dynamic cycle of oxidation and reduction of sulfur within bogs. Inorganic forms of sulfur are not important storage pools in peat; 35% of the total sulfur input is accumulated as organic S.

Urban, N.R.

1987-01-01

38

Skeletal analysis and comparison of bog bodies from Northern European peat bogs.  

PubMed

Although numerous bodies were deposited in Western European bogs in the past centuries, few were found and underwent archeological analysis. No studies comparing skeletal structure and mineralization of bog bodies from different ages have been performed to this day. Therefore, the aim of this study was to analyze and compare skeletal features and specifics of the human remains of three bog bodies from the Iron and Middle Ages found in Northern European peat bogs. Demineralization due to the acidic environment in peat bogs was comparably pronounced in all three bodies. Still, the macroscopic state of skeletal preservation was excellent. In addition to contact radiography, we used peripheral quantitative computed tomography to measure cortical bone mineral density. The conservation of skeletal three-dimensional microstructural elements was assessed by high-resolution microcomputed tomography analysis. These techniques revealed severe differences in bone mineral density and enabled us to determine handedness in all three bodies. Additionally, unique skeletal features like intravital bone lesions, immobilization osteoporosis, and Harris lines were found. A deformity of the left femoral head was observed which had the typical appearance of an advanced stage of Legg-Calve-Perthes disease. This study gives detailed insight into the skeletal microstructure and microarchitecture of 800- to 2,700-year-old bog bodies. Skeletal analysis enables us to draw conclusions not only concerning changes in the acidic environment of the bog, but also serves as a diagnostic tool to unravel life circumstances and diseases suffered by humans in the Iron and Middle Ages. PMID:20182683

Pestka, Jan M; Barvencik, Florian; Beil, Frank T; Marshall, Robert P; Jopp, Eilin; Schilling, Arndt F; Bauerochse, Andreas; Fansa, Mamoun; Püschel, Klaus; Amling, Michael

2010-02-25

39

The Vanishing Bog.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Directions for the construction of a model bog habitat are provided including examples of plants and animals which may be suitable. Activities that use this model are suggested. Background information on the ecology and chemistry of the bog is included. (CW)|

Hanif, Muhammad

1990-01-01

40

Wisconsin desmids. I. Aufwuchs and plankton communities of selected acid bogs, alkaline bogs, and closed bogs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data are presented for 28 acid bogs, five alkaline bogs, and 12 closed bogs in Wisconsin with respect to the summer composition of the aufwuchs and plankton ccommunities, the relative importance of desmids in these communities, and the structure of aufwuchs communities associated with different macrophyte hosts. Generic diversity of desmids is highest in acid bogs and lowest in alkaline

William J. Woelkerling

1976-01-01

41

Method of purifying uraniferous aqueous solutions  

SciTech Connect

A method is claimed for purifying uraniferous aqueous solutions containing impurities, particularly at least one of the elements zirconium and/or hafnium, and also containing at least one of the anions SO/sub 4/=, NO/sub 3/-, Cl- or F- acting as complexing agents for the uranium and impurities, by precipitation of said impurities by means of an alkaline agent. The method is characterized in that the following stages are carried out for the purpose of selectively and quantitatively separating the impurities from the uranium: (a) said uraniferous solution is brought to a temperature of at least 40/sup 0/C, (b) the content of complexing agent is adjusted to bring the molar ratio: (complexing agent)/(soluble U + Zr and/or Hf) to at least 3, and (c) the pH of said solution is adjusted between 2.2 and 4.3 by introducing an alkaline agent.

Joubert, P.

1985-06-18

42

Investigating Bogs: An Interdisciplinary Adventure.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presents the case for the use of bogs as ideal sites for hundreds of interdisciplinary lessons that combine chemistry, geology, various branches of biology, and wetlands archaeology. Includes general guidelines to aid in the design of interdisciplinary bog studies. (DDR)|

Pankiewicz, Philip R.; Schneider, Lois

1995-01-01

43

Peat Bog Waste Stabilization.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The document studies the phenomenon by which waste water from a wood processing plant became stabilized after discharge onto an adjacent peat bog in Northern Minnesota. It was thought that peat might be ultimately used for on site water pollution abatemen...

A. M. DeYoannes R. S. Farnham

1969-01-01

44

Rare earth element and Nd isotope geochemistry of an ombrotrophic peat bog at Karukinka (Chile, 53.9° S): a palaeo-record of Holocene dust deposition in Tierra del Fuego.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The value of ombrotrophic peat bogs as past atmospheric dust records, has been increasingly recognized over the past 10 years. Their high accumulation rates provide high resolution archives of natural atmospheric dust deposition since the Late Glacial, often missing in marine, lake and ice core records. Consequently, peat deposits can be used as a proxy for atmospheric circulation patterns and thus palaeoclimate. In the Southern Hemisphere, the climate is considered to be driven by the Southern Westerly Wind belt (SSW), as it significantly affects the Antarctic Circumpolar Current and hence atmospheric CO2 levels. Palaeo SSW belt migrations have been observed in palaeoclimate records but, reconstructions of SSW shifts and associated climatic changes are incoherent, in particular for the Holocene. As peatlands thrive in southwest Tierra del Fuego due to its high annual precipitation, a remote ombrotrophic peat bog at Karukinka (southwest on the Isla Grande de Tierra del Fuego) was sampled, to investigate the Holocene palaeoclimate in southern South America based on dust deposition records. A 4,5 m long Russian D-core was recovered and subsequently subsampled for elemental and isotope geochemistry in addition to density and radiocarbon dating measurements. Initial results show a number of layers enriched in scandium, indicating the presence of lithogenic material, i.e. dust. Rare earth element patterns indicate at least 2 different sources. The most significant dust peak occurs at the base of the core at ~7300 Cal years B.P and has a neodymium isotopic composition of 2.2, suggesting a volcanic origin.

Vanneste, Heleen; De Vleeschouwer, François; Vanderstraeten, Aubry; Mattielli, Nadine; Triquet, Delphine; Piotrowska, Natalia; Le Roux, Gael

2013-04-01

45

Uraniferous opal, Virgin Valley, Nevada: conditions of formation and implications for uranium exploration  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Uraniferous, fluorescent opal, which occurs in tuffaceous sedimentary rocks at Virgin Valley, Nevada, records the temperature and composition of uranium-rich solutions as well as the time of uranium-silica coprecipitation. Results are integrated with previous geologic and geochronologic data for the area to produce a model for uranium mobility that may be used to explore for uranium deposits in similar geologic settings. Uraniferous opal occurs as replacements of diatomite, or silicic air-fall ash layers in tuffaceous lakebeds of the Virgin Valley Formation (Miocene) of Merriam (1907). Fission-track radiography shows uranium to be homogeneously dispersed throughout the opal structure, suggesting coprecipitation of dissolved uranium and silica gel. Fluid inclusions preserved within opal replacements of diatomite have homogenization temperatures in the epithermal range and are of low salinity. Four samples of opal from one locality all have U-Pb apparent ages which suggest uraniferous opal precipitation in late Pliocene time. These ages correspond to a period of local, normal faulting, and highangle faults may have served as vertical conduits for transport of deep, thermalized ground water to shallower levels. Lateral migration of rising solutions occurred at intersections of faults with permeable strata. Silica and some uranium were dissolved from silica-rich host strata of 5-20 ppm original uranium content and reprecipitated as the solutions cooled. The model predicts that in similar geologic settings, ore-grade concentrations of uranium will occur in permeable strata that intersect high-angle faults and that contain uranium source rocks as well as efficient reductant traps for uranium. In the absence of sufficient quantities of reductant materials, uranium will be flushed from the system or will accumulate in low-grade disseminated hosts such as uraniferous opal. ?? 1982.

Zielinski, R. A.

1982-01-01

46

Flotation of Phosphorous-Uraniferous Minerals from Itataia.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Experimental conditions were established, in laboratory and pilot scales, for the flotation of a sample of a phosphorus-uraniferous mineral from Itataia mines (CE, Brazil), basically composed of apatite and calcite. Laboratory investigations led to the op...

J. A. Aquino

1984-01-01

47

Hydrological differences between bogs and bog-relicts and consequences for bog restoration  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hydrology of bog relicts differs from that in undisturbed bogs. The surface layers of these relicts mostly consist of\\u000a moderately to strongly humified, secondary weathered peat as a result of drainage and peat cutting. The hydrophysical properties\\u000a of these layers cause relatively high groundwater level fluctuations.\\u000a \\u000a Deep drainage systems, both in the bog relicts and in their surroundings, may

J. M. Schouwenaars

1993-01-01

48

Effects of elevated CO2 and vascular plants on evapotranspiration in bog vegetation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We determined evapotranspiration in three experiments designed to study the effects of elevated CO2 and increased N deposition on ombrotrophic bog vegetation. Two experiments used peat monoliths with intact bog vegetation in containers, with one experiment outdoors and the other in a greenhouse. A third experiment involved monocultures and mixtures of Sphagnum magellanicum and Eriophorum angustifolium in containers in the

Monique M. P. D. Heijmans; Wim J. Arp; Frank Berendse

2001-01-01

49

Consequences of marginal drainage from a raised bog and understanding the hydrogeological dynamics as a basis for restoration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Raised bogs in Ireland have long been exploited for local fuel utilisation. The drainage associated with such activities alters the hydrological regime of the bog as consolidation of the peat substrate results in significant water loss and subsidence of the bog. Undisturbed raised bog environments are typically characterised by distinct ecological systems, or ecotopes, which are controlled by the relationship between surface slopes, flow path lengths and drainage conditions. Shrinkage of the main peat profile, or catotelm, invariably alters these conditions, changes of which significantly damage ecotopes of conservational value. Clara Bog, Ireland, is one of western Europe's largest remaining raised bogs and on which much hydroecological research has been conducted since the early 1990's. Though a relatively intact raised bog, it has been extensively damaged in the past with the construction of a road through the centre of the bog known to have resulted in subsidence of 9-10m. However, the western tract of Clara Bog, Clara Bog West, has also subsided significantly since the early 1990's due to on-going peat cutting activities on the bogs margins. Current research now indicates that the bog is not an isolated hydrological entity, as generally perceived of bogs, but rather that Clara Bog West is intrinsically linked to the regional groundwater table, which appears to provide a significant ‘support' function to the bog. Hydrogeological monitoring and analysis has shown that water losses are not simply a result of lateral seepage of water through the peat profile at the bogs margins. Measurements of flow rates and electrical conductivity in drains bordering the bog indicate that little water is discharging laterally through the peat profile. However, piezometric head levels in mineral subsoil underlying the bog and close to the margins of the bog have decreased by 0.3 to 0.5m and 0.4 to 1.0m respectively since the early 1990s and it is believed that this is a result of vertical water losses in the peat profile not confined to the bog margins. Distinct zones of groundwater seepage in the marginal drains have been mapped based on hydrochemical and stable isotopic composition of the water and occur where drains have cut into permeable subsoil beneath the peat substrate and where the potentiometric surface of the regional groundwater table is below, or coincident with, the elevation at the base of the drain. Groundwater as a ‘supporting' ecological condition is usually confined to the perimeter of a raised bog, where peat and underlying clay thin towards the margin, allowing regional groundwater and peat water to converge and mix, thereby giving rise to characteristic nutrient rich ‘lagg' zone vegetation. However, in Clara Bog West it appears there is also a connection between the regional groundwater table and the high bog. Such a connection appears to be unique to Clara Bog West as a result of the prevailing geological conditions. A succession of Carboniferous Limestone to relatively permeable glacial till deposits to low permeability lacustrine clay sediment is the predominant underlying geology of the bog. However, there are areas where the glacial till protrudes through the lacustrine clay, which ordinarily isolates the high bog from underlying groundwater, thereby engendering a dependency on regional groundwater conditions. The hydrogeological data now suggest that drainage at the bog margin has created a hydraulic connection between these ‘subsoil subcrops' and the marginal drains, developed within the same subsoil, thereby lowering the regional groundwater table, steepening the hydraulic gradient and resulting in significant water loss from the main bog body. As such, understanding this hydrogeological connection is central to restoration activities that will aim to arrest subsidence and restore water levels that are indicative for ecotope development, on the high bog. Acknowledgements Clara Restoration Group: Jan Streekferk (Staatsbosbeheer), Jim Ryan (National Parks and Wildlife Service), Ray Flynn (Queens Univ

Regan, Shane; Johnston, Paul

2010-05-01

50

Volatile compounds in gases emitted from the wetland bogs near Lake Cadagno  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gas bubbles evolving from the sediments in the bogs contain not only methane and carbon dioxide, but also traces of volatile organometals and organometalloids, elements which probably originate from atmospheric deposition, such as As, Hg and Sb.

Eugene B. WICKENHEISER; Klaus MICHALKE; Reinhard HENSEL; Christian DRESCHER; Alfred V. HIRNER; Barbara RUTISHAUSER; Reinhard BACHOFEN

51

Basal food sources for the invertebrate food web in nutrient poor and nutrient enriched raised bog pools  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intact raised bog pools are extremely nutrient-poor and represent a harsh environment for invertebrates. In the Netherlands, nutrient availability in raised bog pools is increased, due to atmospheric nitro- gen and sulphur deposition, and the macroinvertebrate species compo- sition is altered. This paper assesses whether the increased nutrient availability has changed the importance of food sources at the basis of

G. A. van Duinen; K. Vermonden; A. M. T. Brock; R. S. E. W. Leuven; A. J. P. Smolders; G. van der Velde; W. C. E. P. Verberk; H. Esselink

52

Dissolved Nitrogen Dynamics and Dissolved Organic Carbon Biogeochemistry in an Ombrotrophic Bog  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As an extension of an ongoing study on carbon cycling and sequestration, Mer Bleue bog near Ottawa, Ontario was studied for dissolved nitrogen dynamics. Since nitrogen is an important nutrient for plant growth, the retention and export by the bog could reflect the impact of nitrogen deposition on bog productivity and carbon sequestration. Dissolved inorganic and organic nitrogen (DIN, DON) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) inputs, export, and groundwater concentrations were measured over the 2003 field season (from May 21 to November 18, 2003). Nitrogen inputs were found to be entering the bog dissolved in precipitation in very small concentrations, ranging from 0 to 6 mg/L, and were dominated by NH4+. Export DON and DOC concentrations followed similar patterns, increasing with a decrease in outflow discharge with drier bog conditions throughout the season. Rough budget estimates for DOC, DON and DIN for the 2003 field season are roughly 0.034, 0.101, and 2.861 g m-2 t-1, respectively. The bog was also characterized for groundwater concentrations of DIN, DON, and DOC in the saturated and unsaturated zones of the bog. The general patterns of concentrations show dominance of NH4+ deeper in the saturated zone, and DON dominating in the unsaturated, biologically active zone. Although deposited nitrogen is dominated by inorganic forms, the internal processing of nitrogen results in DON export correlated to DOC. The results provide greater insight as to the influence and importance of dissolved nitrogen on carbon retention and sequestration.

Rattle, J. M.; Roulet, N. T.; Moore, T. R.

2004-05-01

53

The Geochemistry Of Major And Selected Trace Elements In A Forested Peat Bog, Kalimantan, SE-Asia, And Its Implications On Past Atmospheric Dust Deposition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The major element geochemistry of a forested tropical peat deposit in SE Asia, was assessed by studying the vertical element distribution of Si, Al, Ti, Fe, Ca, Mg, K, Na, S and P in a 960 cm long, age-dated core profile. Peat formation started at c. 22,120 14C yr BP ago. Ca/Mg mass ratios of the solid peat are well below local rainwater values, which indicates a strongly ombrotrophic character throughout the deposit. This implies that most of the inorganic fraction has been supplied exclusively by atmospheric inputs. Concentration profiles of Mn, Sr, and Ca suggest that below 500 cm the influence from dissolving sediments is very minor. The elements Si, Ca, Mg, P, S and K show a strong and extended zone of enrichment in the top 200 cm of the profile, indicating that biological accumulation mechanisms are fundamentally different from temperate peats due to abundant pneumatophores. Despite the large forest cover, average concentrations for the entire profile are not elevated compared to temperate, non-forested peat cores. In the lower core sections, where the element distribution is dominated by past atmospheric deposition (200 - 845 cm), Al is on average neither depleted nor enriched relative to upper continental crust whereas Fe and Mg are slightly enriched and Ca, Si, K, and Na are strongly depleted. This favors highly weathered tropical soil dust as the main inorganic mineral source. Distinct tephra layers are absent within the profile despite the location of the study site within a tectonic active region. The concentration profiles for Si, Fe, Al, and Ti show five distinct peaks within the profile, implying enhanced dust deposition and/or reduced rates of peat accumulation, possibly owing to climatic changes during the Holocene. Enhanced dust deposition between c. 10,830 and 9,470 14C yr BP is tentatively interpreted as the Younger Dryas period with dust fluxes of c. 10.8 mg/m2/y. In addition, the Al/Ti and Fe/Ti profiles suggest that mineral dust sources have been changing constantly during the Holocene. Local sources were dominant between c. 7,820 to 9,470 14C yr BP and long range transport was important during the late Pleistocene/early Holocene and from 7,820 14C yr BP to present.

Weiss, D.; Weiss, D.; Shotyk, W.; Rieley, J. O.; Page, S. E.; Gloor, M.; Reese, S.; Cortizas-Martinez, A.

2001-12-01

54

137Cs in a raised bog in central Sweden.  

PubMed

The vertical distribution of (137)Cs activity in peat soil profiles and (137)Cs activity concentration in plants of various species was studied in samples collected at two sites on a raised bog in central Sweden. One site (open bog) was in an area with no trees and only a few sparsely growing plant species, while the other (low pine) was less than 100 m from the open bog site and had slowly growing Scots pine, a field layer dominated by some ericaceous plants and ground well-covered by plants. The plant samples were collected in 2004-2007 and were compared with samples collected in 1989 from the same open bog and low pine sites. Ground deposition of (137)Cs in 2005 was similar at both sites, 23,000 Bq m(-2). In the open bog peat profile it seems to be an upward transport of caesium since a clear peak of (137)Cs activity was found in the uppermost 1-4 cm of Sphagnum layers, whereas at the low pine site (137)Cs was mainly found in deeper (10-12 cm) layers. The migration rate was 0.57 cm yr(-1) at the open bog site and the migration centre of (137)Cs was at a depth of 10.7, while the rate at the low pine site was 0.78 cm yr(-1) and the migration centre was at 14.9 cm. Heather (Calluna vulgaris) was the plant species with the highest (137)Cs activity concentrations at both sites, 43.5 k Bq(-1) DM in 1989 decreasing to 20.4 in 2004-2007 on open bog and 22.3 k Bq kg(-1) DM in 1989 decreasing to 11.2 k Bq(-1) DM by the period 2004-2007 on the low pine site. (137)Cs transfer factors in plants varied between 0.88 and 1.35 on the open bog and between 0.48 and 0.69 m(2)kg(-1) DM at the low pine site. PMID:19386400

Rosén, K; Vinichuk, M; Johanson, K J

2009-04-22

55

Deposited atmospheric chemicals  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mountaintop bog in western Pennsylvania serves as a reservoir for materials deposited from the atmosphere. Biological activity in the bog decomposes plant matter, which becomes humified and mineralized at increasing depths. Little or no mixing of elements occurs below the active root zone. Radionuclides produced by natural means and by nuclear weapons have been used to measure the ages

Schell

1986-01-01

56

Study of naturally occurring, radionuclide bearing deposits at Portland Creek, Newfoundland.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A small uraniferous peat deposit located near Portland Creek, Newfoundland was investigated as part of the National Uranium Tailings Program (NUTP). The purpose of the investigation was to provide data on naturally occurring uranium series radionuclides a...

1985-01-01

57

The hydrology of several peat deposits in northern Minnesota, U.S.A.  

Treesearch

Groundwater studies identified two types of hydrogeologic situations-perched bogs, independent of the underground flow system, and groundwater bogs, which were influenced ... Run-off was directly related to water level in the peat deposits.

58

Evaporation from Bogs in the European Territory of the USSR.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A little less than 10% of the USSR consists of bogs and bogged lands. Most bogs are situated in zones of excessive wetting, where both the gain and the loss items of the water balance are very large. The water balance influenced by bogs constitutes over 1...

V. V. Romanov

1968-01-01

59

The butterfly fauna of Wisconsin bogs: lessons for conservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

During 2002–2009, we surveyed butterflies at 73 bogs, 20 adjacent lowland roadsides, and 5 nearby upland roadsides in northern\\u000a Wisconsin and three bogs in central Wisconsin, with additional observations from 1986 to 2001. Especially in northern Wisconsin,\\u000a bogs are relatively unaffected by humans, but naturally comprise <1% of the landscape. Bog specialist species composition\\u000a varied by bog type (muskeg, kettlehole,

Ann B. SwengelScott; Scott R. Swengel

2010-01-01

60

Chemical Studies and Microscopic Examinations of the Organic Matter in Some Uraniferous Ore Bodies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Uraniferous ore bodies are often accompanied by considerable concentrations of organic matter. Studies have been made of the organic matter in Francevillian samples from Oklo and in Permian samples from the Lodeve basin in France. Techniques derived from ...

A. M. Cassou J. Connan M. Correia J. J. Orgeval

1976-01-01

61

Bog Turtle ('Clemmys muhlenbergii') Recovery Plan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Current Status: The northern population of the bog turtle was listed as a threatened species on November 4, 1997. This population is currently known to occur in Connecticut (5 sites), Delaware (4), Maryland (71), Massachusetts (3), New Jersey ( 165), New ...

M. Klemens

2001-01-01

62

Atmospheric carbonyl sulfide exchange in bog microcosms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measurements of Carbonyl sulfide (OCS) fluxes were carried out on bog microcosms using chamber sampling and tunable diode laser analysis. Intact bog microcosms (vascular plants, mosses, and peat) removed ambient levels of OCS in the light and dark with rates from [minus]2.4 to [minus]8.1 ng S min[sup [minus]1] m[sup [minus]2]. Peat and peat plus mosses emitted OCS in the light

Alan Fried; Lee F. Klinger; David J. Erickson

1993-01-01

63

Uraniferous coal and carbonaceous shale in northeast Parana, Brazil  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Uraniferous coal has been found in northeast Parana, Brazil, in the Rio Bonito formation of Pennsylvanian age. In the majority of coal samples taken the uranium oxide content ranges from 0.005 to 0.030 percent, but selected screened samples have contained as much as 0.445 percent uranium oxide. The sampled thickness of the coal seam ranges from 17 to 54 centimeters and averages 31 centimeters. Channel samples across the entire thickness of the coal zone were taken in two places. All other samples were taken as grab samples from either mine waste dumps or coal zones that had high radioactivity. Sufficient information is not yet available to justify any detailed considerations of such features as geologic distribution, mode of occurrence, and radioactive equilibrium conditions of the uranium in the coal.

Haynes, Donald D.; Pierson, Charles T.

1957-01-01

64

Distributions of 210Pb around a uraniferous coal-fired power plant in Western Turkey.  

PubMed

In the present study the spatial and the vertical distributions of 210Pb were investigated in the soils around a uranifereous coal fired power plant (CPP) in Yatagan Basin, in Western Turkey. The variation of 226Ra activity along the soil profiles was studied to assess the unsupported 210Pb distribution in the same samples. 226Ra was measured by gamma spectroscopy and 210Pb activities were determined from 210Po activities using radiochemical deposition and alpha spectroscopy. The total 210Pb activity concentrations in bulk core samples varied in the range of 38-250 Bq kg(-1) in the study sites and of 22-78 Bq kg(-1) in reference site. In the sectioned cores sampled from the study areas the ranges for activity concentrations of 226Ra, total 210Pb and unsupported 210Pb are 24-77; 39-344 and 4-313 Bq kg(-1), respectively. Corresponding ranges for reference site are 37-39; 39-122 and 1-83 Bq kg(-1). PMID:18302001

U?ur, A; Ozden, B; Yener, G; Saç, M M; Kurucu, Y; Altinba?, U; Bolca, M

2008-02-27

65

Impact of climatic change on bog ecosystems, with special reference to sub-oceanic raised bogs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relation between climatic conditions and type of peatland ecosystem in the different climate zones in Europe is discussed. Special attention is given to the hydrology of raised bogs in the sub-oceanic region. Possible effects of climatic change on such raised bog systems are discussed in terms of changes in water discharge, ground-water table, rate of peat accumulation, and flora

M. G. C. Schouten; J. G. Streefkerk; P. C. Molen

1992-01-01

66

[Activity and metabolic regulation of methane production in deep peat profiles of boreal bogs].  

PubMed

The potential activity of methane production was determined in the vertical profiles of the peat deposits of three bogs in Tver oblast, which were representative of the boreal zone. In the minerotrophic fen, the rates of methane production measured throughout the profile did not change significantly with depth and comprised 3-6 ng CH4-C g(-1) h(-1). In ombrotrophic peat bogs, the rate did not exceed 5 ng CH4-C g(-1) h(-1) in the upper layer of the profile (up to 1.5 m) and increased to 15-30 ng CH4-C g(-1) h(-1) in the deep layers of the peat deposits. The distribution of fermentative microorganisms and methanogens in the profiles of peat deposits was uniform in all the studied bogs. In bog water samples, the presence of butyrate (up to 14.1 mg l(-1)) and acetate (up to 2.4 mg l(-1)) was revealed throughout the whole profile; in the upper 0.5-m layer of the ombrotrophic bogs, formate (up to 8.9 mg l(-1)) and propionate (up to 0.3 mg l(-1)) were detected as well. The arrangement of local maxima of the fatty acid content and methanogenic activity in the peat deposits, as well as the decrease in the acetate concentrations during summer, support the hypothesis that the initial substrates for methanogenesis come from the upper peat layers. It was established that the addition of sulfate and nitrate inhibits methane production in peat samples: the changes in the concentrations, recorded in situ, may also influence the methane content in peat layers. PMID:18297882

Kravchenko, I K; Sirin, A A

67

Biogeochemistry of Thoreau's Bog, Concord, Massachusetts  

SciTech Connect

Thoreau's Bog in Concord, Massachusetts, is a floating-mat sphagnum bog developed in a glacial kettle hole. Low shrub vegetation of the open mat is dominated by Chamaedaphne calyculata; trees include scattered Picea mariana and Larix laricina. Hydrological investigations show the bog to be ombrotrophic, with an annual water input of 1.45 m and an annual runoff of 0.24 m. Corresponding metal inputs are 88, 132, and 54 mg/m/sup 2//yr for K, Mg, and Pb, respectively. K and Mg are vertically distributed in the bog profile in accord with the inhomogeneous ion exchange chemistry of peat, while lead is distributed in accord with historical trends in atmospheric lead fallout. Isotopic dating using /sup 210/Pb is a valuable tool for determining net peat accumulation rate, which is 180 g/m/sup 2//yr. Annual storage rates of K, Mg, and Pb in peat amount to 36, 54, and 46 mg/m/sup 2//yr, respectively. Bog acidity (pH = 3.8) is maintained by organic acids at concentrations of 10/sup -3/ eq/l. The effect of cation exchange on bog acidity is modest, while the much larger contribution of acid rain is offset by alkalinity increases of the same magnitude resulting from sulfate reduction and nitrate uptake. These latter processes are, in effect, a strong buffer mechanism against acid rain. /sup 210/Pb dating and historical records suggest that the floating mat is relatively young, perhaps as few as 500 yr old. These data raise the possibility that the bog is not a relict of colder, early postglacial periods, but instead, may have developed under modern climatic conditions.

Hemond, H.F.

1980-01-01

68

Titanium in ombrotrophic Sphagnum mosses from various peat bogs of Germany and Belgium.  

PubMed

Titanium concentrations and Ti inventories (total Ti in the sample) in living Sphagnum mosses from the surfaces of eight ombrotrophic peat bogs of five different regions of Germany and Belgium were studied over a period of two years (1995-7). Six to ten peat moss samples with a given surface area (100 cm2) and length (5 cm) were collected at different sites in the peat bogs studied several times (every six weeks to three months) during a year. Variability of Ti concentrations and inventories were determined within each peat bog for the species S. magellanicum, S. rubellum, S. papillosum, and S. cuspidatum, for the microhabitats 'lawn', 'slope' and 'hollow', as well as for the studied peat bogs of different regions and for each season. Likewise, Ti concentration values were determined for the moss plant segments: 'capitulum', 'living green' and 'dead brown'. Ti concentrations and inventories were found to be highly variable, even in one species of the same peat bog and at the same time. Moreover, median Ti concentrations and inventories of different species and microhabitats were quite similar to one another. As a result, we suggest that more productive species might be able to accumulate more Ti onto their bigger surface areas than the less productive ones. Besides, Ti particles might be transported downwards with the water and accumulated by the mosses over a longer time period than only one year. To reliably specify the variations in the geochemistry of peat mosses on the peat bog surface the annual production of each collected Sphagnum sample has to be exactly known and samples of equal ages and time periods they were exposed to atmospheric deposition have to be studied. PMID:18166215

Kempter, Heike; Frenzel, Burkhard

2007-12-31

69

Restoring afforested peat bogs: results of current research  

Microsoft Academic Search

The value of peat bogs as open habitats and stores of carbon may be lost if they are planted with trees. The number of bogs being restored is increasing but still modest in scale relative to the area of afforested peatland. Research is currently being carried out to determine the feasibility and methodology for restoring afforested bogs. Two experiments were

Russell Anderson

70

Atmospheric carbonyl sulfide exchange in bog microcosms  

SciTech Connect

Measurements of Carbonyl sulfide (OCS) fluxes were carried out on bog microcosms using chamber sampling and tunable diode laser analysis. Intact bog microcosms (vascular plants, mosses, and peat) removed ambient levels of OCS in the light and dark with rates from [minus]2.4 to [minus]8.1 ng S min[sup [minus]1] m[sup [minus]2]. Peat and peat plus mosses emitted OCS in the light with rates of 17.4 and 10.9 ng S min[sup [minus]1] m[sup [minus]2], respectively. In the dark, the mosses apparently removed OCS at a rate equivalent to the peat emissions. A 3-D numerical tracer model using this data indicated that boreal bog ecosystems remove at most 1% of ambient OCS, not sufficient to account for an observed OCS depletion in boreal air masses. 13 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

Fried, A.; Klinger, L.F.; Erickson, D.J. III (National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States))

1993-01-22

71

Ferricrete, manganocrete, and bog iron occurrences with selected sedge bogs and active iron bogs and springs in the upper Animas River watershed, San Juan County, Colorado  

USGS Publications Warehouse

During 1996 to 2000, the Bureau of Land Management, National Park Service, Environmental Protection Agency, United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Forest Service, and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) developed a coordinated strategy to (1) study the environmental effects of historical mining on Federal lands, and (2) remediate contaminated sites that have the greatest impact on water quality and ecosystem health. This dataset provides information that contributes to these overall objectives and is part of the USGS Abandoned Mine Lands Initiative. Data presented here represent ferricrete occurrences and selected iron bogs and springs in the upper Animas River watershed in San Juan County near Silverton, Colorado. Ferricretes (stratified iron and manganese oxyhydroxide-cemented sedimentary deposits) are one indicator of the geochemical baseline conditions as well as the effect that weathering of mineralized rocks had on water quality in the Animas River watershed prior to mining. Logs and wood fragments preserved in several ferricretes in the upper Animas River watershed, collected primarily along streams, yield radiocarbon ages of modern to 9,580 years B.P. (P.L. Verplanck, D.B. Yager, and S.E. Church, work in progress). The presence of ferricrete deposits along the current stream courses indicates that climate and physiography of the Animas River watershed have been relatively constant throughout the Holocene and that weathering processes have been ongoing for thousands of years prior to historical mining activities. Thus, by knowing where ferricrete is preserved in the watershed today, land-management agencies have an indication of (1) where metal precipitation from weathering of altered rocks has occurred in the past, and (2) where this process is ongoing and may confound remediation efforts. These data are included as two coverages-a ferricrete coverage and a bogs and springs coverage. The coverages are included in ArcInfo shapefile and ArcInfo interchange file format.

Yager, Douglas B.; Church, Stanley E.; Verplanck, Philip L.; Wirt, Laurie

2003-01-01

72

Acidophilic Methanotrophic Communities from Sphagnum Peat Bogs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Highly enriched methanotrophic communities (>25 serial transfers) were obtained from acidic ombrotro- phic peat bogs from four boreal forest sites. The enrichment strategy involved using media conditions that were associated with the highest rates of methane uptake by the original peat samples, namely, the use of diluted mineral medium of low buffering capacity, moderate incubation temperature (20°C), and pH values

SVETLANA N. DEDYSH; NICOLAI S. PANIKOV; JAMES M. TIEDJE

1998-01-01

73

The Secret of Bog Creek Farm  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This fictional story about a real Superfund site is available in English or Spanish. The Secret of Bog Creek Farm is a story about a real Superfund site where children learn through the eyes of local residents. The story explains how soil can become polluted and how it can be cleaned up by incineration.

74

[Methanotrophic bacteria of acid sphagnum bogs].  

PubMed

Acid sphagnum bogs cover a considerable part of the territory of Russia and are an important natural source of biogenic methane, which is formed in their anaerobic layers. A considerable portion of this methane is consumed in the aerobic part of the bog profile by acidophilic methanotrophic bacteria, which comprise the methane filter of sphagnum bogs and decrease CH4 emission to the atmosphere. For a long time, these bacteria escaped isolation, which became possible only after the elucidation of the optimal conditions of their functioning in situ: pH 4.5 to 5.5; temperature, from 15 to 20 degrees C; and low salt concentration in the solution. Reproduction of these conditions and rejection of earlier used media with a high content of biogenic elements allowed methanotrophic bacteria of two new genera and species--Methylocella palustris and Methylocapsa acidophila--to be isolated from the peat of sphagnum bogs of the northern part of European Russia and West Siberia. These bacteria are well adapted to the conditions in cold, acid, oligotrophic sphagnum bogs. They grow in a pH range of 4.2-7.5 with an optimum at 5.0-5.5, prefer moderate temperatures (15-25 degrees C) and media with a low content of mineral salts (200-500 mg/l), and are capable of active nitrogen fixation. Design of fluorescently labeled 16S rRNA-targeted oligonucleotide probes for the detection of Methylocella palustris and Methylocapsa acidophila and their application to the analysis of sphagnum peat samples showed that these bacteria represent dominant populations of methanotrophs with a density of 10(5)-10(6) cells/g peat. In addition to Methylocella and Methylocapsa populations, one more abundant population of methanotrophs was revealed (10(6) cells/g peat), which were phylogenetically close to the genus Methylocystis. PMID:12526194

Dedysh, S N

75

Are enchytraeid worms (Oligochaeta) sensitive indicators of ammonia-N impacts on an ombrotrophic bog?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Enchytraeid worms (Oligochaeta) are the dominant mesofauna in wet acidic habitats. They have key roles in biogeochemical cycling, and can be used as biological indicators. Here we report the response of these worms to in situ ammonia-N (NH3-N) deposition on an ombrotrophic bog. Three years of NH3-N fumigation from an automated release system has created a gradient of NH3-N concentrations

Miranda Prendergast-Miller; Lisa Cole; Valerie Standen; Robert Rees; John Parker; Ian Leith; Lucy Sheppard

2008-01-01

76

Transient modelling of water-table variation in a floodplain wetland, Narborough Bog, Leicestershire  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the application of a transient three-dimensional groundwater model to simulate water flux through a floodplain wetland, Narborough Bog, in Central England. The results of a programme of water-table monitoring are summarised to indicate the extent of water-table fluctuation, and experiments to determine hydraulic flow parameters are detailed. Hydraulic conductivities of deposits are highly variable; observations were in

C. Bradley

1996-01-01

77

CH 4 production in blanket bog peat: A procedure for sampling, sectioning and incubating samples whilst maintaining anaerobic conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new, yet simple technique is described to obtain intact cores of blanket bog peat whilst maintaining anaerobic conditions. Apparatus was also developed which allowed these cores to be sectioned (minimum slice thickness 1.0 cm) whilst excluding O2 from the cut sections and the remaining core material. Using these procedures the vertical distribution of methanogenesis in peat deposits was determined

G. H. Hall; B. M. Simon; R. W. Pickup

1996-01-01

78

Restoration of minerotrophic vegetation within an Irish raised bog soak system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clara Bog is an oceanic raised bog of international ecological importance located in central Ireland. The occurrence of soak systems (areas of mesotrophic\\/minerotrophic vegetation within acid bog) adds greatly to the scientific interest of Clara Bog. Recent research into the vegetation history of a soak system on Clara Bog known as Lough Roe indicates that major vegetation changes have occurred

P. H. Crushell; M. G. C. Schouten; A. J. P. Smolders; J. G. M. Roelofs; P. S. Giller

2006-01-01

79

Peat decomposition records in three pristine ombrotrophic bogs in southern Patagonia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ombrotrophic bogs in southern Patagonia have been examined with regard to paleoclimatic and geochemical research questions but knowledge about organic matter decomposition in these bogs is limited. Therefore, we examined peat humification with depth by Fourier Transformed Infrared (FTIR) measurements of solid peat, C/N ratio, and ?13C and ?15N isotope measurements in three bog sites. Peat decomposition generally increased with depth but distinct small scale variation occurred, reflecting fluctuations in factors controlling decomposition. C/N ratios varied mostly between 40 and 120 and were significantly correlated (R2 > 0.55, p < 0.01) with FTIR-derived humification indices. The degree of decomposition was lowest at a site presently dominated by Sphagnum mosses. The peat was most strongly decomposed at the driest site, where currently peat-forming vegetation produced less refractory organic material, possibly due to fertilizing effects of high sea spray deposition. Decomposition of peat was also advanced near ash layers, suggesting a stimulation of decomposition by ash deposition. Values of ?13C were 26.5 ± 2‰ in the peat and partly related to decomposition indices, while ?15N in the peat varied around zero and did not consistently relate to any decomposition index. Concentrations of DOM partly related to C/N ratios, partly to FTIR derived indices. They were not conclusively linked to the decomposition degree of the peat. DOM was enriched in 13C and in 15N relative to the solid phase probably due to multiple microbial modifications and recycling of N in these N-poor environments. In summary, the depth profiles of C/N ratios, ?13C values, and FTIR spectra seemed to reflect changes in environmental conditions affecting decomposition, such as bog wetness, but were dominated by site specific factors, and are further influenced by ash deposition and possibly by sea spray input.

Broder, T.; Blodau, C.; Biester, H.; Knorr, K. H.

2012-04-01

80

[sup 87]Sr/[sup 86]Sr ratios in ground water in and around Cedar Bog, Ohio  

SciTech Connect

Isotopic ratios of [sup 87]Sr/[sup 86]Sr were measured in 57 ground and surface water samples taken from in and around Cedar Bog in an effort to determine the provenance of the bog waters. Cedar bog lies in Champaign County, southwest Ohio, and it and its surrounding area are underlain by a variety of glacial deposits. The aim of this study is to delineate which of these deposits is the source of the water in the bog. Strontium was separated from the water samples and the isotopic ratios determined using standard methods. The range of values for this ratio is 0.00117 (0.70826-0.70943), which is more than 50 times the precision of an individual ratio as measured by modern mass spectrometry. Analyses of waters collected from a single site, however, show that these ratios vary over a small but measurable range through time. Such variations are most likely caused by local differences in the amounts of silicate and carbonate material in the glacial units and by local variations in precipitation and runoff, and they form a background noise in studies such as these. Efforts to characterize the individual glacial units by the [sup 87]Sr/[sup 86]Sr ratios in their ground waters are hampered by this noise and by uncertainties, when sampling water wells, as to which glacial units yield the water in the wells. Although these factors make it difficult to trace the ground waters back to individual glacial units, the data do indicate that Cedar Bog waters are most likely derived from the area northeast of the bog and that they are unlikely to be derived entirely from the Mad River outwash.

Marie, D.J.S.; Pushkar, P. (Floyd Browne Associates, Inc., Marion, OH (United States) Wright State Univ., Dayton, OH (United States))

1993-03-01

81

Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the inactive uraniferous lignite ashing site near Belfield, North Dakota.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This Baseline Risk Assessment of Ground Water Contamination at the Inactive Uraniferous Lignite Ashing Site Near Belfield, North Dakota, evaluates potential impacts to public health or the environment resulting from ground water contamination at the site ...

1994-01-01

82

Peat bogs and their organic soils: Archives of atmospheric change and global environmentalsignificance (Philippe Duchaufour Medal Lecture)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A bog is much more than a waterlogged ecosystem where organic matter accumulates as peat. Peatlands such as bogs represent a critical link between the atmosphere, hydrosphere, and biosphere. Plants growing at the surface of ombrotrophic bogs receive nutrients exclusively from the atmosphere. Despite the variations in redox status caused by seasonal fluctuations in depth to water table, the low pHof the waters, and abundance of dissolved organic matter, bogs preserve a remarkably reproducible history of atmospheric pollution, climate change, landscape evolution and human history. For example, peat cores from bogs in Europe and North America have provided detailed reconstructions of the changing rates and sources of Ag, Cd, Hg, Pb, Sb, and Tl, providing new insights into the geochemical cycles of these elements, including the massive perturbations induced by human activities beginning many thousands of years ago. Despite the low pH, and perhaps because of the abundance of dissolved organic matter, bogs preserve many silicate and aluminosilicate minerals which renders them valuable archives of atmospheric dust deposition and the climate changes which drive them. In the deeper, basal peat layers of the bog, in the minerotrophic zone where pore waters are affected bymineral-water interactions in the underlying and surrounding soils and sediments, peat serves as animportant link to the hydrosphere, efficiently removing from the imbibed groundwaters such trace elements as As, Cu, Mo, Ni, Se, V, and U. These removal processes, while incompletely understood, are so effective that measuring the dissolved fraction of trace elements in the pore waters becomes a considerable challenge even for the most sophisticated analytical laboratories. While the trace elements listed above are removed from groundwaters (along with P and S), elements such as Fe and Mn are added to the waters because of reductive dissolution, an important first step in the formation of lacustrine Fe and Mn nodules. While these important chemical reactions have taken place silently and imperceptibly over millenia acrossthe Earth wherever climate and water allow bogs to form, at the same time, peat bogs represent an important component of the biosphere and provide a home to many unique plants and animals, thereby contributing to the vast biodiversity found on Earth.

Shotyk, William

2013-04-01

83

[The saprotrophic bacterial complex in the raised peat bogs of Western Siberia].  

PubMed

The population density of bacteria in peat deposits along the landscape profile of the Vasyugan Marsh has been found to be as high as tens of millions of CFU/g peat. The abundance and diversity of bacteria increased with depth within the peat deposit, correlating with an increasing level of peat degradation. Variations in these parameters with depth and season were greater in peat deposits located in transaccumulative and transitional positions than in the sedge-sphagnum bogs located at the eluvial region of the profile. In the upper 1-m-thick layer of the peat deposits studied, bacilli, represented by five species, dominated, whereas, in the deeper layers, spirilla and myxobacteria prevailed. These bacteria were major degraders of plant polymers. Unlike the bacterial communities found in the peat deposits of European Russia, the dominant taxa in the studied peat deposits of Western Siberia are represented by bacteria resistant to extreme conditions. PMID:16211860

Golovchenko, A V; Sannikova, Iu V; Dobrovol'skaia, T G; Zviagintsev, D G

84

Deposited atmospheric chemicals  

SciTech Connect

A mountaintop bog in western Pennsylvania serves as a reservoir for materials deposited from the atmosphere. Biological activity in the bog decomposes plant matter, which becomes humified and mineralized at increasing depths. Little or no mixing of elements occurs below the active root zone. Radionuclides produced by natural means and by nuclear weapons have been used to measure the ages of the layers deposited during the growing season of each year. The upper layers of the bog indicate that the deposition of total sulfur is at least 20 times and that of nitrogen is 45 times the value estimated prior to cutting the forest, with a doubling time for each of 25-35 yr. Bromine deposition also doubles every 35 yr. The pattern of mass and element deposition illustrates the changes in land use and industrial effluents that were sources for the material deposited on the bog. The decrease in atmospheric particle removal shows up in the 1960 and later layers. Compared with terrestrial abundances, the relative enrichments over time for chlorine, nitrogen, sulfur, and bromine are more than 100 times those calculated for 1817; lead, calcium, and antimony are 10 to 40 times greater.

Schell, W.R.

1986-09-01

85

ANALYSES AND CORRELATION OF FOUR NEW HAMPSHIRE BOGS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The understanding of recent paleoecology by means of the pollen analyses of strata in post-glacial bogs has developed to the point where most ecologists, and even many laymen, are familiar with the usual methods involved. Although large numbers of bogs have been analyzed and discussed with regard to the immedi- ate locality to which they belong, there is still considerable

ROBERT W. KRAUSS; GEORGE N. KENT

86

Micromorphology, chemistry, and mineralogy of bog iron ores from Poland  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of different land use history on the chemistry, mineralogy, and micromorphology of bog iron ores was studied in the vicinity of Warsaw, Poland. At three Holocene terraces of the Vistula River, eight profiles were chosen, which represent three different types of bog iron ore: (i) continuous hard layers (meadow, fallow at Wilanow), (ii) horizons with small ore fragments

Danuta Kaczorek; Michael Sommer

2003-01-01

87

The development of sphagnum bogs in north America  

Microsoft Academic Search

The bogs discussed in this paper are those that have a fairly continuous growth of sphagnum moss at the surface which has formed a layer of peat of appreciable thickness and which has exercised a selective influence on the community of plants growing in it. Bogs of this kind are common across the continent from the Atlantic to the Pacific

George B. Rigg

1940-01-01

88

U-Pb ages of uraniferous opals and implications for the history of beryllium, fluorine, and uranium mineralization at Spor Mountain, Utah  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U-Pb isotope systematics of uraniferous opals from Spor Mountain, Utah, were investigated to determine the suitability of such material for geochronologic purposes, and to estimate the timing of uranium and associated beryllium and fluorine mineralization. The results indicate that uraniferous opals can approximate a closed system for uranium and uranium daughters, so that dating samples as young as ???1 m.y. should be possible. In addition, the expected lack of initial 230Th and 231Pa in opals permits valuable information on the initial 234U/238U to be obtained on suitable samples of ???10 m.y. age. The oldest 207Pb/235U apparent age observed, 20.8 ?? 1 m.y., was that of the opal-fluorite core of a nodule from a beryllium deposit in the Spor Mountain Formation. This age is indistinguishable from that of fission-track and K-Ar ages from the host rhyolite, and links the mineralization to the first episode of alkali rhyolite magmatism and related hydrothermal activity at Spor Mountain. Successively younger ages of 13 m.y. and 8-9 m.y. on concentric outer zones of the same nodule indicate that opal formed either episodically or continuously for over 10 m.y. Several samples of both fracture-filling and massive-nodule opal associated with beryllium deposits gave 207Pb/235U apparent ages of 13-16 m.y., which may reflect a restricted period of mineralization or perhaps an averaging of 21- and <13-m.y. periods of opal growth. Several samples of fracture-filling opal in volcanic rocks as young as 6 m.y. gave 207Pb/235U ages of 3.4-4.8 m.y. These ages may reflect hot-spring activity after the last major eruption of alkali rhyolite. ?? 1980.

Ludwig, K. R.; Lindsey, D. A.; Zielinski, R. A.; Simmons, K. R.

1980-01-01

89

Biodegradation of norflurazon in a bog soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microbial degradation of the pre-emergent herbicide norflurazon (4-chloro-5-(methylamino)-2-(?,?,?-trifluoro -m-tolyl)-3(2H)-pyridazinone) was evaluated in three horizons (Oi, A, B) within the profile of an acidic bog soil in laboratory experiments. Organic matter, nutrient content and microbial biomass all decreased with depth. Mineralization of norflurazon was biologically-mediated, with negligible abiotic degradation. The rate (0.17% 14CO2d?1) and extent (4.03% of initial 14C) of norflurazon

Mary C. Savin; José A. Amador

1998-01-01

90

Bog breath: Sleeper factor in global warming?  

SciTech Connect

This artical examines the emission of gases from northern peatlands as plants grow and decay and its implication in the global increase in greenhouse gases, particularly carbon dioxide and methane. Bogs do extract carbon dioxide from the air, incorporating it into green plants which become buried for a long time. However, the cold, wet conditions are ideal for microbes which emit methane. Global climate change models indicate that Minnesota, for example will be 5 degrees warmer and somewhat wetter in future years. As a result bacterial metabolism and methane generation may increase considerably. This paper discusses current research and speculation and looks at possible solutions, both man-created and natural.

Benyus, J.M.

1995-04-01

91

Geoinformatics meets education for a peat bog information system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Within the project "Expedition Bog: Young researchers are experimenting, exploring and discovering" a bog-information- system is developed by the Department of Geography (University of Education Heidelberg, Germany), the Institute for Geoinformatics and Remote Sensing (University of Osnabrueck, Germany) and the NABU Umweltpyramide gGmbH. This information system will be available for schools and to the public. It is supplemented by teaching units on various topics around the bog via an online platform. The focus of the project, however, is the original encounter with the bog habitat. This is realized by a GPS scavenger hunt with small research tasks and observations, mapping and experiments. The project areas are the Huvenhoops bog and the Lauenbruecker bog in Rotenburg in Lower Saxony, Germany. Equipped with a researcher backpack, GPS device and a mobile bog book by means of a pocket PC, students can discover different learning stations in the project bogs. In our areas the students can learn more about different topics such as "the historical memory of the bog", "water", "peat moss and other plants" and "animals of the bog". Moreover small inquiry research projects can be executed. Experimenting on site helps students to develop important scientific findings and increases their curiosity and enthusiasm for nature. It also promotes a number of other basic skills such as literacy, language skills, social skills or fine motor skills. Moreover it also fosters the development of a positive attitude to science in general. The main objective of the project is to promote sustainable environmental education, as well as the development of environmental awareness. This will be accomplished through the imparting of knowledge but also through experiencing nature with all senses in the context of original encounters.

Michel, Ulrich; Fiene, Christina; Plass, Christian

2010-10-01

92

Geochemistry of the peat bog at Etang de la Gruère, Jura Mountains, Switzerland, and its record of atmospheric Pb and lithogenic trace metals (Sc, Ti, Y, Zr, and REE) since 12,370 14C yr BP  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 650 cm core from a Swiss bog represents 12,370 14C years of peat accumulation and provides the first complete record of atmospheric Pb deposition for the entire Holocene. Excess, non-atmospheric Sr in the peat was calculated by normalizing Sr\\/Sc to crustal abundance; this was used to differentiate between the ombrogenic section of the bog in which inorganic solids are

W. Shotyk; D. Weiss; J. D. Kramers; R. Frei; A. K. Cheburkin; M. Gloor; S. Reese

2001-01-01

93

Soil moisture, water tension, and water table relationships in a managed cutover bog  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluates the hydrological conditions in a harvested bog where various water management schemes have been implemented to ameliorate conditions limiting Sphagnum regeneration. The study sites included a natural bog (natural), a recently drained and harvested bog (drained), which provided the hydrological extremes. Also included are a drained harvested bog with ditches blocked with (1) no other management (blocked),

Jonathan Price

1997-01-01

94

Radioactive waste disposal in simulated peat bog repositories  

SciTech Connect

The Low Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act of 1980 and the Low Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985 have required state governments to be responsible for providing low-level waste (LLW) disposal facilities in their respective areas. Questions are (a) is the technology sufficiently advanced to ensure that radioactive wastes can be stored for 300 to 1000 yr without entering into any uncontrolled area. (b) since actual experience does not exist for nuclear waste disposal over this time period, can the mathematical models developed be tested and verified using unequivocal data. (c) how can the public perception of the problem be addressed and the potential risk assessment of the hazards be communicated. To address the technical problems of nuclear waste disposal in the acid precipitation regions of the Northern Hemisphere, a project was initiated in 1984 to evaluate an alternative method of nuclear waste disposal that may not rely completely on engineered barriers to protect the public. Certain natural biogeochemical systems have been retaining deposited materials since the last Ice Age (12,000 to 15,000 yr). It is the authors belief that the biogeochemical system of wetlands and peat bogs may provide an example of an analogue for a nuclear waste repository system that can be tested and verified over a sufficient time period, at least for the LLW disposal problem.

Schell, W.R.; Massey, C.D.

1987-01-01

95

Peat Bog Archives: from human history, vegetation change and Holocene climate, to atmospheric dusts and trace elements of natural and anthropogenic origin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For at least two centuries, peat has been recognized as an excellent archive of environmental change. William Rennie (1807), for example, interpreted stratigraphic changes in Scottish bogs not only in terms of natural changes in paleoclimate, but was also able to identify environmental changes induced by humans, namely deforestation and the hydrological impacts which result from such activities. The use of bogs as archives of climate change in the early 20th century was accelerated by studies of fossil plant remains such as those by Lewis in Scotland, and by systematic investigations of pollen grains pioneered by von Post in Sweden. In Denmark, Glob outlined the remarkably well-preserved remains of bog bodies and associated artefacts (of cloth, wood, ceramic and metal) in Danish bogs. In Britain, Godwin provided an introduction to the use of bogs as archives of human history, vegetation change, and Holocene climate, with a more recent survey provided by Charman. Recent decades have provided many mineralogical studies of peat and there is growing evidence that many silicate minerals, whether derived from the surrounding watershed or the atmosphere (soil-derived dusts and particles emitted from volcanoes), also are well preserved in anoxic peatland waters. Similarly, geochemical studies have shown that a long list of trace metals, of both natural and anthropogenic origin, also are remarkably well preserved in peat bogs. Thus, there is growing evidence that ombrotrophic (ie 'rain-fed') peat bogs are reliable archives of atmospheric deposition of a wide range of trace elements, including conservative, lithogenic metals such as Al, Sc, Ti, Y, Zr, Hf and the REE, but also the potentially toxic Class B, or 'heavy metals' such as Cu, Ag, Hg, Pb, Sb and Tl. When high quality measurements of these elements is combined with accurate radiometric age dating, it becomes possible to create high resolution reconstructions of atmospheric soil dust fluxes, ancient and modern metal pollution, and Holocene climate change.

Shotyk, William

2010-05-01

96

Nitrogen dynamics in peat bogs: Comparison of sites with contrasting pollution levels (Central Europe)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nitrogen belongs to chemical elements whose biogeochemical cycles are most heavily disturbed by human activities, and large regions worlwide experience elevated depositions of reactive N (NO3-, NH4+). Peatlands contain as much as 15 % of the world's soil N. It it is unclear whether fertilizing by anthopogenic N will lead to higher storage of C in wetlands. Elevated N input may lead to both higher net primary productivity, but will also augment microbial decomposition. Here we discuss two aspects of N cycling in Sphagnum-dominated bogs in the Czech Republic, an area characterized by a steep north-south pollution gradient and high annual N deposition (60 kg ha-1). These two aspects are N inventory in 210Pb-dated peat cores, and post-depositional mobility of N in peat. We compared the N inventory in two Czech bogs, differing in pollution, with cumulative atmospheric N input. We hypothesized that the total amount of N in the peat cores would be smaller than the cumulative N input (leaching of excess N from the bog, denitrification). The two bogs were VJ (industrial north) and CB (rural south). The investigated period was 1885-2002. The total amount of N was 4020 kg ha-1 at VJ and 1530 kg ha-1 at CB. Peat in the north contained 2.6 times more N than in the south. Historical rates of N deposition in the Czech Republic are well known (numerous papers by Kopacek). To estimate cumulative N inputs into the bogs, we also used the monthly N depositions between 1994 and 2002, measured in two nearby catchments. The estimated cumulative atmospheric N input was 1350 kg ha-1 at VJ, and 530 kg ha-1 at CB. In both cases, the amount of N found in peat was 3 times higher than the estimated atmospheric N input. Such high storage of N in peat is surprising. Post-depositional mobility of N may help to explain the discrepancies between atmospheric N inputs and N storage in peat. We found two-fold evidence for post-depositional mobility of N. Maximum N concentrations at VJ were observed in layers dated at 1950, whereas pollution level increased up to 1980, and dropped thereafter. At the end of an 18-month reciprocal peat transplant experiment between VJ and CB, we found that N isotope ratios N converged to the host site. The magnitude of the isotope change was 3 per mil, the affected depth was 10 cm. Our results are consistent with the concept of Lamers et al. (2000) in that both ^15N and the found shift in N peaks downcore confirmed removal of N from surface moss under high N depositions. On the other hand, the excess of stored N relative to the cumulative N input remains unexplained, and merits further study.

Novak, Martin; Bohdalkova, Leona; Stepanova, Marketa; Vile, Melanie A.; Wieder, Kelman R.

2013-04-01

97

Thermal Regime of Soil on a Reclaimed Bog.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The paper contains an investigation of the specific features of the thermal regime of soil on a reclaimed bog, under seeded grasses and under natural herbaceous cover. Observations of soil temperature in conjunction with other meteorological features were...

E. P. Arkhipova

1968-01-01

98

Evidence of natural organochlorine formation in peat bogs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Peat samples from four ombrotrophic and two minerotrophic peat bogs in New Brunswick, Canada, have been analyzed for polychlorinated dioxins and furans (PCDD\\/DF's) as well as other organochlorine compounds. Data from each bog show occasional low levels of 2,3,7,8-substituted tetra-through octachloro dioxins and furans. Mono-through trichlorodioxins and furans have also been identified.A consistent pattern was observed among the TCDD's and

Peter J. Silk; Greg C. Lonergan; Todd L. Arsenault; C. David Boyle

1997-01-01

99

Effects of nutrient addition on leaf chemistry, morphology, and photosynthetic capacity of three bog shrubs.  

PubMed

Plants in nutrient-poor environments typically have low foliar nitrogen (N) concentrations, long-lived tissues with leaf traits designed to use nutrients efficiently, and low rates of photosynthesis. We postulated that increasing N availability due to atmospheric deposition would increase photosynthetic capacity, foliar N, and specific leaf area (SLA) of bog shrubs. We measured photosynthesis, foliar chemistry and leaf morphology in three ericaceous shrubs (Vaccinium myrtilloides, Ledum groenlandicum and Chamaedaphne calyculata) in a long-term fertilization experiment at Mer Bleue bog, Ontario, Canada, with a background deposition of 0.8 g N m(-2) a(-1). While biomass and chlorophyll concentrations increased in the highest nutrient treatment for C. calyculata, we found no change in the rates of light-saturated photosynthesis (A(max)), carboxylation (V(cmax)), or SLA with nutrient (N with and without PK) addition, with the exception of a weak positive correlation between foliar N and A(max) for C. calyculata, and higher V(cmax) in L. groenlandicum with low nutrient addition. We found negative correlations between photosynthetic N use efficiency (PNUE) and foliar N, accompanied by a species-specific increase in one or more amino acids, which may be a sign of excess N availability and/or a mechanism to reduce ammonium (NH(4)) toxicity. We also observed a decrease in foliar soluble Ca and Mg concentrations, essential minerals for plant growth, but no change in polyamines, indicators of physiological stress under conditions of high N accumulation. These results suggest that plants adapted to low-nutrient environments do not shift their resource allocation to photosynthetic processes, even after reaching N sufficiency, but instead store the excess N in organic compounds for future use. In the long term, bog species may not be able to take advantage of elevated nutrients, resulting in them being replaced by species that are better adapted to a higher nutrient environment. PMID:21544572

Bubier, Jill L; Smith, Rose; Juutinen, Sari; Moore, Tim R; Minocha, Rakesh; Long, Stephanie; Minocha, Subhash

2011-05-05

100

Nutrient additions in pristine Patagonian Sphagnum bog vegetation: can phosphorus addition alleviate (the effects of) increased nitrogen loads.  

PubMed

Sphagnum-bog ecosystems have a limited capability to retain carbon and nutrients when subjected to increased nitrogen (N) deposition. Although it has been proposed that phosphorus (P) can dilute negative effects of nitrogen by increasing biomass production of Sphagnum mosses, it is still unclear whether P-addition can alleviate physiological N-stress in Sphagnum plants. A 3-year fertilisation experiment was conducted in lawns of a pristine Sphagnum magellanicum bog in Patagonia, where competing vascular plants were practically absent. Background wet deposition of nitrogen was low (? 0.1-0.2 g · N · m(-2) · year(-1)). Nitrogen (4 g · N · m(-2) · year(-1)) and phosphorus (1 g · P · m(-2) · year(-1)) were applied, separately and in combination, six times during the growing season. P-addition substantially increased biomass production of Sphagnum. Nitrogen and phosphorus changed the morphology of Sphagnum mosses by enhancing height increment, but lowering moss stem density. In contrast to expectations, phosphorus failed to alleviate physiological stress imposed by excess nitrogen (e.g. amino acid accumulation, N-saturation and decline in photosynthetic rates). We conclude that despite improving growth conditions by P-addition, Sphagnum-bog ecosystems remain highly susceptible to nitrogen additions. Increased susceptibility to desiccation by nutrients may even worsen the negative effects of excess nitrogen especially in windy climates like in Patagonia. PMID:22221295

Fritz, C; van Dijk, G; Smolders, A J P; Pancotto, V A; Elzenga, T J T M; Roelofs, J G M; Grootjans, A P

2011-12-20

101

Response of douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) to uraniferous groundwater in a small glaciated drainage, Northeastern Washington State  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Douglas fir trees and associated soils were sampled from the slopes of a small (???4 km2) drainage basin in northeastern Washington to investigate the biogeochemical response to locally uraniferous groundwater. Uranium is preferentially incorporated in needles and twigs compared to larger branches or the trunk. The U concentration in needle ash ranges from 0.2 to 5.8??g g-1 (ppm) and shows no correlation with the U concentration in associated soils. Rather, the distribution of anomalously uraniferous douglas fir (> 1.0??g g-1 U in needle ash) appears to be controlled by observed or readily inferred pathways of near-surface groundwater movement in the drainage. These pathways include: (1) general downslope movement of subsurface runoff; (2) increased flux of near-surface groundwater near the toe of an alluvial fan; and (3) emergence of uraniferous (100-150 ng ml-1 [ppb] groundwater in the vicinity of a slope spring. The data also indicate the presence of near-surface uraniferous groundwater along a structurally controlled zone that parallels the north-south strike of the valley, and that includes the slope spring. The results suggest that biogeochemical sampling may be used to supplement more direct, but more limited, measurements of groundwater quality and flow regime in areas of near-surface contaminated groundwater. ?? 1987.

Zielinski, R. A.; Schumann, R. R.

1987-01-01

102

Response of douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) to uraniferous groundwater in a small glaciated drainage, Northeastern Washington State  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Douglas fir trees and associated soils were sampled from the slopes of a small (??? 4 km2) drainage basin in northeastern Washington to investigate the biogeochemical response to locally uraniferous groundwater. Uranium is preferentially incorporated in needles and twigs compared to larger branches or the trunk. The U concentration in needle ash ranges from 0.2 to 5.8 ??g g-1 (ppm) and shows no correlation with the U concentration in associated soils. Rather, the distribution of anomalously uraniferous douglas fir (>1.0??g g-1 U in needle ash) appears to be controlled by observed or readily inferred pathways of near-surface groundwater movement in the drainage. These pathways include: (1) general downslope movement of subsurface runoff; (2) increased flux of near-surface groundwater near the toe of an alluvial fan; and (3) emergence of uraniferous (100-150 ng ml-1 [ppb] groundwater in the vicinity of a slope spring. The data also indicate the presence of near-surface uraniferous groundwater along a structurally controlled zone that parallels the north-south strike of the valley, and that includes the slope spring. The results suggest that biogeochemical sampling may be used to supplement more direct, but more limited, measurements of groundwater quality and flow regime in areas of near-surface contaminated groundwater. ?? 1987.

Zielinski, R. A.; Schumann, R. R.

1987-01-01

103

A putative mechanism for bog patterning.  

PubMed

The surface of bogs commonly shows various spatial vegetation patterning. Typical are "string patterns" consisting of regular densely vegetated bands oriented perpendicular to the slope. Here, we report on regular "maze patterns" on flat ground, consisting of bands densely vegetated by vascular plants in a more sparsely vegetated matrix of nonvascular plant communities. We present a model reproducing these maze and string patterns, describing how nutrient-limited vascular plants are controlled by, and in turn control, both hydrology and solute transport. We propose that the patterns are self-organized and originate from a nutrient accumulation mechanism. In the model, this is caused by the convective transport of nutrients in the groundwater toward areas with higher vascular plant biomass, driven by differences in transpiration rate. In a numerical bifurcation analysis we show how the maze patterns originate from the spatially homogeneous equilibrium and how this is affected by changes in rainfall, nutrient input, and plant properties. Our results confirm earlier model results, showing that redistribution of a limiting resource may lead to fine-scale facilitative and coarse-scale competitive plant interactions in different ecosystems. Self-organization in ecosystems may be a more general phenomenon than previously thought, which can be mechanistically linked to scale-dependent facilitation and competition. PMID:15122488

Rietkerk, M; Dekker, S C; Wassen, M J; Verkroost, A W M; Bierkens, M F P

2004-05-04

104

Ecology of Peat Bogs of the Glaciated Northeastern United States: A Community Profile,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The publication reviews the ecological information available for peat bogs in the glaciated Northeastern United States, a region extending from the Canadian border to the Pocono Mountain area of Pennsylvania. Peat bogs depend on acidic, nutrient-poor wate...

A. W. H. Damman T. W. French

1987-01-01

105

Evaluating Cumulative Effects of Disturbance on the Hydrologic Function of Bogs, Fens, and Mires.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Few quantitative studies have been done on the hydrology of fens, bogs and mires, and consequently any predictions of the cumulative impacts of disturbances on their hydrologic functions is extremely difficult. Bogs and fens are, in a sense, 'hydrobiologi...

D. I. Siegel

1988-01-01

106

Plant biomass and production and CO2 exchange in an ombrotrophic bog  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary 1 Above-ground biomass was measured at bog hummock, bog hollow and poor-fen sites in Mer Bleue, a large, raised ombrotrophic bog near Ottawa, Ont., Canada. The average above-ground biomass was 587 g m -2 in the bog, composed mainly of shrubs and Sphagnum capitula. In the poor fen, the average biomass was 317 g m -2 , comprising mainly

Tim R. Moore; Jill L. Bubier; Steve E. Frolking; Peter M. Lafleur; Nigel T. Roulet

2002-01-01

107

Amphibian Activity, Movement Patterns, and Body Size in Fragmented Peat Bogs  

Microsoft Academic Search

I investigated the activity, direction of movement, and body size (snout-vent length) of am- phibians in both pristine and fragmented bogs of southeastern New Brunswick. I used drift-fences with pitfall traps to capture amphibians in six pristine bogs and six bogs undergoing peat mining (i.e, bog fragments) in 1997 and 1998. Results indicate that seasonal activity patterns of amphibians in

MARC J. MAZEROLLE

2001-01-01

108

Isotope analysis of pyrolysis products from Sphagnum peat and dissolved organic matter from bog water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Elemental analyses (H, N, C, O, S), bulk isotope analyses (13C, 15N) and 13C content of pyrolysis products from Sphagnum moss, underlying peat from a bog and the bog water (Hohlohsee, Black Forest, Germany) were performed to identify humification processes in the early diagenesis of peat formation and to determine the origin of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in the bog

Oliver Kracht; Gerd Gleixner

2000-01-01

109

Distribution and speciation of mercury in the peat bog of Xiaoxing'an Mountain, northeastern China.  

PubMed

Most reports on mercury (Hg) in boreal ecosystems are from the Nordic countries and North America. Comparatively little information is available on Hg in wetlands in China. We present here a study on Hg in the Tangwang River forested catchment of the Xiaoxing'an Mountain in the northeast of China. The average total Hg (THg) in peat profile ranged from 65.8 to 186.6 ng g(-1) dry wt with the highest at the depth of 5-10 cm. THg in the peat surface was higher than the background in Heilongjiang province, the Florida Everglades, and Birkeness in Sweden. MethylHg (MeHg) concentration ranged from 0.16 to 1.86 ng g(-1) dry wt, with the highest amount at 10-15 cm depth. MeHg content was 0.2-1.2% of THg. THg and MeHg all decreased with the depth. THg in upland layer of soil (0-20 cm) was comparable to the peat surface, but in deeper layers THg concentration in peat was much higher than that in the forested mineral soil. THg in the peat bog increased, but MeHg decreased after it was drained. THg content in plant was different; THg contents in moss (119 ng g(-1) dry wt, n=12) were much higher than in the herbage, the arbor, and the shrubs. The peat bog has mainly been contaminated by Hg deposition from the atmosphere. PMID:12683981

Liu, Ruhai; Wang, Qichao; Lu, Xianguo; Fang, Fengman; Wang, Yan

2003-01-01

110

Persistence and recolonisation determine success of bog restoration for aquatic invertebrates: a comment on Mazerolle et al. (2006)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mazerolle et al. (2006) concluded that some aquatic invertebrate species, including bogassociated species, readily colonise man-made bog pools. In contrast, in Dutch bog remnants Van Duinen et al. (2003) found that a considerable number of bog-associated species do not colonise newly created bog pools. 2. The conclusion of Mazerolle et al. (2006) is based on vagile aquatic invertebrates. Here, we

G. A. van Duinen; W. C. E. P. Verberk; J. Esselink

2007-01-01

111

New geological model of the Lagoa Real uraniferous albitites from Bahia (Brazil)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New evidence supported by petrography (including mineral chemistry), lithogeochemistry, U-Pb geochronology by Laser Ablation Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS), and physicochemical study of fluid and melt inclusions by LA-ICP-MS and microthermometry, point to an orogenic setting of Lagoa Real (Bahia-Brazil) involving uraniferous mineralization. Unlike the previous models in which uraniferous albitites represent Na-metasomatised 1.75 Ga anorogenic granitic rocks, it is understood here that they correspond to metamorphosed sodium-rich and quartz-free 1.9 Ga late-orogenic syenitic rocks (Na-metasyenites). These syenitic rocks are rich not only in albite, but also in U-rich titanite (source of uranium). The interpretation of geochemical data points to a petrogenetic connection between alkali-diorite (local amphibolite protolith) and sodic syenite by fractional crystallization through a transalkaline series. This magmatic differentiation occurred either before or during shear processes, which in turn led to albitite and amphibolite formation. The metamorphic reactions, which include intense recrystallization of magmatic minerals, led uraninite to precipitate at 1.87 Ga under Oxidation/Reduction control. A second population of uraninites was also generated by the reactivation of shear zones during the 0.6 Ga Brasiliano Orogeny. The geotectonic implications include the importance of the Orosirian event in the Paramirim Block during paleoproterozoic S?o Francisco Craton edification and the influence of the Brasiliano event in the Paramirim Block during the West-Gondwana assembly processes. The regional microcline-gneiss, whose protolith is a 2.0 Ga syn-collisional potassic granite, represents the albitite host rock. The microcilne-gneiss has no petrogenetic association to the syenite (albitite protolith) in magmatic evolutionary terms.

Chaves, Alexandre de Oliveira

2013-07-01

112

New geological model of the Lagoa Real uraniferous albitites from Bahia (Brazil)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New evidence supported by petrography (including mineral chemistry), lithogeochemistry, U-Pb geochronology by Laser Ablation Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS), and physicochemical study of fluid and melt inclusions by LA-ICP-MS and microthermometry, point to an orogenic setting of Lagoa Real (Bahia-Brazil) involving uraniferous mineralization. Unlike the previous models in which uraniferous albitites represent Na-metasomatised 1.75 Ga anorogenic granitic rocks, it is understood here that they correspond to metamorphosed sodium-rich and quartz-free 1.9 Ga late-orogenic syenitic rocks (Na-metasyenites). These syenitic rocks are rich not only in albite, but also in U-rich titanite (source of uranium). The interpretation of geochemical data points to a petrogenetic connection between alkali-diorite (local amphibolite protolith) and sodic syenite by fractional crystallization through a transalkaline series. This magmatic differentiation occurred either before or during shear processes, which in turn led to albitite and amphibolite formation. The metamorphic reactions, which include intense recrystallization of magmatic minerals, led uraninite to precipitate at 1.87 Ga under Oxidation/Reduction control. A second population of uraninites was also generated by the reactivation of shear zones during the 0.6 Ga Brasiliano Orogeny. The geotectonic implications include the importance of the Orosirian event in the Paramirim Block during paleoproterozoic S?o Francisco Craton edification and the influence of the Brasiliano event in the Paramirim Block during the West-Gondwana assembly processes. The regional microcline-gneiss, whose protolith is a 2.0 Ga syn-collisional potassic granite, represents the albitite host rock. The microcilne-gneiss has no petrogenetic association to the syenite (albitite protolith) in magmatic evolutionary terms.

de Oliveira Chaves, Alexandre

2013-09-01

113

Terrestrial isopod community as indicator of succession in a peat bog.  

PubMed

Terrestrial isopods were studied in the Dubravica peat bog and surrounding forest in the northwestern Croatia. Sampling was conducted using pitfall traps over a two year period. Studied peat bog has a history of drastically decrease in area during the last five decades mainly due to the process of natural succession and changes in the water level. A total of 389 isopod individuals belonging to 8 species were captured. Species richness did not significantly differ between bog, edge and surrounding forest. High species richness at the bog is most likely the result of progressive vegetation succession, small size of the bog and interspecific relationships, such as predation. With spreading of Molinia grass on the peat bog, upper layers of Sphagnum mosses become less humid and probably more suitable for forest species that slowly colonise bog area. The highest diversity was found at the edge mainly due to the edge effect and seasonal immigration, but also possibly due to high abundance and predator pressure of the Myrmica ants and lycosid spiders at the bog site. The most abundant species were Trachelipus rathkii and Protracheoniscus politus, in the bog area and in the forest, respectively. Bog specific species were not recorded and the majority of the species collected belong to the group of tyrphoneutral species. However, Hyloniscus adonis could be considered as a tyrphoxenous species regarding its habitat preferences. Most of collected isopod species are widespread eurytopic species that usually inhabit various habitats and therefore indicate negative successive changes or degradation processes in the peat bog. PMID:22536107

Antonovi?, Ivan; Brigi?, Andreja; Sedlar, Zorana; Bedek, Jana; Soštari?, Renata

2012-03-20

114

Terrestrial isopod community as indicator of succession in a peat bog  

PubMed Central

Abstract Terrestrial isopods were studied in the Dubravica peat bog and surrounding forest in the northwestern Croatia. Sampling was conducted using pitfall traps over a two year period. Studied peat bog has a history of drastically decrease in area during the last five decades mainly due to the process of natural succession and changes in the water level. A total of 389 isopod individuals belonging to 8 species were captured. Species richness did not significantly differ between bog, edge and surrounding forest. High species richness at the bog is most likely the result of progressive vegetation succession, small size of the bog and interspecific relationships, such as predation. With spreading of Molinia grass on the peat bog, upper layers of Sphagnum mosses become less humid and probably more suitable for forest species that slowly colonise bog area. The highest diversity was found at the edge mainly due to the edge effect and seasonal immigration, but also possibly due to high abundance and predator pressure of the Myrmica ants and lycosid spiders at the bog site. The most abundant species were Trachelipus rathkii and Protracheoniscus politus, in the bog area and in the forest, respectively. Bog specific species were not recorded and the majority of the species collected belong to the group of tyrphoneutral species. However, Hyloniscus adonis could be considered as a tyrphoxenous species regarding its habitat preferences. Most of collected isopod species are widespread eurytopic species that usually inhabit various habitats and therefore indicate negative successive changes or degradation processes in the peat bog.

Antonovic, Ivan; Brigic, Andreja; Sedlar, Zorana; Bedek, Jana; Sostaric, Renata

2012-01-01

115

BOGS AND FENS IN THE HUDSON BAY LOWLANDS  

Microsoft Academic Search

ty of metal ions in water of precipitation (except in definitely maritime areas) leads to strongly acid reactions both of the water and of the peat in most ombrotrophic peatlands. The vegetation of the ombrotrophic peat- lands, or (in a restricted sense) bogs, is highly specialized, acidophilous, and poor in species of flowering plants. Other types of peatland receive varying

Hugo Sjors

116

Methane emissions from fen, bog and swamp peatlands in Quebec  

Microsoft Academic Search

A static chamber technique was used weekly from spring thaw to winter freezing to measure methane emissions from 10 sites representing subarctic fens and temperate swamps and bogs. Rates of 4 m-2 d-1 were recorded in subarctic fens: within-site emissions were primarily controlled by the evolution of the peat thermal regime, though significant releases during spring thaw were recorded at

T. R. Moore; R. Knowles

1990-01-01

117

Preliminary results of bone diagenesis in Scandinavian bogs  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are several hundred documented finds of “bog bodies” from all over Europe, exhibiting a range of preservation states and spanning nearly all archaeological eras — from Neolithic to Medieval. Although these have caught the imagination of both public and academics alike, there is still little consensus on the diagenetic processes that lead to their formation. This work presents early

Gordon Turner-Walker; Elizabeth E. Peacock

2008-01-01

118

Zinc Isotopic Composition Along A Peat Bog Profile  

Microsoft Academic Search

We measured Zn concentrations and isotope variations in three peat bog profiles in Finland. The cores were situated next to a smelter (Harjavalta), a mining site (Outokumpu), and in a remote location (Hietajarvi). The three peat cores were also measured for trace and major elements in solid peat and pore waters providing all essential data needed for a geochemical assessment.

D. J. Weiss; T. Mason; N. Rausch; W. Shotyk; J. Wilkinson; T. Nieminen

2005-01-01

119

Methanogen Communities in a Drained Bog: Effect of Ash Fertilization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forestry practises such has drainage have been shown to decrease emissions of the greenhouse gas methane (CH4) from peatlands. The aim of the study was to examine the methanogen populations in a drained bog in northern Finland, and to assess the possible effect of ash fertilization on potential methane production and methanogen communities. Peat samples were collected from control and

P. E. Galand; H. Juottonen; H. Fritze; K. Yrjälä

2005-01-01

120

Hydrology and Microclimate of a Partly Restored Cutover Bog, QUÉBEC  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Peatlands do not readily return to functional wetland ecosystems after harvesting (cutting), because the harsh hydrological and microclimatic conditions are unsuitable for Sphagnum regeneration. In this study, drainage ditches blocked after harvesting restored the water balance to a condition similar to a nearby natural bog. Evaporation averaged 2.9 and 2.7 mm day-1 on the cutover and natural bog, respectively. Evaporation consumed most of the rainfall input (86 and 80%, respectively), whereas runoff was minor at both sites (6 and 4%, respectively). However, the water table position was markedly different at these sites. Median water table depth was 0.05 m below the surface in the natural bog, compared with 0.44 m in the cutover bog (ditches blocked). Changes to the peak soil matrix owing to drainage and cutting reduced the specific yield (Sy) of the peat to 0.04-0.06 from 0.35-0.55, causing exaggerated water table changes in the cutover site. Nevertheless, volumetric soil moisture in the cutover site (0.67 +/- .08) had low variability, and was maintained above moisture contents found in Sphagnum hummocks in the natural bog (0.48 +/- .10), although less than on Sphagnum lawn (0.84 +/- .11). Poor Sphagnum regeneration on cutover surfaces can therefore be attributed to its inability to extract water from the underlying peat, which retains water at matric suction greater than the non-vascular Sphagnum can generate.The corrupted iron pan under main ditches has permitted partial recharge of the underlying aquifer, reducing local hydraulic gradients, thereby decreasing vertical seepage loss.

Price, Jonathan S.

1996-10-01

121

Remedial Action Plan for stabilization of the inactive uraniferous lignite processing sites at Belfield and Bowman, North Dakota  

SciTech Connect

This appendix is an assessment of the present conditions relative to the inactive uraniferous lignite processing sites at Belfield and near Bowman, North Dakota. It consolidates available engineering, radiological, geotechnical, hydrological, and other information pertinent to the design of the Remedial Action Plan (RAP). The objective of the information is to characterize the conditions at the tailings sites so that the Remedial Action Contractor (RAC) may complete final design for stabilization of all contaminated materials.

Not Available

1990-12-01

122

Zinc Isotopic Composition Along A Peat Bog Profile  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We measured Zn concentrations and isotope variations in three peat bog profiles in Finland. The cores were situated next to a smelter (Harjavalta), a mining site (Outokumpu), and in a remote location (Hietajarvi). The three peat cores were also measured for trace and major elements in solid peat and pore waters providing all essential data needed for a geochemical assessment. Close to the top of all three cores a peak in Zn concentration is observed. The Zn peaks correlate well with other metals at Outokumpu and Harjavalta, respectively. The increased Zn concentration in the remote site (Hietajarvi) is tentatively explained with Zn that accumulated in the roots of plants and/or deposited via long-range transport. There are significant isotope variations found in all three cores and the ratio vs. depth patterns are very similar. Lighter zinc is observed near the surface, where the concentrations are high (?66Zn ~ 0.4 relative to the Lyon JMC 3-0749L Zn standard), whereas isotopically heavy Zn (?66Zn > 0.8) is observed in the deeper parts of the profiles, where concentrations reach background values. To constrain possible sources, we measured the Zn isotopic composition of the host rocks (dolomite, schist) and ore minerals at the Outokumpu mine site. Isotopically light Zn was found in the dolomite (?66Zn ~ -0.3) and isotopically heavy Zn (?66Zn ~ 0.9) in the black schist. The measured Zn isotopic compositions of the ore at Outokumpu is consistent with those observed at the top of the peat profile, suggesting that this `pollutant ore Zn' is indeed the dominant Zn source in the Outokumpu peat. In all three profiles the isotopic composition of the background Zn (ranging between 0.8 and 1.5) is heavier than published Zn data on loess (serving as a proxy for atmospheric dust or average continental crust) suggesting that natural dust is influenced by the local geology (as previously suggested for Pb during other peat studies) and that biological fractionation contributes to the fractionation of Zn in the profile by taking up isotopically light Zn in the top layer and leaving heavy Zn back, which then gets concentrated in the deeper layer

Weiss, D. J.; Mason, T.; Rausch, N.; Shotyk, W.; Wilkinson, J.; Nieminen, T.

2005-12-01

123

The Auchenorrhyncha fauna of peat bogs in the Austrian part of the Bohemian Forest (Insecta, Hemiptera)  

PubMed Central

Abstract The first overview on the Auchenorrhyncha fauna of peat bogs of the Austrian Bohemian Forest is presented. Seven oligotrophic peat bog sites were studied in 2011 by suction sampler (“G-Vac”) and 93 Auchenorrhyncha species (with 7465 adult specimens) were recorded. Eleven species (about 18 % of the individuals) are tyrphobiontic or tyrphophilous. The relative species abundance plot is not very steep; the six most abundant species represent 50 % of the individuals. The most common species is Conomelus anceps (17 % of the individuals). Compared to the whole Austrian Auchenorrhyncha fauna, the fauna of peat bogs comprises distinctly more univoltine species and more species hibernating in nymphal stage. Densities of adult Auchenorrhyncha in peat bogs are low in spring (about 10–60 individuals per m²) and high in July, with up to 180 (±50) individuals per m². Disturbed peat bogs have higher species numbers and higher Auchenorrhyncha densities in total, but lower numbers and densities in peat bog specialists.

Holzinger, Werner E.; Schlosser, Lydia

2013-01-01

124

The Auchenorrhyncha fauna of peat bogs in the Austrian part of the Bohemian Forest (Insecta, Hemiptera).  

PubMed

The first overview on the Auchenorrhyncha fauna of peat bogs of the Austrian Bohemian Forest is presented. Seven oligotrophic peat bog sites were studied in 2011 by suction sampler ("G-Vac") and 93 Auchenorrhyncha species (with 7465 adult specimens) were recorded. Eleven species (about 18 % of the individuals) are tyrphobiontic or tyrphophilous. The relative species abundance plot is not very steep; the six most abundant species represent 50 % of the individuals. The most common species is Conomelus anceps (17 % of the individuals). Compared to the whole Austrian Auchenorrhyncha fauna, the fauna of peat bogs comprises distinctly more univoltine species and more species hibernating in nymphal stage. Densities of adult Auchenorrhyncha in peat bogs are low in spring (about 10-60 individuals per m²) and high in July, with up to 180 (±50) individuals per m². Disturbed peat bogs have higher species numbers and higher Auchenorrhyncha densities in total, but lower numbers and densities in peat bog specialists. PMID:24039517

Holzinger, Werner E; Schlosser, Lydia

2013-07-30

125

Testate amoebae inhabiting middle taiga bogs in Western Siberia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The population of testate amoebae from the most typical middle taiga bogs of Western Siberia have been studied. More than\\u000a one hundred (103) species and intraspecific taxons of testate amoebae have been revealed in recent surface samples. The relation\\u000a between ecological characteristics of habitats and the composition of a Protozoa population has been demonstrated. The ecological\\u000a preferences of species concerning

I. V. Kur’ina; Yu. I. Preis; A. A. Bobrov

2010-01-01

126

Secondary succession in a Swiss mire after a bog burst  

Microsoft Academic Search

Severe natural disturbances can lead to the recovery of the original vegetation or the shift to new vegetation types. While\\u000a post-disturbance succession is well documented for regularly disturbed ecosystems, little is known about the pathways and\\u000a rapidity of vegetation dynamics after rare events such as peat mass movements in bogs. We monitored the floristic changes\\u000a in a mire subject to

Elizabeth Feldmeyer-Christe; Meinrad Küchler; Ulrich Graf

2009-01-01

127

Methane metabolism in raised bogs of northern wetlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laboratory columns under continuous flow were packed with peat from the catotelm of an ombrotrophic bog to simulate the natural environment. Methane concentration increased from 1.4 to 47.8 ?mol ml due to anaerobic microbial degradation of the peat, while at the same time the water flow rate decreased from log ?1.39 to ?3.03 cm s and the moisture content decreased

D. Ann Brown; R. P. Overend

1993-01-01

128

Decomposition in an ombrotrophic bog and a minerotrophic fen in Minnesota  

SciTech Connect

Using mass-loss and CO/sub 2/-evolution techniques, the authors evaluated the decomposition of peat in an ombrotrophic bog in northern Minnesota. They also compared decomposition potentials, using uniform material (cellulose), between the bog and a nearby minerotrophic fen. Mass loss decreased with increasing depth in the peat due to environmental and substrate limitations. Mass-loss from cellulose was greater in the fen than in the bog.

Farrish, K.W.; Grigal, D.F.

1988-05-01

129

Properties and structure of raised bog peat humic acids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Humic substances form most of the organic components of soil, peat and natural waters, and their structure and properties differ very much depending on their source. The aims of this study are to characterize humic acids (HAs) from raised bog peat, to evaluate the homogeneity of peat HAs within peat profiles, and to study peat humification impact on properties of HAs. A major impact on the structure of peat HAs have lignin-free raised bog biota (dominantly represented by bryophytes of different origin). On diagenesis scale, peat HAs have an intermediate position between the living organic matter and coal organic matter, and their structure is formed in a process in which more labile structures (carbohydrates, amino acids, etc.) are destroyed, while thermodynamically more stable aromatic and polyaromatic structures emerge as a result of abiotic synthesis. However, in comparison with soil, aquatic and other HAs, aromaticity of peat HAs is much lower. Comparatively, the raised bog peat HAs are at the beginning of the transformation process of living organic matter. Concentrations of carboxyl and phenolic hydroxyl groups change depending on the peat age and decomposition degree from where HAs have been isolated, and carboxylic acidity of peat HAs increases with peat depth and humification degree.

Klavins, Maris; Purmalis, Oskars

2013-10-01

130

Climatic and anthropogenic effects on atmospheric mercury accumulation rates in ombrotrophic bogs from Southern Ontario  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To quantify the effects of human activities on atmospheric deposition of mercury in eastem Canada, an improved understanding of the natural variations of the concentrations, fluxes and sources of Hg over a long period of time is required. Peat cores from 3 sites in southern Ontario were used to reconstruct changes in atmospheric mercury accumulation rates for the past 10,000 years. The net mercury accumulation rates and excess mercury (mainly anthropogenic) were calculated using the long-terrn average Hg/Br and Hg/Se. The average background mercury accumulation rate during the pre-anthropogenic period was 1.4 ± 1.0 ?g m^{-2} yr^{-1}. An excess of Hg was observed only once during that period, probably reflecting a change in climat. Mercury contamination from anthropogenic sources began about AD 1475 at the Luther Bog, corresponding to extensive biomass burning for agricultural activities by Native North Americans. During the late 17^th and 18^th centuries, deposition of anthropogenic Hg was at least equal to that of Hg from natural sources. Hg pollution increased again at the beginning of the 19^th century. The maximum increase (up to 30 times) compared to “background” occurred during the 1950s, when the anthropogenic component represented up to 85% ofthe total atmospheric mercury deposition.

Givelet, N.; Roos-Barraclough, F.; Shotyk, W.

2003-05-01

131

Geochemical evidence for the hydrology of a Tamarack-peat bog, Brimfield Township, Portage County, Ohio  

SciTech Connect

Peat Bogs and wetlands represent unique environmental settings what are increasingly subjected to anthropogenic stresses involving inputs of water and chemicals. This study used geochemical and hydrologic monitoring to determine the inputs and fates of elements of the Kent-Brimfield bog located in Portage County, Ohio. Based on physical and chemical information collected over one year, a model is proposed here describing the hydrologic connection between a bog and shallow ground water surrounding the bog. The chemical composition of precipitation, soil water and ground water in the bog vicinity were monitored for one year. Field measurements included water levels, pH, Eh, alkalinity and temperature. Trace metal content of the peat, the pore waters, soil water and ground waters were determined by GFAA, ICP and LIC methods. This bog was found to function as part of a perched water table aquifer. Water in the upper 3 m of the bog is found to be chemically similar to precipitation, but modified by reactions involving dissolution of mineral matter and biologic processes. The chemistry of water deeper in the bog (> 3m) resembles shallow ground water surrounding the bog, modified by weathering of underlying geologic materials and sulfate reduction. This similarity, along with ground water elevations within and outside of the bog, supports that shallow ground water interacts with, and helps maintain water levels in the upper surface of the bog. From these results, a model is proposed for the seasonal variations in hydrologic processes operating in the wetland and surrounding basin, and describes how wetlands may change seasonally from being influent to effluent systems.

Wilson, T.P.; Miller, L.A. (Kent State Univ., OH (United States). Dept. of Geology and Water Resources)

1992-01-01

132

Genesis of peat-bog soils in the northern taiga spruce forests of the Kola Peninsula  

SciTech Connect

The characteristics of soil formation processes in the Peat-Bog soils of waterlogged spruce phytocenoses on the Kola Peninsula are investigated. It is found that the ash composition of the peat layer is determined primarily by the composition of the buried plant residues. The effect of the chemical composition of water feeding the peat bogs is determined. (Refs. 7).

Nikonov, V.V.

1981-01-01

133

Mechanisms involved in the re-establishment of Sphagnum dominated vegetation in rewetted bog remnants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Restoration of peat bog vegetation inhighly degraded peatlands is generallyattempted by improving the hydrology ofthese areas. The present paper discussesand explains various restoration strategiesrelating to peat quality, water chemistryand hydrology. In some cases, (shallow)inundation of bog remnants leads to a rapidredevelopment of (floating) Sphagnumvegetation, usually when poorly humifiedSphagnum peat is still present. Afterinundation, the peat either swells up tothe newly

A. J. P. Smolders; H. B. M. Tomassen; M. van Mullekom; L. P. M. Lamers; J. G. M. Roelofs

2003-01-01

134

Geochemical evidence for the hydrology of a Tamarack-peat bog, Brimfield Township, Portage County, Ohio  

Microsoft Academic Search

Peat Bogs and wetlands represent unique environmental settings what are increasingly subjected to anthropogenic stresses involving inputs of water and chemicals. This study used geochemical and hydrologic monitoring to determine the inputs and fates of elements of the Kent-Brimfield bog located in Portage County, Ohio. Based on physical and chemical information collected over one year, a model is proposed here

T. P. Wilson; L. A. Miller

1992-01-01

135

Conservation of bog plant species assemblages: Assessing the role of natural remnants in mined sites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bogs, economically valuable wetlands, are subjected to exploitation in southern Canada. We addressed plant conser- vation within bogs mined for peat, in which small undisturbed remnants are left, mostly at the margins of the mined areas. The main goal of the study was to test whether these remnants act as refuges for plants which could recolonize areas that are planned

Monique Poulin; Line Rochefort; André Desrochers

1999-01-01

136

A hydrological study of Waen y Griafolen blanket bog, North Wales  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many mountain rivers in North Wales have their headwaters in peat blanket bogs. An example is Waen y Griafolen, source area for the Afon Mawddach, which formed the focus of a hydrological study by Bangor University over the period 2002-2004. Fieldwork has been supplemented by groundwater and surface water modelling. The blanket bog covers an area of approximately 6 km2

G. Hall

2010-01-01

137

Methanogenic archaeal community in the sediment of an artificially partitioned acidic bog lake  

Microsoft Academic Search

The methanogenic archaeal communities in the sediment of two basins of an artificially partitioned acidic bog lake were studied. In the northeast basin, which was separated from a peat bog, a high methane production rate was measured only in the upper layers of the sediment. In contrast, methane production was detected at various depths of the sediment in the southwest

On Chim Chan; Matthias Wolf; Dominik Hepperle; Peter Casper

2002-01-01

138

EVALUATING CUMULATIVE EFFECTS OF DISTURBANCE ON THE HYDROLOGIC FUNCTION OF BOGS, FENS, AND MIRES  

EPA Science Inventory

Few quantitative studies have been done on the hydrology of fens, bogs and mires, and consequently any predictions of the cumulative impacts of disturbances on their hydrologic functions is extremely difficult. or example, few data are available on the role of bogs and fens with ...

139

Holocene palaeoclimates from peat stratigraphy: macrofossil proxy climate records from three oceanic raised bogs in England and Ireland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quantified analyses of plant macrofossil remains have been made from three profiles of peat from raised bogs spanning a distance of 425km from western Ireland to northern England. The reconstructed vegetation of each profile is related to changing bog surface wetness (BSW), and since the bogs are ombrotrophic these BSW changes are interpreted in terms of changing climate. Using age\\/depth

Keith E. Barber; Frank M. Chambers; Darrel Maddy

2003-01-01

140

The microflora and fauna of a quaking bog in the nature reserve “Het Hol” near Kortenhoef in the Netherlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article the results of a study of a couple of quaking bogs in the Netherlands have been published. The author has tried to give a picture of the composition of the microbiocoenoses as detailed as is possible for one investigator. Apart from the micro-organisms the physical and chemical conditions in the bogs have been studied also. The bogs

Fr. Graaf

1957-01-01

141

77 FR 2970 - Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Assessment for the Proposed Elba BOG Compressor...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...existing 1,500 horsepower BOG compressor and is expected to...million cubic feet per day of BOG generated within its storage...storage of the Terminal. The Elba BOG Compressor Project would consist...resources, fisheries, and wetlands; Cultural resources;...

2012-01-20

142

Correlation between the morphogenetic types of litter and their properties in bog birch forests  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A formalized arrangement of morphogenetic types of litter according to the physicochemical parameters provided their significant grouping in three genetic associations. The litter group (highly decomposed + moderately decomposed) is confined to the tall-grass group of bog birch forests. The rhizomatous (roughly decomposed) litter is formed in the sedge-reed grass bog birch forests. The litter group (peaty + peatified + peat) is associated with the bog-herbaceous-moss group of forest types. The genetic associations of the litters (a) reliably characterize the edaphic conditions of bog birch forests and (b)correspond to formation of the peat of certain ecological groups. We found highly informative the acid-base parameters, the exchangeable cations (Ca2+ + Mg2+) and the total potential acidity, which differentiated the genetic associations of litter practically with 100% probability. The expediency of studying litters under groups of forest types rather than under separate types of bog birch forests was demonstrated.

Efremova, T. T.; Efremov, S. P.; Avrova, A. F.

2010-08-01

143

Owner survey of tarsocrural effusion (bog spavin) in Clydesdale horses.  

PubMed

A postal survey of the owners of Clydesdale horses in the UK and USA was conducted to obtain information on tarsocrural effusion ('bog spavin') as an indicator of osteochondrosis from 935 horses. Additional information requested included details of how this condition was investigated and treated. The reported tarsocrural effusion incidence was 10 per cent. The majority of respondents believed the condition to be of concern to Clydesdale owners, but only a minority were aware of the implications of tarsocrural effusion, suggesting that owner education would be of benefit. PMID:22262698

Weaver, M P; Wilant, L

2012-01-18

144

[Testate amoebae inhabiting middle taiga bogs in Western Siberia].  

PubMed

The population of testate amoebae from the most typical middle taiga bogs of Western Siberia have been studied. More than one hundred (103) species and intraspecific taxons of testate amoebae have been revealed in recent surface samples. The relation between ecological characteristics of habitats and the composition of a Protozoa population has been demonstrated. The ecological preferences of species concerning the index of wetness, ash level, and acidity have been revealed. Using the correspondence analysis, the ecological optimums and the tolerance of species and intraspecific taxons of testate amoebae have been established. PMID:20799643

Kur'ina, I V; Pre?s, Iu I; Bobrov, A A

145

Regional and local patterns in depth to water table, hydrochemistry and peat properties of bogs and their laggs in coastal British Columbia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In restoration planning for damaged raised bogs, the lagg at the bog margin is often not given considerable weight and is sometimes disregarded entirely. However, the lagg is critical for the proper functioning of the bog, as it supports the water mound in the bog. In order to include the lagg in a restoration plan for a raised bog, it is necessary to understand the hydrological characteristics and functions of this rarely studied transition zone. We studied 13 coastal British Columbia (BC) bogs and identified two different gradients in depth to water table, hydrochemistry and peat properties: (1) a local bog expanse-bog margin gradient, and (2) a regional gradient related to climate and proximity to the ocean. Depth to water table generally increased across the transition from bog expanse to bog margin. In the bog expanse, pH was above 4.2 in the Pacific Oceanic wetland region (cooler and wetter climate) and below 4.3 in the Pacific Temperate wetland region (warmer and drier climate). Both pH and pH-corrected electrical conductivity increased significantly across the transition from bog expanse to bog margin, though not in all cases. Na+ and Mg2+ concentrations were generally highest in exposed, oceanic bogs and lower in inland bogs. Ash content in peat samples increased across the bog expanse-bog margin transition, and appears to be a useful abiotic indicator of the location of the bog margin. The observed variation in the hydrological and hydrochemical gradients across the bog expanse-bog margin transition highlights both local and regional diversity of bogs and their associated laggs.

Howie, S. A.; van Meerveld, H. J.

2013-09-01

146

Regional and local patterns in depth to water table, hydrochemistry, and peat properties of bogs and their laggs in coastal British Columbia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In restoration planning for damaged raised bogs, the lagg at the bog margin is usually not given considerable weight and is sometimes disregarded entirely. However, the lagg is critical for the proper functioning of the restored bog, as it supports the water mound in the bog. In order to include the lagg in a restoration plan for a raised bog, it is necessary to understand the ecohydrological characteristics and functions of this transition zone. To this end, we studied 13 coastal British Columbia (BC) bogs and identified two different gradients in depth to water table, hydrochemistry, and peat properties: (1) a local bog expanse - bog margin gradient, and (2) a regional gradient related to climate and proximity to the ocean. Depth to water table generally increased across the transition from bog expanse to bog margin, but did not differ regionally. In the bog expanse, pH was above 4.2 in the Pacific Oceanic wetland region (cooler and wetter climate) and below 4.3 in the Pacific Temperate wetland region (warmer and drier climate). Both pH and pH-corrected electrical conductivity increased significantly across the transition from bog expanse to bog margin, though not in all cases. Sodium and magnesium concentrations were generally highest in exposed, oceanic bogs and lower in inland bogs. Ash content in peat samples increased across the bog expanse - bog margin transition, and appears to be a useful abiotic indicator of the location of the bog margin. These gradients highlight both local and regional diversity of bogs and their associated laggs. Knowledge of these gradients is critical if undisturbed bogs are used as templates for the restoration of damaged raised bogs.

Howie, S. A.; van Meerveld, H. J.

2013-03-01

147

Origin and fluxes of atmospheric REE entering an ombrotrophic peat bog in Black Forest (SW Germany): Evidence from snow, lichens and mosses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The fate of the Rare Earth Elements (REE) were investigated in different types of archives of atmospheric deposition in the Black Forest, Southern Germany: (1) a 70 cm snow pack collected on the domed part of a raised bog and representing 2 months of snow accumulation, (2) a snow sample collected close to the road about 500 m from the peat bog, (3) two species of lichens and (4) a peat profile representing 400 years of peat accumulation as well as a “preanthropogenic” sample and the living moss layer from the top of the core. REE concentrations in peat are significantly correlated to Ti which is a lithogenic conservative element suggesting that REE are immobile in peat bog environments. Snow, lichens and peat samples show similar PAAS (Post Archean Australian Shale) normalized REE distributions suggesting that the complete atmospheric REE signal is preserved in the peat profile. However, the annual flux of REE accumulated by the peat is ca. 10 times greater than that of the bulk winter flux of REE. This difference probably indicates that the REE concentrations in the snowpack are not representative of the average REE flux over the whole year. Despite the pronounced geological differences between this site (granite host-rock) and a previously studied peat bog in Switzerland (limestone host-rock) similar REE distribution patterns and accumulation rates were found at both sites. Given that both sites confirm an Upper Continental Crust signature, the data suggests both sites are influenced by regional and not local, soil-derived lithogenic aerosols.

Aubert, Dominique; Le Roux, Gaël; Krachler, Michael; Cheburkin, Andriy; Kober, Bernd; Shotyk, William; Stille, Peter

2006-06-01

148

Fate of silicate minerals in a peat bog  

SciTech Connect

An investigation of silicate weathering in a Minnesota mire indicates that quartz and aluminosilicates rapidly dissolve in anoxic, organic-rich, neutral-pH environments. Vertical profiles of pH, disolved silicon, and major cations were obtained at a raised bog and a spring fen and compared. Profiles of readily extractable silicon, diatom abundance, ash mineralogy, and silicate surface texture were determined from peat cores collected at each site. In the bog, normally a recharge mound, dissolved silicon increases with depth as pH increases, exceeding the background silicon concentration by a factor of two. Silicate grain surfaces, including quartz, are chemically etched at this location, despite being in contact with pore water at neutral pH with dissolved silicon well above the equilibrium solubility of quartz. The increasing silica concentrations at circum-neutral pH are consistent with a system where silicate solubility is influenced by silica-organic-acid complexes. Silica-organic-acid complexes therefore may be the cause of the almost complete absence of diatoms in decomposed peat and contribute to the formation of silica-depleted underclays commonly found beneath coal.

Bennett, P.C. (Univ. of Texas, Austin (USA)); Siegel, D.I.; Hill, B.M. (Syracuse Univ., NY (USA)); Glaser, P.H. (Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis (USA))

1991-04-01

149

Effects of a hydrological protection zone on the restoration of a raised bog: a case study from Northeast-Germany 1997–2008  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the changes of water level and vegetation in a restored cut-over raised bog in response to a hydrological\\u000a protection zone established around the bog. The restoration began 1997 and techniques involved ditch blocking within and around\\u000a the bog to stimulate a return to conditions of intact bog ecosystems. In order to monitor the rehabilitation of the raised\\u000a bog,

André Bönsel; Anne-Gesine Sonneck

2011-01-01

150

Atmospheric pollutants in alpine peat bogs record a detailed chronology of industrial and agricultural development on the Australian continent.  

PubMed

Two peat bogs from remote alpine sites in Australia were found to contain detailed and coherent histories of atmospheric metal pollution for Pb, Zn, Cu, Mo, Ag, As, Cd, Sb, Zn, In, Cr, Ni, Tl and V. Dramatic increases in metal deposition in the post-1850 AD portion of the cores coincide with the onset of mining in Australia. Using both Pb isotopes and metals, pollutants were ascribed to the main atmospheric pollution emitting sources in Australia, namely mining and smelting, coal combustion and agriculture. Results imply mining and metal production are the major source of atmospheric metal pollution, although coal combustion may account for up to 30% of metal pollutants. A novel finding of this study is the increase in the otherwise near-constant Y/Ho ratio after 1900 AD. We link this change to widespread and increased application of marine phosphate fertiliser in Australia's main agricultural area (the Murray Darling Basin). PMID:20061073

Marx, Samuel K; Kamber, Balz S; McGowan, Hamish A; Zawadzki, Atun

2010-01-12

151

Fate and Transport of Road Salt During Snowmelt Through a Calcareous Fen: Kampoosa Bog, Stockbridge, Massachusetts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Kampoosa Bog is the largest and most ecologically diverse calcareous lake-basin fen in Massachusetts. Situated within a 4.7 km2 drainage basin, the open fen (approx. 20 acres) consists of a floating mat of sedges (incl. Carex aquatilis and Cladium mariscoides) that overlie peat and lake clay deposits. Mineral weathering of marble bedrock within the drainage basin supplies highly alkaline ground and surface waters to the fen basin. The natural chemistry has been greatly altered by road salt runoff from the Massaschusetts Turnpike, and in question is whether disturbance from the Turnpike and a gas pipline has facilitated aggressive growth by the invasive species Phragmites australis. Considered to be one of the most significant rare species habitats in the state, Massachusetts has designated Kampoosa Bog an Area of Critical Environmental Concern, and a committee representing several local, regional, and state agencies, organizations, and citizens manages the wetland. The purpose of this study is to characterize the hydrologic and chemical response of the wetland during snowmelt events to understand the fate and movement of road salt (NaCl). Concentrations of Na and Cl in the fen groundwater are greatest close to the Turnpike. Concentrations decrease with distance downstream but are still greatly elevated relative to sites upstream of the Turnpike. During snowmelt events, the fen's outlet shows a sharp rise in Na and Cl concentrations at the onset of melting that is soon diluted by the added meltwater. The Na and Cl flux, however, is greatest at peak discharge, suggesting that high-flow events are significant periods of export of dissolved salts from the fen. Pure dissolution of rock salt produces an equal molar ratio between Na and Cl, and sodium and chloride imbalances in stream and ground waters suggest that ~20% of the Na is stored on cation exchange sites within the peat. The largest imbalances between Na and Cl occur deeper within the peat, where the peat is more compact and groundwater has a longer residence time. CEC measurements show that Ca>Mg>Na>K on exchange sites and suggest that Na in groundwater preferentially displaces Mg. Management questions to be addressed include what percentage of applied salt is flushed through the fen during snowmelt each year? How much salt is retained in the fen? For how long would salt concentrations remain elevated if salt application were to cease?

Rhodes, A. L.; Guswa, A. J.; Pufall, A.

2007-12-01

152

Cyclic climatic variations in climate over the past 5,500 yr reflected in raised bogs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Investigations of Danish raised bogs apparently indicate cyclic long term climatic variations with a periodicity of about 260 yr over the past 5,500 yr. The result could be used for modelling future climatic trends.

Bent Aaby

1976-01-01

153

Superfund at Work: Hazardous-waste cleanup efforts nationwide (Bog Creek Farm)  

SciTech Connect

The Superfund at Work bulletin series profiles hazardous waste cleanup efforts nationwide. This issue profiles the Bog Creek Farm site, a chicken farm in Howell Township, New Jersey, where chemical solvents and other wastes were dumped between 1973 and 1974.

Not Available

1992-01-01

154

Hydrogeologic Study of the Piney Branch Bog Watershed Charles County, Maryland.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document summarizes ERM's evaluation of the Piney Branch Bog in Charles County, Maryland. On behalf of the Maryland Department of Natural Resources (MDNR) Power Plant Research Program (PPRP) and The Nature Conservancy, Environmental Resources Managem...

M. Erbe R. Keating

2009-01-01

155

Tautatietoa turvesoiden jaelkikaeytoestae. (Background information of utilization of peat bogs after production).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This information booklet deals with possible ways of utilization of peat bogs after they have been removed from production. The booklet contain information on the present usage of peatlands. It also describes the possibilities to use old production fields...

1989-01-01

156

Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 2): Burnt Fly Bog, Marlboro Township, NJ., September 30, 1998.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This decision document presents the selected remedial action for the Westerly Wetlands, Northerly Wetlands, and Tar Patch Area at the Burnt Fly Bog Superfund Site. It addresses contaminated soil present on the three remaining contaminated areas on the Sit...

1999-01-01

157

High and dry or sunk and dunked: lessons for tallgrass prairies from quaking bogs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Northern Wisconsin bogs provide a natural experiment on butterfly population occurrence in a naturally highly fragmented vegetation\\u000a type, which may provide insight on conserving butterflies in anthropogenically fragmented and degraded landscapes. We surveyed\\u000a butterflies in bogs (about as unaffected by humans as possible, but naturally occurring over <1% of northern Wisconsin) primarily\\u000a during 2002–2009, with additional observations from 1986 to

Ann B. Swengel; Scott R. Swengel

2011-01-01

158

Carbon accumulation in soils of forest and bog ecosystems of southern Valdai in the Holocene  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbon stocks and accumulation rates in humus and peat horizons of the contiguous soil series of forest and bog ecosystems\\u000a have been studied in the Central Forest State Biosphere Reserve, Tver Region. Upland soil types (soddy podzolic, brown, and\\u000a white podzolic) have been compared to paludified (peat-enriched gley podzolic and peaty gley) and bog soils differing in trophic\\u000a status, including

T. Yu. Minayeva; S. Ya. Trofimov; O. A. Chichagova; E. I. Dorofeyeva; A. A. Sirin; I. V. Glushkov; N. D. Mikhailov; B. Kromer

2008-01-01

159

Preliminary survey of the peat-bog Hummell Knowe Moss using various numerical methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

(1)Hummell Knowe Moss is one of several fine and relatively undamaged peat bogs in northern England, close to the border with Scotland.(2)The central, eccentrically domed, mass of peat is ca 300×600 m, and much of this is 7 to 10 m deep.(3)A single profile has 8 m of bog peat overlying 2.5 m of Phragmites peat with seeds of Potamogeton

R. S. Clymo

1980-01-01

160

Macroinvertebrate assemblages in blackwater streams draining forest land and active and abandoned cranberry bogs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cranberry agriculture is a major land use in parts of the New Jersey Pinelands, USA. We compared the composition of genus-level\\u000a macroinvertebrate assemblages collected from three habitats (muck, vegetated muck, and woody debris) in 12 New Jersey Pinelands\\u000a blackwater streams draining forest, abandoned-cranberry bogs, and active-cranberry bogs and evaluated whether variations in\\u000a macroinvertebrate assemblages were related to differences in land

Robert A. Zampella; John F. Bunnell; Nicholas A. Procopio; Dean E. Bryson

2008-01-01

161

Extinction of fen and bog plants and their habitats in Croatia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the fens and bogs of Croatia have already been acknowledged as the nation’s most endangered habitats by Croatia’s\\u000a National Strategy on Biodiversity Protection, the situation continues to become worse rather than better. Fens and bogs are\\u000a still rapidly deteriorating and even disappearing. A primary factor appears to be changes in climate since original formation\\u000a of these peatlands, particularly in

JASENKA TOPIC ´; Zvjezdana Stan?i?

162

Extinction of Fen and Bog Plants and their Habitats in Croatia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the fens and bogs of Croatia have already been acknowledged as the nation’s most endangered habitats by Croatia’s\\u000a National Strategy on Biodiversity Protection, the situation continues to become worse rather than better. Fens and bogs are\\u000a still rapidly deteriorating and even disappearing. A primary factor appears to be changes in climate since original formation\\u000a of these peatlands, particularly in

JASENKA TOPIC ´; Zvjezdana Stan?i?

2006-01-01

163

Persistent versus transient tree encroachment of temperate peat bogs: effects of climate warming and drought events.  

PubMed

Peatlands store approximately 30% of global soil carbon, most in moss-dominated bogs. Future climatic changes, such as changes in precipitation patterns and warming, are expected to affect peat bog vegetation composition and thereby its long-term carbon sequestration capacity. Theoretical work suggests that an episode of rapid environmental change is more likely to trigger transitions to alternative ecosystem states than a gradual, but equally large, change in conditions. We used a dynamic vegetation model to explore the impacts of drought events and increased temperature on vegetation composition of temperate peat bogs. We analyzed the consequences of six patterns of summer drought events combined with five temperature scenarios to test whether an open peat bog dominated by moss (Sphagnum) could shift to a tree-dominated state. Unexpectedly, neither a gradual decrease in the amount of summer precipitation nor the occurrence of a number of extremely dry summers in a row could shift the moss-dominated peat bog permanently into a tree-dominated peat bog. The increase in tree biomass during drought events was unable to trigger positive feedbacks that keep the ecosystem in a tree-dominated state after a return to previous 'normal' rainfall conditions. In contrast, temperature increases from 1 °C onward already shifted peat bogs into tree-dominated ecosystems. In our simulations, drought events facilitated tree establishment, but temperature determined how much tree biomass could develop. Our results suggest that under current climatic conditions, peat bog vegetation is rather resilient to drought events, but very sensitive to temperature increases, indicating that future warming is likely to trigger persistent vegetation shifts. PMID:23526779

Heijmans, Monique M P D; van der Knaap, Yasmijn A M; Holmgren, Milena; Limpens, Juul

2013-04-18

164

Community assembly of Diptera following restoration of mined boreal bogs: taxonomic and functional diversity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Peat mining causes major degradation to bogs and natural regeneration of these sites is slow and often incomplete. Thus, restoration\\u000a is an important tool for re-establishing natural ecosystem properties (although perhaps not the original species pool) in\\u000a mined bogs. Because faunal recovery cannot be taken for granted following plant restoration, we assessed community assembly\\u000a of higher flies (Diptera: Brachycera) in

Amélie Grégoire Taillefer; TailleferTerry A. Wheeler

165

Mobility of trace metals in pore waters of two Central European peat bogs.  

PubMed

Vertical peat profiles can only be used as archives of past changes in pollution levels if atmogenic elements are immobile after their burial. For mobile elements, similar pore-water concentrations can be expected at different peat depths. Concentrations of Pb, Cu, Zn, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co and Cd were determined in surface bog water and bog pore water 40 cm below surface in two Sphagnum-dominated peat bogs in the Czech Republic. Velke jerabi jezero (VJJ) is an upland bog located in an industrial area, Cervene blato (CB) is a lowland bog located in a rural area. Metal concentrations were monitored seasonally over 3 years (2002--2005) at both sites. Higher concentrations of Pb, Cu, Zn, Cr and Cd and lower concentrations of Mn, Fe and Co were found at the less polluted CB compared to VJJ. No clear-cut seasonality was observed in metal concentrations in bog waters, despite seasonal differences in industrial emission rates of pollutants (more coal burning in winter than in summer). This contrasts with an earlier observation of distinct seasonality in sulfate concentration and isotope composition in these stagnating bog waters. Peat substrate 40 cm below current bog surface represented pre-industrial low-pollution environment, yet pore waters at such depths contained the same metal concentrations as surface waters. The only exception was Pb, whose concentration in water solutes increased with increasing depth. Lack of vertical stratification in pore-water contents of Cu, Zn, Cr, Mn, Fe and Co indicated vertical mobility of these metals. PMID:18302968

Novak, Martin; Pacherova, Petra

2008-03-04

166

Radionuclides in raised bogs: a case study of Bór za Lasem.  

PubMed

Bór za Lasem is a raised bog in the Orawsko-Nowotarska Valley (southern Poland). About half of the Bór za Lasem area has been exploited while the rest is undisturbed. Peat samples from both parts of the bog were analysed. Measurements of 137Cs, 134Cs, 239,240Pu, 238Pu, 40K, 228Ra, and 226Ra activity concentrations in all samples were performed. Comparison of the results of radiocaesium and plutonium activity concentrations reveals the highest activity concentrations of radionuclides in the undisturbed part of the peat-bog area. The radiocaesium content decreased with depth, whereas the plutonium concentration had a maximum value at a depth of 15-20 cm. The lowest activity concentrations were found in the exploited part of the bog. Potassium and radium isotopes were detected only in shallow openings within the heavily exploited part of the bog, which might suggest partial mixing of the peat with the mineral sub-soil. The growth rate of the top layer of the undisturbed part of the bog obtained from plutonium distribution was estimated as approximately 0.5 cm per year. PMID:11432272

Boro?, K J; Mietelski, J W; Lipka, K; Gaca, P; Jasi?ska, M

2001-06-01

167

Exploratory study of suspended sediment concentrations downstream of harvested peat bogs.  

PubMed

Peat bog harvesting is an important industry in many countries, including Canada. To harvest peat, bogs are drained and drainage water is evacuated towards neighboring rivers, estuaries or coastal waters. High suspended sediment concentrations (SSC) were found in the drainage water at one particular site during the 2001-2002 spring seasons in New Brunswick (Canada). The main objective of this study was to verify this observation at other sites, compare SSC levels leaving harvested peat bogs with those leaving an unharvested bog, and to determine if high SSC events happen only in Spring or all year round. Suspended sediment concentrations were monitored downstream of three harvested peat bogs and an unharvested reference bog located in New Brunswick during the ice free seasons of 2003-2004. On average, SSC at the harvested sites exceeded 25 mg/l, which is the recommended daily maximum concentration, 72% of the time, while the same concentration was exceeded 30% of the time at the unharvested sites. SSC were found to be significantly higher at harvested sites than at the reference sites for all seasons. The highest SSC medians were recorded in the Fall but SSC was elevated in all seasons. High SSC levels in receiving waters may be caused by field ditching activities and insufficient sediment controls. Findings suggest the NB Peat Harvesting 25 mg/l SSC guideline should be reviewed. PMID:17505907

Pavey, Bronwyn; Saint-Hilaire, André; Courtenay, Simon; Ouarda, Taha; Bobée, Bernard

2007-05-16

168

Responses of Bog Vegetation and CO2 Exchange to Experimental N and PK Addition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition has the potential to alter the structure and functioning of nutrient poor wetland ecosystems. It is important to quantify the effect of N input on ecosystem carbon (C) sequestration in these globally important C storages. We address this issue at the temperate Mer Bleue bog, ON, Canada. After 6 years of experimental fertilization, we saw that high N deposition can change mixed Sphagnum and dwarf shrub dominated communities to taller and denser dwarf shrub communities that are losing moss cover, and which might have even lower net C uptake. Now, after 8 years of fertilization and with new treatments we quantify the relationship between the plant community structure and ecosystem CO2 exchange. Three levels of N fertilization were applied with or without phosphorus and potassium (PK) into triplicate plots. We measured light saturated net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE), and its components ecosystem respiration and gross photosynthesis using clear and dark chambers (May-August). Vegetation characteristics were quantified by measuring foliage cover (LAI), amount of woody and foliar biomass, and abundance of moss species (point interception technique), moss growth (cranked wires) and green area of vascular leaves and moss. Addition of PK fertilizer did not alter NEE or its components relative to the control. The 8-year low N addition alone and with PK, and the 4-year fertilization with high N levels resulted in the highest net ecosystem CO2 uptake relative to the control. The ecosystem respiration increased with increasing N input rate. All levels of N fertilization resulted in higher gross photosynthesis than the control, but there was no increasing trend with increasing N input. Vascular foliage increased, while moss cover drastically decreased with increasing levels of N fertilization. At the highest level of N (and PK) addition woody biomass increased at the expense of leaf increment. Dependencies of ecosystem CO2 exchange on the vegetation structure will be inspected.

Juutinen, S.; Bubier, J. L.; Shrestha, P.; Smith, R.; Moore, T.

2008-12-01

169

The effects of aperiodic desiccation on the diversity of benthic desmid assemblages in a lowland peat bog  

Microsoft Academic Search

The lowland minerotrophic “Swamp” peat bog, located in the Czech Republic, is one of the most important European sites of\\u000a desmidiacean diversity. The hydrological regime of the bog is driven by the water level of a nearby ancient manmade pond.\\u000a Therefore, the bog experiences severe aperiodic drying events related to the pond draining. In this study, we investigated\\u000a the drought-related

Ji?í Neustupa; Kate?ina ?erná; Jan Št’astný

2011-01-01

170

Remedial Action Plan for stabilization of the inactive uraniferous lignite processing sites at Belfield and Bowman, North Dakota. Volume 2, Appendices D and E: Final report  

SciTech Connect

This appendix is an assessment of the present conditions relative to the inactive uraniferous lignite processing sites at Belfield and near Bowman, North Dakota. It consolidates available engineering, radiological, geotechnical, hydrological, and other information pertinent to the design of the Remedial Action Plan (RAP). The objective of the information is to characterize the conditions at the tailings sites so that the Remedial Action Contractor (RAC) may complete final design for stabilization of all contaminated materials.

Not Available

1990-12-01

171

Holocene Paleoclimate Reconstruction in Eastern Canada: Evidence from ?18O of plant cellulose from the Mer Bleue Bog, Ottawa, Ontario  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a 9000-year high resolution oxygen isotope composition of cellulose (?18Ocel) record from an ombrotrophic bog in Eastern Canada to demonstrate the potential of cellulose isotopic composition of plants from peat deposits as a proxy for paleoclimate reconstruction. We measured the ?18Ocel extracted from selected sphagnum constituent (plant macrofossils) collected from the Mer Bleue Bog. The results show that ?18Ocel follows the general trend of Holocene paleotemperature variation for this region through the last 9000 years and the Northern Hemisphere paleotemperature record for the last 2000 years. The ?18Ocel variations delineate three distinct intervals with low values corresponding to; 200 to 800 cal. yr. B.P. (Little Ice Age), 2800 to 3400 cal. yr. B.P. (similar to a cooling period reported in Western Canada and Ireland) and 4200 to 4600 cal. yr. B.P. These periods correspond well with the reconstructed Holocene sunspot numbers record based on the reconstructed 14C and 10Be based solar irradiance record. Low ?18Ocel values also occur during the well-known minima centered at about 1810 to 1820 year A.D. interval (Dalton Minimum/Tambora volcanic event). These finding suggest that solar activity may be a major forcing factor for paleotemperature variation in Eastern Canada. Time series analysis of the dataset indicates the presence of millennial scale cycles (1300 yr) comparable to the Dansgaard-Oeschger/Bond (~1500 yr) events recognized previously in paleoclimate records from around the world that have also been correlated to fluctuations in solar irradiance.

El Bilali, H.; Patterson, R.

2009-12-01

172

Water chemistry gradient in a degraded bog area.  

PubMed

Surface and ground water was sampled in a degraded bog area 36 times during 1993 - 2003 at Five representative points: point E (natural area with Sphagnum as the main vegetal cover), point W (boundary between the natural and degraded areas), point W' (area installed with vinyl sheeting), point WW (area where Sasa thrives), and point NC (area with naturally formed ditches). Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was conducted for parameters measured in surface water and ground water at 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0 m depths. "Sampling point" (i.e. locations along the degradation gradient) accounted for most of the variation in surface and ground water chemistry. It accounted for 30-80% of the total variation in pH, electrical conductivity, ammonia, dissolved nitrogen, major cations (Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+), alkalinity and dissolved organic carbon. "Year" accounted for more variation in nitrate, nitrite, chloride, and sulfate than the sampling point did, but the variation in dissolved reactive phosphorus and dissolved phosphorus concentrations was not based on any of the calculated variables. PMID:16594324

Iqbal, R; Akimoto, S; Tokutake, K; Inoue, T; Tachibana, H

2006-01-01

173

Assessment of the Encroachment of Woody Vegetation into Five Unforested Delmarva Bays and Five Coastal Plain Bogs by Analysis of Aerial Photography.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Delmarva bays and bogs are the most significant nontidal wetland habitats for rare plant species on Maryland's Coastal Plain. Bogs characteristically support low shrubs scattered throughout the herbaceous openings. Field observations by local naturalists ...

J. R. Modlin K. A. McCarthy

1992-01-01

174

Content and binding forms of heavy metals, aluminium and phosphorus in bog iron ores from Poland.  

PubMed

Bog iron ores are widespread in Polish wetland soils used as meadows or pastures. They are suspected to contain high concentrations of heavy metals, which are precipitated together with Fe along a redox gradient. Therefore, soils with bog iron ore might be important sources for a heavy metal transfer from meadow plants into the food chain. However, this transfer depends on the different binding forms of heavy metals. The binding forms were quantified by sequential extraction analysis of heavy metals (Fe, Mn, Cr, Co, Ni, Cd, Pb) as well as Al and P on 13 representative samples of bog iron ores from central and southwestern Poland. Our results showed total contents of Cr, Co, Ni, Zn, Cd, and Pb not to exceed the natural values for sandy soils from Poland. Only the total Mn was slightly higher. The highest contents of all heavy metals have been obtained in iron oxide fractions V (occluded in noncrystalline and poorly crystalline Fe oxides) and VI (occluded in crystalline Fe oxides). The results show a distinct relationship between the content of Fe and the quantity of Zn and Pb as well P. Water soluble as well as plant available fractions were below the detection limit in most cases. From this we concluded bog iron ores not to be an actual, important source of heavy metals in the food chain. However, a remobilization of heavy metals might occur due to any reduction of iron oxides in bog iron ores, for example, by rising groundwater levels. PMID:19398508

Kaczorek, Danuta; Brümmer, Gerhard W; Sommer, Michael

2009-04-27

175

Methane emission from bogs in the subtaiga of Western Siberia: The development of standard model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The methane emission from typical bog landscapes of the West Siberian subtaiga was studied in the summer-autumn of 2007-2010. The lowest specific fluxes (the median value is 0.08 mg C-CH4/m2 per h) were recorded from ryams (raised bogs with dwarf shrub-sphagnum associations). From the ridges of the ridge-pool complexes, the fluxes were estimated at 0.49 mg C-CH4/m2 per h; from the oligotrophic hollows, eutrophic bogs, floating lake mats, and mesotrophic quaking bogs, they were estimated at 2.68, 3.36, 4.53, and 4.98 mg C-CH4/m2 per h, respectively. The maximal flux was determined from the lakes (the median is 17.98 mg C-CH4/m2 per h). The regional assessment of the methane flux from the bogs of Western Siberia (2.93 Tg C-CH4/yr) was obtained on the basis of the authors' and literature data.

Glagolev, M. V.; Sabrekov, A. F.; Kleptsova, I. E.; Filippov, I. V.; Lapshina, E. D.; Machida, T.; Maksyutov, Sh. Sh.

2012-10-01

176

Holocene vegetation, climate and history of a raised bog complex, northern New Zealand based on palynology, plant macrofossils and tephrochronology  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Holocene history of vegetation, climate, and ombrogenous mire development is presented from pollen and plant macrofossil analyses of sediments at Kopouatai Bog, a large, raised, restiad bog in northern New Zealand. Tephra layers of established ages, supplemented by numerous radiocarbon dates, provide a secure chronology. The earliest peats, overlying last glacial sediments, and dated at c. 11700 radiocarbon years

R. M. Newnham; P. J. de Lange; D. J. Lowe

1995-01-01

177

Hydrology, Water Chemistry, and Vegetation Characteristics of a Tamarack Bog in Bath Township, Ohio: Towards Restoration and Enhancement1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current state of the Bath Tamarack Bog has raised concern about the health and function of the system. Only 6 tamarack (Larix laricina) trees remain, while deciduous trees, particularly red maple (Acer rubrum) and invasive species such as glossy buckthorn (Rhamnus frangula) and multiflora rose (Rosa multiflora), dominate the bog. Our purpose was to assess the physical, chemical, and

TARA E. MILETTI; CAMERON N. CARLYLE; CHRISTIAN R. PICARD; KATHLEEN M. MULAC; ADAM LANDAW; LAUCHLAN H. FRASER

178

Mat-water phosphorus exchange in an acid bog lake  

SciTech Connect

The exchange of phosphorus between a bog lake and its surrounding Sphagnum mat and the fate of mat phosphorus entering the limnetic zone of a lake were studied by means of a series of mat-labeling experiments using /sup 32/P, and by an analysis of water budgets of the lake and mat. A /sup 32/P solution applied directly to the Sphagnum produced a labeled soluble but biologically refractory phosphorus fraction which persisted in the lake at the initial concentration level for >16 d. Labeling the interstitial water of the mat directly with /sup 32/P produced a labeled particulate fraction which was biologically active and was quickly concentrated in the limnetic food web. Heavy rainfall flushed both labeled components into the lake. The pathway phosphorus takes to enter the lake from the mat was determined by temperature gradients in the mat and the degree of decomposition of the mat material. The maximum phosphorus concentrations in the mat were above a compacted zone at the 2-m depth. This maximum coincided with an open-water phosphorus maximum at 2 m, which indicated that there were frequent inputs of mat phosphorus to this stratum. The direction of net phosphorus movement was largely controlled by the water balance of the system. During periods of high precipitation, low temperatures, and low evapotranspiration, as was found in early spring, net phosphorus movement was toward the lake. During midsummer high evapotranspiration of the mat vegetation increased the storage capacity of the mat. This reduced phosphorus flow toward the lake so that net flow was often toward the mat. (JMT)

Hooper, F.F.; Morris, L.S.

1982-10-01

179

Environmental assessment of no remedial action at the inactive uraniferous lignite ashing sites at Belfield and Bowman, North Dakota  

SciTech Connect

The Belfield and Bowman sites were not included on the original congressional list of processing sites to be designated by the Secretary of Energy. Instead, the sites were nominated for designation by the Dakota Resource Council in a letter to the DOE (September 7, 1979). In a letter to the DOE (September 12, 1979), the state of North Dakota said that it did not believe the sites would qualify as processing sites under the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) because the activities at the sites involved only the ashing of uraniferous lignite coal and the ash was shipped out of state for actual processing. Nevertheless, on October 11, 1979, the state of North Dakota agreed to the designation of the sites because they met the spirit of the law (reduce public exposure to radiation resulting from past uranium operations). Therefore, these sites were designated by the Secretary of Energy for remedial action. Because of the relatively low health impacts determined for these sites, they were ranked as low priority and scheduled to be included in the final group of sites to be remediated.

NONE

1997-06-01

180

Water table related variations in the abundance of intact archaeal membrane lipids in a Swedish peat bog.  

PubMed

The presence and distribution of isoprenoid glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (GDGTs), lipids that constitute the membranes of Archaea, have been investigated in a 50-cm long core from a Swedish peat bog. In the acrotelm, the periodically water saturated and thus oxic upper layer of the peat bog, only minor amounts of GDGTs were found. These amounts increase considerably in the catotelm, the continuously water saturated and consequently anoxic lower layer of the peat bog. Based on earlier analyses of GDGTs in different settings and on 16S rDNA results from literature, these lipids are likely derived from methanogenic Archaea. Crenarchaeol, previously only found in marine settings and in fresh water lakes, has also been found in this peat bog. Contrary to the other GDGTs, crenarchaeol concentrations remain relatively constant throughout the peat core, suggesting that they are produced by Crenarchaeota thriving in the oxic part of the peat bog and possibly also in the anoxic part. PMID:15451100

Weijers, Johan W H; Schouten, Stefan; van der Linden, Marjolein; van Geel, Bas; Damsté, Jaap S Sinninghe

2004-10-01

181

Changing sources of respiration between a black spruce forest and thermokarst bog  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Permafrost thaw in lowland black spruce forests (Picea mariana) which develop into thermokarst bogs can alter ecosystem carbon balance through positive or negative feedbacks to climate warming. In this context, the responses of plant and soil microbial communities to permafrost thaw, and their roles in altered carbon balance, need to be understood. In addition, gross changes in microbial community composition, such as fungal:bacterial ratios and their temperature response functions, are poorly characterized in permafrost thaw experiments. In this study, we compared carbon fluxes between a lowland black spruce forest with intact permafrost and an adjacent thermokarst bog that developed 20-30 years ago located near the Bonanza Creek Experimental Forest in Alaska. We quantified net ecosystem exchange (NEE), ecosystem respiration (ER), and gross primary productivity (GPP) using flux autochambers, and partitioned sources of ecosystem respiration into autotrophic vs. heterotrophic sources using radiocarbon analysis of ecosystem and microbial respiration, and atmospheric CO2. We further partitioned microbial respiration into fungal vs. bacterial sources using substrate inhibition techniques. Preliminary results indicate that in mid summer of 2011 the thermokarst bog was a source of CO2 to the atmosphere. NEE data indicated that the black spruce understory was a source of CO2. However, because flux tower data showed that the black spruce ecosystem was actually a net sink, GPP by the black spruce trees must have been large. In the black spruce forest ER was dominated by plant respiration in the spring and by microbial respiration in the fall whereas in the thermokarst bog CO2 was derived from deeper soil C sources. Although microbial respiration was roughly balanced between fungi and bacteria in the black spruce forest, respiration was dominantly bacterial in the thermokarst bog. Our initial results show that thermokarst bogs are source of C to the atmosphere during summer, which seems linked to bacterial access to deep C sources.

Waldrop, M. P.; McFarland, J.; Czimczik, C. I.; Euskirchen, E. S.; Amendolara, T.; Scott, G. J.; Turetsky, M. R.; Harden, J. W.; McGuire, A. D.

2011-12-01

182

Modification of bog vegetation by power utility rights-of-way  

SciTech Connect

Wetland modification is strictly controlled by a number of state and federal statutes. This study documents the effects of construction and maintenance of power utility rights-of-way on shrub swamp-bog vegetation at Tewksbury, Massachusetts. While both activities cause at least temporary changes in natural vegetation, neither causes substantial long-term negative impact. Bog vegetation recovers naturally in four growing seasons from the effects of both activites. Such utility rights-of-way do not appear to be in conflict with the intent of wetland protection legislation.

Nickerson, N.H.; Thibodeau, F.R.

1984-10-01

183

Atmospheric lead and heavy metal pollution records from a Belgian peat bog spanning the last two millenia: human impact on a regional to global scale.  

PubMed

Europe has been continuously polluted throughout the last two millennia. During the Roman Empire, these pollutions were mainly from ore extraction and smelting across Europe. Then, during the Middle Ages and the Early times of Industrial revolution (i.e. 1750), these pollutions extended to coal burning and combustion engine. Belgian ombrotrophic peat bogs have proved an effective archive of these pollutants and provide the opportunity to reconstruct the history of atmospheric deposition in NW Europe. The results of recent and past trace metal accumulation and Pb isotopes from a one-meter peat core (in the Misten peat bog) have been derived using XRF and Nu-plasma MC-ICP-MS. Combined with (14)C and (210)Pb dates these data have enabled us to trace fluxes in anthropogenic pollution back to original Roman times. Several periods of well-known Pb pollution events are clearly recorded including the Early and Late Roman Empire, the Middle Ages and the second industrial revolution. Also recorded is the introduction of leaded gasoline, and more recently the introduction of unleaded gasoline. Lead isotopes in this site have also enabled us to fingerprint several regional and global sources of anthropogenic particles. PMID:17379271

De Vleeschouwer, François; Gérard, Laëtitia; Goormaghtigh, Catherine; Mattielli, Nadine; Le Roux, Gaël; Fagel, Nathalie

2007-03-26

184

Impact of chemigation on selected non-target aquatic organisms in cranberry bogs of British Columbia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chemigation is an alternate method of applying insecticides to cranberry bogs for the control of the blackheaded fireworm, Rhopobota naevana Hubner. This technique involves the injection of a pre-calculated concentration of an insecticide into the sprinkler irrigation system. The irrigation system delivers and distributes the chemical to the field via a network of underground PVC pipes. Rotating sprinkler heads are

M. T. Wan; R. G. Watts; D. J. Moul

1994-01-01

185

Ecological Succession of a Relict Central European Peat Bog and Variability of Its Insect Biodiversity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The isolated habitat of the Cervené Blato bog (South Bohemia, Czech Republic) and its relict insect fauna have been the subject of long-term monitoring. The species composition and abundance of Lepidoptera (light traps) and Coleoptera (pitfall traps) were monitored for 4 years (1994–1997) simultaneously on two sites – in the edaphic climax pine forest and in wetland successional habitats. The

Karel Spitzer; Aleš Bezd?k; Josef Jaroš

1999-01-01

186

Methanogen communities and Bacteria along an ecohydrological gradient in a northern raised bog complex.  

PubMed

Mires forming an ecohydrological gradient from nutrient-rich, groundwater-fed mesotrophic and oligotrophic fens to a nutrient-poor ombrotrophic bog were studied by comparing potential methane (CH(4)) production and methanogenic microbial communities. Methane production was measured from different depths of anoxic peat and methanogen communities were detected by detailed restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of clone libraries, sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. Potential CH(4) production changed along the ecohydrological gradient with the fens displaying much higher production than the ombrotrophic bog. Methanogen diversity also decreased along the gradient. The two fens had very similar diversity of methanogenic methyl-coenzyme M reductase gene (mcrA), but in the upper layer of the bog the methanogen diversity was strikingly lower, and only one type of mcrA sequence was retrieved. It was related to the Fen cluster, a group of novel methanogenic sequences found earlier in Finnish mires. Bacterial 16S rDNA sequences from the fens fell into at least nine phyla, but only four phyla were retrieved from the bog. The most common bacterial groups were Deltaproteobacteria, Verrucomicrobia and Acidobacteria. PMID:16156728

Juottonen, Heli; Galand, Pierre E; Tuittila, Eeva-Stiina; Laine, Jukka; Fritze, Hannu; Yrjälä, Kim

2005-10-01

187

Fire and Vegetation in a Temperate Peat Bog: Implications for the Management of Threatened Species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fire plays an important role in structuring wetland ecosystems, but previous studies of New Zealand wetlands have lacked adequate experimental controls. We investigated the effects of fire on the vege- tation of a New Zealand peat bog through analysis of microclimate patterns, vegetation change, and peat stratigraphy. We focused on the role of fire in sustaining threatened plant species such

David A. Norton; Peter J. De Lange

2003-01-01

188

Diurnal and seasonal variation of carbon dioxide exchange from a former true raised bog  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbon dioxide exchange was measured, using the eddy covariance technique, during a one and a half year period in 1994 and 1995. The measurements took place over a former true raised bog, characterized by a shallow peat layer and a vegetation dominated by Molinia caerulea. The growing season extended from May until late October, with a maximum LAI in August

JOOST P. NIEVEEN; COR. M. J. JACOBS; ADRIE F. G. JACOBS

1998-01-01

189

Manipulation of soil microbial community structure in bog and forest soils using chloroform fumigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chloroform fumigation was used to manipulate the composition of microbial communities as a means of investigating relationships between community structure and the functioning of soil processes. Soils from two upland sites, a coniferous forest and a peat bog were fumigated with chloroform for 2, 12, 24 or 72 h. Samples were then incubated at 20°C for 4 weeks to investigate

H. E. Dickens; J. M. Anderson

1999-01-01

190

Interannual variability in the peatland-atmosphere carbon dioxide exchange at an ombrotrophic bog  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eddy covariance measurements of net ecosystem carbon dioxide (CO2) exchange (NEE) were taken at an ombrotrophic bog near Ottawa, Canada from 1 June 1998 to 31 May 2002. Temperatures during this period were above normal except for 2000 and precipitation was near normal in 1998 and 1999, above normal in 2000, and well below normal in 2001. Growing period maximum

Peter M. Lafleur; Nigel T. Roulet; Jill L. Bubier; Steve Frolking; Tim R. Moore

2003-01-01

191

UV-SENSITIVE COMPLEX PHOSPHORUS: ASSOCIATION WITH DISSOLVED HUMIC MATERIALS AND IRON IN A BOG LAKE  

EPA Science Inventory

The concentration of UV-sensitive complex phosphorus compounds in water from an acid bog lake was linearly related to the concentration of dissolved high molecular weight humic material (DHM) both seasonally and diurnally. The first-order rate of photoreduction (Fe(+3) to Fe(+2) ...

192

Influence of water table on carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, and methane fluxes from taiga bog microcosms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydrological changes, particularly alterations in water table level, may largely overshadow the more direct effects of global temperature increase upon carbon cycling in arctic and subarctic wetlands. Frozen cores (n=40) of intact soils and vegetation were collected from a bog near Fairbanks, Alaska, and fluxes of COâ, CHâ, and Co in response to water table variation were studied under controlled

Dale W. Funk; E. R. Pullmann; Kim M. Peterson; Patrick M. Crill; W. D. Billings

1994-01-01

193

Peat bog restoration by floating raft formation: the effects of groundwater and peat quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary 1. A prerequisite for the restoration of desiccated bog remnants is rewetting the peat surface. Frequently in Europe, extensive areas are flooded in order to maximize water retention, and growth of peat mosses is often observed in the shallow zones. In deeper waters, regeneration appears to depend on whether residual peat will become buoyant and form floating rafts. 2.

Alfons J. P. Smolders; Hilde B. M. Tomassen; Leon P. M. Lamers; Bart P. Lomans; Jan G. M. Roelofs

2002-01-01

194

Energy fluxes and evaporation mechanisms in an Atlantic blanket bog in southwestern Ireland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water and energy fluxes control the development of northern peatlands and influence their carbon budget. Blanket bogs are peatlands that occur in temperate maritime regions where precipitation is much greater than evapotranspiration (ET). In this paper, five years (October 2002–September 2007) of ET and energy fluxes derived from eddy-covariance measurements were analyzed in the context of the predicted climate change

Matteo Sottocornola; Gerard Kiely

2010-01-01

195

Heavy Metal Distribution in Two Connecticut Wetlands: A Red Maple Swamp and a 'Sphagnum' Bog.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The vertical distribution of Zn, Cu, Pb, Ni, Mn, K, Na, N, Fe, and Al was studied in a series of peat cores taken from two Connecticut wetlands: a mesotrophic red maple swamp and an oligotrophic Sphagnum bog. In addition, water table fluctuation, sulfide ...

J. A. Laundre

1980-01-01

196

Spatial structure and persistence of methanogen populations in humic bog lakes.  

PubMed

Patterns of diversity within methanogenic archaea in humic bog lakes are quantified over time and space to determine the roles that spatial isolation and seasonal mixing play in structuring microbial populations. The protein encoding gene mcrA is used as a molecular marker for the detection of fine-scale differences between methanogens in four dimictic bog lakes in which the water column is mixed twice a year and one meromictic lake that is permanently stratified. Although similar sequences are observed in each bog lake, each lake has its own characteristic set of persisting sequence types, indicating that methanogen populations are delimited either by low migration between the anaerobic hypolimnia or by lake-specific selection. The meromictic lake is differentiated from all other lakes and contains sequences with a higher degree of microdiversity than the dimictic lakes. By relating the structure of diversity to the depth of each bog lake, we propose the hypothesis that the deeper parts of the water column favor microdiversification of methanogens, whereas the periodically disturbed water column of shallower dimictic lakes promote genetically more diverse methanogen communities. PMID:20182522

Milferstedt, Kim; Youngblut, Nicholas D; Whitaker, Rachel J

2010-02-25

197

Simulation of the annual water table dynamics of a floodplain wetland, Narborough Bog, UK  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the simulation of a succession of annual hydro-periods describing water table variations in a British floodplain wetland, Narborough Bog. This is achieved through the application of a model, developed using MODFLOW, which requires inputs of weekly precipitation, evapotranspiration and river stage. The model reproduces the observed temporal variation in the wetland water tables illustrating the range in

C. Bradley

2002-01-01

198

Soil–Methanogen Interactions in Two Peatlands (Bog, Fen) in Central New York State  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rates of methanogenesis vary widely in peat soils, yet the reasons are poorly known. We examined rates of methanogenesis and methanogen diversity in relation to soil chemical and biological characteristics in 2 peatlands in New York State. One was an acidic (pH < 4.5) bog dominated by Sphagnummosses and ericaceous shrubs, although deeper peat was derived from sedges. The other

Mark D. Dettling; Joseph B. Yavitt; Hinsby Cadillo-Quiroz; Christine Sun; Stephen H. Zinder

2007-01-01

199

Lake or bog? Reconstructing baseline ecological conditions for the protected Galápagos Sphagnum peatbogs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper documents the first 10,000 year old plant macrofossil record of vegetation changes on the central island of Santa Cruz, providing information on Sphagnum bog vegetation patterns, local extinction of key taxa, and temporal successions in the Galápagos humid highlands. Vegetation change is reconstructed through examination of Holocene sedimentary sequences obtained from three Sphagnum bogs located within volcanic caldera forming the high elevation central ridge system of Santa Cruz Island. Results indicate that these specialized Sphagnum bog ecosystems are dynamic and have undergone considerable changes in vegetation composition, transitioning from diverse hygrophilous herbs and submerged aquatic ecosystems to drier Sphagnum/Pteridium bog systems, during the last 10,000 cal yr BP. Additionally a new aquatic genus previously undocumented on the islands, Elatine, was discovered at two of the study sites, but it is now extinct on the archipelago. Some of the observed vegetation successions may have been driven by climatic shifts occurring within the eastern equatorial Pacific (EEP). Other drivers including anthropogenic change are also considered significant over the last hundred years, placing strain on this naturally dynamic system. This study helps reveal patterns of change in the humid highlands over the last 10,000 cal yr BP regarding vegetation variability, climatic shifts, the historical influence of fire, tortoise disturbance, and recent anthropogenic impacts on the island.

Coffey, Emily E. D.; Froyd, Cynthia A.; Willis, Katherine J.

2012-10-01

200

Peat bog Records of Atmospheric Dust fluxes - Holocene palaeoenvironmental and paleoclimatic implications for South America  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Little attention has been given to pre-anthropogenic signals recorded in peat bogs, especially in the Southern Hemisphere. Yet they are important to 1/ better understand the different particle sources during the Holocene and 2/ to tackle the linkage between atmospheric dust loads and climate change and 3/ to better understand the impact of dust on Holocene palaeoclimate and palaeoenvironments in a critical area for ocean productivity. In the PARAD project, we will explore the use of a broad range of trace elements and radiogenic isotopes (Pb, Nd, Hf) as dust proxies. Coupling these findings with biological proxies (plant macrofossils, pollen) and detailed age-depth modelling, we expect not only to identify and interpret new links between atmospheric dust chemistry and climate change. In this contribution, we will present the preliminary results on two peat records of natural atmospheric dust using the elemental and isotopic signature in Tierra del Fuego. Preliminary results on two peat sections covering the Holocene (Karukinka Bog, Chile, 8kyrs and Harberton bog, Argentina, 14kyrs) will be discussed. This encompasses density, ash content, elemental and isotopic geochemistry, macrofossil determination and radiocarbon dating. More specifically, Karukinka bog display several mineral peaks, which possible origin (soil particles, volcanism, cosmogenic dusts, marine aerosols…) will be discussed here as well as in Vanneste et al. (this conference, session Aeolian dust: Initiator, Player, and Recorder of Environmental Change).

De Vleeschouwer, François; Vanneste, Heleen; Bertrand, Sébastien; Coronata, Andrea; Gaiero, Diego; Le Roux, Gael

2013-04-01

201

A probe for sampling interstitial waters of stream sediments and bog soils  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A probe for sampling interstitial waters of stream sediments and bog soils is described. Samples can be obtained within a stratigraphic interval of 2-3 cm, to a depth of 60-80 cm, and with little or no contamination of the samples by sediment or air. ?? 1974.

Nowlan, G. A.; Carollo, C.

1974-01-01

202

Water budget and surface-layer water storage in a Sphagnum bog in central Sweden  

Microsoft Academic Search

A water budget was established for the open, undisturbed bog Stormossen, central Sweden, for the growing seasons of 1996 and 1997 as a part of the NOPEX project. The water budget was complemented with data on the spatial variation of groundwater levels and water contents in different microrelief elements (ridge, hollow and ridge margin). The seasonal (24 May to 4

Erik Kellner; Sven Halldin

2002-01-01

203

Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 2): Burnt Fly Bog Superfund Site, Marlboro Township, Monmouth County, New Jersey (second remedial action) September 1988  

SciTech Connect

The Burnt Fly Bog site is located in Marlboro Township, Monmouth County, New Jersey. The area is affected by contamination from the 10-acre parcel where waste was originally deposited (Uplands Area Operable Unit). The site includes both flood plains and wetlands. Contamination has been detected in the surface water, surface soil, and the shallow subsurface soil as a result of uncontrolled discharges and runoff from the Uplands Area waste sources. The Uplands Area includes several abandoned oil storage and treatment lagoons containing residual oil sludges and aqueous wastes, contaminated waste piles, and buried or exposed drummed wastes. The primary contaminants of concern affecting the surface water, soil and sediments are PCBs and lead. The selected remedial action for the site is included.

Not Available

1988-09-29

204

Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 2): Bog Creek Farm, Howell Township, New Jersey, September 1985. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The twelve-acre Bog Creek Farm is located in Howell Township, Monmouth County, New Jersey. The site consists of a four-acre disposal area, a manmade pond and a dike. Bog Creek Farm was purchased in June 1973 by Western Ranch Corporation, an entity owned by Fred and Margaret Barry. It is alleged that in 1973 and 1974 the Barry's dumped wastes at Bog Creek Farm generated from a paint manufacturing operation that they owned. These wastes, reportedly bulk liquids and sludges, were dumped on the ground and in a trench. Samples of the wastes taken during the RI confirmed the presence of a wide variety of organic compounds and heavy metals. Total Volatile Organic (TVO) concentrations in the soil were found as high as 44,000 ppm. The pond and a bog which lies just east of the site are particularly contaminated with TVO concentrations as high as 23 ppm and 494 ppm, respectively.

Not Available

1985-09-30

205

Species composition and structure of testate amoebae community in a sphagnum bog at the initial stage of its formation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total of 42 species and forms have been revealed in the testate amoebae community of a transitional bog at the initial stage\\u000a of transformation into a typical sphagnum bog. A distinctive features of its species composition is dominance of widespread\\u000a species Assulina muscorum, Arcella arenaria, Phryganella hemisphaerica, and Euglypha laevis in the absence of common sphagnobionts of the genera

Yu. A. Mazei; O. A. Bubnova

2007-01-01

206

Saturation of raised bog peat exchange sites by Pb 2+ and Al 3+ stimulates CH 4 production  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the effect of cation treatments on methanogenic activity and nutrient release from exchange sites in raised bog and fen peats. Treatments consisted of cation chloride solutions (MgCl2, AlCl3 and PbCl2) applied individually. In raised bog peat Al3+ and Pb2+ increased CH4 production. A correlation was found between CH4 production and the amount of micro- and macronutrient cations released by

Sébastien Gogo; Deborah M. E. Pearce

2009-01-01

207

Peat and water chemistry at Big Run Bog, a peatland in the Appalachian mountains of West Virginia, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

At Big Run Bog, aSphagnum-dominated peatland in the unglaciated Appalachian Plateau of West Virginia, significant spatial variation in the physical and chemical properties of the peat and in surface and subsurface (30 cm deep) water chemistry was characterized. The top 40 cm of organic peat at Big Run Bog had average values for bulk density of 0.09 g · cm?3,

R. Kelman Wieder

1985-01-01

208

Aboveground peat and carbon accumulation potentials along a bog-fen-marsh wetland gradient in southern boreal Alberta, Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

Production-to-decomposition quotients and asymptotic limits of peat accumulation were determined to estimate peat and carbon\\u000a accumulation potentials along a bog-fen-marsh wetland gradient in southern boreal Alberta. The wetlands were a bog, a poor\\u000a fen (PF), a wooded moderate-rich fen (WRF), a lacustrine sedge fen (LSF), a riverine sedge fen (RSF), a riverine marsh (RM),\\u000a and a lacustrine marsh (LM). First

Markus N. Thormann; Anthony R. Szumigalski; Suzanne E. Bayley

1999-01-01

209

Methane in an acidic bog lake: The influence of peat in the catchment on the biogeochemistry of methane  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   Methanogenesis, an anaerobic microbial process in sediments, was investigated in a naturally acidic bog lake, Grosse Fuchskuhle,\\u000a in northeastern Germany. The lake was artificially divided into four sub-basins: two western basins receiving humic substances\\u000a from an adjacent Sphagnum bog and two eastern basins isolated from this acidic inflow with installed curtains. Within the northeast (NE) and southwest\\u000a (SW) basin

Peter Casper; On Chim Chan; Andre L. S. Furtado; Donald D. Adams

2003-01-01

210

A comparative study of peat proxies from two eastern central Swedish bogs and their relation to meteorological data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Analyses of peat humification, testate amoebae, carbon and nitrogen content have been carried out on a peat sequence from Ältabergsmossen. At Gullbergbymossen testate amoebae and peat humification were analysed. Both bogs are located in eastern central Sweden. The longest sequence, Ältabergsmossen, covers the last 150 yr and the data from Gullbergbymossen covers the last 60 yr, both with a time resolution of ca. 2-4 yr cm-1. The different proxies were compared to each other and were also compared to instrumental meteorological data. Correlation between peat humification and C/N ratios is high whereas the correlation is low between these physical/chemical parameters and reconstructed water tables inferred from the testate amoebae assemblages. High peat humification values and C/N ratios greater than 50 indicate aerobic decay and are thought to reflect the thickness of the acrotelm. High humification values and low C/N ratios are recorded in peat deposited between 1965 and 1980, whereas the dry period starts in the early 1970s according to instrumental meteorological data and inferred water-table depth. The difference in the timing of the onset of a dry-shift between the physical/chemical proxies and meteorological data and testate amoebae derived water table changes is interpreted as renewed decay of already deposited peat. The term secondary decomposition is used for this process. The secondary decomposition process has implications for interpreting physical/chemical and biological parameters in peat as they may be out of phase during the beginning of a dry-shift.

Borgmark, Anders; Schoning, Kristian

2006-02-01

211

Investigation of gas exchange processes in peat bog ecosystems by means of innovative Raman gas spectroscopy.  

PubMed

Highly sensitive Raman gas spectroscopy is introduced for simultaneous real time analysis of O(2), CO(2), CH(4), and N(2) in order to elucidate the dynamics of greenhouse gases evolving from climate-sensitive ecosystems. The concentrations and fluxes of this suite of biogenic gases were quantified in the head space of a water-saturated, raised peat bog ecotron. The intact peat bog, exhibiting various degradation stages of peat and sphagnum moss, was exposed to various light regimes in order to determine important ecosystem parameters such as the maximum photosynthesis rate of the sphagnum as well as the extent of soil and plant respiration. Miniaturized Raman gas spectroscopy was proven to be an extremely versatile analytical technique that allows for onsite multigas analysis in high temporal resolution. Therefore it is an urgently needed tool for elucidation of complex biochemical processes especially in climate-sensitive ecosystems and consequently for the estimation of climate-relevant gas budgets. PMID:23320649

Frosch, Torsten; Keiner, Robert; Michalzik, Beate; Fischer, Bernhard; Popp, Jürgen

2013-01-15

212

Major and trace element distribution in the peat from ombrotrophic bogs in Latvia.  

PubMed

This study was undertaken to analyse major and trace elements and the nature of their accumulation in peat, with a particular emphasis on peat properties and the impact of local and regional pollution sources on the character of element accumulation in ombrotrophic bogs in Latvia. The element concentration values in peat from Latvia reflect the local processes that affect element concentrations in the peat mass, indicating accumulation of trace elements - apparently of anthropogenic origin (Pb, Cd, Co, Ni and others) - in the upper layers of the peat profiles. In addition, they indicate accumulation of several elements (for example, As, Cr and others) in deeper layers of bog, possibly due to the feeding pattern, depending on the saturation of the groundwater. PMID:21644161

Silamikele, I; Klavins, M; Nikodemus, O

2011-01-01

213

Influence of peat-bog fire on physical properties of peat-mull soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years in Poland disseminated the curse of grassland (either peat meadows) burning. Peat-bogs drained long time ago, where peat-mull soils occur are subjected on fire in particular, because they are often dried. After burned peat remain pits various depth and land irregularity. The aim of the work is morphological characteristics of soil profiles and comparison of chosen physical properties of peat-mull soils on former fire and adjacent area. Research was carried out on the mid-forest peat-bog Wielkie Bloto in Puszcza Niepolomicka. The method used in the work is routinely accepted in soil science. The results show that values of ash content, density and moisture are higher than the ones for soils of adjacent areas. In top stratum of post fire soils bulk density is lower in comparison with upper layers of adjacent soils. Contractility of soils degraded by fire is lower than for soils of adjacent areas.

Stabryla, J.; Lipka, K.

2009-04-01

214

Notes on the natural history of the bog turtle, Clemmys muhlenbergi (Schoepff), in Delaware  

Microsoft Academic Search

Field work on the bog turtle,Clemmys muhlenbergi (Schoepff), was carried out in Delaware from June 1971 to February 1974. It is now known in this state from more than 44\\u000a specimens from 11 localities in the Piedmont and Coastal Plain. Populations are known to occur at 4 localities and extensive\\u000a field work was carried out at 3 of these. Data

Rudolf G. Arndt

1977-01-01

215

Desiccation and product accumulation constrain heterotrophic anaerobic respiration in peats of an ombrotrophic temperate bog  

Microsoft Academic Search

To gain insight into the effects of drying and rewetting events on anaerobic respiration in ombrotrophic peat soils, we investigated bacterial sulfate (SO4) reduction and methane (CH4) production in anaerobic incubations of intact peat microcores from 30 to 40cm depth of Mer Bleue bog, Ontario\\/Canada. Concentrations of dissolved SO4, carbon dioxide (CO2), CH4, acetate, and hydrogen (H2) were recorded and

Tobias Goldhammer; Christian Blodau

2008-01-01

216

Zooplankton in hollow-pools (using raised bogs in Vologda oblast, Russia, as an example)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data on the biodiversity, structure, and seasonal dynamics of zooplankton communities in hollowpools of raised bogs in Vologda\\u000a oblast are presented for the first time. The fauna of zooplankton communities in hollow-pools totals 38 species of plankton\\u000a invertebrates (Rotatoria, 12; Cladocera, 19; and Copepoda, 7), and is mainly presented by acidophilic and sphagnophilic species.\\u000a The water bodies are characterized by

E. V. Lobunicheva; D. A. Philippov

2011-01-01

217

Seasonal variation in nitrogen isotopic composition of bog plant litter during 3 years of field decomposition  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we describe the seasonal variation in 15N abundance in the litter of two Sphagnum species and four vascular plant species during 3 years of field decomposition in an Italian Alpine bog. Litter bags were\\u000a periodically retrieved at the end of summer and winter periods, and the ?15N in residual litter was related to mass loss, litter chemistry, and

Luca Bragazza; Paola Iacumin; Chiara Siffi; Renato Gerdol

2010-01-01

218

Role of cation exchange in preventing the decay of anoxic deep bog peat  

Microsoft Academic Search

The major bog systems in northern areas are dominated by Sphagnum species, the partially decomposed remains of which form the bulk of deep peat. By adding mono- and di-valent cations to deep peat cores (2.0–2.5 m) and measuring CH4 and CO2 concentrations in the manipulated peat cores using quadrupole mass spectrometry (QMS) we demonstrate that the lack of availability to

Paul A. Thomas; Deborah M. E. Pearce

2004-01-01

219

Seasonal variation in carbon isotopic composition of bog plant litter during 3 years of field decomposition  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we describe the seasonal variation in 13C abundance in the litter of two Sphagnum species and four vascular plant species during 3 years of field decomposition in an Italian alpine bog. Litter bags were\\u000a periodically retrieved at the end of summer and winter periods, and the ?13C in residual litter was related to mass loss, litter chemistry, and

Luca Bragazza; Paola Iacumin

2009-01-01

220

UV-sensitive complex phosphorus: association with dissolved humic material and iron in a bog lake  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concentration of UV-sensitive complex phosphorus compounds in water from an acid bog lake was linearly related to the concentration of dissolved high molecular weight humic material (DHM) both seasonally and diurnally. The first-order rate of photoreduction (Fe\\/sup 3 +\\/ to Fe\\/sup 2 +\\/) of DHM iron equaled the rate of release of orthophosphate (SRP) from these compounds. The rate

DAVID A. FRANCKO; ROBERT T. HEATH

1982-01-01

221

Phylogenetic Analysis and In Situ Identification of Bacteria Community Composition in an Acidic Sphagnum Peat Bog  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Bacteria community composition in an acidic Sphagnum peat bog (pH 3.9 to 4.5) was characterized by a combination of 16S rRNA gene clone library analysis, rRNA-targeted fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), and cultivation. Among 84 environmental 16S rRNA gene clones, a set of only 16 cloned sequences was closely related (>95% similarity) to taxonomically described organisms. Main groups of

Svetlana N. Dedysh; Timofei A. Pankratov; Svetlana E. Belova; Irina S. Kulichevskaya; Werner Liesack

2006-01-01

222

Genetic erosion in habitat specialist shows need to protect large peat bogs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The specialized fauna of peat bogs declines strongly both in species numbers and population density and becomes fragmented\\u000a because of anthropogenic land use changes. We investigated 15 populations of the stenotopic ground beetle species Agonum ericeti in south Sweden to address the question of reduced genetic variability in populations inhabiting smaller habitat patches.\\u000a Our results reveal a generally low differentiation

Claudia Drees; Pascale Zumstein; Thorsten Buck-Dobrick; Werner Härdtle; Andrea Matern; Hartmut Meyer; Goddert von Oheimb; Thorsten Assmann

223

The stratigraphy and development of a floating peatland, Pinhook Bog, Indiana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pinhook Bog is an acidic, weakly-minerotrophic peatland that occupies an iceblock depression in the Valparaiso Moraine in\\u000a northwest Indiana. It has a floating mat approximately 22 ha in area but no central pond. Detailed stratigraphic descriptions\\u000a of the peatland were made to analyze its developmental history and determine what factors may be responsible for mat formation.\\u000a Stratigraphic data along four

Douglas A. Wilcox; Howard A. Simonin

1988-01-01

224

Hydrology, Water Chemistry and Ecological Relations in the Raised Mound of Cowles Bog  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Cowles Bog National Natural Landmark and the wetlands between the dunes near the south shore of Lake Michigan, in Indiana, contain plant species that are typical of circum-neutral fens. The distribution of eight, rather sharply delineated, vegetation types correlates most strongly with water level variations resulting from the presence of a 4.1-ha convex peat mound. A network of shallow

Douglas A. Wilcox; Robert J. Shedlock; William H. Hendrickson

1986-01-01

225

Properties and structure of peat humic acids depending on humification and precursor biota in bogs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Humic substances form most of the organic component of soil, peat and natural waters, but their structure and properties very much differs depending on their source. The aim of this study is to characterize humic acids from raised bog peat profiles to evaluate the homogeneity of humic acids isolated from the bog bodies and study peat humification impact on properties of humic acids. A major impact on the structure of peat humic acids have raised bog biota (dominantly represented by bryophytes of different origin) void of lignin. For characterization of peat humic acids their elemental (CHNOS), functional (-COOH, phenolic OH) analysis, spectroscopic characterization (UV, fluorescence, FTIR, 1H NMR, CP/MAS 13C NMR, ESR) and degradation studies (Py-GC/MS) were done. Peat humic acids (HA) have an intermediate position between the living organic matter and coal organic matter and their structure is formed in a process in which more labile structures (carbohydrates, amino acids, etc.) are destroyed, but thermodynamically more stable aromatic and polyaromatic structures emerge. Comparatively, the studied peat HAs are at the start of the transformation process of living organic matter. Concentrations of carboxyl and phenolic hydroxyl groups changes depending on the depth of peat from which HAs have been isolated: and carboxylic acidity is increasing with depth of peat location and the humification degree. The ability to influence the surface tension of peat humic acids isolated from a well-characterized bog profile demonstrates dependence on age and humification degree. With increase of the humification degree and age of humic acids, their molecular complexity and ability to influence surface tension decreases; even so, the impact of the biological precursor (peat-forming bryophytes and plants) can be identified.

Klavins, Maris; Purmalis, Oskars

2013-04-01

226

[Detection of representatives of the Planctomycetes in Sphagnum peat bogs by molecular and cultivation methods].  

PubMed

By means of fluorescence in situ hybridization with 16S rRNA-targeted oligonucleotide probes (FISH), it has been shown that members of the phylum Planctomycetes represent a numerically significant bacterial group in boreal Sphagnum peat bogs. The population size of planctomycetes in oxic layers of the peat bog profile was in the range of 0.4-2.0 x 10(7) cells per g of wet peat, comprising 4 to 13% of the total bacterial cell number. A novel effective approach that combined a traditional cultivation technique with FISH-mediated monitoring of the target organism during the isolation procedure has been developed for the isolation of planctomycetes. Using this approach, we succeeded in isolating several peat-inhabiting planctomycetes in a pure culture. Sequencing of the 16S rRNA genes from two of these isolates, strains A10 and MPL7, showed that they belonged to the planctomycete lineages defined by the genera Gemmata and Planctomyces, respectively. The 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity between strains A10 and MPL7 and the phylogenetically closest organisms, namely, Gemmata obscuriglobus and Planctomyces limnophilus, was only 90%. These results suggest that the indigenous planctomycetes inhabiting Sphagnum peat bogs are so far unknown organisms. PMID:16871807

Kulichevskaia, I S; Pankratov, T A; Dedysh, S N

227

Carbon balance of a European mountain bog at contrasting stages of regeneration.  

PubMed

Carbon dioxide and methane (CH4) fluxes were measured in a cutover bog of the Jura Mountains (France) together with biotic and abiotic variables for two entire vegetation periods in order to compare the carbon balance of the bog at three stages of regeneration. Among all factors, air temperature and vegetation index (including leaf area of vascular plants, bryophyte density and bryophyte desiccation) were the two main determinants of ecosystem respiration and gross photosynthesis at light saturation. During 2004 and 2005, the vegetated plots acted as carbon sinks. Net carbon exchange ranged between 67 and 166 g C m(-2) yr(-1) for the Eriophorum-dominated plots and between 93 and 183 g C m(-2) yr(-1) for the Sphagnum-dominated plots. The bare peat plots represented a net carbon source (between -19 and -32 g C m(-2) yr(-1)). Methane fluxes accounted for a very small part of the total carbon efflux (< 2%). The recovery of vegetation in our naturally regenerating bog was beneficial for the carbon sequestration after the relatively short period of 20 yr. PMID:17096796

Bortoluzzi, Estelle; Epron, Daniel; Siegenthaler, Andy; Gilbert, Daniel; Buttler, Alexandre

2006-01-01

228

Ectomycorrhizal fungal community structure across a bog-forest ecotone in southeastern Alaska.  

PubMed

We examined the ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungal community across a bog-forest ecotone in southeastern Alaska. The bog and edge were both characterized by poorly drained Histosols and a continuous layer of Sphagnum species, ericaceous shrubs, Carex species, and shore pine [Pinus contorta Dougl. ex Loud. var. contorta]. The forest had better-drained Inceptisols and Spodosols, a tree community comprised of western hemlock [Tsuga heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg.], yellow cedar (Thuja plicata Donn ex D. Don.), Sitka spruce [Picea sitchensis (Bong.) Carr.] and shore pine, and an understorey of ericaceous shrubs and herbs. ECM root tip density (tips cm(-3) soil) was significantly greater in the forest than the edge or bog and ECM colonization was significantly different in all three plant communities. The below ground ECM fungal taxa were analyzed using molecular techniques (PCR-RFLP and DNA sequencing). Three ECM fungal taxa, Suillus tomentosus (Kauffman) Singer, Cenococcum geophilum Fr.:Fr, and a Russula species, differed in relative frequency, yet were among the four most frequent in all three plant communities. Although differences in ECM fungal richness were observed across plant communities, unequal sampling of ECM roots due to root density and colonization differences confounded richness comparisons. Using resampling procedures for creating taxon-accumulation curves as a function of sampled ECM roots revealed similarities in cumulative ECM fungal taxa richness across the ecotone. PMID:14999551

Wurzburger, Nina; Hartshorn, Anthony S; Hendrick, Ronald L

2004-03-04

229

Towards a conceptual model of hydrological change on an abandoned cutover bog, Quebec  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cutover bogs do not return to functional peatland ecosystems after abandonment because re-establishment of peat-forming mosses is poor. This paper presents a conceptual model of bog disturbance caused by peat harvesting (1942-1972), and the hydrological evolution that occurred after abandonment (1973-1998). Two adjacent bogs of similar size and origin, one harvested and the other essentially undisturbed, provide the basis for understanding what changes occurred. The model is based on historical trends evident from previous surveys of land-use, bog ecology and resource mapping; and from recent hydrological and ecological data that characterize the current condition. Water balance data and historical information suggest that runoff increased and evapotranspiration decreased following drainage, but tended towards pre-disturbance levels following abandonment, as vegetation recolonized the surface and drainage became less efficient over time. Dewatering of soil pores after drainage caused shrinkage and oxidation of the peat and surface subsidence of approximately 80 cm over 57 years. Comparisons with a nearby natural bog suggest that bulk density in the upper 50 cm of cutover peat increased from 0·07 to 0·13 g cm-3, specific yield declined from 0·14 to 0·07, water table fluctuations were 67% greater, and mean saturated hydraulic conductivity declined from 4·1 × 10-5 to 1·3 × 10-5 cm s-1. More than 25 years after abandonment, Sphagnum mosses were distributed over broad areas but covered less than 15% of the surface. Areas with good Sphagnum regeneration (>10% cover) were strongly correlated with high water tables (mean -22 cm), especially in zones of seasonal groundwater discharge, artefacts of the extraction history. Forest cover expanded from 5 to 20% of the study area following abandonment. The effect of forest growth (transpiration and interception) and drainage on lowering water levels eventually will be countered by slower water movement through the increasingly dense soil, and by natural ditch deterioration. However, without management intervention, full re-establishment of natural hydrological functions will take a very long time.

van Seters, Tim E.; Price, Jonathan S.

2002-07-01

230

Remedial Action Plan for stabilization of the inactive uraniferous lignite processing sites at Belfield and Bowman, North Dakota. Volume 1, Text, Appendices A through C: Final report  

SciTech Connect

This remedial action plan (RAP) has been developed to serve a threefold purpose. It presents the series of activities that are proposed by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to accomplish long-term stabilization and control of radioactive materials at the inactive uraniferous lignite processing sites at Belfield and near Bowman (at the former Griffin town site), North Dakota. It provides a characterization of the present conditions of the sites. It also serves to document the concurrence of the state of North Dakota and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in the remedial action. This agreement, upon execution by the DOE and the state of North Dakota and concurrence by the NRC, becomes Appendix B of the Cooperative Agreement.

Not Available

1990-12-01

231

Fate of N in a peatland, Whim bog: N immobilisation in the vegetation and peat, leakage into pore water and losses as N2O depend on the form of N  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Peatlands' vast carbon reserves accumulated under low nitrogen availability. Carbon and nitrogen cycling are inextricably linked, so what are the consequences of increased reactive nitrogen deposition for the sustainability and functioning of peatlands, and does the form of the nitrogen deposition make a difference? We have addressed these questions for an ombrotrophic peatland, Whim bog in SE Scotland, using a globally unique field simulation of reactive N deposition as dry deposited ammonia and wet deposited reduced N, ammonium and oxidised N, nitrate, added as ammonium chloride or sodium nitrate. The effects of 10 yr of reactive N additions, 56 kg N ha-1 yr-1, depended on the N form. Ammonia-N deposition caused the keystone Sphagnum species, together with the main shrub Calluna and the pleurocarpous mosses to disappear, exposing up to 30% of the peat surface. This led to a significant increase in soil water nitrate and nitrous oxide emissions. By contrast wet deposited N, despite significantly reducing the cover of Sphagnum and Pleurozium moss, did not have a detrimental effect on Calluna cover nor did it significantly change soil water N concentrations or nitrous oxide emissions. Importantly 10 yr of wet deposited N did not bare the peat surface nor significantly disrupt the vegetation, enabling the N to be retained within the carbon rich peatland ecosystems. However, given the significant role of Sphagnum in maintaining conditions that retard decomposition this study suggests that all nitrogen forms will eventually compromise carbon sequestration by peatlands through loss of some keystone Sphagnum species.

Sheppard, L. J.; Leith, I. D.; Leeson, S. R.; van Dijk, N.; Field, C.; Levy, P.

2012-07-01

232

The geochemistry of major and selected trace elements in two peat profiles from ridge-hollow complex of southeastern spurs of Vasyugan bog, southern taiga zone of West Siberia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main goal of this paper is to describe and discuss the concentrations and distributions of the major (Si, Al, Ca, Mg, Fe, K) and some trace (Sr, Ba, Mn, Cu, Co, Cr, Ni, Pb) elements during the Holocene from two peat bog profiles of ridge-hollow complex in the southeastern spurs of Vasyugan bog. One of them was formed on the ridge; the second - in the depression and is currently being developed for the type of hollow. The peat accumulation in the ridge and in the hollow started ~2477±80 and ~4774 ± 80 before present (BP), respectively. The average concentrations of Mg, Al, S, Sr, Cu, Ni is about 2-3 times higher in the peat profile from hollow then in the ridge profile. The other element concentrations from both profiles are comparable. The distributions of element concentrations and ash content in the peat profiles are in a good agreement. The element distributions show significantly similar patterns in profiles. Two dominant peaks were found: first peak is between 10 and 50 cm, second peak is between 150-170 cm in the ridge profile and between 180-200 cm in the hollow profile. The origin of the peaks in the middle part of the both profiles at almost the same time: between 2272 and 2190 cal. BP, but no later than 2112 ± 55 BP. These peaks cannot be explained by chemical diagenesis because they are too far above the underlying sediments of the peat profiles, and too far below the uppermost layers. We assume that the increase of elements content reflects the chemical composition of airborne materials supplied to the surface layers of the bog at the time deposition.

Veretennikova, Elena

2013-04-01

233

[Bacteria of the genus Burkholderia as a typical component of the microbial community of sphagnum peat bogs].  

PubMed

Bacteria of the genus Burkholderia are a typical component of the microbial complex of sphagnum peat bogs and constitute a substantial portion of the aerobic chemoorganotrophic isolates which are routinely obtained from these environments on acidic nutrient media. The ecophysiological characteristics of the 27 strains of such organisms, which were isolated from the peat of acidic sphagnum bogs of the boreal and tundra zones of Russia, Canada, and Estonia, were investigated in the present paper. The overwhelming majority of the Burkholderia strains isolated from these bogs were phylogenetically close to the species B. glathei, B. phenazinium, B. fungorum, and B. caryophylli, the typical inhabitants of soil and plant rhizosphere. The bog isolates utilized a broad range of substrates as carbon and energy sources, including organic acids, sugars, polyalcohols, and certain aromatic compounds. All the strains studied were capable of growth on nitrogen-free media. They developed in the pH ranges of 3.5 to 7.4 and from 3 to 37 degrees C, with the optima at pH 5-7 and 11-23 degrees C, respectively. They were therefore moderately acidophilic, psychroactive, dinitrogen-fixing microorganisms well adapted to the conditions of acidic northern sphagnum bogs. PMID:16579452

Belova, S E; Pankratov, T A; Dedysh, S N

234

Reconstructing the environmental impact of smelters using Pb isotope analyses of peat cores from bogs: Flin Flon, Manitoba and Harjavalta, Finland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Located on the Manitoba - Saskatchewan border, the city of Flin Flon has been home to a metallurgical complex since 1930, processing Cu and Zn ores from surrounding mines and consisting of a concentrator, Zn plant, and Cu smelter. Peat cores were collected from two sites, dated using 210Pb, and measured for a broad suite of potentially toxic trace metals. A peat core collected from the bog at Kotyk Lake (30 km NE of FF) shows declines in 206Pb/207Pb from the natural "background" values of 1.25 at the base of the core, to a minimum of 1.02. A peat core collected from the bog at Sask Lake (88 km NW of FF) shows declines in 206Pb/207Pb from the natural "background" values of 1.35 at the base of the core to a minimum of 1.05. But the isotopic evolution of Pb shows significantly declines in 206Pb/207Pb beginning in the late 1800's, presumably because of long-range atmospheric transport from other sources. The 206Pb/207Pb values increase in both cores starting in the 1960's, and reach a recent maximum in the 1990's, apparently reflecting the growing use and eventually phase out of leaded gasoline use. Since the 1990's, the 206Pb/207Pb have continued their decline, apparently reflecting the elimination of leaded gasoline and the growing relative importance of Pb from the smelter. The temporal evolution in Pb enrichment factors follows the history of the metallurgical complex, with the maximum EF values (calculated using Sc) reaching maxima of ca. 100 x (Kotyk Lake) and 10 x (Sask Lake). The maximum rates of atmospheric Pb accumulation are approximately 1200 and 120 ?g/m2/yr, respectively. In Finland, peat cores were taken from three bogs: the Pyhäsuo mire in SW Finland, 6 km NE from the Cu Ni smelter at Harjavalta (HAR); at the Viurusuo complex in eastern Finland, 8 km SW of the Cu Ni mine in the town of Outokumpu (OUT); and at Hietajärvi (HJ), in the Patvinsuo National Park of eastern Finland. The cores from HJ and OUT document 3,000 years of anthropogenic Pb and provide a remarkably similar evolution of Pb isotopes, reaching values as low as 206Pb/207Pb = 1.151 (AD 1982) and 1.148 (AD 1984), respectively. At HAR, the minimum values are lower (206Pb/207Pb = 1.120) and earlier (AD 1954 -1967), presumably because of emissions from the smelter. The Pb concentrations in the porewaters from HAR are approximately an order of magnitude greater than the other sites, and the 206Pb/207Pb values significantly lower (ca. 1.12 vs. 1.15), because of the combined effects of greater Pb deposition and surface water acidification (pH 3.5 versus pH 4.0 in the other bogs).

Shotyk, W.

2012-04-01

235

Short-term effects of an exceptionally hot and dry summer on decomposition of surface peat in a restored temperate bog  

Microsoft Academic Search

The restoration of drained peat bogs in Northwest (NW) Europe is an important task of soil protection, but needs to cope with warmer and drier summers. Our examination took place in the Pietzmoor bog (Schneverdingen, NW Germany) that had been drained for fuel peat extraction until the 1970s and rewetted since then. We determined carbon dioxide (CO2) efflux in situ

S. Glatzel; S. Lemke; G. Gerold

2006-01-01

236

Heuristic numerical and analytical models of the hydrologic controls over vertical solute transport in a domed peat bog, Jura Mountains, Switzerland  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report the results of numerical and analytical simulations to test the hypothesis that downward vertical flow of porewater from the crests of domed alpine and kettle bogs controls vertical porewater distributions of major solutes such as Ca and Mg. The domed Etang de la Gruère bog (EGr), Switzerland, characterized by a vertical downward gradient of 0·04 and stratified layers

Jeffrey M. McKenzie; Donald I. Siegel; William Shotyk; Philipp Steinmann; Gabriele Pfunder

2002-01-01

237

Spatial variation in rates of carbon and nitrogen accumulation in a boreal bog  

SciTech Connect

Although previous studies hint at the occurrence of substantial spatial variation in the accumulation rates of C and N in bogs, the extent to which rates may vary on high-resolution spatial and temporal scales is not known. A main reason for the lack of knowledge is that it is problematic to determine the precise age of peat at a given depth. The authors determined rates of carbon and nitrogen accumulation in the uppermost decimeters of a bog ecosystem using the pine method, which enables accurate dating of surface peat layers. They combined accumulation data with numerical and geostatistical analyses of the recent vegetation to establish the relationship between bog vegetation and rate of peat accumulation. Use of a laser technique for spatial positioning of 151 age-determined peat cores within a 20 x 20 m plot made it possible to give the first tine-scaled account of spatial and temporal variation in rates of mass, carbon, and nitrogen accumulation during the last century. Rates of C and N accumulation were highly variable at all spatial scales studied. For example, after {approximately}125 yr of peat growth, C and N accumulation varied by factors of five and four, respectively, from 25 to 125 g/dm{sup 2} for C, and from 0.7 to 2.6 g/dm{sup 2} for N. It takes 40 yr of peat accumulation before significant amounts of C are lost through decay. Hummocks built up by Sphagnum fuscum and S. rubellum were able to maintain average rates of C accumulation that exceed 2 g{center_dot}dm{sup {minus}2}{center_dot} yr{sup {minus}1} during 50 yr of growth. The authors argue that data on spatial variation in rates of C accumulation are necessary to understand the role of boreal peatlands in the greenhouse effect and global climate.

Ohlson, M. [Agricultural Univ. of Norway, Aas (Norway). Dept. of Biology and Nature Conservation; Oekland, R.H. [Univ. of Oslo (Norway)

1998-12-01

238

Temperature-Induced Increase in Methane Release from Peat Bogs: A Mesocosm Experiment  

PubMed Central

Peat bogs are primarily situated at mid to high latitudes and future climatic change projections indicate that these areas may become increasingly wetter and warmer. Methane emissions from peat bogs are reduced by symbiotic methane oxidizing bacteria (methanotrophs). Higher temperatures and increasing water levels will enhance methane production, but also methane oxidation. To unravel the temperature effect on methane and carbon cycling, a set of mesocosm experiments were executed, where intact peat cores containing actively growing Sphagnum were incubated at 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25°C. After two months of incubation, methane flux measurements indicated that, at increasing temperatures, methanotrophs are not able to fully compensate for the increasing methane production by methanogens. Net methane fluxes showed a strong temperature-dependence, with higher methane fluxes at higher temperatures. After removal of Sphagnum, methane fluxes were higher, increasing with increasing temperature. This indicates that the methanotrophs associated with Sphagnum plants play an important role in limiting the net methane flux from peat. Methanotrophs appear to consume almost all methane transported through diffusion between 5 and 15°C. Still, even though methane consumption increased with increasing temperature, the higher fluxes from the methane producing microbes could not be balanced by methanotrophic activity. The efficiency of the Sphagnum-methanotroph consortium as a filter for methane escape thus decreases with increasing temperature. Whereas 98% of the produced methane is retained at 5°C, this drops to approximately 50% at 25°C. This implies that warming at the mid to high latitudes may be enhanced through increased methane release from peat bogs.

van Winden, Julia F.; Reichart, Gert-Jan; McNamara, Niall P.; Benthien, Albert; Damste, Jaap S. Sinninghe.

2012-01-01

239

Temperature-induced increase in methane release from peat bogs: a mesocosm experiment.  

PubMed

Peat bogs are primarily situated at mid to high latitudes and future climatic change projections indicate that these areas may become increasingly wetter and warmer. Methane emissions from peat bogs are reduced by symbiotic methane oxidizing bacteria (methanotrophs). Higher temperatures and increasing water levels will enhance methane production, but also methane oxidation. To unravel the temperature effect on methane and carbon cycling, a set of mesocosm experiments were executed, where intact peat cores containing actively growing Sphagnum were incubated at 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25°C. After two months of incubation, methane flux measurements indicated that, at increasing temperatures, methanotrophs are not able to fully compensate for the increasing methane production by methanogens. Net methane fluxes showed a strong temperature-dependence, with higher methane fluxes at higher temperatures. After removal of Sphagnum, methane fluxes were higher, increasing with increasing temperature. This indicates that the methanotrophs associated with Sphagnum plants play an important role in limiting the net methane flux from peat. Methanotrophs appear to consume almost all methane transported through diffusion between 5 and 15°C. Still, even though methane consumption increased with increasing temperature, the higher fluxes from the methane producing microbes could not be balanced by methanotrophic activity. The efficiency of the Sphagnum-methanotroph consortium as a filter for methane escape thus decreases with increasing temperature. Whereas 98% of the produced methane is retained at 5°C, this drops to approximately 50% at 25°C. This implies that warming at the mid to high latitudes may be enhanced through increased methane release from peat bogs. PMID:22768100

van Winden, Julia F; Reichart, Gert-Jan; McNamara, Niall P; Benthien, Albert; Damsté, Jaap S Sinninghe

2012-06-29

240

Multivariate study of trace element distribution in the geological record of Roñanzas Peat Bog (Asturias, N. Spain). Paleoenvironmental evolution and human activities over the last 8000 calyr BP.  

PubMed

Trace element concentrations in the Roñanzas peat bog record reveal a contribution of natural processes but the influence of anthropogenic factors predominates in the last two millenniums, particularly aerosol deposition linked to mining and industrial activities in northern Spain. We observed that the Roñanzas record can be considered a preserved environment, suitable to search for local (<50 km), regional (50-150 km) and/or long-distance human activity fingerprinting, specifically that related to the deposition of heavy metals such as Pb, Zn and Hg. We also carried out a multivariate statistical study in order to clarify the geochemical behavior of trace and major elements. Our study design represents a novel approach to assign natural vs. human contributions in peatlands. Therefore, synergies obtained by the simultaneous study of multivariate statistics and enrichment factors allow robust conclusions about paleoenvironmental evolution and human activities. Anthropogenic influence has also been reported in similar records in other parts of Europe, thereby suggesting large-scale sources for atmospheric pollution. However, here we revealed remarkable particularities, such as the association of Cd, Zn and Pb, mainly linked to regional and local factors (mining and more recently the metallurgical industry), whereas we propose that the occurrence of Hg is associated with a combination of regional factors and global atmospheric pollution. PMID:23542478

Gallego, José Luis R; Ortiz, José E; Sierra, Carlos; Torres, Trinidad; Llamas, J F

2013-03-26

241

137Cs in fungal sporocarps in relation to vegetation in a bog, pine swamp and forest along a transect.  

PubMed

In this study, we estimated the relative importance of vegetation and fungi for radiocesium uptake and biological retention in adjacent bog, pine swamp, and forest. The measurements for (137)Cs activity concentration in sporocarps (i.e. fruitbodies of fungi) and vegetation along a bog to forest transect were combined with complementary published data to calculate estimates. Aboveground vegetation comprised 17.7% of the total fallout-derived radiocesium in the system in bog, 16.5% in pine swamp, and 40.6% in forest. In fungal sporocarps grown along a gradient, (137)Cs activity comprised <0.001% of the total radiocesium for peat bog, <0.02% for pine swamp, and 0.11% for forest. Total (137)Cs activity in sporocarps increased along the gradient due to increased production of sporocarps in the presence of trees from 0.006 (bog), 0.097 (pine swamp) and 0.67 (forest) g dwt m(-2). Based on calculation of the total vegetation biomass and through relationships between fungal biomass in sporocarps and as mycelia in soil, the total (137)Cs activity located in fungi was estimated as 0.1% in bog, 2% in pine swamp, and 11% in forest. An analysis of the time-dependency of (137)Cs in the sporocarps in forest between 1990 and 2011 suggested an ecological half-life for (137)Cs between 8 and 13 years. Although fungi comprised a relatively small fraction of the total radiocesium in the systems, its activity decreased slowly with time, and ecological residence time for (137)Cs in sporocarps of fungi was long, suggesting they will continue to contribute to the accumulation and cycling of this radionuclide in forest. PMID:23102726

Vinichuk, M; Rosén, K; Dahlberg, A

2012-10-24

242

Botanical reconnaissance of Big Run Bog Candidate Research Natural Area. Forest Service general technical report (Final)  

SciTech Connect

To document the botanical diversity of the Big Run Bog candidate Research Natural Area on the Monongahela National Forest in West Virginia, a botanical survey was conducted in 1993-94. The survey identified 193 species of vascular plants in 118 genera and 52 families. Six species of rare vascular plants were found. Vascular plant families with the most species present were Cyperaceae (24), Asteraceae (23), Poaceae (16), and Ericaceae (14). For each taxon, family, species, habitat and estimated abundance are reported. Nonvascular plants totaled 87 species in 55 genera and 33 families.

Muzika, R.M.; Hunsucker, R.; DeMeo, T.

1996-07-25

243

Impact of environmental factors on dissolved organic carbon concentrations in German bogs under grassland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Peatlands cover about 5% of Germany's land area. Agricultural use combined with drainage increases the greenhouse gas emissions and alters the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations in the soil- and groundwater of these ecosystems. Cycling of DOC is influenced by a complex interaction of environmental factors such as peat characteristics, groundwater level, meteorological conditions, pH-value and ionic strength. Reasons for elevated DOC concentrations are debated in literature, but only a few studies on the dynamic of DOC in raised bogs in Germany have been conducted so far. In Germany, raised bogs are mainly used as grassland. Therefore, five grassland study sites and one natural reference have been selected. The bog "Ahlenmoor" has a deep, medium to weakly decomposed peat layer. There, three study sites represent different land use intensities with a corresponding groundwater table (intensive grassland, extensive grassland, natural reference). The bog relict "Großes Moor" is characterised by a shallow amorphous peat layer, which is partly mixed with sand. There, three sites in an extensive grassland were chosen to study the effects of soil carbon concentrations (9 to 48 %) and groundwater levels. At each site, nine suction plates (three replicates in each depth) and three tensiometers were installed in 15, 30 and 60 cm. Soil water was sampled fortnightly from June 2011 to December 2012 and analysed for electrical conductivity, pH-value and DOC concentration. Compared to most literature values, DOC concentrations at our study sites were very high (on average, 197 to 55 mg/L). At the "Ahlenmoor", an increase in agricultural intensity and a lower groundwater table increases both the DOC concentrations and their variability in the soil water in order intensive grassland > extensive grassland > natural site. Surprisingly, soil carbon concentration and groundwater table gradients as investigated in the "Großes Moor" did only lead to minor differences in the DOC concentrations. At these sites, the highest DOC concentrations were measured in the zone of transition between peat and mineral layer. No consistent relationship between DOC concentrations and electrical conductivity or pH-value could be found. In the "Ahlenmoor", seasonal variations of temperature and water table position influence DOC concentrations. The highest values were measured in late summer after warm and dry periods. At the study sites of the "Großes Moor", the seasonal variation of temperature and groundwater table had no impact on DOC concentrations. Our results show that while it is difficult to unravel all factors controlling DOC concentrations, drainage and physical disturbance clearly increase DOC concentrations.

Frank, Stefan; Tiemeyer, Bärbel; Freibauer, Annette

2013-04-01

244

Cycling of inorganic and organic sulfur in peat from Big Run Bog, West Virginia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Total S concentration in the top 35 cm of Big Run Bog peat averaged 9.7 ?mol·g — wet mass?1 (123 ?mol·g dry mass?1). Of that total, an average of 80.8% was carbon bonded S, 10.4% was ester sulfate S, 4.5% was FeS2­S, 2.7% was FeS­S, 1.2% was elemental S, and 0.4% was SO42?­S. In peat collected in March 1986, injected

R. Kelman Wieder; Gerald E. Lang

1988-01-01

245

Growing Peat Bogs in Computers: why, how, and Model Testing With Geophysical Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Northern peatlands contain up to a third of the world's soil carbon - 455 Pg - which is the equivalent of about 60 percent of the atmospheric carbon store. For a peatland to increase in thickness and/or extent, more carbon must be taken up via photosynthesis and incorporated into plant tissue than is returned to the atmosphere as decay gases (either directly from the peatland or from rivers draining it). Although northern peatlands have built up over many hundreds and thousands of years during the Holocene, there are concerns that they may have a significant net warming effect on global climate over coming decades, as warmer temperatures lead to increased rates of decay and release of carbon dioxide and methane to the atmosphere. To understand how peatlands will respond to a changing climate, and whether there will be large changes in their carbon budget, requires a modelling approach. A problem of some well-established models is that they treat the peatland as an unchanging entity and do not allow for feedbacks between ecological and hydrological processes. For example, it is known that the amount of methane lost to the atmosphere from a bog is closely correlated with vegetation type, yet these models do not simulate changes in the composition and pattern of vegetation on the bog surface. A new approach to modelling peatland development, using the DigiBog suite of models, is described in which such dynamics and interactions are accounted for. Example model predictions of vegetation patterns and near-surface peat hydraulic properties are presented. Although it is possible to test the new models using observations of current patterns of bog vegetation, these patterns cannot be used to indicate temporal changes in the peatland even though such changes are a key part of the models' output. To study temporal changes, it is necessary to look at depth-related variation in peat physical properties. However, traditionally, such variations have only been investigated via the excavation of peat cores or the placement of spatially-discrete instruments, so it has proved difficult to obtain adequate test data sets. For example, obtaining even 100 measurements of the in-situ permeability of peat may take many weeks and provide a data set that can only give a partial indication of the plausibility of a model's predictions of peatland development. The prospect of obtaining continuous 2- and 3- D data on peat properties for testing peatland models using ground-penetrating radar and electrical survey is discussed and the need for further developments in these wetland geophysical methods emphasised.

Baird, A. J.; Morris, P. J.; Belyea, L. R.

2008-05-01

246

[Species composition and structure of testate amoebae community in a sphagnum bog at the initial stage of its formation].  

PubMed

A total of 42 species and forms have been revealed in the testate amoebae community of a transitional bog at the initial stage of transformation into a typical sphagnum bog. A distinctive features of its species composition is dominance of widespread species Assulina muscorum. Arcella arenaria, Phryganella hemisphaerica, and Euglypha laevis in the absence of common sphagnobionts of the genera Nehela, Hyalosphenia, and Heleopera. Vertical heterogeneity of the community structure is weakly manifested, since dominant species are abundant in all horizons. The highest species richness is characteristic of the marginal community formed at the boundary between a sphagnum quagmire and a reed grass-dominated fen. PMID:19768968

Maze?, Iu A; Bubnova, O A

247

Multiproxy investigation of climatic changes and human activities in a Baltic bog (N. Poland) during the last millennium.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a multiproxy study carried out on a peat core retrieved from S?owi?skie B?ota bog (Pomerania, N-Poland). Several organic (palynology, plant macrofossils, testate amoebae, d13C) and inorganic (elemental geochemistry, lead isotopes) proxies were coupled to 210Pb-14C age-modelling in order to discriminate climatic and anthropogenic signals. Reconstruction of dust fluxes through time has remained a challenge, especially for tracing the nature of climatic changes. Although the idea of enhanced erosion conditions and storminess is commonly discussed, the conditions for dust deposition in peatlands over Europe during, for example, the ‘Little Ice Age' (LIA), are rarely favourable. Indeed the natural forest cover over Europe was much more important than nowadays, preventing dust deposition. Northern Poland, near the Baltic shore, was deforested just before the LIA (around AD 1100), and therefore constitutes a key area for the reconstruction of LIA climatic change. Our study of organic proxies evidences the LIA and is combined to our inorganic geochemical approach to validate our dust record. Overall, both organic and inorganic proxies show that LIA climatic changes are in good agreement with other records from Poland and NE Europe within a ca. 50yrs uncertainty. The severity of the LIA does however not affect the dynamism of mining activities over the last millennium. Indeed, during the LIA, Poland is experiencing its economical and cultural apogee, which can be seen by an increase in lead enrichment factors interpreted as an increase in mining activities. Lead, Zn, Cu, Ni concentrations and Pb isotopic ratios show that Polish Pb-Zn ores and coal were the main sources of Pb, as well as other heavy metals and S over Northern Poland until the industrial revolution. During the last century, leaded gasoline also contributed to anthropogenic Pb input over Poland. Coal and Pb-Zn ores, however, remained important sources of pollution in Eastern European countries during the last 50 years, as demonstrated by a high 206Pb/207Pb ratio (1.15) relative to the Pb isotopic signature of Western Europe (c. 1.10). The multiproxy record of S?owi?skie B?ota enhance the advantage of coupling geochemistry and biological proxies together with high-resolution age-modelling to better constrain the causes and consequences of both natural and anthropogenic changes during the last millennium.

de Vleeschouwer, François; Fagel, Nathalie; Piotrowska, Natalia; Sikorski, Jarek; Pawlyta, Jacek; Cheburkin, Andriy; Lamentowicz, Mariusz; Pazdur, Anna; Mattielli, Nadine; Renson, Virginie

2010-05-01

248

Trench Logs and Scarp Data from an Investigation of the Steens Fault Zone, Bog Hot Valley and Pueblo Valley, Humboldt County, Nevada  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Introduction: This report contains field and laboratory data from a study of the Steens fault zone near Denio, Nev. The 200-km-long Steens fault zone forms the longest, most topographically prominent fault-bounded escarpment in the Basin and Range of southern Oregon and northern Nevada. The down-to-the-east normal fault is marked by Holocene fault scarps along nearly half its length, including the southern one-third of the fault from the vicinity of Pueblo Mountain in southern Oregon to the southern margin of Bog Hot Valley (BHV) southwest of Denio, Nev. We studied this section of the fault to better constrain late Quaternary slip rates, which we hope to compare to deformation rates derived from a recently established geodetic network in the region (Hammond and Thatcher, 2005). We excavated a trench in May 2003 across one of a series of right-stepping fault scarps that extend south from the southern end of the Pueblo Mountains and traverse the floor of Bog Hot Valley, about 4 km south of Nevada State Highway 140. This site was chosen because of the presence of well-preserved fault scarps, their development on lacustrine deposits thought to be suitable for luminescence dating, and the proximity of two geodetic stations that straddle the fault zone. We excavated a second trench in the southern BHV, but the fault zone in this trench collapsed during excavation and thus no information about fault history was documented from this site. We also excavated a soil pit on a lacustrine barrier bar in the southern Pueblo Valley (PV) to better constrain the age of lacustrine deposits exposed in the trench. The purpose of this report is to present photomosaics and trench logs, scarp profiles and slip data, soils data, luminescence and radiocarbon ages, and unit descriptions obtained during this investigation. We do not attempt to use the data presented herein to construct a paleoseismic history of this part of the Steens fault zone; that history will be the subject of a future report.

Personius, Stephen F.; Crone, Anthony J.; Machette, Michael N.; Kyung, Jai Bok; Cisneros, Hector; Lidke, David J.; Mahan, Shannon A.

2006-01-01

249

Phylogenetic analysis and in situ identification of bacteria community composition in an acidic Sphagnum peat bog.  

PubMed

The Bacteria community composition in an acidic Sphagnum peat bog (pH 3.9 to 4.5) was characterized by a combination of 16S rRNA gene clone library analysis, rRNA-targeted fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), and cultivation. Among 84 environmental 16S rRNA gene clones, a set of only 16 cloned sequences was closely related (>or=95% similarity) to taxonomically described organisms. Main groups of clones were affiliated with the Acidobacteria (24 clones), Alphaproteobacteria (20), Verrucomicrobia (13), Actinobacteria (8), Deltaproteobacteria (4), Chloroflexi (3), and Planctomycetes (3). The proportion of cells that hybridized with oligonucleotide probes specific for members of the domains Bacteria (EUB338-mix) and Archaea (ARCH915 and ARC344) accounted for only 12 to 22% of the total cell counts. Up to 24% of the EUB338-positive cells could be assigned by FISH to specific bacterial phyla. Alphaproteobacteria and Planctomycetes were the most numerous bacterial groups (up to 1.3x10(7) and 1.1x10(7) cells g-1 peat, respectively). In contrast to conventional plating techniques, a novel biofilm-mediated enrichment approach allowed us to isolate some representatives of predominant Bacteria groups, such as Acidobacteria and Planctomycetes. This novel strategy has great potential to enable the isolation of a significant proportion of the peat bog bacterial diversity. PMID:16517660

Dedysh, Svetlana N; Pankratov, Timofei A; Belova, Svetlana E; Kulichevskaya, Irina S; Liesack, Werner

2006-03-01

250

[High abundance of planctomycetes in anoxic layers of a Sphagnum peat bog].  

PubMed

The depth distribution of planctomycete abundance has been examined in six different sites of the Sphagnum peat bog in Bakchar, Tomsk oblast, Russia. In situ hybridization of peat with the fluorescently labeled oligonucleotide probes PLA46 and PLA886, reported to be group-specific for representatives of the phylum Planctomycetes, revealed two distinct population maxima of these bacteria in all of the profiles examined. The first population maximum was detected in the uppermost, oxic layer of the bog profile, while the second maximum was located at a depth of 30 cm below the water table level. The population sizes of planctomycetes in the uppermost layer and at a depth of 30 cm were of the same order of magnitude and comprised 0.5-1.5 x 10(7) and 0.4-0.7 x 10(7) cells per g of wet peat, respectively. Only 25-30% of the total number of planctomycete cells in the anoxic layer could be detected if the probe PLA886, whose target specificity is restricted to taxonomically characterized aerobic planctomycetes of the genera Gemmata, Planctomyces, Pirellula, and Isosphaera, was used alone. Other planctomycete cells in this layer were detected only with the probe PLA46, which possesses a much wider scope. This suggests the affiliation of these organisms with a yet undescribed phylogenetic subgroup within the Planctomycetes. PMID:17205808

Ivanova, A O; Dedysh, S N

251

Heat transport in the Red Lake Bog, Glacial Lake Agassiz Peatlands  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We report the results of an investigation on the processes controlling heat transport in peat under a large bog in the Glacial Lake Agassiz Peatlands. For 2 years, starting in July 1998, we recorded temperature at 12 depth intervals from 0 to 400 cm within a vertical peat profile at the crest of the bog at sub-daily intervals. We also recorded air temperature 1 m above the peat surface. We calculate a peat thermal conductivity of 0.5 W m-1 ??C-1 and model vertical heat transport through the peat using the SUTRA model. The model was calibrated to the first year of data, and then evaluated against the second year of collected heat data. The model results suggest that advective pore-water flow is not necessary to transport heat within the peat profile and most of the heat is transferred by thermal conduction alone in these waterlogged soils. In the spring season, a zero-curtain effect controls the transport of heat through shallow depths of the peat. Changes in local climate and the resulting changes in thermal transport still may cause non-linear feedbacks in methane emissions related to the generation of methane deeper within the peat profile as regional temperatures increase. Copyright ?? 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

McKenzie, J. M.; Siegel, D. I.; Rosenberry, D. O.; Glaser, P. H.; Voss, C. I.

2007-01-01

252

Functioning of microbial complexes in aerated layers of a highmoor peat bog  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Monitoring was carried out using the luminescent-microscopic method of the abundance parameters of different groups of microorganisms in a monolith and in the mixed layers of a highmoor peat bog (oligotrophic residual-eutrophic peat soil) in a year-long model experiment. The increase of the aeration as a result of mixing of the layers enhanced the activity of the soil fungi. This was attested to by the following changes: the increase of the fungal mycelium length by 6 times and of the fungal biomass by 4 times and the double decrease of the fraction of spores in the fungal complex. The response of the fungal complex to mixing was different in the different layers of the peat bog. The maximal effect was observed in the T1 layer and the minimal one in the T2 layer. The emission of CO2 in the mixed samples was 1.5-2 times higher than that from the undisturbed peat samples. In contrast with the fungi, the bacteria and actinomycetes were not affected by the aeration of the highmoor layers.

Golovchenko, A. V.; Bogdanova, O. Yu.; Stepanov, A. L.; Polyanskaya, L. M.; Zvyagintsev, D. G.

2010-09-01

253

Zero methane emission bogs: extreme rhizosphere oxygenation by cushion plants in Patagonia.  

PubMed

• Vascular wetland plants may substantially increase methane emissions by producing root exudates and easily degradable litter, and by providing a low-resistance diffusion pathway via their aerenchyma. However, model studies have indicated that vascular plants can reduce methane emission when soil oxygen demand is exceeded by oxygen released from roots. Here, we tested whether these conditions occur in bogs dominated by cushion plants. • Root-methane interactions were studied by comparing methane emissions, stock and oxygen availability in depth profiles below lawns of either cushion plants or Sphagnum mosses in Patagonia. • Cushion plants, Astelia pumila and Donatia fascicularis, formed extensive root systems up to 120 cm in depth. The cold soil (< 10°C) and highly decomposed peat resulted in low microbial activity and oxygen consumption. In cushion plant lawns, high soil oxygen coincided with high root densities, but methane emissions were absent. In Sphagnum lawns, methane emissions were substantial. High methane concentrations were only found in soils without cushion plant roots. • This first methane study in Patagonian bog vegetation reveals lower emissions than expected. We conclude that cushion plants are capable of reducing methane emission on an ecosystem scale by thorough soil and methane oxidation. PMID:21232058

Fritz, Christian; Pancotto, Veronica A; Elzenga, Josephus T M; Visser, Eric J W; Grootjans, Ab P; Pol, Arjan; Iturraspe, Rodolfo; Roelofs, Jan G M; Smolders, Alfons J P

2011-01-14

254

Anaerobic microbial biogeochemistry in a northern bog: Acetate as a dominant metabolic end product  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Field measurements and incubation techniques were used to determine the dynamics of acetate formation, iron reduction, and methanogenesis in surficial peat of an Alaskan bog. Acetate concentrations were ˜100 ?M early in the season and decreased to ˜20 ?M in July when the water table decreased. Acetate levels increased rapidly to ˜1000 ?M when the water table rose to the surface in August. Acetate production in anaerobic slurries occurred at rates of 2.8-420 nmol carbon mL-1 day-1, which was 7-120 times more rapid than CH4 production. Experiments utilizing 14C-acetate confirmed that methanogenesis was not acetoclastic although acetate was converted very slowly to CO2. Peat incubated anaerobically for 4.5 months at 24°C never produced methane from acetate, suggesting that anaerobic acetate accumulation would have occurred all season if the water table had remained high. CO2 production was the most rapid process measured in laboratory incubations (up to 750 nmol mL-1 day-1) and appeared to be due primarily to fermentation. Acetate was the primary organic terminal product of anaerobic decomposition in the bog, and acetate was ultimately oxidized to CO2 via aerobic respiration and to a much lesser extent anaerobically by Fe reduction.

Duddleston, Khrystyne N.; Kinney, Monica A.; Kiene, Ronald P.; Hines, Mark E.

2002-12-01

255

Land use-induced changes in activity and biomass of microorganisms in raised bog peats at different depths  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined peat from six raised bogs (0–60 cm depth) in northern Lower Saxony, developed from similar Sphagnum species under similar climatic conditions, but differing widely in the actual vegetation and intensity of land use for activity and biomass of soil microorganisms. Two sites were virtually undisturbed, two sites had been converted to grassland and two to woodland. Biomass and activity

M. Brake; H. Höper; R. G. Joergensen

1999-01-01

256

Isolation and identification of methanogen-specific DNA from blanket bog peat by PCR amplification and sequence analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methane, despite its lower concentration, is estimated to be 25 to 30 times more effective as a greenhouse gas than carbon dioxide. Estimates suggest that about 74% of atmospheric methane is derived from recent microbial activity and sources of methane are of considerable interest. This report describes the analysis of methanogen-specific DNA present in a well-characterized blanket peat bog, a

BARBARA A. HALES; CLIVE EDWARDS; DONALD A. RITCHIE; J. R. Saunders

1996-01-01

257

Evidence from northwest European bogs shows ‘Little Ice Age’ climatic changes driven by variations in solar activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fluctuations in Holocene atmospheric radiocarbon concentrations have been shown to be due to variations in solar activity. Analyses of both 10Be and 14C nuclides con” rm that production-rate changes during the Holocene were largely modulated by solar activity. Analyses of peat samples from two intact European ombrotrophic bogs show that climatic deteriorations during the ‘Little Ice Age’ are associated with

Dmitri Mauquoy; Bas van Geel; Maarten Blaauw; Johannes van der Plicht

2002-01-01

258

Influence of colloidal organic matter on iron and iron--phosphorus cycling in an acid bog lake  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between iron and phosphorus and the relationship of these elements to colloidal organic matter (COM ) was studied in a meromictic acid bog lake by chemi- cal characterization, filtration and in situ dialysis, and in situ experiments with labeled components. Bathophenanthroline ( BPN ) rcactivc ferrous iron existed in true solution ( dialyzable ) in constantly anaerobic monimolimnetic

JEFFERY P. KOENINGS; FRANK F. HOOPER

1976-01-01

259

Developing a predictive modelling capacity for a climate change-vulnerable blanket bog habitat: Assessing 1961–1990 baseline relationships  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim: Understanding the spatial distribution of high priority habitats and developing predictive models using climate and environmental variables to replicate these distributions are desirable conservation goals. The aim of this study was to model and elucidate the contributions of climate and topography to the distribution of a priority blanket bog habitat in Ireland, and to examine how this might inform

John Coll; David Bourke; Micheline Sheehy Skeffington; John Sweeney; Michael Gormally

2011-01-01

260

Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 2): Burnt Fly Bog, Marlboro Township, New Jersey, (1983, 1988, and 1998).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Burnt Fly Bog Site is located in Marlboro Township, Monmouth County and Old Bridge Township, Middlesex County, New Jersey. Between 1950 and 1956, the site had been used for lagoon storage and settling of reprocessed oil, storage of filter clay from oi...

1984-01-01

261

Carbon dioxide fluxes over a raised open bog at the Kinosheo Lake tower site during the Northern Wetlands Study (NOWES)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measurements of carbon dioxide concentration and flux were made above a raised open bog at Lake Kinosheo in the southern Hudson Bay lowlands during the Northern Wetlands Study (NOWES) experiment in 1990. The flux measurements were made using micrometeorological techniques. They provide the first nondisturbing, larger-scale CO2 flux measurements for this ecosystem and are the first to integrate the exchange

H. H. Newmann; G. Den Hartog; K. M. King; A. C. Chipanshi

1994-01-01

262

Comparison of bacterial communities in New England Sphagnum bogs using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP).  

PubMed

Wetlands are major sources of carbon dioxide, methane, and other greenhouse gases released during microbial degradation. Despite the fact that decomposition is mainly driven by bacteria and fungi, little is known about the taxonomic diversity of bacterial communities in wetlands, particularly Sphagnum bogs. To explore bacterial community composition, 24 bogs in Vermont and Massachusetts were censused for bacterial diversity at the surface (oxic) and 1 m (anoxic) regions. Bacterial diversity was characterized by a terminal restriction fragment length (T-RFLP) fingerprinting technique and a cloning strategy that targeted the 16S rRNA gene. T-RFLP analysis revealed a high level of diversity, and a canonical correspondence analysis demonstrated marked similarity among bogs, but consistent differences between surface and subsurface assemblages. 16S rDNA sequences derived from one of the sites showed high numbers of clones belonging to the Deltaproteobacteria group. Several other phyla were represented, as well as two Candidate Division-level taxonomic groups. These data suggest that bog microbial communities are complex, possibly stratified, and similar among multiple sites. PMID:16729225

Morales, Sergio E; Mouser, Paula J; Ward, Naomi; Hudman, Stephen P; Gotelli, Nicholas J; Ross, Donald S; Lewis, Thomas A

2006-05-31

263

Carbon dioxide fluxes over a raised open bog at the Kinosheo Lake tower site during the Northern Wetlands Study (NOWES)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measurements of carbon dioxide concentration and flux were made above a raised open bog at Lake Kinosheo in the southern Hudson Bay lowlands during the Northern Wetlands Study (NOWES) experiment in 1990. Continuous concentration measurements by infrared gas analyzers (IRGA) and spot flask samples were taken over the period July 1 to July 29. Afternoon COâ values were only 5

H. H. Neumann; G. den Hartog; K. M. King; A. C. Chipanshi

1994-01-01

264

Assessing the impact of wind farms on the plant diversity of blanket bogs in the Xistral Mountains (NW Spain)  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY The work reported in this paper explored the effects of wind farms on the plant species and vegetation diversity of summits and slopes in the Xistral Mountains, where priority habitats occur (EU Habitats Directive, code 7130 blanket bog). Quantitatively, our results showed significantly lower ? diversity and higher ? diversity in impacted areas when compared to non-impacted areas. These

M. I. Fraga; D. Romero-Pedreira; M. Souto; D. Castro; E. Sahuquillo

265

A Lateglacial palaeoenvironmental record from Sluggan Bog, Northern Ireland: comparisons with the Greenland NGRIP GICC05 event stratigraphy  

Microsoft Academic Search

A multi-proxy Lateglacial environmental record is described from Sluggan Bog in Co Down, Northern Ireland. Pollen, plant macrofossil, charcoal, sediment chemistry, stable isotope and sedimentological data provide a multi-faceted picture of local and regional environmental changes during the transition from the Last Cold Stage to the beginning of the present interglacial. A combination of radiometric and AMS radiocarbon dates (86

Mike Walker; John Lowe; Simon Blockley; Charlotte Bryant; Paul Coombes; Siwan Davies; Mark Hardiman; Chris Turney; Jenny Watson

266

Ecophysiological mechanisms characterising fen and bog species: focus on variations in nitrogen uptake traits under different soil-water pH.  

PubMed

Although the productivity and nitrogen (N)-use traits of mire plants differ dramatically between fens and bogs, soil N richness does not necessarily differ, whereas the soil-water pH is distinctly lower in bogs than in fens. The ecophysiological mechanisms underlying these relations are unclear. To assess the relative availability of N forms in relation to soil-water pH, we focused on the net N uptake rate per unit root weight (NNUR), glutamine synthetase activity and nitrate reductase activity, and performed reciprocal transplant experiments with the seedlings of fen (Carex lyngbyei) and bog (C. middendorffii) sedge species in intact habitat sites. The soil-water pH was clearly lower at the bog site, but the NH(4) (+), NO(3) (-) or dissolved organic-N concentrations did not differ between the fen and bog sites. The activity of both enzymes for inorganic-N assimilation did not differ among the sites and species. However, the fen species grown at bog sites showed a drastic decrease in the NNUR, suggesting a suppression of organic-N uptake. The bog species showed no NNUR difference between the sites. These results indicate that inorganic-N availability does not differ between the two habitats, but organic-N availability is lowered in a low-pH bog, particularly in the case of fen species. Therefore, the relative availability of N forms shows species-specific variations that depend on the differences in the soil-water pH of root zone, even at similar N richness, which would play a key role in plant distribution strategies in relation to the fen-bog gradient. PMID:22009342

Nakamura, Takatoshi; Nakamura, Motoka

2011-10-19

267

Different patterns of genetic structure of relict and isolated populations of endangered peat-bog pine (Pinus uliginosa Neumann).  

PubMed

Recent changes in environmental conditions in populations of peat-bog pine (Pinus uliginosa Neumann) caused rapid decline or even extinction of the species in several stands in Central Europe. Conservation strategies for P. uliginosa require information about the evolutionary history and genetic structure of its populations. Using isozymes we assessed the genetic structure of P. uliginosa from four isolated stands in Poland and compared the results to genetic structures of other closely related pine species including eight populations of Pinus mugo, ten of Pinus sylvestris and one of Pinus uncinata. The level of genetic variability of P. uliginosa measured by the mean number of alleles per locus and average heterozygosity was similar to others related to P. uliginosa taxa from the reference group but it differs among populations. High genetic similarity was found between two populations of P. uliginosa from Low Silesian Pinewood. The populations were genetically distinct as compared to other populations including locus classicus of the species from the peat bog at Batorów Reserve. Very low genetic distance (DN = 0.002) and small genetic differentiation (GST = 0.003) were found between P. uliginosa and P. mugo in the sympatric populations of the species from Zieleniec peat bog suggesting the ongoing natural hybridisation and genetic contamination of peat-bog pine from this area. Some evidence for skew in allele frequency distribution potentially due to recent bottleneck was found in population from Low Silesian Pinewood. The analysed open pollinated progeny derived from two P. uliginosa stands from Low Silesian Pinewood showed the excess of homozygotes as compared to the maternal trees indicating high level of inbreeding (F = 0.105, F = 0.081). The results are discussed in the context of evolution of P. uliginosa populations, taxonomic relationships between the analysed species and conservation strategies for active protection of peat-bog pine. PMID:19875883

Wachowiak, W; Prus-Glowacki, W

2009-01-01

268

Modeling regional groundwater flow in a peat bog complex in Ontario, Canada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Peatlands are important ecohydrological systems and contribute significantly to the global carbon cycle. They function as carbon sinks through CO2-sequestration but also emit methane depending i.a. on the prevailing hydrological structures. Knowledge of their hydrology including exchange between the groundwater and surface water domain is thus necessary to understand wetland environments and to determine their vulnerability to climate changes. The impact of proposed wetter conditions on wetland hydrological homeostastis in northern bogs is uncertain to this date. Elevated water tables due to changing hydrological flow patterns may affect the characteristics of wetlands as a carbon reservoir. Modeling approaches allow quantifying and qualifying of these flow patterns on a longer time scale. Luther Bog is located in Southern Ontario. The ombotrophic bog to poor fen is partially bordered by Luther Lake which inundates the area since its creation in 1952. In this study the interaction between the wetland and the adjacent lake is modeled using the fully-integrated HydroGeoSphere model. A transient three-dimensional groundwater mode is set up for a small catchment with the lake level implemented as a constant-head boundary condition. Hydraulic properties of the peat were estimated executing bail tests on multilevel piezometers at different sites within the wetland. The first hypothesis is that the wet conditions in the runoff network keep the water table in the wetland high over a specific transition zone. The Second is that there may be a reversal of flow directions over the hydrological year, due to varying boundary conditions, e.g. evapotranspiration and precipitation. First results indicate that exchange rates may be very slow. This is supported by manual measurements of little hydraulic gradients and little topographic gradients. The results also show a seasonal effect in flow directions in both, the groundwater and the surface water domain. The model will be tested upon its sensitivity to variations in the anisotropy of hydraulic conductivities as this is difficult to determine in the field using known approaches, e.g. bail tests. A transport simulation will be conducted to determine the exact amount of exchange water and the extent of the exchange zone.

Durejka, Stefan; Knorr, KLaus-Holger; Blodau, Christian; Frei, Sven

2013-04-01

269

How suitable are peat cores to study historical deposition of PAHs?  

PubMed

Ombrotrophic peat bogs are natural archives of atmospheric pollution, their depth profiles can be used to study the deposition chronology of harmful contaminants. Prerequisites for deriving historical deposition rates from the peat archive are that contaminants are persistent and immobile in the peat and that the applied dating technique is accurate. To examine these requirements and the accuracy of peat archives for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) 12 peat profiles were sampled in 4 bogs in Ontario, Canada, as well as surface peat in one bog. Additionally we carried out laboratory incubations; no degradation occurred over a 3-year period in these experiments. The standard deviations of PAH concentrations in surface samples and of PAH inventories in whole cores was approximately 30%, and concentrations in surface peat were on average 50% higher in hollows than in hummocks. No indications for mobility of PAHs were observed in peat. Temporal deposition trends inferred from peat cores were generally in agreement with trends derived from a sediment core sampled close by but deposition rates to the sediment were substantially higher. A major source of uncertainty was the rather coarse vertical sampling resolution of 5 cm which introduced substantial uncertainty in the dating of the individual segments. This caused variations of the deposition rates up to 70% per PAH between three replicate cores, and it also impedes the identification of deposition peaks. Overall, we conclude that peat cores are suitable archives for inferring atmospheric deposition trends, but due to their relatively low temporal resolution short-term events may not be identified and the development of sampling methods that allow a higher vertical resolution would greatly improve the performance of the method. The analysis of more than one core per site is suggested to provide a realistic estimate of the historic deposition and total inventories. PMID:23500826

Thuens, Sabine; Blodau, Christian; Radke, Michael

2013-04-15

270

Isolation of a novel acidiphilic methanogen from an acidic peat bog.  

PubMed

Acidic peatlands are among the largest natural sources of atmospheric methane and harbour a large diversity of methanogenic Archaea. Despite the ubiquity of methanogens in these peatlands, indigenous methanogens capable of growth at acidic pH values have resisted culture and isolation; these recalcitrant methanogens include members of an uncultured family-level clade in the Methanomicrobiales prevalent in many acidic peat bogs in the Northern Hemisphere. However, we recently succeeded in obtaining a mixed enrichment culture of a member of this clade. Here we describe its isolation and initial characterization. We demonstrate that the optimum pH for methanogenesis by this organism is lower than that of any previously described methanogen. PMID:16699521

Bräuer, Suzanna L; Cadillo-Quiroz, Hinsby; Yashiro, Erika; Yavitt, Joseph B; Zinder, Stephen H

2006-05-14

271

A new species of mermithid (Nematoda) in chironomids eclosing from a northern Minnesota bog.  

PubMed

Hydromermis haggardi n. sp. (Nematoda: Mermithidae) is described from the hemocoel of chironomid imagos eclosing from Lake Alice Bog in northern Minnesota in June and July 2007. The species is distinguished from the other 27 described members of the genus by the subventral mouth, tulip shape to anterior end of esophagus, colorless vesicular trophosome, single nonbifurcated spicule, short body lengths of both males and females, structure of the S-shaped vagina, decrease in body width at vulva, brevity of postparasitic stage, and the greater development of a posterior ventral protractor muscle in the males. An anomalous adult male bearing large oval structures in the posterior testis is reported. Evidence is presented for the developmental interaction of the new species with Lanceimermis palustris Johnson and Kleve, 2004. PMID:19127971

Johnson, Arthur A; Kleve, Maurice G

2008-12-01

272

UV-sensitive complex phosphorus: association with dissolved humic material and iron in a bog lake  

SciTech Connect

The concentration of UV-sensitive complex phosphorus compounds in water from an acid bog lake was linearly related to the concentration of dissolved high molecular weight humic material (DHM) both seasonally and diurnally. The first-order rate of photoreduction (Fe/sup 3 +/ to Fe/sup 2 +/) of DHM iron equaled the rate of release of orthophosphate (SRP) from these compounds. The rate of photoreduction of DHM iron was the same as the rate of photoreduction of ferric citrate under similar conditions. Reduced DHM iron was auto-oxidizable (Fe/sup 2 +/ to Fe/sup 3 +/); ferrous citrate was not. These data support the view that orthophosphate sorbed to ferric iron DHM complexes may be released by a mechanism involving UV-induced photoreduction of ferric iron to the ferrous state.

Francko, D.A. (Oklahoma State Univ., Stillwater); Heath, R.T.

1982-01-01

273

Uv-sensitive complex phosphorus: association with dissolved humic material and iron in a bog lake  

SciTech Connect

The concentration of uv-sensitive complex phosphorus compounds in water from an acid bog lake was linearly related to the concentration of dissolved high molecular weight humic material (DHM) both seasonally and diurnally. The first-order rate of photoreduction (Fe/sup 3 +/ to Fe/sup 2 +/) of DHM..iron equaled the rate of release of orthophosphate (SRP) from these compounds. The rate of photoreduction of DHM..iron was the same as the rate of photoreduction of ferric citrate under similar conditions. Reduced DHM..iron was auto-oxidizable (Fe/sup 2 +/ to Fe/sup 3 +/); ferrous citrate was not. These data support the view that orthophosphate sorbed to ferric iron..DHM complexes may be released by a mechanism involving uv-induced photoreduction of ferric iron to the ferrous state.

Francko, D.A. (Michigan State Univ., Hickory Corners); Heath, R.T.

1982-01-01

274

Insights into functional bacterial diversity and its effects on Alpine bog ecosystem functioning.  

PubMed

Plant-associated bacteria are important for the growth and health of their host, but little is known about its functional diversity and impact on ecosystem functioning. We studied bacterial nitrogen fixation and methane oxidation from indicator Sphagnum mosses in Alpine bogs to test a hypothesis that the plant microbiome contained different functional patterns depending on their functions within the ecosystem. A high abundance and diversity of nitrogenase genes were detected, mostly specific for each Sphagnum. In contrast, methanotrophs formed highly similar patterns despite a high abundance and diversity of methane monooxygenase genes. Our hypothesis was supported by these contrasting functional patterns together with the result that the Sphagnum sporophyte contained a high proportion of specific diazotrophs (45.5%) but no potential methanotrophs. While essential for plant growth under nutrient-limited conditions, nitrogen-fixing bacteria were highly specific and transferred with the sporophyte unlike the ubiquitous methanotrophs which are important for the climate-relevant ecosystem itself. PMID:23739741

Bragina, Anastasia; Berg, Christian; Müller, Henry; Moser, Daniel; Berg, Gabriele

2013-01-01

275

Climate-growth relationships for bog-grown black spruce in northern Minnesota  

SciTech Connect

Black spruce (Picea mariana) tree-ring chronologies were derived for three bogs in northern Minnesota. Standard chronologies were highly intercorrelated (0.72 to 0.87). The ring-width variability attributable to a common signal ranged from 38.6 to 56.8 percent which is large for closed canopy eastern forests. These chronologies exhibited great serial correlation, therefore all chronologies were autoregressively modelled prior to climatic analyses. Each chronology was compared to monthly temperature and precipitation data from a nearby weather station. Strengths of linear relationships were measured by the product-moment correlation coefficient. May and August temperatures from the previous year and March precipitation of the current year were significantly correlated with ring-width indices. These data suggest that tree-ring chronologies from mid-continental peatlands may be a valuable, though presently ignored, source of paleoclimatic data.

Vogel, K.J. (Univ. of Minnesota, St. Paul (United States))

1993-06-01

276

Effects of bryophytes on succession from alkaline marsh to Sphagnum bog  

SciTech Connect

The alkaline eastern marsh of Lawrence Lake, a marl lake in southwestern Michigan, was sampled by randomly placed line transects to determine the bryophyte cover and corresponding vascular plant zones. Cluster analysis indicated three distinct bryophyte zones which correspond with the recognized vascular plant zones. Mosses occupied over 50% of the surface in some areas. Invasion of Sphagnum, vertical zonation of the mosses on hummocks, zonation with distance from the lake, the abundance of non-Sphagnum moss hummocks, and the ability of the non-Sphagnum species to lower the pH of marsh water during laboratory incubations are evidence that non-Sphagnum mosses facilitate succession from alkaline marsh to Sphagnum bog.

Glime, J.M.; Wetzel, R.G.; Kennedy, B.J.

1982-10-01

277

Carbon balance of a boreal bog during a year with an exceptionally dry summer  

SciTech Connect

Northern peatlands are important terrestrial carbon stores, and they show large spatial and temporal variation in the atmospheric exchange of CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4}. Thus, annual carbon balance must be studied in detail in order to predict the climatic responses of these ecosystems. Closed-chamber methods were used to study CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} in hollow, Sphagnum angustifolium lawn. S. fuscum lawn, and hummock microsites within an ombrotrophic S. fuscum bog. Micrometeorological tower measurements were used as a reference for the CH{sub 3} efflux from the bog. Low precipitation during May--August in 1994 and a warm July--August period caused the water table to drop by more than 15 cm below the peat surface in the hollows and to 48 cm below the surface in high hummocks. Increased annual total respiration exceeded gross production and resulted in a net C loss of 4--157 g/m{sup 2} in the different microsites. Drought probably caused irreversible desiccation in some lawns of S. angustifolium and S. balticum and in S. fuscum in the hummocks, while S. balticum growing in hollows retained its moisture and even increased its photosynthetic capacity during the July--August period. Seasonal (12 May--4 October) CH{sub 4} emissions ranged from 2 g CH{sub 4}-C/m{sup 2} in drier S. fuscum hummocks and lawns to 7 and 14 g/m{sup 2} in wetter S. angustifolium-S. balticum lawns and hollows, respectively.

Alm, J.; Silvola, J. [Univ. of Joensuu (Finland). Dept. of Biology; Schulman, L. [Univ. of Helsinki (Finland). Dept. of Ecology and Systematics; Walden, J. [Finnish Meteorological Inst., Helsinki (Finland); Nykaenen, H.; Martikainen, P.J. [National Public Health Inst., Kuopio (Finland). Lab. of Environmental Microbiology

1999-01-01

278

Water budget and surface-layer water storage in a Sphagnum bog in central Sweden  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A water budget was established for the open, undisturbed bog Stormossen, central Sweden, for the growing seasons of 1996 and 1997 as a part of the NOPEX project. The water budget was complemented with data on the spatial variation of groundwater levels and water contents in different microrelief elements (ridge, hollow and ridge margin). The seasonal (24 May to 4 October) rainfall, evaporation and runoff were 200, 256, and 43 mm in 1996, respectively, and 310, 286 and 74 mm in 1997, giving negative budgets of -99 mm in 1996 and -50 mm in 1997. Approximately 60% of the total budget was caused by storage changes in the upper 40 cm of the bog and 40% by swelling/shrinking in the layers below. This mire breathing must be incorporated in future models of mire-water dynamics. The water content varied diversely among the different microrelief elements, much depending on the properties of moss and peat together with distance to water table. There also was a strong hysteresis in the relationships between groundwater level and measured volumetric water content, depending partly on pore-throat effects and partly on swelling/shrinking of the peat matrix. A seasonal variation of volumetric water content in a layer beneath water table was found to be larger than what could be justified by compression alone. We think that probable causes could be methane gas expansion together with temperature effects. The main conclusions of this study were: (i) water-transport and storage characteristics are distinctly different among hummocks, ridges and hollows, (ii) mire wetness cannot be deduced from groundwater levels only, and (iii) an important part of the total water storage was caused by swelling/shrinking of the peat, not by changes in unsaturated water content.

Kellner, Erik; Halldin, Sven

2002-01-01

279

Fate of N in a peatland, Whim bog: immobilisation in the vegetation and peat, leakage into pore water and losses as N2O depend on the form of N  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Peatlands represent a vast carbon reserve that has accumulated under conditions of low nitrogen availability. Given the strong coupling between the carbon and nitrogen cycles, we need to establish the consequences of the increase in reactive nitrogen deposition for the sustainability of peatlands, and whether the form in which the nitrogen is deposited makes a difference. We have addressed these questions using a globally unique field simulation of reactive N deposition as dry deposited ammonia and wet deposited reduced N, ammonium and oxidised N, nitrate, added as ammonium chloride or sodium nitrate, to an ombrotrophic peatland, Whim bog in SE Scotland. Here we report the fate of 56 kg N ha-1 yr-1 additions over 10 yr and the consequences. The effects of 10 yr of reactive N additions depended on the form in which the N was applied. Ammonia-N deposition caused the keystone Sphagnum species, together with the main shrub Calluna and the pleurocarpous mosses, to disappear, exposing up to 30% of the peat surface. This led to a significant increase in soil water nitrate and nitrous oxide emissions. By contrast wet deposited N, despite significantly reducing the cover of Sphagnum and Pleurozium moss, did not have a detrimental effect on Calluna cover nor did it significantly change soil water N concentrations or nitrous oxide emissions. Importantly 10 yr of wet deposited N did not bare the peat surface nor significantly disrupt the vegetation enabling the N to be retained within the carbon rich peatland ecosystems. However, given the significant role of Sphagnum in maintaining conditions that retard decomposition, this study suggests that all nitrogen forms will eventually compromise carbon sequestration by peatlands through loss of some keystone Sphagnum species.

Sheppard, L. J.; Leith, I. D.; Leeson, S. R.; van Dijk, N.; Field, C.; Levy, P.

2013-01-01

280

High-resolution records of late-Holocene climate change and carbon accumulation in two north-west European ombrotrophic peat bogs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The peat stratigraphy (plant macrofossils, colorimetric humification, pollen\\/non-pollen microfossils, carbon\\/nitrogen ratios) of three replicate cores from a raised peat bog in the UK (Walton Moss) and a single core from a raised peat bog in Denmark (Lille Vildmose) were examined in an attempt to investigate the relation between long-term climate change and changes in species composition of the peat-forming vegetation.

D. S. Mauquoy; T. Engelkes; M. H. M. Groot; F. Markesteijn; M. G. Oudejans; J. van der Plicht; B. van Geel

2002-01-01

281

Calibration of delta13C of Sphagnum N-alkanes to Long Term Methane and CO2 Flux Data in Three Microhabitats Within a Cool Temperate Ombrotrophic Bog  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methane is an important greenhouse gas, and northern peatlands contribute a significant portion of the atmospheric methane burden. There is currently no reliable proxy for estimating historical methane emissions from bog sediments. In this study delta13C of Sphagnum leaf waxes taken from 3 different microhabitats in a temperate ombrotrophic bog in Ontario, Canada is compared to long-term methane and CO2

P. D. Isles; J. E. Nichols; D. M. Peteet; B. Tabanpour

2010-01-01

282

[Oxidoreductase activity of peat soils as an indicator of the degree of biochemical transformation of drained and forested bogs in west Siberia].  

PubMed

Multivariate analysis unambiguously demonstrated the differentiation of oxidoreductase activity (catalase, peroxidase, and dehydrogenase) in peat soils after a 20-25-year period of bog drainage and afforestation. The enzyme activity depended on the drainage depth. A statistical model has been developed to predict the degree of humification of peat organic matter from peroxidase activity and moisture of drained soils. Soil peroxidase activity can be an important indicator of the degree of biochemical transformation of drained and forested bogs. PMID:17853699

Efremova, T T; Ovchinnikova, T M

283

The formation of basal-type uranium deposits in south central British Columbia  

SciTech Connect

The basal-type uranium deposits in south central British Columbia occur within unconsolidated, late Miocene fluvial paleochannel sediments that overlie major fault zones within the Okanagan Highlands Intrusive Complex. Five uranium deposits have been outlined to date, of which the Blizzard (4,020 metric tons U) and Tyee (650 metric tons U) are the largest. The basement intrusive complex underlying the deposits varies in age from early Cretaceous to Eocene and is comprised of quartz monzonite, granodiorite, Coryell monzonite, porphyritic granite, and pegmatite. Uranium mineralization is present in the form of uranous (ningyoite) or uranyl (saleeite, autunite) phosphates coating clastic grains and filling voids. Because of very strong reducing conditions related to large concentrations of marcasite and organic material, ningyoite is the only uranium mineral in the Tyee deposit, whereas the Blizzard deposit contains a more complex assemblage of minerals (saleeite, autunite, ningyoite). The observed paragenetic sequence of mineral precipitation in the Blizzard deposit (autunite-saleeite-ningyoite) indicates that the uranyl minerals, saleeite and autunite, are primary. Investigations of the source of the ore-forming elements (U, Ca, Mg, PO/sub 4/) showed the deposits to be formed by the infiltration into fluvial sediments of deep-seated, structurally controlled, ground waters that migrated in a well-developed regional hydrologic system within the Complex. Research indicates that the ore-forming ground waters were cold, slightly bicarbonated (150-400 ppm), highly uraniferous (10-50 ppb), and slightly oxidizing (dissolved oxygen = 2-4 ppm).

Boyle, D.R.

1982-08-01

284

The importance of dissolved free oxygen during formation of sandstone-type uranium deposits  

USGS Publications Warehouse

One factor which distinguishes t, he genesis of roll-type uranium deposits from the Uravan Mineral Belt and other sandstone-type uranium deposits may be the presence and concentration of dissolved free oxygen in the ore-forming. solutions. Although dissolved oxygen is a necessary prerequisite for the formation of roll-type deposits, it is proposed that a lack of dissolved oxygen is a prerequisite for the Uravan deposits. Solutions that formed both types of deposits probably had a supergene origin and originated as meteoric water in approximate equilibrium with atmospheric oxygen. Roll-type deposits were formed where the Eh dropped abruptly following consumption of the oxygen by iron sulfide minerals and creation of kinetically active sulfur species that could reduce uranium. The solutions that formed the Uravan deposits, on the other hand, probably first equilibrated with sulfide-free ferrous-ferric detrital minerals and fossil organic matter in the host rock. That is, the uraniferous solutions lost their oxygen without lowering their Eh enough to precipitate uranium. Without oxygen, they then. became incapable of oxidizing iron sulfide minerals. Subsequent localization and formation of ore bodies from these oxygen-depleted solutions, therefore, was not necessarily dependent on large reducing capacities.

Granger, Harry Clifford; Warren, C. G.

1979-01-01

285

Calibration of ?13C of Sphagnum N-alkanes to Long Term Methane and CO2 Flux Data in Three Microhabitats Within a Cool Temperate Ombrotrophic Bog  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Methane is an important greenhouse gas, and northern peatlands contribute a significant portion of the atmospheric methane burden. There is currently no reliable proxy for estimating historical methane emissions from bog sediments. In this study ?13C of Sphagnum leaf waxes taken from 3 different microhabitats in a temperate ombrotrophic bog in Ontario, Canada is compared to long-term methane and CO2 flux data and water table measurements. A portion of the CO2 used by Sphagnum for photosynthesis is derived from methane produced in the anaerobic bog sediments, and this can create a depleted ?13C signal in the Sphagnum leaf waxes. Because N-alkanes are well-preserved in bog sediments, this proxy could provide useful information about historical methane cycling in bogs. Leaf waxes were collected both from bulk samples of the cores and from sphagnum plants separated by species. By comparing the isotope signatures to long-term records, we assess the sensitivity of the proxy to short- and long-term changes in climate conditions and to different common microhabitats within the bog.

Isles, P. D.; Nichols, J. E.; Peteet, D. M.; Tabanpour, B.

2010-12-01

286

CO2 fluxes at northern fens and bogs have opposite responses to inter-annual fluctuations in water table  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study compares eddy-covariance measurements of carbon dioxide fluxes at six northern temperate and boreal peatland sites in Canada and the northern United States of America, representing both bogs and fens. The two peatland types had opposite responses of gross ecosystem photosynthesis (GEP) and ecosystem respiration (ER) to inter-annual fluctuations in water table level. At fens, wetter conditions were correlated with lower GEP and ER, while at bogs wetter conditions were correlated with higher GEP and ER. We hypothesize that these contrasting responses are due to differences in the relative contributions of vascular plants and mosses. The coherence of our results between sites representing a range of average environmental conditions indicates ecosystem-scale differences in resilience to hydrological changes that should be taken into account when considering the future of peatland ecosystem services such as carbon sequestration under changing environmental conditions.

Sulman, Benjamin N.; Desai, Ankur R.; Saliendra, Nicanor Z.; Lafleur, Peter M.; Flanagan, Lawrence B.; Sonnentag, Oliver; Mackay, D. Scott; Barr, Alan G.; van der Kamp, Garth

2010-10-01

287

Structure of a community of testate amoebae in a sphagnum dominated bog in upper sura flow (Middle Volga Territory)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fifty nine species of testate amoebae were found in a sphagnum moss bog located in the upper Sura flow (Volga highland). The\\u000a active diversity in communities of sphagnum moss biotopes was formed by 24 species. Minimal species diversity (3 species)\\u000a and maximum density of organisms were noted in the driest habitat. In the habitats with the medium humidity levels, the

Yu. A. Mazei; A. N. Tsyganov; O. A. Bubnova

2007-01-01

288

The species composition and distribution of diatom algae in sphagnum bogs in European Russia: The Polistovo-Lovatskii land tract  

Microsoft Academic Search

The species composition of diatom algae in the Polistovo-Lovatskii sphagnum tract (Rdeiskoye bog, Novgorod oblast) \\\\are studied.\\u000a The systematic and ecological-geographical analyses of the flora are performed. A total of 256 species and intraspecific taxa\\u000a differing in ecological specificities and frequencies of occurrence in samples are revealed. A considerable number of centric\\u000a diatoms is found. It is shown that primary

M. S. Kulikovskiy

2009-01-01

289

The species composition and distribution of diatoms in sphagnum bogs of European Russia: Ecosystems of the Volga Upland  

Microsoft Academic Search

The species composition of diatoms in ten sphagnum bogs of the Volga Upland (Penzenskaya oblast) was studied. A systematic\\u000a and ecologo-geographical analysis of flora was performed. A great number of algae were found (291 species and intraspecific\\u000a taxon) that differ in specific ecological features and frequency of occurrence in samples. The horizontal heterogeneity of\\u000a diatom communities in the sphagnum cover

M. S. Kulikovskii

2008-01-01

290

Multiproxy Record of Late Pleistocene–Holocene Climate and Vegetation Changes from a Peat Bog in Patagonia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pollen assemblage changes and stable hydrogen isotope analysis of mosses (Sphagnum magellanicum and Drepanocladus s.l.) from a bog in Tierra del Fuego, Argentina, provided independent proxies for reconstructing changes in effective moisture and temperature over the past 16,000 cal yr B.P. A deterministic model was used to reconstruct the stable hydrogen isotope composition of meteoric water from the D\\/H ratios

Elise Pendall; Vera Markgraf; James W. C White; Mark Dreier; Ray Kenny

2001-01-01

291

Isolation and identification of methanogen-specific DNA from blanket bog peat by PCR amplification and sequence analysis  

SciTech Connect

Methane, despite its lower concentration, is estimated to be 25 to 30 times more effective as a greenhouse gas than carbon dioxide. Estimates suggest that about 74% of atmospheric methane is derived from recent microbial activity and sources of methane are of considerable interest. This report describes the analysis of methanogen-specific DNA present in a well-characterized blanket peat bog, a type of habitat that is responsible globally for substantial methane generation.

Hales, B.A.; Edwards, C.; Ritchie, D.A.; Saunders, J.R. [Univ. of Liverpool (United Kingdom)] [and others

1996-02-01

292

Cattail invasion of sedge meadows following hydrologic disturbance in the Cowles Bog Wetland Complex, Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore  

Microsoft Academic Search

The vegetation of the 80.7 hectare Cowles Bog Wetland. Complex has been altered from its historic mixed sedge-grass domination\\u000a (Carex\\u000a stricta,Calamagrostis\\u000a canadensis) in lower areas and woody growth in slightly elevated areas, as based on archival aerial photographs from 1938–1982 and recent\\u000a field data. Cattails (Typha spp.) were present in 1938 and made minor gains in cover through 1970. However,

Douglas A. Wilcox; Steven I. Apfelbaum; Ronald D. Hiebert

1984-01-01

293

Restoration of floating mat bog vegetation after eutrophication damages by improving water quality in a small pond  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied vegetation changes in a small floating mat bog in Mizorogaike Pond (Kyoto, Japan), which had experienced a severe\\u000a decrease in the number and area of hummocks caused by nutrient loading in the 1960s and 1970s, to examine whether reducing\\u000a the extent of nutrient loading can restore degraded wetland vegetation. However, nutrient loading in the region has been minimized

Riyou TsujinoNoboru; Noboru Fujita; Masao Katayama; Daiju Kawase; Kiyoshi Matsui; Akihiro Seo; Tetsuya Shimamura; Yasuhiro Takemon; Nozomi Tsujimura; Takakazu Yumoto; Atushi Ushimaru

2010-01-01

294

[Estimation of the phylogenetic diversity of prokaryotic microorganisms in Sphagnum bogs with the use of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH)].  

PubMed

The microbial population of Sphagnum bogs of northern Russia was analyzed with respect to the presence and cell numbers of representatives of particular phylogenetic groups of prokaryotes by means of in situ hybridization with fluorescently labeled rRNA-targeted oligonucleotide probes with broad detection spectra. The total number of cells that hybridized with universal Archaea- or Bacteria-specific probes varied, in peat samples of different bogs, from 45 to 83% of the number of cells revealed by DAPI staining. Down the bog profiles, the total number of prokaryotes and the fraction of archaea among them increased. Application of a set of oligonucleotide probes showed that the number of microorganisms belonging to such phylogenetic lineages of the domain Bacteria as the phyla Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, Acidobacteria, and Planctomycetes constituted, in total, 14.0-26.5% of the number of eubacteria detected in the samples. Among the bacteria identified in the peat samples, the most abundant were representatives of the classes Alphaproteobacteria and Betaproteobacteria and the phyla Acidobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Actinobacteria. PMID:16400995

Pankratov, T A; Belova, S E; Dedysh, S N

295

Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 2): Bog Creek Farm, NJ. (Second Remedial Action), June 1989. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The Bog Creek Farm site is a 4-acre disposal area consisting of a man-made pond, bog, and trench in Howell Township, Monmouth County, New Jersey. The site is bordered to the north by Squankum Brook, to the west by two residences and a riding stable, and to the south and north by open fields. Between 1973 and 1974 organic solvents and paint residues were dumped around a trench in the eastern portion of the property, creating a highly contaminated soil area. In late 1974 the property owner removed some waste from the disposal trench and covered the trench under direction from the Howell Township Health Department. A 1985 Record of Decision selected a first operable unit remedy that involved excavating the soil from the waste trench, pond, and bog areas and incinerating the soil onsite. The second operable unit focuses on remediating the contaminated ground water in the shallow aquifer and the contaminated brook sediment. The primary contaminants of concern affecting the sediment and ground water are VOCs including benzene, toluene and xylenes; and other organics including phenols. The selected remedies for the site are described.

Not Available

1989-06-28

296

Variations in the D/H and 18O/ 16O ratios in cellulose extracted from a peat bog core  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A peat core from a raised bog covering the period 3100 to 2400 14C years B.P. has been analysed for D/H and 18O/ 16O ratios. These analyses were applied to cellulose, extracted from 56 successive layers of 1 cm thickness. D/H ratios were determined for the carbon bonded hydrogen; 18O/ 16O analyses were performed by applying a new method. For the interpretation of the results obtained on peat, the isotopic ratios of 11 living bog plant species were measured, showing a relatively large scatter. Most pronounced is a depletion in D of about 25‰ and in 18O of about 5‰ of the Sphagnum mosses relative to the vascular bog plants. This different isotopic composition is reflected by the ?D and ? 18O records of the peat core, because the abundance of the remains of non-vascular plants is variable. If this effect is taken account of, the remaining ?D variations appear to be too large to be attributed to variations in the isotopic compositions of precipitation. As palaeoclimatic indicators the D/H and 18O/ 16O ratio qualitatively agree with the pollen analytical evidence for the climatic deterioration of the Subboreal-Subatlantic transition.

Brenninkmeijer, C. A. M.; van Geel, B.; Mook, W. G.

1982-12-01

297

Comparative characteristic of the sphagnum moss and peat of upland bogs in Siberia, Russia and central part of Germany  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This research represents the results of the ICP-MS study for the moss and peat samples from two upland bogs of Germany and one bog from Siberia, Russia (Tomsk region). Moss and upland peat are widely used for ecological studies. These substances enable to detect atmospheric pollution because of the peculiar structure of sphagnum moss. According to the obtained results, we can resume that moss and peat in Tomsk region are more enriched in such chemical elements as Cr, Fe, As, Sr, Y, Zr, Ba, La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Tb, Yb, Lu, Hf, Hg, Th, and U. The samples from Germany are more enriched in Mn, Cu, Zn, and Se. The geochemical composition of the bogs reflects the specificity of industries that pollute the atmosphere with definite chemical elements. Thus, REE, Th and U in the moss and peat of Tomsk region can originate from nuclear facility near the Tomsk city. Coal combustion in power stations can be the source of Cr, As, Sr and REE as well. Mn, Cu, Zn, and Se possibly can originate from metallurgical facilities in Germany.

Mezhibor, Antonina; Podkozlin, Ivan

2013-04-01

298

A stacked record of late-Holocene moisture variability from three raised bogs in Maine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the past century, drought has caused substantial social, economic, and ecological changes in North America. Semi-arid regions of the western United States have been particularly vulnerable to drought and drought impacts. However, drought has been less frequent and severe in humid regions of North America during the past century, leading to the perception that these regions are not particularly vulnerable to hydroclimatic change. Although the tree-ring record provides a detailed perspective on drought frequency and duration for the past millennium in the western US, much less is known about the long-term history of water balance in humid regions like the Northeast. To better understand the long-term history of moisture variability in this region, we developed records of past hydroclimate variability spanning the past 3000 years from three raised bogs in Maine. We used testate amoeba-inferred water table depths and measurements of the degree of peat decomposition to reconstruct the paleohydrology at each site. Proxy hydroclimate records from these bogs were combined (stacked), creating a single, regional record of hydroclimate variability. Our results reveal that droughts longer or more severe than any recorded during the 20th century have been common in the region, with particularly prominent multidecadal-to-centennial scale droughts centered on ~1800 yr BP, ~1650 yr BP, ~850 yr BP, and ~550 yr BP. Hydroclimate variability was greatest during the Medieval Climate Anomaly, a time period of relative warmth in much of the Northern Hemisphere. Droughts in Maine during the past century have been associated with northerly wind anomalies and anomalously cool sea surface temperatures in the adjacent northwestern North Atlantic, patterns that are likely associated with broader circulation features such as those associated with the North Atlantic Oscillation. Droughts of the past 3000 years may have been characterized by similar responses to the coupled ocean-atmosphere system, although mechanisms and dynamics remain unclear. Although drought risks in humid regions such as eastern North America have been less studied because of lack of recent occurrence, our data reveal that this region has been vulnerable to persistent and prolonged droughts in the recent past.

Clifford, M. J.; Booth, R. K.

2011-12-01

299

Seasonal and interannual variation in water vapor and heat fluxes in a West Siberian continental bog  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The seasonal and interannual variation in the energy fluxes of a West Siberian continental bog were measured from April to October in 1999 and 2000 using the eddy covariance method. The energy balance closure rate (=[sensible + latent heat fluxes]/[available energy]) ranged from ˜0.8 to 0.9 and showed a better energy balance and less scattering using the soil heat flux estimated from an area-averaged soil thermal parameter rather than from a plot-based measurement. The net radiation (Rn) increased drastically after snowmelt because the surface albedo (a) dropped from its highest value to its lowest value over the course of the snowmelt. The snowmelt water raised the water table (zwt) to its highest level; it then gradually decreased. The seasonal and interannual variation in a, which ranged from 0.09-0.19, depended on zwt, because surface wetness was closely related to zwt through the capillary uptake of Sphagnum moss. The seasonal variation in the latent heat flux (lE) was similar to that in Rn. The largest lE was observed in the middle of June, and was ˜120 Wm-2 (4.2 mm d-1) in both years. Conversely, the sensible heat flux (H) did not show an obvious seasonal pattern and was lower than lE during the growing season. The Bowen ratio (Br) in the early growing season was 0.57 and 0.60, and the values in the peak growing season were 0.65 and 0.78, in 1999 and 2000, respectively. The lower Br was related to the higher zwt; specifically, it was due to the wetter surface conditions. An interannual comparison of the monthly mean atmospheric water vapor deficit (?e) and lE showed a significant relationship with a higher lE observed in the year with a higher ?e. Therefore in the bog studied the interannual variation in the water vapor flux was controlled mainly by zwt and ?e.

Shimoyama, K.; Hiyama, T.; Fukushima, Y.; Inoue, G.

2003-10-01

300

Fine-scale horizontal and vertical micro-distribution patterns of testate amoebae along a narrow Fen/Bog gradient.  

PubMed

The ecology of peatland testate amoebae is well studied along broad gradient from very wet (pool) to dry (hummock) micro-sites where testate amoebae are often found to respond primarily to the depth to water table (DWT). Much less is known on their responses to finer-scale gradients, and nothing is known of their possible response to phenolic compounds, which play a key role in carbon storage in peatlands. We studied the vertical (0-3, 3-6, and 6-9 cm sampling depths) micro-distribution patterns of testate amoebae in the same microhabitat (Sphagnum fallax lawn) along a narrow ecological gradient between a poor fen with an almost flat and homogeneous Sphagnum carpet (fen) and a "young bog" (bog) with more marked micro-topography and mosaic of poor fen and bog vegetation. We analyzed the relationships between the testate amoeba data and three sets of variables (1) "chemical" (pH, Eh potential, and conductivity), (2) "physical" (water temperature, altitude, i.e., Sphagnum mat micro-topography, and DWT), and (3) phenolic compounds in/from Sphagnum (water-soluble and primarily bound phenolics) as well as the habitat (fen/bog) and the sampling depth. Testate amoeba Shannon H' diversity, equitability J of communities, and total density peaked in lower parts of Sphagnum, but the patterns differed between the fen and bog micro-sites. Redundancy analyses revealed that testate amoeba communities differed significantly in relation to Eh, conductivity, water temperature, altitude, water-soluble phenolics, habitat, and sampling depth, but not to DWT, pH, or primarily bound phenolics. The sensitivity of testate amoebae to weak environmental gradients makes them particularly good integrators of micro-environmental variations and has implications for their use in paleoecology and environmental monitoring. The correlation between testate amoeba communities and the concentration of water-soluble phenolic suggests direct (e.g., physiological) and/or indirect (e.g., through impact on prey organisms) effects on testate amoebae, which requires further research. PMID:20938656

Jassey, Vincent E J; Chiapusio, Geneviève; Mitchell, Edward A D; Binet, Philippe; Toussaint, Marie-Laure; Gilbert, Daniel

2010-10-12

301

A peat bog record of natural, pre-anthropogenic enrichments of trace elements in atmospheric aerosols since 12?370 14C yr BP, and their variation with Holocene climate change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A peat bog in the Jura Mountains, Switzerland, provides a continuous record of peat accumulation since 12?370 14C yr BP. Periods of enhanced soil dust deposition (10?590 14C yr BP, 8230 14C yr BP, and after 5320 14C yr BP) are characterized by strongly elevated Ti/Sc and Zr/Sc ratios which imply an increase in the abundance (both relative and absolute) of heavy minerals such as ilmenite and zircon. With respect to trace elements such as Cu, Zn, As, Cd, Sb and Au, the M/Sc ratios are at their lowest, and often approach crustal values, during periods of enhanced soil dust deposition. The lowest rates of atmospheric deposition of soil dust date from 8030 to 5320 14C yr BP, corresponding to the Holocene climate optimum, but here many trace elements exhibit their greatest natural enrichments: the average enrichment factor (calculated using Sc as the reference element, and normalizing to crustal abundance) was Zn 4.1±1.4, Sb 4.8±1.4, Cu 8.8±3.3, As 14.9±3.2, Au 53.9±25.1, and Cd 357.4±53.8. These enrichments cannot be explained by chemical diagenesis within the deeper sections of the peat profile during or subsequent to peat formation, but rather reflect the chemical composition of airborne material supplied to the surface layers of the bog at the time of deposition. The enrichments of trace metals in ancient peats, relative to crustal abundance, most likely reflects the natural enrichment of these elements in the fine fraction of soils during rock weathering. Periods of enhanced soil dust deposition such as the Younger Dryas cold climate phase (10?590 14C yr BP) are characterized by reduced vegetation cover, greater exposed soil surface, and higher wind strengths; these conditions promote the transport of locally derived soil materials of greater particle size, lower concentration of trace metals, and M/Sc ratios approaching crustal values. During the Holocene climate optimum, vegetation cover was extensive, and with lower wind strengths and a reduction in erodible soil materials, long range transport of soil dust became relatively more important to the soil dust inventory of the bog; soil dust particles in this size class are characterized by strong enrichments of a wide range of trace elements. At the end of the Holocene optimum, dust fluxes increased once again, due mainly to soil erosion resulting from the combined effects of human activities (tillage) and the climatic deterioration at the beginning of the Neoglaciation Period; this promoted the supply of local, more coarse soil particles with M/Sc ratios approaching those of crustal rocks. While biological cycling and volcanic emissions probably also contributed to the atmospheric supply of many of these elements in the pre-anthropogenic past, these contributions appear to be less important than the chemical weathering, physical fractionation, and atmospheric transport of soil dust particles.

Shotyk, William; Krachler, Michael; Martinez-Cortizas, Antonio; Cheburkin, Andriy K.; Emons, Hendrik

2002-05-01

302

Methanoregula boonei gen. nov., sp. nov., an acidiphilic methanogen isolated from an acidic peat bog.  

PubMed

A novel acidiphilic, hydrogenotrophic methanogen, designated strain 6A8(T), was isolated from an acidic (pH 4.0-4.5) and ombrotrophic (rain-fed) bog located near Ithaca, NY, USA. Cultures were dimorphic, containing thin rods (0.2-0.3 ?m in diameter and 0.8-3.0 ?m long) and irregular cocci (0.2-0.8 ?m in diameter). The culture utilized H(2)/CO(2) to produce methane but did not utilize formate, acetate, methanol, ethanol, 2-propanol, butanol or trimethylamine. Optimal growth conditions were near pH 5.1 and 35 °C. The culture grew in basal medium containing as little as 0.43 mM Na(+) and growth was inhibited completely by 50 mM NaCl. To our knowledge, strain 6A8(T) is one of the most acidiphilic (lowest pH optimum) and salt-sensitive methanogens in pure culture. Acetate, coenzyme M, vitamins and yeast extract were required for growth. It is proposed that a new genus and species be established for this organism, Methanoregula boonei gen. nov., sp. nov. The type strain of Methanoregula boonei is 6A8(T) (=DSM 21154(T) =JCM 14090(T)). PMID:20154331

Bräuer, Suzanna L; Cadillo-Quiroz, Hinsby; Ward, Rebekah J; Yavitt, Joseph B; Zinder, Stephen H

2010-02-12

303

Bioavailability of inorganic arsenic from bog ore-containing soil in the dog.  

PubMed Central

In some parts of The Netherlands, bog ore-containing soils predominate, which have natural arsenic levels that exceed, by a factor of 10, existing standards for maximum allowable levels of inorganic arsenic in soil. These standards are based on the assumption that in humans the bioavailability of arsenic from ingested soil is equal to that from an aqueous solution. In view of the regulatory problem that the arsenic levels of these soils present, we questioned the validity of this assumption. To obtain a more realistic estimate, the bioavailability of inorganic arsenic from soil in a suitable animal model was studied. In this report, a study performed in six dogs in a two-way cross-over design is presented. The dogs received orally, in random order, arsenic both as an intravenous solution and as arsenic-containing soil. During a 120-hr period after administration urine was collected in 24-hr fractions. Levels of arsenic were determined using a method of wet digestion, isolation and complexation of arsine, followed by molecule absorption spectrometry. Within 120 hr after intravenous administration, 88 +/- 16% of the dose was excreted renally. After oral administration of arsenic-containing soil, only 7.0 +/- 1.5% was excreted renally. From the urinary excretion data for these two routes of administration, the calculated bioavailability of inorganic arsenic from soil was 8.3 +/- 2.0%. The results from this study demonstrate the need to reconsider the present risk assessment for arsenic in soil. Images Figure 1. Figure 2.

Groen, K; Vaessen, H A; Kliest, J J; de Boer, J L; van Ooik, T; Timmerman, A; Vlug, R F

1994-01-01

304

Superfund record of decision (EPA Region 2): Burnt Fly Bog, Marlboro Township, NJ, September 30, 1998  

SciTech Connect

This decision document presents the selected remedial action for the Westerly Wetlands, Northerly Wetlands, and Tar Patch Area at the Burnt Fly Bog Superfund Site. It addresses contaminated soil present on the three remaining contaminated areas on the Site, including the Westerly Wetlands, Northerly Wetlands, and Tar Patch Area. The major components of the selected remedy include: Excavation and off-site disposal of contaminated soil from the Northerly Wetlands; Excavation and off-site disposal of contaminated soil from the Tar Patch Area; Backfilling the excavated area in the Northerly Wetland and reestablishing wetlands; Backfilling the excavated area in the Tar Patch Area and creating wetlands; Provision of additional security fencing around the Westerly Wetlands, and the recording of a Deed Notice for the Westerly Wetlands, Northerly Wetlands, and Tar Patch Area; Monitoring of surface water and sediment in the Westerly Wetlands, surface water and sediment in the existing sedimentation basin located in the Downstream Area, and surface water, sediment and, if necessary, biota in Burnt Fly Brook; and Biological sampling in the Westerly Wetlands.

NONE

1999-03-01

305

Brief communication: Two and three-dimensional analysis of bone mass and microstructure in a bog body from the Iron Age.  

PubMed

Human remains from peat bogs, called "bog bodies," have yielded valuable insights into human history because of their excellent preservation of soft tissue. On the other hand, the acidic environment of the peat leads to an extensive demineralization of skeletal elements, complicating their analysis. We studied the skeleton of the bog body "Moora" dated to approximately 650 B.C. Nondestructive evaluation of the bone was made using contact X-rays, peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) analysis, multislice computed tomography (CT) and high resolution micro computed tomography (microCT) imaging. Two thousand seven hundred years in the acidic environment of the bog led to a loss of 92.7% of bone mineral density. Despite this demineralization and in contrast to other bog bodies, the spatial structure of the bones of "Moora" is exceptionally well preserved. We found Harris lines and were able to obtain the first three-dimensional data on the trabecular microstructure of the bone of a young woman from the early Iron Age. PMID:18000892

Schilling, Arndt F; Kummer, Tobias; Marshall, Robert P; Bauerochse, Andreas; Jopp, Eilin; Pueschel, Klaus; Amling, Michael

2008-04-01

306

Variations of 18O/ 16O in plants from temperate peat bogs (Switzerland): implications for paleoclimatic studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Despite the great potential of peat bogs as climatic archives, to date only few studies have focused on the climatic controls on cellulose isotopic composition in modern bog plants. This study attempts to calibrate plant-climate relationships by sampling a set of modern plant species (both vascular plants and mosses) and bog surface waters along an altitude transect in Switzerland. Isotopic analyses of water samples show that the ? 18O-values of surface bog waters follow the trend of precipitation despite significant scatter in the data set. Detailed sampling of surface waters within one bog shows that ? 18O-values vary widely and are closely related to the micro-topography of the bog surface. More enriched 18O/ 16O ratios in water samples collected from small raised hummocks than the ones collected from hollows are documented in both horizontal and vertical profiles. A ? 18O-?D plot indicates that the process leading to the isotopic enrichment of the uppermost surface waters is evaporation, greater above Sphagnum covered hummocks than above open pools. To investigate the implications of such high variability of source water for plant ?-cellulose ? 18O-values, a detailed study of both surface water and ?-cellulose ? 18O-values within one site is conducted. The large ? 18O variability observed in surface waters is found to be considerably smoothed in ?-cellulose (by a factor of 5-10 depending on the plant species). This indicates that the water used by plant photosynthetic processes reflects the isotopic composition of the average annual precipitation. This points to a source water level for plants of a few decimeters where the variations are smaller than at the air-water interface. The response of the ?-cellulose ? 18O to the environmental gradient along the altitude transect varies considerably from species to species. For most of the species studied, the ? 18O-values decrease with altitude, following the trends of ? 18O-values in precipitation and in surface water samples. Some species, the cotton sedge Eriophorum vaginatum and the moss Sphagnum capillifolium, show statistically significant ? 18O relationships to an altitude of -1.8‰/km and -2.9‰/km respectively. However, some other plant species, Calluna vulgaris, Vaccinium uliginosum, Andromeda poliflora, Carex pauciflora, Sphagnum cuspidatum and Sphagnum magellanicum, do not, or only partially, reflect changes in climatic parameters associated with an altitude increase. Furthermore, changes in relative humidity, which are not correlated with altitude, are found to explain a large part of the variability in ? 18O-values for the sedge Carex pauciflora and the moss Sphagnum cuspidatum. Therefore, this study confirms the importance of species-specific studies when interpreting 18O/ 16O ratios of macrofossils along a fossil peat sequence as a record of past climate changes. Our study allows to extend the mechanistic model that isotopically links source water and cellulose to the physiological specificities of sedges and mosses. A comparison of the modeled and calculated net biological fractionation factors for Eriophorum vaginatum and Sphagnum capillifolium reveals that these two species appear to have a more homogeneous leaf reservoir than trees.

Ménot-Combes, Guillemette; Burns, Stephen J.; Leuenberger, Markus

2002-09-01

307

Impact of long term wetting on pore water chemistry in a peat bog in Ontario, Canada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Peatlands of the northern hemisphere store a remarkable amount of carbon but also contribute to global methane emissions. As large areas in the boreal and subarctic zone are considered to undergo significant climate change it is necessary to understand how these ecosystems react to altered environmental conditions. Since not only temperatures but also precipitation is likely to increase in these regions, it is of particular interest to understand the impact of raised water tables and changing local hydrological flow patterns on peatlands' carbon cycle. We chose a pristine bog that was partly flooded by a reservoir lake created 60 years ago in Ontario, Canada. Water management in the reservoir resulted in seasonal flooding, shifting hydrological flow patterns and vegetation gradients. The impact of partial flooding on pore water chemistry and DIC and CH4 concentrations were studied within surface peat layers. Samples were taken with pore water peepers along the vegetation- and flooding gradient. Turnover rates of DIC and methane were calculated from obtained concentration profiles and peat porosity under the assumption that transport is dominated by diffusion. Values of pH changed remarkably from 4 within the undisturbed bog part to almost 8 at the lake shore. Ca2+ and Mg2+ were the only ions that showed significant distribution patterns with readily increasing concentrations towards the lake water body. CH4 and DIC concentrations also increased towards the lake and peaked in around 100 cm depth right at the shore with maximum concentrations being 2766 ?mol L-1 for CH4 and 7543 ?mol L-1 for DIC, respectively. Turnover rates also increased towards the shore albeit some uncertainty lies in this finding as steady state condition required for calculations were probably not established and transport was not only dominated by diffusion. Maximum CH4 production rates were modeled to be 36 nmol cm-3 d-1 and maximum DIC production was calculated to 64 nmol cm-3 d-1. Ca2+ and Mg2+ concentration indicate lake water intrusion into the peat. Changes in pH are also probably due to lake water intrusion and altered plant communities. Vascular plant roots likely increased methanotrophy in subsurface layers but fuelled methanogenesis releasing labile carbon compounds in deeper layers. Modeling turnover rates gets exacerbated as other forms of gas transportation than diffusion prevail in vicinity to the lake. In addition to higher plant productivity lateral water flow is presumably the most important factor contributing to higher DIC and methane concentrations as it is thought to diminish the effect of end product inhibition in deeper peat layers towards the lake. We thus hypothesize that seasonal flooding not only affects ombrotrophic sites by nutrient inputs and subsequent changes in vegetation, but also due to altered hydrological flow patterns which will affect pore water chemistry and turnover rates by exchange of solutes and mineralization end products.

Schaper, Jonas; Blodau, Christian; Holger Knorr, Klaus

2013-04-01

308

Bog bilberry anthocyanin extract improves motor functional recovery by multifaceted effects in spinal cord injury.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to determine the therapeutic efficiency of bog bilberry anthocyanin extract (BBAE) treatment starting 1 d after spinal cord injury (SCI) in rats and to investigate the underlying mechanism. The BBAE contained cyanidin-3-glucoside, malvidin-3-galactoside and malvidin-3-glucoside. SCI models were induced using the weight-drop method in Sprague-Dawley rats and additionally with sham group (laminectomy only). The animals were divided into four groups: vehicle-treated group; 10 mg/kg BBAE-treated group; 20 mg/kg BBAE-treated group; sham group. BBAE-treated or vehicle-treated group was administered orally at one day after SCI and then daily for 8 weeks. Locomotor functional recovery was assessed during the 8 weeks post operation period by performing a Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan (BBB) locomotor score test. At the end of study, the animals were killed, and 1.5 cm segments of spinal cord encompassing the injury site were removed for immunohistochemistry, histopathological and western blotting analysis. Immunohistochemistry for GFAP, aggrecan, neurocan and NeuN was used to assess the degree of astrocytic glial scar formation and neuron survival. Immunohistochemistry and western blotting analysis for TNF-?, IL-6, IL-1? was used to evaluate the anti-inflammation effect of BBAE. To evaluate its inhibition effect on the astrocytes, we performed the MTT assay and immunohistochemistry for Ki67 in vitro. Results show that the BBAE-treated animals showed significantly better locomotor functional recovery, neuron death and smaller glial scar formation after spinal cord injury in vivo. In addition, BBAE administration could inhibit astrocyte proliferation in vivo and vitro. Therefore, BBAE may be useful as a promising therapeutic agent for SCI. PMID:23001399

Wang, Jun; Ma, Chuan; Rong, Wei; Jing, Hao; Hu, Xing; Liu, Xiaoguang; Jiang, Liang; Wei, Feng; Liu, Zhongjun

2012-09-22

309

Influence of water table on carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, and methane fluxes from taiga bog microcosms  

SciTech Connect

Hydrological changes, particularly alterations in water table level, may largely overshadow the more direct effects of global temperature increase upon carbon cycling in arctic and subarctic wetlands. Frozen cores (n=40) of intact soils and vegetation were collected from a bog near Fairbanks, Alaska, and fluxes of CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, and Co in response to water table variation were studied under controlled conditions in the Duke University phytotron. Core microcosms thawed to a 20-cm depth over 30 days under a 20 hour photoperiod with a day/night temperature regime of 20/10{degrees}C. After 30 days the water table in 20 microcosms was decreased from the soil surface to -15 cm and maintained at the soil surface in 20 control cores. Outward fluxes of CO{sub 2} (9-16 g m{sup -2}d{sup -1}) and CO (3-4 mg m{sup -2}d{sup -1}) were greatest during early thaw and decreased to near zero for both gases before the water table treatment started. Lower water table tripled CO{sub 2} flux to the atmosphere when compared with control cores. Carbon monoxide was emitted at low rates from high water table cores and consumed by low water table cores. Methane fluxes were low (<1 mg m{sup -2}d{sup -1}) in all cores during thaw. High water table cores increased CH{sub 4} flux to 8-9 mg m{sup -2}d{sup -1} over 70 days and remained high relative to the low water table cores (<0.74 mg m{sup -2}d{sup -1}). Although drying of wetland taiga soils may decrease CH{sub 4} emissions to the atmosphere, the associated increase in CO{sub 2} due to aerobic respiration will likely increase the global warming potential of gas emissions from these soils. 43 refs., 4 figs.

Funk, D.W.; Pullmann, E.R.; Peterson, K.M. [Univ. of Alaska, Anchorage, AK (United States)] [and others

1994-09-01

310

Modeling the effects of hydrology on ecosystem respiration at Mer Bleue bog  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ecosys model was applied to examine the effects of peatland hydrology on soil respiration and ecosystem respiration at Mer Bleue peatland, Ontario, Canada. It was hypothesized that a decrease in near-surface microbial respiration in peat hummocks resulting from water table (WT) drawdown and subsequent desiccation of the uppermost peat would offset an increase of soil respiration at depth with improved aeration (respiration offsetting mechanism). In contrast, shallower water table in hollows would not allow near-surface desiccation to offset increased soil respiration at depth during drying. However, increased hollow soil respiration with WT drawdown would be offset by decreased aboveground moss respiration with near-surface desiccation in hummocks. Model results for microbial respiration were tested against independent laboratory experiments and ecosystem respiration against hourly eddy-covariance measurements of bog CO2 exchange from 2000 to 2004. The respiration offsetting mechanism modeled in hummocks resulted in CO2 production of 0.85 ?mol CO2 m-2 s-1 with both low (67 cm) and intermediate (38 cm) water tables in the summers of 2001 and 2004, and of 0.81 ?mol CO2 m-2 s-1 and 0.95 ?mol CO2 m-2 s-1 with high (31 cm) and intermediate (41 cm) water tables in the summers of 2000 and 2001. Ecosystem respiration was 2.01 ?mol CO2 m-2 s-1 and 2.23 ?mol CO2 m-2 s-1, and 2.62 ?mol CO2 m-2 s-1 and 2.58 ?mol CO2 m-2 s-1, respectively, during these periods. Our results suggest that ecosystem respiration at Mer Bleue varied little with water table, but this behavior may not be typical for other peatlands.

Dimitrov, Dimitre D.; Grant, Robert F.; Lafleur, Peter M.; Humphreys, Elyn R.

2010-12-01

311

Controls on Organic Layer Combustion Severity During Wildfire in Boreal Bogs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wildfires are the dominant natural disturbance to western Canadian peatlands, affecting an average of 1870 km2 annually and releasing 3.5 Tg of carbon (C) to the atmosphere through partial combustion of the extensive surface organic layer (peat) found therein. Combustion severity within fire-affected peatlands is variable, ranging from unburned islands and lightly burned "Sphagnum sheep" to deeply charred areas with >10 cm of surface fuel combustion. Spatial heterogeneity in combustion may be due to variation in moss community composition and corresponding variability in fuel condition due to interspecific differences in water retention ability and peat bulk density. However, the controls on surface organic layer combustion severity are poorly understood. We conducted a laboratory combustion experiment to examine the influence of peat type and soil moisture on the occurrence and depth of peat consumption. The soil moisture profiles of replicate monoliths of the three prevalent western Canadian bog peat types (Sphagnum fuscum hummocks, Pleurozium schreberi hummocks, and multi-species hollows) were manipulated to simulate field, moderately dry, and severe drought moisture conditions. Following manipulation and assessment of initial fuel conditions (bulk density, soil moisture, and surface topography), the monoliths were instrumented with soil moisture (TDR) probes and thermocouples and exposed to a constant radiative heat source, monitoring changes in soil moisture, temperature, and surface elevation from ignition to the extinction of combustion. We found bulk density and soil moisture interactively influenced depth of combustion through controls on peat thermal properties. Stratigraphic variation in bulk density and soil moisture created barriers to the downward propagation of combustion, which varied within and among monoliths. From these results, we developed a one-dimensional heat transfer model capable of predicting the depth of peat consumption based on peat bulk density and soil moisture stratigraphy. This model provides a framework for assessing current and future vulnerability of the peat organic layer to combustion losses during wildfire.

Benscoter, B. W.; Thompson, D. K.; Waddington, J. M.; Flannigan, M. D.; Wotton, B. M.; de Groot, W. J.; Turetsky, M. R.

2009-05-01

312

[Spatial structure of communities of heterotrophic flagellates from a sphagnum bog].  

PubMed

Spatial distribution pattern of heterotrophic flagellates within a macroscopically homogenous sphagnum parcel of a transitional bog in the southern taiga was studied. Under investigation was horizontal pattern at different scales (1 cm, 10 cm, 1 m, 10 m) and the vertical heterogeneity of the community in the sphagnum quagmire. 105 species and forms of heterotrophic flagellates were revealed. Predominating were euglenids, less abundant are kynetoplastids and cercomonads. The most numerous appeared to be Cryptomonas sp., Heteromita minima, Goniomonas truncata, Protaspis simplex, Bodo designis, B. saltans, Phyllomitus apiculatus, Paraphysomonas sp., Petalomonas minuta. More abundant species were characterized by less patchy distribution than less abundant. At a smaller scale, the community was formed by the species with different degree of patchiness while at larger scales, all the species possess nearly the same distribution pattern. The same number of samples of equal sizes revealed nearly the same species numbers independently of distances between the sample sites, as the samples at each scale differ from each other nearly at the same magnitude. An averaged size of the species aggregations in the community is as large as several centimeters. Such a scale is probably a characteristic size (minimum area) of the community of the sphagnum dwelling heterotrophic flagellates. Rather low environmental heterogeneity within the sphagnum quagmire leads to significant homogeneity of the community at larger scales. Vertical differentiation of the heterotrophic flagellate community within that quagmire appeared to be very unstable with the time. The same species are characterized by different preferences to the depths at different spatial-temporal loci. Specific vertical distributions and community patterns are formed under different local conditions. PMID:19326857

Tikhonenkov, D V; Maze?, Iu A

313

Dependency of Ecosystem Respiration in a Cool Temperate Bog on Peat Temperature and Water Table  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We measured ecosystem respiration (ER) from nighttime net ecosystem exchange of carbon dioxide determined from an eddy covariance tower located in a large ombrotrophic bog near Ottawa, Canada. Measurements were made from May to October over 5 years, 1998 to 2002. Ecosystem respiration ranged from <0.05 mg CO2/m2/s in spring (May) and late fall (late October) to 0.10-0.15 mg CO2/m2/s during the summer (July-August). As anticipated, there was a strong relationship between ER and peat temperatures, such as at a depth of 5 cm (r2 = 0.63). Q10 over 5° to 15° C varied from 2.2 to 4.2 depending upon the choice of temperature level and location within a hummock or hollow. Unexpected for a wetland ecosystem, there was only a weak relationship between ER and water table position (r2 = 0.11). Comparison of ER in early and late summer, 2002 with similar surface temperature revealed no significant difference in ER. A laboratory incubation of peat cores at different moisture contents showed that CO2 production was reduced by drying in the surface samples, but there was little decrease in samples from below a depth of 30 cm. We believe that the lack of correlation between ER and water table position in this ecosystem results from an increase in CO2 production at depth compensating a decrease in production of CO2 by heterotrophic respiration in the near surface layers and autotrophic respiration in the moss community.

Moore, T.; Lafleur, P.; Roulet, N.; Frolking, S.

2003-12-01

314

Connectivity and storage functions of channel fens and flat bogs in northern basins  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The hydrological response of low relief, wetland-dominated zones of discontinuous permafrost is poorly understood. This poses a major obstacle to the development of a physically meaningful meso-scale hydrological model for the Mackenzie basin, one of the world's largest northern basins. The present study examines the runoff response of five representative study basins (Scotty Creek, and the Jean-Marie, Birch, Blackstone and Martin Rivers) in the lower Liard River valley as a function of their major biophysical characteristics. High-resolution (4 m × 4 m) IKONOS satellite imagery was used in combination with aerial and ground verification surveys to classify the land cover, and to delineate the wetland area connected to the drainage system. Analysis of the annual hydrographs of each basin for the 4 year period 1997 to 2000, demonstrated that runoff was positively correlated with the drainage density, basin slope, and the percentage of the basin covered by channel fens, and was negatively correlated with the percentage of the basin covered by flat bogs. The detailed analysis of the water-level response to summer rainstorms at several nodes along the main drainage network in the Scotty Creek basin showed that the storm water was slowly routed through channel fens with an average flood-wave velocity of 0·23 km h-1. The flood-wave velocity appears to be controlled by channel slope and hydraulic roughness in a manner consistent with the Manning formula, suggesting that a roughness-based routing algorithm might be useful in large-scale hydrological models. Copyright

Quinton, W. L.; Hayashi, M.; Pietroniro, A.

2003-12-01

315

Paenibacillus frigoriresistens sp. nov., a novel psychrotroph isolated from a peat bog in Heilongjiang, Northern China.  

PubMed

A novel cold-resistant bacterium, designated YIM 016(T), was isolated from a peat bog sample collected from Mohe County, Heilongjiang Province, Northern China and its taxonomic position was investigated using a polyphasic approach. The strain was Gram-positive, aerobic, endospore-forming, motile and rod-shaped. Phylogenetic analyses based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence clearly revealed that strain YIM 016(T) is a member of the genus Paenibacillus. The strain is closely related to Paenibacillus alginolyticus DSM 5050(T), Paenibacillus chondroitinus DSM 5051(T) and Paenibacillus pocheonensis Gsoil 1138(T) with similarities of 99.0 %, 97.0 % and 96.3 %, respectively. Meanwhile, the low DNA-DNA relatedness levels between strain YIM 016(T) and its closely related phylogenetic neighbours demonstrated that this isolate represents a new genomic species in the genus Paenibacillus. Phenotypic and chemotaxonomic tests showed that growth of strain YIM 016(T) occurred at 4-37 °C, pH 6.0-8.0 and with a NaCl tolerance up to 0.5 % (w/v). The peptidoglycan contained meso-diaminopimelic acid, alanine and glutamic acid. The whole-cell hydrolysates mainly contained glucose, galactose and ribose. The predominant menaquinone was MK-7 and the major fatty acids were anteiso-C(15:0) and iso-C(16:0). The DNA G+C content of strain YIM 016(T) was 51.7 mol %. On the basis of phylogenetic, phenotypic and chemotaxonomic characteristics, strain YIM 016(T) could be clearly distinguished from other species of the genus Paenibacillus. It is therefore concluded that strain YIM 016(T) represents a novel species in the genus Paenibacillus, for which the name Paenibacillus frigoriresistens sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is YIM 016(T) (= CCTCC AB 2011150(T) = JCM 18141(T)). PMID:22535437

Ming, Hong; Nie, Guo-Xing; Jiang, Hong-Chen; Yu, Tian-Tian; Zhou, En-Min; Feng, Hui-Gen; Tang, Shu-Kun; Li, Wen-Jun

2012-04-26

316

Variability in the concentration and character of blanket bog pore water dissolved organic carbon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rising dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations in surface waters have prompted much research to elucidate the cause(s). Given that increases in DOC concentrations, [DOC], may indicate a destabalisation of carbon stores, increase water treatment costs and affect rates of primary production and respiration in aquatic ecosystems, identifying the causes of the increase is important. The majority of studies measure [DOC] but rarely is DOC composition considered contemporaneously - yet this important as it potentially indicates provenance, reprocessing and fate. Moreover, surface water samples are usually collected at a low spatial density within a catchment. For one year we have sampled pore water from 48 piezometers and 48 tension samplers across a 12 km2 area of a Scottish blanket bog hosting a wind farm. The sampling sites are divided into four sites along a hypothesized wind farm-induced microclimatic gradient. At each site twelve sampling plots were established, four each in areas dominated by mosses, sedges and shrubs. From each plot samples were collected from piezometers and tension samplers, representing free-flowing pore water and that held under tension respectively. Dissolved organic carbon concentration and absorbance (190 to 1100 nm), were measured for each sample. Ratios, established to indicate DOC character, were calculated from the absorbance data. We found [DOC] ranged from 2-197 mg l-1 and was significantly associated with sampling location, time of year and the interaction between site and time of year, but not with plant functional type. The water held under tension had a significantly higher [DOC] compared with the free-flowing pore water sampled from the same plot. Preliminary data analysis also indicates variations in the DOC character between sites and with time. These results demonstrate the variable nature of DOC production which is partially obscured when sampling at a catchment scale but needs to be better understood to further understanding of trends in [DOC].

Armstrong, A.; Waldron, S.; Ostle, N.; Whitaker, J.

2012-04-01

317

Spatio-temporal natural and anthropogenic environmental variability during the last 1500yrs in an ombrotrophic bog (East Belgium).  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Peatlands cover ca. 3 % of the Earth's surface and provide crucial continental archives for deciphering past climatic changes and anthropogenic impacts on decadal to millennial timescales. Numerous studies have demonstrated that peat bogs are excellent archives to investigate past environmental and ecological changes during the Holocene. Studies which focus on intra-site variability at high resolution are rare however, despite their potential to provide constraints on the reliability of the palaeoenvironmental reconstruction and the influence of micro-scale variability. Such variability must be taken into account in any peatland restoration process linked with recent environmental changes, particularly human-derived impact such as peat cutting, drainage and tree cultivation. Four 1m-long Wardenaar monoliths were retrieved from the Misten bog (Hautes-Fagnes, East Belgium). The cores were investigated using chronological (radiocarbon AMS dating of plant macrofossils, 210Pb age modelling), biological (macrofossils, pollen content, testate amoebae), organic (humification level) and geochemical proxies (major and trace geochemistry, Nd and Pb isotopes). The aims of this research were to: (1) to assess whether the bog vegetation and other environmental indicators have changed simultaneously in time and space, (2) identify the most sensitive palaeoenvironmental indicator(s) and (3) assess to what extent variation in peat accumulation rates affects the record of each proxy. Preliminary interpretations show great variability (up to 50%) in peat development on a decimetre depth-scale as assessed by the variation in peat palynological and macrofossils zones from one core to another. In addition, our recent high-resolution records of environmental change have high applied palaeoecological value since they can be used to inform conservation management (‘natural' changes in the composition of the peat forming vegetation and the range of water table depth variability over a range of timescales).

de Vleeschouwer, François; Fagel, Nathalie; Allan, Mohammed; Javaux, Emmanuelle; Gerrienne, Philippe; Streel, Maurice; Luthers, Cédric; Hindrycks, Marie-Noëlle; Wastiaux, Cécile; Leclercq, Louis

2010-05-01

318

Reliance on prey-derived nitrogen by the carnivorous plant Drosera rotundifolia decreases with increasing nitrogen deposition.  

PubMed

• Carnivory in plants is presumed to be an adaptation to a low-nutrient environment. Nitrogen (N) from carnivory is expected to become a less important component of the N budget as root N availability increases. • Here, we investigated the uptake of N via roots versus prey of the carnivorous plant Drosera rotundifolia growing in ombrotrophic bogs along a latitudinal N deposition gradient through Sweden, using a natural abundance stable isotope mass balance technique. • Drosera rotundifolia plants receiving the lowest level of N deposition obtained a greater proportion of N from prey (57%) than did plants on bogs with higher N deposition (22% at intermediate and 33% at the highest deposition). When adjusted for differences in plant mass, this pattern was also present when considering total prey N uptake (66, 26 and 26 ?g prey N per plant at the low, intermediate and high N deposition sites, respectively). The pattern of mass-adjusted root N uptake was opposite to this (47, 75 and 86 ?g N per plant). • Drosera rotundifolia plants in this study switched from reliance on prey N to reliance on root-derived N as a result of increasing N availability from atmospheric N deposition. PMID:22506640

Millett, J; Svensson, B M; Newton, J; Rydin, H

2012-04-16

319

[Isolation and characterization of nitrogen-fixing bacteria of the genus Azospirillum from the soil of a Sphagnum peat bog].  

PubMed

The presence of nitrogen-fixing bacteria of the genus Azospirillum in the soils of acidic raised Sphagnum bogs is revealed for the first time. Three Azospirillum strains, B2, B21, and B22, were isolated as a component of methane-oxidizing enrichment cultures, whereas attempts to isolate them directly from peat samples have failed. The results of comparative analysis of the nucleotide sequences of 16S rRNA genes, DNA-DNA hybridization, and the analysis of the sequences of the functional genes encoding nitrogenase and ribulose-1, 5-bisphosphate carboxylase reveal that all the newly obtained strains can be classified as Azospirillum lipoferum. Yet, unlike A. lipoferum. the isolates do not require biotin and utilize sucrose, inositol, and glycerol for growth. The cell morphology of strain B2 differs from that of the type strain and strains B21 and B22. The results obtained indicate the variability of morphological, physiological, and biochemical properties in closely related Azospirillum strains and suggest the existence of metabolic relationships between methanotrophic bacteria and the representatives of the genus Azospirillum under peat bog conditions. PMID:17410881

Doroshenko, E V; Bulygina, E S; Spiridonova, E M; Turova, T P; Kravchenko, I K

320

Groundwater flow with energy transport and water ice phase change: Numerical simulations, benchmarks, and application to freezing in peat bogs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In northern peatlands, subsurface ice formation is an important process that can control heat transport, groundwater flow, and biological activity. Temperature was measured over one and a half years in a vertical profile in the Red Lake Bog, Minnesota. To successfully simulate the transport of heat within the peat profile, the U.S. Geological Survey's SUTRA computer code was modified. The modified code simulates fully saturated, coupled porewater-energy transport, with freezing and melting porewater, and includes proportional heat capacity and thermal conductivity of water and ice, decreasing matrix permeability due to ice formation, and latent heat. The model is verified by correctly simulating the Lunardini analytical solution for ice formation in a porous medium with a mixed ice-water zone. The modified SUTRA model correctly simulates the temperature and ice distributions in the peat bog. Two possible benchmark problems for groundwater and energy transport with ice formation and melting are proposed that may be used by other researchers for code comparison.

McKenzie, Jeffrey M.; Voss, Clifford I.; Siegel, Donald I.

2007-04-01

321

Contrasting species-environment relationships in communities of testate amoebae, bryophytes and vascular plants along the fen-bog gradient.  

PubMed

We studied the vegetation, testate amoebae and abiotic variables (depth of the water table, pH, electrical conductivity, Ca and Mg concentrations of water extracted from mosses) along the bog to extremely rich fen gradient in sub-alpine peatlands of the Upper Engadine (Swiss Alps). Testate amoeba diversity was correlated to that of mosses but not of vascular plants. Diversity peaked in rich fen for testate amoebae and in extremely rich fen for mosses, while for testate amoebae and mosses it was lowest in bog but for vascular plants in extremely rich fen. Multiple factor and redundancy analyses (RDA) revealed a stronger correlation of testate amoebae than of vegetation to water table and hydrochemical variables and relatively strong correlation between testate amoeba and moss community data. In RDA, hydrochemical variables explained a higher proportion of the testate amoeba and moss data than water table depth. Abiotic variables explained a higher percentage of the species data for testate amoebae (30.3% or 19.5% for binary data) than for mosses (13.4%) and vascular plants (10%). These results show that (1) vascular plant, moss and testate amoeba communities respond differently to ecological gradients in peatlands and (2) testate amoebae are more strongly related than vascular plants to the abiotic factors at the mire surface. These differences are related to vertical trophic gradients and associated niche differentiation. PMID:19953239

Lamentowicz, Mariusz; Lamentowicz, Lukasz; van der Knaap, Willem O; Gabka, Maciej; Mitchell, Edward A D

2009-12-03

322

Contrasting wetland CH4 emission responses to simulated glacial atmospheric CO2 in temperate bogs and fens.  

PubMed

Wetlands were the largest source of atmospheric methane (CH(4) ) during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), but the sensitivity of this source to exceptionally low atmospheric CO(2) concentration ([CO(2) ]) at the time has not been examined experimentally. We tested the hypothesis that LGM atmospheric [CO(2) ] reduced CH(4) emissions as a consequence of decreased photosynthate allocation to the rhizosphere. We exposed minerotrophic fen and ombrotrophic bog peatland mesocosms to simulated LGM (c. 200 ppm) or ambient (c. 400 ppm) [CO(2) ] over 21 months (n = 8 per treatment) and measured gaseous CH(4) flux, pore water dissolved CH(4) and volatile fatty acid (VFA; an indicator of plant carbon supply to the rhizosphere) concentrations. Cumulative CH(4) flux from fen mesocosms was suppressed by 29% (P < 0.05) and rhizosphere pore water [CH(4) ] by c. 50% (P < 0.01) in the LGM [CO(2) ], variables that remained unaffected in bog mesocosms. VFA analysis indicated that changes in plant root exudates were not the driving mechanism behind these results. Our data suggest that the LGM [CO(2) ] suppression of wetland CH(4) emissions is contingent on trophic status. The heterogeneous response may be attributable to differences in species assemblage that influence the dominant CH(4) production pathway, rhizosphere supplemented photosynthesis and CH(4) oxidation. PMID:21899554

Boardman, Carl P; Gauci, Vincent; Watson, Jonathan S; Blake, Stephen; Beerling, David J

2011-09-07

323

Geostatistical analysis of the spatial variation of the ash reserves in the litter of bog birch forests in Western Siberia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A typological series of native Betula pubescens Ehrh. dendrocenoses along the channel of a river crossing a bog was studied. The variability of the mineral element reserves is described by geostatistical methods as the sum of a trend, autocorrelation, and random components. The contribution of deterministic and random components has been assessed in the years with average precipitation and in the year of 2007 with high and long-term flooding. The empirical variograms and the parameters of the model variograms are presented. The class of the spatial correlation of the ash reserves is described. A primary cause of the ash content's variability is the specific water regime, which is determined by the following: (i) the abundance and duration of the spring floods responsible for the silt mass brought by the river and (ii) the draining effect of the intrabog river, the distance from which provided the formation in the forest of the ground cover with the specific species composition and ash content. The falloff of the arboreal layer in the bog birch forests formed the fundamental mineral background of the litter.

Efremova, T. T.; Sekretenko, O. P.; Avrova, A. F.; Efremov, S. P.

2013-01-01

324

Atmospheric trace metal inputs in the Misten bog (East Belgium): Special attention to sampling techniques and site-spatial variability.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Peat bogs have a great potential to record anthropogenic inputs via their constituting mosses, because they draw their nutrients only from the atmosphere. These atmospheric inputs can be studied thanks to geochemical characteristics such as trace metal concentrations. Coupling lead isotopes to elemental geochemistry allows one to decipher between natural (erosion of rocks) and anthropogenic (pollution due to industrial development, vehicles...) inputs. The purpose of our work was to study the pollution history of trace metals in the region of Misten (Belgium) at a local and a regional level, and to place modern industrial pollution in this region in a wider historical perspective. Four peat cores (01W, 04W, 05W and 06W) were collected in 2008 in the Misten bog (Hautes-Fagnes plateau, E-Belgium) and studied for their trace metal and lead isotopic signatures. Analyses were accompanied by coupled 210Pb-14C age models in order to estimate the mercury and lead accumulation rates in each core and compare them to other European records. The Hg record was compared to the various anthropogenic sources as determined by Pb isotopes. The Hg concentration profiles resemble those of Pb, an element known to be immobile in peatlands. The correlation between these two metals suggests a predominant anthropogenic source of Hg (and Pb). In the W06 core, low and stable Hg accumulation rates (0.9-3.1 ?g m-2 yr-1) are found in the lower layers (503-1823AD). High Hg accumulation rates are found in the surface and sub-surface layers (post-1823AD) and peak at 123.3 ?g m-2 yr-1 (1969AD). In 01W, the lead enrichment factor (Pb E.F.) coupled with the continuous drop in 206Pb/204Pb, 207Pb/204Pb, 208Pb/204Pb isotopic ratios since 539 AD until 1973AD indicates the growing importance of the non-radiogenic Pb released from anthropogenic activities. The highest concentrations of Pb (613-662 µg g-1) have been found near the surface of the bog dated between 1902 and 1954AD. The Pb E.F. also significantly increased during the Industrial Revolution, and subsequently decreased due to the phasing out of leaded gasoline. Main results for Pb in 01W and Hg in 06W will be compared with the 2 other cores and previously published results collected in 2007 at another location in the same peatland. Differences in concentrations and chronology will be discussed in terms of (1) differences in the topography of the bog, (2) differences in the surface vegetation of the bog, which could have led to differential trapping and retention of lead, for example, and different retention of vegetation during sampling at the sites where the corers were inserted, (3) different effects induced by the operating mechanism of the corers, (4) operator-induced effects, e.g. leading to loss of surface material before or during coring.

Allan, Mohammed; Fagel, Nathalie; de Vleeschouwer, François; Mattielli, Nadine; Piotrowska, Natalia; Sikorski, Jarek; Sonke, Jeroen E.; Le Roux, Gaël.

2010-05-01

325

Acetoclastic and hydrogenotrophic methane production and methanogenic populations in an acidic West-Siberian peat bog.  

PubMed

Sites in the West Siberian peat bog 'Bakchar' were acidic (pH 4.2-4.8), low in nutrients, and emitted CH4 at rates of 0.2-1.5 mmol m(-2) h(-1). The vertical profile of delta13CH4 and delta13CO2 dissolved in the porewater indicated increasing isotope fractionation and thus increasing contribution of H2/CO2-dependent methanogenesis with depth. The anaerobic microbial community at 30-50 cm below the water table produced CH4 with optimum activity at 20-25 degrees C and pH 5.0-5.5 respectively. Inhibition of methanogenesis with 2-bromo-ethane sulphonate showed that acetate, phenyl acetate, phenyl propionate and caproate were important intermediates in the degradation pathway of organic matter to CH4. Further degradation of these intermediates indicated that 62-72% of the CH4 was ultimately derived from acetate, the remainder from H2/CO2. Turnover times of [2-14C]acetate were on the order of 2 days (15, 25 degrees C) and accounted for 60-65% of total CH4 production. Conversion of 14CO2 to 14CH4 accounted for 35-43% of total CH4 production. These results showed that acetoclastic and hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis operated closely at a ratio of approximately 2 : 1 irrespective of the incubation temperature (4, 15 and 25 degrees C). The composition of the archaeal community was determined in the peat samples by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis and sequencing of amplified SSU rRNA gene fragments, and showed that members of Methanomicrobiaceae, Methanosarcinaceae and Rice cluster II (RC-II) were present. Other, presumably non-methanogenic archaeal clusters (group III, RC-IV, RC-V, RC-VI) were also detected. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) showed that the number of Bacteria decreased (from 24 x 10(7) to 4 x 10(7) cells per gram peat) with depth (from 5 to 55 cm below the water table), whereas the numbers of Archaea slightly increased (from 1 x 10(7) to 2 x 10(7) cells per gram peat). Methanosarcina spp. accounted for about half of the archaeal cells. Our results show that both hydrogenotrophic and acetoclastic methanogenesis are an integral part of the CH4-producing pathway in acidic peat and were represented by appropriate methanogenic populations. PMID:15479249

Kotsyurbenko, Oleg R; Chin, Kuk-Jeong; Glagolev, Mikhail V; Stubner, Stephan; Simankova, Maria V; Nozhevnikova, Ala N; Conrad, Ralf

2004-11-01

326

Rhodoblastus sphagnicola sp. nov., a novel acidophilic purple non-sulfur bacterium from Sphagnum peat bog.  

PubMed

An isolate of purple non-sulfur bacteria was obtained from an acidic Sphagnum peat bog and designated strain RS(T). The colour of cell suspensions of this bacterium growing in the light under anaerobic conditions is purplish red. Cells of strain RS(T) are rod-shaped, 0.8-1.0 microm wide and 2.0-6.0 microm long, motile by means of polar flagella, reproduce by budding and have a tendency to form rosette-like clusters in older cultures. The cells contain lamellar intracytoplasmic membranes underlying, and parallel to, the cytoplasmic membrane. The photosynthetic pigments are bacteriochlorophyll a and carotenoids; the absorption spectrum of living cells shows maxima at 377, 463, 492, 527, 592, 806 and 867 nm. The cells grow photoheterotrophically under anaerobic or microaerobic conditions with various organic carbon sources or grow photolithoautotrophically with H(2) and CO(2). Strain RS(T) is a moderately acidophilic organism exhibiting growth at pH values between 4.8 and 7.0 (with an optimum at pH 5.2-5.5). The major fatty acids are 16 : 1omega7c and 18 : 1omega7c; the major quinones are Q-10 and Q-9. The DNA G + C content of strain RS(T) is 62.6 mol%. Analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence revealed that the novel isolate is most closely related (97.3 % sequence similarity) to the type strain ATCC 25092(T) of the moderately acidophilic purple non-sulfur bacterium Rhodoblastus acidophilus, formerly named Rhodopseudomonas acidophila. However, in contrast to Rbl. acidophilus, strain RS(T) is not capable of aerobic growth in the dark, has no spirilloxanthin among the carotenoids and differs in the pattern of substrate utilization. The value for DNA-DNA hybridization between strain RS(T) and Rbl. acidophilus ATCC 25092(T) is only 22 %. Thus, strain RS(T) represents a novel species of the genus Rhodoblastus, for which the name Rhodoblastus sphagnicola sp. nov. is proposed. Strain RS(T) (=DSM 16996(T) = VKM B-2361(T)) is the type strain. PMID:16738120

Kulichevskaya, Irina S; Guzev, Vladimir S; Gorlenko, Vladimir M; Liesack, Werner; Dedysh, Svetlana N

2006-06-01

327

Evidence for Multiple Holocene Marine Impact Events: Ejecta in a Bog Core  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a core from Tamarack Pond (a former bog) in the Hudson Highlands of New York, we found two layers containing marine microfossils. Because carbon rich sediments can be bioturbated over 20 cm depths, we give the layer thicknesses as 20 cm. The first layer is at 332-354 cm depth. It contains a radiolarian with a splashed on coating of Fe-Cr-Ni metal. It also contains a benthonic foraminiferal fossil. The second layer is at 432-454 cm depth. The second layer contains a degraded radiolarian fossil, a silicate with a splashed on coating of Fe-Cr-Ni metal, a carbon rich spherule containing Fe-Cr-Ni metal, and a grain of titanomagnetite with multiple craters. It also contains organic matter with Sn in it. As Tamarack Pond is quite far from the ocean, the marine fossils in the cores are unlikely to be windblown debris of Holocene age. A benthonic foraminifera is particularly unlikely to be blown by the wind. This conclusion is strengthened by the observation that the splashed on coating of Fe-Cr-Ni metal occurs in chondritic relative abundances with Fe>Cr>Ni. In grains with a thick layer of splashed metal, the Ni is sufficiently abundant to produce 3 distinct Ni peaks in the X-ray analysis. Such a high abundance of Ni coupled with chondritic relative abundances suggests that the Fe-Cr- Ni splash is derived from the vaporization of an extraterrestrial impactor. If we assume that the sedimentation rate of the Tamarack Pond core is the same as that of a previously dated core from nearby Sutherland Pond, the two layers have an uncorrected C-14 age of around 900-1200 B.C. for the layer at 332-354 cm and 2100 to 2400 B.C. for the layer at 432-454 cm. Both ages have a rough correspondence with times of climate downturn recorded in tree ring data (1159 and 2354 B.C.). These climate downturns cannot be explained by volcanic eruptions and are proposed to be cosmogenic in origin[1]. The older layer also corresponds in components to a previously studied circa 2350 B.C. impact ejecta layer[2]. [1]. Baillie, M., 1999, Exodus to Arthur: Catastrophic Encounters with Comets: London, UK, B. T. Batsford, 272 p. [2]. Courty, M.-A. et al. , 2006, Geoph. Res. Abs., vol. 8, A-01812.

Abbott, D. H.; Courty, M.; Breger, D.; Costa, S.; Gerard-Little, P.; Burckle, L.; Pekar, S.

2006-12-01

328

Dinitrogen (C 2 H 2 ) fixation in relation to nitrogen fertilization of grey alder [ Alnus incana (L.) Moench.] plantations in a peat bog  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nitrogenase activity was measured in young grey alder plantations in a peat bog in central Sweden. The stands were treated in three ways: (1) daily irrigation during the growing season with a complete nutrient solution, including N; (2) application of bark ash or wood ash before planting; and (3) fertilization every second year with solid PK fertilizers. Acetylene reduction assays

L. Rytter; A. S. Arveby; U. Granhall

1991-01-01

329

Humic-rich peat extracts inhibit sulfate reduction, methanogenesis, and anaerobic respiration but not acetogenesis in peat soils of a temperate bog  

Microsoft Academic Search

To understand why anaerobic ombrotrophic peats can be very low in methane after drainage related afforestation, we analyzed the competition of sulfate reducing, humus reducing, and methanogenic microorganisms by incubating ombrotrophic peats of the Mer Bleue bog, Ontario. Sulfate, sulfide, and sulfate containing peat dissolved organic matter (DOM) from an afforested site were added in reduced and oxidized redox state.

Stefanie Minderlein; Christian Blodau

2010-01-01

330

Cation-exchange capacity and galacturonic acid content of several species of sphagnum in Sandy Ridge Bog, central New York State  

Microsoft Academic Search

A very high correlation between the cation-exchange capacity and the content of galacturonic acid was found in eight species of sphagnum from Sandy Ridge Bog, in central New York State. An equally high correlation exists between the cation-exchange capacity and the optimum elevation for growth, measured in height above the water table.

Ann M. Spearing

1972-01-01

331

Temporal variation in depth to water table and hydrochemistry in three raised bogs and their laggs in coastal British Columbia, Canada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The laggs of three raised bogs in coastal British Columbia were studied in 2010-2012 to determine the temporal variation in depth to water table and hydrochemistry. The lagg is an integral, but rarely studied, part of a raised bog that helps to maintain the water mound in the bog and provides a buffer for runoff from adjacent mineral areas. Depth to water table measurements in 25 piezometers displayed similar annual fluctuations, with the highest water table in winter and the lowest at the end of summer. The smallest fluctuations in depth to water table were recorded closest to the bog centre, and the largest fluctuations in the laggs and adjacent mineral soil sites. Removal of a mature forest stand on one of the study transects resulted in a "watering-up" of the lagg site; the mean water level between August and November increased by 8 cm from 2010 to 2011, and by up to 27 cm during the driest time of the year. pH, pH-corrected electrical conductivity, and Na+ and Mg2+ concentrations varied little during the study period, whereas Ca2+, K+, Cl-, and DOC concentrations and acidity were more variable.

Howie, S. A.; van Meerveld, H. J.

2012-12-01

332

Effect of trap color and height on captures of blunt-nosed and sharp-nosed leafhoppers (hemiptera: cicadellidae) and non-target arthropods in cranberry bogs  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A series of field experiments were conducted in cranberry bogs in 2006-2010 to determine adult attraction of the two most economically important leafhopper pests of cultivated Vaccinium spp. in the northeast USA, the blunt-nosed leafhopper, Limotettix vaccinii, and sharp-nosed leafhopper, Scaphytopi...

333

Microbial Community Structure and Activity Linked to Contrasting Biogeochemical Gradients in Bog and Fen Environments of the Glacial Lake Agassiz Peatland  

PubMed Central

The abundances, compositions, and activities of microbial communities were investigated at bog and fen sites in the Glacial Lake Agassiz Peatland of northwestern Minnesota. These sites contrast in the reactivity of dissolved organic matter (DOM) and the presence or absence of groundwater inputs. Microbial community composition was characterized using pyrosequencing and clone library construction of phylogenetic marker genes. Microbial distribution patterns were linked to pH, concentrations of dissolved organic carbon and nitrogen, C/N ratios, optical properties of DOM, and activities of laccase and peroxidase enzymes. Both bacterial and archaeal richness and rRNA gene abundance were >2 times higher on average in the fen than in the bog, in agreement with a higher pH, labile DOM content, and enhanced enzyme activities in the fen. Fungi were equivalent to an average of 1.4% of total prokaryotes in gene abundance assayed by quantitative PCR. Results revealed statistically distinct spatial patterns between bacterial and fungal communities. Fungal distribution did not covary with pH and DOM optical properties and was vertically stratified, with a prevalence of Ascomycota and Basidiomycota near the surface and much higher representation of Zygomycota in the subsurface. In contrast, bacterial community composition largely varied between environments, with the bog dominated by Acidobacteria (61% of total sequences), while the Firmicutes (52%) dominated in the fen. Acetoclastic Methanosarcinales showed a much higher relative abundance in the bog, in contrast to the dominance of diverse hydrogenotrophic methanogens in the fen. This is the first quantitative and compositional analysis of three microbial domains in peatlands and demonstrates that the microbial abundance, diversity, and activity parallel with the pronounced differences in environmental variables between bog and fen sites.

Lin, X.; Green, S.; Tfaily, M. M.; Prakash, O.; Konstantinidis, K. T.; Corbett, J. E.; Chanton, J. P.; Cooper, W. T.

2012-01-01

334

Microbial community structure and activity linked to contrasting biogeochemical gradients in bog and fen environments of the Glacial Lake Agassiz Peatland.  

PubMed

The abundances, compositions, and activities of microbial communities were investigated at bog and fen sites in the Glacial Lake Agassiz Peatland of northwestern Minnesota. These sites contrast in the reactivity of dissolved organic matter (DOM) and the presence or absence of groundwater inputs. Microbial community composition was characterized using pyrosequencing and clone library construction of phylogenetic marker genes. Microbial distribution patterns were linked to pH, concentrations of dissolved organic carbon and nitrogen, C/N ratios, optical properties of DOM, and activities of laccase and peroxidase enzymes. Both bacterial and archaeal richness and rRNA gene abundance were >2 times higher on average in the fen than in the bog, in agreement with a higher pH, labile DOM content, and enhanced enzyme activities in the fen. Fungi were equivalent to an average of 1.4% of total prokaryotes in gene abundance assayed by quantitative PCR. Results revealed statistically distinct spatial patterns between bacterial and fungal communities. Fungal distribution did not covary with pH and DOM optical properties and was vertically stratified, with a prevalence of Ascomycota and Basidiomycota near the surface and much higher representation of Zygomycota in the subsurface. In contrast, bacterial community composition largely varied between environments, with the bog dominated by Acidobacteria (61% of total sequences), while the Firmicutes (52%) dominated in the fen. Acetoclastic Methanosarcinales showed a much higher relative abundance in the bog, in contrast to the dominance of diverse hydrogenotrophic methanogens in the fen. This is the first quantitative and compositional analysis of three microbial domains in peatlands and demonstrates that the microbial abundance, diversity, and activity parallel with the pronounced differences in environmental variables between bog and fen sites. PMID:22843538

Lin, X; Green, S; Tfaily, M M; Prakash, O; Konstantinidis, K T; Corbett, J E; Chanton, J P; Cooper, W T; Kostka, J E

2012-07-27

335

The role of mineralization of the organic matter of soddy-podzolic and peat bog soils in the accumulation of 137Cs by plants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The role of mineralization of soil organic matter (SOM) in the mobilization of 137Cs was estimated on the basis of data on the biokinetic fractionation of the organic matter of soddy-podzolic sandy-loam and peat bog soils and on the coefficients of the soil-to-plant transfer of radiocesium under field conditions. The peat bog soils were richer than the soddy-podzolic soils in the total organic carbon (by 7.9-23.8 times), the potentially mineralizable carbon (by 2.4-6.5 times), and the carbon of the microbial biomass (by 2.9-4.6 times). The agricultural use of the soddy-podzolic and peat bog soils led to a decrease in the SOM mineralization capacity by 1.1-1.8 and 1.4-2.0 times, respectively. Simultaneously, the portions of the easily, moderately, and difficultly mineralizable fraction of the SOM active pool changed. The coefficients of the 137Cs transfer from the peat bog soils to plants were 3.3-17.6 times higher than those for the soddy-podzolic soils. The content of 137Cs in plants grown on the peat bog soils was 2-65 times higher than that in the mobile (salt-extractable) soil pool by the beginning of the growing season. Strong positive linear correlations were found between the coefficients of the soil-to-plant transfer of 137Cs and the total content of the SOM, the content of the microbial biomass, the content of the potentially mineralizable carbon, and the intensity of its mineralization. It was concluded that the decisive factors controlling the intensity of the 137Cs transfer from mineral and organic soils into plants are the SOM content and its mineralization potential. The mineralization of the SOM is accompanied by the release of both 137Cs and mineral nitrogen; the latter facilitates the transfer of radiocesium into plants.

Tulina, A. S.; Semenov, V. M.; Tsybul'Ka, N. N.; Shapsheeva, T. P.; Zaitsev, A. A.; Arastovich, T. V.

2010-10-01

336

Methanotrophic activity and diversity in different Sphagnum magellanicum dominated habitats in the southernmost peat bogs of Patagonia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sphagnum peatlands are important ecosystems in the methane cycle. Methanotrophs living in and on the Sphagnum mosses are able to act as a methane filter and thereby reduce methane emissions. We investigated in situ methane concentrations and the corresponding activity and diversity of methanotrophs in different Sphagnum dominated bog microhabitats. In contrast to the Northern Hemisphere peat ecosystems the temperate South American peat bogs are dominated by one moss species; Sphagnum magellanicum. This permitted a species-independent comparison of the different bog microhabitats. Potential methane oxidizing activity was found in all Sphagnum mosses sampled and a positive correlation was found between activity and in situ methane concentrations. Substantial methane oxidation activity (23 ?mol CH4 gDW-1 day-1) was found in pool mosses and could be correlated with higher in situ methane concentrations (>35 ?mol CH4 l-1 pore water). Little methanotrophic activity (<0.5 ?mol CH4 gDW-1 day-1) was observed in living Sphagnum mosses from lawns and hummocks. Methane oxidation activity was relatively high (>4 ?mol CH4 gDW-1 day-1) in Sphagnum litter situated at depths around the water levels and rich in methane. The total bacterial community was studied using 16S rRNA gene sequencing and the methanotrophic communities were studied using a pmoA microarray and a complementary pmoA clone library. The methanotrophic diversity was similar in the different habitats of this study and surprisingly comparable to the methanotrophic diversity found in peat mosses from the Northern Hemisphere. The pmoA microarray data indicated that both alpha- and gammaproteobacterial methanotrophs were present in all Sphagnum mosses, even in those mosses with a low initial methane oxidation activity. Prolonged incubation of Sphagnum mosses from lawn and hummock with methane revealed that the methanotrophic community present was viable and showed an increased activity within 15 days. The high abundance of methanotrophic Methylocystis species in the most active mosses suggests that these might be responsible for the bulk of methane oxidation.

Kip, N.; Fritz, C.; Langelaan, E. S.; Pan, Y.; Bodrossy, L.; Pancotto, V.; Jetten, M. S. M.; Smolders, A. J. P.; den Camp, H. J. M. Op

2011-09-01

337

Methanotrophic activity and diversity in different Sphagnum magellanicum dominated habitats in the southernmost peat bogs of Patagonia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sphagnum peatlands are important ecosystems in the methane cycle. Methanotrophs living inside the dead hyaline cells or on the Sphagnum mosses are able to act as a methane filter and thereby reduce methane emissions. We investigated in situ methane concentrations and the corresponding activity and diversity of methanotrophs in different Sphagnum dominated bog microhabitats. In contrast to the Northern Hemisphere peat ecosystems the temperate South American peat bogs are dominated by one moss species; Sphagnum magellanicum. This permitted a species-independent comparison of the different bog microhabitats. Potential methane oxidizing activity was found in all Sphagnum mosses sampled and a positive correlation was found between activity and in situ methane concentrations. Substantial methane oxidation activity (23 ?mol CH4 gDW-1 day-1) was found in pool mosses and could be correlated with higher in situ methane concentrations (>35 ?mol CH4 l-1 pore water). Little methanotrophic activity (<0.5 ?mol CH4 gDW-1 day-1) was observed in living Sphagnum mosses from lawns and hummocks. Methane oxidation activity was relatively high (>4 ?mol CH4 gDW-1 day-1) in Sphagnum litter at depths around the water levels and rich in methane. The total bacterial community was studied using 16S rRNA gene sequencing and the methanotrophic communities were studied using a pmoA microarray and a complementary pmoA clone library. The methanotrophic diversity was similar in the different habitats of this study and comparable to the methanotrophic diversity found in peat mosses from the Northern Hemisphere. The pmoA microarray data indicated that both alpha- and gammaproteobacterial methanotrophs were present in all Sphagnum mosses, even in those mosses with a low initial methane oxidation activity. Prolonged incubation of Sphagnum mosses from lawn and hummock with methane revealed that the methanotrophic community present was viable and showed an increased activity within 15 days. The high abundance of methanotrophic Methylocystis species in the most active mosses suggests that these might be responsible for the bulk of methane oxidation.

Kip, N.; Fritz, C.; Langelaan, E. S.; Pan, Y.; Bodrossy, L.; Pancotto, V.; Jetten, M. S. M.; Smolders, A. J. P.; den Camp, H. J. M. Op

2012-01-01

338

Deposit Collectors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Informal lending and savings institutions exist around the world, and often include regular door-to-door deposit collection of cash. Some banks have adopted similar services in order to expand access to banking services in areas that lack physical branches. Using a randomized control trial, we investigate determinants of participation in a deposit collection service and evaluate the impact of offering the

Nava Ashraf; Dean Karlan; Wesley Yin

2006-01-01

339

Bacillus acidicola sp. nov., a novel mesophilic, acidophilic species isolated from acidic Sphagnum peat bogs in Wisconsin.  

PubMed

A mesophilic, acidophilic, spore-forming bacterium, strain 105-2(T), was isolated from an acidic Sphagnum peat bog in Wisconsin, USA. Strain 105-2(T) has 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to Bacillus sporothermodurans DSM 10599(T) and Bacillus oleronius DSM 9356(T) of 97.4 and 97.8%, respectively. The primary lipoquinone is MK-7 and the major fatty acids are 15:0 iso, 15:0 anteiso and 17:0 anteiso. The predominant polar lipids were found to be diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine and a glycolipid. The DNA G+C content was found to be 43.2 mol%. The phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and molecular analyses identified strain 105-2(T) as a novel Bacillus species, for which the name Bacillus acidicola is proposed. The type strain is 105-2(T) (=DSM 14745(T)=ATCC BAA-366(T)=NRRL B-23453(T)). PMID:16166720

Albert, Richard A; Archambault, Julieta; Rosselló-Mora, Ramón; Tindall, Brian J; Matheny, Mike

2005-09-01

340

CH4 production via CO2 reduction in a temperate bog - A source of (C-13)-depleted CH4  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper reports measurements, taken over two annual cycles, of the flux and delta(C-13) of CH4 released from an acidic peat bog located in the foothills of the Cascade Range in Washington state, U.S. Measurements of the rate of aceticlastic methanogenesis and CO2 reduction in peat soil, using (C-14)-labeled acetate and sodium bicarbonate, show that acetate was not an important CH4 precursor and that CO2 reduction could account for all of the CH4 production. The in situ kinetic isotope effect for CO2 reduction, calculated using the delta-(C-13) of soil water CO2 and CH4 flux, was 0.932 +/- 0.007.

Lansdown, J. M.; Quay, P. D.; King, S. L.

1992-09-01

341

Accumulation of heavy metals in the Oostriku peat bog, Estonia: determination of binding processes by means of sequential leaching.  

PubMed

The Oostriku peat bog (central Estonia) has been exposed to metal-rich groundwater discharge over a long period of time and has accumulated high concentrations of Fe (up to 40 wt-%), heavy metals (e.g. Pb, Zn, Mn, Cu), and As. In this study, the peat was characterised with respect to composition and metal content with depth. The peat pore water was analysed and compared to a spring water emerging at the site. Sequential extraction, using a Tessier scheme optimised for iron-rich sediments, was used to understand the relative roles of binding mechanisms involved in the retention of different metals in the peat. Significant difference in depth distribution was found between different metals bound in the peat, which was partly attributed to varying compositions of the peat with depth and different dominant binding mechanisms for different metals. PMID:17267085

Syrovetnik, K; Malmström, M E; Neretnieks, I

2007-01-30

342

Diversity and community structure of Archaea inhabiting the rhizoplane of two contrasting plants from an acidic bog.  

PubMed

Plant root exudates increase nutrient availability and influence microbial communities including archaeal members. We examined the archaeal community inhabiting the rhizoplane of two contrasting vascular plants, Dulichium arundinaceum and Sarracenia purpurea, from an acidic bog in upstate NY. Multiple archaeal 16S rRNA gene libraries showed that methanogenic Archaea were dominant in the rhizoplane of both plants. In addition, the community structure (evenness) of the rhizoplane was found markedly different from the bulk peat. The archaeal community in peat from the same site has been found dominated by the E2 group, meanwhile the rhizoplane communities on both plants were co-dominated by Methanosarcinaceae (MS), rice cluster (RC)-I, and E2. Complementary T-RFLP analysis confirmed the difference between bulk peat and rhizoplane, and further characterized the dominance pattern of MS, RC-I, and E2. In the rhizoplane, MS was dominant on both plants although as a less variable fraction in S. purpurea. RC-I was significantly more abundant than E2 on S. purpurea, while the opposite was observed on D. arundinaceum, suggesting a plant-specific enrichment. Also, the statistical analyses of T-RFLP data showed that although both plants overlap in their community structure, factors such as plant type, patch location, and time could explain nearly a third of the variability in the dataset. Other factors such as water table, plant replicate, and root depth had a low contribution to the observed variance. The results of this study illustrate the general effects of roots and the specific effects of plant types on their nearby archaeal communities which in bog-inhabiting plants were mainly composed by methanogenic groups. PMID:20024684

Cadillo-Quiroz, Hinsby; Yavitt, Joseph B; Zinder, Stephen H; Thies, Janice E

2009-12-22

343

Are bogs reservoirs for emerging disease vectors? Evaluation of culicoides populations in the Hautes Fagnes Nature Reserve (Belgium).  

PubMed

Several species of Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) biting midges serve as biological vectors for the bluetongue virus (BTV) and the recently described Schmallenberg virus (SBV) in northern Europe. Since their recent emergence in this part of the continent, these diseases have caused considerable economic losses to the sheep and cattle industries. Much data is now available that describe the distribution, population dynamics, and feeding habits of these insects. However, little is known regarding the presence of Culicoides in unusual habitats such as peaty marshes, nor their potential vector capacity. This study evaluated Culicoides biting midges present in the bogs of a Belgian nature reserve compared to those residing at a nearby cattle farm. Culicoides were trapped in 2011 at four different sites (broadleaved and coniferous forested areas, open environments, and at a scientific station) located in the Hautes Fagnes Nature Reserve (Belgium). An additional light trap was operated on a nearby cattle farm. Very high numbers of biting midges were captured in the marshy area and most of them (70 to 95%) were Culicoides impunctatus, a potential vector of BTV and other pathogens. In addition, fewer numbers of C. obsoletus/C. scoticus species, C. chiopterus, and C. dewulfi were observed in the bogs compared to the farm. The wet environment and oligotrophic nature of the soil were probably responsible for these changes in the respective populations. A total of 297,808 Culicoides midges belonging to 27 species were identified during this study and 3 of these species (C. sphagnumensis, C. clintoni and C. comosioculatus) were described in Belgium for the first time. PMID:23799137

Zimmer, Jean-Yves; Smeets, François; Simonon, Grégory; Fagot, Jean; Haubruge, Eric; Francis, Frédéric; Losson, Bertrand

2013-06-14

344

Biological neutralization of acid deposition in ombrogenous and minerotrophic wetlands. Technical completion report  

SciTech Connect

The magnitude of net neutralization of atmospherically deposited acid in an ombrogenous wetland ecosystem was assessed using ion chromatographic analysis of the porewaters, laboratory incubations for sulfate and nitrate uptake under oxic and anoxic conditions, and lead-210-based deposition rates for solid-sulfur species, together with rigorous statistical treatment of porewater data and an annual-averaged mass transport model for sulfate. Results indicate a biologically-dominated sulfate distribution exists in the primary study site, with nearly complete transformation of sulfate deposition within centimeters of the bog/atmosphere interface. The major product appears to be a solid phase organic sulfur species having a very long residence time in the wetland.

Army, T.P.; Hemond, H.F.

1985-01-01

345

Nutrient stoichiometry in Sphagnum along a nitrogen deposition gradient in highly polluted region of Central-East Europe.  

PubMed

We investigated the variation of N:P and N:K ratio in ombrotrophic Sphagnum plants along a gradient of atmospheric N deposition from 1 to 2.5 g m(-2) year(-1) in Central-East Europe. The N:P and N:K ratio in Sphagnum capitula increased significantly along the N deposition gradient. Sphagnum species from the Cuspidata section were characterised by significantly lower ratios at low N deposition. When we compared the observed N:P ratios in Sphagnum plants with the values reported in a previous European-wide study, we found a correspondence in nutrient stoichiometry only for a few bogs: higher P concentration in Sphagnum capitula caused a lower N:P ratio in most of the study bogs so that Sphagnum plants still seem N-limited despite their N saturation. Interaction between summer water table decrease and aerial liming of surrounding forests is proposed as an explanation for this discrepancy. Local forestry practice interacting with climate thus alter N:P stoichiometry of Sphagnum along the N deposition gradient. PMID:21071120

Jiroušek, Martin; Hájek, Michal; Bragazza, Luca

2010-11-11

346

Soil Deposition.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The blast and throwout areas immediately surrounding the detonation points of the four Operation Roller Coaster events were investigated extensively for plutonium radioactive isotopes deposition and distribution. Device placement and explosive yield diffe...

W. S. Johnson

1966-01-01

347

Health assessment for Burnt Fly Bog National Priorities List Site, Marlboro, Monmouth County, New Jersey, Region 2. CERCLIS No. NJD980504997. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The Burnt Fly Bog site, a National Priorities List site, is located near Marlboro, Monmouth County, New Jersey in the fringe area of the New Jersey Pine Barrens. The major contaminants at the site are polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and lead. Both of these contaminants have been found in all environmental media at the site. Exposure to contaminants may occur from contact with soil, sediment, water, air, or biota from the site. In order to protect the public health, access to contaminated areas should not be permitted except for properly-protected remedial workers. Because of the potential for ground-water contamination, private well owners surrounding the site should be advised to connect to the public water system. In addition, the consumption of game animals, berries, fish, and other biota from Burnt Fly Bog should be discouraged unless it can be determined that they are free of contamination.

Not Available

1988-08-24

348

Metapopulation dynamics of the bog fritillary butterfly: comparison of demographic parameters and dispersal between a continuous and a highly fragmented landscape  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the effects of habitat loss and fragmentation on population functioning. We compared demography (daily and total population sizes) and dispersal (dispersal rate and dispersal kernels) of the bog fritillary butterfly in two 6-km2 landscapes differing in their degree of fragmentation. In 2000, we conducted a Capture-Mark-Recapture experiment in a highly fragmented system in the marginal part of the

Gwénaëlle Mennechez; Nicolas Schtickzelle; Michel Baguette

2003-01-01

349

Oxidoreductase activity of peat soils as an indicator of the degree of biochemical transformation of drained and forested bogs in West Siberia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multivariate analysis unambiguously demonstrated the differentiation of oxidoreductase activity (catalase, peroxidase, and\\u000a dehydrogenase) in peat soils after a 20–25-year period of bog drainage and afforestation. The enzyme activity depended on\\u000a the drainage depth. A statistical model has been developed to predict the degree of humification of peat organic matter from\\u000a peroxidase activity and moisture of drained soils. Soil peroxidase activity

T. T. Efremova; T. M. Ovchinnikova

2007-01-01

350

Control of carbon mineralization to CH 4 and CO 2 in anaerobic, Sphagnum -derived peat from Big Run Bog, West Virginia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mineralization of organic carbon to CH4 and CO2 inSphagnum-derived peat from Big Run Bog, West Virginia, was measured at 4 times in the year (February, May, September, and November) using anaerobic, peat-slurry incubations. Rates of both CH4 production and CO2 production changed seasonally in surface peat (0–25 cm depth), but were the same on each collection date in deep

Joseph B. Yavitt; Gerald E. Lang; R. Kelman Wieder

1987-01-01

351

Demographic and genetic status of an isolated population of bog turtles ( Glyptemys muhlenbergii ): implications for managing small populations of long-lived animals  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we sought to determine the population stability and genetic diversity of one isolated population of the federally-threatened\\u000a bog turtle (Glyptemys muhlenbergii) in North Carolina. Using capture–recapture data, we estimated adult survival and population growth rate from 1992 to 2007.\\u000a We found that the population decreased from an estimated 36 adult turtles in 1994 to approximately 11 adult

Shannon E. Pittman; Timothy L. King; Søren Faurby; Michael E. Dorcas

352

CH 4 production, oxidation and emission in a U.K. ombrotrophic peat bog: Influence of SO 4 2? from acid rain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Factors influencing the rates of production and emission of CH4, CH4 oxidation and rates of SO42? reduction, were measured in the peat of an ombrotrophic bog in New Galloway, Scotland. Vertical concentration profiles of CH4 and O2 showed that the water table essentially represented the oxic-anoxic boundary in the peat. This boundary was usually at the surface in the case

David B. Nedwell; Andrea Watson

1995-01-01

353

shift from acetoclastic to H2-dependent methanogenesis in a west Siberian peat bog at low pH values and isolation of an acidophilic Methanobacterium strain.  

PubMed

Methane production and archaeal community composition were studied in samples from an acidic peat bog incubated at different temperatures and pH values. H(2)-dependent methanogenesis increased strongly at the lowest pH, 3.8, and Methanobacteriaceae became important except for Methanomicrobiaceae and Methanosarcinaceae. An acidophilic and psychrotolerant Methanobacterium sp. was isolated using H(2)-plus-CO(2)-supplemented medium at pH 4.5. PMID:17277200

Kotsyurbenko, O R; Friedrich, M W; Simankova, M V; Nozhevnikova, A N; Golyshin, P N; Timmis, K N; Conrad, R

2007-02-02

354

Carbohydrate polymers in food preservation: an integrated view of the Maillard reaction with special reference to discoveries of preserved foods in Sphagnum-dominated peat bogs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Well-preserved human bodies more than 2000years old have been found in peat bogs derived mainly from sphagnum mosses. Preservation is correlated with the occurrence of ?-keto-carboxylate groups in a glycuronoglycan (`sphagnan') that comprises ?60% of the holocellulose in the hyaline cell walls of the mosses [Painter (1991b). Carbohydr. Polym., 15, 123–142]. There is now renewed interest in other biodegradable materials

Terence J Painter

1998-01-01

355

Effects of short-term drying and irrigation on electron flow in mesocosms of a northern bog and an alpine fen.  

PubMed

Methane emissions and element mobility in wetlands are controlled by soil moisture and redox conditions. We manipulated soil moisture by weekly drying and irrigation of mesocosms of peat from a bog and iron and sulfur rich fen. Water table changed more strongly in the decomposed fen peat ( approximately 11 cm) than in the fibric bog peat ( approximately 5 cm), where impacts on redox processes were larger due to larger change in air filled porosity. Methanogenesis was partly decoupled from acetogenesis and acetate accumulated up to 5.6 mmol L(-1) in the fen peat after sulfate was depleted. Irrigation and drying led to rapid redox-cycles with sulfate, hydrogen sulfide, nitrate, and methane being produced and consumed on the scale of days, contributing substantially to the total electron flow and suggesting short-term resilience of the microbial community to intermittent aeration. Anaerobic CO2 production was partly balanced by methanogenesis (0-34%), acetate fermentation (0-86%), and sulfate reduction (1-30%) in the bog peat. In the fen peat unknown electron acceptors and aerenchymatic oxygen influx apparently drove respiration. The results suggest that regular rainfall and subsequent drying may lead to local oxidation-reduction cycles that substantially influence electron flow in electron acceptor poor wetlands. PMID:20039737

Deppe, Marianna; McKnight, Diane M; Blodau, Christian

2010-01-01

356

Dissolved carbon and nitrogen quantity and quality at natural, drained and re-wetted bog sites in Lower Saxony (Germany)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

5 % of Germany's land area is covered with peatlands. Due to the large carbon and nitrogen stocks, changes in peatland hydrology for agricultural use have a huge impact on C and N cycling in the peatland and on the export to the atmosphere and adjacent ecosystems. Nonetheless, only a few studies focussed on the impact of drainage and re-wetting on C and N cycling in German raised bogs. Four study sites in the "Ahlenmoor" near Cuxhaven (Northwestern Germany) were chosen. This bog has a deep, medium to weakly decomposed peat layer. The sites represent a gradient of the groundwater level combined with land use differences (intensive and extensive grassland, natural site, re-wetted peat-cutting area). The mean annual groundwater level decreases from the natural and re-wetted sites (near surface) to the extensive grassland (30 cm below surface) and, finally, the intensive grassland (56 cm). The "Peeper" technique (dialysis sampler) was used to measure soil water chemistry in a high spatial resolution. At each site, three peepers (0-60 cm, 12 chambers each) collected soil water samples via diffusion. Monthly sampling was conducted from February 2012 till November 2012. The soil water solution was analysed for pH, EC, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), dissolved organic nitrogen (DON), NH4+, NO3- and SUVA(280). Samples taken in November 2012 were additionally analysed for dissolved CO2, CH4 and N2O. Average DOC concentrations ranged from 211 to 41 mg/L and decreased in order intensive > extensive grassland > re-wetted = natural site. After 10 years of restoration, the re-wetted and the natural site show similar DOC concentrations. Average SUVA(280) values of 3.7 to 3.3 L/(mg m) were higher at the grassland sites than at the re-wetted and the natural site. This indicates a distinct increase in aromaticity of DOC in grassland sites as a result of more intense humification of the upper peat layer. In contrast to mineral soils, SUVA(280) remained constant with depth at our sites. Total nitrogen decreased in same order as DOC and was mainly composed of DON. NH4+ dominates the inorganic nitrogen fraction. The comparison of peat C/N to DOC/DON ratios indicates that the more degraded upper layer is the main source of carbon and nitrogen in the soil solution. Dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) was mainly measured as dissolved CO2-C (13.6 mg/L), followed by CH4-C (1.7 mg/L). While CH4-C was present over the whole profile at the re-wetted and the natural site, it was missing in the upper 40 cm of the grassland sites. Instead, dissolved N2O-N was found (19.8 µg/L). Especially in natural bogs with low DOC concentrations, DIC may be a relevant part of the carbon budget. Our results show that the groundwater level in combination with land use has a huge impact on C- and N-quality and quantity between sites and within the peat profile, and that re-wetting may result in a return to "natural" DOC concentration levels and properties.

Frank, Stefan; Tiemeyer, Bärbel; Freibauer, Annette

2013-04-01

357

Deposition Equipment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a description for a learning module from Maricopa Advanced Technology Education Center. This PDF describes the module; access may be purchased by visiting the MATEC website. Use this module to develop your learners' ability to control deposition equipment operations. The activities are adaptable to cleanroom or laboratory, and employ the Applied Materials Precision 5000 as a prototypical CVD tool. The module takes learners through a review of the deposition process, an introduction to the systems and subsystems of a CVD tool, and through an entire operations cycle from recipe interpretation through process control of inputs/outputs.

2012-12-21

358

Reconstructing historical Pb and Hg pollution in NW Spain using multiple cores from the Chao de Lamoso bog (Xistral Mountains)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have applied a single-bog multi-core approach to reconstruct historical Pb and Hg accumulation in an ombrotrophic bog from NW Spain, Chao de Lamoso (Xistral Mountains). Mercury was determined using a LECO-ALTEC AMA-254 analyzer, Pb with an EMMA-XRF analyzer and stable lead isotopes (four cores) by Quadrupole ICP-MS. Maximum concentrations were 74-122 ?g g-1 for Pb and 142-300 ng g-1 for Hg. Higher variability was found for Hg than for Pb (2-3 times and 1.5 times, respectively). The slopes of the relationship between Hg and Pb cumulative inventories also suggested differences in relative accumulation of both elements. This substantial spatial variability indicates that, compared with Pb, a more extended sampling may be needed for an accurate estimation of Hg accumulation in mires.The isotopic records showed higher and almost constant 206Pb/207Pb ratios (average 1.174 ± 0.004) in the lower sections and a continuous decrease to the surface (minimum 1.141). By using the change in the isotopic composition of Pb we estimated a chronology for the last ˜200 years which enabled and approximation of the temporal trends in metal pollution. Based on the average isotopic composition of the studied cores and the application of a simple binary mixing model, six periods with increasing proportions of pollution Pb were identified: prior to ˜1875 AD, with an average proportion lower than 16%; ˜1875-1910 AD, increasing up to 24%; ˜1910-1950 AD, up to 35%; ˜1950-1970, up to 54%; ˜1970-1980 AD, up to 74%; and after ˜1980 AD, increasing up to 80%. The period with the highest rate of increase in recent (since ˜1900 AD) pollution Pb (equivalent to 2% year-1) seems to have started at the maximum in Pb accumulation around the early 1970s. The Hg records showed a more simple evolution with four main phases: prior to ˜1875 AD with enrichments around 1.5-fold the background, ˜1875-1955 AD with increasing enrichments; from ˜1955 AD to ˜1980 AD with maximum values (up to 4.2-fold); and from ˜1980 AD to present, with a steady decline to 2.4-fold.For the most recent period (after ˜1980 AD), the combination of decreasing Pb and Hg concentrations and accumulation rates/enrichments, and low 206Pb/207Pb ratios, may point to a higher relative importance of local sources (i.e. coal burning in a nearby power plant) in atmospheric metal pollution in the area.

Martínez Cortizas, A.; Peiteado Varela, E.; Bindler, R.; Biester, H.; Cheburkin, A.

2012-04-01

359

Carbon dioxide fluxes over a raised open bog at the Kinosheo Lake tower site during the Northern Wetlands Study (NOWES)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measurements of carbon dioxide concentration and flux were made above a raised open bog at Lake Kinosheo in the southern Hudson Bay lowlands during the Northern Wetlands Study (NOWES) experiment in 1990. The flux measurements were made using micrometeorological techniques. They provide the first nondisturbing, larger-scale CO2 flux measurements for this ecosystem and are the first to integrate the exchange over the whole 24 hours of the day. Continuous concentration measurements by infrared gas analyzers (IRGA) and spot flask samples were taken over the period July 1 to July 29. Afternoon CO2 values were only 5 to 7 parts per million by volume (ppmv) lower than measurements over the same period at Canadian background monitoring stations. This suggested that there was little draw-down by local photosynthetic sinks. CO2 fluxes were measured at 8 and 18 m by Bowen ratio and eddy correlation methods, respectively. The methods produced comparable results on averaged data but often diverged considerably on individual half-hour results. Fluxes were small. Daytime values averaged to -0.068 mg/m2/s by eddy correlation and -0.077 mg/m2/s by Bowen ratio over the period June 25 to July 28 (negative denotes downward flux), while at night, flux densities were +0.062 mg/m2/s and +0.085 mg/m2/s. Integration of the mean diurnal curve gave a net flux of -1.7 g/m2/d. Comparable data for this type of ecosystem were not found. However, Coyne and Kelley (1975), measuring near Barrow, Alaska, over wet meadow tundra dominated by sedges and grasses, found net fluxes of -7.2 g/m2/d. Typical net CO2 fluxes from other active temperate ecosystems have been found to be -10 to -20 g/m2/d (Monteith, 1976). Mean half hourly fluxes were almost constant at +0.06 mg/m2/s through the nighttime hours. About one half-hour after sunrise the flux reversed direction. Uptake peaked about 0900 eastern daylight time (EDT) and then gradually declined but remained downward until near sunset. The early peak was interpreted to signify that the many plants in the bog experienced water stress during the day as evaporative demand increased and nighttime dew was evaporated.

Neumann, H. H.; den Hartog, G.; King, K. M.; Chipanshi, A. C.

1994-01-01

360

[Structure of a community of testate amoebae in a sphagnum dominated bog in upper sura flow (middle Volga territory)].  

PubMed

Fifty nine species of testate amoebae were found in a sphagnum moss bog located in the upper Sura flow (Volga highland). The active diversity in communities of sphagnum moss biotopes was formed by 24 species. Minimal species diversity (3 species) and maximum density of organisms were noted in the driest habitat. In the habitats with the medium humidity levels, the level of species richness was similar (13-16 species) and the total density was determined by redox characteristics of the environment: under the conditions of oxygen deficit, it was two to three times lower than in an oxidized environment. The species composition specificity in sphagnum moss biotopes was determined by the degree of humidity: in the driest habitats, Arcella arenaria predominated; in the biotopes with medium humidity, Nebella tenella and Hyalosphenia elegans; and in the most humid biotopes, Hyalosphenia papilio and Heleopera sphagni. Communities of testate amoebae differed by species composition and integral characteristics at different sphagnum moss horizons: the abundance and species richness increased with depth. The proportion of living individuals in the total number of tests was 35 to 75%. PMID:17966908

361

Heatwave 2003: high summer temperature, rather than experimental fertilization, affects vegetation and CO2 exchange in an alpine bog.  

PubMed

Nitrogen and phosphorus were added experimentally in a bog in the southern Alps. It was hypothesized that alleviating nutrient limitation will increase vascular plant cover. As a consequence, more carbon will be fixed through higher rates of net ecosystem CO(2) exchange (NEE). The vascular cover did increase at the expense of Sphagnum mosses. However, such vegetation changes were largely independent of the treatment and were probably triggered by an exceptional heatwave in summer 2003. Contrary to the tested hypothesis, NEE was unaffected by the nutrient treatments but was strongly influenced by temperature and water-table depth. In particular, ecosystem respiration in the hot summer of 2003 increased dramatically, presumably owing to enhanced heterotrophic respiration in an increased oxic peat layer. At the end of the experiment, the Sphagnum cover decreased significantly in the nitrogen-fertilized treatment at hummock microhabitats. In the long term, this will imply a proportionally greater accumulation of vascular litter, more easily decomposable than the recalcitrant Sphagnum litter. As a result, rates of carbon fixation may decrease because of stimulated respiration. PMID:18373651

Gerdol, Renato; Bragazza, Luca; Brancaleoni, Lisa

2008-03-29

362

A carbon accumulation maximum during the Medieval Climate Anomaly in the world’s biggest bog, Siberia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The West Siberia Lowland is the most carbon-rich northern wetland region, holding an important portion of total northern peatland carbon (70 Gt of 270-450 Gt C) mainly in the southern lowland (44 Gt) in very large peatlands. The largest of these, the Great Vasyugan Bog complex, spans 63,252 km2 and alone holds ~11 Gt C. Our previous work has shown that recent-past growth of WSL peat C pool has been greatest in southern WSL in large peatlands close to the southern limit of peatland distribution. In this study, we investigate a Great Vasyugan site to investigate peat carbon sensitivity in two ways: 1) assess past changes in vegetation, species-specific 13C geochemistry, and rate of carbon accumulation relative to recent-past climate variation, and 2) assess the relative lability of this deep peat C through laboratory incubations. Carbon accumulation over the last 2000 years, a period of relatively consistent vegetation and litter inputs but variable local hydrology, reached a maximum between 1150 and 1350 AD during Medieval Climate Anomaly conditions. A carbon accumulation minimum occurred between about 1350 and 1550 AD. Regardless of depth, age, or rate of carbon burial, deep peat from between 30 and 230 cm below the surface showed a similar rate of potential aerobic respiration that changed little over 42 days of incubation. Taken together, these data suggest that in some peatlanlds warmer and hydrologically-variable conditions can promote long-term belowground carbon storage.

Beilman, D.; MacDonald, G. M.

2009-12-01

363

Chromobacterium vaccinii sp. nov., isolated from native and cultivated cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait.) bogs and irrigation ponds.  

PubMed

A large number of Gram-negative, motile, mesophilic, violacein-producing bacteria were isolated from the soils and roots of Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait. and Kalmia angustifolia L. plants and from irrigation ponds associated with wild and cultivated cranberry bogs in Massachusetts, USA. Phylogenetic analyses of 16S rRNA gene sequences placed these isolates in a clade with Chromobacterium species, but the specialized environment from which they were isolated, their low genomic DNA relatedness with Chromobacterium violaceum ATCC 12472(T) and C. subtsugae PRAA4-1(T), significant differences in fatty acid composition and colony morphology indicate that the cranberry and Kalmia isolates comprise a separate species of Chromobacterium, for which the name Chromobacterium vaccinii sp. nov. is proposed. Strain MWU205(T) (?=?ATCC BAA-2314(T) ?=?DSM 25150(T)) is proposed as the type strain for the novel species. Phenotypic analysis of 26 independent isolates of C. vaccinii sp. nov. indicates that, despite close geographical and biological proximity, there is considerable metabolic diversity among individuals within the population. PMID:22984138

Soby, Scott D; Gadagkar, Sudhindra R; Contreras, Cristina; Caruso, Frank L

2012-09-14

364

Annual and seasonal variability in evapotranspiration and water table at a shrub-covered bog in southern Ontario, Canada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Evapotranspiration (ET) was measured via the eddy covariance technique at a shrub bog peatland in southeastern Ontario for 5 years. For most of the study period the temperature was above normal. Precipitation was variable, but, in 2 years, late summer dry periods resulted in an extended period of deep drawdown of the water table (WT). Growing-season (May-September) daily ET varied considerably; maximum ET rates were 4 to 5 mm day-1. Winter ET rates were an order of magnitude smaller than in summer, yet the total winter ET loss was important, accounting for 23 to 30% of the annual ET water loss. Annual precipitation exceeded annual ET by 1.55 to 1.94 times.During the growing season, daily ET was closely related to daily potential evaporation (PET); however, the slope of this relationship was statistically different in some years. In contrast, ET and WT were only weakly related in most years. When ET was sorted into 5 cm WT classes there was no difference in mean ET across most WT classes; only the two deepest WT classes had significantly smaller mean ET. The ratio ET/PET followed the same pattern. We present a conceptual model of ET that relates WT, soil hydraulic properties and moss and vascular plant processes. Copyright

Lafleur, Peter M.; Hember, Robbie A.; Stuart, W., Admiral; Roulet, Nigel T.

2005-11-01

365

Atmospheric mercury deposition recorded in an ombrotrophic peat core from Xiaoxing'an Mountain, Northeast China.  

PubMed

The historical mercury accumulation rates (Hg AR) resulting from atmospheric deposition to Xiaoxing'an Mountain were determined via analysis of (210)Pb- and (14)C-dated cores up to 5000 years old. Natural Hg AR background, pre-industrial Hg AR and maximum industrial Hg AR in Northeast China were 2.2 ±1.0 ?g/m(2)/yr for 5100-4500 BP, 5.7 ?g/m(2)/yr and 112.4 ?g/m(2)/yr, respectively. We assumed that the increase in Hg deposition in the Xiaoxing'an mountain area during industrial time was mainly attributed to local anthropogenic emissions around this peat bog. PMID:22658809

Tang, Shunlin; Huang, Zhongwei; Liu, Jun; Yang, Zaichan; Lin, Qinhua

2012-06-02

366

Seasonality of atmospheric nitrogen deposition at a semi-natural peatland site  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Large areas of natural peat bogs in Northwestern Germany have been converted to arable land and are characterised by decades of draining and peat cutting. Our study site - a semi-natural raised bog - is one of only very few remaining protected peatland areas. However, it is surrounded by highly fertilized agricultural land and poultry farms. In this study, we use a combined approach of independent methods to quantify seasonal variations of atmospheric nitrogen deposition most likely originated from agricultural practices. Concentrations and fluxes of ammonia and its atmospheric reactants are measured by a KAPS-denuder system integrated over one-week periods. Additionally, total nitrogen input from the atmosphere into a soil-plant model ecosystem is investigated by a 15N dilution method called 'Integrated Total Nitrogen Input' (ITNI). With this approach, we aim to allocate atmospheric nitrogen after its uptake by the ecosystem in aboveground biomass, roots and soil. First results from April to November 2011 show average ammonia concentrations ranging from 0.9 to 13.0 ?g m-3. A first maximum of 8.8 ?g m-3 could be observed in spring followed by relatively stable concentrations (mean: 3.7 ?g m-3) in summer. Autumn ammonia concentrations reached a second peak of 13.0 ?g m-3. By now, winter concentrations tend to be lower than those during the rest of the measuring period. Using the KAPS-denuder system within a gradient setup, deposition of ammonia was found to be between 0.08 to 0.25 kg NH3-N ha-1 week-1. The proportion of concentrations and fluxes of other N compounds such as HNO3, aerosol NH4 and NO3 was usually around 20 % of total measured nitrogen. During the first months of investigation, we found a total dry N deposition of about 5.4 kg ha-1. Extrapolation of data to one year amounts approximately to 9 kg ha-1 yr1. Our results suggest that the intensive agricultural land management of surrounding areas most likely leads to increasing N input into the protected peatland area. The critical load for this nutrient-poor ecosystem might be exceeded and a future change in vegetation and hydrology is expected. Key words: nitrogen deposition, raised bog, 15N isotopes, KAPS denuder

Hurkuck, M.; Brümmer, C.; Kutsch, W. L.

2012-04-01

367

Zavarzinella formosa gen. nov., sp. nov., a novel stalked, Gemmata-like planctomycete from a Siberian peat bog.  

PubMed

An aerobic, pink-pigmented, budding and rosette-forming bacterium was isolated from an acidic Sphagnum peat bog and designated strain A10(T). The 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that strain A10(T) was a member of the order Planctomycetales and belonged to a phylogenetic lineage defined by the genus Gemmata, with 90 % sequence similarity to that of Gemmata obscuriglobus, the only taxonomically described organism of this group. Ellipsoid-shaped cells of strain A10(T) were uniformly covered with crateriform pits and possessed long (up to 10-15 mum) and unusually thick (0.5-0.7 mum) stalks of a unique ultrastructure. Thin sections revealed a complex intracellular membrane system compartmentalizing the cells. Strain A10(T) was a moderately acidophilic, mesophilic organism capable of growth at pH values between 3.8 and 7.2 (with an optimum at pH 5.5-6.0) and at temperatures between 10 and 30 degrees C (with an optimum at 20-25 degrees C). The major fatty acids were C(18 : 0), C(18 : 1)omega5c and C(16 : 1)omega5c and the major quinone was MK-6. Cells of strain A10(T) contained high amounts of bound saturated and monounsaturated C(26)-C(32) (omega-1) hydroxy fatty acids. The G+C content of the DNA was 62.5 mol%. The unique cell morphology, the capability of growth in acidic conditions and a number of chemotaxonomic and genotypic characteristics served to differentiate strain A10(T) from G. obscuriglobus. Based on these data, the novel isolate should be considered as representing a novel genus and species of planctomycetes, for which the name Zavarzinella formosa gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed The type strain is A10(T) (=DSM 19928(T)=VKM B-2478(T)). PMID:19196778

Kulichevskaya, Irina S; Baulina, Olga I; Bodelier, Paul L E; Rijpstra, W Irene C; Damsté, Jaap S Sinninghe; Dedysh, Svetlana N

2009-02-01

368

Profiles of Water Content and Pore Size in Sphagnum and Peat, and their Relation to Peat Bog Ecology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The bog mosses, Sphagnum, form a significant part of the total mass of plants in the world. Their rate of growth depends to a considerable extent on the supply of water to them, and different species occupy characteristic habitats which differ in their ability to supply water. We used the profiles of water content in almost undisturbed cores of two species to infer the size and distribution of spaces around the plants in an attempt to account for the observation that S. papillosum is usually found not far above the water table, while S. capilliforlium is usually found on hummocks well above the water table. Profiles of water content were recorded non-destructively from 30 cm diameter cores of Sphagnum and underlying peat, with use of the absorbance of the soft gamma radiation of 241Am. The distribution of water-fillable spaces of different size was inferred from profiles with the water table at different distances, to a maximum of 150 cm, below the surface. The larger spaces, which are the main path of water transport, are outside the plant cell walls: between leaves and between pendent branches and stems. The mean radius of such spaces around the hummock species S. capillifolium is smaller than that around S. papillosum. For a given depth of water table the water content of the apical tuft of branches, where growth occurs, is greater in the hummock species than it is in the lawn species. Of ecological importance is that, for a given water content in the apex, the water table is at a greater depth below the hummock species than it is below the lawn species. As the water table rises and falls, so the water content of both species shows hysteresis as large as the difference between them. The ecological significance of this and the need for measurements while water is flowing are discussed.

Hayward, P. M.; Clymo, R. S.

1982-06-01

369

Ditch blocking, water chemistry and organic carbon flux: evidence that blanket bog restoration reduces erosion and fluvial carbon loss.  

PubMed

The potential for restoration of peatlands to deliver benefits beyond habitat restoration is poorly understood. There may be impacts on discharge water quality, peat erosion, flow rates and flood risk, and nutrient fluxes. This study aimed to assess the impact of drain blocking, as a form of peatland restoration, on an upland blanket bog, by measuring water chemistry and colour, and loss of both dissolved (DOC) and particulate organic carbon (POC). The restoration work was designed to permit the collection of a robust experimental dataset over a landscape scale, with data covering up to 3 years pre-restoration and up to 3 years post-restoration. An information theoretic approach to data analyses provided evidence of a recovery of water chemistry towards more 'natural' conditions, and showed strong declines in the production of water colour. Drain blocking led to increases in the E4:E6 ratio, and declines in specific absorbance, suggesting that DOC released from blocked drains consisted of lighter, less humic and less decomposed carbon. Whilst concentrations of DOC showed slight increases in drains and streams after blocking, instantaneous yields of both DOC and POC declined markedly in streams over the first year post-restoration. Attempts were made to estimate total annual fluvial organic carbon fluxes for the study site, and although errors around these estimates remain considerable, there is strong evidence of a large reduction in aquatic organic carbon flux from the peatland following drain-blocking. Potential mechanisms for the observed changes in water chemistry and organic carbon release are discussed, and we highlight the need for more detailed information, from more sites, to better understand the full impacts of peatland restoration on carbon storage and release. PMID:21440287

Wilson, Lorraine; Wilson, Jared; Holden, Joseph; Johnstone, Ian; Armstrong, Alona; Morris, Michael

2011-05-01

370

Initiation of Sphagnum moss hummocks in bogs and the presence of vascular plants: Is there a link?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Establishment of specific vascular plants and Sphagnum species, as well as asymmetrical competition and facilitation between the two types of plants are apparently important in the development of microtopography in peatlands. To determine whether peatland vascular plants can facilitate the initiation of Sphagnum hummocks, and consequently the differentiation of bog microtopography, we investigated the effects of vascular plant life form and structure on Sphagnum stem length and biomass. We showed that Sphagnum stem length and biomass were enhanced by low density of vascular plants and other introduced structures, which thus favoured hummock formation. Dense covers of vascular plants also promoted moss height growth, but the Sphagnum stems were etiolated and fluffy, their densities were too low and biomass was too small to initiate clear hummocks. We also showed that vascular plants contributed to microhabitats with stable temperatures and high relative humidity favourable to Sphagnum growth. Stress-gradient hypothesis, predicting that the relative frequencies of facilitation and competition events will vary inversely along abiotic stress gradients, could explain the nature of the interaction between mosses and vascular plants. At the onset of microstructures formation in peatlands, abiotic stress is probably more important and facilitation events could be frequent. Microclimatic effects of vascular plants may be essential for Sphagnum growth. Then, the presence of ericaceous shrubs or young trees enhances the microtopography by physically reinforcing the hummocks. During accentuation of microtopography, the positive interactions between Sphagnum mosses and vascular plants may be replaced by competition as abiotic stress declines. This study introduces new evidence for the role of vascular plants in the formation and maintenance of hummocks, especially under drier growing conditions.

Pouliot, Rémy; Rochefort, Line; Karofeld, Edgar; Mercier, Caroline

2011-07-01

371

Ecophysiological adaptations of anaerobic bacteria to low pH: analysis of anaerobic digestion in acidic bog sediments. [Lactobacillus; Clostridium; Sarcina ventriculi  

SciTech Connect

The dynamics of anaerobic digestion were examined in the low-pH sediments of Crystal Bog in Wisconsin. The sediments (pH 4.9) contained 71% organic matter and the following concentrations of dissolved gases (micromoles per liter):CO/sub 2/, 1140; CH/sub 4/, 490; and H/sub 2/, 0.01. The rate of methane production was 6.2 ..mu..mol/liter of sediment per h, which is slower than eutrophic, neutral sediments. Microbial metabolic processes displayed the following pH optima: hydrolysis reactions, between 4.2 and 5.6; aceticlastic methanogenesis, 5.2; and hydrogen-consuming reactions, 5.6. The turnover rate constants for key intermediary metabolites were (h/sup -1/): glucose, 1.10; lactate, 0.277; acetate, 0.118; and ethanol, 0.089. The populations of anaerobes were low, with hydrolytic groups (10/sup 6//ml) several orders of magnitude higher than methanogens (10/sup 2//ml). The addition of carbon electron donors to the sediment resulted in the accumulation of hydrogen, whereas the addition of hydrogen resulted in the accumulation of fatty acids and the inhibition of hydrogen-producing acetogenic reactions. Strains of Lactobacillus, Clostridium, and Sarcina ventriculi were isolated from the bog, and their physiological attributes were characterized in relation to hydrolytic process functions in the sediments. The present studies provide evidence that the pH present in the bog sediments alter anaerobic digestion processes s, that total biocatalytic activity is lower bu the general carbon and electron flow pathways are similar to those of neutral anoxic sediments.

Goodwin, S.; Zeikus, G.J.

1987-01-01

372

Groundwater flow with energy transport and water-ice phase change: Numerical simulations, benchmarks, and application to freezing in peat bogs  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In northern peatlands, subsurface ice formation is an important process that can control heat transport, groundwater flow, and biological activity. Temperature was measured over one and a half years in a vertical profile in the Red Lake Bog, Minnesota. To successfully simulate the transport of heat within the peat profile, the U.S. Geological Survey's SUTRA computer code was modified. The modified code simulates fully saturated, coupled porewater-energy transport, with freezing and melting porewater, and includes proportional heat capacity and thermal conductivity of water and ice, decreasing matrix permeability due to ice formation, and latent heat. The model is verified by correctly simulating the Lunardini analytical solution for ice formation in a porous medium with a mixed ice-water zone. The modified SUTRA model correctly simulates the temperature and ice distributions in the peat bog. Two possible benchmark problems for groundwater and energy transport with ice formation and melting are proposed that may be used by other researchers for code comparison. ?? 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

McKenzie, J. M.; Voss, C. I.; Siegel, D. I.

2007-01-01

373

High specificity but contrasting biodiversity of Sphagnum-associated bacterial and plant communities in bog ecosystems independent of the geographical region.  

PubMed

Mosses represent ecological niches that harbor a hitherto largely uncharacterized microbial diversity. To investigate which factors affect the biodiversity of bryophyte-associated bacteria, we analyzed the bacterial communities associated with two moss species, which exhibit different ecological behaviors and importance in bog ecosystems, Sphagnum magellanicum and Sphagnum fallax, from six temperate and boreal bogs in Germany and Norway. Furthermore, their surrounding plant communities were studied. Molecular analysis of bacterial communities was determined by single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis using eubacterial and genus-specific primers for the dominant genera Burkholderia and Serratia as well as by sequence analysis of a Burkholderia 16S rRNA gene clone library. Plant communities were analyzed by monitoring the abundance and composition of bryophyte and vascular plant species, and by determining ecological indicator values. Interestingly, we found a high degree of host specificity for associated bacterial and plant communities of both Sphagnum species independent of the geographical region. Calculation of diversity indices on the basis of SSCP gels showed that the S. fallax-associated communities displayed a statistically significant higher degree of diversity than those associated with S. magellanicum. In contrast, analyses of plant communities of Sphagnum-specific habitats resulted in a higher diversity of S. magellanicum-specific habitats for all six sites. The higher content of nutrients in the S. fallax-associated ecosystems can explain higher diversity of microorganisms. PMID:18043652

Opelt, Katja; Berg, Christian; Schönmann, Susan; Eberl, Leo; Berg, Gabriele

2007-07-19

374

Flourish or flush: effects of simulated extreme rainfall events on Sphagnum-dwelling testate amoebae in a subarctic bog (Abisko, Sweden).  

PubMed

Extreme precipitation events are recognised as important drivers of ecosystem responses to climate change and can considerably affect high-latitude ombrotrophic bogs. Therefore, understanding the relationships between increased rainfall and the biotic components of these ecosystems is necessary for an estimation of climate change impacts. We studied overall effects of increased magnitude, intensity and frequency of rainfall on assemblages of Sphagnum-dwelling testate amoebae in a field climate manipulation experiment located in a relatively dry subarctic bog (Abisko, Sweden). The effects of the treatment were estimated using abundance, species diversity and structure of living and empty shell assemblages of testate amoebae in living and decaying layers of Sphagnum. Our results show that increased rainfall reduced the mean abundance and species richness of living testate amoebae. Besides, the treatment affected species structure of both living and empty shell assemblages, reducing proportions of hydrophilous species. The effects are counterintuitive as increased precipitation-related substrate moisture was expected to have opposite effects on testate amoeba assemblages in relatively dry biotopes. Therefore, we conclude that other rainfall-related factors such as increased infiltration rates and frequency of environmental disturbances can also affect testate amoeba assemblages in Sphagnum and that hydrophilous species are particularly sensitive to variation in these environmental variables. PMID:22956212

Tsyganov, Andrey N; Keuper, Frida; Aerts, Rien; Beyens, Louis

2012-09-06

375

Cold season CH4 and CO2 emission from boreal peat bogs (West Siberia): Winter fluxes and thaw activation dynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The conventional chamber technique was used to measure CH4 and CO2emission to the atmosphere from snow-covered ombrotrophic bogs (57°N, 82°E, Plotnikovo, West Siberia). The average ± standard deviation values for CH4 and CO2fluxes in mid-February were found to be equal mg m-2 d-15.0 ± 3.7 and 69±52, respectively. The contribution of cold season to annual methane fluxes varied from 3.5 to 11% depending on the calculation method and was similar to that found in Alaska and northern Minnesota. The vertical profiles of gases in snow were linear implying the applicability of the simple diffusion equation under steady state conditions. The diffusion reduction factor due to porous resistance and tortuousity of snowpack was 0.18 and 0.29 for methane and carbon dioxide, respectively. Thus snow forms only a passive cap which controls the gas concentration at the snow-soil interface, while gas flux into the atmosphere is controlled by gas production in the soil. The fresh samples of frozen peat soil incubated under laboratory conditions at constant temperature -16°C displayed very slow, but steady respiration varied from 0.05 to 0.2 mg CO2-C d-1 dm-3depending on peat sampling depth. Although this activity was 200-300 times lower than soil respiration in summertime, it was enough to support the observed in situ winter CO2 emission. The thaw and subsequent peat incubation at 15°C accelerated gas formation up to 2-5 mg CO2-C and 1.2 mg CH4-C h-1 dm-3of peat after 3-4 days of incubation followed by a decline by 1 order of magnitude and approaching a new steady state level. Although the mechanism of freeze-thaw activation needs further clarification, it was nevertheless possible to simulate the observed activation dynamics by a mathematical model which accounts for the burst of microbial growth on nutrients released into soil from frost-damaged cells.

Panikov, N. S.; Dedysh, S. N.

2000-12-01

376

Stable carbon isotope composition and concentrations of CO 2 and CH 4 in the deep catotelm of a peat bog  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vertical profiles of concentration and C-isotopic composition of dissolved methane and carbon dioxide were observed over 26 months in the catotelm of a deep (6.5 m) peat bog in Switzerland. The dissolved concentrations of these gases increase with depth while CO 2 predominates over CH 4 (CO 2 ca. 5 times CH 4). This pattern can be reproduced by a reaction-advection-ebullition model, where CO 2 and CH 4 are formed in a ratio of 1:1. The less soluble methane is preferentially lost via outgassing (bubbles). The isotopic fractionation between CO 2 and CH 4 also increases with depth, with ?C values ranging from 1.045 to 1.075. The isotopic composition of the gases traces the passage of respiration-derived CO 2 (from the near surface) through a shallow zone with methanogenesis of low isotopic fractionation (splitting of fermentation-derived acetate). This solution then moves through the catotelm, where methanogenesis occurs by CO 2 reduction (large isotopic fractionation). In the upper part of the catotelm the C-13-depleted respiration-derived CO 2 pool buffers the isotopic composition of CO 2; the ? 13C of CO 2 increases only slowly. At the same time strongly depleted CH 4 is formed as CO 2 reduction consumes the depleted CO 2. In the lower part of the catotelm, the respiration-derived CO 2 and shallow CH 4 become less important and CO 2 reduction is the dominant source of CO 2 and CH 4. Now, the ? 13C values of both gases increase until equilibrium is reached with respect to the isotopic composition of the substrate. Thus, the ? 13C values of methane reach a minimum at intermediate depth, and the deep methane has ? 13C values comparable to shallow methane. A simple mixing model for the isotopic evolution is suggested. Only minor changes of the observed patterns of methanogenesis (in terms of concentration and isotopic composition) occur over the seasons. The most pronounced of these is a slightly higher rate of acetate splitting in spring.

Steinmann, Philipp; Eilrich, Bernd; Leuenberger, Markus; Burns, Stephen J.

2008-12-01

377

Torfmoos (Sphagnum) als nachwachsender Rohstoff - Untersuchungen zur Maximierung der Produktivität von Sphagnum papillosum im Regendurchströmungsmoor Ispani 2 (Georgien) Peat mosses (Sphagnum) as a renewable resource - Investigations on maximising productivity of Sphagnum papillosum in the percolation bog Ispani 2 (Georgia)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cultivation of fresh peatmoss biomass as an alternative to the extraction of fossil white peat allows a lasting, sustainable and non-polluting supply of raw material for professional horticulture and the pre- servation of living bogs with their important functions for nature conservation and climate regulation (as carbon storage). In the research project \\

MATTHIAS KREBS

378

Hydroxyapatite Deposition Disease.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Hydroxyapatite deposition disease (HADD), a disease most commonly found in middle-aged individuals, is characterized by deposition of calcium phosphate crystals in periarticular tissues. The deposits frequently occur in tendons near their osseous attachme...

D. P. Beall J. Q. Ly L. Folio S. J. Upton

2006-01-01

379

Pesticides in Surface Water, Bed Sediment, and Ground Water Adjacent to Commercial Cranberry Bogs, Lac du Flambeau Reservation, Vilas County, Wisconsin  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Pesticides commonly used on cranberries were detected in lakes, lake-bed sediment, and ground water of the Lac du Flambeau Reservation, Wisconsin adjacent to commercial cranberry bogs. Additionally, pesticides not typically used on cranberries were also detected. In water samples from Little Trout and the Corn Lakes, which are adjacent to commercial cranberry bogs, five targeted pesticides commonly used on cranberries (2,4-D, carbaryl, diazinon, napropamide, and norflurazon) were detected. No targeted pesticides were detected in Ike Walton Lake (the reference lake), which is not adjacent to commercial cranberry bogs. The non-targeted pesticide atrazine (not commonly used on cranberries) was detected in all lakes during all sample periods, with precipitation the likely source. Non-targeted pesticides metolachlor and oryzalin were also detected in samples from Ike Walton and the Corn Lake, but the sources are not apparent. Pesticide concentrations measured in lake samples were far below levels considered lethal to fish. In samples from the Trout River, which is used as a source of water to maintain lake levels in the Corn Lakes, the only pesticides detected were the non-targeted compounds atrazine and deethyl atrazine, indicating it was not a source of targeted compounds detected in the Corn Lakes. Only two pesticides (chlorpyrifos and metolachlor) were detected in bed-sediment samples collected from the lakes; chlorpyrifos from Little Trout Lake and metolachlor from the Corn Lakes. Four pesticides (the targeted compounds napropamide and norflurazon and the non-targeted compounds atrazine and deethyl atrazine) were detected in ground-water samples from two of four sampled monitor wells. The highest ground-water concentrations (up to 0.14 ?g/L napropamide and 0.56 ?g/L norflurazon) were measured in samples from the monitoring well located directly downgradient from the Corn Lakes and commercial cranberry operations. No pesticides were detected in samples from the reference well located upgradient from the Corn Lakes and cranberry operations. Further study is needed to identify additional pesticides as well as chronic effects on aquatic organisms to determine whether cranberry-related pesticides affect the lake ecosystems of the Lac du Flambeau Reservation.

Saad, David A.

2005-01-01

380

Influence of vegetation cover of depleted peat deposits at the emission and absorption of carbon dioxide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The total peatlands area in Belarus before the beginning of drainage and peat extraction was 2,939,000 hectares, or 14.2% of the total territory of the Republic. Wide-scale melioration and industrial peat extraction have led to reduction of their virgin area by more than 40% and to degradation of environment on a local level. Currently total area of depleted peat deposits makes about 260 thousand hectares. Carbon dioxide is a product of vital activity of aerobic organisms that make decomposition of organic matter, and because of this oxygen is taken from the atmosphere and is used for biochemical oxidation of the residual peat layer and carbon dioxide is emitted into atmosphere. Emission of carbon dioxide into atmosphere from the depleted peat deposits depends on the type of peat deposit, level of peatlands water, current vegetation. Mineralization of peat depends on the humidity, temperature and aeration of peat layer. Emission of carbon dioxide from the depleted and not covered with grass plots of raised bogs made 2,9-13,2 (in average -9,5 tons CO2/ha per annum), from fen mires - 4,4-20,6 (in average -14,3 tons CO2/ha per annum) . Emission of carbon dioxide from the depleted and covered with grass plots of raised bogs made 3,3-9,9 (in average - 5,8 tons CO2/ha per annum), from the fen mires - 4,4-12,8 (in average - 9,9 tons CO2/ha per annum). Average annual emission of carbon dioxide from depleted covered with trees and shrubs plots of raised peatlands made (-1,2)-4,4 (in average - 2,9 tons CO2/ha per annum), from fen mires - (-1,5)- 1,4 (in average - (-0,8) tons CO2/ha per annum). Balance of carbon dioxide for covered with trees and shrubs sites of depleted peat deposits consists of emission of organic matter of peat into atmosphere in the process of mineralization and absorption of carbon dioxide in the process of increment of vegetation biomass. At the depleted peat deposits of fen type covered with trees and shrubs absorption of carbon dioxide exceeds its emission. However drained peat deposits used in the forestry are fire dangerous. Almost always this brings down to zero increment of timber in the result of peatlands drainage.

Rakovich, V. A.; Chabrouskaya, O. M.

2010-05-01

381

Hine's Bog Skimmer Survey.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objectives of this study were: (1) To describe the life history and habitat of the Hine's emerald dragonfly, including larval habitat; (2) To determine the presence or absence of the species in additional potential occurrence sites in Door County, Wis...

1993-01-01

382

Distribution of calcretes and gypcretes in southwestern United States and their uranium favorability, based on a study of deposits in Western Australia and South West Africa (Namibia)  

SciTech Connect

Calcrete, dolocrete, and gypcrete carnotite are abundant in western Australia and Namib Desert, although only a few are of ore grade. The geology of these deposits are described. A genetic classification of calcretes emphasizing uranium favorability was developed, based on the distinction between pedogenic and nonpedogenic processes. Similarities between western Australia and South West Africa give support for the conclusions that lateral transport of U in groundwater is essential to ore deposition and that bedrock barriers or constrictions which narrow the channel of subsurface flow or force the water close to the land surface, greatly favor the formation of uraniferous calcretes. Criteria for uranium favorability deduced from the Australian and South West African studies were applied in a preliminary way to the southern Basin and Range Province of U.S. The procedure is to search for areas in which nonpedogenic calcrete or gypcrete may have developed. A caliche distribution map was compiled from soil survey and field data. Many areas were visited and some of the more interesting are described briefly, including parts of Clark County, Nevada, with occurrences of carnotite in calcrete. (DLC)

Carlisle, D.; Merifield, P.M.; Orme, A.R.; Kohl, M.S.; Kolker, O.; Lunt, O.R.

1978-01-06

383

Lanceimermis palustris n. sp. and Telomermis palustris n. sp. (Nematoda: Mermithidae) parasites of chironomid (Insecta: Diptera) adults from Lake Alice Bog in northern Minnesota.  

PubMed

In the summer of 2003, chironomid imagoes eclosing from Lake Alice Bog in Minnesota yielded mermithid nematodes of 2 new species. Lanceimermis palustris n. sp. is distinguished from the other 14 species of the genus by the subventral mouth position, thinness of the hook-shaped spicule, body index, and structure of the male tail muscles. Telomermis palustris n. sp. is distinguished from the only other species of the genus by the structure of the amphids, body length, maximum body width, length of the esophagus, and the presence of a minute larval terminal horn. Lanceimermis palustris n. sp. hosts were Chironomus maturus Johannsen and T. palustris n. sp. hosts were Tanytarsus mendax Kieffer, Paratanytarsus nr. dissimilis n. sp., and Micropsectra polita (Malloch). In both mermithid species, the percent of mermithid males per host increased with the intensity of the infection. PMID:15715243

Johnson, Arthur A; Kleve, Maurice G

2004-12-01

384

Health assessment for Bog Creek Farm Site (BCFS) National Priorities List (NPL) site, Howell Township, Monmouth County, New Jersey, Region 2. CERCLIS No. NJD063157150. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The Bog Creek Farm Site, located in a rural area of Howell Township, Monmouth County, New Jersey, is on the National Priorities List. In 1973 and 1974, various wastes were reportedly dumped at the site, including lacquer thinners, paint solvents and resins, disinfectants, animal carcasses, and residential debris. Sampling and analysis of on-site and off-site ground water, surface water, and sediments and of on-site waste and soil revealed several contaminants, primarily volatile organic compounds (VOCs), semi-volatile organic compounds, and heavy metals. Site contamination appears to be greatest immediately adjacent to an on-site waste-disposal trench. A potential public health threat exists from dermal absorption, ingestion, or inhalation of contamination from ground water, surface water, sediment, waste, and soil.

Not Available

1989-04-10

385

Tundra in the rain: differential vegetation responses to three years of experimentally doubled summer precipitation in Siberian shrub and Swedish bog tundra.  

PubMed

Precipitation amounts and patterns at high latitude sites have been predicted to change as a result of global climatic changes. We addressed vegetation responses to three years of experimentally increased summer precipitation in two previously unaddressed tundra types: Betula nana-dominated shrub tundra (northeast Siberia) and a dry Sphagnum fuscum-dominated bog (northern Sweden). Positive responses to approximately doubled ambient precipitation (an increase of 200 mm year(-1)) were observed at the Siberian site, for B. nana (30 % larger length increments), Salix pulchra (leaf size and length increments) and Arctagrostis latifolia (leaf size and specific leaf area), but none were observed at the Swedish site. Total biomass production did not increase at either of the study sites. This study corroborates studies in other tundra vegetation types and shows that despite regional differences at the plant level, total tundra plant productivity is, at least at the short or medium term, largely irresponsive to experimentally increased summer precipitation. PMID:22864700

Keuper, Frida; Parmentier, Frans-Jan W; Blok, Daan; van Bodegom, Peter M; Dorrepaal, Ellen; van Hal, Jurgen R; van Logtestijn, Richard S P; Aerts, Rien

2012-01-01

386

Annual variation of methane emissions from forested bogs in West Siberia (2005-2009): a case of high CH4 and precipitation rate in the summer of 2007  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have been conducting continuous measurements of CH4 and CO2 on a network of towers (JR-STATION: Japan-Russia Siberian Tall Tower Inland Observation Network) located in taiga, steppe, and wetland biomes of Siberia. Here we describe measurements from two forested bog sites, Karasevoe (KRS; 58°15' N, 82°25' E) and Demyanskoe (DEM; 59°47' N, 70°52' E), in West Siberia from 2005 to 2009. Although both CH4 and CO2 accumulation (?CH4 and ?CO2) during nighttime (duration of 7 h beginning 21:30 LST) at KRS in July 2007 showed an anomalously high concentration, the higher ratios of ?CH4/?CO2 compared with those in other years indicate that a considerably more CH4 flux occurred relative to the CO2 flux in response to large precipitation recorded in 2007 (~2.7 mm d-1 higher than the climatological 1979-1998 base). Estimated seasonal CH4 fluxes based on the ratio of ?CH4/?CO2 and the CASA 3-hourly CO2 flux for the 2005-2009 period exhibited a seasonal variation with a maximum in July at both sites. Annual values of the CH4 emission from the forested bogs around KRS (approx. 7.8×104 km2) calculated from a process-based ecosystem model, Vegetation Integrative Simulator for Trace gases (VISIT), showed inter-annual variation of 0.54, 0.31, 0.94, 0.44, and 0.41 Tg CH4 yr-1 from 2005 to 2009, respectively, with the highest values in 2007. It was assumed in the model that the area flooded with water is proportional to the cumulative anomaly in monthly precipitation rate.

Sasakawa, M.; Ito, A.; Machida, T.; Tsuda, N.; Niwa, Y.; Davydov, D.; Fofonov, A.; Arshinov, M.

2010-11-01

387

Seasonal climate manipulations have only minor effects on litter decomposition rates and N dynamics but strong effects on litter P dynamics of sub-arctic bog species.  

PubMed

Litter decomposition and nutrient mineralization in high-latitude peatlands are constrained by low temperatures. So far, little is known about the effects of seasonal components of climate change (higher spring and summer temperatures, more snow which leads to higher winter soil temperatures) on these processes. In a 4-year field experiment, we manipulated these seasonal components in a sub-arctic bog and studied the effects on the decomposition and N and P dynamics of leaf litter of Calamagrostis lapponica, Betula nana, and Rubus chamaemorus, incubated both in a common ambient environment and in the treatment plots. Mass loss in the controls increased in the order Calamagrostis < Betula < Rubus. After 4 years, overall mass loss in the climate-treatment plots was 10 % higher compared to the ambient incubation environment. Litter chemistry showed within each incubation environment only a few and species-specific responses. Compared to the interspecific differences, they resulted in only moderate climate treatment effects on mass loss and these differed among seasons and species. Neither N nor P mineralization in the litter were affected by the incubation environment. Remarkably, for all species, no net N mineralization had occurred in any of the treatments during 4 years. Species differed in P-release patterns, and summer warming strongly stimulated P release for all species. Thus, moderate changes in summer temperatures and/or winter snow addition have limited effects on litter decomposition rates and N dynamics, but summer warming does stimulate litter P release. As a result, N-limitation of plant growth in this sub-arctic bog may be sustained or even further promoted. PMID:22526945

Aerts, R; Callaghan, T V; Dorrepaal, E; van Logtestijn, R S P; Cornelissen, J H C

2012-04-21

388

Optical coatings deposited using ion assisted deposition  

SciTech Connect

The properties of Ta/sub 2/O/sub 5/ and Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ optical coatings deposited using oxygen-ion assisted deposition (IAD) were investigated. Previously, we reported preliminary results for Ta/sub 2/O/sub 5/ and Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ coatings deposited using IAD. In this paper, we present results illustrating the effects of oxygen-ion bombardment on film optical constants, environmental durability, and laser damage resistance. The coatings were bombarded with 200-, 300-, 500-, and 1000-eV oxygen ions during deposition. Increased values of refractive index were obtained for coatings deposited with simultaneous O/sup +//sub 2/ bombardment. Antireflection coatings deposited using IAD did not exhibit increased laser damage thresholds at lambda = 351 nm.

McNally, J.J.; Jungling, K.C.; Williams, F.L.; McNeil, J.R.

1987-07-01

389

Peat Bog Wildfire Smoke Exposure in Rural North Carolina Is Associated with Cardiopulmonary Emergency Department Visits Assessed Through Syndromic Surveillance  

EPA Science Inventory

In June 2008 burning deposits of peat produced haze and air pollution far in excess of National Ambient Air Quality Standards, encroaching on rural communities of eastern North Carolina (NC). While the association of mortality and morbidity with exposure to urban air pollution is...

390

Peat Bog Wildfire Smoke Exposure in Rural North Carolina Is Associated with Cardio-Pulmonary Emergency Department Visits  

EPA Science Inventory

In June 2008 burning deposits of peat produced haze and air pollution far in excess of National Ambient Air Quality Standards, encroaching on rural communities of eastern North Carolina (NC). While the association of mortality and morbidity with exposure to urban air pollution i...

391

Peat bog wildfire smoke exposure in rural North Carolina is associated with Cardiopulmonary emergency department visits assessed through syndromic surveillance  

EPA Science Inventory

Background: In June 2008 burning deposits of peat produced haze and air pollution far in excess of National Ambient Air Quality Standards, encroaching on rural communities of eastern North Carolina (NC). While the association of mortality and morbidity with exposure to urban air ...

392

Origin and depositional environment of clastic deposits in the Hilo drill hole, Hawaii  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Volcaniclastic units cored at depths of about 87, 164, 178, 226, and 246 m below sea level and carbonate units located between depths of 27 and 53 m below sea level in the Hilo drill core were found to be deposited at or near sea level. Four of these units are hydroclastic deposits, formed when subaerially erupted Mauna Loa lava flows entered the ocean and fragmented to produce quenched, glassy fragments during hydrovolcanic explosions. Ash units 24 and 26, at 178 m depth, accumulated at sea level in a freshwater bog. They contain pyroxenes crystallized from tholeiitic magma that we infer erupted explosively at the summit of Kilauea volcano. Two carbon-rich layers from these ashes have a weighted average radiocarbon age of 38.6 ?? 0.9 ka; the ashes probably correlate with the oldest and thickest part of the Pahala ash. Ash unit 44, at the transition from Mauna Kea to Mauna Loa lava flows, was probably nearly 3.2 m thick and is inferred to be equivalent to the lower thick part of the composite Homelani ash mapped in Hilo and on the flanks of Mauna Kea. The age of this part of Homelani ash is between 128 ?? 33 and 200 ?? 10 ka; it may have erupted subglacially during the Pohakuloa glacial maxima on Mauna Kea. Beach sand units 12 and 22 were derived from nearby Mauna Loa and Mauna Kea lava flows. The middle of beach sand unit 38 was derived mainly from lava erupted near the distal end of the subaerial east rift zone of Kilauea volcano; these sands were transported about 33 km northwest to Hilo Bay by prevailing longshore currents. Combined age, depth, and sea level markers in the core allow us to determine that lava flow recurrence intervals averaged one flow every 4 kyr during the past 86 kyr and one flow every 16 kyr between 86 and 200 ka at the drill site and that major explosive eruptions that deposit thick ash in Hilo have occurred only twice in the last 400 kyr. These recurrence intervals support the moderate lava flow hazard zonation (zone 3) for coastal Hilo previously determined from surficial mapping.

Beeson, M. H.; Clague, D. A.; Lockwood, J. P.

1996-01-01

393

DRY DEPOSITION MODULE FOR REGIONAL ACID DEPOSITION  

EPA Science Inventory

Methods to compute surface dry deposition velocities for sulfur dioxide, sulfate, ozone, NO plus NO2, and nitric acid vapor over much of the North American continent have been developed for use with atmospheric numerical models of long-range transport and deposition. The resultin...

394

Geochronology and Fluid-Rock Interaction Associated with the Nopal I Uranium Deposit, Pena Blanca, Mexico  

SciTech Connect

The Nopal I uranium (U) deposit, Pena Blanca District, Mexico, largely consists of secondary U{sup 6+} minerals, which occur within a breccia pipe mainly hosted by the 44 Ma Nopal and Colorados volcanic formations. These two units overly the Pozos conglomerate formation and Cretaceous limestone. Three new vertical diamond drill holes (DDHs) were recently drilled at Nopal I. DDH-PB1 with continuous core was drilled through the Nopal I deposit and two additional DDHs were drilled {approx}50 m on either side of the cored hole. These DDHs terminate 20 m below the current water table, thus allowing the detection of possible gradients in radionuclide contents resulting from transport from the overlying uranium deposit. Primary uraninite within the main ore body is rare and fine-grained ({approx}50 micrometers), thus making geochronology of the Nopal I deposit very difficult. Uranium, lead and oxygen isotopes can be used to study fluid-uraninite interaction, provided that the analyses are obtained on the micro-scale. Secondary ionization mass spectrometry (SIMS) permits in situ measurement of isotopic ratios with a spatial resolution on the scale of a few {micro}m. Preliminary U-Pb results show that uraninite from the main ore body gives an age of 32 {+-} 8 Ma, whereas uraninite from the uraniferous Pozos conglomerate that lies nearly 100 m below the main ore body and 25 meters above the water table, gives a U-Pb age that is <1 Ma. Oxygen isotopic analyses show that uraninite from the ore body has a {delta}{sup 18}O = -10.8{per_thousand}, whereas the uraninite within the Pozos conglomerate has a {delta}{sup 18}O = +1.5{per_thousand}. If it is assumed that both uraninites precipitated from meteoric water ({delta}{sup 18}O = -7{per_thousand}), then calculated precipitation temperatures are 55 C for the uraninite from the ore body and 20 C for uraninite hosted by the Pozos conglomerate. These temperatures are consistent with previous studies that calculated precipitation temperatures for clay minerals associated with uraninite.

M. Fayek; P. Goodell; M. Ren; A. Simmons

2005-07-11

395

Pricing of Deposit Insurance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laeven aims to provide guidelines for the pricing of deposit insurance in different countries. He presents several methodologies that can be used to set benchmarks for the pricing level of deposit insurance in a country, and quantifies how specific design features affect the cost of deposit insurance.The author makes several contributions to our understanding of what drives the price of

Luc Laeven

2002-01-01

396

Deposits and relationship lending  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors empirically examine the hypothesis that access to deposits with inelastic rates (core deposits) permits a bank to make contractual agreements with borrowers that are infeasible if the bank must pay market rates for its funds. Access to core deposits insulates a bank's costs of funds from exogenous shocks, allowing the bank to insulate its borrowers against exogenous credit

Mitchell Berlin; Loretta J. Mester

1997-01-01

397

Deposits and relationship lending  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors empirically examine the hypothesis that access to deposits with inelastic rates (core deposits) permits a bank to make contractual agreements with borrowers that are infeasible if the bank must pay market rates for its funds. Access to core deposits insulates a bank's costs of funds from exogenous shocks, allowing the bank to insulate its borrowers against exogenous credit

Mitchell Berlin; Loretta J. Mester

1998-01-01

398

Sphagnum-dwelling testate amoebae in subarctic bogs are more sensitive to soil warming in the growing season than in winter: the results of eight-year field climate manipulations.  

PubMed

Sphagnum-dwelling testate amoebae are widely used in paleoclimate reconstructions as a proxy for climate-induced changes in bogs. However, the sensitivity of proxies to seasonal climate components is an important issue when interpreting proxy records. Here, we studied the effects of summer warming, winter snow addition solely and winter snow addition together with spring warming on testate amoeba assemblages after eight years of experimental field climate manipulations. All manipulations were accomplished using open top chambers in a dry blanket bog located in the sub-Arctic (Abisko, Sweden). We estimated sensitivity of abundance, diversity and assemblage structure of living and empty shell assemblages of testate amoebae in the living and decaying layers of Sphagnum. Our results show that, in a sub-arctic climate, testate amoebae are more sensitive to climate changes in the growing season than in winter. Summer warming reduced species richness and shifted assemblage composition towards predominance of xerophilous species for the living and empty shell assemblages in both layers. The higher soil temperatures during the growing season also decreased abundance of empty shells in both layers hinting at a possible increase in their decomposition rates. Thus, although possible effects of climate changes on preservation of empty shells should always be taken into account, species diversity and structure of testate amoeba assemblages in dry subarctic bogs are sensitive proxies for climatic changes during the growing season. PMID:21839679

Tsyganov, Andrey N; Aerts, Rien; Nijs, Ivan; Cornelissen, Johannes H C; Beyens, Louis

2011-08-11

399

Natural bog pine ecosystem in southern Germany is a steady and robust sink of CO2 but a minor source of CH4  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Natural peatland ecosystems sequester carbon dioxide. They do this slowly but steadily, but also emit methane in small rates. Thus peatlands have both positive and negative greenhouse gas balance impacts on the climate system due to their influence on atmospheric CO2 and CH4 concentration. We present data of net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE) of almost three years (July 2010 to March 2013) and of methane fluxes over a period of nine months (July 2012 to March 2013), measured by eddy covariance technique in the bog forest "Schechenfilz". The site (47°48' N; 11°19' E, 590 m a.s.l.) is an ICOS-ecosystems associate site, located in the pre-alpine region of southern Germany, where a natural Pinus mugo rotundata forest grows on an undisturbed, almost 6 m thick peat layer. The slow growing bog pines and their low rates of carbon sequestration, in combination with high water table and thus low availability of oxygen, lead to low carbon dioxide fluxes. Photosynthesis as well as soil respiration are considerably attenuated compared to upland sites. Additionally, the high soil water content is damping the impact of dry and hot periods on CO2 exchange. Thus the CO2 balance is very robust to changing environmental parameters. While the CO2 exchange is clearly related to soil temperature and photosynthetic active radiation, we have not yet identified a parameter that governs variations in methane exchange. Various environmental parameters appear to be related to methane emissions (including soil moisture, soil and air temperature and wind direction), but the scatter with respect to half hourly methane fluxes is too large to be useful for gap modeling. Analysis of daily averages reduces the scatter, but since methane exchange exhibits considerable daily variation, daily averages are not useful to fill data gaps of half hourly fluxes. In consequence, as the daily course is the summary result of all environmental parameters having influence on the methane exchange at the half-hour time scale of the measurements, the ensemble mean diurnal variation method over a suitable number of days is considered the most practical choice of gap filling method for methane fluxes at Schechenfilz site for estimating daily and annual sums. Overall, the annual CO2 uptake is estimated at a magnitude between -50 and -80 g C m-2 a-1, whereas the annual methane emissions are estimated to be about +6 g C m-2 a-1. Since N2O emissions can be neglected at natural peatland sites, the natural bog-pine ecosystem Schechenfilz is indicated to be a weak net sink of greenhouse gases in the past year, even if the higher global warming potential of methane is considered.

Hommeltenberg, Janina; Schmid, Hans Peter; Droesler, Matthias; Werle, Peter

2013-04-01

400

Dry deposition velocities  

SciTech Connect

Dry deposition velocities are very difficult to predict accurately. In this article, reported values of dry deposition velocities are summarized. This summary includes values from the literature on field measurements of gas and particle dry deposition velocities, and the uncertainties inherent in extrapolating field results to predict dry deposition velocities are discussed. A new method is described for predicting dry deposition velocity using a least-squares correlation of surface mass transfer resistances evaluated in wind tunnel experiments. 14 references, 4 figures, 1 table.

Sehmel, G.A.

1984-03-01

401

Oxygen-Isotopic Variability Across the 8.2ka Cold Event in an Ombrotrophic Peat bog on the Bonavista Peninsula, Newfoundland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ombrotrophic (precipitation-fed) peatlands are well established as sources of proxy-climate information through the Holocene (Aaby, 1974; Barber, 1981; Barber et al., 1994, 1998; Hughes et al., 2000; Charman, 2002). Over the past decade, innovative methodological developments have resulted in the production of multi-proxy records where co-registered signals are used to establish the response of bogs to climatic forcing (Blundell & Barber, 2005, Langdon & Barber, in press; Hughes et al., in press). These techniques have utilised changes in the relative abundance of bog taxa, combined with knowledge of their ecology and the degree of decomposition of the peat, to infer the nature of past environmental changes. Despite the success of this methodology, there remains a need for an approach that is better able to quantify the magnitude of observed climatic changes and which is directly comparable with records from lakes, ice cores and marine sediments. Analysis of the stable isotopes of oxygen and hydrogen in the cellulose of Sphagnum moss offers additional environmentally-sensitive proxies with which to reconstruct isotopic variations in source water (palaeo-precipitation), and hence changes in climate and atmospheric circulation. Sphagnum moss is particularly suited to isotopic analysis by virtue of the comparatively simple pathway that leads from precipitation to cellulose synthesis. We present an oxygen-isotope time series developed from a 2m section of a peat core from Newfoundland (latitude, 49°.150 N, longitude, 53°.583 W). The location of the site on the North east coast of the island makes it particularly sensitive to the atmospheric impact of changes in the nature of the Inner Labrador current, thought to be the conduit that carried the meltwater plume from the Lake Agassiz megaflood (e.g. Keigwin, et al., 2005). The results will be compared with existing multi-proxy data on plant macrofossils, peat humification and testate amoebae derived from the same core (Hughes et al., in press), and also with published marine and ice-core isotopic records that span the 8.2ka event.

Daley, T. J.; Hughes, P. D.; Street-Perrott, F. A.; Loader, N. J.; Barber, K. E.

2005-12-01

402

Ages of 24 widespread tephras erupted since 30,000 years ago in New Zealand, with re-evaluation of the timing and palaeoclimatic implications of the Lateglacial cool episode recorded at Kaipo bog  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tephras are important for the NZ-INTIMATE project because they link all three records comprising the composite inter-regional stratotype developed for the New Zealand climate event stratigraphy (NZ-CES). Here we firstly report new calendar ages for 24 widespread marker tephras erupted since 30,000 calendar (cal.) years ago in New Zealand to help facilitate their use as chronostratigraphic dating tools for the NZ-CES and for other palaeoenvironmental and geological applications. The selected tephras comprise 12 rhyolitic tephras from Taupo, nine rhyolitic tephras from Okataina, one peralkaline rhyolitic tephra from Tuhua, and one andesitic tephra each from Tongariro and Egmont/Taranaki volcanic centres. Age models for the tephras were obtained using three methods: (i) 14C-based wiggle-match dating of wood from trees killed by volcanic eruptions (these dates published previously); (ii) flexible depositional modelling of a high-resolution 14C-dated age-depth sequence at Kaipo bog using two Bayesian-based modelling programs, Bacon and OxCal's P_Sequence function, and the IntCal09 data set (with SH offset correction -44 ± 17 yr); and (iii) calibration of 14C ages using OxCal's Tau_Boundary function and the SHCal04 and IntCal09 data sets. Our preferred dates or calibrated ages for the 24 tephras are as follows (youngest to oldest, all mid-point or mean ages of 95% probability ranges): Kaharoa AD 1314 ± 12; Taupo (Unit Y) AD 232 ± 10; Mapara (Unit X) 2059 ± 118 cal. yr BP; Whakaipo (Unit V) 2800 ± 60 cal. yr BP; Waimihia (Unit S) 3401 ± 108 cal. yr BP; Stent (Unit Q) 4322 ± 112 cal. yr BP; Unit K 5111 ± 210 cal. yr BP; Whakatane 5526 ± 145 cal. yr BP; Tuhua 6577 ± 547 cal. yr BP; Mamaku 7940 ± 257 cal. yr BP; Rotoma 9423 ± 120 cal. yr BP; Opepe (Unit E) 9991 ± 160 cal. yr BP; Poronui (Unit C) 11,170 ± 115 cal. yr BP; Karapiti (Unit B) 11,460 ± 172 cal. yr BP; Okupata 11,767 ± 192 cal. yr BP; Konini (bed b) 11,880 ± 183 cal. yr BP; Waiohau 14,009 ± 155 cal. yr BP; Rotorua 15,635 ± 412 cal. yr BP; Rerewhakaaitu 17,496 ± 462 cal. yr BP; Okareka 21,858 ± 290 cal. yr BP; Te Rere 25,171 ± 964 cal. yr BP; Kawakawa/Oruanui 25,358 ± 162 cal. yr BP; Poihipi 28,446 ± 670 cal. yr BP; and Okaia 28,621 ± 1428 cal. yr BP.Secondly, we have re-dated the start and end of the Lateglacial cool episode (climate event NZce-3 in the NZ-CES), previously referred to as the Lateglacial climate reversal, as defined at Kaipo bog in eastern North Island, New Zealand, using both Bacon and OxCal P_Sequence modelling with the IntCal09 data set. The ca 1200-yr-long cool episode, indicated by a lithostratigraphic change in the Kaipo peat sequence to grey mud with lowered carbon content, and a high-resolution pollen-derived cooling signal, began 13,739 ± 125 cal. yr BP and ended 12,550 ± 140 cal. yr BP (mid-point ages of the 95% highest posterior density regions, Bacon modelling). The OxCal modelling, generating almost identical ages, confirmed these ages. The Lateglacial cool episode (ca 13.8-12.6 cal. ka BP) thus overlaps a large part of the entire Antarctic Cold Reversal chronozone (ca 14.1-12.4 cal. ka BP or ca 14.6-12.8 cal. ka BP), and an early part of the Greenland Stadial-1 (Younger Dryas) chronozone (ca 12.9-11.7 cal. ka BP). The timing of the Lateglacial cool episode at Kaipo is broadly consistent with the latitudinal patterns in the Antarctic Cold Reversal signal suggested for the New Zealand archipelago from marine and terrestrial records, and with records from southern South America.

Lowe, David J.; Blaauw, Maarten; Hogg, Alan G.; Newnham, Rewi M.

2013-08-01

403

Characterization of acid-tolerant H/CO-utilizing methanogenic enrichment cultures from an acidic peat bog in New York State.  

PubMed

Two methanogenic cultures were enriched from acidic peat soil using a growth medium buffered to c. pH 5. One culture, 6A, was obtained from peat after incubation with H(2)/CO(2), whereas culture NTA was derived from a 10(-4) dilution of untreated peat into a modified medium. 16S rRNA gene clone libraries from each culture contained one methanogen and two bacterial sequences. The methanogen 16S rRNA gene sequences were 99% identical with each other and belonged to the novel "R-10/Fen cluster" family of the Methanomicrobiales, whereas their mcrA sequences were 96% identical. One bacterial 16S rRNA gene sequence from culture 6A belonged to the Bacteroidetes and showed 99% identity with sequences from methanogenic enrichments from German and Russian bogs. The other sequence belonged to the Firmicutes and was identical to a thick rod-shaped citrate-utilizing organism isolated from culture 6A, the numbers of which decreased when the Ti (III) chelator was switched from citrate to nitrilotriacetate. Bacterial clones from the NTA culture clustered in the Delta- and Betaproteobacteria. Both cultures contained thin rods, presumably the methanogens, as the predominant morphotype, and represent a significant advance in characterization of the novel acidiphilic R-10 family methanogens. PMID:16867139

Bräuer, Suzanna L; Yashiro, Erika; Ueno, Norikiyo G; Yavitt, Joseph B; Zinder, Stephen H

2006-08-01

404

Holocene monsoon climate documented by oxygen and carbon isotopes from lake sediments and peat bogs in China: a review and synthesis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There has been much recent debate about Holocene climate variation in the monsoon region of China, especially the temporal pattern of variations in precipitation, the time-transgressive nature of the Holocene precipitation maximum, and the extent to which variations in regions influenced by the Indian Summer Monsoon (ISM) and the East Asian Summer Monsoon (EASM) have been synchronous. We summarize and compare carbonate oxygen-isotope records (?18Ocarb) from ten lakes within the present-day ISM region. We discuss their paleoclimate significance considering the present-day moisture source, isotopic composition of precipitation and the hydrological setting. The ?18Ocarb records are controlled mainly by the isotopic composition of lake water, which in turn is a function of regional Precipitation/Evaporation (P/E) balance and the proportion of precipitation that is monsoon-derived. We normalized the ?18Ocarb data and used these records to generate an integrated moisture index. This index, along with oxygen-isotope records from speleothems and carbon-isotope records (?13Corg) from peats within the monsoon region, suggests that Holocene climate was broadly synchronous across the monsoon region and, within the limits of accuracy of the existing age models, provides no strong evidence for previously-proposed anti-phasing of the ISM and the EASM. Stable-isotope records from lake sediments and peat bogs have excellent potential for providing high-quality paleoclimate data for monsoon Asia, and complement high-resolution speleothem sequences, which are only found in certain localities.

Zhang, Jiawu; Chen, Fahu; Holmes, Jonathan A.; Li, Hui; Guo, Xiaoyan; Wang, Junlan; Li, Shuang; Lü, Yanbin; Zhao, Yan; Qiang, Mingrui

2011-07-01

405

Ultra-deep pyrosequencing of pmoA amplicons confirms the prevalence of Methylomonas and Methylocystis in Sphagnum mosses from a Dutch peat bog.  

PubMed

Sphagnum peatlands are important ecosystems in the methane cycle. Methanotrophs in these ecosystems have been shown to reduce methane emissions and provide additional carbon to Sphagnum mosses. However, little is known about the diversity and identity of the methanotrophs present in and on Sphagnum mosses in these peatlands. In this study, we applied a pmoA microarray and high-throughput 454 pyrosequencing to pmoA PCR products obtained from total DNA from Sphagnum mosses from a Dutch peat bog to investigate the presence of methanotrophs and to compare the two different methods. Both techniques showed comparable results and revealed an abundance of Methylomonas and Methylocystis species in the Sphagnum mosses. The advantage of the microarray analysis is that it is fast and cost-effective, especially when many samples have to be screened. Pyrosequencing is superior in providing pmoA sequences of many unknown or uncultivated methanotrophs present in the Sphagnum mosses and, thus, provided much more detailed and quantitative insight into the microbial diversity. PMID:23761355

Kip, Nardy; Dutilh, Bas E; Pan, Yao; Bodrossy, Levente; Neveling, Kornelia; Kwint, Michael P; Jetten, Mike S M; Op den Camp, Huub J M

2011-05-01

406

Anthropogenic impacts in North Poland over the last 1300 years--a record of Pb, Zn, Cu, Ni and S in an ombrotrophic peat bog.  

PubMed

Lead pollution history over Northern Poland was reconstructed for the last ca. 1300 years using the elemental and Pb isotope geochemistry of a dated Polish peat bog. The data show that Polish Pb-Zn ores and coal were the main sources of Pb, other heavy metals and S over Northern Poland up until the industrial revolution. After review of the potential mobility of each element, most of the historical interpretation was based on Pb and Pb isotopes, the other chemical elements (Zn, Cu, Ni, S) being considered secondary indicators of pollution. During the last century, leaded gasoline also contributed to anthropogenic Pb pollution over Poland. Coal and Pb-Zn ores, however, remained important sources of pollution in Eastern European countries during the last 50 years, as demonstrated by a high (206)Pb/(207)Pb ratio (1.153) relative to that of Western Europe (ca. 1.10). The Pb data for the last century were also in good agreement with modelled Pb inventories over Poland and the Baltic region. PMID:19683332

De Vleeschouwer, François; Fagel, Nathalie; Cheburkin, Andriy; Pazdur, Anna; Sikorski, Jaroslaw; Mattielli, Nadine; Renson, Virginie; Fialkiewicz, Barbara; Piotrowska, Natalia; Le Roux, Gaël

2009-08-14

407

An Antarctic hypotrichous ciliate, Parasterkiella thompsoni (Foissner) nov. gen., nov. comb., recorded in Argentinean peat-bogs: morphology, morphogenesis, and molecular phylogeny.  

PubMed

The ciliate Parasterkiella thompsoni (Foissner, 1996) nov. gen., nov. comb. was originally described from Antarctica. In the present study, we report the morphology, morphogenesis during cell division, and molecular phylogeny inferred from the 18S-rDNA sequence of a population isolated from the Rancho Hambre peat bog, Tierra del Fuego Province (Argentina). The study is based on live and protargol-impregnated specimens. Molecular phylogeny was inferred from trees constructed by means of the maximum parsimony, neighbor joining, and Bayesian analyses. The interphase morphology matches the original description of the species. During the cell division, stomatogenesis begins with the de novo proliferation of two fields of basal bodies, each one left of the postoral ventral cirri and of transverse cirri, which later unify. Primordia IV-VI of the proter develop from disaggregation of cirrus IV/3, while primordium IV of the opisthe develops from cirrus IV/2 and primordia V and VI from cirrus V/4. Dorsal morphogenesis occurs in the Urosomoida pattern-that is, the fragmentation of kinety 3 is lacking. Three macronuclear nodules are generated before cytokinesis. Phylogenetic analyses consistently placed P. thompsoni within the stylonychines. New data on the morphogenesis of the dorsal ciliature justifies the transference of Sterkiella thompsoni to a new genus Parasterkiella. PMID:21459562

Küppers, Gabriela Cristina; Paiva, Thiago da Silva; Borges, Bárbara do Nascimento; Harada, Maria Lúcia; Garraza, Gabriela González; Mataloni, Gabriela

2011-04-03

408

A late Holocene record of trace metal deposition in lake sediments near Quelccaya Ice Cap, Peru  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Records of atmospheric metal deposition have been used extensively in the Northern Hemisphere to examine historical events ranging from the evolution of ancient metallurgy to climatic change. Establishing such a record in tropical South America is pertinent due to ongoing questions about the metallurgical history of pre-colonial Andean civilizations, recent atmospheric pollution levels, and late Holocene climate variability. Here we present a late Holocene record of the Ag, As, Cd, Co, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, Sr, Zn, and Pb isotopic compositions of atmospheric deposition from three 1.5 m-long lake cores and one 5 m-long bog core recovered near Quelccaya Ice Cap (13.9 °S), in the southeastern Peruvian Andes. The bog core, representing deposition from the present to at least 2415 yr BP, records relatively stable concentrations of As, Co, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, Sr, and Zn between 2415 (±78) and 916 (±29) yr BP. However, Ag and Cd exhibit brief gradual enrichments over background levels by factors of 6 and 11, respectively, shortly after 2415 (±78) yr BP as a possible result of ancient metallurgy. Sometime following the 916 (±29) yr BP date, Ag, As, Cd, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, and Sr abruptly become enriched by factors of 10, 37, 11, 11, 47, 6, 16, and 24, respectively, possibly from anthropogenic sources and/or the 1600 AD eruption of Huaynaputina in southern Peru. These enrichments are concurrent with a shift in 206Pb/207Pb to 1.182 from background levels of 1.213 (±0.002, n=20). A subsequent quiescent period in metal concentrations is marked by a brief return to background 206Pb/207Pb values, followed by erratic 206Pb/207Pb values yet decreased metal concentrations in the most recent sediments. Only Hg is enriched over background levels, by a factor of 3, in the most recent sediment. Forthcoming higher-resolution data from the three lake cores will utilize pre-industrial lead isotope ratios and Ti, Zr, and REE fluxes to examine past variability of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation, the position of the Intertropical Convergence Zone, and the extent of nearby mountain glaciers, including Quelccaya Ice Cap.

Beal, S. A.; Kelly, M. A.; Jackson, B. P.; Osterberg, E. C.; Stroup, J. S.; Baker, R. A.

2010-12-01

409

Global tsunami deposits database  

Microsoft Academic Search

The National Geophysical Data Center and co-located World Data Center for Geophysics and Marine Geology provide integrated\\u000a access to historical tsunami event, deposit, and proxy data. Historical events are important for understanding the frequency\\u000a and intensity of relatively recent tsunamis. Deposit data collected during post-tsunami field surveys provide information\\u000a on tsunami erosion, sedimentation, flow depths, inundation, and run-up. Deposit data

Paula Dunbar; Heather McCullough

410

Monte Carlo alpha deposition  

SciTech Connect

Prior work demonstrated the importance of nuclear scattering to fusion product energy deposition in hot plasmas. This suggests careful examination of nuclear physics details in burning plasma simulations. An existing Monte Carlo fast ion transport code is being expanded to be a test bed for this examination. An initial extension, the energy deposition of fast alpha particles in a hot deuterium plasma, is reported. The deposition times and deposition ranges are modified by allowing nuclear scattering. Up to 10% of the initial alpha particle energy is carried to greater ranges and times by the more mobile recoil deuterons. 4 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

Talley, T.L.; Evans, F.

1988-01-01

411

Energetic Deposition in Vacuum  

SciTech Connect

In hoping to improve Niobium deposition on Copper cavity, a vacuum deposition system has been built to test the idea of Nb energetic condensation on copper substrate. The system directly uses microwave power to create the pure Nb plasma, which can be used to extract energetic Nb ion flux to do direct deposition on copper substrate. In this paper, we briefly describe the system, discuss the potential benefit of this technique and report the initial result of Nb plasma creation and Niobium thin film deposition.

G. Wu; L. Phillips; R. Sundelin; T. Goodman

2001-09-01

412

USGS mineral deposit models  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This CD-ROM publication is a compilation of 29 previously published mineral deposit model and related reports of the USGS. It in part reflects a history of mineral deposit model development within the USGS. Model types presented include descriptive, grade-tonnage, geoenvironmental, and geophysical. These models generally compile the geologic, geochemical, and geophysical characteristics of various types of metallic and nonmetallic mineral deposits. The models list attributes intended as guides for resource and geoenvironmental studies and for mineral exploration. They are presented using the lithologic-tectonic environmental mineral deposit classification scheme originally developed by Cox and Singer (1986).

edited by Stoeser, D. B.; Heran, William D.

2000-01-01

413

Anastomosed river deposits, sedimentation rates, basin subsidence and locations in proximal molasse basins  

SciTech Connect

Recent research on large sized modern anastomosing river systems (upper Columbia River, British Columbia, Canada, and Magdalena River, Colombia, South America) has recognized six depositional environments: channel, levee, crevasse-splay, lacustrine, marsh, and peat bog or swamp. Average sedimentation rates in both river systems are 5 mm/yr and 3.8 mm/yr, respectively. Such rapid sedimentation rates (vertical accretion) are keeping pace with equivalent rates of basin subsidence. High rates of sedimentation and basin subsidence are most likely to be found at proximal locations in molasse basins during major orogenic pulses. Such conditions were present during the Columbian and Laramide orogenies during the early Cretaceous and Tertiary in the foreland adjacent to the Rocky Mountain system. Thus, channel and crevasse-splay shale-encased sandstone reservoirs and coal, common in anastomosed fluvial rock sequences in proximal molasse settings, should be encountered in parts of the Western Interior sedimentary basin. Such deposits probably have been interpreted as deltaic or alluvial plain and should be reexamined to better predict sandstone trends for hydrocarbon exploration.

Smith, D.G.

1984-07-01

414

Hydrologic Fluctuations Resulting From Climatic Variability Cause Methylation Events in Peatlands Impacted by Elevated Sulfate Deposition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A long-term sulfate addition experiment at the Marcell Experimental Forest of northern Minnesota has demonstrated the stimulatory effect of sulfate on mercury methylation at the ecosystem scale. Wetland margins have been shown to be principal zones of methylmercury (MeHg) production in sulfur-limited peatlands, but this research illustrates how the hydrologically isolated center of a small peatland effectively becomes a hot spot when exposed to elevated, atmospheric sulfate deposition. Furthermore, the chronic effects resulting from experimentally elevated sulfate deposition lead to the formation of a pool of reduced sulfur compounds highly sensitive to the changing redox conditions created by hydrologic and climatic variability. Our data reveal that water table rises following extended periods of drought cause natural "sulfate additions" and stimulate mercury methylation. This phenomenon was even observed in our control treatment following a severe drought in 2006. Hydrologic events that increase connectivity between the central bog and dominant wetland flowpaths, such as the infrequent, intense precipitation events predicted for this region by climate change models, could significantly increase MeHg flux from similar wetland systems.

Coleman Wasik, J. K.; Engstrom, D. R.; Swain, E. B.; Monson, B. A.; Balogh, S. J.; Jeremiason, J. D.; Kolka, R. K.; Mitchell, C. P.; Branfireun, B. A.; Almendinger, J. E.

2008-12-01

415

Pre-industrial accumulation of anthropogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons found in a blanket bog of the Iberian Peninsula.  

PubMed

Studies on the temporal deposition of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in peatlands are scarce, and none have been carried out in the Iberian Peninsula. To address this gap, ten PAHs were determined in a short peat core (spanning the last 1000 years) sampled in NW Iberian Peninsula, by HPLC-fluorescence. Fluoranthene, pyrene, benzo[b]fluoranthene and indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene predominated in the upper layers (10 cm), whereas fluoranthene and pyrene were the most abundant in the lower layers (40 cm), which showed an absence of high molecular weight PAHs (benzo[ghi]perylene and Indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene). Although increased PAH contents have been detected since 1700 A.D., coinciding with the beginning of the Metallurgical and Industrial Revolution, high levels of fluoranthene and pyrene were present in peat samples dating back to the 12th century A.D. The results suggest that changes in sources, type of emission (global or local) and transport could be responsible for the different PAH content and composition of the peat core. These changes are consistent with the history of the use of natural resources in the NW of the Iberian Peninsula. PMID:22578810

Pontevedra-Pombal, Xabier; Rey-Salgueiro, Ledicia; García-Falcón, Mercedes S; Martínez-Carballo, Elena; Simal-Gándara, Jesús; Martínez-Cortizas, Antonio

2012-05-09

416

Role of Organic Solutes in the Chemistry Of Acid-Impacted Bog Waters of the Western Czech Republic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In many regions, naturally occurring organic acid anions can effectively buffer mineral acid inputs from atmospheric deposition, moderating their effect on surface water pH. We studied the effect of chronically high inputs of acid rain on the chemistry of three brown-water streams in the western Czech Republic. The dissolved organic acids in the streams were similar in character to those of other systems in Europe and North America. The site densities (the carboxyl group content per mass of C) were similar to values reported from Fenno-Scandia, and the relationsh