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1

Geology and recognition criteria for uraniferous humate deposits, Grants Uranium Region, New Mexico. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The geology of the uraniferous humate uranium deposits of the Grants Uranium Region, northwestern New Mexico, is summarized. The most important conclusions of this study are enumerated. Although the geologic characteristics of the uraniferous humate deposits of the Grants Uranium Region are obviously not common in the world, neither are they bizarre or coincidental. The source of the uranium in the deposits of the Grants Uranium Region is not known with certainty. The depositional environment of the host sediments was apparently the mid and distal portions of a wet alluvial fan system. The influence of structural control on the location and accumulation of the host sediments is now supported by considerable data. The host sediments possess numerous important characteristics which influenced the formation of uraniferous humate deposits. Ilmenite-magnetite distribution within potential host sandstones is believed to be the simplest and most useful regional alteration pattern related to this type of uranium deposit. A method is presented for organizing geologic observations into what is referred to as recognition criteria. The potential of the United States for new districts similar to the Grants Uranium Region is judged to be low based upon presently available geologic information. Continuing studies on uraniferous humate deposits are desirable in three particular areas.

Adams, S.S.; Saucier, A.E.

1981-01-01

2

Possibilities for detailed dating of peat bog deposits  

SciTech Connect

Geochemical and palynological data as well as radiocarbon dating were used to study the peat bog deposits in Niinsarre bog, northeast Estonia. The aim of this study was to establish criteria for determining a detailed chronology, which is important, for example, in studying paleoevents and historical monitoring. In some cases, they can use cumulative pollen data, as well as cumulative chemical and peat bulk density data. Material was gathered for [sup 14]C dating from three parallel samples taken from cores ca. 10--20 cm apart using a Russian peat sampler. Samples for peat bulk density, palynological and chemical measurements were taken from the same cores. To measure peat bulk density, the authors used a continuous sampling method. Sampling frequency was calculated to cover layers formed over 50 yr.

Punning, J.; Ilomets, M.; Koff, T. (Inst. of Ecology and Marine Research, Tallinn (Estonia))

1993-01-01

3

Potassium limits potential growth of bog vegetation under elevated atmospheric CO2 and N deposition  

Microsoft Academic Search

The free air carbon dioxide enrichment (FACE) and N deposition experiments on four ombrotrophic bogs in Finland, Sweden, the Netherlands and Switzerland, revealed that after three years of treatment: (1) elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration had no significant effect on the biomass growth of Sphagnum and vascular species; and (2) increased N deposition reduced Sphagnum growth, because it increased the cover

MARCEL R. HOOSBEEK; NICO VAN BREEMEN; HARRI VASANDER; A. Buttlers; FRANK BERENDSE

2002-01-01

4

Controls on suppression of methane flux from a peat bog subjected to simulated acid rain sulfate deposition  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of acid rain SO42- deposition on peatland CH4 emissions was examined by manipulating SO42- inputs to a pristine raised peat bog in northern Scotland. Weekly pulses of dissolved Na2SO4 were applied to the bog over two years in doses of 25, 50, and 100 kg S ha-1 yr-1, reflecting the range of pollutant S deposition loads experienced in

Vincent Gauci; Nancy Dise; David Fowler

2002-01-01

5

Impact of catchment degree on peat properties in peat deposits of eutrophic bog  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fundamental works of many investigators show that according to the biophysical properties peat deposit (PD) is divided into 2 layers: active and inert. It is interesting to analyze the supposed changes in PD of eutrophic bog according to different data (physical, chemical and biological). The researches were carried out at two plots of one bog (points 1 and 2, positions 56° 21' NL, 84° 47' EL, Russia, Siberia). Agricultural afforestation (pine planting) was made at one of them (point 2) 60 years ago. Now this plot is absolutely identical in ground cover to 1 point, but other conditions are significantly changed. In spring bog water level is at the depth of 20cm at 2 point (at 1 point it is near water face), it lows up to 53 cm during summer time (at 1 point - up to 37 cm). According to redox conditions zone of anoxic-oxic conditions reaches meter depth at 2 points. PDs don't significantly differ in activity of ammonifiers but in activity of cellulose-lytic aerobic microflora it follows that it is more active at 2 point in PD active layer. In spite of good aeration, more favorable conditions were created also for anaerobic cellulose-fermenting microflora in PD of 2 point in comparison with 1 one. Activity analysis of denitrifying agents and microflora of other physiological groups also showed high activity of biota at the plot with afforestation amelioration. This fact was confirmed by high coefficient of mineralization. Time of drainage effect created by afforestation amelioration influenced group composition of peat organic matter which builds up PD of examined plots. According to fractional and group composition data fracture of hard-to-hydrolyze organic matters decreased during the process of microflora activating at the plot with afforestation amelioration but FA content increased. Fractional composition of nitrogen showed that content of mineral nitrogen compounds definitely increased. Thus, 60 years of surface drainage influenced composition change of peat organic matter along all PD profile. In our opinion, it is explained by rearrangement of qualitative and quantitative composition of microbic biota in consequence of alternate anoxic-oxic conditions creation along all PD of investigated eutrophic bog located in the dingle of ancient flow. Keywords: peat deposits, eutrophic bog, Siberia, microbiological processes, change of organic matter. Acknowledgements: This research was supported by RFFR (No.No. 09-05-00235, 09-05-99007), Minister of education and science (No. 02.740.11.0325).

Inisheva, L. I.; Golubina, O. A.; Rodikova, A. V.; Shinkeeva, N. A.; Bubina, A. B.

2010-05-01

6

Biological N2-Fixation Increases with Peatland Age and Decreases with N Deposition in Bogs of Western Canada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most terrestrial ecosystems are thought be limited primarily by nitrogen, including boreal peatlands located in pristine regions. Bogs receive nutrients solely from atmospheric deposition. Because of the historically low rates of atmospheric nitrogen deposition in Alberta, Canada, the Sphagnum mosses that dominate bog ground cover in this region have formed relationships with diazotrophs in order to meet their nitrogen needs, making biological N2- fixation the dominant input of new nitrogen to these bogs. The process of N2-fixation is highly variable and is governed by a number of environmental factors. In Alberta, one factor is water availability, as these bogs occur in some of the driest climates in which peatlands are known to exist. More recent factors with the potential to greatly alter N2-fixation dynamics include increasing nitrogen deposition associated with the growing oil sands mining operations and wildfires increasing in frequency and severity with global climate change. To determine the potential importance of N2-fixation to the overall peatland nitrogen balance under current and future conditions, we incubated the moss Sphagnum fuscum, using the acetylene reduction assay calibrated with 15N2, from 3 bogs representing ages of 3, 13, and 30 years since fire. Each bog was fertilized 8 times throughout the growing season with 0, 10, and 20 kg N/ha/yr. N2-fixation rates were measured 5 times at each site throughout the summer of 2013 to account for variation due to season and weather. Mean rates of N2-fixation increased with bog age, with higher rates in the 30 year old bog (36.90 × 8.38) and subsequently lower rates in the 13 yr (25.08 × 5.63) and 3 yr (11.58 × 6.33) old bogs. As expected, we saw decreasing rates of N2-fixation in the 10 (16.96 × 5.39) and 20 kg N/ha/yr treatments (3.35 × 1.34), as compared to water-only controls (47.62 × 12.18). These results indicate that N2-fixation supplies abundant N to support net primary productivity for bogs of all ages, but the process becomes compromised when sufficient N is supplied from other sources.

Fillingim, H.; Popma, J. M.; Dynarski, K. A.; Wieder, R.; Vile, M. A.

2013-12-01

7

Raised atmospheric CO2 levels and increased N deposition cause shifts in plant species composition and production in Sphagnum bogs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Part of the missing sink in the global CO2 budget has been attributed to the positive effects of CO2 fertilization and N deposition on carbon sequestration in Northern Hemisphere terrestrial ecosystems. The genus Sphagnum is one of the most important groups of plant species sequestrating carbon in temperate and northern bog ecosystems, because of the low decomposability of the dead

Frank Berendse; Nico Van Breemen; HAkan Rydin; Alexandre Buttler; Monique Heijmans; Marcel R. Hoosbeek; John A. Lee; Edward Mitchell; Timo Saarinen; Harri Vasander; Bo Wallen

2001-01-01

8

Recent lead deposition trends in the Czech Republic as recorded by peat bogs and tree rings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The lead (Pb) content and 206Pb/ 207Pb ratio were studied in three peat profiles dated by 210Pb from the border-area mountains of the Czech Republic and in the tree rings of spruce trees located in their immediate vicinity. Both archives document a similar progress in Pb pollution levels and Pb accumulation in the 1950's-1990's. The deposition rate (DR) of Pb in peat bogs attained maximum values of 40 mg Pb m -2 y -1 in the "Black Triangle" area and 15 mg Pb m -2 y -1 in more distant areas in this period. The Pb isotopic record of both archives from the contaminated area exhibit a similar trend in the presence of the individual sources of Pb, in which Pb derived from combustion of coal predominates. The peat cores in more distant areas document well the effect of automobile Pb in the atmosphere and its substantial reduction after 2000. The two archives differ in individual patterns following from the differences in the rates of formation of their biomass and different means of deposition of Pb in the two archives.

Zuna, Milan; Mihaljevi?, Martin; Šebek, Ond?ej; Ettler, Vojt?ch; Handley, Michael; Navrátil, Tomáš; Goliáš, Viktor

2011-09-01

9

Small scale controls of greenhouse gas release under elevated N deposition rates in a restoring peat bog in NW Germany  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In Central Europe, most bogs have a history of drainage and many of them are currently being restored. Success of restoration as well as greenhouse gas exchange of these bogs is influenced by environmental stress factors as drought and atmospheric nitrogen deposition. We determined the methane and nitrous oxide exchange of sites in the strongly decomposed center and less decomposed edge of the Pietzmoor bog in NW Germany in 2004. Also, we examined the methane and nitrous oxide exchange of mesocosms from the center and edge before, during, and following a drainage experiment as well as carbon dioxide release from disturbed unfertilized and nitrogen fertilized surface peat. In the field, methane fluxes ranged from 0 to 3.8 mg m-2 h-1 and were highest from hollows. Field nitrous oxide fluxes ranged from 0 to 574 ?g m-2 h-1 and were elevated at the edge. A large Eriophorum vaginatum tussock showed decreasing nitrous oxide release as the season progressed. Drainage of mesocosms decreased methane release to 0, even during rewetting. There was a tendency for a decrease of nitrous oxide release during drainage and for an increase in nitrous oxide release during rewetting. Nitrogen fertilization did not increase decomposition of surface peat. Our examinations suggest a competition between vascular vegetation and denitrifiers for excess nitrogen. We also provide evidence that the von Post humification index can be used to explain nitrous oxide release from bogs, if the role of vascular vegetation is also considered. An assessment of the greenhouse gas release from nitrogen saturated restoring bogs needs to take into account elevated release from fresh Sphagnum peat as well as from sedges growing on decomposed peat. Given the high atmospheric nitrogen deposition, restoration will not be able to achieve an oligotrophic ecosystem in the short term.

Glatzel, S.; Forbrich, I.; Krüger, C.; Lemke, S.; Gerold, G.

2008-06-01

10

Recent atmospheric dust deposition in an ombrotrophic peat bog in Great Hinggan Mountain, Northeast China.  

PubMed

Recent deposition of atmospheric soil dust (ASD) was studied using (210)Pb-dated Sphagnum-derived peat sequences from Great Hinggan Mountain in northeast China. Physicochemical indices of peat including dry bulk density, water content, ash content, total organic carbon and mass magnetic susceptibility were measured. Acid-insoluble concentration of lithogenic metals (Al, Ca, Fe, Mn, V and Ti) were measured using ICP-AES. The basic physicochemical properties were used to assess the peat trophic status and indicated that the sections above 45-60 cm are rain-fed peat. A continuous record of ASD fluxes over the past 150 years was reconstructed based on the geochemical data obtained from the ombrotrophic zone, and the average input rate of ASD is 13.4-68.1 g m(-2) year(-1). The source of soil dust deposited in peat was dominated by the long-range transport of mineral aerosol from the drylands in north China and Mongolia. The temporal variation of ASD fluxes in the last 60 years coincides well with the meteorological records of dust storm frequency during 1954-2002 in north China. This suggests that the reconstructed sequence of atmospheric dust deposition is reliable and we can look back in time at the dust evolution before 1949. Dust storm events were observed occasionally in the late Qing dynasty, and their frequency and intensity were smaller than dust weather occurring in recent times. Four peaks of ASD fluxes were distinguished and correlated with the historical events at that time. This study presents the first atmospheric soil dust data in peat records in northeast China, and complements a global database of peat bog archives of atmospheric deposition. The results reflect the patterns of local environmental change over the past century in north China and will be helpful in formulating policies to achieve sustainable and healthy development. PMID:22664536

Bao, Kunshan; Xing, Wei; Yu, Xiaofei; Zhao, Hongmei; McLaughlin, Neil; Lu, Xianguo; Wang, Guoping

2012-08-01

11

Reconstructing historical atmospheric mercury deposition in Western Europe using: Misten peat bog cores, Belgium.  

PubMed

Four sediment cores were collected in 2008 from the Misten ombrotrophic peat bog in the Northern part of the Hautes Fagnes Plateau in Belgium. Total mercury (Hg) concentrations were analyzed to investigate the intra-site variability in atmospheric Hg deposition over the past 1,500 years. Mercury concentrations in the four cores ranged from 16 to 1,100 ?g kg(-1), with the maxima between 840 and 1,100 ?g kg(-1). A chronological framework was established using radiometric (210)Pb and (14)C dating of two cores (M1 and M4). Pollen horizons from these two cores were correlated with data from two additional cores, providing a consistent dating framework between all the sites. There was good agreement between atmospheric Hg accumulation rates in the four cores over time based on precise age dating and pollen chronosequences. The average Hg accumulation rate before the influence of human activities (from 500 to 1,300 AD) was 1.8 ± 1 ?g m(-2)y(-1) (2SD). Maximum Hg accumulation rates ranged from 90 to 200 ?g m(-2)y(-1) between 1930 and 1980 AD. During the European-North American Industrial Revolution, the mean Hg accumulation rate exceeded the pre-Industrial values by a factor of 63. Based on comparisons with historical records of anthropogenic activities in Europe and Belgium, the predominant regional anthropogenic sources of Hg during and after the Industrial Revolution were coal burning and smelter Hg emissions. Mercury accumulation rates and chronologies in the Misten cores were consistent with those reported for other European peat records. PMID:23178833

Allan, Mohammed; Le Roux, Gael; Sonke, Jeroen E; Piotrowska, Natalia; Streel, Maurice; Fagel, Nathalie

2013-01-01

12

Determination of atmospheric nitrogen deposition to a semi-natural peat bog site in an intensively managed agricultural landscape  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rising levels of atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition have been found to affect the primary productivity and species composition of most terrestrial ecosystems. Highly vulnerable ecosystems such as nutrient-poor bogs are expected to respond to increasing N input rates with a decrease in plant species diversity. Our study site - a moderately drained raised bog and one of only very few remaining protected peatland areas in Northwestern Germany - is surrounded by highly fertilised agricultural land and intensive livestock production. We quantified the annual deposition of atmospheric N over a period of two years. Dry deposition rates of different N species and their reactants were calculated from day and night-time concentrations measured by a KAPS denuder filter system. Dry N deposition amounted to 10.9 ± 1.0 kg N ha-1 yr-1 (year 1) and 10.5 ± 1.0 kg N ha-1 yr-1 (year 2). More than 80% of total deposited N was attributed to ammonia (NH3). A strong seasonality in NH3 concentrations and depositions could be observed. Day and night-time concentrations and depositions, however, did not differ significantly. Total N deposition including bulk N deposition resulted in about 25 kg N ha-1 yr-1. Our results suggest that the intensive agricultural land management of surrounding areas and strongly emitting animal husbandry lead to N inputs into the protected peatland area that exceed the ecosystem's specific critical load up to fivefold. This gives rise to the assumption that a further shift in plant species composition with a subsequent alteration of the local hydrological regime can be expected.

Hurkuck, Miriam; Brümmer, Christian; Mohr, Karsten; Grünhage, Ludger; Flessa, Heinz; Kutsch, Werner L.

2014-11-01

13

Retention of As and Sb in ombrotrophic peat bogs: records of As, Sb, and Pb deposition at four Scottish sites  

SciTech Connect

Possible postdepositional As migration in ombrotrophic peat bogs was investigated by comparing depth profiles of As with those of Sb and Pb, two elements considered to be essentially immobile in peat, and those of redox-sensitive, potentially mobile nutrient elements such as Mn, Fe, P, and S in {sup 210}Pb-dated cores from four Scottish bogs. Concentration profiles of As were similar to those of Sb and Pb rather than these other elements, indicating that As is bound strongly to organic matter and is relatively immobile in ombrotrophic peat. Historical records of atmospheric anthropogenic As, Sb, and Pb deposition during the industrial and postindustrial periods were derived, site-specific maxima (up to 1.55, 1.33, and 45 mg m{sup -2} y{sup -1}, respectively) occurring between the late 1890s and 1960s, reflecting emissions from diverse sources such as mining and smelting, coal combustion, and also, in the case of Pb, exhaust emissions from the use of leaded gasoline. Since the mid-1980s, fluxes of Pb decreased (4-7 fold) more rapidly than those of As and Sb (2-3 fold), attributable to both the gradual elimination of leaded gasoline and recent new sources of the latter elements. Relative trends in derived anthropogenic As, Sb, and Pb deposition largely agreed with other Scottish peat and moss archive records, direct measurements of deposition, and UK emissions, i.e., four different types of data source. 36 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

Joanna M. Cloy; John G. Farmer; Margaret C. Graham; Angus B. MacKenzie [University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh (United Kingdom). School of GeoSciences

2009-03-15

14

Bog Plant Tissue Chemistry as Indicators of Regionally Elevated Atmospheric N and S Deposition in the Alberta Oil Sands Region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nitrogen oxide and sulfur oxide emission from ongoing development of oil sands in northern Alberta results in regionally elevated atmospheric deposition of N and S in an area where background deposition of both N and S is exceptionally low (less than 1 kg/ha/yr). Because bogs, which represent major landforms in the Alberta oil sands region, are believed to be N-limited and potentially sensitive to S inputs, we have been investigating the effects of elevated N deposition on C, N, and S cycling in bogs, as well as the potential of bogs to serve as monitors of N and S deposition. Toward this latter end, we have measured seasonal variation (5 sampling dates between June and October 2009) concentrations of N and S, as well as ?15N value, in leaf tissues (Picea mariana (ectomycorrhizal); Ledum groenlandicum, Oxycoccos microcarpon, Vaccinium vitis-idaea (ericoid mycorrhizal); Rubus chamaemorus, and Smilacina trifolia (nonmycorrhizal), Sphagnum (S. fuscum, S. capillifolium, S. magellanicum, S. angustifolium) moss capitula (top 1-cm of plant) and lichens (Cladina mitis and Evernia mesomorpha) at 5 bogs at distances ranging from 14 to 300 km from the heart of the oil sands mining area. Averaged across all sites and sampling dates, N concentrations in ectomycorrhizal, ericoid mycorrhizal, nonmycorrhizal, Sphagnum, and lichens was 8.6 + 0.2, 11.9 + 0.2, 26.3 + 0.6, 10.2 + 0.1, 7.2 + 0.2 mg/g, respectively; ?15N values were -10.3 + 0.1, -6.0 + 0.1, 1.7 + 0.2, -5.3 + 0.1, -4.7 + 0.1 mg/g, respectively, and S concentrations were 1.07 + 0.2, 1.31 + 0.2, 1.94 + 0.6, 1.46 + 0.2, 1.11 + 0.3 mg/g, respectively. Plant functional groups and individual species behaved differently with respect to both seasonal variation and site differences, often with significant interactions when analyzed using two-way analyses of variance. Some species exhibited seasonal variation in some aspects of plant tissue chemistry, while others did not; when a species did exhibit seasonal variation, the variation was rather consistent between sites. More importantly, however, canonical discriminant analysis (with potential variables of C, N, or S concentrations, C:N, C:S, or N:S ratios, and ?15N values) indicated that the five sites can be differentiated based on plant tissue chemistry, most clearly separating the site closest and the site farthest from the oil sands mining area. The first canonical axis explained between 66 and 91 percent of the overall variation, but the variables that were significantly correlated with the first canonical axis differed between species. We conclude that plant tissue chemistry exhibited a significant variation between plant functional groups, between species, between sites, and seasonally. Some of this variation appears to be related to distance from the heart of oil sands mining activity in northern Alberta, possibly reflecting regionally elevated atmospheric deposition of N and S. Bog plants, through analysis of tissue chemistry, have the potential to serve as biomonitors of the anticipated spread of elevated atmospheric N and S deposition as oil sands development continues to grow in northern Alberta.

Wieder, R.; Vile, M. A.; Scott, K. D.; Vitt, D. H.; Quinn, J.

2011-12-01

15

Effects of Elevated Atmospheric CO 2 and Mineral Nitrogen Deposition on Litter Quality, Bioleaching and Decomposition in A Sphagnum Peat Bog  

Microsoft Academic Search

A brief overview of an attempt to link the effect of elevated CO2 and nitrogen deposition on litter quality and decomposition in a Sphagnum peat bog is given. Litter of three common species (Eriophorum vaginatum, Polytrichum strictum and Sphagnum fallax) was collected from field plots after two years of pre-reatment in two parallel experiments: a) Elevated atmospheric CO2 experiment, b)

A. Siegenthaler; E. Mitchell; E. Heijden; A. Buttler; Ph. Grosvernier; J. Gobat

16

Two thousand years of atmospheric arsenic, antimony, and lead deposition recorded in an ombrotrophic peat bog profile, Jura Mountains, Switzerland  

Microsoft Academic Search

A peat core from a Swiss bog reveals significant enrichments of As, Sb and Pb extending back to Roman times, indicating that the anthropogenic fluxes of these metals have exceeded the natural fluxes for more than 2000 years. The isotopic composition of Pb provides no evidence of vertical downward Pb migration, suggesting that the bog has faithfully preserved the historical

William Shotyk; Andrij K. Cheburkin; Peter G. Appleby; Andreas Fankhauser; Jan D. Kramers

1996-01-01

17

Bog Science  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity requires students to tour, collect data and analyze a pristine bog community. Students become aware of the unique chemical, hydrologic, and vegetative aspects of a specialized wetland known as a bog and the formation of this community and finally assist in the preservation of this ecosystem. This is a full immersion off site activity. (Clothes used in this activity are usually ruined, and people will get wet at least to their knees.) A bog is a wetland which is limited by nutrients, which causes a vegetative plant mat to grow out from the shore along the surface of the water. Students begin the lesson with an overview of wetland types and benefits. An appreciation and even love of this ecosystem has grown out of the wet, sometimes muddy, and often smelly encounter.

BEGIN:VCARD VERSION:2.1 FN:Joseph Zaiman N:Zaiman; Joseph ORG:Edgewood High School REV:2005-04-12 END:VCARD

1994-07-30

18

Past atmospheric deposition of metals in northern Indiana measured in a peat core from Cowles bog  

SciTech Connect

A peat core from a calcareous fen was used to assess past metal accumulation from atmospheric sources in northern Indiana. Total concentrations of Al, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sr, and Zn were measured at intervals along the core, which were dated by {sup 210}Pb, radiocarbon, and pollen analysis. The deposition of airborne metal particulates rose dramatically from presettlement levels as industrialization occurred upwind, with accumulation rates for some metals increasing by 2 orders of magnitude. Recent accumulation rates are about half of the peak rates of the 1970s, presumably because of emission controls and reduced production. This study, the first such record from a calcareous fen, should be less affected by postdepositional mobility than records from acidic peatlands. This method of retrospective, long-term monitoring of airborne particulates can be applied in many areas lacking such records.

Cole, K.L. (Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore, Porter (USA)); Engstrom, D.R. (Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis (USA)); Futyma, R.P. (New York State Museum, Albany (USA)); Stottlemyer, R. (Michigan Technological Univ., Houghton (USA))

1990-04-01

19

Bog Plant Tissue Chemistry and N and S Accumulation in Peat are Influenced by Elevated N and S Deposition from Alberta Oil Sands Development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Development of the oil sands resource in northern Alberta, Canada has led to elevated atmospheric N and S deposition, the N coming mainly from the exhaust of diesel fueled-trucks that haul the raw oil sands from the mine sites and the S coming mainly from refining. Against a background deposition of < 1 kg/ha/yr for both N and S, at sites within 15 km of the oil sands mining region we have measured current N and S deposition to be as high as 2 and 27 kg/ha/yr. With a goal of developing monitoring tools to assess the spatial extent of elevated N and S deposition in the region, we collected leaves, needles, or whole plants of 12 bog species (lichens: Cladina mitis and Evernia mesomorpha; Sphagnum mosses: S. capillifolium and S. fuscum; a tree: Picea mariana; ericaceous shrubs: Ledum groenlandicum, Oxycoccos microcarpus and Vaccinium vitis-idaea; deciduous forbs: Rubus chamaemorus and Smilacina trifolia) from 5 bogs ranging from 11 to over 250 km from the oil sands mining area. Samples were collected on 23 dates between May and October of 2009-2012 and were analyzed for C, N, and S concentrations. Six species (C. mitis, E. mesomorpha, S. fuscum, O. microcarpus, V. vitis-idaea, and R. chamaemorus) exhibited statistically significant increases in C:N ratio with increasing distance from the oil sands mining area. Five species (C. mitis, E. mesomorpha, S. fuscum, S. capillifolium, O. microcarpus) exhibited statistically significant increases in C:S ratio with increasing distance from the oil sands mining area. For three species (S. fuscum, E. mesomorpha, O. microcarpus), N concentrations gradually and significantly increased (C:N ratios decreased) over the four years of the study, with the rate of increase as high as 1 mg/g/yr at sites in close proximity to the oil sands mining area. In contrast, S concentrations in plant tissues generally did not increase over the four years, possibly because of increasing efforts to control S emissions from stacks. Using 210Pb-dated cores collected from 15 bogs ranging from ranging from 11 to over 250 km from the oil sands mining area, we demonstrated greater net N and S accumulation in peat over the most recent 25 years, as compared to the 25-50 time horizon. Moreover, net N and S accumulation decreased exponentially with distance from the oil sands mining region. These relationships indicate that higher N and S accumulation in peat is evident within a distance of about 20 km from the oil sands mining area. Our findings reveal that elevated N and S deposition from oil sands development affects plant tissue chemistry, with potential ramifications for both N and S cycling and potential vegetation change in bogs, and that atmospherically deposited N and S are retained in bog peat deposits.

Wieder, R.; Vile, M. A.; Quinn, J.; Albright, C. M.; Scott, K. D.; Vitt, D. H.

2013-12-01

20

Grass species influence on plant N uptake - Determination of atmospheric N deposition to a semi-natural peat bog site using a 15N labelling approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Large areas of natural peat bogs in Northwestern Germany have been converted to arable land and were subjected to draining and peat cutting in the past. The few protected peatland areas remaining are affected by high nitrogen (N) deposition. Our study site - a moderately drained raised bog - is surrounded by highly fertilized agricultural land and livestock production. In this study, we used a 15N pool dilution technique called 'Integrated Total Nitrogen Input' (ITNI) to quantify annual deposition of atmospheric N into biomonitoring pots over a two-year period. Since it considers direct N uptake by plants, it was expected to result in higher N input than conventional methods for determination of N deposition (e.g. micrometeorological approaches, bulk N samplers). Using Lolium multiflorum and Eriophorum vaginatum as monitor plants and low, medium and high levels of fertilization, we aimed to simulate increasing N deposition to planted pots and to allocate airborne N after its uptake by the soil-plant system in aboveground biomass, roots and soil. Increasing N fertilization was positively correlated with biomass production of Eriophorum vaginatum, whereas atmospheric plant N uptake decreased and highest airborne N input of 899.8 ± 67.4 µg N d-1 pot-1 was found for low N fertilization. In contrast, Lolium multiflorum showed a clear dependency of N supply on plant N uptake and was highest (688.7 ± 41.4 µg N d-1 pot-1) for highly fertilized vegetation pots. Our results suggest that grass species respond differently to increasing N input. While crop grasses such as Lolium multiflorum take up N according to N availability, species adopted to nutrient-limited conditions like Eriophorum vaginatum show N saturation effects with increasing N supply. Total airborne N input ranged from about 24 to 66 kg N ha-1 yr-1 dependent on the used indicator plant and the amount of added fertilizer. Parallel determination of atmospheric N deposition using a micrometeorological approach complemented with bulk samplers was about 24 kg N ha-1 yr-1 during both years of experiments and was thus at the lower range of results obtained by the ITNI method. The low 15N recovery rate of about 50 % during some experiments indicated an underestimation of the applied ITNI approach, resulting in a maximum possible N uptake of twice as high as the determined N input. Most likely, the intensive agricultural land management of the surrounding areas leads to this high N deposition into the protected peatland area. As a result, increasing sensitivity of ombrotrophic vegetation with a subsequent change in plant species composition and a decline in bog-specific vegetation cannot be excluded.

Hurkuck, Miriam; Brümmer, Christian; Spott, Oliver; Flessa, Heinz; Kutsch, Werner L.

2014-05-01

21

Mid and late Holocene dust deposition in eastern Canada - a preliminary multi-proxy record from the Baie bog (St. Lawrence Estuary, Quebec)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Atmospheric mineral dust plays an important role in the Earth's climate through parameters such as atmospheric radiation, cloud properties and biogeochemical cycles. However, the high spatial and temporal variability of mineral dust and a lack of terrestrial archives in certain regions limit our understanding global dust-climate interactions. Ombrotrophic peatlands (bogs; atmospherically-fed only) are increasingly recognized as archives of atmospheric dust deposition. Their global distribution and high accumulation rates (i.e. high resolution) over the Holocene make them suitable substitute to marine and/or ice records. The Baie bog, located along the St. Lawrence Estuary (North Shore region, Quebec, Canada), was sampled to investigate dust deposition/palaeowinds in north eastern North America over the mid and late Holocene. The core was subsampled for elemental and isotopic geochemistry as well as particle size analyses, 210Pb and radiocarbon dating. Radiocarbon dating of the base of the peat sequence yielded an age of about 4300 yr cal BP. Initial results show periods of increased dust flux, calculated from REE concentrations, between 1000-1500 yr cal BP and 100-500 yr cal BP in the peat profile from 0.5 to 4 g m-2 yr-1. Higher dust fluxes usually occur in combination with greater particle size suggesting either stronger winds or a change of source. Periods of increased dust fluxes in the profile also correspond with changes in the macrofossil assemblages. A first attempt at source tracing through preliminary radiogenic isotopes analyses (Pb, Nd; ongoing) will also be discussed.

Pratte, Steve; Garneau, Michelle; De Vleeschouwer, François

2014-05-01

22

Historical records of atmospheric Pb deposition in four Scottish ombrotrophic peat bogs: An isotopic comparison with other records from western Europe and Greenland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cores collected from ombrotrophic peat bogs in west central, east central, northeast and southwest Scotland were dated (14C, 210Pb) and analyzed (ICP-OES, ICP-MS) to derive and compare their historical records of atmospheric anthropogenic Pb deposition over the past 2500 years. On the basis of Pb isotopic composition (e.g., 206Pb/207Pb), clear indications of Pb contamination during the pre-Roman/Roman, post-Roman and medieval periods were attributed to the mining and smelting of Pb ores from Britain and elsewhere in Europe. Between the 17th and early 20th centuries, during the industrial period, the mining and smelting of indigenous Scottish Pb ores were the most important sources of anthropogenic Pb deposition at three of the sites. In contrast, at the most southerly site, influences from the use of both British Pb ores and imported Australian Pb ores (in more southern parts of Britain) since the late 19th century were evident. At each of the sites, Australian-Pb-influenced car exhaust emissions (from the 1930s to late 1990s), along with significant contributions from coal combustion (until the late 1960s and onset of the postindustrial period), were evident. Atmospheric anthropogenic Pb deposition across Scotland was greatest (˜10 to 40 mg m-2 a-1) between the late 1880s and late 1960s, increasing southward, declining to 0.44 to 5.7 mg m-2 a-1 by the early 2000s. The records from four peat bogs extend knowledge of the chronology of atmospheric Pb deposition trends across the northern hemisphere, there being general agreement with other environmental archive records from not only Scotland but also other countries in western Europe and Greenland. Nevertheless, during all periods investigated here, the isotopic composition of atmospheric Pb deposition across western Europe and Greenland exhibited variations in the relative importance of different sources of anthropogenic Pb, as well as some differences in timings and magnitudes of anthropogenic Pb contamination, arising from variations in local and regional sources of Pb deposition and possibly climatic regimes.

Cloy, J. M.; Farmer, J. G.; Graham, M. C.; MacKenzie, A. B.; Cook, G. T.

2008-06-01

23

Inertia in an ombrotrophic bog ecosystem in response to 9 years' realistic perturbation by wet deposition of nitrogen, separated by form.  

PubMed

Wet deposition of nitrogen (N) occurs in oxidized (nitrate) and reduced (ammonium) forms. Whether one form drives vegetation change more than the other is widely debated, as field evidence has been lacking. We are manipulating N form in wet deposition to an ombrotrophic bog, Whim (Scottish Borders), and here report nine years of results. Ammonium and nitrate were provided in rainwater spray as NH4 Cl or NaNO3 at 8, 24 or 56 kg N ha(-1)  yr(-1) , plus a rainwater only control, via an automated system coupled to site meteorology. Detrimental N effects were observed in sensitive nonvascular plant species, with higher cumulative N loads leading to more damage at lower annual doses. Cover responses to N addition, both in relation to form and dose, were species specific and mostly dependent on N dose. Some species were generally indifferent to N form and dose, while others were dose sensitive. Calluna vulgaris showed a preference for higher N doses as ammonium N and Hypnum jutlandicum for nitrate N. However, after 9 years, the magnitude of change from wet deposited N on overall species cover is small, indicating only a slow decline in key species. Nitrogen treatment effects on soil N availability were likewise small and rarely correlated with species cover. Ammonium caused most N accumulation and damage to sensitive species at lower N loads, but toxic effects also occurred with nitrate. However, because different species respond differently to N form, setting of ecosystem level critical loads by N form is challenging. We recommend implementing the lowest value of the critical load range where communities include sensitive nonvascular plants and where ammonium dominates wet deposition chemistry. In the context of parallel assessment at the same site, N treatments for wet deposition showed overall much smaller effects than corresponding inputs of dry deposition as ammonia. PMID:24038771

Sheppard, Lucy J; Leith, Ian D; Mizunuma, Toshie; Leeson, Sarah; Kivimaki, Sanna; Neil Cape, J; van Dijk, Netty; Leaver, David; Sutton, Mark A; Fowler, David; Van den Berg, Leon J L; Crossley, Alan; Field, Chris; Smart, Simon

2014-02-01

24

Bog iron formation in the Nassawango Creek watershed, Maryland, USA  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Nassawango bog ores in the modern environment for surficial geochemical processes were studied. The formation of Nassawango bog ores was suggested to be due to inorganic oxidation when groundwater rich in ferrous iron emerges into the oxic, surficial environment. It was suggested that the process, providing a phosphorus sink, may be an unrecognized benefit for mitigating nutrient loading from agricultural lands. It is found that without the effect of iron fixing bacteria, bog deposites could not form at significant rates.

Bricker, O.P.; Newell, W.L.; Simon, N.S.

2004-01-01

25

Uraniferous bitumen nodules in the Talvivaara Ni-Zn-Cu-Co deposit (Finland): influence of metamorphism on uranium mineralization in black shales  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the central part of the Fennoscandian Shield, the Talvivaara Ni-Zn-Cu-Co deposit, hosted by Palaeoproterozoic metamorphosed black schists, contains low uranium concentrations ranging from 10 to 30 ppm. The Talvivaara black schists were deposited 2.0-1.9 Ga ago and underwent subsequent metamorphism during the 1.9-1.79 Ga Svecofennian orogeny. Anhedral uraninite crystals rimmed by bitumen constitute the main host of uranium. U-Pb secondary ion mass spectrometry dating indicates that uraninite crystals were formed between 1,878 ± 17 and 1,871 ± 43 Ma, during peak metamorphism. Rare earth element patterns and high Th content (average 6.38 wt%) in disseminated uraninite crystals indicate that U was concentrated during high temperature metamorphism (>400 °C). The formation of bitumen rims around uraninite may be explained by two distinct scenarios: (a) a transport of U coincident with the migration of hydrocarbons or (b) post-metamorphic formation of bitumen rims, through radiolytic polymerization of gaseous hydrocarbons at the contact with uraninite.

Lecomte, Andreï; Cathelineau, Michel; Deloule, Etienne; Brouand, Marc; Peiffert, Chantal; Loukola-Ruskeeniemi, Kirsti; Pohjolainen, Esa; Lahtinen, Hannu

2014-04-01

26

Skeletal analysis and comparison of bog bodies from Northern European peat bogs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although numerous bodies were deposited in Western European bogs in the past centuries, few were found and underwent archeological analysis. No studies comparing skeletal structure and mineralization of bog bodies from different ages have been performed to this day. Therefore, the aim of this study was to analyze and compare skeletal features and specifics of the human remains of three bog bodies from the Iron and Middle Ages found in Northern European peat bogs. Demineralization due to the acidic environment in peat bogs was comparably pronounced in all three bodies. Still, the macroscopic state of skeletal preservation was excellent. In addition to contact radiography, we used peripheral quantitative computed tomography to measure cortical bone mineral density. The conservation of skeletal three-dimensional microstructural elements was assessed by high-resolution microcomputed tomography analysis. These techniques revealed severe differences in bone mineral density and enabled us to determine handedness in all three bodies. Additionally, unique skeletal features like intravital bone lesions, immobilization osteoporosis, and Harris lines were found. A deformity of the left femoral head was observed which had the typical appearance of an advanced stage of Legg-Calve-Perthes disease. This study gives detailed insight into the skeletal microstructure and microarchitecture of 800- to 2,700-year-old bog bodies. Skeletal analysis enables us to draw conclusions not only concerning changes in the acidic environment of the bog, but also serves as a diagnostic tool to unravel life circumstances and diseases suffered by humans in the Iron and Middle Ages.

Pestka, Jan M.; Barvencik, Florian; Beil, Frank T.; Marshall, Robert P.; Jopp, Eilin; Schilling, Arndt F.; Bauerochse, Andreas; Fansa, Mamoun; Püschel, Klaus; Amling, Michael

2010-04-01

27

Effects of Elevated CO 2 and Nitrogen Deposition on Natural Regeneration Processes of Cut-Over Ombrotrophic Peat Bogs in the Swiss Jura Mountains  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the Swiss Jura mountains most of the remaining ombrotrophic peat bogs have been exploited to some extent for peat. In these sites, natural regeneration processes are taking place. The dominant process is paludification, where a cut over drained surface is colonised by key species, usually either Polytrichum strictum or Eriophortum vaginatum. These early colonisers of bare peat surfaces create

PHILIPPE R. GROSVERNIER; Edward Mitchell; Alexandre Buttler; Jean-Michel Gobat

28

Chemical records of environmental pollution in ombrotrophic peat bogs   

E-print Network

and environmental health. In recent years ombrotrophic peat bogs have been used to study the changing rates and sources of atmospheric metal deposition, as they receive all their water and nutrients from the atmosphere by dry and wet deposition alone. Cores from...

Cloy, Joanna Marie

2006-11-28

29

Effects of elevated CO2 and vascular plants on evapotranspiration in bog vegetation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We determined evapotranspiration in three experiments designed to study the effects of elevated CO2 and increased N deposition on ombrotrophic bog vegetation. Two experiments used peat monoliths with intact bog vegetation in containers, with one experiment outdoors and the other in a greenhouse. A third experiment involved monocultures and mixtures of Sphagnum magellanicum and Eriophorum angustifolium in containers in the

Monique M. P. D. Heijmans; Wim J. Arp; Frank Berendse

2001-01-01

30

Pollen analysis of Patschke bog  

E-print Network

and Tharp, 1947). They reported the presence of Abies (fir), Picea (spruce), Setula (birch), Tilia (basswood), Castanea (chestnut), ~ CRRL58lk ~ ( C(( ~ ( k. ~ 0(LL(5 8 7 00EL Rlk 5 l 5T(8 32 i 8005(0k 0 1 - South Soefje Bog 2 - Soefje... and lies approximately 75 miles southwest of Patschke and Boriack Bogs. A maximum age of 11, 000 years BP was recorded on Patty's (1968) core from Hershop Bog. Patty summarizes the pollen spectrum as representing, from bottom to top, four zones: Birch...

Camper, Hope Armstrong

1991-01-01

31

Redox Characteristics, Sequestration, and Concentration of Uranium in a Holocene Peat bog  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding the fate of U during diagenetic processes is fundamental to predictions for how this element will be cycled through the environment and will give insight into ore development and the distribution of U in sedimentary rocks. U is known to be concentrated and immobilized in organic rich sediments. The classic model for uranium sequestration and accumulation in natural systems calls for reduction of aqueous U6+ followed by precipitation and deposition of less-soluble U4+ species, primarily uraninite. An ongoing debate concerns whether organic matter plays a direct role, by binding U, thus immobilizing it; or an indirect role by creating redox conditions thermodynamically favorable for the reduction of U and precipitation of uraninite. Reactive functional groups (e.g. carboxyl) of immature natural organic matter may form complexes with uranyl ion and may suppress the reduction of U even in the presence of microbial and thermodynamic conditions that are otherwise favorable for reduction. Thus, U may be available for reduction only upon degradation of the organic matter. There are few studies of the path to immobilization and concentration of U. Samples in this study were taken from a uraniferous Holocene peat bog. The high organic content and known age make this deposit ideal for examining the effects of organic matter on U mobility because it is formed almost exclusively by deposition and decay of natural organic matter. We have used synchrotron x-ray adsorption near edge spectroscopy (XANES) and micro-XAS to measure the in-situ oxidation state with a minimum of sample preparation and risk of contamination or reoxidation artifacts. The advantages of this method are maximized in this study by performing simultaneous XANES analysis of U and S in order to determine the redox state of the sediment as well as the U. Fe was also analyzed for additional host sediment redox characterization. Although the S and Fe analyses indicate that although the sediment Eh decreases with depth, the U remains oxidized throughout except for a narrow depth interval of partial reduction. These results suggest that a simple thermodynamic model of U reduction and precipitation does not explain the sequestration of U.

Bolanos, L.; Northrup, P.; Rasbury, T.; Zheng, Y.

2006-05-01

32

Consequences of marginal drainage from a raised bog and understanding the hydrogeological dynamics as a basis for restoration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Raised bogs in Ireland have long been exploited for local fuel utilisation. The drainage associated with such activities alters the hydrological regime of the bog as consolidation of the peat substrate results in significant water loss and subsidence of the bog. Undisturbed raised bog environments are typically characterised by distinct ecological systems, or ecotopes, which are controlled by the relationship between surface slopes, flow path lengths and drainage conditions. Shrinkage of the main peat profile, or catotelm, invariably alters these conditions, changes of which significantly damage ecotopes of conservational value. Clara Bog, Ireland, is one of western Europe's largest remaining raised bogs and on which much hydroecological research has been conducted since the early 1990's. Though a relatively intact raised bog, it has been extensively damaged in the past with the construction of a road through the centre of the bog known to have resulted in subsidence of 9-10m. However, the western tract of Clara Bog, Clara Bog West, has also subsided significantly since the early 1990's due to on-going peat cutting activities on the bogs margins. Current research now indicates that the bog is not an isolated hydrological entity, as generally perceived of bogs, but rather that Clara Bog West is intrinsically linked to the regional groundwater table, which appears to provide a significant ‘support' function to the bog. Hydrogeological monitoring and analysis has shown that water losses are not simply a result of lateral seepage of water through the peat profile at the bogs margins. Measurements of flow rates and electrical conductivity in drains bordering the bog indicate that little water is discharging laterally through the peat profile. However, piezometric head levels in mineral subsoil underlying the bog and close to the margins of the bog have decreased by 0.3 to 0.5m and 0.4 to 1.0m respectively since the early 1990s and it is believed that this is a result of vertical water losses in the peat profile not confined to the bog margins. Distinct zones of groundwater seepage in the marginal drains have been mapped based on hydrochemical and stable isotopic composition of the water and occur where drains have cut into permeable subsoil beneath the peat substrate and where the potentiometric surface of the regional groundwater table is below, or coincident with, the elevation at the base of the drain. Groundwater as a ‘supporting' ecological condition is usually confined to the perimeter of a raised bog, where peat and underlying clay thin towards the margin, allowing regional groundwater and peat water to converge and mix, thereby giving rise to characteristic nutrient rich ‘lagg' zone vegetation. However, in Clara Bog West it appears there is also a connection between the regional groundwater table and the high bog. Such a connection appears to be unique to Clara Bog West as a result of the prevailing geological conditions. A succession of Carboniferous Limestone to relatively permeable glacial till deposits to low permeability lacustrine clay sediment is the predominant underlying geology of the bog. However, there are areas where the glacial till protrudes through the lacustrine clay, which ordinarily isolates the high bog from underlying groundwater, thereby engendering a dependency on regional groundwater conditions. The hydrogeological data now suggest that drainage at the bog margin has created a hydraulic connection between these ‘subsoil subcrops' and the marginal drains, developed within the same subsoil, thereby lowering the regional groundwater table, steepening the hydraulic gradient and resulting in significant water loss from the main bog body. As such, understanding this hydrogeological connection is central to restoration activities that will aim to arrest subsidence and restore water levels that are indicative for ecotope development, on the high bog. Acknowledgements Clara Restoration Group: Jan Streekferk (Staatsbosbeheer), Jim Ryan (National Parks and Wildlife Service), Ray Flynn (Queens Univ

Regan, Shane; Johnston, Paul

2010-05-01

33

Effects of nutrient addition on vegetation and carbon cycling in an ombrotrophic bog  

Microsoft Academic Search

We measured net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE), plant biomass and growth, species composition, peat microclimate, and litter decomposition in a fertilization experiment at Mer Bleue Bog, Ottawa, Ontario. The bog is located in the zone with the highest atmospheric nitrogen deposition for Canada, estimated at 0.8-1.2 g N m2 yr1 (wet deposition as NH4 and NO3). To establish the effect

JILL L. B UBIER; T IM R. M OORE; A. B LEDZKI

2007-01-01

34

Heavy metals in bog waters: An alternative way to assess atmospheric precipitation quality?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ombrotrophic bogs are used to reliably assess past and present levels of heavy metal depositions through chemical analyses of peat layers. Instead, surface waters collected in ombrotrophic bogs were never tested as an alternative way to assess atmospheric precipitation quality, although the solely source of water in bogs is by atmospheric precipitation. In the present paper the reliability of bog water to mirror atmospheric precipitation quality has been tested. To this aim, heavy metal concentrations in bog water were compared to both rainwater chemistry, and tissue chemistry of Hylocomium splendens, a moss frequently used as biomonitor. Bog water was periodically sampled in three different microhabitats, i.e., a hummock, a carpet, and a hollow at two bogs, located in the south-eastern Alps of Italy. Microhabitats were selected in order to encompass a gradient of water table depth from relatively dry to relatively wet conditions, respectively. Basing on surface peat and bog water chemistry as well as on hydrological measurements, selected microhabitats were shown to be ombrotrophic, i.e., their mineral input was solely by atmospheric precipitation. Heavy metal concentrations in bog water did not differ significantly among microhabitats, with the only exception of Fe which showed significantly higher concentrations in hummock water. Because of the lack of rainwater chemical information for the study area, mean heavy metal concentrations in rainwater were obtained from a set of European stations monitoring atmospheric precipitation. A significant relationship was found between heavy metals in rainwater and bog water, further supported by the positive relationship between emission amounts of Cd, Cr, Cu, Zn, and Pb in Italy and the corresponding values in bog water during the study period. Concentrations of heavy metals in bog water were then compared with corresponding concentrations in H. splendens collected in the nearby of the study bogs. Moss chemistry has been here used as a proxy of atmospheric precipitation chemistry, basing on the reliability of mosses to mirror local precipitation chemistry as widely demonstrated by biomonitoring surveys. Bog water and moss tissues showed the same pattern of variation of concentrations, although moss tissues were characterised by higher absolute concentrations of heavy metals.

Bragazza, Luca

2006-10-01

35

137Cs in a raised bog in central Sweden.  

PubMed

The vertical distribution of (137)Cs activity in peat soil profiles and (137)Cs activity concentration in plants of various species was studied in samples collected at two sites on a raised bog in central Sweden. One site (open bog) was in an area with no trees and only a few sparsely growing plant species, while the other (low pine) was less than 100 m from the open bog site and had slowly growing Scots pine, a field layer dominated by some ericaceous plants and ground well-covered by plants. The plant samples were collected in 2004-2007 and were compared with samples collected in 1989 from the same open bog and low pine sites. Ground deposition of (137)Cs in 2005 was similar at both sites, 23,000 Bq m(-2). In the open bog peat profile it seems to be an upward transport of caesium since a clear peak of (137)Cs activity was found in the uppermost 1-4 cm of Sphagnum layers, whereas at the low pine site (137)Cs was mainly found in deeper (10-12 cm) layers. The migration rate was 0.57 cm yr(-1) at the open bog site and the migration centre of (137)Cs was at a depth of 10.7, while the rate at the low pine site was 0.78 cm yr(-1) and the migration centre was at 14.9 cm. Heather (Calluna vulgaris) was the plant species with the highest (137)Cs activity concentrations at both sites, 43.5 k Bq(-1) DM in 1989 decreasing to 20.4 in 2004-2007 on open bog and 22.3 k Bq kg(-1) DM in 1989 decreasing to 11.2 k Bq(-1) DM by the period 2004-2007 on the low pine site. (137)Cs transfer factors in plants varied between 0.88 and 1.35 on the open bog and between 0.48 and 0.69 m(2)kg(-1) DM at the low pine site. PMID:19386400

Rosén, K; Vinichuk, M; Johanson, K J

2009-07-01

36

Results of reconnaissance for uraniferous coal, lignite, and carbonaceous shale in western Montana  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A reconnaissance search for uraniferous lignite and carbonaceous shale was made in western Montana and adjacent parts of Idaho during the summer of 1951. Particular emphasis in the examination was placed on coal and carbonaceous shale associated with volcanic rocks, as volcanic rocks in many areas appear to have released uranium to circulating ground water from which it was ,concentrated in carbonaceous material. Twenty-two areas in Montana and one area in Idaho were examined. The coal in five of these areas is of Cretaceous age. The coal and carbonaceous shale in the remaining 18 areas occur in Tertiary 'fake-bed' deposits of Oligocene and younger age. Both the Cretaceous and Tertiary coal and carbonaceous shale are associated with contemporaneous or younger volcanic rocks and pyrociastic sequences.

Hail, William James; Gill, James R.

1953-01-01

37

Restoring afforested peat bogs: results of current research  

E-print Network

Restoring afforested peat bogs: results of current research The value of peat bogs as open habitats may suffice on lowland raised bogs. Damming furrows is ineffective if the peat is severely cracked sundew, Drosera anglica #12;Introduction In their natural state, peat bogs provide unique habitats

38

Paired charcoal and tree-ring records of high-frequency Holocene fire from two New Mexico bog sites  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Two primary methods for reconstructing paleofire occurrence include dendrochronological dating of fire scars and stand ages from live or dead trees (extending back centuries into the past) and sedimentary records of charcoal particles from lakes and bogs, providing perspectives on fire history that can extend back for many thousands of years. Studies using both proxies have become more common in regions where lakes are present and fire frequencies are low, but are rare where high-frequency surface fires dominate and sedimentary deposits are primarily bogs and wetlands. Here we investigate sedimentary and fire-scar records of fire in two small watersheds in northern New Mexico, in settings recently characterised by relatively high-frequency fire where bogs and wetlands (Chihuahuen??os Bog and Alamo Bog) are more common than lakes. Our research demonstrates that: (1) essential features of the sedimentary charcoal record can be reproduced between multiple cores within a bog deposit; (2) evidence from both fire-scarred trees and charcoal deposits documents an anomalous lack of fire since ???1900, compared with the remainder of the Holocene; (3) sedimentary charcoal records probably underestimate the recurrence of fire events at these high-frequency fire sites; and (4) the sedimentary records from these bogs are complicated by factors such as burning and oxidation of these organic deposits, diversity of vegetation patterns within watersheds, and potential bioturbation by ungulates. We consider a suite of particular challenges in developing and interpreting fire histories from bog and wetland settings in the Southwest. The identification of these issues and constraints with interpretation of sedimentary charcoal fire records does not diminish their essential utility in assessing millennial-scale patterns of fire activity in this dry part of North America. ?? IAWF 2008.

Allen, C.D.; Anderson, R. Scott; Jass, R.B.; Toney, J.L.; Baisan, C.H.

2008-01-01

39

The butterfly fauna of Wisconsin bogs: lessons for conservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

During 2002–2009, we surveyed butterflies at 73 bogs, 20 adjacent lowland roadsides, and 5 nearby upland roadsides in northern\\u000a Wisconsin and three bogs in central Wisconsin, with additional observations from 1986 to 2001. Especially in northern Wisconsin,\\u000a bogs are relatively unaffected by humans, but naturally comprise <1% of the landscape. Bog specialist species composition\\u000a varied by bog type (muskeg, kettlehole,

Ann B. SwengelScott; Scott R. Swengel

2010-01-01

40

Estimating methane production rates in bogs and landfills by deuterium enrichment of pore water  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Raised bogs and municipal waste landfills harbor large populations of methanogens within their domed deposits of anoxic organic matter. Although the methane emissions from these sites have been estimated by various methods, limited data exist on the activity of the methanogens at depth. We therefore analyzed the stable isotopic signature of the pore waters in two raised bogs from northern Minnesota to identify depth intervals in the peat profile where methanogenic metabolism occurs. Methanogenesis enriched the deuterium (2H) content of the deep peat pore waters by as much as +11% (Vienna Standard Mean Sea Water), which compares to a much greater enrichment factor of +70% in leachate from New York City's Fresh Kills landfill. The bog pore waters were isotopically dated by tritium (3H) to be about 35 years old at 1.5 m depth, whereas the landfill leachate was estimated as ~ 17 years old from Darcy flow calculations. According to an isotopic mass balance the observed deuterium enrichment indicates that about 1.2 g of CH4m-3 d-1 were produced within the deeper peat, compared to about 2.8 g CH4 m-3 d-1 in the landfill. The values for methane production in the bog peat are substantially higher than the flux rates measured at the surface of the bogs or at the landfill, indicating that deeper methane production may be much higher than was previously assumed.

Siegel, D.I.; Chanton, J.P.; Glaser, P.H.; Chasar, L.S.; Rosenberry, D.O.

2001-01-01

41

Results of reconnaissance for uraniferous coal, lignite, and carbonaceous shale in western Montana  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A reconnaissance search for uraniferous lignite and carbonaceous shale was made in western Montana and adjacent parts of Idaho during the summer of 1951. Particular emphasis in the examination was placed on coal and carbonaceous shale associated with volcanic rocks, as volcanic rocks in many area appear to have released uranium to circulating ground water from which it was concentrated in carbonaceous material. Twenty-two area in Montana and one area of Idaho were examine. The coal in five of these area is of Cretaceous age. The coal and carbonaceous shale in the remaining 18 area occur in Tertiary "lake-bed" deposits of Oligocene and younger age. Both the Cretaceous and Tertiary coal and carbonaceous shale are associated with contemporaneous or younger volcanic rocks and pyroclastic sequences. A sample of carbonaceous shale from the Prickly Pear Valley northeast of Helena, Montana, contained 0.013 percent uranium. A sample of carbonaceous shale from the Flint Creek Valley southwest of Drummond, Montana, contained 0.006 percent uranium. All other samples of both Cretaceous and Tertiary coal and carbonaceous shale were essentially non-radioactive. No further work is planned on the Cretaceous and Tertiary coal and carbonaceous shale in western Montana. A few localities in Idaho will be visited in the course of other work.

Hail, William J., Jr.; Gill, James R.

1952-01-01

42

Ferricrete, manganocrete, and bog iron occurrences with selected sedge bogs and active iron bogs and springs in the upper Animas River watershed, San Juan County, Colorado  

USGS Publications Warehouse

During 1996 to 2000, the Bureau of Land Management, National Park Service, Environmental Protection Agency, United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Forest Service, and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) developed a coordinated strategy to (1) study the environmental effects of historical mining on Federal lands, and (2) remediate contaminated sites that have the greatest impact on water quality and ecosystem health. This dataset provides information that contributes to these overall objectives and is part of the USGS Abandoned Mine Lands Initiative. Data presented here represent ferricrete occurrences and selected iron bogs and springs in the upper Animas River watershed in San Juan County near Silverton, Colorado. Ferricretes (stratified iron and manganese oxyhydroxide-cemented sedimentary deposits) are one indicator of the geochemical baseline conditions as well as the effect that weathering of mineralized rocks had on water quality in the Animas River watershed prior to mining. Logs and wood fragments preserved in several ferricretes in the upper Animas River watershed, collected primarily along streams, yield radiocarbon ages of modern to 9,580 years B.P. (P.L. Verplanck, D.B. Yager, and S.E. Church, work in progress). The presence of ferricrete deposits along the current stream courses indicates that climate and physiography of the Animas River watershed have been relatively constant throughout the Holocene and that weathering processes have been ongoing for thousands of years prior to historical mining activities. Thus, by knowing where ferricrete is preserved in the watershed today, land-management agencies have an indication of (1) where metal precipitation from weathering of altered rocks has occurred in the past, and (2) where this process is ongoing and may confound remediation efforts. These data are included as two coverages-a ferricrete coverage and a bogs and springs coverage. The coverages are included in ArcInfo shapefile and ArcInfo interchange file format.

Yager, Douglas B.; Church, Stanley E.; Verplanck, Philip L.; Wirt, Laurie

2003-01-01

43

Bog Hot Springs, Nevada: the geothermal cycle  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Bog Hot Springs are located in one of the high desert valleys of northern Nevada below the Pueblo Mountains. The flow of the springs is estimated to be 2,500 gpm. Temperatures range from 125 to 212°F. (JGB)

1977-01-01

44

Acidophilic Methanotrophic Communities from Sphagnum Peat Bogs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Highly enriched methanotrophic communities (>25 serial transfers) were obtained from acidic ombrotro- phic peat bogs from four boreal forest sites. The enrichment strategy involved using media conditions that were associated with the highest rates of methane uptake by the original peat samples, namely, the use of diluted mineral medium of low buffering capacity, moderate incubation temperature (20°C), and pH values

SVETLANA N. DEDYSH; NICOLAI S. PANIKOV; JAMES M. TIEDJE

1998-01-01

45

Ecophysiology in an ombrotrophic spruce bog  

E-print Network

Ecophysiology in an ombrotrophic spruce bog ­ potential impacts with climate change Jeff Warren.S. Department of Energy Spruce and Peatland Responses Under Climatic and Environmental change THE SPRUCE EXPERIMENT at the Marcell Experimental Forest http://www.mnspruce.ornl.gov/ What is SPRUCE? An experiment

46

The Secret of Bog Creek Farm  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This fictional story about a real Superfund site is available in English or Spanish. The Secret of Bog Creek Farm is a story about a real Superfund site where children learn through the eyes of local residents. The story explains how soil can become polluted and how it can be cleaned up by incineration.

47

Environmental controls of greenhouse gas release in a restoring peat bog in NW Germany  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In Central Europe, most bogs have a history of drainage and many of them are currently being restored. Success of restoration as well as greenhouse gas exchange of these bogs is influenced by environmental stress factors as drought and atmospheric nitrogen deposition. We determined the methane and nitrous oxide exchange of sites in the strongly decomposed center and less decomposed edge of the Pietzmoor bog in NW Germany in 2004. Also, we examined the methane and nitrous oxide exchange of mesocosms from the center and edge before, during, and following a drainage experiment as well as carbon dioxide release from disturbed unfertilized and nitrogen fertilized surface peat. In the field, methane fluxes ranged from 0 to 3.8 mg m-2 h-1 and were highest from hollows. Field nitrous oxide fluxes ranged from 0 to 574 ?g m-2 h-1 and were elevated at the edge. A large Eriophorum vaginatum tussock showed decreasing nitrous oxide release as the season progressed. Drainage of mesocosms decreased methane release to 0, even during rewetting. There was a tendency for a decrease of nitrous oxide release during drainage and for an increase in nitrous oxide release during rewetting. Nitrogen fertilization did not increase decomposition of surface peat. Our examinations suggest a competition between vascular vegetation and denitrifiers for excess nitrogen. We also provide evidence that the von Post humification index can be used to explain greenhouse gas release from bogs, if the role of vascular vegetation is also considered. An assessment of the greenhouse gas release from nitrogen saturated restoring bogs needs to take into account elevated release from fresh Sphagnum peat as well as from sedges growing on decomposed peat. Given the high atmospheric nitrogen deposition, restoration will not be able to achieve an oligotrophic ecosystem in the short term.

Glatzel, S.; Forbrich, I.; Krüger, C.; Lemke, S.; Gerold, G.

2008-01-01

48

Peat bogs and their organic soils: Archives of atmospheric change and global environmentalsignificance (Philippe Duchaufour Medal Lecture)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A bog is much more than a waterlogged ecosystem where organic matter accumulates as peat. Peatlands such as bogs represent a critical link between the atmosphere, hydrosphere, and biosphere. Plants growing at the surface of ombrotrophic bogs receive nutrients exclusively from the atmosphere. Despite the variations in redox status caused by seasonal fluctuations in depth to water table, the low pHof the waters, and abundance of dissolved organic matter, bogs preserve a remarkably reproducible history of atmospheric pollution, climate change, landscape evolution and human history. For example, peat cores from bogs in Europe and North America have provided detailed reconstructions of the changing rates and sources of Ag, Cd, Hg, Pb, Sb, and Tl, providing new insights into the geochemical cycles of these elements, including the massive perturbations induced by human activities beginning many thousands of years ago. Despite the low pH, and perhaps because of the abundance of dissolved organic matter, bogs preserve many silicate and aluminosilicate minerals which renders them valuable archives of atmospheric dust deposition and the climate changes which drive them. In the deeper, basal peat layers of the bog, in the minerotrophic zone where pore waters are affected bymineral-water interactions in the underlying and surrounding soils and sediments, peat serves as animportant link to the hydrosphere, efficiently removing from the imbibed groundwaters such trace elements as As, Cu, Mo, Ni, Se, V, and U. These removal processes, while incompletely understood, are so effective that measuring the dissolved fraction of trace elements in the pore waters becomes a considerable challenge even for the most sophisticated analytical laboratories. While the trace elements listed above are removed from groundwaters (along with P and S), elements such as Fe and Mn are added to the waters because of reductive dissolution, an important first step in the formation of lacustrine Fe and Mn nodules. While these important chemical reactions have taken place silently and imperceptibly over millenia acrossthe Earth wherever climate and water allow bogs to form, at the same time, peat bogs represent an important component of the biosphere and provide a home to many unique plants and animals, thereby contributing to the vast biodiversity found on Earth.

Shotyk, William

2013-04-01

49

Bog discharge from different viewpoints: comparison of Ingram's theory with observations from an Estonian raised bog  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Raised bogs are typically dome shaped and have a groundwater level located close to the soil surface. Besides their typical dome shape, these peatlands are often characterized by a pronounced surface topography consisting of pools, wet depressions (hollows), stretches of Sphagnum species (lawns), drier mounds (hummocks) and higher drier areas with terrestrial vegetation (ridges). These peat bodies drain laterally by gravity to adjacent areas with lower groundwater levels. The integrity of these bogs is only ascertained when water is stored in the peat body in periods of precipitation deficit and efficiently removed in wet periods. This is realized by the fact that the bog's top layer, often called acrotelm, has a variable hydraulic conductivity. In response to precipitation its hydraulic conductivity increases, whereas, under evaporative demand the water table lowers and therefore also the hydraulic conductivity decreases. Ingram proposed a model based on the Dupuit-Forchheimer approximation for Darcy's law that assumes vertical flow is negligible, and the slope of the water table is equal to the hydraulic gradient. U- Hm2- K = L2 (1) where U is net recharge (P-ET), K is horizontal hydraulic conductivity, Hm is hydraulic head above a flat bottom at the centre of the bog, L is half the width of the bog along the cross section. This model incorporates the assumption that all net rainfall reaching the water table will be discharged to the stream. Ingram's model does not consider local heterogeneities in surface topography, like pool-ridge patterns. We hypothesize that under drier conditions it is likely that pool-ridge patterning will inhibit water from flowing along the surface gradient. Under wet conditions, however, pools can become connected and water can move through the upper highly permeable layer of ridges. In this study, we investigated the influence of ridge-pool patterning on the horizontal water flow through a raised bog and compared it with Ingram's approach. Our study site was Mannikjarve, a raised bog located centrally in Estonia and part of the larger Endla Nature Reserve. The size of the bog is approximately 2 km2. Mannikjarve is characterized by a surface pattern of different microtopes consisting of ridge-pool, hollow-ridge, hummock-hollow, Sphagnum lawn, and margin forest. We created a flow-net based on the raised bogs surface elevation. This flow-net defines the direction of lateral flow in the acrotelm. Based on the flow-net we divided the bog into sub-catchments representing the area contributing to discharge at the outlets of the bog. The measured discharge was used in a double mass analysis to calculate discharge ratio's. We assume that changes in discharge ratio's can be relate to changes in contributing area as a result of variable water flow paths. Furthermore, we compared the measured discharges with calculated discharge according to Ingram's model. Based on several reasonable estimates for input parameters, the observed discharges cannot be reproduced with the Ingram model. Furthermore, discharge ratio's between different sub-catchments within the peatland appear to be not constant over time, thus suggesting a shift in water divides that depends on atmospheric events.

Oosterwoud, Marieke; van der Ploeg, Martine; van der Zee, Sjoerd

2013-04-01

50

Isotopic evidence for nitrogen mobility in peat bogs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Elevated nitrogen (N) input may reduce carbon (C) storage in peat. Under low atmospheric deposition, most N is bound in the moss layer. Under high N inputs, Sphagnum is not able to prevent penetration of dissolved N to deeper peat. Nitrogen may become available to the roots of invading vascular plants. The concurrent oxygenation of deeper peat layers, along with higher supply of labile organic C, may enhance microbial decomposition and lead to peat thinning. The resulting higher emissions of greenhouse gases may accelerate global warming. Seepage of N to deeper peat has never been quantified. Here we present evidence for post-depositional mobility of atmogenic N in peat, based on natural-abundance N isotope ratios. We conducted a reciprocal peat transplant experiment between two Sphagnum-dominated peat bogs in the Czech Republic (Central Europe), differing in anthropogenic N inputs. The northern site VJ received as much as 33 kg N ha-1 yr-1 via spruce canopy throughfall. The southern site was less polluted (17.6 kg N ha-1 yr-1). Isotope signatures of living moss differed between the two sites (?15N of -3‰ and -7‰ at VJ and CB, respectively). After 18 months, an isotope mass balance was constructed. In the CB-to-VJ transplant, a significant portion of original CB nitrogen (98-31%) was removed and replaced by nitrogen of the host site throughout the top 10 cm of the profile. Nitrogen, deposited at VJ, was immobilized in imported CB peat that was up to 20 years old. Additionally, we compared N concentration and N accumulation rates in 210Pb-dated peat profiles with well-constrained data on historical atmospheric N pollution. Nationwide N emissions peaked in 1990, while VJ exhibited the highest N content in peat that formed in 1930. This de-coupling of N inputs and N retention in peat might be interpreted as a result of translocation of dissolved pollutant N downcore, corroborating our ?15N results at VJ and CB. Data from a variety of peat bogs along pollution and climatic gradients would be needed to test to what extent the record of atmospheric N inputs in peat is overprinted by variable, locally-controlled decomposition rates.

Novak, Martin; Stepanova, Marketa; Jackova, Ivana; Vile, Melanie A.; Wieder, R. Kelman; Buzek, Frantisek; Adamova, Marie; Erbanova, Lucie; Fottova, Daniela; Komarek, Arnost

2014-05-01

51

137Cs in a raised bog in central Sweden  

Microsoft Academic Search

The vertical distribution of 137Cs activity in peat soil profiles and 137Cs activity concentration in plants of various species was studied in samples collected at two sites on a raised bog in central Sweden. One site (open bog) was in an area with no trees and only a few sparsely growing plant species, while the other (low pine) was less

K. Rosén; M. Vinichuk; K. J. Johanson

2009-01-01

52

Spatial Patterns and Temporal Trajectories of the Bog Ground Layer  

E-print Network

conditions and initiating succession. How- ever, the successional trajectory of the ground layer community established vegetation plots in 13 bogs and repeatedly monitored them from 2003­2006. We found three phases the first comprehen- sive description of the spatio-temporal post-fire successional trajectory of the bog

Benscoter, Brian W.

53

Can a bog drained for forestry be a stronger carbon sink than a natural bog forest?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study compares the CO2 exchange of a natural bog forest, and of a bog drained for forestry in the pre-Alpine region of southern Germany. The sites are separated by only 10 km, they share the same soil formation history and are exposed to the same climate and weather conditions. In contrast, they differ in land use history: at the Schechenfilz site a natural bog-pine forest (Pinus mugo ssp. rotundata) grows on an undisturbed, about 5 m thick peat layer; at Mooseurach a planted spruce forest (Picea abies) grows on drained and degraded peat (3.4 m). The net ecosystem exchange of CO2 (NEE) at both sites has been investigated for 2 years (July 2010-June 2012), using the eddy covariance technique. Our results indicate that the drained, forested bog at Mooseurach is a much stronger carbon dioxide sink (-130 ± 31 and -300 ± 66 g C m-2 a-1 in the first and second year, respectively) than the natural bog forest at Schechenfilz (-53 ± 28 and -73 ± 38 g C m-2 a-1). The strong net CO2 uptake can be explained by the high gross primary productivity of the 44-year old spruces that over-compensates the two-times stronger ecosystem respiration at the drained site. The larger productivity of the spruces can be clearly attributed to the larger plant area index (PAI) of the spruce site. However, even though current flux measurements indicate strong CO2 uptake of the drained spruce forest, the site is a strong net CO2 source when the whole life-cycle since forest planting is considered. It is important to access this result in terms of the long-term biome balance. To do so, we used historical data to estimate the difference between carbon fixation by the spruces and the carbon loss from the peat due to drainage since forest planting. This rough estimate indicates a strong carbon release of +134 t C ha-1 within the last 44 years. Thus, the spruces would need to grow for another 100 years at about the current rate, to compensate the potential peat loss of the former years. In contrast, the natural bog-pine ecosystem has likely been a small but stable carbon sink for decades, which our results suggest is very robust regarding short-term changes of environmental factors.

Hommeltenberg, J.; Schmid, H. P.; Drösler, M.; Werle, P.

2014-07-01

54

Can a bog drained for forestry be a stronger carbon sink than a natural bog forest?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study compares the CO2 exchange of a natural bog forest, and of a bog drained for forestry in the pre-alpine region of southern Germany. The sites are separated by only ten kilometers, they share the same formation history and are exposed to the same climate and weather conditions. In contrast, they differ in land use history: at the Schechenfilz site a natural bog-pine forest (Pinus mugo rotundata) grows on an undisturbed, about 5 m thick peat layer; at Mooseurach a planted spruce forest (Picea abies) grows on drained and degraded peat (3.4 m). The net ecosystem exchange of CO2 (NEE) at both sites has been investigated for two years (July 2010 to June 2012), using the eddy covariance technique. Our results indicate that the drained, forested bog at Mooseurach is a much stronger carbon dioxide sink (-130 ± 31 and -300 ± 66 g C m-2 a-1 in the first and second year respectively) than the natural bog forest at Schechenfilz (-53 ± 28 and -73±38 g C m-2 a-1). The strong net CO2 uptake can be explained by the high gross primary productivity of the spruces that over-compensates the two times stronger ecosystem respiration at the drained site. The larger productivity of the spruces can be clearly attributed to the larger LAI of the spruce site. However, even though current flux measurements indicate strong CO2 uptake of the drained spruce forest, the site is a strong net CO2 source, if the whole life-cycle, since forest planting is considered. We determined the difference between carbon fixation by the spruces and the carbon loss from the peat due to drainage since forest planting. The estimate resulted in a strong carbon release of +156 t C ha-1 within the last 44 yr, means the spruces would need to grow for another 100 yr, at the current rate, to compensate the peat loss of the former years. In contrast, the natural bog-pine ecosystem has likely been a small but consistent carbon sink for decades, which our results suggest is very robust regarding short-term changes of environmental factors.

Hommeltenberg, J.; Schmid, H. P.; Droesler, M.; Werle, P.

2014-02-01

55

U-Pb ages of uraniferous opals and implications for the history of beryllium, fluorine, and uranium mineralization at Spor Mountain, Utah  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U-Pb isotope systematics of uraniferous opals from Spor Mountain, Utah, were investigated to determine the suitability of such material for geochronologic purposes, and to estimate the timing of uranium and associated beryllium and fluorine mineralization. The results indicate that uraniferous opals can approximate a closed system for uranium and uranium daughters, so that dating samples as young as ???1 m.y. should be possible. In addition, the expected lack of initial 230Th and 231Pa in opals permits valuable information on the initial 234U/238U to be obtained on suitable samples of ???10 m.y. age. The oldest 207Pb/235U apparent age observed, 20.8 ?? 1 m.y., was that of the opal-fluorite core of a nodule from a beryllium deposit in the Spor Mountain Formation. This age is indistinguishable from that of fission-track and K-Ar ages from the host rhyolite, and links the mineralization to the first episode of alkali rhyolite magmatism and related hydrothermal activity at Spor Mountain. Successively younger ages of 13 m.y. and 8-9 m.y. on concentric outer zones of the same nodule indicate that opal formed either episodically or continuously for over 10 m.y. Several samples of both fracture-filling and massive-nodule opal associated with beryllium deposits gave 207Pb/235U apparent ages of 13-16 m.y., which may reflect a restricted period of mineralization or perhaps an averaging of 21- and <13-m.y. periods of opal growth. Several samples of fracture-filling opal in volcanic rocks as young as 6 m.y. gave 207Pb/235U ages of 3.4-4.8 m.y. These ages may reflect hot-spring activity after the last major eruption of alkali rhyolite. ?? 1980.

Ludwig, K. R.; Lindsey, D.A.; Zielinski, R.A.; Simmons, K.R.

1980-01-01

56

Algal flora of subalpine peat bog pools in the Krkonose Mts asy tn krkonosskch subalpnskch raselinis  

E-print Network

Algal flora of subalpine peat bog pools in the Krkonose Mts asy tní krkonosských subalpínských, Czech Repub- lic, e-mail: sylnova@natur.cuni.cz Nováková S. (2002): Algal flora of subalpine peat bog raselinist peat bog and the Pancavské raselinist peat bog in the Krkonose Mts (Czech Republic) about 228 taxa

57

A hydrological study of Waen y Griafolen blanket bog, North Wales  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many mountain rivers in North Wales have their headwaters in peat blanket bogs. An example is Waen y Griafolen, source area for the Afon Mawddach, which formed the focus of a hydrological study by Bangor University over the period 2002-2004. Fieldwork has been supplemented by groundwater and surface water modelling. The blanket bog covers an area of approximately 6 km2 within a plateau basin in Lower Paleozoic shales. The structure of the blanket bog is complex. Erica and Trichophorum vegetation communities occupy the central area of the bog on deposits of old humified peat. Eroded into the old peat surface is a system of bifurcating channels occupied by actively accumulating Juncus and Sphagnum communities. River gravel and lake clay were found beneath the active peat channels at depths of several metres, indicative of an earlier and more extensive surface drainage system eroded into the bog surface. A palaeosoil occurs at the base of the old humified peat, with tree roots identified as Salix in growth position. A sample has been dated as 8905 ± 45 years before the reference year AD 1950. Waen y Griafolen has developed over the past 9000 years since the last ice sheets receded from upland Britain. Peat erosion represented by the buried river channels and lake bed may be linked to a period of increased rainfall across Europe at around 2600 years before the present. Groundwater levels have been continuously monitored at an instrumented borehole in the centre of the bog. It is found that the older humified peats have a surprisingly low water storage capacity and may become saturated during a single storm event. Storm flow occurs predominantly through fast surface runoff into the Juncus and Sphagnum infilled channels, where slow lateral movement takes place towards open stream courses at the basin outlet. There appears to be little vertical water movement into the underlying impermeable Ordovician shales. Climate change with an increase in winter rainfall may promote a reversion to fluvial erosion of the blanket bog. Modelling has been carried out with MODFLOW software to investigate the effects of replacing the Juncus and Sphagnum zones by gravel streams, as occurred in the 2600 b.p. erosion event. In an extreme case of complete removal of younger peat from channels, peak discharge from the basin would be almost doubled. This would have an adverse effect on flooding downstream. The Juncus / Sphagnum communities are seen as fragile. Management options to protect channel vegetation are recommended, including the blocking of surface streams to encourage a distributed water flow and maintain saturated ground conditions. References Hall G., 2008. An Integrated Meteorological /Hydrological Model for the Mawddach Catchment, North Wales. PhD Thesis, University of Wales, Bangor. Hall G. and Cratchley R., 2006. A hydrological study of Waen y Griafolen blanket bog, North Wales. Proc. International Conf. on Hydro-ecology. Carlsbad, Czech Republic

Hall, G.

2010-12-01

58

Ecoenzymatic stoichiometry and microbial processing of organic matter in northern bogs and fens reveals a common P limitation among peatland types  

EPA Science Inventory

We compared C, N, and P concentrations in atmospheric deposition, runoff, and soil standing stocks with microbial respiration (DHA) and ecoenzyme activity (EEA) in an ombrotrophic bog (S2) and a minerotrophic fen (S3) to investigate the environmental drivers of biogeochemical cyc...

59

Stratigraphic controls on pool formation in a domed bog inferred from ground penetrating radar (GPR)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ground penetrating radar (GPR) and terrain conductivity measurements reveal a close correlation between the location of water-filled pools and stratigraphic/lithologic features in Caribou Bog, a 2200-hectare peatland in central Maine. The geophysical profiles, supported by coring, define the general peatland stratigraphy as till underlain by glacio-marine sediment overlain by organic-rich lake sediment transitioning into terrestrial peat. GPR measurements show that open pools coincide with abrupt thinning of lake sediment and glaciomarine clay such that elevated mineral soil surfaces are in direct contact with the base of terrestrial peat. The width of these features, the GPR reflection patterns, the anomalously low terrain conductivity and the core samples obtained support the interpretation of these elevated mineral surfaces as the extension of buried eskers that outcrop on the periphery of Caribou bog. The geophysical results indicate that two parallel esker ridges are orientated N-S and dip towards the south. We suggest that the distribution of open pools is related to the distribution of depressions and beads associated with a beaded esker deposit, the pools possibly being maintained by local groundwater flow cells associated with the esker. GPR and EM31 surveys across Sphagnum pools (defined here as Sphagnum filled wet depressions) suggest a continuous sequence of underlying lake sediment and glacio-marine deposits devoid of elevated mineral surfaces. We suggest that Sphagnum pools developed after peatland formation (secondary features) due to changes in water table, peat accumulation and/or climatic controls.

Comas, Xavier; Slater, Lee; Reeve, Andrew

2005-12-01

60

Hydrologic conditions in Connors Bog Area, Anchorage, Alaska  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Connors Bog is a wetland in Anchorage, Alaska, which provides a habitat for many wildlife species and is a popular area for driving off-road vehicles. A landfill, and residential and commercial developments are present in areas which were once wetland. The main source of water is precipitation, which averages about 15 in/yr. Estimates of evapotranspiration, which is the main component of water outflow, range from 10 to 20 in/yr. Minor amounts of groundwater and surface runoff flow into the area from the northeast and southwest and flow out of the area to the northwest and south. Within the wetland, water in peat and sand is unconfined and becomes more mineralized with depth. A leachate beneath and near an abandoned landfill is characterized by concentrations of dissolved solids, dissolved chloride, and total organics that are higher than those of the area 's natural water. The maximum lateral extent of detectable contamination in 1984 was < 500 ft from the landfill 's edge. Water in glacial deposits that underlie a poorly permeable layer of silt and clay is confined. A well completed in this confined aquifer yielded water that had a low concentration of dissolved solids, 150 mg/L. The potentiometric surface of this aquifer was about 20 ft lower than the water table during 1984. Connors Lake occupies a depression that extends below adjacent groundwater levels. The 40-acre lake has a maximum depth of about 9 ft and a low rate of biological production. The quality of water in the lake has not been adversely impacted by nearby residential development or landfill operations. Lake levels appear to be influenced by precipitation and adjacent groundwater levels. (Author 's abstract)

Glass, R.L.

1986-01-01

61

Vegetation feedbacks of nutrient addition lead to a weaker carbon sink in an ombrotrophic bog.  

PubMed

To study vegetation feedbacks of nutrient addition on carbon sequestration capacity, we investigated vegetation and ecosystem CO2 exchange at Mer Bleue Bog, Canada in plots that had been fertilized with nitrogen (N) or with N plus phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) for 7-12 years. Gross photosynthesis, ecosystem respiration, and net CO2 exchange were measured weekly during May-September 2011 using climate-controlled chambers. A substrate-induced respiration technique was used to determine the functional ability of the microbial community. The highest N and NPK additions were associated with 40% less net CO2 uptake than the control. In the NPK additions, a diminished C sink potential was due to a 20-30% increase in ecosystem respiration, while gross photosynthesis rates did not change as greater vascular plant biomass compensated for the decrease in Sphagnum mosses. In the highest N-only treatment, small reductions in gross photosynthesis and no change in ecosystem respiration led to the reduced C sink. Substrate-induced microbial respiration was significantly higher in all levels of NPK additions compared with control. The temperature sensitivity of respiration in the plots was lower with increasing cumulative N load, suggesting more labile sources of respired CO2 . The weaker C sink potential could be explained by changes in nutrient availability, higher woody : foliar ratio, moss loss, and enhanced decomposition. Stronger responses to NPK fertilization than to N-only fertilization for both shrub biomass production and decomposition suggest that the bog ecosystem is N-P/K colimited rather than N-limited. Negative effects of further N-only deposition were indicated by delayed spring CO2 uptake. In contrast to forests, increased wood formation and surface litter accumulation in bogs seem to reduce the C sink potential owing to the loss of peat-forming Sphagnum. PMID:23868415

Larmola, Tuula; Bubier, Jill L; Kobyljanec, Christine; Basiliko, Nathan; Juutinen, Sari; Humphreys, Elyn; Preston, Michael; Moore, Tim R

2013-12-01

62

Acidophilic Methanotrophic Communities from Sphagnum Peat Bogs  

PubMed Central

Highly enriched methanotrophic communities (>25 serial transfers) were obtained from acidic ombrotrophic peat bogs from four boreal forest sites. The enrichment strategy involved using media conditions that were associated with the highest rates of methane uptake by the original peat samples, namely, the use of diluted mineral medium of low buffering capacity, moderate incubation temperature (20°C), and pH values of 3 to 6. Enriched communities contained a mixture of rod-shaped bacteria arranged in aggregates with a minor contribution of Hyphomicrobium-like cells. The growth stoichiometry of isolates was characteristic of methanotrophic bacteria (CH4/O2/CO2=1:1.1:0.59), with an average apparent yield of 0.41 ± 0.03 g of biomass C/g of CH4-C. DNA from each enrichment yielded a PCR product of the expected size with primers for both mmoX and mmoY genes of soluble methane monooxygenase. Two types of sequences were obtained for PCR-amplified fragments of mmoX. One of them exhibited high identity to the mmoX protein of the Methylocystis-Methylosinus group, whereas the other showed an equal level of divergence from both the Methylosinus-Methylocystis group and Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath) and formed a distinct branch. The pH optimum for growth and for CH4 uptake was 4.5 to 5.5, which is very similar to that for the optimum CH4 uptake observed in the original peat samples. These methanotrophs are moderate acidophiles rather than acidotolerant organisms, since their growth rate and methane uptake were much lower at neutral pH. The growth of the methanotrophic community was enhanced by using media with a very low salt content (20 to 200 mg/liter), more typical of their natural environment. All four enriched communities grew on N-free medium. PMID:9501432

Dedysh, Svetlana N.; Panikov, Nicolai S.; Tiedje, James M.

1998-01-01

63

Uraniferous asphaltite in Moore and Potter Counties, Texas  

SciTech Connect

Asphaltite is present in facies of the Red Cave and Panhandle lime Formation. Drill cuttings from 30 Moore County wells and 4 cores distributed across Moore and Potter Counties were examined for asphaltite. Results show that asphaltite is widespread but seems to be most abundant over structural highs, and that there is a facies control of asphaltite occurrences. In drill cuttings sandstones contain most abundant nodules yet the nodules are generally very small. Largest nodules were commonly observed in mudstone core samples. A potential exploration program should take those observations into account. Once exploitable deposits are located and if proper in situ leaching materials were developed for extraction of uranium, only sandstones could be worked. Interchannel mudstones are too impermeable and nonporous. Subsurface mining would be forced to address potential problems derived from high concentrations of hydrocarbons in the target rocks (Red Cave Formation produces oil and gas in Moore County) as well as high levels of radon (averages 100 x 10/sup -12/ curies per liter STP) in gas produced from the Panhandle Field.

Handford, C.R.; Granata, G.E.

1980-06-01

64

Successional changes of ant assemblages: from virgin and ditched bogs to forests  

Microsoft Academic Search

135-149. We studied ant assembly changes after ditching of bogs with nest and pitfall sampling in the southern Finnish taiga. The study sites clustered in dendrograms to hierarchical sets: virgin bogs and young ditchings, older ditchings, and forests. Species richness was low on virgin bogs and young ditchings, and increased with the age of ditching. The number of species was

Kari Vepsäläinen; Riitta Savolainen; Juha Tiainen; Jussi Vilén

2000-01-01

65

Small-scale spatial variation of benthic algal assemblages in a peat bog Katerina Cerna n  

E-print Network

Small-scale spatial variation of benthic algal assemblages in a peat bog Katerina Cerna´ n test Peat bog a b s t r a c t Spatial patterns on a very small scale (10 cm), and the effect microhabitat types were investigated. Samples were taken in a peat bog along linear transects on a scale of 10

66

1999 Financial Disclosures of the Federal Reserve BOG  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Released on September 4, 2000, the 1999 Financial Disclosures of the five members of the Fed's Board of Governors (BOG) offers fascinating insight into the "financial lives of America's most powerful economic policy makers." The data are displayed in an easy-to-read chart, offering information on the value of each governor's assets, assets of each governor and family, income from assets, and income from family assets. This site also offers bullet-pointed highlights of the findings, including the wealthiest governor and the financial investment choices of the BOG. The notes on each of the governors's statements are especially interesting.

67

Tracing of ca 800 yr old mining activity in peat bog using Pb elemental concentrations and isotope compositions.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sixty sites of slags have been documented on the Mont-Lozère in southern France. The petrographic analysis shows that slags are metallurgical wastes (800 to 850 yr BP) which certainly result from smelting activity for lead and silver extraction (Ploquin et al., 2001). The aims of this study are: 1) to trace the source of Pb ores which supplied the smelting sites, by using the Pb isotopic composition of several surrounding Pb deposits, 2) to evaluate the actual pollution caused by these slags, by using elemental and isotopic compositions of soils, water and vegetation, and 3) to document the pollution history of the region, by using elemental and isotopic compositions of peat bog cores collected in the neighbourhood of the historical smelting sites. The lead isotopic composition of galena collected in most surrounding ores is very similar to that of different slag samples. On the other hand, the high precision of the results allowed us to select the mineralised areas which were probably the ore sources. The Pb isotopic composition of slags is even more homogeneous: 208/206 Pb: 2.092±0.002; 206/207 Pb: 1.179±0.001; 208/204 Pb: 38.663±0.025; 207/204 Pb: 15.665±0.006; 206/204 Pb: 18.476±0.023, and will allow source tracing in the environment. The "Narses Mortes" peat bog, around which two smelting sites have been reported, is strongly minerotrophic and contains 8 to 60% ash. A 1.40 m core have been retrieved and divided into 58 individual samples. Minerotrophic peat bog records both atmospheric deposition, soils leaching and the grounwater influence. The measured metal concentrations are normalised to Al contents of peat bog samples and the metal/Al ratios are compared to that of the Mont-Lozère granite: relative excess in metal concentrations are found in peat bog samples. An increasing excess of most metals (Pb, Zn, Cd...) was measured for surface samples, from 55 cm depth to the top of the core (23 cm depth). This profil might be attributed to atmospheric input during the last centuries. Pb and As alone are also enriched in some deeper samples (between 120--90 cm depth). At the moment, no sedimentation rates are available for this section of the peat bog. However, according to palynological data (de Beaulieu, in progress), the bottom of the core might be as old as 5000 years BP. This would place the medieval activities at the base of the surface metal enrichment (˜55 cm depth), having no large effect in Pb concentrations measured in peat bog. The older Pb-As enrichment remain enigmatic and may correspond to earlier anthropogenic activities (2000--2500 BP), a period for which very few traces of metallurgical activities are found in Occidental Europe. 14C dating and Pb isotope works are going on peat bog samples trying to discriminate metals sources.

Baron, S.; Carignan, J.; Ploquin, A.

2003-04-01

68

Kemp Research Report: The Buzz About Cranberry Bogs  

E-print Network

Kemp Research Report: The Buzz About Cranberry Bogs A newsletter of the Kemp Natural Resources Station Volume 3, Number 1 - Spring 2002 (Continued on Next Page)(Continued on Page 3) Kemp's Point landscape is affected by windstorms each year. The 2000 storm presented a real dilemma for Kemp Station

69

BOGS AND FENS IN THE HUDSON BAY LOWLANDS  

Microsoft Academic Search

ty of metal ions in water of precipitation (except in definitely maritime areas) leads to strongly acid reactions both of the water and of the peat in most ombrotrophic peatlands. The vegetation of the ombrotrophic peat- lands, or (in a restricted sense) bogs, is highly specialized, acidophilous, and poor in species of flowering plants. Other types of peatland receive varying

Hugo Sjors

70

Ecosystem Respiration in a Cool Temperate Bog Depends on Peat  

E-print Network

Ecosystem Respiration in a Cool Temperate Bog Depends on Peat Temperature But Not Water Table P-summer (July-August). As anticipated, there was a strong relationship between ER and peat temperatures (r2 = 0-table depth (r2 = 0.11). A laboratory incubation of peat cores at different moisture contents showed that CO2

Roulet, Nigel T.

71

Terrestrial isopod community as indicator of succession in a peat bog.  

PubMed

Terrestrial isopods were studied in the Dubravica peat bog and surrounding forest in the northwestern Croatia. Sampling was conducted using pitfall traps over a two year period. Studied peat bog has a history of drastically decrease in area during the last five decades mainly due to the process of natural succession and changes in the water level. A total of 389 isopod individuals belonging to 8 species were captured. Species richness did not significantly differ between bog, edge and surrounding forest. High species richness at the bog is most likely the result of progressive vegetation succession, small size of the bog and interspecific relationships, such as predation. With spreading of Molinia grass on the peat bog, upper layers of Sphagnum mosses become less humid and probably more suitable for forest species that slowly colonise bog area. The highest diversity was found at the edge mainly due to the edge effect and seasonal immigration, but also possibly due to high abundance and predator pressure of the Myrmica ants and lycosid spiders at the bog site. The most abundant species were Trachelipus rathkii and Protracheoniscus politus, in the bog area and in the forest, respectively. Bog specific species were not recorded and the majority of the species collected belong to the group of tyrphoneutral species. However, Hyloniscus adonis could be considered as a tyrphoxenous species regarding its habitat preferences. Most of collected isopod species are widespread eurytopic species that usually inhabit various habitats and therefore indicate negative successive changes or degradation processes in the peat bog. PMID:22536107

Antonovi?, Ivan; Brigi?, Andreja; Sedlar, Zorana; Bedek, Jana; Soštari?, Renata

2012-01-01

72

Influence of uraniferous black shales on cadmium, molybdenum and selenium in soils and crop plants in the Deog-Pyoun-g area of Korea  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of naturally occurring uraniferous black shales on cadmium, molybdenum and selenium concentrations in soils\\u000a and plants is examined. The possible implications of element concentrations to animal and human health are considered for\\u000a the Deog-Pyoung area.\\u000a \\u000a Geochemical surveys have been undertaken within 13 river tributary valleys in the area underlain by uraniferous black shales\\u000a and black slates or grey

Kyoung-Woong Kim; Iain Thornton

1993-01-01

73

A Regional Comparison of the Long-Term Carbon Dynamics Within Maritime Peat Bogs Along the St. Lawrence North Shore, Northeastern Canada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have reconstructed the long-term carbon (C) dynamics within maritime bogs from two ecoclimatic regions between the Estuary (Baie-Comeau) and the Gulf of St. Lawrence (Havre-St.-Pierre) in northeastern Canada. The long-term average rates of C accumulation (LORCA) were calculated for eight peatlands. We also compared the Holocene variations in C sequestration between the peatlands to evaluate the influence of climate variability on their long-term C balance. The accumulation/decay processes were linked with changes in vegetation and water table depth. Overall, the LORCA decrease with the age of the peat deposits likely due to constant anoxic decay but they are significantly lower in Havre-St.-Pierre (16-46 g C m-2 yr-1) than in Baie-Comeau (53-68 g C m-2 yr-1). The regional differences in the LORCA reveal a pervasive climatic control on the long-term C balance. Our data suggest that the C accumulation in these bogs was driven by complex interactions between the peat accumulation/decay processes and the climate-mediated water table fluctuations. The higher C accumulation rates in the bogs of Baie-Comeau were promoted by stable ecohydrological conditions whereas the C balance in the bogs of Havre-St.-Pierre was more easily disrupted by past hydroclimatic changes especially during the Neoglacial cooling.

Magnan, G.; Garneau, M.

2013-12-01

74

New geological model of the Lagoa Real uraniferous albitites from Bahia (Brazil)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New evidence supported by petrography (including mineral chemistry), lithogeochemistry, U-Pb geochronology by Laser Ablation Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS), and physicochemical study of fluid and melt inclusions by LA-ICP-MS and microthermometry, point to an orogenic setting of Lagoa Real (Bahia-Brazil) involving uraniferous mineralization. Unlike the previous models in which uraniferous albitites represent Na-metasomatised 1.75 Ga anorogenic granitic rocks, it is understood here that they correspond to metamorphosed sodium-rich and quartz-free 1.9 Ga late-orogenic syenitic rocks (Na-metasyenites). These syenitic rocks are rich not only in albite, but also in U-rich titanite (source of uranium). The interpretation of geochemical data points to a petrogenetic connection between alkali-diorite (local amphibolite protolith) and sodic syenite by fractional crystallization through a transalkaline series. This magmatic differentiation occurred either before or during shear processes, which in turn led to albitite and amphibolite formation. The metamorphic reactions, which include intense recrystallization of magmatic minerals, led uraninite to precipitate at 1.87 Ga under Oxidation/Reduction control. A second population of uraninites was also generated by the reactivation of shear zones during the 0.6 Ga Brasiliano Orogeny. The geotectonic implications include the importance of the Orosirian event in the Paramirim Block during paleoproterozoic S?o Francisco Craton edification and the influence of the Brasiliano event in the Paramirim Block during the West-Gondwana assembly processes. The regional microcline-gneiss, whose protolith is a 2.0 Ga syn-collisional potassic granite, represents the albitite host rock. The microcilne-gneiss has no petrogenetic association to the syenite (albitite protolith) in magmatic evolutionary terms.

de Oliveira Chaves, Alexandre

2013-09-01

75

SphagnumSphagnum Production and Decomposition in a Mountain Raised BogProduction and Decomposition in a Mountain Raised Bog TomTomss HHjekjek  

E-print Network

, decomposition and decomposability in six dominant Sphagnum species in a Central European mountain patterned mireSphagnumSphagnum Production and Decomposition in a Mountain Raised BogProduction and Decomposition in a Mountain Raised Bog TomTomásás HHáájekjek The Third International Symposium on the Biology of Sphagnum

Hájek, Tomá�

76

Effect of mineral constituents in the bioleaching of uranium from uraniferous sedimentary rock samples, Southwestern Sinai, Egypt.  

PubMed

Bioleaching, like Biotechnology uses microorganisms to extract metals from their ore materials, whereas microbial activity has an appreciable effect on the dissolution of toxic metals and radionuclides. Bioleaching of uranium was carried out with isolated fungi from uraniferous sedimentary rocks from Southwestern Sinai, Egypt. Eight fungal species were isolated from different grades of uraniferous samples. The bio-dissolution experiments showed that Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus terreus exhibited the highest leaching efficiencies of uranium from the studied samples. Through monitoring the bio-dissolution process, the uranium grade and mineralogic constituents of the ore material proved to play an important role in the bioleaching process. The tested samples asserted that the optimum conditions of uranium leaching are: 7 days incubation time, 3% pulp density, 30 °C incubation temperature and pH 3. Both fungi produced the organic acids, namely; oxalic, acetic, citric, formic, malonic, galic and ascorbic in the culture filtrate, indicating an important role in the bioleaching processes. PMID:24682031

Amin, Maisa M; Elaassy, Ibrahim E; El-Feky, Mohamed G; Sallam, Abdel Sattar M; Talaat, Mona S; Kawady, Nilly A

2014-08-01

77

Floral composition of a sphagnum bog in Robertson county, Texas  

E-print Network

plants in zone three, other than the dominants, were as follows: Dewberry, Rubus velox Bailey Stretchberries, Smilax laurifolia L. (Figs. 11&12&+) Smilax ~lauca )Tait, Smilax rotundifolia L arche. Aa cuiurse yrMI j arete Peppervine, Cissus arborea... to Florida, The specimen from the Southworth bog was compared with herbarium specimens bi the same soecies to check identification. Rosaceae Rubus veL ox Bailey Blackberry Important member of zone III, also found in zones I and II Spring flowering...

Rowell, Chester Morrison, Jr

1949-01-01

78

Properties and structure of raised bog peat humic acids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Humic substances form most of the organic components of soil, peat and natural waters, and their structure and properties differ very much depending on their source. The aims of this study are to characterize humic acids (HAs) from raised bog peat, to evaluate the homogeneity of peat HAs within peat profiles, and to study peat humification impact on properties of HAs. A major impact on the structure of peat HAs have lignin-free raised bog biota (dominantly represented by bryophytes of different origin). On diagenesis scale, peat HAs have an intermediate position between the living organic matter and coal organic matter, and their structure is formed in a process in which more labile structures (carbohydrates, amino acids, etc.) are destroyed, while thermodynamically more stable aromatic and polyaromatic structures emerge as a result of abiotic synthesis. However, in comparison with soil, aquatic and other HAs, aromaticity of peat HAs is much lower. Comparatively, the raised bog peat HAs are at the beginning of the transformation process of living organic matter. Concentrations of carboxyl and phenolic hydroxyl groups change depending on the peat age and decomposition degree from where HAs have been isolated, and carboxylic acidity of peat HAs increases with peat depth and humification degree.

Klavins, Maris; Purmalis, Oskars

2013-10-01

79

Climatic and anthropogenic effects on atmospheric mercury accumulation rates in ombrotrophic bogs from Southern Ontario  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To quantify the effects of human activities on atmospheric deposition of mercury in eastem Canada, an improved understanding of the natural variations of the concentrations, fluxes and sources of Hg over a long period of time is required. Peat cores from 3 sites in southern Ontario were used to reconstruct changes in atmospheric mercury accumulation rates for the past 10,000 years. The net mercury accumulation rates and excess mercury (mainly anthropogenic) were calculated using the long-terrn average Hg/Br and Hg/Se. The average background mercury accumulation rate during the pre-anthropogenic period was 1.4 ± 1.0 ?g m^{-2} yr^{-1}. An excess of Hg was observed only once during that period, probably reflecting a change in climat. Mercury contamination from anthropogenic sources began about AD 1475 at the Luther Bog, corresponding to extensive biomass burning for agricultural activities by Native North Americans. During the late 17^th and 18^th centuries, deposition of anthropogenic Hg was at least equal to that of Hg from natural sources. Hg pollution increased again at the beginning of the 19^th century. The maximum increase (up to 30 times) compared to “background” occurred during the 1950s, when the anthropogenic component represented up to 85% ofthe total atmospheric mercury deposition.

Givelet, N.; Roos-Barraclough, F.; Shotyk, W.

2003-05-01

80

Animal and vegetation patterns in natural and man-made bog pools: implications for restoration  

USGS Publications Warehouse

1. Peatlands have suffered great losses following drainage for agriculture, forestry, urbanisation, or peat mining, near inhabited areas. We evaluated the faunal and vegetation patterns after restoration of a peatland formerly mined for peat. We assessed whether bog pools created during restoration are similar to natural bog pools in terms of water chemistry, vegetation structure and composition, as well as amphibian and arthropod occurrence patterns. 2. Both avian species richness and peatland vegetation cover at the site increased following restoration. Within bog pools, however, the vegetation composition differed between natural and man-made pools. The cover of low shrubs, Sphagnum moss, submerged, emergent and floating vegetation in man-made pools was lower than in natural pools, whereas pH was higher than in typical bog pools. Dominant plant species also differed between man-made and natural pools. 3. Amphibian tadpoles, juveniles and adults occurred more often in man-made pools than natural bog pools. Although some arthropods, including Coleoptera bog specialists, readily colonised the pools, their abundance was two to 26 times lower than in natural bog pools. Plant introduction in bog pools, at the stocking densities we applied, had no effect on the occurrence of most groups. 4. We conclude that our restoration efforts were partially successful. Peatland-wide vegetation patterns following restoration mimicked those of natural peatlands, but 4 years were not sufficient for man-made pools to fully emulate the characteristics of natural bog pools.

Mazerolle, M.J.; Poulin, M.; Lavoie, C.; Rochefort, L.; Desrochers, A.; Drolet, B.

2006-01-01

81

Holocene peatland development and hydrological variability inferred from bog-pine dendrochronology  

E-print Network

Holocene peatland development and hydrological variability inferred from bog-pine dendrochronology ABSTRACT: Dendrochronological analysis was applied to subfossil remains of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L

Stoffel, Markus

82

Terrestrial isopod community as indicator of succession in a peat bog  

PubMed Central

Abstract Terrestrial isopods were studied in the Dubravica peat bog and surrounding forest in the northwestern Croatia. Sampling was conducted using pitfall traps over a two year period. Studied peat bog has a history of drastically decrease in area during the last five decades mainly due to the process of natural succession and changes in the water level. A total of 389 isopod individuals belonging to 8 species were captured. Species richness did not significantly differ between bog, edge and surrounding forest. High species richness at the bog is most likely the result of progressive vegetation succession, small size of the bog and interspecific relationships, such as predation. With spreading of Molinia grass on the peat bog, upper layers of Sphagnum mosses become less humid and probably more suitable for forest species that slowly colonise bog area. The highest diversity was found at the edge mainly due to the edge effect and seasonal immigration, but also possibly due to high abundance and predator pressure of the Myrmica ants and lycosid spiders at the bog site. The most abundant species were Trachelipus rathkii and Protracheoniscus politus, in the bog area and in the forest, respectively. Bog specific species were not recorded and the majority of the species collected belong to the group of tyrphoneutral species. However, Hyloniscus adonis could be considered as a tyrphoxenous species regarding its habitat preferences. Most of collected isopod species are widespread eurytopic species that usually inhabit various habitats and therefore indicate negative successive changes or degradation processes in the peat bog. PMID:22536107

Antonovi?, Ivan; Brigi?, Andreja; Sedlar, Zorana; Bedek, Jana; Šoštari?, Renata

2012-01-01

83

Impacts of Fertilization on Rates of Autotrophic N2 Fixation in Salt Marshes and Cranberry Bogs of Massachusetts  

E-print Network

and a cultivated freshwater system, salt marshes and cranberry bogs in the Falmouth area provide an opportunity and cranberry bogs in the Falmouth, MA area. High annual rates of fixation, primarily by blue-green algae

Vallino, Joseph J.

84

Genesis of peat-bog soils in the northern taiga spruce forests of the Kola Peninsula  

SciTech Connect

The characteristics of soil formation processes in the Peat-Bog soils of waterlogged spruce phytocenoses on the Kola Peninsula are investigated. It is found that the ash composition of the peat layer is determined primarily by the composition of the buried plant residues. The effect of the chemical composition of water feeding the peat bogs is determined. (Refs. 7).

Nikonov, V.V.

1981-01-01

85

Mobility of trace metals in pore waters of two Central European peat bogs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vertical peat profiles can only be used as archives of past changes in pollution levels if atmogenic elements are immobile after their burial. For mobile elements, similar pore-water concentrations can be expected at different peat depths. Concentrations of Pb, Cu, Zn, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co and Cd were determined in surface bog water and bog pore water 40 cm below surface

Martin Novak; Petra Pacherova

2008-01-01

86

Carbon accumulation in bogs and fens after permafrost degradation in central Alaska  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the discontinuous zone in Alaska about 60% of the land area has permafrost and 5% has thermokarst terrain, which is comprised mostly of thermokarst lakes, bogs and fens. The collapse of lowland forests on seasonally saturated soils on ice-rich terrain into permanently saturated ombrotrophic bogs, dominated by Sphagnum and ericaceous shrubs, and into minerotrophic fens, dominated by herbaceous vegetation,

M. T. Jorgenson; T. Cater; J. Roth; E. Pullman; C. Racine; J. Harden

2007-01-01

87

The bog landforms of continental western Canada in relation to climate and permafrost patterns  

SciTech Connect

In continental western Canada, discontinuous permafrost is almost always restricted to ombrotrophic peatlands (bogs). Bogs occur mostly as islands or peninsulas in large, often complex fens or are confined to small basins. Permafrost may be present in extensive peat plateaus (or more locally as palsas) and was preceded by a well-developed layer of Sphagnum that served to insulate the peat and lower the pore water temperatures. Air photo interpretation reveals the occurrence of bogs with five types of surface physiography. Concentrated to the south are bogs without internal patterns that have never had permafrost. Dominating the mid-latitudes are bogs with internal lawns and fens with internal lawns (mostly representing former bogs) that had permafrost lenses in the past that have recently degraded. Concentrated in the northwest are peat plateaus without internal lawns or distinct collapse scars, but with permafrost; dominating in the northernmost area are peat plateaus with extensive permafrost and collapse scars. Relationships are apparent between the current - 1[degrees]C isotherm and the southern occurrence of peat plateaus and between the 0[degrees]C isotherm and the southern edge of bogs and fens with internal lawns. We interpret bogs and fens with internal lawns to represent areas where permafrost degradation is currently occurring at a greater rate than aggradation, seemingly in response to warmer regional climate, although fire frequency may also be of local importance. 54 refs., 21 figs., 2 tabs.

Vitt, D.H.; Halsey, L.A. (Univ. of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada)); Zoltai, S.C. (Northern Forestry Centre, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada))

1994-02-01

88

EVALUATING CUMULATIVE EFFECTS OF DISTURBANCE ON THE HYDROLOGIC FUNCTION OF BOGS, FENS, AND MIRES  

EPA Science Inventory

Few quantitative studies have been done on the hydrology of fens, bogs and mires, and consequently any predictions of the cumulative impacts of disturbances on their hydrologic functions is extremely difficult. or example, few data are available on the role of bogs and fens with ...

89

Mechanisms involved in the re-establishment of Sphagnum dominated vegetation in rewetted bog remnants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Restoration of peat bog vegetation inhighly degraded peatlands is generallyattempted by improving the hydrology ofthese areas. The present paper discussesand explains various restoration strategiesrelating to peat quality, water chemistryand hydrology. In some cases, (shallow)inundation of bog remnants leads to a rapidredevelopment of (floating) Sphagnumvegetation, usually when poorly humifiedSphagnum peat is still present. Afterinundation, the peat either swells up tothe newly

A. J. P. Smolders; H. B. M. Tomassen; M. van Mullekom; L. P. M. Lamers; J. G. M. Roelofs

2003-01-01

90

Seasonal contribution of CO2 fluxes in the annual C budget of a northern bog  

E-print Network

Seasonal contribution of CO2 fluxes in the annual C budget of a northern bog Charlotte L. Roehm primary production exceeds decomposition. The contribution of non-growing-season fluxes to the annual C of carbon exchange with seasons in a bog located in the cool temperate climate region. The growing season CO

Roulet, Nigel T.

91

Movements, Habitat Use, and Thermal Ecology of an Isolated Population of Bog Turtles (Glyptemys muhlenbergii)  

E-print Network

Movements, Habitat Use, and Thermal Ecology of an Isolated Population of Bog Turtles (Glyptemys muhlenbergii) Shannon E. Pittman1,2 and Michael E. Dorcas1 Because many species of semi-aquatic turtles have to anthropogenic habitat modification. The federally threatened Bog Turtle (Glyptemys muhlenbergii) requires

Dorcas, Michael E.

92

Spatio-temporal community structure of peat bog benthic desmids on a microscale  

E-print Network

Spatio-temporal community structure of peat bog benthic desmids on a microscale Jiri´ Neustupa- scale transects were delimited at 4 temperate lowland peat bog localities to investigate spatial represented by dynamics of the common species. Keywords Desmidiales Á Microscale Á Microphytobenthos Á Peat

93

[Testate amoebae inhabiting middle taiga bogs in Western Siberia].  

PubMed

The population of testate amoebae from the most typical middle taiga bogs of Western Siberia have been studied. More than one hundred (103) species and intraspecific taxons of testate amoebae have been revealed in recent surface samples. The relation between ecological characteristics of habitats and the composition of a Protozoa population has been demonstrated. The ecological preferences of species concerning the index of wetness, ash level, and acidity have been revealed. Using the correspondence analysis, the ecological optimums and the tolerance of species and intraspecific taxons of testate amoebae have been established. PMID:20799643

Kur'ina, I V; Pre?s, Iu I; Bobrov, A A

2010-01-01

94

Environmental assessment of remedial action at the inactive uraniferous lignite processing sites at Belfield and Bowman, North Dakota. [UMTRA Project  

SciTech Connect

The Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978 (UMTRCA), to clean up the Belfield and Bowman, North Dakota, uraniferous lignite processing sites to reduce the potential health impacts associated with the residual radioactive materials remaining at these sites. Remedial action at these sites must be performed in accordance with the US Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) standards promulgated for the remedial action and with the concurrence of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the state of North Dakota. The inactive Belfield uraniferous lignite processing site is one mile southeast of Belfield, North Dakota. The inactive Bowman uraniferous lignite processing site at the former town of Griffin, is seven miles northwest of Bowman, North Dakota and 65 road miles south of Belfield. Lignite ash from the processing operations has contaminated the soils over the entire 10.7-acre designated Belfield site and the entire 12.1-acre designated Bowman site. Dispersion of the ash has contaminated an additional 20.6 acres surrounding the Belfield processing site and an additional 59.2 acres surrounding the Bowman processing site. The proposed remedial action is to relocate the contaminated materials at the Belfield processing site to the Bowman processing/disposal site for codisposal with the Bowman contaminated soils. The environmental impacts assessed in this EA were evaluated for the proposed remedial action and the no action alternative and demonstrate that the proposed action would not significantly affect the quality of the human environment and would be performed in compliance with applicable environmental laws. The no action alternative would not be consistent with the intent of Public Law 95-604 and would not comply with the EPA standards. 48 refs., 10 figs., 7 tabs.

Beranich, S.; Berger, N.; Bierley, D.; Bond, T.M.; Burt, C.; Caldwell, J.A.; Dery, V.A.; Dutcher, A.; Glover, W.A.; Heydenburg, R.J.; Larson, N.B.; Lindsey, G.; Longley, J.M.; Millard, J.B.; Miller, M.; Peel, R.C.; Persson-Reeves, C.H.; Titus, F.B.; Wagner, L.

1989-09-01

95

No limits to peat bog growth? Transport and thermodynamic constraints on anaerobic organic matter decomposition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In diffusion dominated systems, for which many thick peat deposits provide a model, slowness of transport and lack of free energy may pose a limit to methanogenic decomposition of organic matter and ultimately to closing the carbon cycle. To test this hypothesis we (I) conducted controlled column experiments with homogenized peat over an 18 month period, (II) investigated transport, in situ respiration pathways, rates and thermodynamic conditions in a nothern peatland, and (III) modelled depth profiles of CO2 and CH4 in the deposits. Vertical transport in the peatland was dominated by diffusion leading to the buildup of DIC and CH4 with depth (5500 µmol L 1 DIC, 500 µmol L 1 CH4). Highest DIC and CH4 production rates occurred close to the water table (decomposition constant kd ~10-3 to 10 4 a-1) and decreased to about kd = 10-7 a-1. The accumulation of metabolic end-products diminished in situ energy yields of acetoclastic methanogenesis to the threshold for microbially mediated processes (-20 to -25 kJ mol-1 CH4). The methanogenic precursor acetate also accumulated (150 µmol L 1). In line with these findings, CH4 was formed by hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis at Gibbs free energies of 35 to 40 kJ mol-1 CH4. This was indicated by an isotopic fractionation ?CO2-CH4 of 1.069 to 1.079. Fermentative degradation of acetate, propionate and butyrate attained Gibbs free energies close to 0 kJ mol-1 substrate. In peat columns with homogenenous peat-sand mixtures of 50%, 15% and 5% dry weight, steady state CO2 production also decreased from about 10 to 0 nmol cm-3 d-1 and of CH4 from 1 to 0 nmol cm-3 d-1 with depth. Very similar depth profiles of concentrations and volumetric rates developed near endproduct thresholds of 600µmol CH4 and 10 mmol L-1 CO2, despite the differences in organic matter content. The modeling exercise showed that a consistent development of CH4 concentration profiles over time in the columns could only be accomplished with rates of acetoclastic methanogenesis decreasing to 0 near a critical Gibbs free energy of about -27 KJ mol-1. The results thus suggest that, even in absence of inorganic electron acceptors, respiration rates in peat bogs are likely higher near the redox interface to the atmosphere due to lower respiration endproduct concentrations. Similar effects ensue when rates of transport are elevated or pools of CO2 and CH4 are eliminated. With decomposition being constrained, peat bog growth may occur longer than previously thought.

Blodau, C.; Julia, B.; Siems, M.

2009-05-01

96

Radionuclide release from simulated waste material after biogeochemical leaching of uraniferous mineral samples.  

PubMed

Biogeochemical mineral dissolution is a promising method for the released of metals in low-grade host mineralization that contain sulphidic minerals. The application of biogeochemical mineral dissolution to engineered leach heap piles in the Elliot Lake region may be considered as a promising passive technology for the economic recovery of low grade Uranium-bearing ores. In the current investigation, the decrease of radiological activity of uraniferous mineral material after biogeochemical mineral dissolution is quantified by gamma spectroscopy and compared to the results from digestion/ICP-MS analysis of the ore materials to determine if gamma spectroscopy is a simple, viable alternative quantification method for heavy nuclides. The potential release of Uranium (U) and Radium-226 ((226)Ra) to the aqueous environment from samples that have been treated to represent various stages of leaching and passive closure processes are assessed. Dissolution of U from the solid phase has occurred during biogeochemical mineral dissolution in the presence of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans, with gamma spectroscopy indicating an 84% decrease in Uranium-235 ((235)U) content, a value in accordance with the data obtained by dissolution chemistry. Gamma spectroscopy data indicate that only 30% of the (226)Ra was removed during the biogeochemical mineral dissolution. Chemical inhibition and passivation treatments of waste materials following the biogeochemical mineral dissolution offer greater protection against residual U and (226)Ra leaching. Pacified samples resist the release of (226)Ra contained in the mineral phase and may offer more protection to the aqueous environment for the long term, compared to untreated or inhibited residues, and should be taken into account for future decommissioning. PMID:24726552

Williamson, Aimee Lynn; Caron, François; Spiers, Graeme

2014-12-01

97

Species Identification of Archaeological Skin Objects from Danish Bogs: Comparison between Mass Spectrometry-Based Peptide Sequencing and Microscopy-Based Methods  

PubMed Central

Denmark has an extraordinarily large and well-preserved collection of archaeological skin garments found in peat bogs, dated to approximately 920 BC – AD 775. These objects provide not only the possibility to study prehistoric skin costume and technologies, but also to investigate the animal species used for the production of skin garments. Until recently, species identification of archaeological skin was primarily performed by light and scanning electron microscopy or the analysis of ancient DNA. However, the efficacy of these methods can be limited due to the harsh, mostly acidic environment of peat bogs leading to morphological and molecular degradation within the samples. We compared species assignment results of twelve archaeological skin samples from Danish bogs using Mass Spectrometry (MS)-based peptide sequencing, against results obtained using light and scanning electron microscopy. While it was difficult to obtain reliable results using microscopy, MS enabled the identification of several species-diagnostic peptides, mostly from collagen and keratins, allowing confident species discrimination even among taxonomically close organisms, such as sheep and goat. Unlike previous MS-based methods, mostly relying on peptide fingerprinting, the shotgun sequencing approach we describe aims to identify the complete extracted ancient proteome, without preselected specific targets. As an example, we report the identification, in one of the samples, of two peptides uniquely assigned to bovine foetal haemoglobin, indicating the production of skin from a calf slaughtered within the first months of its life. We conclude that MS-based peptide sequencing is a reliable method for species identification of samples from bogs. The mass spectrometry proteomics data were deposited in the ProteomeXchange Consortium with the dataset identifier PXD001029. PMID:25260035

Brandt, Luise Ørsted; Schmidt, Anne Lisbeth; Mannering, Ulla; Sarret, Mathilde; Kelstrup, Christian D.; Olsen, Jesper V.; Cappellini, Enrico

2014-01-01

98

Species identification of archaeological skin objects from Danish bogs: comparison between mass spectrometry-based peptide sequencing and microscopy-based methods.  

PubMed

Denmark has an extraordinarily large and well-preserved collection of archaeological skin garments found in peat bogs, dated to approximately 920 BC - AD 775. These objects provide not only the possibility to study prehistoric skin costume and technologies, but also to investigate the animal species used for the production of skin garments. Until recently, species identification of archaeological skin was primarily performed by light and scanning electron microscopy or the analysis of ancient DNA. However, the efficacy of these methods can be limited due to the harsh, mostly acidic environment of peat bogs leading to morphological and molecular degradation within the samples. We compared species assignment results of twelve archaeological skin samples from Danish bogs using Mass Spectrometry (MS)-based peptide sequencing, against results obtained using light and scanning electron microscopy. While it was difficult to obtain reliable results using microscopy, MS enabled the identification of several species-diagnostic peptides, mostly from collagen and keratins, allowing confident species discrimination even among taxonomically close organisms, such as sheep and goat. Unlike previous MS-based methods, mostly relying on peptide fingerprinting, the shotgun sequencing approach we describe aims to identify the complete extracted ancient proteome, without preselected specific targets. As an example, we report the identification, in one of the samples, of two peptides uniquely assigned to bovine foetal haemoglobin, indicating the production of skin from a calf slaughtered within the first months of its life. We conclude that MS-based peptide sequencing is a reliable method for species identification of samples from bogs. The mass spectrometry proteomics data were deposited in the ProteomeXchange Consortium with the dataset identifier PXD001029. PMID:25260035

Brandt, Luise Ørsted; Schmidt, Anne Lisbeth; Mannering, Ulla; Sarret, Mathilde; Kelstrup, Christian D; Olsen, Jesper V; Cappellini, Enrico

2014-01-01

99

Regional and local patterns in depth to water table, hydrochemistry and peat properties of bogs and their laggs in coastal British Columbia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In restoration planning for damaged raised bogs, the lagg at the bog margin is often not given considerable weight and is sometimes disregarded entirely. However, the lagg is critical for the proper functioning of the bog, as it supports the water mound in the bog. In order to include the lagg in a restoration plan for a raised bog, it is necessary to understand the hydrological characteristics and functions of this rarely studied transition zone. We studied 13 coastal British Columbia (BC) bogs and identified two different gradients in depth to water table, hydrochemistry and peat properties: (1) a local bog expanse-bog margin gradient, and (2) a regional gradient related to climate and proximity to the ocean. Depth to water table generally increased across the transition from bog expanse to bog margin. In the bog expanse, pH was above 4.2 in the Pacific Oceanic wetland region (cooler and wetter climate) and below 4.3 in the Pacific Temperate wetland region (warmer and drier climate). Both pH and pH-corrected electrical conductivity increased significantly across the transition from bog expanse to bog margin, though not in all cases. Na+ and Mg2+ concentrations were generally highest in exposed, oceanic bogs and lower in inland bogs. Ash content in peat samples increased across the bog expanse-bog margin transition, and appears to be a useful abiotic indicator of the location of the bog margin. The observed variation in the hydrological and hydrochemical gradients across the bog expanse-bog margin transition highlights both local and regional diversity of bogs and their associated laggs.

Howie, S. A.; van Meerveld, H. J.

2013-09-01

100

Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the inactive uraniferous lignite ashing site near Bowman, North Dakota  

SciTech Connect

This baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the inactive uraniferous lignite ashing site near Bowman, North Dakota, evaluates the potential impacts to public health or the environment from contaminated ground water at this site. This contamination is a result of the uraniferous lignite ashing process, when coal containing uranium was burned to produce uranium. Potential risk is quantified only for constituents introduced by the processing activities and not for the constituents naturally occurring in background ground water in the site vicinity. Background ground water, separate from any site-related contamination, imposes a percentage of the overall risk from ground water ingestion in the Bowman site vicinity. The US Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project is developing plans to address soil and ground water contamination at the site. The UMTRA Surface Project involves the determination of the extent of soil contamination and design of an engineered disposal cell for long-term storage of contaminated materials. The UMTRA Ground Water Project evaluates ground water contamination. Based on results from future site monitoring activities as defined in the site observational work plan and results from this risk assessment, the DOE will propose an approach for managing contaminated ground water at the Bowman site.

Not Available

1994-11-01

101

Ecology and hydrology of pristine and cutover lowland raised bogs: relationships and implications for restoration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper will examine relationships in vegetation communities and hydrological conditions on areas of lowland raised bog in north west England, comparing damaged and relatively intact sites on two adjacent bogs in Cumbria. Walton Moss is a relatively pristine site whilst and Bolton Fell Moss has a small nature reserve area with remnant vegetation which is surrounded by commercial peat cutting. The intended outcome is to provide a mechanism to inform management decisions, with a view to assisting in the long-term protection and rehabilitation of lowland raised bogs.

Labadz, Jillian; Hart, Roger; Robbins, Jane; Butcher, David; Topliss, David

2013-04-01

102

Carbon budget of drained peat bogs in Ukrainian Polesie  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Methodological aspects of studying the organic carbon budget of drained peat bogs used in agriculture are discussed. Difficulties in the assessment of carbon budget on the basis of measured carbon inflows and outflows are shown. The "soil pool" model of the carbon budget is suggested. It is based on the results of long-term experimental studies of a drained peatland in Ukrainian Polesie. An algorithm for calculating the carbon budget in the aerated part of the peatland—the peat soil proper—is developed with due account for a gradual involvement of the deep peat layers into the zone of soil processes. Data on the loss of dry peat mass and organic carbon per in the course of peat mineralization and surface subsidence are given with due account for the nature of the peatland and the duration of its agricultural use.

Truskavetskii, R. S.

2014-07-01

103

Atmospheric pollutants in alpine peat bogs record a detailed chronology of industrial and agricultural development on the Australian continent.  

PubMed

Two peat bogs from remote alpine sites in Australia were found to contain detailed and coherent histories of atmospheric metal pollution for Pb, Zn, Cu, Mo, Ag, As, Cd, Sb, Zn, In, Cr, Ni, Tl and V. Dramatic increases in metal deposition in the post-1850 AD portion of the cores coincide with the onset of mining in Australia. Using both Pb isotopes and metals, pollutants were ascribed to the main atmospheric pollution emitting sources in Australia, namely mining and smelting, coal combustion and agriculture. Results imply mining and metal production are the major source of atmospheric metal pollution, although coal combustion may account for up to 30% of metal pollutants. A novel finding of this study is the increase in the otherwise near-constant Y/Ho ratio after 1900 AD. We link this change to widespread and increased application of marine phosphate fertiliser in Australia's main agricultural area (the Murray Darling Basin). PMID:20061073

Marx, Samuel K; Kamber, Balz S; McGowan, Hamish A; Zawadzki, Atun

2010-05-01

104

Invertebrate community structure along a habitat-patch size gradient within a bog pool complex   

E-print Network

This thesis characterises species richness and community structure over a habitat-patch size gradient of a typical bog-pool complex, investigating the effect of pool size on aquatic invertebrate communities. In this study, twenty-two pools were...

Towers, Naomi M.

105

Liparis loeselii (L.) L.C.Rich bog twayblade Orchidaceae (Orchid Family) Liparis loeselii bog twayblade Status: State Endangered  

E-print Network

General Description: Plant with two large basal leaves with parallel venation; flower stalk 3-8 inches tall; flowers white to yellowish-green; sepals 3/16 to 5/16 inch, 3-nerved; petals 1-nerved, 3/16 to 1/4 inch; lip 3/16 to 1/4 inch, oblong-oval, abruptly acute and with a narrow base, curved downward, 5-7 veined. The use of a technical key is recommended for positive identification. Identification Tips: This is the only Liparis which occurs in WA. The other genera which are at least superficially similar include Listera and Platanthera. The former all have leaves that are borne near midlength of the stem, rather than essentially at the base. The latter have a spur on the lowermost petal (the lip). Phenology: This species is identifiable in June. Range: Nova Scotia to Alabama, very sporadically to Saskatchewan, North Dakota, and Iowa. Also occurs in Europe. Disjunct in WA, occurring in the Eastern Cascades and Puget Trough physiographic provinces. Habitat: The species occurs around springs, in bogs, and wet sunny places within Douglas fir dominated forests in WA. Associated species include red alder (Alnus rubra), salmonberry (Rubus spectabilis), hardhack (Spirea douglasii), adder’s tongue (Ophioglossum vulgatum), skunk cabbage (Lysichitum americanum), mountain alder (Alnus incana), bog willow (Salix pedicellaris), mud sedge (Carex limosa), slender sedge (Carex lasiocarpa), roundleaf sundew (Drosera rotundifolia), common buckbean (Menyanthes trifoliata), swamp laurel (Kalmia occidentalis), trailing St. John’s wort (Hypericum anagalloides), marsh cinquefoil (Potentilla palustris), and Baltic rush (Juncus balticus).

Rank Gs

106

Germination and seedling growth of bog plants in relation to the recolonization of milled peatlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two controlled experiments were conducted to evaluate the potential for vascular plants to germinate and establish in milled\\u000a peatlands and to assess whether easily measured plant traits can be used to predict their probable success. Study species\\u000a included twenty species of perennial herbs, shrubs and trees occurring frequently in undisturbed bogs or abandoned milled\\u000a bogs in Québec, Canada. First, a

Daniel R. Campbell; Line Rochefort

2003-01-01

107

Persistent versus transient tree encroachment of temperate peat bogs: effects of climate warming and drought events.  

PubMed

Peatlands store approximately 30% of global soil carbon, most in moss-dominated bogs. Future climatic changes, such as changes in precipitation patterns and warming, are expected to affect peat bog vegetation composition and thereby its long-term carbon sequestration capacity. Theoretical work suggests that an episode of rapid environmental change is more likely to trigger transitions to alternative ecosystem states than a gradual, but equally large, change in conditions. We used a dynamic vegetation model to explore the impacts of drought events and increased temperature on vegetation composition of temperate peat bogs. We analyzed the consequences of six patterns of summer drought events combined with five temperature scenarios to test whether an open peat bog dominated by moss (Sphagnum) could shift to a tree-dominated state. Unexpectedly, neither a gradual decrease in the amount of summer precipitation nor the occurrence of a number of extremely dry summers in a row could shift the moss-dominated peat bog permanently into a tree-dominated peat bog. The increase in tree biomass during drought events was unable to trigger positive feedbacks that keep the ecosystem in a tree-dominated state after a return to previous 'normal' rainfall conditions. In contrast, temperature increases from 1 °C onward already shifted peat bogs into tree-dominated ecosystems. In our simulations, drought events facilitated tree establishment, but temperature determined how much tree biomass could develop. Our results suggest that under current climatic conditions, peat bog vegetation is rather resilient to drought events, but very sensitive to temperature increases, indicating that future warming is likely to trigger persistent vegetation shifts. PMID:23526779

Heijmans, Monique M P D; van der Knaap, Yasmijn A M; Holmgren, Milena; Limpens, Juul

2013-07-01

108

Preliminary survey of the peat-bog Hummell Knowe Moss using various numerical methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

(1)Hummell Knowe Moss is one of several fine and relatively undamaged peat bogs in northern England, close to the border with Scotland.(2)The central, eccentrically domed, mass of peat is ca 300×600 m, and much of this is 7 to 10 m deep.(3)A single profile has 8 m of bog peat overlying 2.5 m of Phragmites peat with seeds of Potamogeton

R. S. Clymo

1980-01-01

109

CARBON AND OXYGEN ISOTOPE DENDROCHRONOLOGY IN SUB-FOSSIL BOG OAK TREE RINGS - A PRELIMINARY STUDY  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Isotope dendroclimatology is a relatively new field investigating en - vironmental factors that control the radial growth of trees. Tree-ring series of sub-fossil bog oaks can be dated from sites across northwest Europe indicating that the environmental change(s) were regional rather than local. Bog oaks show characteristic periods of suppressed growth thought to have resulted from changes in the

U. Sass-Klaassen; I. Poole; T. Wils; G. Helle; G. H. Schleser; P. F. van Bergen

2005-01-01

110

Long-term records of atmospheric deposition of mercury in peat cores  

E-print Network

Long-term records of atmospheric deposition of mercury in peat cores from Arctic, and comparisonD dissertation February 2004 #12;Long-term records of atmospheric deposition of mercury in peat cores from Arctic in southern Ontario recorded by peat cores from three bogs: comparison with natural "background" values (past

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

111

The growth of permafrost-free bogs at the southern margin of permafrost, 1947-2010  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the high-Boreal region of NW Canada, permafrost occurs predominantly in the form of tree-covered peat plateaus within a permafrost-free and treeless terrain dominated by flat bogs. This region is experiencing unprecedented rates of thaw. Over the last several decades, such thaw has significantly expanded the permafrost-free, treeless terrain at the expense of the plateaus. This rapid change in land-cover has raised concerns over its impact on northern water resources, since remotely sensed data and ground observations indicate that the two major land-covers in this region have very different hydrological functions. Peat plateaus have a limited capacity to store water, a relatively large snowmelt water supply and hydraulic gradients that direct excess water into adjacent permafrost-free wetlands. As such, the plateaus function primarily as runoff generators. Plateaus also obstruct and redirect water movement in adjacent wetlands since the open water surfaces of the latter occupy an elevation below the permafrost table. By contrast, bogs are primarily water storage features since they are surrounded by raised permafrost and therefore less able to exchange surface and near-surface flows with the basin drainage network. Accurate estimate of the permafrost and permafrost-free areas is needed for accurate predictions of basin runoff and storage. This study examines the perimeter-area characteristics of bogs and permafrost plateaus, using fractal geometry as a basis for quantifying these properties. Image analyses are applied to aerial photographs and satellite imagery of Scotty Creek, NWT over the period 1947-2010. Preliminary analyses suggest that the expanding bogs and shrinking permafrost plateaus behave as fractals, meaning that their perimeter-area characteristics can be described by simple power equations. The area-frequency characteristics of bogs and plateaus have a hyperbolic distribution with relatively few large bogs and plateaus and numerous small ones. The bogs and plateaus have different fractal dimensions, since bogs evolve from small, simple (i.e. circular) shapes to large, complex shapes, while thaw transforms plateaus from large and complex shapes to small, simple ones. It is concluded that the size distributions of plateaus and bogs are not random but predictable. The variation in plateau edge length per unit basin area over the 1947-2010 period is demonstrated. A maximum value of the ratio was reached when permafrost covered 45-65% of the basin. Permafrost thaw driven by energy advection from adjacent bogs would therefore be greatest when the coverage of plateaus is in this range.

Quinton, W. L.; Sonnentag, O.; Connon, R.; Chasmer, L.

2013-12-01

112

Hydrologic conditions in the Klatt Bog area, Anchorage, Alaska  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Klatt Bog is a 2.3 sq mi wetland in Anchorage, Alaska which provides habitat for many wildlife species but also offers potential sites for residential, commercial, and agricultural developments. Precipitation, the main source of water for the area, averages 15 in/yr; during the 1983 study period, precipitation was 12.16 inches. Estimates of evapotranspiration, considered to be the major component of water outflow, range from 10 to 20 inches. Surface runoff and groundwater outflow during 1983 are estimated to be 2.8 and < 0.2 inches, respectively. During summer, most of the runoff is derived from groundwater discharge near the upgradient eastern edge of the wetland. The wetland 's aquifer system is composed of fibrous peat which overlies a poorly permeable layer of silt and clay. The aquifer is recharged by infiltration of precipitation and inflow of groundwater from upland areas east of the wetland. During 1983 the water table was at or within 3 ft of land surface in most areas and its seasonal fluctuation was < 2 feet. Water collected from four shallow observation wells, two ponds, and two sites on a stream had concentrations of dissolved iron ranging from 2,300 to 6,100 micrograms/L. (Author 's abstract)

Glass, R.L.

1986-01-01

113

Holocene Paleoclimate Reconstruction in Eastern Canada: Evidence from ?18O of plant cellulose from the Mer Bleue Bog, Ottawa, Ontario  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a 9000-year high resolution oxygen isotope composition of cellulose (?18Ocel) record from an ombrotrophic bog in Eastern Canada to demonstrate the potential of cellulose isotopic composition of plants from peat deposits as a proxy for paleoclimate reconstruction. We measured the ?18Ocel extracted from selected sphagnum constituent (plant macrofossils) collected from the Mer Bleue Bog. The results show that ?18Ocel follows the general trend of Holocene paleotemperature variation for this region through the last 9000 years and the Northern Hemisphere paleotemperature record for the last 2000 years. The ?18Ocel variations delineate three distinct intervals with low values corresponding to; 200 to 800 cal. yr. B.P. (Little Ice Age), 2800 to 3400 cal. yr. B.P. (similar to a cooling period reported in Western Canada and Ireland) and 4200 to 4600 cal. yr. B.P. These periods correspond well with the reconstructed Holocene sunspot numbers record based on the reconstructed 14C and 10Be based solar irradiance record. Low ?18Ocel values also occur during the well-known minima centered at about 1810 to 1820 year A.D. interval (Dalton Minimum/Tambora volcanic event). These finding suggest that solar activity may be a major forcing factor for paleotemperature variation in Eastern Canada. Time series analysis of the dataset indicates the presence of millennial scale cycles (1300 yr) comparable to the Dansgaard-Oeschger/Bond (~1500 yr) events recognized previously in paleoclimate records from around the world that have also been correlated to fluctuations in solar irradiance.

El Bilali, H.; Patterson, R.

2009-12-01

114

Increased tree establishment in Lithuanian peat bogs - insights from field and remotely sensed approaches.  

PubMed

Over the past century an ongoing establishment of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), sometimes at accelerating rates, is noted at three studied Lithuanian peat bogs, namely Ker?plis, R?kyva and Aukštumala, all representing different degrees of tree coverage and geographic settings. Present establishment rates seem to depend on tree density on the bog surface and are most significant at sparsely covered sites where about three-fourth of the trees have established since the mid-1990s, whereas the initial establishment in general was during the early to mid-19th century. Three methods were used to detect, compare and describe tree establishment: (1) tree counts in small plots, (2) dendrochronological dating of bog pine trees, and (3) interpretation of aerial photographs and historical maps of the study areas. In combination, the different approaches provide complimentary information but also weigh up each other's drawbacks. Tree counts in plots provided a reasonable overview of age class distributions and enabled capturing of the most recently established trees with ages less than 50 years. The dendrochronological analysis yielded accurate tree ages and a good temporal resolution of long-term changes. Tree establishment and spread interpreted from aerial photographs and historical maps provided a good overview of tree spread and total affected area. It also helped to verify the results obtained with the other methods and an upscaling of findings to the entire peat bogs. The ongoing spread of trees in predominantly undisturbed peat bogs is related to warmer and/or drier climatic conditions, and to a minor degree to land-use changes. Our results therefore provide valuable insights into vegetation changes in peat bogs, also with respect to bog response to ongoing and future climatic changes. PMID:25310886

Edvardsson, Johannes; Šimanauskien?, Rasa; Taminskas, Julius; Baužien?, Ieva; Stoffel, Markus

2015-02-01

115

Enhanced N Deposition and Peatland Carbon Stocks in Boreal Alberta  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Increased deposition of reactive nitrogen due to anthropogenic activities may stimulate plant growth and soil C turnover in N-limited ecosystems. Many peatland ecosystems are particularly sensitive to nitrogen deposition due their ombrotrophic nature. Here, we capitalize on a regional gradient of N deposition associated with several decades of oil sands mining. At six peatlands varying in atmospheric N loading (modeled from 1.45-3.26 kg N ha-1 yr-1), we measured Sphagnum fuscum net primary productivity (NPP). NPP rates were higher at Steepbank Bog (mean of 600 g m-2 yr-1) than at the five sites with lower N deposition (pooled mean of 182 g m-2 yr-1). At the site with the highest (Steepbank Bog) and lowest (Bleak Lake Bog) N loading, we quantified rates of C storage by 210Pb dating. Over the past 30 years of mining activity, rates of vertical peat accumulation were higher at Steepbank Bog (19.4 +/-0.4 cm) than at Bleak Lake Bog (13.9 +/-2.0 cm). However, there were no differences between sites in cumulative C storage over this 30-yr period (Steepbank: 5.0 +/-0.2 kg C m-2, Bleak Lake: 5.0 +/-0.4 kg C m-2). Together, these data suggest that increased N availability stimulates plant growth rates, leading to greater vertical accumulation of peat. However, enhanced N deposition does not appear to influence C storage in these sites, possibly due to lower peat bulk density and/or greater microbial activity.

Turetsky, M. R.; Halsey, L. A.; Vitt, D. H.; Wieder, R. K.

2003-12-01

116

A new peat bog testate amoeba transfer function and quantitative palaeohydrological reconstructions from southern Patagonia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Testate amoebae have been used extensively as proxies for environmental change and palaeoclimate reconstructions in European and North American peatlands. The presence of these micro-organisms in surface samples is generally significantly linked to the local water table depth (WTD) and preservation of the amoeba shells downcore allows for millennial length water table reconstructions. Peat bog archive records in southern Patagonia are increasingly the focus of palaeoecological research due to the possibility of detecting changes in the Southern Westerlies. These Sphagnum magellanicum-dominated peat bogs are characterised by a wide range of water table depths, from wet hollows to high hummocks (>100 cm above the water table). Here we present the first transfer function for this region along with ~2k-year palaeorecords from local peat bogs. A modern dataset (155 samples) was sampled along transects from five bogs in 2012 and 2013. Measurements of WTD, pH and conductivity were taken for all samples. The transfer function model was based on the 2012 dataset, while the 2013 samples served as an independent test set to validate the model. Besides the standard leave-one-out cross-validation, we applied leave-one-site-out and leave-one transect-out cross-validation, which are effective means of verifying the degree of clustering in the dataset. To ensure that the environmental gradient had been evenly sampled we quantified the root-mean-squared error of prediction (RMSEP) individually for segments of this gradient. Ordinations showed a clear hydrological gradient in amoeba assemblages, with the dominant Assulina muscorum at the dry end and Amphitrema wrightianum and Difflugia globulosa at the wet end. Canonical correspondence analysis showed that WTD was the most important environmental variable, accounting for 18% of the variance in amoeba assemblages. A weighted averaging-partial least squares model showed best performance in cross-validation, using the 2013 data as an independent test set. Any spatial autocorrelation was minimal although the model still appeared less effective in predicting WTD for sites not included in the training set. The segment-wise RMSEP showed that the WTD gradient was generally evenly sampled with RMSEP below 15 cm for most of the gradient, much lower than the standard deviation of the mean of all WTDs. Preliminary results from peat cores sampled from the same peat bogs show surprisingly stable water tables over the last ~2k years in Andorra bog but more variation in nearby Tierra Australis bog. Peat accumulation rates in Andorra bog are among the highest recorded in temperate bogs with around 4 m of peat accumulated during the last 2k years.

van Bellen, S.; Mauquoy, D.; Payne, R.; Roland, T. P.; Hughes, P. D.; Daley, T. J.; Street-Perrot, F. A.; Loader, N.

2013-12-01

117

Can restoration convert a degraded bog in southern Bavaria to a carbon sink and climate cooler?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The peatland area of Germany is about 14.000 km² (Succow & Joosten 2001) with 8% natural like bogs and 4% natural like fens (Höper 2006). All other peatland areas are more or less intensively used and thus, lost their sink function for carbon. If, theoretically, all German peatlands would be rewetted, this restoration would lead to a carbon mitigation of 9.5 Mio. t CO2-C equivalents (Freibauer et al. 2009). In test areas like the studied bog, the viability and potential of peatland restoration for climate mitigation can be proofed. The investigated bog is situated close to the Bavarian Alps; one part of this bog is extensively used and had been rewetted in 1993 except of a small stripe; management was stopped totally at another stripe. The second part of this bog had been drained without any further use. Here a Calluna heath established, accompanied by Pine trees. The restoration of this bog heath was done in two time steps; here a chronosequence of succession after restoration at different water table levels was investigated. To get to the greenhouse gas (GHG) balances of CO2 CH4 and N2O, gas flux measurements were done for two years using the chamber technique of Drösler (2005). At both areas, the degraded sites were sources for GHG (+203 to +736 g CO2-C-equiv m-2 a-1). Restoration reduced these emissions depending on water table and succession of bog species (-51 to +557 g CO2-C-equiv m-2 a-1). Depending on the vegetation's vitality GHG balances of already established natural like sites varied in between the years (-189 to +264 g CO2-C-equiv m-2 a-1) mainly driven by the oscillation of their water table. Stop of management and development of Sphagnum communities turned most of the sites into sinks for GHG (-216 to +7 g CO2-C-equiv m-2 a-1). Thus restoration turned degraded bogs efficiently to carbon sinks and climate coolers in dependence of a proper water table management, withdrawal of land use and vegetation succession. Key words: bog, greenhouse gases, restoration, water table

Förster, Christoph; Drösler, Matthias

2014-05-01

118

Relationship between peat geochemistry and depositional environments, Cranberry Island, Maine  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Heath, Great Cranberry Island, Maine, offers a unique locality for studying lateral and vertical relationships between radically different peat types within 1 km2. The majority of The Heath is a Sphagnum moss-dominated raised bog. Surrounding the raised bog is a swamp/marsh complex containing grass, sedge, Sphagnum moss, alder, tamarack, and skunk cabbage. Swamp/ marsh-deposited peat occurs both around the margins of The Heath and under Sphagnum-dominated peat, which was deposited within the raised bog. A third peat type, dominated by herbaceous aquatics, is present underlying the swamp/marsh-dominated peat but is not present as a dominant botanical community of The Heath. The three peat types have major differences in petrographic characteristics, ash contents, and associated minerals. Sulfur contents range from a low of 0.19 wt.% (dry) within the raised bog to a high of 4.44 wt% (dry) near the west end of The Heath, where swamp/marsh peat occurring directly behind a storm beach berm has been influenced by marine waters. The presence of major geochemical variations within a 1-km2 peat deposit suggests the need for in-depth characterization of potential peat resources prior to use. ?? 1987.

Raymond, R., Jr.; Cameron, C.C.; Cohen, A.D.

1987-01-01

119

Carbon accumulation in bogs and fens after permafrost degradation in central Alaska  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the discontinuous zone in Alaska about 60% of the land area has permafrost and 5% has thermokarst terrain, which is comprised mostly of thermokarst lakes, bogs and fens. The collapse of lowland forests on seasonally saturated soils on ice-rich terrain into permanently saturated ombrotrophic bogs, dominated by Sphagnum and ericaceous shrubs, and into minerotrophic fens, dominated by herbaceous vegetation, can radically alter the carbon balance of boreal ecosystems. To assess the consequences of permafrost degradation on carbon storage in boreal ecosystems, we investigated accumulation rates of soil organic carbon at various stages of vegetation succession in five bogs and six fens on the Tanana Flats in central Alaska. Bogs ranged from 109 to 637 yrs in age based on calibrated radiocarbon dates. The mean carbon stock of bog peat at the oldest successional stage was 42 kg/m2. Fens ranged in age from 50 to 102 conventional radiocarbon years that could not be calibrated to calendar years. The mean carbon stock of fen peat was 20 kg/m2 at the oldest successional stage. Carbon accumulation rates slowed at later successional stages.

Jorgenson, M. T.; Cater, T.; Roth, J.; Pullman, E.; Racine, C.; Harden, J.

2007-12-01

120

Methane emission from bogs in the subtaiga of Western Siberia: The development of standard model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The methane emission from typical bog landscapes of the West Siberian subtaiga was studied in the summer-autumn of 2007-2010. The lowest specific fluxes (the median value is 0.08 mg C-CH4/m2 per h) were recorded from ryams (raised bogs with dwarf shrub-sphagnum associations). From the ridges of the ridge-pool complexes, the fluxes were estimated at 0.49 mg C-CH4/m2 per h; from the oligotrophic hollows, eutrophic bogs, floating lake mats, and mesotrophic quaking bogs, they were estimated at 2.68, 3.36, 4.53, and 4.98 mg C-CH4/m2 per h, respectively. The maximal flux was determined from the lakes (the median is 17.98 mg C-CH4/m2 per h). The regional assessment of the methane flux from the bogs of Western Siberia (2.93 Tg C-CH4/yr) was obtained on the basis of the authors' and literature data.

Glagolev, M. V.; Sabrekov, A. F.; Kleptsova, I. E.; Filippov, I. V.; Lapshina, E. D.; Machida, T.; Maksyutov, Sh. Sh.

2012-10-01

121

Lead isotope ratios in bone ash of blesbok (Damaliscus pygargus phillipsi): a means of screening for the accumulation of contaminants from uraniferous rocks.  

PubMed

This study was done to determine whether blesbok (Damaliscus pygargus phillipsi) from the Krugersdorp Game Reserve (KGR) in Gauteng Province, South Africa have higher concentrations of (238)U and higher (206)Pb/(204)Pb and (207)Pb/(204)Pb ratios in their bone ash than blesbok from a nearby control reserve that is not exposed to mine water and has no outcrops of uraniferous rocks. Eight blesbok females from the KGR and seven from the control site, all killed with a brain shot, were used. A Thermo X-series 2 quadrupole ICPMS was used to measure the concentrations of (238)U and lead and a Nu Instruments NuPlasma HR MC-ICP-MS to measure the lead isotope ratios in the tibial ash from each animal. KGR blesbok had higher mean concentrations of (238)U (P = 0.02) and ratios of (206)Pb/(204)Pb and (207)Pb/(204)Pb (P < 0.00001) than the control blesbok. The probability of rejecting the false null hypothesis of no difference in the (206)Pb/(204)Pb or (207)Pb/(204)Pb ratios between KGR and control reserve animals (the power of the test) was 0.999. The blesbok from the KGR accumulated contaminants from an uraniferous environment. The (206)Pb/(204)Pb and (207)Pb/(204)Pb ratios in tibial ash proved effective in confirming accumulation of contaminants from uraniferous rocks. PMID:24967558

Nöthling, Johan O; Du Toit, Johannes S; Myburgh, Jan G

2014-09-19

122

The Sphagnum microbiome supports bog ecosystem functioning under extreme conditions.  

PubMed

Sphagnum-dominated bogs represent a unique yet widely distributed type of terrestrial ecosystem and strongly contribute to global biosphere functioning. Sphagnum is colonized by highly diverse microbial communities, but less is known about their function. We identified a high functional diversity within the Sphagnum microbiome applying an Illumina-based metagenomic approach followed by de novo assembly and MG-RAST annotation. An interenvironmental comparison revealed that the Sphagnum microbiome harbours specific genetic features that distinguish it significantly from microbiomes of higher plants and peat soils. The differential traits especially support ecosystem functioning by a symbiotic lifestyle under poikilohydric and ombrotrophic conditions. To realise a plasticity-stability balance, we found abundant subsystems responsible to cope with oxidative and drought stresses, to exchange (mobile) genetic elements, and genes that encode for resistance to detrimental environmental factors, repair and self-controlling mechanisms. Multiple microbe-microbe and plant-microbe interactions were also found to play a crucial role as indicated by diverse genes necessary for biofilm formation, interaction via quorum sensing and nutrient exchange. A high proportion of genes involved in nitrogen cycle and recycling of organic material supported the role of bacteria for nutrient supply. 16S rDNA analysis indicated a higher structural diversity than that which had been previously detected using PCR-dependent techniques. Altogether, the diverse Sphagnum microbiome has the ability to support the life of the host plant and the entire ecosystem under changing environmental conditions. Beyond this, the moss microbiome presents a promising bio-resource for environmental biotechnology - with respect to novel enzymes or stress-protecting bacteria. PMID:25113243

Bragina, Anastasia; Oberauner-Wappis, Lisa; Zachow, Christin; Halwachs, Bettina; Thallinger, Gerhard G; Müller, Henry; Berg, Gabriele

2014-09-01

123

Geology and recognition criteria for uranium deposits of the quartz-pebble conglomerate type. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report is concerned with Precambrian uraniferous conglomerates. This class of deposit has been estimated to contain between approximately 16 and 35 percent of the global uranium reserve in two rather small areas, one in Canada, the other in South Africa. Similar conglomerates, which are often gold-bearing, are, however, rather widespread, being found in parts of most Precambrian shield areas. Data have been synthesized on the geologic habitat and character of this deposit type. The primary objective has been to provide the most relevant geologic observations in a structural fashion to allow resource studies and exploration to focus on the most prospective targets in the shortest possible time.

Button, A.; Adams, S.S.

1981-03-01

124

Importance of variation in water-types for water beetle fauna (Coleoptera) in Korenburgerveen, a bog remnant in the Netherlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects of restoration of raised bogs on fauna are largely unknown. Here first results are presented concerning adult water beetles in Korenburgerveen, a Dutch bog remnant. A high water beetle diversity was found including rare and characteristic species. Variation in species composition and abundance could be linked to variation in water-types suggesting that for water beetles presence of variation in

Wilco C. E. P. Verberk; Gert-Jan A. van Duinen; Theo M. J. Peeters; Hans Esselink

2001-01-01

125

A new anoplocephalid cestode from the southern bog lemming Synaptomys cooperi.  

PubMed

A new cestode species, Anoplocephaloides bulmeri n. sp. (Cestoda: Anoplocephalidae), is described from the southern bog lemming Synaptomys cooperi (Baird) from Virginia. The general morphology of A. bulmeri strongly suggests that it belongs to the monophyletic Anoplocephaloides Baer 1923 s. str. It differs unequivocally from the other species of Anoplocephaloides s. str. by the distribution of testes in the poral part of the proglottid and also by the number of testes and the maximum length of the cirrus sac and seminal receptacle. Anoplocephaloides bulmeri most closely resembles Anoplocephaloides kontrimavichusi Rausch, 1976, a host-specific parasite of the northern bog lemming, Synaptomys borealis (Richardson). PMID:19642803

Haukisalmi, Voitto; Eckerlin, Ralph P

2009-06-01

126

Atmospheric lead and heavy metal pollution records from a Belgian peat bog spanning the last two millenia: human impact on a regional to global scale.  

PubMed

Europe has been continuously polluted throughout the last two millennia. During the Roman Empire, these pollutions were mainly from ore extraction and smelting across Europe. Then, during the Middle Ages and the Early times of Industrial revolution (i.e. 1750), these pollutions extended to coal burning and combustion engine. Belgian ombrotrophic peat bogs have proved an effective archive of these pollutants and provide the opportunity to reconstruct the history of atmospheric deposition in NW Europe. The results of recent and past trace metal accumulation and Pb isotopes from a one-meter peat core (in the Misten peat bog) have been derived using XRF and Nu-plasma MC-ICP-MS. Combined with (14)C and (210)Pb dates these data have enabled us to trace fluxes in anthropogenic pollution back to original Roman times. Several periods of well-known Pb pollution events are clearly recorded including the Early and Late Roman Empire, the Middle Ages and the second industrial revolution. Also recorded is the introduction of leaded gasoline, and more recently the introduction of unleaded gasoline. Lead isotopes in this site have also enabled us to fingerprint several regional and global sources of anthropogenic particles. PMID:17379271

De Vleeschouwer, François; Gérard, Laëtitia; Goormaghtigh, Catherine; Mattielli, Nadine; Le Roux, Gaël; Fagel, Nathalie

2007-05-15

127

Environmental assessment of remedial action at the inactive uraniferous lignite ashing sites at Belfield and Bowman, North Dakota  

SciTech Connect

The Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) of 1978 authorized the US Department of Energy (DOE) to perform remedial actions at Belfield and Bowman inactive lignite ashing sites in southwestern North Dakota to reduce the potential public health impacts from the residual radioactivity remaining at the sites. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) promulgated standards (40 CFR 192) that contain measures to control the residual radioactive materials and other contaminated materials, and proposed standards to protect the groundwater from further degradation. Remedial action at the Belfield and Bowman sites must be performed in accordance with these standards and with the concurrence of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the state of North Dakota. The Belfield and Bowman designated sites were used by Union Carbide and Kerr-McGee, respectively, to process uraniferous lignite in the 1960s. Uranium-rich ash from rotary kiln processing of the lignite was loaded into rail cars and transported to uranium mills in Rifle, Colorado, and Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico, respectively. As a result of the ashing process, there is a total of 158,400 cubic yards (yd{sup 3}) [121,100 cubic meters (m{sup 3})] of radioactive ash-contaminated soils at the two sites. Windblown ash-contaminated soil covers an additional 21 acres (8.5 ha) around the site, which includes grazing land, wetlands, and a wooded habitat.

Not Available

1993-09-01

128

Environmental assessment of no remedial action at the inactive uraniferous lignite ashing sites at Belfield and Bowman, North Dakota  

SciTech Connect

The Belfield and Bowman sites were not included on the original congressional list of processing sites to be designated by the Secretary of Energy. Instead, the sites were nominated for designation by the Dakota Resource Council in a letter to the DOE (September 7, 1979). In a letter to the DOE (September 12, 1979), the state of North Dakota said that it did not believe the sites would qualify as processing sites under the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) because the activities at the sites involved only the ashing of uraniferous lignite coal and the ash was shipped out of state for actual processing. Nevertheless, on October 11, 1979, the state of North Dakota agreed to the designation of the sites because they met the spirit of the law (reduce public exposure to radiation resulting from past uranium operations). Therefore, these sites were designated by the Secretary of Energy for remedial action. Because of the relatively low health impacts determined for these sites, they were ranked as low priority and scheduled to be included in the final group of sites to be remediated.

NONE

1997-06-01

129

Lake or bog? Reconstructing baseline ecological conditions for the protected Galápagos Sphagnum peatbogs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper documents the first 10,000 year old plant macrofossil record of vegetation changes on the central island of Santa Cruz, providing information on Sphagnum bog vegetation patterns, local extinction of key taxa, and temporal successions in the Galápagos humid highlands. Vegetation change is reconstructed through examination of Holocene sedimentary sequences obtained from three Sphagnum bogs located within volcanic caldera forming the high elevation central ridge system of Santa Cruz Island. Results indicate that these specialized Sphagnum bog ecosystems are dynamic and have undergone considerable changes in vegetation composition, transitioning from diverse hygrophilous herbs and submerged aquatic ecosystems to drier Sphagnum/Pteridium bog systems, during the last 10,000 cal yr BP. Additionally a new aquatic genus previously undocumented on the islands, Elatine, was discovered at two of the study sites, but it is now extinct on the archipelago. Some of the observed vegetation successions may have been driven by climatic shifts occurring within the eastern equatorial Pacific (EEP). Other drivers including anthropogenic change are also considered significant over the last hundred years, placing strain on this naturally dynamic system. This study helps reveal patterns of change in the humid highlands over the last 10,000 cal yr BP regarding vegetation variability, climatic shifts, the historical influence of fire, tortoise disturbance, and recent anthropogenic impacts on the island.

Coffey, Emily E. D.; Froyd, Cynthia A.; Willis, Katherine J.

2012-10-01

130

Soil–Methanogen Interactions in Two Peatlands (Bog, Fen) in Central New York State  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rates of methanogenesis vary widely in peat soils, yet the reasons are poorly known. We examined rates of methanogenesis and methanogen diversity in relation to soil chemical and biological characteristics in 2 peatlands in New York State. One was an acidic (pH < 4.5) bog dominated by Sphagnummosses and ericaceous shrubs, although deeper peat was derived from sedges. The other

Mark D. Dettling; Joseph B. Yavitt; Hinsby Cadillo-Quiroz; Christine Sun; Stephen H. Zinder

2007-01-01

131

Water budget and surface-layer water storage in a Sphagnum bog in central Sweden  

Microsoft Academic Search

A water budget was established for the open, undisturbed bog Stormossen, central Sweden, for the growing seasons of 1996 and 1997 as a part of the NOPEX project. The water budget was complemented with data on the spatial variation of groundwater levels and water contents in different microrelief elements (ridge, hollow and ridge margin). The seasonal (24 May to 4

Erik Kellner; Sven Halldin

2002-01-01

132

Late Holocene vegetation and climate change at Moraine Bog, Tiedemann Glacier, southern Coast Mountains, British Columbia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Moraine Bog lies just outside the outermost lateral moraine of Tiedemann Glacier in the southern Coast Mountains of British Columbia. A sediment core taken from the wetland was analyzed for pollen, magnetic susceptibility, and loss on ignition to reconstruct changes in vegetation and climate during the late Holocene. Vegetation changed little between about 3500 and 2400 14C years BP. A

T. A. Arsenault; John J. Clague; R. W. Mathewes

2007-01-01

133

Peat bog restoration by floating raft formation: the effects of groundwater and peat quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary 1. A prerequisite for the restoration of desiccated bog remnants is rewetting the peat surface. Frequently in Europe, extensive areas are flooded in order to maximize water retention, and growth of peat mosses is often observed in the shallow zones. In deeper waters, regeneration appears to depend on whether residual peat will become buoyant and form floating rafts. 2.

Alfons J. P. Smolders; Hilde B. M. Tomassen; Leon P. M. Lamers; Bart P. Lomans; Jan G. M. Roelofs

2002-01-01

134

Peat bog Records of Atmospheric Dust fluxes - Holocene palaeoenvironmental and paleoclimatic implications for South America  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Little attention has been given to pre-anthropogenic signals recorded in peat bogs, especially in the Southern Hemisphere. Yet they are important to 1/ better understand the different particle sources during the Holocene and 2/ to tackle the linkage between atmospheric dust loads and climate change and 3/ to better understand the impact of dust on Holocene palaeoclimate and palaeoenvironments in a critical area for ocean productivity. In the PARAD project, we will explore the use of a broad range of trace elements and radiogenic isotopes (Pb, Nd, Hf) as dust proxies. Coupling these findings with biological proxies (plant macrofossils, pollen) and detailed age-depth modelling, we expect not only to identify and interpret new links between atmospheric dust chemistry and climate change. In this contribution, we will present the preliminary results on two peat records of natural atmospheric dust using the elemental and isotopic signature in Tierra del Fuego. Preliminary results on two peat sections covering the Holocene (Karukinka Bog, Chile, 8kyrs and Harberton bog, Argentina, 14kyrs) will be discussed. This encompasses density, ash content, elemental and isotopic geochemistry, macrofossil determination and radiocarbon dating. More specifically, Karukinka bog display several mineral peaks, which possible origin (soil particles, volcanism, cosmogenic dusts, marine aerosols…) will be discussed here as well as in Vanneste et al. (this conference, session Aeolian dust: Initiator, Player, and Recorder of Environmental Change).

De Vleeschouwer, François; Vanneste, Heleen; Bertrand, Sébastien; Coronata, Andrea; Gaiero, Diego; Le Roux, Gael

2013-04-01

135

Influence of water table on carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, and methane fluxes from taiga bog microcosms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydrological changes, particularly alterations in water table level, may largely overshadow the more direct effects of global temperature increase upon carbon cycling in arctic and subarctic wetlands. Frozen cores (n=40) of intact soils and vegetation were collected from a bog near Fairbanks, Alaska, and fluxes of COâ, CHâ, and Co in response to water table variation were studied under controlled

Dale W. Funk; E. R. Pullmann; Kim M. Peterson; Patrick M. Crill; W. D. Billings

1994-01-01

136

Influence of water table on carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, and methane fluxes from taiga bog microcosms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydrological changes, particularly alterations in water table level, may largely overshadow the more direct effects of global temperature increase upon carbon cycling in arctic and subarctic wetlands. Frozen cores (n=40) of intact soils and vegetation were collected from a bog near Fairbanks, Alaska, and fluxes of CO2, CH4, and CO in response to water table variation were studied under controlled

Dale W. Funk; Erik R. Pullman; Kim M. Peterson; Patrick M. Crill; W. D. Billings

1994-01-01

137

Influence of water table on carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, and methane fluxes from Taiga Bog microcosms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydrological changes, particularly alterations in water table level, may largely overshadow the more direct effects of global temperature increase upon carbon cycling in arctic and subarctic wetlands. Frozen cores (n=40) of intact soils and vegetation were collected from a bog near Fairbanks, Alaska, and fluxes of CO2, CH4, and CO in response to water table variation were studied under controlled

Dale W. Funk; Erik R. Pullman; Kim M. Peterson; Patrick M. Crill; W. D. Billings

1994-01-01

138

Post-Chippewa oxygen isotope record from Cowles Bog, southern Lake Michigan basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies of sediments and molluscs recovered from vibracores at Cowles Bog, a fen located in the Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore, along the south shore of Lake Michigan, reveal long and short term water level fluctuations during the last 6000 years. Low water events are indicated by zones of organic detritus, in which occasionally, iron oxide and calcium carbonate nodules,

Barry B. Miller; Michael J. S. Tevesz; Jodie E. Smith

1997-01-01

139

Ecology of southeastern shrub bogs (pocosins) and Carolina bays: a community profile  

SciTech Connect

Shrub bogs of the Southeast occur in areas of poorly developed internal drainage that typically but not always have highly developed organic or peat soils. Pocosins and Carolina bays are types or subclasses of shrub bogs on the coastal plains of the Carolinas and Georgia. They share roughly the same distribution patterns, soil types, floral and faunal species composition and other community attributes, but differ in geological formation. Carolina bays may contain pocosin as well as other communities, but are defined more by their unique elliptical shape and geomorphometry. The pocosin community is largely defined by its vegetation, a combination of a dense shrub understory and a sparser canopy. The community is part of a complex successional sequence of communities (sedge bogs, savannas, cedar bogs, and bay forests) that may be controlled by such factors as fire, hydroperiod, soil type, and peat depth. Pocosins and Carolina bays harbor a number of animal groups and may be locally important in their ecology. Although few species are endemic to these habitats, they may provide important refuges for a number of species. These communities are simultaneously among the least understood and most rapidly disappearing habitats of the Southeast. Forestry and agricultural clearage are current impacts.

Sharitz, R.R.; Gibbons, J.W.

1982-11-01

140

Manipulation of soil microbial community structure in bog and forest soils using chloroform fumigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chloroform fumigation was used to manipulate the composition of microbial communities as a means of investigating relationships between community structure and the functioning of soil processes. Soils from two upland sites, a coniferous forest and a peat bog were fumigated with chloroform for 2, 12, 24 or 72 h. Samples were then incubated at 20°C for 4 weeks to investigate

H. E. Dickens; J. M. Anderson

1999-01-01

141

The role of common upland vegetation on gaseous carbon cycling on UK blanket peat bogs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The most important control upon the carbon dynamics of any peatland is vegetation. However there is a gap in the literature with respect to comparative, in-situ studies of common upland vegetation types on peat bogs from a carbon cycling perspective. Where studies exist they tend to be narrowly focused (i.e. on one or two species or a small geographical area)

Simon Dixon; James Rowson; Fred Worrall

2010-01-01

142

Association of postfire peat accumulation and microtopography in boreal bogs1  

E-print Network

Association of postfire peat accumulation and microtopography in boreal bogs1 Brian W. Benscoter, Dale H. Vitt, and R. Kelman Wieder Abstract: Peatlands accumulate organic matter as peat because of disproportionate rates of production and decomposi- tion. However, peat accumulation heterogeneity has not been

Benscoter, Brian W.

143

A probe for sampling interstitial waters of stream sediments and bog soils  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A probe for sampling interstitial waters of stream sediments and bog soils is described. Samples can be obtained within a stratigraphic interval of 2-3 cm, to a depth of 60-80 cm, and with little or no contamination of the samples by sediment or air. ?? 1974.

Nowlan, G.A.; Carollo, C.

1974-01-01

144

Study of speciation and size fractionation of trace element between soil solution, bog, river and lake within a boreal watershed (North Karelia, NW Russia) using fractional filtration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work is aimed at studying the evolution of migration forms of true dissolved compounds and colloidal entities using an integrated approach of molecular mass distribution and differences in the association of trace elements (TE) with organic matter (OM) or Fe colloids in the system soil water-bog-river-lake. Characterization of TE speciation with colloids during TE migration from the site of colloids origin (bog and soil solutions) towards the transit zone (river) and finally to the deposition, accumulation or transformation zone (lake) is a main fundamental task of this problem. The objects of study include a small stream watershed Vostochniy and the river Palayoki (North Karelia, Russia). The water samplings were performed in July and August 2008 and 2009 and included soil solution, nourishing bog, the middle part of the brook originated from the swamp, the mouth of the brook and the lake Zipringa. We sampled large volumes (50 - 100 liters), and we applied, directly in the in-field-installed "clean laboratory" the sequential frontal filtration and ultrafiltration of samples through the filters of progressively decreasing poresize 100, 20, 10, 5, 0.8, 0.4, 0.2 and 0.1 microns; 100 kDa (0.0065 micron), 10 kDa (0.003 micron) and 1 kDa (0.0014 micron). This allowed separation of organic matter, coarse and fine particulate matter and colloids. All filtrates and selected retentates were analyzed for a wide range of macro-and micronutrients using ICP-MS. In filtrates of the river water, a significant decrease of iron concentration occurred in the range of 5 micron to 0.22 micron and from 100 kDa to 1 kDa. For alkali and alkaline earth elements (Mg, K, Ca), as well as for Cu, Ni, Cr the concentrations changed after passing through the 10 kDa membrane. Na concentration remains constant in all filtrates. The filtrates of the soil solution are characterized by a significant decreases in Na, K, after 0.1 micron, Ca, Cu in the range of 0.22 micron - 100 kDa and Mg, Ni in the range of 0.1 micron - 100 kDa. The changing of REEs concentrations occurred in the fraction smaller than 100 kDa for river water and in the fraction larger than 100 kDa in the soil solution. Concerning the evolution of element concentration in the system "soil solution - nourishing bog - river - lake", the concentration of Ca and Mg increases (with a little decrease in the stage "the nourishing bog - the middle current - the mouth"), and the concentration of Cu, Ni, Cr, Ti, Al decreases (with a slight increase in the interval "the nourishing swamp - the middle current - the mouth). The lanthanides have a maximum of their concentration in the river mouth and the minimum in the lake. Concentration of Fe, Zn in the soil solution is an order of magnitude higher than in the river and lake water. The ratio Fe / Me (where Me = Al, Cu, Zn, Ni, Co, Cr, Mn) naturally decreases in the course of filtration, whereas the ratio of Fe to Ti increases in a series of consecutive filtrates of soil solution. These observations can be interpreted as a result of interplay between the processes of TE leaching from soil and peat, complexation with colloids in the lake water and microbiological transformation of colloids in the course of the river flow and in the lake water. Results of the present study allow straightforward evaluation of the transformation of TE colloidal status between the site of their origin, migration and consumption (deposition) The work is executed at a Russian Federal Property Fund and CNRS support (?? 08-05-00312_a, 07-05-92212-CNRS_a).

Ilina, Svetlana M.; Lapitsky, Sergey A.; Alekhin, Yuriy V.; Pokrovsky, Oleg S.; Viers, Jerome

2010-05-01

145

Re-thinking the record: Short-term downwash of Be-7 and Pb-210 in a Swedish peat bog  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The past decade has seen a rapid increase in interest in the biogeochemical record preserved in peat, particularly as it relates to carbon dynamics and environmental changes. However, we still lack a complete understanding of the basic biogeochemical processes and their effect on trace element distributions. Are peat archives an absolute or relative record? What temporal resolution is realistic to interpret by using peat cores? By analyzing atmospherically deposited 210Pb, 137Cs, 241Am and 7Be as well as the trace metals Pb and Hg, in triplicate peat cores from an ombrotrophic Swedish bog we addressed two fundamental issues; the question of representativity of single cores and the incorporation of atmospheric signals in the peat. Both of these issues are of great importance and need to be considered when using peat cores as natural archives. By specifically including the short-lived tracer 7Be (T½ 53.4 days) we tested the hypothesis that downwashing of atmospherically-supplied elements may occur in well aerated peat. Our 210Pb activities all showed a non-monotonic decrease with depth suggesting some downward transport of 210Pb by percolating rainwater. Further to this, the activities of 7Be were detected to 20, 18 and 8 cm depth and there was a lack of any clear peaks in 241Am activities, which together indicate a smearing of the radionuclides to or at the water table. We conclude that this is compelling evidence for a rapid downwash of atmospherically supplied elements in peat, which extends down to the height of water table. By comparing our records to biomonitoring- and direct deposition data we were able to quantify the implications of this downwash on estimates of peat mass accumulation rates and metal (Pb and Hg) deposition. It is clear that under specific conditions the usage of a conventional CRS-dating model can lead to severe overestimations of peat mass accumulation as well as inaccurate estimations of past deposition. However, by applying a new correction model which includes a downward transport term, thereby adjusting the conventional CRS model, we suggest that this downward mobility can be successfully incorporated into age-depth models, allowing more accurate estimations of past deposition and peat accumulation.

Hansson, Sophia; Kaste, James; Olid, Carolina; Bindler, Richard

2013-04-01

146

Tracing decadal environmental change in ombrotrophic bogs using diatoms from herbarium collections and transfer functions.  

PubMed

Central European mountain bogs, among the most valuable and threatened of habitats, were exposed to intensive human impact during the 20th century. We reconstructed the subrecent water chemistry and water-table depths using diatom based transfer functions calibrated from modern sampling. Herbarium Sphagnum specimens collected during the period 1918-1998 were used as a source of historic diatom samples. We classified samples into hummocks and hollows according to the identity of dominant Sphagnum species, to reduce bias caused by uneven sampling of particular microhabitats. Our results provide clear evidence for bog pollution by grazing during the period 1918-1947 and by undocumented aerial liming in the early 90-ies. We advocate use of herbarized epibryon as a source of information on subrecent conditions in recently polluted mires. PMID:23688732

Poulí?ková, Aloisie; Hájková, Petra; Kintrová, Kate?ina; Bat'ková, Romana; Czudková, Markéta; Hájek, Michal

2013-08-01

147

RunoÄ generation in a hypermaritime bog-forest upland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shallow hillslope groundwater is shown to be a dominant source of streamflow in sloping bog-forest uplands of the North Coast Forest District, British Columbia, based on a three-component isotope hydrograph-separation analysis conducted in July 1998. At peak discharge during a mid-summer rainfall event, new water contributions accounted for only 12% of streamflow, whereas shallow groundwater accounted for 85% of streamflow

J. J. Gibson; J. S. Price; R. Aravena; D. F. Fitzgerald; D. Maloney

148

Dynamics of leaf minerals, bdleaf area, and biomass from hardwoods intensively grown on a peat bog  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water willow and grey alder were grown on a raised sphagnum bog in central Sweden. The stands were intensively treated by daily irrigation and fertilization during the growing period in order to improve site fertility. After a 2-year establishment period high production rates were achieved in willow stands, 0.8 kg stem dry weight m-2 year-1 on current plus one (C+1)

Sune Elowson; Lars Rytter

1988-01-01

149

Spatial Patterns and Temporal Trajectories of the Bog Ground Layer Along a Post-Fire Chronosequence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Peatland ground layer species composition is intricately tied to ecosystem function (for example, carbon storage). As the\\u000a primary disturbance in boreal bogs, wildfire selectively removes the ground layer vegetation, creating heterogeneous habitat\\u000a conditions and initiating succession. However, the successional trajectory of the ground layer community following fire is\\u000a poorly understood. Here we assess spatial and temporal changes in community composition

Brian W. Benscoter; Dale H. Vitt

2008-01-01

150

Effects of climate change and human activities on a Swedish raised bog  

Microsoft Academic Search

We determined the effects of climate change and human activities on the species composition of ombrotrophic (rain-fed) peat bogs by analyzing pollen and macrofossils. We used 14C AMS wiggle-match dating (1) to obtain a precise chronology. Thermophilous plant species in the microfossil record provide information on climate change (2). Lime (Tilia), Elm (Ulmus), Beech (Fagus), Hornbeam (Carpinus) and Hazel (Corylus)

Linden van der M

2005-01-01

151

Unexpectedly low genetic divergences among populations of the threatened bog turtle ( Glyptemys muhlenbergii )  

Microsoft Academic Search

We used mitochondrial DNA sequence comparisons to assess range-wide population structure and historical patterns of differentiation\\u000a among populations of the bog turtle (Glyptemys muhlenbergii). This species is one of North America’s smallest and most endangered pond turtles, and is currently found in three largely\\u000a disjunct groups of populations: in the southern U.S., in the northeast, and in the Finger Lakes

Peter A. Rosenbaum; Jeanne M. Robertson; Kelly R. Zamudio

2007-01-01

152

Ectomycorrhizal fungal community structure across a bog-forest ecotone in southeastern Alaska.  

PubMed

We examined the ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungal community across a bog-forest ecotone in southeastern Alaska. The bog and edge were both characterized by poorly drained Histosols and a continuous layer of Sphagnum species, ericaceous shrubs, Carex species, and shore pine [Pinus contorta Dougl. ex Loud. var. contorta]. The forest had better-drained Inceptisols and Spodosols, a tree community comprised of western hemlock [Tsuga heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg.], yellow cedar (Thuja plicata Donn ex D. Don.), Sitka spruce [Picea sitchensis (Bong.) Carr.] and shore pine, and an understorey of ericaceous shrubs and herbs. ECM root tip density (tips cm(-3) soil) was significantly greater in the forest than the edge or bog and ECM colonization was significantly different in all three plant communities. The below ground ECM fungal taxa were analyzed using molecular techniques (PCR-RFLP and DNA sequencing). Three ECM fungal taxa, Suillus tomentosus (Kauffman) Singer, Cenococcum geophilum Fr.:Fr, and a Russula species, differed in relative frequency, yet were among the four most frequent in all three plant communities. Although differences in ECM fungal richness were observed across plant communities, unequal sampling of ECM roots due to root density and colonization differences confounded richness comparisons. Using resampling procedures for creating taxon-accumulation curves as a function of sampled ECM roots revealed similarities in cumulative ECM fungal taxa richness across the ecotone. PMID:14999551

Wurzburger, Nina; Hartshorn, Anthony S; Hendrick, Ronald L

2004-12-01

153

[Detection of representatives of the Planctomycetes in Sphagnum peat bogs by molecular and cultivation methods].  

PubMed

By means of fluorescence in situ hybridization with 16S rRNA-targeted oligonucleotide probes (FISH), it has been shown that members of the phylum Planctomycetes represent a numerically significant bacterial group in boreal Sphagnum peat bogs. The population size of planctomycetes in oxic layers of the peat bog profile was in the range of 0.4-2.0 x 10(7) cells per g of wet peat, comprising 4 to 13% of the total bacterial cell number. A novel effective approach that combined a traditional cultivation technique with FISH-mediated monitoring of the target organism during the isolation procedure has been developed for the isolation of planctomycetes. Using this approach, we succeeded in isolating several peat-inhabiting planctomycetes in a pure culture. Sequencing of the 16S rRNA genes from two of these isolates, strains A10 and MPL7, showed that they belonged to the planctomycete lineages defined by the genera Gemmata and Planctomyces, respectively. The 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity between strains A10 and MPL7 and the phylogenetically closest organisms, namely, Gemmata obscuriglobus and Planctomyces limnophilus, was only 90%. These results suggest that the indigenous planctomycetes inhabiting Sphagnum peat bogs are so far unknown organisms. PMID:16871807

Kulichevskaia, I S; Pankratov, T A; Dedysh, S N

2006-01-01

154

A comparison of antimony and lead profiles over the past 2500 years in Flanders Moss ombrotrophic peat bog, Scotland.  

PubMed

Two cores collected in 2001 and 2004 from Flanders Moss ombrotrophic peat bog in central Scotland were dated (14C, 210Pb) and analysed (ICP-OES, ICP-MS) to derive and compare the historical atmospheric deposition records of Sb and Pb over the past 2500 years. After correction, via Sc, for contributions from soil dust, depositional fluxes of Sb and Pb peaked from ca. 1920-1960 A.D., with >95% of the anthropogenic inventories deposited post-1800 A.D. Over the past two centuries, trends in Sb and Pb deposition have been broadly similar, with fluctuations in the anthropogenic Sb/Pb ratio reflecting temporal variations in the relative input from emission sources such as the mining and smelting of Pb ores (in which Sb is commonly present, as at Leadhills/Wanlockhead in southern Scotland), combustion of coal (for which the Sb/Pb ratio is approximately an order of magnitude greater than in Pb ores) and exhaust emissions (Pb from leaded petrol) and abrasion products from the brake linings (Sb from heat-resistant Sb compounds) of automobiles. The influence of leaded petrol has been most noticeable in recent decades, firstly through the resultant minima in Sb/Pb and 206Pb/207Pb ratios (the latter arising from the use of less radiogenic Australian Pb in alkylPb additives) and then, during its phasing out and the adoption of unleaded petrol, complete by 2000 A.D., the subsequent increase in both Sb/Pb and 206Pb/207Pb ratios. The extent of the 20th century maximum anthropogenic enrichment of Sb and Pb, relative to the natural Sc-normalised levels of the Upper Continental Crust, was similar at approximately 50- to 100-fold. Prior to 1800 A.D., the influence of metallurgical activities on Sb and Pb concentrations in the peat cores during both the Mediaeval and Roman/pre-Roman periods was discernible, small Sb and Pb peaks during the latter appearing attributable, on the basis of Pb isotopic composition, to the mining/smelting of Pb ores indigenous to Britain. PMID:16307064

Cloy, Joanna M; Farmer, John G; Graham, Margaret C; MacKenzie, Angus B; Cook, Gordon T

2005-12-01

155

Fate of N in a peatland, Whim bog: N immobilisation in the vegetation and peat, leakage into pore water and losses as N2O depend on the form of N  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Peatlands' vast carbon reserves accumulated under low nitrogen availability. Carbon and nitrogen cycling are inextricably linked, so what are the consequences of increased reactive nitrogen deposition for the sustainability and functioning of peatlands, and does the form of the nitrogen deposition make a difference? We have addressed these questions for an ombrotrophic peatland, Whim bog in SE Scotland, using a globally unique field simulation of reactive N deposition as dry deposited ammonia and wet deposited reduced N, ammonium and oxidised N, nitrate, added as ammonium chloride or sodium nitrate. The effects of 10 yr of reactive N additions, 56 kg N ha-1 yr-1, depended on the N form. Ammonia-N deposition caused the keystone Sphagnum species, together with the main shrub Calluna and the pleurocarpous mosses to disappear, exposing up to 30% of the peat surface. This led to a significant increase in soil water nitrate and nitrous oxide emissions. By contrast wet deposited N, despite significantly reducing the cover of Sphagnum and Pleurozium moss, did not have a detrimental effect on Calluna cover nor did it significantly change soil water N concentrations or nitrous oxide emissions. Importantly 10 yr of wet deposited N did not bare the peat surface nor significantly disrupt the vegetation, enabling the N to be retained within the carbon rich peatland ecosystems. However, given the significant role of Sphagnum in maintaining conditions that retard decomposition this study suggests that all nitrogen forms will eventually compromise carbon sequestration by peatlands through loss of some keystone Sphagnum species.

Sheppard, L. J.; Leith, I. D.; Leeson, S. R.; van Dijk, N.; Field, C.; Levy, P.

2012-07-01

156

The new European Competence Centre for Moor and Climate - A European initiative for practical peat bog and climate protection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The new European Competence Centre for Moor and Climate (EFMK) is an initiative by different local communities, environmental protection NGOs, agricultural services, and partners from the peat and other industries in Lower Saxony (Germany). The Centre aims to integrate practical peat bog conservation with a focus on green house gas emission after drainage and after water logging activities. Together with our partners we want to break new ground to protect the remaining bogs in the region. Sphagnum mosses will be produced in paludiculture on-site in cooperation with the local peat industry to provide economic and ecologic alternatives for peat products used in horticulture business. Land-use changes are needed in the region and will be stimulated in cooperation with agricultural services via compensation money transfers from environmental protection funds. On a global scale the ideas of Carbon Credit System have to be discussed to protect the peat bogs for climate protection issues. Environmental education is an important pillar of the EFMK. The local society is invited to explore the unique ecosystem and to participate in peat bog protection activities. Future generations will be taught to understand that the health of our peat bogs is interrelated with the health of the local and global climate. Besides extracurricular classes for schools the centre will provide infrastructure for Master and PhD students, as well for senior researchers for applied research in the surrounding moor. International partners in the scientific and practical fields of peat bog ecology, renaturation, green house gas emissions from peat bogs, and environmental policy are invited to participate in the European Competence Center for Moor and Climate.

Smidt, Geerd; Tänzer, Detlef

2013-04-01

157

Atmospheric Pb deposition since the Industrial Revolution recorded by five Swiss peat profiles: Enrichment factors, fluxes, isotopic composition, and sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

Atmospheric Pb deposition since the Industrial Revolution was studied in western, central, and southern Switzerland using five rural peat bogs. Similar temporal patterns were found in western and central Switzerland, with two distinct periods of Pb enrichment relative to the natural background: between 1880 and 1920 with enrichments ranging from 40 to 80 times, and between 1960 and 1980 with

Dominik Weiss; William Shotyk; J. D. Kramers; P. G. Appleby; Andriy K. Cheburkin

1999-01-01

158

[Bacteria of the genus Burkholderia as a typical component of the microbial community of sphagnum peat bogs].  

PubMed

Bacteria of the genus Burkholderia are a typical component of the microbial complex of sphagnum peat bogs and constitute a substantial portion of the aerobic chemoorganotrophic isolates which are routinely obtained from these environments on acidic nutrient media. The ecophysiological characteristics of the 27 strains of such organisms, which were isolated from the peat of acidic sphagnum bogs of the boreal and tundra zones of Russia, Canada, and Estonia, were investigated in the present paper. The overwhelming majority of the Burkholderia strains isolated from these bogs were phylogenetically close to the species B. glathei, B. phenazinium, B. fungorum, and B. caryophylli, the typical inhabitants of soil and plant rhizosphere. The bog isolates utilized a broad range of substrates as carbon and energy sources, including organic acids, sugars, polyalcohols, and certain aromatic compounds. All the strains studied were capable of growth on nitrogen-free media. They developed in the pH ranges of 3.5 to 7.4 and from 3 to 37 degrees C, with the optima at pH 5-7 and 11-23 degrees C, respectively. They were therefore moderately acidophilic, psychroactive, dinitrogen-fixing microorganisms well adapted to the conditions of acidic northern sphagnum bogs. PMID:16579452

Belova, S E; Pankratov, T A; Dedysh, S N

2006-01-01

159

The geochemistry of major and selected trace elements in two peat profiles from ridge-hollow complex of southeastern spurs of Vasyugan bog, southern taiga zone of West Siberia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main goal of this paper is to describe and discuss the concentrations and distributions of the major (Si, Al, Ca, Mg, Fe, K) and some trace (Sr, Ba, Mn, Cu, Co, Cr, Ni, Pb) elements during the Holocene from two peat bog profiles of ridge-hollow complex in the southeastern spurs of Vasyugan bog. One of them was formed on the ridge; the second - in the depression and is currently being developed for the type of hollow. The peat accumulation in the ridge and in the hollow started ~2477±80 and ~4774 ± 80 before present (BP), respectively. The average concentrations of Mg, Al, S, Sr, Cu, Ni is about 2-3 times higher in the peat profile from hollow then in the ridge profile. The other element concentrations from both profiles are comparable. The distributions of element concentrations and ash content in the peat profiles are in a good agreement. The element distributions show significantly similar patterns in profiles. Two dominant peaks were found: first peak is between 10 and 50 cm, second peak is between 150-170 cm in the ridge profile and between 180-200 cm in the hollow profile. The origin of the peaks in the middle part of the both profiles at almost the same time: between 2272 and 2190 cal. BP, but no later than 2112 ± 55 BP. These peaks cannot be explained by chemical diagenesis because they are too far above the underlying sediments of the peat profiles, and too far below the uppermost layers. We assume that the increase of elements content reflects the chemical composition of airborne materials supplied to the surface layers of the bog at the time deposition.

Veretennikova, Elena

2013-04-01

160

Chemical composition, pH, and redox state of sulfur and iron in complete vertical porewater profiles from two Sphagnum peat bogs, Jura Mountains, Switzerland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Complete porewater profiles from two peat bogs in the Jura Mountains were analysed for major and trace inorganic anions and cations. At La Tourbière des Genevez (TGe) and Etang de la Gruère (EGr), peat formation began approximately 5,000 and 10,000 years BP, respectively. The maximum depths of peat accumulation are 140 cm (TGe) and 650 cm (EGr); previous geochemical studies showed that the ombrogenic sections of the bogs extend to depths of approximately 20 cm (TGe) and 250 cm (EGr). Water samples were obtained using in situ diffusion equilibrium samplers (peepers), which allow filtered (0.2 ?m) porewaters to be obtained while preventing degassing and oxidation. These samplers were found to be well suited to bog porewaters and allowed volatile (dissolved CO 2, acetate) and redox-sensitive species (HS -, Fe 2+) to be quantified without further sample preparation or treatment. Aqueous species concentrations were determined immediately afterwards using ion chromatography with either conductivity (acetate, HCO 3-, Cl -, Br -, NO 3-, HPO 42-, SO 42-, Na +, NH 4+, K +, Mg 2+, Ca 2+), amperometry (HS -), or absorbance detection (Fe(III) and Fe(II)). The comprehensive analyses of anions and cations allowed humic substances to be calculated by the difference in electrical charge balance (i.e., the anion deficit). Concentrations of total dissolved CO 2 (2-12 mM) showed that carbonate equilibria play a significant role in the acid-base chemistry throughout the profiles. In near surface, ombrogenic porewaters with pH around 4, however, protons (approx. 160 ?eq/L) are contributed mainly by the dissociation of humic substances (2-7 mM DOC). In the deepest, minerogenic layers H 2CO 3 is the predominant acid at both sites. At these depths, carbonate alkalinity (up to 3 meq/L at EGr, up to 8 meq/L at TGe) arises from reaction of the pore fluids with mineral matter in the underlying sediments. In the transition zone between the ombrogenic and minerogenic extremes, organic and inorganic acids are equal in importance. Unidentified organic S species accounted for 90-99% of total dissolved sulfur (S T) in the porewaters at TGe, with SO 42- and HS - the dominant inorganic species; S species with intermediate oxidation states such as SO 32- and S 2O 32- were always less than the detection limit of approximately 0.4 ?M. At TGe the sulfate concentrations exceeded those of sulfide, with 1.25 and 0.25 ?M, respectively, being typical. At EGr, S T and SO 42- were comparable to the waters at TGe, but HS - at EGr was always less than the detection limit of 0.15 ?M. At both sites dissimilatory sulfate reduction is limited by the low concentrations of sulfate supplied to the bog surfaces (i.e., atmospheric deposition only), and the uptake of sulfate and its conversion to organic S compounds by the living plants. Despite the anoxic condition of the waters, the ratio of Fe(III) T to Fe(II) T was always high: at EGr this ratio was generally 1:1, and even in the sulfidic waters at TGe the ratio was 1:3. PHREEQE was used to calculate the effect of complex-forming organic ligands on {Fe 3+} and {Fe 2+} in these porewaters. The relatively high ratios of Fe(III) T compared to Fe(II) T can be explained in terms of the much greater thermodynamic stability of the organic complexes of Fe 3+ compared to those of Fe 2+.

Steinmann, Philipp; Shotyk, William

1997-03-01

161

Temperature-Induced Increase in Methane Release from Peat Bogs: A Mesocosm Experiment  

PubMed Central

Peat bogs are primarily situated at mid to high latitudes and future climatic change projections indicate that these areas may become increasingly wetter and warmer. Methane emissions from peat bogs are reduced by symbiotic methane oxidizing bacteria (methanotrophs). Higher temperatures and increasing water levels will enhance methane production, but also methane oxidation. To unravel the temperature effect on methane and carbon cycling, a set of mesocosm experiments were executed, where intact peat cores containing actively growing Sphagnum were incubated at 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25°C. After two months of incubation, methane flux measurements indicated that, at increasing temperatures, methanotrophs are not able to fully compensate for the increasing methane production by methanogens. Net methane fluxes showed a strong temperature-dependence, with higher methane fluxes at higher temperatures. After removal of Sphagnum, methane fluxes were higher, increasing with increasing temperature. This indicates that the methanotrophs associated with Sphagnum plants play an important role in limiting the net methane flux from peat. Methanotrophs appear to consume almost all methane transported through diffusion between 5 and 15°C. Still, even though methane consumption increased with increasing temperature, the higher fluxes from the methane producing microbes could not be balanced by methanotrophic activity. The efficiency of the Sphagnum-methanotroph consortium as a filter for methane escape thus decreases with increasing temperature. Whereas 98% of the produced methane is retained at 5°C, this drops to approximately 50% at 25°C. This implies that warming at the mid to high latitudes may be enhanced through increased methane release from peat bogs. PMID:22768100

van Winden, Julia F.; Reichart, Gert-Jan; McNamara, Niall P.; Benthien, Albert; Damsté, Jaap S. Sinninghe.

2012-01-01

162

High specificity but contrasting biodiversity of Sphagnum-associated bacterial and plant communities in bog ecosystems independent of the geographical region  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mosses represent ecological niches that harbor a hitherto largely uncharacterized microbial diversity. To investigate which factors affect the biodiversity of bryophyte-associated bacteria, we analyzed the bacterial communities associated with two moss species, which exhibit different ecological behaviors and importance in bog ecosystems, Sphagnum magellanicum and Sphagnum fallax, from six temperate and boreal bogs in Germany and Norway. Furthermore, their surrounding

Katja Opelt; Christian Berg; Susan Schönmann; Leo Eberl; Gabriele Berg

2007-01-01

163

THE ROLE OF SPHAGNUM IN THE ACID-BASE CHEMISTRY OF BOG WATERS Marselle Alexander-Ozinskas Bates College, Lewiston, ME  

E-print Network

THE ROLE OF SPHAGNUM IN THE ACID-BASE CHEMISTRY OF BOG WATERS Marselle Alexander-Ozinskas ­ Bates mechanisms for control of acid-base chemistry in these systems. Keywords and phrases: Sphagnum, bog, cation exchange, acidity, acid-base chemistry 1 #12;INTRODUCTION Peat-accumulating wetlands occupy 2

Vallino, Joseph J.

164

Botanical reconnaissance of Big Run Bog Candidate Research Natural Area. Forest Service general technical report (Final)  

SciTech Connect

To document the botanical diversity of the Big Run Bog candidate Research Natural Area on the Monongahela National Forest in West Virginia, a botanical survey was conducted in 1993-94. The survey identified 193 species of vascular plants in 118 genera and 52 families. Six species of rare vascular plants were found. Vascular plant families with the most species present were Cyperaceae (24), Asteraceae (23), Poaceae (16), and Ericaceae (14). For each taxon, family, species, habitat and estimated abundance are reported. Nonvascular plants totaled 87 species in 55 genera and 33 families.

Muzika, R.M.; Hunsucker, R.; DeMeo, T.

1996-07-25

165

Functioning of microbial complexes in aerated layers of a highmoor peat bog  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Monitoring was carried out using the luminescent-microscopic method of the abundance parameters of different groups of microorganisms in a monolith and in the mixed layers of a highmoor peat bog (oligotrophic residual-eutrophic peat soil) in a year-long model experiment. The increase of the aeration as a result of mixing of the layers enhanced the activity of the soil fungi. This was attested to by the following changes: the increase of the fungal mycelium length by 6 times and of the fungal biomass by 4 times and the double decrease of the fraction of spores in the fungal complex. The response of the fungal complex to mixing was different in the different layers of the peat bog. The maximal effect was observed in the T1 layer and the minimal one in the T2 layer. The emission of CO2 in the mixed samples was 1.5-2 times higher than that from the undisturbed peat samples. In contrast with the fungi, the bacteria and actinomycetes were not affected by the aeration of the highmoor layers.

Golovchenko, A. V.; Bogdanova, O. Yu.; Stepanov, A. L.; Polyanskaya, L. M.; Zvyagintsev, D. G.

2010-09-01

166

Heat transport in the Red Lake Bog, Glacial Lake Agassiz Peatlands  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We report the results of an investigation on the processes controlling heat transport in peat under a large bog in the Glacial Lake Agassiz Peatlands. For 2 years, starting in July 1998, we recorded temperature at 12 depth intervals from 0 to 400 cm within a vertical peat profile at the crest of the bog at sub-daily intervals. We also recorded air temperature 1 m above the peat surface. We calculate a peat thermal conductivity of 0.5 W m-1 ??C-1 and model vertical heat transport through the peat using the SUTRA model. The model was calibrated to the first year of data, and then evaluated against the second year of collected heat data. The model results suggest that advective pore-water flow is not necessary to transport heat within the peat profile and most of the heat is transferred by thermal conduction alone in these waterlogged soils. In the spring season, a zero-curtain effect controls the transport of heat through shallow depths of the peat. Changes in local climate and the resulting changes in thermal transport still may cause non-linear feedbacks in methane emissions related to the generation of methane deeper within the peat profile as regional temperatures increase. Copyright ?? 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

McKenzie, J.M.; Siegel, D.I.; Rosenberry, D.O.; Glaser, P.H.; Voss, C.I.

2007-01-01

167

Anaerobic microbial biogeochemistry in a northern bog: Acetate as a dominant metabolic end product  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Field measurements and incubation techniques were used to determine the dynamics of acetate formation, iron reduction, and methanogenesis in surficial peat of an Alaskan bog. Acetate concentrations were ˜100 ?M early in the season and decreased to ˜20 ?M in July when the water table decreased. Acetate levels increased rapidly to ˜1000 ?M when the water table rose to the surface in August. Acetate production in anaerobic slurries occurred at rates of 2.8-420 nmol carbon mL-1 day-1, which was 7-120 times more rapid than CH4 production. Experiments utilizing 14C-acetate confirmed that methanogenesis was not acetoclastic although acetate was converted very slowly to CO2. Peat incubated anaerobically for 4.5 months at 24°C never produced methane from acetate, suggesting that anaerobic acetate accumulation would have occurred all season if the water table had remained high. CO2 production was the most rapid process measured in laboratory incubations (up to 750 nmol mL-1 day-1) and appeared to be due primarily to fermentation. Acetate was the primary organic terminal product of anaerobic decomposition in the bog, and acetate was ultimately oxidized to CO2 via aerobic respiration and to a much lesser extent anaerobically by Fe reduction.

Duddleston, Khrystyne N.; Kinney, Monica A.; Kiene, Ronald P.; Hines, Mark E.

2002-12-01

168

Phylogenetic Analysis and In Situ Identification of Bacteria Community Composition in an Acidic Sphagnum Peat Bog  

PubMed Central

The Bacteria community composition in an acidic Sphagnum peat bog (pH 3.9 to 4.5) was characterized by a combination of 16S rRNA gene clone library analysis, rRNA-targeted fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), and cultivation. Among 84 environmental 16S rRNA gene clones, a set of only 16 cloned sequences was closely related (?95% similarity) to taxonomically described organisms. Main groups of clones were affiliated with the Acidobacteria (24 clones), Alphaproteobacteria (20), Verrucomicrobia (13), Actinobacteria (8), Deltaproteobacteria (4), Chloroflexi (3), and Planctomycetes (3). The proportion of cells that hybridized with oligonucleotide probes specific for members of the domains Bacteria (EUB338-mix) and Archaea (ARCH915 and ARC344) accounted for only 12 to 22% of the total cell counts. Up to 24% of the EUB338-positive cells could be assigned by FISH to specific bacterial phyla. Alphaproteobacteria and Planctomycetes were the most numerous bacterial groups (up to 1.3 × 107 and 1.1 × 107 cells g?1 peat, respectively). In contrast to conventional plating techniques, a novel biofilm-mediated enrichment approach allowed us to isolate some representatives of predominant Bacteria groups, such as Acidobacteria and Planctomycetes. This novel strategy has great potential to enable the isolation of a significant proportion of the peat bog bacterial diversity. PMID:16517660

Dedysh, Svetlana N.; Pankratov, Timofei A.; Belova, Svetlana E.; Kulichevskaya, Irina S.; Liesack, Werner

2006-01-01

169

Phylogenetic analysis and in situ identification of bacteria community composition in an acidic Sphagnum peat bog.  

PubMed

The Bacteria community composition in an acidic Sphagnum peat bog (pH 3.9 to 4.5) was characterized by a combination of 16S rRNA gene clone library analysis, rRNA-targeted fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), and cultivation. Among 84 environmental 16S rRNA gene clones, a set of only 16 cloned sequences was closely related (>or=95% similarity) to taxonomically described organisms. Main groups of clones were affiliated with the Acidobacteria (24 clones), Alphaproteobacteria (20), Verrucomicrobia (13), Actinobacteria (8), Deltaproteobacteria (4), Chloroflexi (3), and Planctomycetes (3). The proportion of cells that hybridized with oligonucleotide probes specific for members of the domains Bacteria (EUB338-mix) and Archaea (ARCH915 and ARC344) accounted for only 12 to 22% of the total cell counts. Up to 24% of the EUB338-positive cells could be assigned by FISH to specific bacterial phyla. Alphaproteobacteria and Planctomycetes were the most numerous bacterial groups (up to 1.3x10(7) and 1.1x10(7) cells g-1 peat, respectively). In contrast to conventional plating techniques, a novel biofilm-mediated enrichment approach allowed us to isolate some representatives of predominant Bacteria groups, such as Acidobacteria and Planctomycetes. This novel strategy has great potential to enable the isolation of a significant proportion of the peat bog bacterial diversity. PMID:16517660

Dedysh, Svetlana N; Pankratov, Timofei A; Belova, Svetlana E; Kulichevskaya, Irina S; Liesack, Werner

2006-03-01

170

A Holocene record of climate, vegetation change and peat bog development, east Otago, South Island, New Zealand  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A Holocene record of pollen, macrofossils, testate amoebae and peat humification is presented from a small montane bog. Sediment accumulation began before 9000 yr BP, but peat growth not until ca. 7000 BP. From 12 000 to 7000 yr BP, a shrub-grassland dominated under a dry climate, with increasing conifer forest and tall scrub from ca. 9600 yr BP. At 7000 yr BP a dense montane-subalpine low conifer forest established under a moist, cool climatic regime. Between 7000 and 700 yr BP the bog surface was shrubby, tending to be dry but with highly variable surface wetness. The catchment was affected by major fire at least four times between 4000 and 1000 yr BP. Both fire and bog surface wetness may have been linked to ENSO-caused variations in rainfall. Cooler, cloudier winters and disturbance by fire promoted the expansion of the broadleaf tree Nothofagus menziesii between 4000 yr BP and 1300 yr BP at the expense of the previous conifer forest-scrub vegetation. Polynesian fires (ca. 700 yr BP) reduced the vegetation to tussock grassland and bracken. Deforestation did not markedly affect the hydrology of the site. European pastoralism since ad 1860 has increased run-off and rising water tables in the bog have led to a Sphagnum-dominated cover.

McGlone, Matt S.; Wilmshurst, Janet M.

1999-05-01

171

Myrmecologische Nachrichten 6 29 -38 Wien, Dezember 2004 The "Black Bog Ant" Formica picea NYLANDER, 1846 a species different from  

E-print Network

with sepa- rate zoogeography. The well-known "Black Bog Ant" ­ distributed over Europe, the Caucasus, considering the fact that F. picea LEACH is in Camponotus MAYR since 1861 and will never return to Formica). The name F. transkaucasica became more frequently used when COLLINGWOOD (1979) repeat- ed Yarrow's name

Villemant, Claire

172

The sensitivity of Sphagnum to surface layer conditions in a re-wetted bog: a simulation study of water stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

The behaviour of the water table in re-wetted bogs varies widely between different locations so that recolonising Sphagnum is vulnerable to water stress, especially when the water table is drawn down in summer. It is important to understand how physical site conditions influence the occurrence of water stress so that adequate management measures may be applied. In the work reported

J. M. Schouwenaars; A. M. Gosen

2007-01-01

173

Using stable isotopes of water to characterize the hydrological cycle in a northern Minnesota black spruce-sphagnum bog forest  

E-print Network

Average Normalized D Deep Blue -0.14 -0.16 DI -8.42 -47.67 Mountain (MTN) -21.37 -159.57 Hollow -13 spruce-sphagnum bog forest Kaycee Reynolds Environmental Sciences Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory of Energy, the Office of Science at Oak Ridge National Laboratory managed by UT-Battelle, ORISE, Steve

174

Development of floating rafts after the rewetting of cut-over bogs: the importance of peat quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

The usual method of restoring cut-over bogs is to rewet the peat surface, but this often leads to the remaining peat layers being deeply inundated. For Sphagnum-dominated vegetation to develop at deeply inundated locations, it is important for floating rafts of buoyant residual peat to develop. In this study, the chemical and physical characteristics of buoyant and inundated peat collected

Hilde B. M. Tomassen; Alfons J. P. Smolders; Leon P. M. Lamers; Jan G. M. Roelofs

2005-01-01

175

Effects of Flooding on the Carbon and Nitrogen Cycles in the Cedar, Maple, and Pine Bogs of  

E-print Network

Effects of Flooding on the Carbon and Nitrogen Cycles in the Cedar, Maple, and Pine Bogs of Western the carbon and nitrogen cycles under the duress of flooding and drainage, a manipulative experiment was set was not able to fully assess the carbon and nitrogen cycles, but it did show that theses systems are very rich

Vallino, Joseph J.

176

Temporal Changes in the State of a Pine Stand in a Bog Affected by Air Pollution in Northeast Estonia  

Microsoft Academic Search

We used the needle trace method to investigate changes in the state of a Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stand in a bog (Voorepera) in the north-eastern part of Estonia, the most polluted area of the country. Additionally, we chose six sampling sites in other parts of Northeast Estonia (polluted area) and eight sites in southern Estonia (unpolluted area) to

Margus Pensa; Valdo Liblik; Risto Jalkanen

2004-01-01

177

Isolation and identification of methanogen-specific DNA from blanket bog peat by PCR amplification and sequence analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methane, despite its lower concentration, is estimated to be 25 to 30 times more effective as a greenhouse gas than carbon dioxide. Estimates suggest that about 74% of atmospheric methane is derived from recent microbial activity and sources of methane are of considerable interest. This report describes the analysis of methanogen-specific DNA present in a well-characterized blanket peat bog, a

BARBARA A. HALES; CLIVE EDWARDS; DONALD A. RITCHIE; J. R. Saunders

1996-01-01

178

Micromorphological and (bio)chemical organic matter changes in a formerly cutover peat bog : Le Russey, Jura Mountains, France.  

E-print Network

Micromorphological and (bio)chemical organic matter changes in a formerly cutover peat bog : Le. In order to moniter peat reaccumulation and hence long-term carbon sequestration in peatlands which have ([1]). Among these indicators, it has previously been shown that physico-chemical properties of peat

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

179

Comparison of bacterial communities in New England Sphagnum bogs using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP).  

PubMed

Wetlands are major sources of carbon dioxide, methane, and other greenhouse gases released during microbial degradation. Despite the fact that decomposition is mainly driven by bacteria and fungi, little is known about the taxonomic diversity of bacterial communities in wetlands, particularly Sphagnum bogs. To explore bacterial community composition, 24 bogs in Vermont and Massachusetts were censused for bacterial diversity at the surface (oxic) and 1 m (anoxic) regions. Bacterial diversity was characterized by a terminal restriction fragment length (T-RFLP) fingerprinting technique and a cloning strategy that targeted the 16S rRNA gene. T-RFLP analysis revealed a high level of diversity, and a canonical correspondence analysis demonstrated marked similarity among bogs, but consistent differences between surface and subsurface assemblages. 16S rDNA sequences derived from one of the sites showed high numbers of clones belonging to the Deltaproteobacteria group. Several other phyla were represented, as well as two Candidate Division-level taxonomic groups. These data suggest that bog microbial communities are complex, possibly stratified, and similar among multiple sites. PMID:16729225

Morales, Sergio E; Mouser, Paula J; Ward, Naomi; Hudman, Stephen P; Gotelli, Nicholas J; Ross, Donald S; Lewis, Thomas A

2006-07-01

180

Modeling regional groundwater flow in a peat bog complex in Ontario, Canada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Peatlands are important ecohydrological systems and contribute significantly to the global carbon cycle. They function as carbon sinks through CO2-sequestration but also emit methane depending i.a. on the prevailing hydrological structures. Knowledge of their hydrology including exchange between the groundwater and surface water domain is thus necessary to understand wetland environments and to determine their vulnerability to climate changes. The impact of proposed wetter conditions on wetland hydrological homeostastis in northern bogs is uncertain to this date. Elevated water tables due to changing hydrological flow patterns may affect the characteristics of wetlands as a carbon reservoir. Modeling approaches allow quantifying and qualifying of these flow patterns on a longer time scale. Luther Bog is located in Southern Ontario. The ombotrophic bog to poor fen is partially bordered by Luther Lake which inundates the area since its creation in 1952. In this study the interaction between the wetland and the adjacent lake is modeled using the fully-integrated HydroGeoSphere model. A transient three-dimensional groundwater mode is set up for a small catchment with the lake level implemented as a constant-head boundary condition. Hydraulic properties of the peat were estimated executing bail tests on multilevel piezometers at different sites within the wetland. The first hypothesis is that the wet conditions in the runoff network keep the water table in the wetland high over a specific transition zone. The Second is that there may be a reversal of flow directions over the hydrological year, due to varying boundary conditions, e.g. evapotranspiration and precipitation. First results indicate that exchange rates may be very slow. This is supported by manual measurements of little hydraulic gradients and little topographic gradients. The results also show a seasonal effect in flow directions in both, the groundwater and the surface water domain. The model will be tested upon its sensitivity to variations in the anisotropy of hydraulic conductivities as this is difficult to determine in the field using known approaches, e.g. bail tests. A transport simulation will be conducted to determine the exact amount of exchange water and the extent of the exchange zone.

Durejka, Stefan; Knorr, KLaus-Holger; Blodau, Christian; Frei, Sven

2013-04-01

181

The role of common upland vegetation on gaseous carbon cycling on UK blanket peat bogs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The most important control upon the carbon dynamics of any peatland is vegetation. However there is a gap in the literature with respect to comparative, in-situ studies of common upland vegetation types on peat bogs from a carbon cycling perspective. Where studies exist they tend to be narrowly focused (i.e. on one or two species or a small geographical area) or are laboratory manipulation studies. This study set out to compare gaseous CO2 exchange, in situ, across a broad (geographic) range of sites dominated by differing, common, upland vegetation types. The vegetation types studied were; Calluna vulgaris, Sphagnum spp., Eriophorum (E. angustifolium + E. vaginatum), Molinia caerulea and areas revegetated with a lawn grass mixture that was used for restoration (Festuca spp, Deschampsia spp. and Agrostis spp.).The primary aim of the study was to assess the carbon cycling potential of the common upland vegetation types, in order to produce clearer evidence as to which upland species produce the most efficient carbon sinks. The study was carried out in the South Pennines and Peak District of England. All readings were taken from upland-blanket peat bogs, as this type of bog accounts for 87% of the UK's peatlands, and therefore the results of this study can have the widest possible applicability to the rest of the UK's peat reserves. NEE and NER measurements were taken with a PP Systems EMG-4 infra-red gas analyzer. PAR and air temperature readings were taken along side water table and soil pore water samples from every site. Each site was visited monthly for at least 12 months and between 3-9 replicates were recorded per site. The results of this study will deal with the effects vegetation has on NER, GPP and NEE, focusing on which vegetation types make the most efficient gaseous carbon sinks. Moreover the effect of vegetation on water table levels and water quality will be discussed. Finally a consideration of how the age of Calluna vulgaris affects the parameters above will be given.

Dixon, Simon; Rowson, James; Worrall, Fred

2010-05-01

182

Summer methane fluxes from a boreal bog in northern Quebec, Canada, using eddy covariance measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A boreal bog located in the James Bay lowlands, Canada, was instrumented with an open-path gas analyzer to monitor the turbulent fluxes of methane throughout the summer of 2012. The mostly continuous eddy covariance measurements permitted the study of methane dynamics at the hourly, daily and seasonal scales. To exclude data segments for which the biological methane fluxes were underestimated due to inefficient atmospheric transport under stable stratification, we applied a novel approach based on both the atmospheric stability parameter ? = z/L and the friction velocity u?, where z is the measurement height and L the Obukhov length. The field measurements revealed the existence of at least one sustained ebullition event, triggered by low barometric pressures, a declining water table and increasing mechanical turbulence - suggesting that large-scale release of methane bubbles can be an important transport mechanism of methane in boreal bogs. The validity of similarity scaling for atmospheric methane under convective conditions was also assessed and the normalized standard deviations of methane concentrations did not scale well with ?, highlighting the heterogeneity in natural methane production and release across the bog. Overall the hourly emissions ranged between -2.0 and 32.1 mg CH4 m-2 h-1, with a summertime mean of 2.4 mg CH4 m-2 h-1. At the daily scale, the two main controls on methane emissions were found to be the water table position and the peat temperature at 0.3 m under the surface. Contrary to other studies, seasonal methane emissions peaked when the water table was at its maximum distance from the surface, around mid-August. No clear diurnal pattern could be found in methane emissions, indicating that methane was produced quite deep within the peat. The seasonal emissions were estimated at 4.4 g CH4 m-2, and compared well with other observations over similar landscapes using different measurement techniques. Given that methane releases and transport are greatly affected by local characteristics such as climate and vegetative cover, this study emphasizes the need for further in situ continuous measurements of methane fluxes across northern peatlands.

Nadeau, Daniel F.; Rousseau, Alain N.; Coursolle, Carole; Margolis, Hank A.; Parlange, Marc B.

2013-12-01

183

Purple Pitcher Plant (Sarracenia rosea) Dieback and Partial Community Disassembly following Experimental Storm Surge in a Coastal Pitcher Plant Bog  

PubMed Central

Sea-level rise and frequent intense hurricanes associated with climate change will result in recurrent flooding of inland systems such as Gulf Coastal pitcher plant bogs by storm surges. These surges can transport salt water and sediment to freshwater bogs, greatly affecting their biological integrity. Purple pitcher plants (Sarracenia rosea) are Gulf Coast pitcher plant bog inhabitants that could be at a disadvantage under this scenario because their pitcher morphology may leave them prone to collection of saline water and sediment after a surge. We investigated the effects of storm surge water salinity and sediment type on S. rosea vitality, plant community structure, and bog soil-water conductivity. Plots (containing ?1 ramet of S. rosea) were experimentally flooded with fresh or saline water crossed with one of three sediment types (local, foreign, or no sediment). There were no treatment effects on soil-water conductivity; nevertheless, direct exposure to saline water resulted in significantly lower S. rosea cover until the following season when a prescribed fire and regional drought contributed to the decline of all the S. rosea to near zero percent cover. There were also significant differences in plant community structure between treatments over time, reflecting how numerous species increased in abundance and a few species decreased in abundance. However, in contrast to S. rosea, most of the other species in the community appeared resilient to the effects of storm surge. Thus, although the community may be somewhat affected by storm surge, those few species that are particularly sensitive to the storm surge disturbance will likely drop out of the community and be replaced by more resilient species. Depending on the longevity of these biological legacies, Gulf Coastal pitcher plant bogs may be incapable of fully recovering if they become exposed to storm surge more frequently due to climate change. PMID:25874369

Abbott, Matthew J.; Battaglia, Loretta L.

2015-01-01

184

Natural and anthropogenic enrichments of molybdenum, thorium, and uranium in a complete peat bog profile, Jura Mountains, Switzerland.  

PubMed

A core from an ombrotrophic Swiss bog representing 12 370 (14)C years of peat accumulation was evaluated as a possible archive of atmospheric deposition of Mo, Th and U. Calcium, Sr, and Ba were also determined to quantify weathering inputs, Mn to follow possible redox transformations, and Rb to identify plant uptake. Each of these elements was determined using ICP-MS, following digestion in a microwave heated autoclave using 3 ml HNO(3) and 0.1 ml HBF(4). Calcium and Sr clearly identify the thickness of the ombrotrophic zone because they are enriched in the minerogenic zone relative to the concentration of mineral matter. The concentration of Ba, however, is proportional to the concentration of mineral matter in all samples, and is not added to peat column by weathering reactions at the peat-sediment interface. The lowest element concentrations are found during the Holocene climate optimum (5320 to 8030 (14)C year BP) with the following natural background values (n= 18): Mo 0.08 +/- 0.02 microg g(-1), U 0.029 +/- 0.008 microg g(-1), Ba 5.2 +/- 2.6 microg g(-1), Th 0.070 +/- 0.022 microg g(-1) and Rb 0.63 +/- 0.09 microg g(-1). By far the highest concentrations of Ba, Mn, Rb and Th were found during the Younger Dryas cold climate event (10 590 (14)C year BP) when the flux of atmospheric soil dust was at its post-glacial maximum. Molybdenum and U are elevated in concentration throughout the minerogenic zone because of sediment weathering and this masks the atmospheric signal in samples older than ca. 8000 (14)C year BP (ca. 9000 calendar years). Enrichment factors (EF) calculated using Sc as a conservative, lithogenic element shows that minerogenic peats are enriched in Mo up to 18x and U 26x, relative to the natural "background" values. During the two millennia prior to industrialisation, the accumulation rate of atmospheric Mo averaged 0.23 +/- 0.13 microg m(-2) year(-1). With the onset of the Industrial Revolution, Mo accumulation rates rapidly and continuously increased to approximately 10 microg m(-2) year(-1) in the late 1980s. These data suggest that Mo in atmospheric aerosols today is derived predominately from anthropogenic emissions. Uranium does not show the same enrichment pattern which suggests that steel-making rather than coal combustion is the primary source of atmospheric Mo contamination at this site. PMID:15152310

Krachler, Michael; Shotyk, William

2004-05-01

185

Climate-growth relationships for bog-grown black spruce in northern Minnesota  

SciTech Connect

Black spruce (Picea mariana) tree-ring chronologies were derived for three bogs in northern Minnesota. Standard chronologies were highly intercorrelated (0.72 to 0.87). The ring-width variability attributable to a common signal ranged from 38.6 to 56.8 percent which is large for closed canopy eastern forests. These chronologies exhibited great serial correlation, therefore all chronologies were autoregressively modelled prior to climatic analyses. Each chronology was compared to monthly temperature and precipitation data from a nearby weather station. Strengths of linear relationships were measured by the product-moment correlation coefficient. May and August temperatures from the previous year and March precipitation of the current year were significantly correlated with ring-width indices. These data suggest that tree-ring chronologies from mid-continental peatlands may be a valuable, though presently ignored, source of paleoclimatic data.

Vogel, K.J. (Univ. of Minnesota, St. Paul (United States))

1993-06-01

186

Effect of fire on phosphorus forms in Sphagnum moss and peat soils of ombrotrophic bogs.  

PubMed

The effect of burning Sphagnum moss and peat on phosphorus forms was studied with controlled combustion in the laboratory. Two fire treatments, a light fire (250 °C) and a severe fire (600 °C), were performed in a muffle furnace with 1-h residence time to simulate the effects of different forest fire conditions. The results showed that fire burning Sphagnum moss and peat soils resulted in losses of organic phosphorus (Po), while inorganic phosphorus (Pi) concentrations increased. Burning significantly changed detailed phosphorus composition and availability, with severe fires destroying over 90% of organic phosphorus and increasing the availability of inorganic P by more than twofold. Our study suggest that, while decomposition processes in ombrotrophic bogs occur very slowly, rapid changes in the form and availability of phosphorus in vegetation and litter may occur as the result of forest fires on peat soils. PMID:24630445

Wang, Guoping; Yu, Xiaofei; Bao, Kunshan; Xing, Wei; Gao, Chuanyu; Lin, Qianxin; Lu, Xianguo

2015-01-01

187

Sorption of radioiodide in an acidic, nutrient-poor boreal bog: insights into the microbial impact.  

PubMed

Batch sorption experiments were conducted to evaluate the sorption behaviour of iodide and the microbial impact on iodide sorption in the surface moss, subsurface peat, gyttja, and clay layers of a nutrient-poor boreal bog. The batch distribution coefficient (Kd) values of iodide decreased as a function of sampling depth. The highest Kd values, 4800 L/Kg dry weight (DW) (geometric mean), were observed in the fresh surface moss and the lowest in the bottom clay (geometric mean 90 mL/g DW). In the surface moss, peat and gyttja layers, which have a high organic matter content (on average 97%), maximum sorption was observed at a pH between ?4 and 5 and in the clay layer at pH 2. The Kd values were significantly lower in sterilized samples, being 20-fold lower than the values found for the unsterilized samples. In addition, the recolonization of sterilized samples with a microbial population from the fresh samples restored the sorption capacity of surface moss, peat and gyttja samples, indicating that the decrease in the sorption was due to the destruction of microbes and supporting the hypothesis that microbes are necessary for the incorporation of iodide into the organic matter. Anoxic conditions reduced the sorption of iodide in fresh, untreated samples, similarly to the effect of sterilization, which supports the hypothesis that iodide is oxidized into I2/HIO before incorporation into the organic matter. Furthermore, the Kd values positively correlated with peroxidase activity in surface moss, subsurface peat and gyttja layers at +20 °C, and with the bacterial cell counts obtained from plate count agar at +4 °C. Our results demonstrate the importance of viable microbes for the sorption of iodide in the bog environment, having a high organic matter content and a low pH. PMID:25752706

Lusa, M; Bomberg, M; Aromaa, H; Knuutinen, J; Lehto, J

2015-05-01

188

Water budget and surface-layer water storage in a Sphagnum bog in central Sweden  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A water budget was established for the open, undisturbed bog Stormossen, central Sweden, for the growing seasons of 1996 and 1997 as a part of the NOPEX project. The water budget was complemented with data on the spatial variation of groundwater levels and water contents in different microrelief elements (ridge, hollow and ridge margin). The seasonal (24 May to 4 October) rainfall, evaporation and runoff were 200, 256, and 43 mm in 1996, respectively, and 310, 286 and 74 mm in 1997, giving negative budgets of -99 mm in 1996 and -50 mm in 1997. Approximately 60% of the total budget was caused by storage changes in the upper 40 cm of the bog and 40% by swelling/shrinking in the layers below. This mire breathing must be incorporated in future models of mire-water dynamics. The water content varied diversely among the different microrelief elements, much depending on the properties of moss and peat together with distance to water table. There also was a strong hysteresis in the relationships between groundwater level and measured volumetric water content, depending partly on pore-throat effects and partly on swelling/shrinking of the peat matrix. A seasonal variation of volumetric water content in a layer beneath water table was found to be larger than what could be justified by compression alone. We think that probable causes could be methane gas expansion together with temperature effects. The main conclusions of this study were: (i) water-transport and storage characteristics are distinctly different among hummocks, ridges and hollows, (ii) mire wetness cannot be deduced from groundwater levels only, and (iii) an important part of the total water storage was caused by swelling/shrinking of the peat, not by changes in unsaturated water content.

Kellner, Erik; Halldin, Sven

2002-01-01

189

High methane emissions dominate annual greenhouse gas balances 30 years after bog rewetting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Natural peatlands are important carbon sinks and sources of methane (CH4). In contrast, drained peatlands turn from a carbon sink to a carbon source and potentially emit nitrous oxide (N2O). Rewetting of peatlands thus implies climate change mitigation. However, data about the time span that is needed for the re-establishment of the carbon sink function by restoration is scarce. We therefore investigated the annual greenhouse gas (GHG) balances of three differently vegetated bog sites 30 years after rewetting. All three vegetation communities turned out to be sources of carbon dioxide (CO2) ranging between 0.6 ± 1.43 t CO2 ha-2 yr-1 (Sphagnum-dominated vegetation) and 3.09 ± 3.86 t CO2 ha-2 yr-1 (vegetation dominated by heath). While accounting for the different global warming potential (GWP) of the three greenhouse gases, the annual GHG balance was calculated. Emissions ranged between 25 and 53 t CO2-eq ha-1 yr-1 and were dominated by large emissions of CH4 (22 up to 51 t CO2-eq ha-1 yr-1), while highest rates were found at purple moor grass (Molinia caerulea) stands. These are to our knowledge the highest CH4 emissions so far reported for bog ecosystems in temperate Europe. As the restored area was subject to large fluctuations in water table, we conclude that the high CH4 emission rates were caused by a combination of both the temporal inundation of the easily decomposable plant litter of this grass species and the plant-mediated transport through its tissues. In addition, as a result of the land use history, the mixed soil material can serve as an explanation. With regards to the long time span passed since rewetting, we note that the initial increase in CH4 emissions due to rewetting as described in the literature is not limited to a short-term period.

Vanselow-Algan, M.; Schmidt, S. R.; Greven, M.; Fiencke, C.; Kutzbach, L.; Pfeiffer, E.-M.

2015-02-01

190

Origin of lead in eight Central European peat bogs determined from isotope ratios, strengths, and operation times of regional pollution sources.  

PubMed

Lead originating from coal burning, gasoline burning, and ore smelting was identified in 210Pb-dated profiles through eight peat bogs distributed over an area of 60,000 km2. The Sphagnum-dominated bogs were located mainly in mountainous regions of the Czech Republic bordering with Germany, Austria, and Poland. Basal peat 14C-dated at 11,000 years BP had a relatively high 206Pb/207Pb ratio (1.193). Peat deposited around 1800 AD had a lower 206Pb/207Pb ratio of 1.168-1.178, indicating that environmental lead in Central Europe had been largely affected by human activity (smelting) even before the beginning of the Industrial Revolution. Five of the sites exhibited a nearly constant 206Pb/207Pb ratio (1.175) throughout the 19th century, resembling the "anthropogenic baseline" described in Northern Europe (1.17). At all sites, the 206Pb/207Pb ratio of peat decreased at least until 1980; at four sites, a reversal to more radiogenic values (higher 206Pb/207Pb), typical of easing pollution, was observed in the following decade (1980-1990). A time series of annual outputs for 14 different mining districts dispersing lead into the environment has been constructed for the past 200 years. The production of Ag-Pb, coal, and leaded gasoline peaked in 1900, 1980, and 1980, respectively. In contrast to other European countries, no peak in annual Pb accumulation rates was found in 1900, the year of maximum ore smelting. The highest annual Pb accumulation rates in peat were consistent with the highest Pb emission rates from coal-fired power plants and traffic (1980). Although maximum coal and gasoline production coincided in time, their isotope ratios were unique. The mean measured 206Pb/207Pb ratios of local coal, ores, and gasoline were 1.19, 1.16, and 1.11, respectively. A considerable proportion of coal emissions, relative to gasoline emisions, was responsible for the higher 206Pb/207Pb ratios in the recent atmosphere (1.15) compared to Western Europe (1.10). As in West European countries, the gasoline sold in the Czech Republic during the Communist era (1948-1989) contained an admixture of low-radiogenic Precambrian lead from Australia. PMID:12630456

Novák, Martin; Emmanuel, Simon; Vile, Melanie A; Erel, Yigal; Véron, Alain; Paces, Tomás; Wieder, R Kelman; Vanecek, Mirko; Stepánová, Markéta; Brízová, Eva; Hovorka, Jan

2003-02-01

191

Fate of N in a peatland, Whim bog: immobilisation in the vegetation and peat, leakage into pore water and losses as N2O depend on the form of N  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Peatlands represent a vast carbon reserve that has accumulated under conditions of low nitrogen availability. Given the strong coupling between the carbon and nitrogen cycles, we need to establish the consequences of the increase in reactive nitrogen deposition for the sustainability of peatlands, and whether the form in which the nitrogen is deposited makes a difference. We have addressed these questions using a globally unique field simulation of reactive N deposition as dry deposited ammonia and wet deposited reduced N, ammonium and oxidised N, nitrate, added as ammonium chloride or sodium nitrate, to an ombrotrophic peatland, Whim bog in SE Scotland. Here we report the fate of 56 kg N ha-1 yr-1 additions over 10 yr and the consequences. The effects of 10 yr of reactive N additions depended on the form in which the N was applied. Ammonia-N deposition caused the keystone Sphagnum species, together with the main shrub Calluna and the pleurocarpous mosses, to disappear, exposing up to 30% of the peat surface. This led to a significant increase in soil water nitrate and nitrous oxide emissions. By contrast wet deposited N, despite significantly reducing the cover of Sphagnum and Pleurozium moss, did not have a detrimental effect on Calluna cover nor did it significantly change soil water N concentrations or nitrous oxide emissions. Importantly 10 yr of wet deposited N did not bare the peat surface nor significantly disrupt the vegetation enabling the N to be retained within the carbon rich peatland ecosystems. However, given the significant role of Sphagnum in maintaining conditions that retard decomposition, this study suggests that all nitrogen forms will eventually compromise carbon sequestration by peatlands through loss of some keystone Sphagnum species.

Sheppard, L. J.; Leith, I. D.; Leeson, S. R.; van Dijk, N.; Field, C.; Levy, P.

2013-01-01

192

Using stable isotopes of water to re-evaluate the recharge/discharge functions of North American bogs and fens  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In North American mires hydrologists commonly find raised bog crests and low-lying fen water tracks to be focal points for groundwater recharge and discharge, respectively. To further test these observations we synoptically surveyed vertical profiles of peat pore water ?18O/?2H and major mineral solutes from a range of bog and fen landforms across the Glacial Lake Agassiz Peatlands (GLAP) of northern Minnesota. We also sampled a detailed transect through a 150 km2 bog-fen complex in the Red Lake II peatland watershed of the GLAP. The molar ratios of Ca/Mg in the pore water beneath the Red Lake II bog crest are depleted in Mg with respect to the atmospheric average of 3.6, indicative of preferential flushing of Mg from the peat by meteoric recharge. Higher solute concentrations in the middle of the peat profile at an adjacent fen show focused groundwater discharge with Ca/Mg ratios of ~1.4, similar to that of water from local wells tapping underlying glacial till. However, contrary to expectations, we find evidence that modern recharge has penetrated throughout the peat column beneath both bog and fen landforms throughout the GLAP. Landform surface features control the isotopic recharge value. These landform-specific isotope signatures propagate through vertical pore water profiles. Pore waters deeper than 0.5 m partition into discrete ranges of ?18O according to three a priori landform classifications: 1) -11.9 ± 0.4 o for bog crests, 2) -10.6 ± 0.1 o for Sphagnum lawns, and 3) -8.8 ± 1.0 o for fen water tracks. The fen water tracks have standing water at their surface that is seasonally enriched by isotope fractionating evaporation and therefore fingerprints recharge to depths ?3 m. Incongruities between isotope and solute mixing trends may be related to the dual porosity nature of peat and matrix diffusion, which could supply solutes to active pore spaces following flushing by meteoric recharge. This buffering of base solutes in the deep peat may influence methanogenic bacteria that are sensitive to pH. Our results support the hypothesis that the downward transport of labile carbon substrates from the surface of northern peat basins fuels methane production in deeper peat strata.

Levy, Zeno; Siegel, Donald; Glaser, Paul; Dasgupta, Soumitri

2014-05-01

193

Isolation and characterization of nitrogen-fixing bacteria of the genus Azospirillum from the soil of a Sphagnum peat bog  

Microsoft Academic Search

he presence of nitrogen-fixing bacteria of the genus Azospirillum in the soils of acidic raised Sphagnum bogs is revealed for the first time. Three Azospirillum strains, B2, B21, and B22, were isolated as a component of methane-oxidizing enrichment cultures, whereas attempts to isolate\\u000a them directly from peat samples have failed. The results of comparative analysis of the nucleotide sequences of

E. V. Doroshenko; E. S. Boulygina; E. M. Spiridonova; T. P. Tourova; I. K. Kravchenko

2007-01-01

194

Restoration of floating mat bog vegetation after eutrophication damages by improving water quality in a small pond  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied vegetation changes in a small floating mat bog in Mizorogaike Pond (Kyoto, Japan), which had experienced a severe\\u000a decrease in the number and area of hummocks caused by nutrient loading in the 1960s and 1970s, to examine whether reducing\\u000a the extent of nutrient loading can restore degraded wetland vegetation. However, nutrient loading in the region has been minimized

Riyou TsujinoNoboru; Noboru Fujita; Masao Katayama; Daiju Kawase; Kiyoshi Matsui; Akihiro Seo; Tetsuya Shimamura; Yasuhiro Takemon; Nozomi Tsujimura; Takakazu Yumoto; Atushi Ushimaru

2010-01-01

195

Disturbances on a Wooded Raised Bog—How Windthrow, Bark Beetle and Fire Affect Vegetation and Soil Water Quality?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pinus rotundata dominated peatbog (Žofinka Nature Reserve) in the T?ebo? Basin, Czech Republic, was affected by “natural” disturbances: wind\\u000a damage (1984), followed by a bark beetle attack, and fire (1994, 2000). Phytosociological relevés were used to document vegetation.\\u000a Soil water chemistry was compared in three differently affected stands: (1) an undisturbed Pinus rotundata bog forest, (2) a windthrow – bark

Andrea Ku?erová; Ladislav Rektoris; Tá?a Štechová; Marek Bastl

2008-01-01

196

Copper binding by peat fulvic and humic acids extracted from two horizons of an ombrotrophic peat bog  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied the binding of Cu(II) to humic acids and fulvic acids extracted from two horizons of an ombrotrophic peat bog by metal titration experiments at pH 4.5, 5.0, 5.5, and 6.0 and 0.1M KNO3 ionic strength. Free metal ion concentrations in solution were measured using an ion selective electrode. The amounts of base required to maintain constant pH conditions

Dora Gondar; Ana Iglesias; Rocio López; Sarah Fiol; Juan M. Antelo; Florencio Arce

2006-01-01

197

Parameter Calculation Technique for the Waste Treatment Facilities Using Naturally-Aerated Blocks in the Bog Ecosystems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Technique for the domestic wastewater treatment in the small residential areas and oil and gas facilities of the natural and man-made systems including a settling tank for mechanical treatment and a biological pond with peat substrate and bog vegetation for biological treatment has been substantiated. Technique for parameters calculation of the similar natural and man-made systems has been developed. It was proven that effective treatment of wastewater can be performed in Siberia all year round.

Akhmed-Ogly, K. V.; Savichev, O. G.; Tokarenko, O. G.; Pasechnik, E. Yu; Reshetko, M. V.; Nalivajko, N. G.; Vlasova, M. V.

2014-08-01

198

Multiproxy Record of Late Pleistocene–Holocene Climate and Vegetation Changes from a Peat Bog in Patagonia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pollen assemblage changes and stable hydrogen isotope analysis of mosses (Sphagnum magellanicum and Drepanocladus s.l.) from a bog in Tierra del Fuego, Argentina, provided independent proxies for reconstructing changes in effective moisture and temperature over the past 16,000 cal yr B.P. A deterministic model was used to reconstruct the stable hydrogen isotope composition of meteoric water from the D\\/H ratios

Elise Pendall; Vera Markgraf; James W. C White; Mark Dreier; Ray Kenny

2001-01-01

199

Cattail invasion of sedge meadows following hydrologic disturbance in the Cowles Bog Wetland Complex, Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore  

Microsoft Academic Search

The vegetation of the 80.7 hectare Cowles Bog Wetland. Complex has been altered from its historic mixed sedge-grass domination\\u000a (Carex\\u000a stricta,Calamagrostis\\u000a canadensis) in lower areas and woody growth in slightly elevated areas, as based on archival aerial photographs from 1938–1982 and recent\\u000a field data. Cattails (Typha spp.) were present in 1938 and made minor gains in cover through 1970. However,

Douglas A. Wilcox; Steven I. Apfelbaum; Ronald D. Hiebert

1984-01-01

200

CH4 production via CO2 reduction in a temperate bog - A source of (C-13)-depleted CH4  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper reports measurements, taken over two annual cycles, of the flux and delta(C-13) of CH4 released from an acidic peat bog located in the foothills of the Cascade Range in Washington state, U.S. Measurements of the rate of aceticlastic methanogenesis and CO2 reduction in peat soil, using (C-14)-labeled acetate and sodium bicarbonate, show that acetate was not an important

J. M. Lansdown; P. D. Quay; S. L. King

1992-01-01

201

Stable carbon isotope composition and concentrations of CO 2 and CH 4 in the deep catotelm of a peat bog  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vertical profiles of concentration and C-isotopic composition of dissolved methane and carbon dioxide were observed over 26 months in the catotelm of a deep (6.5m) peat bog in Switzerland. The dissolved concentrations of these gases increase with depth while CO2 predominates over CH4 (CO2 ca. 5 times CH4). This pattern can be reproduced by a reaction–advection–ebullition model, where CO2 and

Philipp Steinmann; Bernd Eilrich; Markus Leuenberger; Stephen J. Burns

2008-01-01

202

The formation of basal-type uranium deposits in south central British Columbia  

SciTech Connect

The basal-type uranium deposits in south central British Columbia occur within unconsolidated, late Miocene fluvial paleochannel sediments that overlie major fault zones within the Okanagan Highlands Intrusive Complex. Five uranium deposits have been outlined to date, of which the Blizzard (4,020 metric tons U) and Tyee (650 metric tons U) are the largest. The basement intrusive complex underlying the deposits varies in age from early Cretaceous to Eocene and is comprised of quartz monzonite, granodiorite, Coryell monzonite, porphyritic granite, and pegmatite. Uranium mineralization is present in the form of uranous (ningyoite) or uranyl (saleeite, autunite) phosphates coating clastic grains and filling voids. Because of very strong reducing conditions related to large concentrations of marcasite and organic material, ningyoite is the only uranium mineral in the Tyee deposit, whereas the Blizzard deposit contains a more complex assemblage of minerals (saleeite, autunite, ningyoite). The observed paragenetic sequence of mineral precipitation in the Blizzard deposit (autunite-saleeite-ningyoite) indicates that the uranyl minerals, saleeite and autunite, are primary. Investigations of the source of the ore-forming elements (U, Ca, Mg, PO/sub 4/) showed the deposits to be formed by the infiltration into fluvial sediments of deep-seated, structurally controlled, ground waters that migrated in a well-developed regional hydrologic system within the Complex. Research indicates that the ore-forming ground waters were cold, slightly bicarbonated (150-400 ppm), highly uraniferous (10-50 ppb), and slightly oxidizing (dissolved oxygen = 2-4 ppm).

Boyle, D.R.

1982-08-01

203

Variations in the D/H and 18O/ 16O ratios in cellulose extracted from a peat bog core  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A peat core from a raised bog covering the period 3100 to 2400 14C years B.P. has been analysed for D/H and 18O/ 16O ratios. These analyses were applied to cellulose, extracted from 56 successive layers of 1 cm thickness. D/H ratios were determined for the carbon bonded hydrogen; 18O/ 16O analyses were performed by applying a new method. For the interpretation of the results obtained on peat, the isotopic ratios of 11 living bog plant species were measured, showing a relatively large scatter. Most pronounced is a depletion in D of about 25‰ and in 18O of about 5‰ of the Sphagnum mosses relative to the vascular bog plants. This different isotopic composition is reflected by the ?D and ? 18O records of the peat core, because the abundance of the remains of non-vascular plants is variable. If this effect is taken account of, the remaining ?D variations appear to be too large to be attributed to variations in the isotopic compositions of precipitation. As palaeoclimatic indicators the D/H and 18O/ 16O ratio qualitatively agree with the pollen analytical evidence for the climatic deterioration of the Subboreal-Subatlantic transition.

Brenninkmeijer, C. A. M.; van Geel, B.; Mook, W. G.

1982-12-01

204

Comparative characteristic of the sphagnum moss and peat of upland bogs in Siberia, Russia and central part of Germany  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This research represents the results of the ICP-MS study for the moss and peat samples from two upland bogs of Germany and one bog from Siberia, Russia (Tomsk region). Moss and upland peat are widely used for ecological studies. These substances enable to detect atmospheric pollution because of the peculiar structure of sphagnum moss. According to the obtained results, we can resume that moss and peat in Tomsk region are more enriched in such chemical elements as Cr, Fe, As, Sr, Y, Zr, Ba, La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Tb, Yb, Lu, Hf, Hg, Th, and U. The samples from Germany are more enriched in Mn, Cu, Zn, and Se. The geochemical composition of the bogs reflects the specificity of industries that pollute the atmosphere with definite chemical elements. Thus, REE, Th and U in the moss and peat of Tomsk region can originate from nuclear facility near the Tomsk city. Coal combustion in power stations can be the source of Cr, As, Sr and REE as well. Mn, Cu, Zn, and Se possibly can originate from metallurgical facilities in Germany.

Mezhibor, Antonina; Podkozlin, Ivan

2013-04-01

205

[Estimation of the phylogenetic diversity of prokaryotic microorganisms in Sphagnum bogs with the use of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH)].  

PubMed

The microbial population of Sphagnum bogs of northern Russia was analyzed with respect to the presence and cell numbers of representatives of particular phylogenetic groups of prokaryotes by means of in situ hybridization with fluorescently labeled rRNA-targeted oligonucleotide probes with broad detection spectra. The total number of cells that hybridized with universal Archaea- or Bacteria-specific probes varied, in peat samples of different bogs, from 45 to 83% of the number of cells revealed by DAPI staining. Down the bog profiles, the total number of prokaryotes and the fraction of archaea among them increased. Application of a set of oligonucleotide probes showed that the number of microorganisms belonging to such phylogenetic lineages of the domain Bacteria as the phyla Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, Acidobacteria, and Planctomycetes constituted, in total, 14.0-26.5% of the number of eubacteria detected in the samples. Among the bacteria identified in the peat samples, the most abundant were representatives of the classes Alphaproteobacteria and Betaproteobacteria and the phyla Acidobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Actinobacteria. PMID:16400995

Pankratov, T A; Belova, S E; Dedysh, S N

2005-01-01

206

Respiration of soil and ground vegetation of a peat bog in southern taiga under drought stress  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Respiration of peat and ground vegetation (mostly sphagnum mosses) was measured by CO2 analyser LI-6400 in late August 2002 in the peat bog (Central Forest Nature Reserve, 560N, 330E, Tver region, Russia). The whole summer 2002 in the region was characterized by hot and dry weather, thus obtained data correspond to the extreme drought stress. Measurements were carried out on the 16 stationary points along the transect crossing the mire along the altitude gradient and presenting the whole range of vegetation complexes diversity: margin lag with the spruce stand and eutrophic and mesotrophic conditions; typical oligotrophic lag with pine stand and dwarf shrubs, tall sedges mesotrophic lawn, not forested hummock-hollow complex, forested hummock-hollow complex, the dwarf pine communities of different structure and at last the type of minerotrophic margin with meadow vegetation. As a “zero-point” the spruce forest on the land was appointed as the measurement point. The transect under study is the object of the long-term observations on the ground vegetation and groundwater parameters, which were related to obtained respiration values. The measured mean values of ground respiration were 4.9, 6.8, 7.5, 4.8, 3.9 and 3.7 mkmol m-2s-1 for spruce stand (bare soil), paludified spruce stand, pine mire margin, dwarf pine communities oligotrophic and minerotrophic part of the mire, respectively. Within the open peat bog hummock-hollow complex significantly higher respiration was observed for hummocks comparatively to the hollows: 6.6 and 4.2 mkmol m-2s-1, correspondingly. Significant correlation of ground respiration to the groundwater level and temperature difference between peat and air was observed. The study was carried out within the framework of international project TCOS. The data on the spatial variation of dark respiration depending on the vegetation structure and groundwater regime is considered as a background for the further functional patterns for the virgin mire ecosystems of the Russian Plain.

Tatarinov, F.; Minaeva, T.; Kurbatova, Yu.; Rusanovitch, N.

2003-04-01

207

A stacked record of late-Holocene moisture variability from three raised bogs in Maine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the past century, drought has caused substantial social, economic, and ecological changes in North America. Semi-arid regions of the western United States have been particularly vulnerable to drought and drought impacts. However, drought has been less frequent and severe in humid regions of North America during the past century, leading to the perception that these regions are not particularly vulnerable to hydroclimatic change. Although the tree-ring record provides a detailed perspective on drought frequency and duration for the past millennium in the western US, much less is known about the long-term history of water balance in humid regions like the Northeast. To better understand the long-term history of moisture variability in this region, we developed records of past hydroclimate variability spanning the past 3000 years from three raised bogs in Maine. We used testate amoeba-inferred water table depths and measurements of the degree of peat decomposition to reconstruct the paleohydrology at each site. Proxy hydroclimate records from these bogs were combined (stacked), creating a single, regional record of hydroclimate variability. Our results reveal that droughts longer or more severe than any recorded during the 20th century have been common in the region, with particularly prominent multidecadal-to-centennial scale droughts centered on ~1800 yr BP, ~1650 yr BP, ~850 yr BP, and ~550 yr BP. Hydroclimate variability was greatest during the Medieval Climate Anomaly, a time period of relative warmth in much of the Northern Hemisphere. Droughts in Maine during the past century have been associated with northerly wind anomalies and anomalously cool sea surface temperatures in the adjacent northwestern North Atlantic, patterns that are likely associated with broader circulation features such as those associated with the North Atlantic Oscillation. Droughts of the past 3000 years may have been characterized by similar responses to the coupled ocean-atmosphere system, although mechanisms and dynamics remain unclear. Although drought risks in humid regions such as eastern North America have been less studied because of lack of recent occurrence, our data reveal that this region has been vulnerable to persistent and prolonged droughts in the recent past.

Clifford, M. J.; Booth, R. K.

2011-12-01

208

Anthropogenic Lead Deposition over the last 15,000 years in Northern New Mexico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Analyses of stable isotopes of lead (206Pb/207Pb) as well as lead concentrations in soil sediments provide a method to discern anthropogenic from natural sources of lead deposition. In order to distinguish natural from anthropogenic aerosol deposition over the Holocene in Northern New Mexico, isotopic analyses and total lead measurements were performed on bog sediments spanning 15,000 years before present. The bog core was collected in the Santa Fe National Forest at an elevation of 2925 m and comprises a depth of ~400 cm of sediments. Dry and homogenized sediments from depth intervals varying from 2 to 20 cm were extracted in a microwave-assisted digestion with nitric acid at 170 Celsius degree. The accuracy and precision of our method were determined by analyses of standard reference materials (National Institute of Standards and Technology 981, International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)-SL-1 and IAEA-soil-7) and replicated measurements respectively. The preliminary results from this study have shown influences from regional anthropogenic sources as well as environmental forcing on the lead concentrations and isotopic signatures. The dominant signals in this environment are believed to be the result of local conditions of the sediments through the Holocene (e.g. dry versus wet/bog environments). This will have a significant impact on lead concentration and isotope modeling as local environmental condition is the dominant control of these proxies.

Cisneros-Dozal, L.; Fessenden, J.; Ray, C.

2006-12-01

209

Fine-scale horizontal and vertical micro-distribution patterns of testate amoebae along a narrow Fen/Bog gradient.  

PubMed

The ecology of peatland testate amoebae is well studied along broad gradient from very wet (pool) to dry (hummock) micro-sites where testate amoebae are often found to respond primarily to the depth to water table (DWT). Much less is known on their responses to finer-scale gradients, and nothing is known of their possible response to phenolic compounds, which play a key role in carbon storage in peatlands. We studied the vertical (0-3, 3-6, and 6-9 cm sampling depths) micro-distribution patterns of testate amoebae in the same microhabitat (Sphagnum fallax lawn) along a narrow ecological gradient between a poor fen with an almost flat and homogeneous Sphagnum carpet (fen) and a "young bog" (bog) with more marked micro-topography and mosaic of poor fen and bog vegetation. We analyzed the relationships between the testate amoeba data and three sets of variables (1) "chemical" (pH, Eh potential, and conductivity), (2) "physical" (water temperature, altitude, i.e., Sphagnum mat micro-topography, and DWT), and (3) phenolic compounds in/from Sphagnum (water-soluble and primarily bound phenolics) as well as the habitat (fen/bog) and the sampling depth. Testate amoeba Shannon H' diversity, equitability J of communities, and total density peaked in lower parts of Sphagnum, but the patterns differed between the fen and bog micro-sites. Redundancy analyses revealed that testate amoeba communities differed significantly in relation to Eh, conductivity, water temperature, altitude, water-soluble phenolics, habitat, and sampling depth, but not to DWT, pH, or primarily bound phenolics. The sensitivity of testate amoebae to weak environmental gradients makes them particularly good integrators of micro-environmental variations and has implications for their use in paleoecology and environmental monitoring. The correlation between testate amoeba communities and the concentration of water-soluble phenolic suggests direct (e.g., physiological) and/or indirect (e.g., through impact on prey organisms) effects on testate amoebae, which requires further research. PMID:20938656

Jassey, Vincent E J; Chiapusio, Geneviève; Mitchell, Edward A D; Binet, Philippe; Toussaint, Marie-Laure; Gilbert, Daniel

2011-02-01

210

Superfund record of decision (EPA Region 2): Burnt Fly Bog, Marlboro Township, NJ, September 30, 1998  

SciTech Connect

This decision document presents the selected remedial action for the Westerly Wetlands, Northerly Wetlands, and Tar Patch Area at the Burnt Fly Bog Superfund Site. It addresses contaminated soil present on the three remaining contaminated areas on the Site, including the Westerly Wetlands, Northerly Wetlands, and Tar Patch Area. The major components of the selected remedy include: Excavation and off-site disposal of contaminated soil from the Northerly Wetlands; Excavation and off-site disposal of contaminated soil from the Tar Patch Area; Backfilling the excavated area in the Northerly Wetland and reestablishing wetlands; Backfilling the excavated area in the Tar Patch Area and creating wetlands; Provision of additional security fencing around the Westerly Wetlands, and the recording of a Deed Notice for the Westerly Wetlands, Northerly Wetlands, and Tar Patch Area; Monitoring of surface water and sediment in the Westerly Wetlands, surface water and sediment in the existing sedimentation basin located in the Downstream Area, and surface water, sediment and, if necessary, biota in Burnt Fly Brook; and Biological sampling in the Westerly Wetlands.

NONE

1999-03-01

211

Variation in methane production pathways associated with permafrost decomposition in collapse scar bogs of Alberta, Canada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stable isotope analysis was used to determine the distribution of methanogenic pathways at permafrost collapse scar bogs to test the hypothesis that microbial respiration and methane production are stimulated by the input of organic matter associated with permafrost degradation and collapse. An alternative hypothesis is that recently assimilated carbon produced by the fen-like vegetation (Carex, Eriophorum) growing in open water moats formed by the collapsing edge of these features stimulates microbial respiration. We found that CO2 reduction was the dominant pathway for methanogenesis within the Sphagnum areas that dominate the surface cover of these features, but relatively more acetate fermentation occurred near collapse scar moats. Methane emission and net CO2 uptake were correlated. Both were elevated in collapse scar moats and then decreased along a transect from the moats toward the center Sphagnum-dominated areas. There also appeared to be a shift toward relatively more acetate fermentation in deeper samples associated with increasing cation (calcium and magnesium) concentrations. Our results indicate that organic inputs from permafrost degradation alone do not appear to stimulate acetate fermentation. Permafrost decomposition provides conditions along the collapsing edge that are conducive to colonization by fen-like vegetation that stimulates acetate fermentation and increases methane production and emission rates.

Prater, James L.; Chanton, Jeffrey P.; Whiting, Gary J.

2007-12-01

212

Nitrogen supply differentially affects litter decomposition rates and nitrogen dynamics of sub-arctic bog species.  

PubMed

High-latitude peatlands are important soil carbon sinks. In these ecosystems, the mineralization of carbon and nitrogen are constrained by low temperatures and low nutrient concentrations in plant litter and soil organic matter. Global warming is predicted to increase soil N availability for plants at high-latitude sites. We applied N fertilizer as an experimental analogue for this increase. In a three-year field experiment we studied N fertilization effects on leaf litter decomposition and N dynamics of the four dominant plant species (comprising >75% of total aboveground biomass) in a sub-arctic bog in northern Sweden. The species were Empetrum nigrum (evergreen shrub), Eriophorum vaginatum (graminoid), Betula nana (deciduous shrub) and Rubus chamaemorus (perennial forb). In the controls, litter mass loss rates increased in the order: Empetrum

Aerts, R; van Logtestijn, R S P; Karlsson, P S

2006-01-01

213

Atmospheric methane sources - Alaskan tundra bogs, an alpine fen, and a subarctic boreal marsh  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Methane (CH4) flux measurements from Alaska tundra bogs, an alpine fen, and a subarctic boreal marsh were obtained at field sites ranging from Prudhoe Bay on the coast of the Arctic Ocean to the Alaskan Range south of Fairbanks during August 1984. In the tundra, average CH4 emission rates varied from 4.9 mg CH4 per sq m per day (moist tundra) to 119 mg CH4 per sq m per day (waterlogged tundra). Fluxes averaged 40 mg CH4 per sq m per day from wet tussock meadows in the Brooks Range and 289 mg Ch4 per sq m per day from an alpine fen in the Alaskan Range. The boreal marsh had an average CH4 emission rate of 106 mg CH4 per sq m per day. Significant emissions were detected in tundra areas where peat temperatures were as low as 4 C, and permafrost was only 25 cm below the ground surface. Emission rates from the 17 sites sampled were found to be logarithmically related to water levels at the sites. Extrapolation of the data to an estimate of the total annual CH4 emission from all arctic and boreal wetlands suggests that these ecosystems are a major source of atmospheric CH4 and could account for up to 23 percent of global CH4 emissions from wetlands.

Sebacher, D. I.; Harriss, R. C.; Grice, S. S.; Bartlett, K. B.; Sebacher, S. M.

1986-01-01

214

Cryptic diversity within morphospecies of testate amoebae (Amoebozoa: Arcellinida) in New England bogs and fens.  

PubMed

Testate (shelled) amoebae are abundant and diverse in Sphagnum-rich areas of bogs and fens. Test morphology is standardly used to identify morphospecies as tests have varying shapes and compositions (e.g. siliceous, proteinaceous, agglutinated, or even calcareous). The recent application of molecular tools has revealed a greater complexity than morphology suggests, including multiple cryptic species. Here, we assess the biodiversity and relationships among eight morphospecies: Hyalosphenia elegans, Hyalosphenia papilio, Nebela carinata, Nebela flabellulum, Nebela militaris, Nebela tincta, Nebela tubulosa, and Quadrulella symmetrica using small subunit ribosomal DNA (SSU-rDNA). An SSU-rDNA phylogeny including 20 specimens from GenBank and 63 from this study reveals diversity within and among morphospecies and low resolution among some Nebela spp. Previous SSU-rDNA work on a limited sample of these species showed non-monophyly in the genus Hyalosphenia. Our analyses confirm this pattern and further suggest that other Nebela genera and morphospecies are not monophyletic. Moreover, inclusion of up to 24 specimens per species indicates non-monophyly of the morphospecies Hyalosphenia papilio and Hyalosphenia elegans. Our results suggest the morphological plasticity of testate amoebae across evolutionary time scales and that a combination of morphology and molecular analyses is needed to understand the biodiversity of these taxa. PMID:24657945

Oliverio, Angela M; Lahr, Daniel J G; Nguyen, Truc; Katz, Laura A

2014-03-01

215

Heuristic numerical and analytical models of the hydrologic controls over vertical solute transport in a domed peat bog, Jura Mountains, Switzerland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the results of numerical and analytical simulations to test the hypothesis that downward vertical flow of porewater from the crests of domed alpine and kettle bogs controls vertical porewater distributions of major solutes such as Ca and Mg. The domed Etang de la Gruère bog (EGr), Switzerland, characterized by a vertical downward gradient of 0·04 and stratified layers of peat, is chosen as a field site for the model calibration and evaluation. The middle 4-m section of the 6·5 m thick bog peat is heavily humified and has a hydraulic conductivity of 10-5·6 cm s-1. Above and below, peat is less humified with a hydraulic conductivity of 10-3 cm s-1. Heuristic finite difference simulations, using Visual MODFLOW, of the bog hydraulics show that the higher conductivity peat at the bog base is critical to create the observed deep, local flow cells that substantively recharge porewater.Model results and Peclet number calculations show that before 7000 14C yr BP diffusion of solutes from underlying mineral soils controlled the vertical distribution of porewater chemistry. From 7000 to 1250 14C BP the porewater chemistry was probably controlled by both upward diffusion and downward advection, and after 1250 14C yr BP porewater chemistry was probably controlled by downward advection. Concentrations of conservative major solutes in the porewaters of alpine, ombrotrophic bogs are the net effect of both downward vertical porewater movement and upward vertical diffusion, the magnitudes of which are delicately poised to the configuration of the bog water table over time and subsurface peat stratigraphy.

McKenzie, Jeffrey M.; Siegel, Donald I.; Shotyk, William; Steinmann, Philipp; Pfunder, Gabriele

2002-04-01

216

Impact of long term wetting on pore water chemistry in a peat bog in Ontario, Canada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Peatlands of the northern hemisphere store a remarkable amount of carbon but also contribute to global methane emissions. As large areas in the boreal and subarctic zone are considered to undergo significant climate change it is necessary to understand how these ecosystems react to altered environmental conditions. Since not only temperatures but also precipitation is likely to increase in these regions, it is of particular interest to understand the impact of raised water tables and changing local hydrological flow patterns on peatlands' carbon cycle. We chose a pristine bog that was partly flooded by a reservoir lake created 60 years ago in Ontario, Canada. Water management in the reservoir resulted in seasonal flooding, shifting hydrological flow patterns and vegetation gradients. The impact of partial flooding on pore water chemistry and DIC and CH4 concentrations were studied within surface peat layers. Samples were taken with pore water peepers along the vegetation- and flooding gradient. Turnover rates of DIC and methane were calculated from obtained concentration profiles and peat porosity under the assumption that transport is dominated by diffusion. Values of pH changed remarkably from 4 within the undisturbed bog part to almost 8 at the lake shore. Ca2+ and Mg2+ were the only ions that showed significant distribution patterns with readily increasing concentrations towards the lake water body. CH4 and DIC concentrations also increased towards the lake and peaked in around 100 cm depth right at the shore with maximum concentrations being 2766 ?mol L-1 for CH4 and 7543 ?mol L-1 for DIC, respectively. Turnover rates also increased towards the shore albeit some uncertainty lies in this finding as steady state condition required for calculations were probably not established and transport was not only dominated by diffusion. Maximum CH4 production rates were modeled to be 36 nmol cm-3 d-1 and maximum DIC production was calculated to 64 nmol cm-3 d-1. Ca2+ and Mg2+ concentration indicate lake water intrusion into the peat. Changes in pH are also probably due to lake water intrusion and altered plant communities. Vascular plant roots likely increased methanotrophy in subsurface layers but fuelled methanogenesis releasing labile carbon compounds in deeper layers. Modeling turnover rates gets exacerbated as other forms of gas transportation than diffusion prevail in vicinity to the lake. In addition to higher plant productivity lateral water flow is presumably the most important factor contributing to higher DIC and methane concentrations as it is thought to diminish the effect of end product inhibition in deeper peat layers towards the lake. We thus hypothesize that seasonal flooding not only affects ombrotrophic sites by nutrient inputs and subsequent changes in vegetation, but also due to altered hydrological flow patterns which will affect pore water chemistry and turnover rates by exchange of solutes and mineralization end products.

Schaper, Jonas; Blodau, Christian; Holger Knorr, Klaus

2013-04-01

217

Influence of water table on carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, and methane fluxes from taiga bog microcosms  

SciTech Connect

Hydrological changes, particularly alterations in water table level, may largely overshadow the more direct effects of global temperature increase upon carbon cycling in arctic and subarctic wetlands. Frozen cores (n=40) of intact soils and vegetation were collected from a bog near Fairbanks, Alaska, and fluxes of CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, and Co in response to water table variation were studied under controlled conditions in the Duke University phytotron. Core microcosms thawed to a 20-cm depth over 30 days under a 20 hour photoperiod with a day/night temperature regime of 20/10{degrees}C. After 30 days the water table in 20 microcosms was decreased from the soil surface to -15 cm and maintained at the soil surface in 20 control cores. Outward fluxes of CO{sub 2} (9-16 g m{sup -2}d{sup -1}) and CO (3-4 mg m{sup -2}d{sup -1}) were greatest during early thaw and decreased to near zero for both gases before the water table treatment started. Lower water table tripled CO{sub 2} flux to the atmosphere when compared with control cores. Carbon monoxide was emitted at low rates from high water table cores and consumed by low water table cores. Methane fluxes were low (<1 mg m{sup -2}d{sup -1}) in all cores during thaw. High water table cores increased CH{sub 4} flux to 8-9 mg m{sup -2}d{sup -1} over 70 days and remained high relative to the low water table cores (<0.74 mg m{sup -2}d{sup -1}). Although drying of wetland taiga soils may decrease CH{sub 4} emissions to the atmosphere, the associated increase in CO{sub 2} due to aerobic respiration will likely increase the global warming potential of gas emissions from these soils. 43 refs., 4 figs.

Funk, D.W.; Pullmann, E.R.; Peterson, K.M. [Univ. of Alaska, Anchorage, AK (United States)] [and others] [Univ. of Alaska, Anchorage, AK (United States); and others

1994-09-01

218

[Spatial structure of communities of heterotrophic flagellates from a sphagnum bog].  

PubMed

Spatial distribution pattern of heterotrophic flagellates within a macroscopically homogenous sphagnum parcel of a transitional bog in the southern taiga was studied. Under investigation was horizontal pattern at different scales (1 cm, 10 cm, 1 m, 10 m) and the vertical heterogeneity of the community in the sphagnum quagmire. 105 species and forms of heterotrophic flagellates were revealed. Predominating were euglenids, less abundant are kynetoplastids and cercomonads. The most numerous appeared to be Cryptomonas sp., Heteromita minima, Goniomonas truncata, Protaspis simplex, Bodo designis, B. saltans, Phyllomitus apiculatus, Paraphysomonas sp., Petalomonas minuta. More abundant species were characterized by less patchy distribution than less abundant. At a smaller scale, the community was formed by the species with different degree of patchiness while at larger scales, all the species possess nearly the same distribution pattern. The same number of samples of equal sizes revealed nearly the same species numbers independently of distances between the sample sites, as the samples at each scale differ from each other nearly at the same magnitude. An averaged size of the species aggregations in the community is as large as several centimeters. Such a scale is probably a characteristic size (minimum area) of the community of the sphagnum dwelling heterotrophic flagellates. Rather low environmental heterogeneity within the sphagnum quagmire leads to significant homogeneity of the community at larger scales. Vertical differentiation of the heterotrophic flagellate community within that quagmire appeared to be very unstable with the time. The same species are characterized by different preferences to the depths at different spatial-temporal loci. Specific vertical distributions and community patterns are formed under different local conditions. PMID:19326857

Tikhonenkov, D V; Maze?, Iu A

2009-01-01

219

Variability in the concentration and character of blanket bog pore water dissolved organic carbon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rising dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations in surface waters have prompted much research to elucidate the cause(s). Given that increases in DOC concentrations, [DOC], may indicate a destabalisation of carbon stores, increase water treatment costs and affect rates of primary production and respiration in aquatic ecosystems, identifying the causes of the increase is important. The majority of studies measure [DOC] but rarely is DOC composition considered contemporaneously - yet this important as it potentially indicates provenance, reprocessing and fate. Moreover, surface water samples are usually collected at a low spatial density within a catchment. For one year we have sampled pore water from 48 piezometers and 48 tension samplers across a 12 km2 area of a Scottish blanket bog hosting a wind farm. The sampling sites are divided into four sites along a hypothesized wind farm-induced microclimatic gradient. At each site twelve sampling plots were established, four each in areas dominated by mosses, sedges and shrubs. From each plot samples were collected from piezometers and tension samplers, representing free-flowing pore water and that held under tension respectively. Dissolved organic carbon concentration and absorbance (190 to 1100 nm), were measured for each sample. Ratios, established to indicate DOC character, were calculated from the absorbance data. We found [DOC] ranged from 2-197 mg l-1 and was significantly associated with sampling location, time of year and the interaction between site and time of year, but not with plant functional type. The water held under tension had a significantly higher [DOC] compared with the free-flowing pore water sampled from the same plot. Preliminary data analysis also indicates variations in the DOC character between sites and with time. These results demonstrate the variable nature of DOC production which is partially obscured when sampling at a catchment scale but needs to be better understood to further understanding of trends in [DOC].

Armstrong, A.; Waldron, S.; Ostle, N.; Whitaker, J.

2012-04-01

220

Carbon cycling responses to a water table drawdown and decadal vegetation changes in a bog  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The quantity of carbon stored in peat depends on the imbalance between production and decomposition of organic matter. This imbalance is mainly controlled by the wetness of the peatland, usually described by the water table depth. However, long-term processes resulting from hydrological changes, such as vegetation succession, also play a major role in the biogeochemistry of peatlands. Previous studies have looked at the impact of a water table lowering on carbon fluxes in different types of peatlands. However, most of these studies were conducted within a time frame that did not allow the examination of vegetation changes due to the water table lowering. We conducted a study along a drainage gradient resulting from the digging of a drainage ditch 85 years ago in a portion of the Mer Bleue bog, located near Ottawa, Canada. According to water table reconstructions based on testate amoeba, the drainage dropped the water table by approximately 18 cm. On the upslope side of the ditch, the water table partly recovered and the vegetation changed only marginally. However, on the downslope side of the ditch, the water table stayed persistently lower and trees established (Larix and Betula). The importance of Sphagnum decreased with a lower water table, and evergreen shrubs were replaced by deciduous shrubs. The water table drop and subsequent vegetation changes had combined and individual effects on the carbon functioning of the peatland. Methane fluxes decreased because of the water table lowering, but were not affected by vegetation changes, whereas respiration and net ecosystem productivity were affected by both. The carbon storage of the system increased because of an increase in plant biomass, but the long-term carbon storage as peat decreased. The inclusion of the feedback effect that vegetation has on the carbon functioning of a peatland when a disturbance occurs is crucial to simulate the long-term carbon balance of this ecosystem.

Talbot, J.; Roulet, N. T.

2009-12-01

221

Modeling the effects of hydrology on ecosystem respiration at Mer Bleue bog  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ecosys model was applied to examine the effects of peatland hydrology on soil respiration and ecosystem respiration at Mer Bleue peatland, Ontario, Canada. It was hypothesized that a decrease in near-surface microbial respiration in peat hummocks resulting from water table (WT) drawdown and subsequent desiccation of the uppermost peat would offset an increase of soil respiration at depth with improved aeration (respiration offsetting mechanism). In contrast, shallower water table in hollows would not allow near-surface desiccation to offset increased soil respiration at depth during drying. However, increased hollow soil respiration with WT drawdown would be offset by decreased aboveground moss respiration with near-surface desiccation in hummocks. Model results for microbial respiration were tested against independent laboratory experiments and ecosystem respiration against hourly eddy-covariance measurements of bog CO2 exchange from 2000 to 2004. The respiration offsetting mechanism modeled in hummocks resulted in CO2 production of 0.85 ?mol CO2 m-2 s-1 with both low (67 cm) and intermediate (38 cm) water tables in the summers of 2001 and 2004, and of 0.81 ?mol CO2 m-2 s-1 and 0.95 ?mol CO2 m-2 s-1 with high (31 cm) and intermediate (41 cm) water tables in the summers of 2000 and 2001. Ecosystem respiration was 2.01 ?mol CO2 m-2 s-1 and 2.23 ?mol CO2 m-2 s-1, and 2.62 ?mol CO2 m-2 s-1 and 2.58 ?mol CO2 m-2 s-1, respectively, during these periods. Our results suggest that ecosystem respiration at Mer Bleue varied little with water table, but this behavior may not be typical for other peatlands.

Dimitrov, Dimitre D.; Grant, Robert F.; Lafleur, Peter M.; Humphreys, Elyn R.

2010-12-01

222

Variations of 18O/ 16O in plants from temperate peat bogs (Switzerland): implications for paleoclimatic studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Despite the great potential of peat bogs as climatic archives, to date only few studies have focused on the climatic controls on cellulose isotopic composition in modern bog plants. This study attempts to calibrate plant-climate relationships by sampling a set of modern plant species (both vascular plants and mosses) and bog surface waters along an altitude transect in Switzerland. Isotopic analyses of water samples show that the ? 18O-values of surface bog waters follow the trend of precipitation despite significant scatter in the data set. Detailed sampling of surface waters within one bog shows that ? 18O-values vary widely and are closely related to the micro-topography of the bog surface. More enriched 18O/ 16O ratios in water samples collected from small raised hummocks than the ones collected from hollows are documented in both horizontal and vertical profiles. A ? 18O-?D plot indicates that the process leading to the isotopic enrichment of the uppermost surface waters is evaporation, greater above Sphagnum covered hummocks than above open pools. To investigate the implications of such high variability of source water for plant ?-cellulose ? 18O-values, a detailed study of both surface water and ?-cellulose ? 18O-values within one site is conducted. The large ? 18O variability observed in surface waters is found to be considerably smoothed in ?-cellulose (by a factor of 5-10 depending on the plant species). This indicates that the water used by plant photosynthetic processes reflects the isotopic composition of the average annual precipitation. This points to a source water level for plants of a few decimeters where the variations are smaller than at the air-water interface. The response of the ?-cellulose ? 18O to the environmental gradient along the altitude transect varies considerably from species to species. For most of the species studied, the ? 18O-values decrease with altitude, following the trends of ? 18O-values in precipitation and in surface water samples. Some species, the cotton sedge Eriophorum vaginatum and the moss Sphagnum capillifolium, show statistically significant ? 18O relationships to an altitude of -1.8‰/km and -2.9‰/km respectively. However, some other plant species, Calluna vulgaris, Vaccinium uliginosum, Andromeda poliflora, Carex pauciflora, Sphagnum cuspidatum and Sphagnum magellanicum, do not, or only partially, reflect changes in climatic parameters associated with an altitude increase. Furthermore, changes in relative humidity, which are not correlated with altitude, are found to explain a large part of the variability in ? 18O-values for the sedge Carex pauciflora and the moss Sphagnum cuspidatum. Therefore, this study confirms the importance of species-specific studies when interpreting 18O/ 16O ratios of macrofossils along a fossil peat sequence as a record of past climate changes. Our study allows to extend the mechanistic model that isotopically links source water and cellulose to the physiological specificities of sedges and mosses. A comparison of the modeled and calculated net biological fractionation factors for Eriophorum vaginatum and Sphagnum capillifolium reveals that these two species appear to have a more homogeneous leaf reservoir than trees.

Ménot-Combes, Guillemette; Burns, Stephen J.; Leuenberger, Markus

2002-09-01

223

[Analysis of genetic structure and differentiation of the bog and dry land populations of Pinus sibirica du tour based on nuclear microsatellite loci].  

PubMed

We evaluated the population structure of the bog and dry land populations of the Siberian pine Pinus sibirica (P. sibrica) in Western Siberia using nuclear genome markers. Six pairs of nuclear microsatellite loci were used for this analysis. We detected 30 allelic variants in 120 individuals of four populations of P. Sibirica. We established that the studied populations differ by genetic structure. The most essential differences were identified between the Siberian pine population from oligotrophic bog and the group of populations from dry land within eutrophic bogs and near settlements P. sibirica forest (F(ST) = 0.019; D(N) = 0.053). We estimated that diversification of the West Siberian populations of P. sibirica exceeded 2.4% (F(ST) = 0.024), based on an analysis of SSR markers. PMID:25735136

Oreshkova, N V; Sedel'nikova, T S; Pimenov, A V; Efremov, S P

2014-09-01

224

Geology and recognition criteria for sandstone uranium deposits in mixed fluvial-shallow marine sedimentary sequences, South Texas. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Uranium deposits in the South Texas Uranium Region are classical roll-type deposits that formed at the margin of tongues of altered sandstone by the encroachment of oxidizing, uraniferous solutions into reduced aquifers containing pyrite and, in a few cases, carbonaceous plant material. Many of the uranium deposits in South Texas are dissimilar from the roll fronts of the Wyoming basins. The host sands for many of the deposits contain essentially no carbonaceous plant material, only abundant disseminated pyrite. Many of the deposits do not occur at the margin of altered (ferric oxide-bearing) sandstone tongues but rather occur entirely within reduced, pyurite-bearing sandstone. The abundance of pyrite within the sands probably reflects the introduction of H/sub 2/S up along faults from hydrocarbon accumulations at depth. Such introductions before ore formation prepared the sands for roll-front development, whereas post-ore introductions produced re-reduction of portions of the altered tongue, leaving the deposit suspended in reduced sandstone. Evidence from three deposits suggests that ore formation was not accompanied by the introduction of significant amounts of H/sub 2/S.

Adams, S.S.; Smith, R.B.

1981-01-01

225

The Saprotrophic Bacterial Complex in the Raised Peat Bogs of Western Siberia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The population density of bacteria in peat deposits along the landscape profile of the Vasyugan Marsh has been found to be as high as tens of millions of CFU\\/g peat. The abundance and diversity of bacteria increased with depth within the peat deposit, correlating with an increasing level of peat degradation. Variations in these parameters with depth and season were

A. V. Golovchenko; Yu. V. Sannikova; T. G. Dobrovol’skaya; D. G. Zvyagintsev

2005-01-01

226

Nitrogen deposition effects on plant species diversity; threshold loads from field data.  

PubMed

National-scale plant species richness data for Great Britain in 1998 were related to modelled contemporary N deposition (N(dep)) using a broken stick median regression, to estimate thresholds above which N(dep) definitely has had an effect. The thresholds (kg N ha?¹ a?¹) are 7.9 for acid grassland 14.9 for bogs, 23.6 for calcareous grassland, 7.8 for deciduous woodland and 8.8 for heath. The woodland and heath thresholds are not significantly greater than the lowest N(dep), which implies that species loss may occur over the whole range of contemporary N(dep). This also applies to acid grassland if it is assumed that N(dep) has substituted for previous N fixation. The thresholds for bog and calcareous grassland are both significantly above the lowest N(dep). The thresholds are lower than the mid-range empirical Critical Loads for acid grassland, deciduous woodland and heath, higher for bogs, and approximately equal for calcareous grassland. PMID:23688734

Tipping, E; Henrys, P A; Maskell, L C; Smart, S M

2013-08-01

227

Carbon and Nitrogen Isotope Variation in Sphagnum from Peat Bogs in the Midwestern Us: Implications for Holocene Climate Reconstruction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A peat core taken from near the center of Minden Bog in Michigan, representing about 3500 years of accumulation was previously analyzed for plant macrofossils, colorimetric humification, and testate amoebae to yield three independent climate proxies. The data show the site to be sensitive to bog water table fluctuations and suggest that this may be related to regional climatic changes. We analyzed the carbon and nitrogen isotopes and the carbon-nitrogen ratios in the bulk peat samples and determined that the changes in these isotopes and ratios can be attributed to one or more of the following: (1) changes in the relative abundance of vegetation taxa in the site, (2) changes in the metabolism that impact isotope ratios in the vegetation contributing to the bulk organic, and (3) selective preservation and regeneration of specific organic compounds within the bulk organic matter. We analyzed the carbon and nitrogen isotopes and the carbon-nitrogen ratios in a specific taxum, Sphagnum, to differentiate between these mechanisms and relate the record to water level and climate in the region.

Wong, D.; Paytan, A.; Jackson, S. T.

2009-12-01

228

Sphagnum mosses from 21 ombrotrophic bogs in the athabasca bituminous sands region show no significant atmospheric contamination of "heavy metals".  

PubMed

Sphagnum moss was collected from 21 ombrotrophic (rain-fed) peat bogs surrounding open pit mines and upgrading facilities of Athabasca bituminous sands in Alberta (AB). In comparison to contemporary Sphagnum moss from four bogs in rural locations of southern Germany (DE), the AB mosses yielded lower concentrations of Ag, Cd, Ni, Pb, Sb, and Tl, similar concentrations of Mo, but greater concentrations of Ba, Th, and V. Except for V, in comparison to the "cleanest", ancient peat samples ever tested from the northern hemisphere (ca. 6000-9000 years old), the concentrations of each of these metals in the AB mosses are within a factor of 3 of "natural, background" values. The concentrations of "heavy metals" in the mosses, however, are proportional to the concentration of Th (a conservative, lithophile element) and, therefore, contributed to the plants primarily in the form of mineral dust particles. Vanadium, the single most abundant trace metal in bitumen, is the only anomaly: in the AB mosses, V exceeds that of ancient peat by a factor of 6; it is therefore enriched in the mosses, relative to Th, by a factor of 2. In comparison to the surface layer of peat cores collected in recent years from across Canada, from British Columbia to New Brunswick, the Pb concentrations in the mosses from AB are far lower. PMID:25259407

Shotyk, William; Belland, Rene; Duke, John; Kempter, Heike; Krachler, Michael; Noernberg, Tommy; Pelletier, Rick; Vile, Melanie A; Wieder, Kelman; Zaccone, Claudio; Zhang, Shuangquan

2014-11-01

229

Altitude or slope position - gaseous carbon cycling on UK blanket peat bogs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Blanket peat accounts for 87% of Britain's total peatlands and represents one of the UK's largest terrestrial carbon stores. For peatlands to accumulate carbon the net ecosystem exchange of CO2 (NEE) must be negative with respect to the atmosphere. Unlike many other peatlands, upland blanket peat bogs in the UK are draped across hillsides and so it could be that both altitude and slope position are significant controls upon the magnitude and direction of NEE. The role that altitude and slope position play on NEE in upland blanket peat is poorly constrained on a local scale. Thus a hillslope transect was set up to measure how the gaseous exchange of CO2 varies across altitude and with slope position. The slope-transect consisted of 4 sites, in the English Peak District, with three replicates per site. The transect spanned the entire margin of peat occurrence on the hillside, from the summit (447m ASL) to the lowest occurrence of peat at (378m ASL). The sites were positioned to sample each of the distinct points of the variation in slope from the flat top, to the point of slope steepening, to the point of slope leveling to the final flattening out of the slope. Each site was located in Calluna vulgaris of similar age and in the same growth phase (degenerate). Data were gathered for a year in order to sample a complete seasonal cycle. The results of analysis by ANOVA showed that altitudinal effects were either not present or so small as to be masked by other effects. However both NER and GPP seemed to be linked to slope position. ANOVA and post hoc Tukey testing showed that only the site on the point of slope steepening was significantly different to the other sites with NER being 47% higher and GPP being 63% greater than the average of the other sites. But the elevated rates of GPP and NER cancelled each other out resulting in a non-significant 3% greater rate of overall NEE from the point of slope steepening. Another slope position effect observed was that of hill foot shading. This created markedly less variable readings than on the hill top sites, with the coefficients of variation being 70%, 40% and 36% greater on the hill top sites than hill foot sites for NEE, NER and GPP respectively. This suggests shading provides a more stable environment leading to more a spatially uniform gaseous carbon cycle within a single vegetation type.

Dixon, Simon; Rowson, James; Worrall, Fred

2010-05-01

230

Acetoclastic and hydrogenotrophic methane production and methanogenic populations in an acidic West-Siberian peat bog.  

PubMed

Sites in the West Siberian peat bog 'Bakchar' were acidic (pH 4.2-4.8), low in nutrients, and emitted CH4 at rates of 0.2-1.5 mmol m(-2) h(-1). The vertical profile of delta13CH4 and delta13CO2 dissolved in the porewater indicated increasing isotope fractionation and thus increasing contribution of H2/CO2-dependent methanogenesis with depth. The anaerobic microbial community at 30-50 cm below the water table produced CH4 with optimum activity at 20-25 degrees C and pH 5.0-5.5 respectively. Inhibition of methanogenesis with 2-bromo-ethane sulphonate showed that acetate, phenyl acetate, phenyl propionate and caproate were important intermediates in the degradation pathway of organic matter to CH4. Further degradation of these intermediates indicated that 62-72% of the CH4 was ultimately derived from acetate, the remainder from H2/CO2. Turnover times of [2-14C]acetate were on the order of 2 days (15, 25 degrees C) and accounted for 60-65% of total CH4 production. Conversion of 14CO2 to 14CH4 accounted for 35-43% of total CH4 production. These results showed that acetoclastic and hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis operated closely at a ratio of approximately 2 : 1 irrespective of the incubation temperature (4, 15 and 25 degrees C). The composition of the archaeal community was determined in the peat samples by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis and sequencing of amplified SSU rRNA gene fragments, and showed that members of Methanomicrobiaceae, Methanosarcinaceae and Rice cluster II (RC-II) were present. Other, presumably non-methanogenic archaeal clusters (group III, RC-IV, RC-V, RC-VI) were also detected. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) showed that the number of Bacteria decreased (from 24 x 10(7) to 4 x 10(7) cells per gram peat) with depth (from 5 to 55 cm below the water table), whereas the numbers of Archaea slightly increased (from 1 x 10(7) to 2 x 10(7) cells per gram peat). Methanosarcina spp. accounted for about half of the archaeal cells. Our results show that both hydrogenotrophic and acetoclastic methanogenesis are an integral part of the CH4-producing pathway in acidic peat and were represented by appropriate methanogenic populations. PMID:15479249

Kotsyurbenko, Oleg R; Chin, Kuk-Jeong; Glagolev, Mikhail V; Stubner, Stephan; Simankova, Maria V; Nozhevnikova, Ala N; Conrad, Ralf

2004-11-01

231

Biogeochemical indicators of peatland degradation - a case study of a temperate bog in northern Germany  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Peatlands store a great proportion of the global soil carbon pool and can loose carbon via the atmosphere due to degradation. In Germany, most of the greenhouse gas emissions from organic soils are attributed to sites managed as grassland. Here we investigated a land-use gradient from near-natural wetland (NW) to an extensively managed (GE) to an intensively managed grassland site (GI), all formed in the same bog complex in northern Germany. Vertical depth profiles of ?13C, ?15N, ash content, C/N ratio, bulk density, as well as radiocarbon ages were studied to identify peat degradation and to calculate carbon loss. At all sites, including the near-natural site, ?13C depth profiles indicate aerobic decomposition in the upper horizons. Depth profiles of ?15Ndiffered significantly between sites with increasing ?15N values in the top layers with increasing intensity of use, indicating that the peat is more decomposed. At both grassland sites, the ash content peaked within the first centimeter. In the near-natural site, ash contents were highest in 10-60 cm depth. This indicates that not only the managed grasslands, but also the near-natural site, is influenced by anthropogenic activities, most likely due to the drainage of the surrounding area. However, we found very young peat material in the first centimeter of the NW, indicating recent peat growth. The NW site accumulates carbon today even though it is and probably was influenced by anthropogenic activities in the past indicated by ?13C and ash content depth profiles. Based on the enrichment of ash content and changes in bulk density, we calculated carbon loss from these sites in retrograde. As expected land use intensification leads to a higher carbon loss which is supported by the higher peat ages at the intensive managed grassland site. All investigated biogeochemical parameters together indicate degradation of peat due to (i) conversion to grassland, (ii) historical drainage as well as recent development and (iii) land use intensification.

Krüger, J. P.; Leifeld, J.; Glatzel, S.; Szidat, S.; Alewell, C.

2014-12-01

232

Atmospheric trace metal inputs in the Misten bog (East Belgium): Special attention to sampling techniques and site-spatial variability.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Peat bogs have a great potential to record anthropogenic inputs via their constituting mosses, because they draw their nutrients only from the atmosphere. These atmospheric inputs can be studied thanks to geochemical characteristics such as trace metal concentrations. Coupling lead isotopes to elemental geochemistry allows one to decipher between natural (erosion of rocks) and anthropogenic (pollution due to industrial development, vehicles...) inputs. The purpose of our work was to study the pollution history of trace metals in the region of Misten (Belgium) at a local and a regional level, and to place modern industrial pollution in this region in a wider historical perspective. Four peat cores (01W, 04W, 05W and 06W) were collected in 2008 in the Misten bog (Hautes-Fagnes plateau, E-Belgium) and studied for their trace metal and lead isotopic signatures. Analyses were accompanied by coupled 210Pb-14C age models in order to estimate the mercury and lead accumulation rates in each core and compare them to other European records. The Hg record was compared to the various anthropogenic sources as determined by Pb isotopes. The Hg concentration profiles resemble those of Pb, an element known to be immobile in peatlands. The correlation between these two metals suggests a predominant anthropogenic source of Hg (and Pb). In the W06 core, low and stable Hg accumulation rates (0.9-3.1 ?g m-2 yr-1) are found in the lower layers (503-1823AD). High Hg accumulation rates are found in the surface and sub-surface layers (post-1823AD) and peak at 123.3 ?g m-2 yr-1 (1969AD). In 01W, the lead enrichment factor (Pb E.F.) coupled with the continuous drop in 206Pb/204Pb, 207Pb/204Pb, 208Pb/204Pb isotopic ratios since 539 AD until 1973AD indicates the growing importance of the non-radiogenic Pb released from anthropogenic activities. The highest concentrations of Pb (613-662 µg g-1) have been found near the surface of the bog dated between 1902 and 1954AD. The Pb E.F. also significantly increased during the Industrial Revolution, and subsequently decreased due to the phasing out of leaded gasoline. Main results for Pb in 01W and Hg in 06W will be compared with the 2 other cores and previously published results collected in 2007 at another location in the same peatland. Differences in concentrations and chronology will be discussed in terms of (1) differences in the topography of the bog, (2) differences in the surface vegetation of the bog, which could have led to differential trapping and retention of lead, for example, and different retention of vegetation during sampling at the sites where the corers were inserted, (3) different effects induced by the operating mechanism of the corers, (4) operator-induced effects, e.g. leading to loss of surface material before or during coring.

Allan, Mohammed; Fagel, Nathalie; de Vleeschouwer, François; Mattielli, Nadine; Piotrowska, Natalia; Sikorski, Jarek; Sonke, Jeroen E.; Le Roux, Gaël.

2010-05-01

233

Reliance on prey-derived nitrogen by the carnivorous plant Drosera rotundifolia decreases with increasing nitrogen deposition.  

PubMed

• Carnivory in plants is presumed to be an adaptation to a low-nutrient environment. Nitrogen (N) from carnivory is expected to become a less important component of the N budget as root N availability increases. • Here, we investigated the uptake of N via roots versus prey of the carnivorous plant Drosera rotundifolia growing in ombrotrophic bogs along a latitudinal N deposition gradient through Sweden, using a natural abundance stable isotope mass balance technique. • Drosera rotundifolia plants receiving the lowest level of N deposition obtained a greater proportion of N from prey (57%) than did plants on bogs with higher N deposition (22% at intermediate and 33% at the highest deposition). When adjusted for differences in plant mass, this pattern was also present when considering total prey N uptake (66, 26 and 26 ?g prey N per plant at the low, intermediate and high N deposition sites, respectively). The pattern of mass-adjusted root N uptake was opposite to this (47, 75 and 86 ?g N per plant). • Drosera rotundifolia plants in this study switched from reliance on prey N to reliance on root-derived N as a result of increasing N availability from atmospheric N deposition. PMID:22506640

Millett, J; Svensson, B M; Newton, J; Rydin, H

2012-07-01

234

Cation-exchange capacity and galacturonic acid content of several species of sphagnum in Sandy Ridge Bog, central New York State  

Microsoft Academic Search

A very high correlation between the cation-exchange capacity and the content of galacturonic acid was found in eight species of sphagnum from Sandy Ridge Bog, in central New York State. An equally high correlation exists between the cation-exchange capacity and the optimum elevation for growth, measured in height above the water table.

Ann M. Spearing

1972-01-01

235

UNDERGRADUATE CC CoSRGE CoSFP UCC COD FCM FCSA BOG CCHE Add New Major/ Program of Study X X X X X X X  

E-print Network

UNDERGRADUATE CC CoSRGE CoSFP UCC COD FCM FCSA BOG CCHE Add New Major/ Program of Study X X X X X XSFP=Committee on Strategic and Financial Planning UCC = University Curriculum Committee COD = Council of Deans FCM = Faculty

Collett Jr., Jeffrey L.

236

Palaeohydrology, fires and vegetation succession in the southern Baltic during the last 7500 years reconstructed from a raised bog based on multi-proxy data  

E-print Network

Palaeohydrology, fires and vegetation succession in the southern Baltic during the last 7500 years Palaeohydrology Holocene Baltic Poland We present the first 7500 yr long multi-proxy record from a raised bog located at the southern Baltic coast, Poland. Testate amoebae, plant macrofossils, pollen and microscopic

Bern, Universität

237

Comparison of Hg and Pb Fluxes to Hummocks and Hollows of Ombrotrophic Big Heath Bog and to Nearby Sargent Mt. Pond, Maine, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two hummock cores (separated by 1 m), two hollow cores (separated by 1 m and both within 5 m of the hummock) from ombrotrophic Big Heath, and a single core from Sargent Mountain Pond (12 km north-northeast of the bog), Mt. Desert Island, Acadia National Park, Maine, USA were collected in 1983 and dated using 210Pb and analyzed for a

S. A. Norton; G. C. Evans; J. S. Kahl

1997-01-01

238

Processes and mechanisms controlling consumption of CFC11 and CFC12 by peat from a conifer-swamp and black spruce-tamarack bog in New York State  

Microsoft Academic Search

We evaluated the potential consumption of chlorofluorocarbons CFC-11 and CFC-12 by peat soil from a conifer swamp and a temperate bog in New York State in order to assess whether extensive northern peatlands might serve as a sink for atmospheric CFCs. Intact peat cores maintained with an anoxic headspace over the peat surface consumed CFC-11 and minor amounts of CFC-12.

M. R. Bauer; J. B. Yavitt

1996-01-01

239

Evolution of organic matter indicators in response to major environmental changes: The case of a formerly cut-over peat bog (Le Russey, Jura Mountains, France)  

E-print Network

of a formerly cut-over peat bog (Le Russey, Jura Mountains, France) Laure Comont, Fatima Laggoun-Défarge, Jean To assess whether the biochemical characteristics of peat can provide clues for past ecosystem changes monosaccharide determination of peat organic matter (OM) and the dominant living plants from a formerly cut

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

240

Carbon dioxide flux and net primary production of a boreal treed bog: responses to warming and water table manipulations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mid-latitude treed bogs are significant carbon (C) stocks and are highly sensitive to global climate change. In a dry continental treed bog, we compared three sites; control, recent (1-3 years; experimental) and older drained (10-13 years; drained) with water levels at 38, 74 and 120 cm below the surface, respectively. At each site we measured carbon dioxide (CO2) fluxes and tree root respiration (Rr) (across hummock-hollow microtopography of the forest floor) and net primary production (NPP) of trees during the growing seasons (May to October) of 2011-2013. The carbon (C) balance was calculated by adding net CO2 exchange of the forest floor (NEff-Rr) to the NPP of the trees. From cooler and wetter 2011 to driest and warmest 2013, The control site was a~C sink of 92, 70 and 76 g m-2, experimental site was a C source of 14, 57 and 135 g m-2, and drained site was a progressively smaller source of 26, 23 and 13 g m-2, respectively. Although all microforms at the experimental site had large net CO2 emissions, the longer-term drainage and deeper water level at the drained site resulted in the replacement of mosses with vascular plants (shrubs) at the hummocks and lichens at the hollows leading to the highest CO2 uptake at drained hummocks and significant losses at hollows. The tree NPP was highest at the drained site. We also quantified the impact of climatic warming at all water table treatments by equipping additional plots with open-top chambers (OTCs) that caused a passive warming on average of ∼1 °C and differential air warming of ∼6 °C (at mid-day full sun) across the study years. Warming significantly enhanced the shrub growth and CO2 sink function of the drained hummocks (exceeding the cumulative respiration losses at hollows induced by the lowered water level × warming). There was an interaction of water level with warming across hummocks that resulted in largest net CO2 uptake at warmed drained hummocks. Thus in 2013, the warming treatment enhanced the sink function of control by 13 g m-2, reduced the source function of experimental by 10 g m-2, and significantly enhanced the sink function of the drained site by 73 g m-2. Therefore, drying and warming in continental bogs is expected to initially accelerate C losses via respiration but persistent drought and warming is expected to restore the peatland's original C sink function as a result of transitional shift of vegetation between the microforms and increased NPP of trees over time.

Munir, T. M.; Perkins, M.; Kaing, E.; Strack, M.

2014-09-01

241

Microbial Community Structure and Activity Linked to Contrasting Biogeochemical Gradients in Bog and Fen Environments of the Glacial Lake Agassiz Peatland  

PubMed Central

The abundances, compositions, and activities of microbial communities were investigated at bog and fen sites in the Glacial Lake Agassiz Peatland of northwestern Minnesota. These sites contrast in the reactivity of dissolved organic matter (DOM) and the presence or absence of groundwater inputs. Microbial community composition was characterized using pyrosequencing and clone library construction of phylogenetic marker genes. Microbial distribution patterns were linked to pH, concentrations of dissolved organic carbon and nitrogen, C/N ratios, optical properties of DOM, and activities of laccase and peroxidase enzymes. Both bacterial and archaeal richness and rRNA gene abundance were >2 times higher on average in the fen than in the bog, in agreement with a higher pH, labile DOM content, and enhanced enzyme activities in the fen. Fungi were equivalent to an average of 1.4% of total prokaryotes in gene abundance assayed by quantitative PCR. Results revealed statistically distinct spatial patterns between bacterial and fungal communities. Fungal distribution did not covary with pH and DOM optical properties and was vertically stratified, with a prevalence of Ascomycota and Basidiomycota near the surface and much higher representation of Zygomycota in the subsurface. In contrast, bacterial community composition largely varied between environments, with the bog dominated by Acidobacteria (61% of total sequences), while the Firmicutes (52%) dominated in the fen. Acetoclastic Methanosarcinales showed a much higher relative abundance in the bog, in contrast to the dominance of diverse hydrogenotrophic methanogens in the fen. This is the first quantitative and compositional analysis of three microbial domains in peatlands and demonstrates that the microbial abundance, diversity, and activity parallel with the pronounced differences in environmental variables between bog and fen sites. PMID:22843538

Lin, X.; Green, S.; Tfaily, M. M.; Prakash, O.; Konstantinidis, K. T.; Corbett, J. E.; Chanton, J. P.; Cooper, W. T.

2012-01-01

242

CH4 production via CO2 reduction in a temperate bog - A source of (C-13)-depleted CH4  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The paper reports measurements, taken over two annual cycles, of the flux and delta(C-13) of CH4 released from an acidic peat bog located in the foothills of the Cascade Range in Washington state, U.S. Measurements of the rate of aceticlastic methanogenesis and CO2 reduction in peat soil, using (C-14)-labeled acetate and sodium bicarbonate, show that acetate was not an important CH4 precursor and that CO2 reduction could account for all of the CH4 production. The in situ kinetic isotope effect for CO2 reduction, calculated using the delta-(C-13) of soil water CO2 and CH4 flux, was 0.932 +/- 0.007.

Lansdown, J. M.; Quay, P. D.; King, S. L.

1992-01-01

243

Microbial activity of peat soils of boggy larch forests and bogs in the permafrost zone of central Evenkia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The microbial activity of peat soils was studied in boggy larch forests and in an oligo-mesotrophic bog in the basins of the Kochechum and Nizhnaya Tunguska rivers (central Evenkia). It was found that the organic matter transformation in the peat soils of all the plots is mainly performed by oligotrophic bacteria composing 88-98% of the total bacterial complex. The major contribution to the organic matter destruction belonged to the heterotrophic microorganisms, the activity of which depended on the permafrost depth and the soil temperature, the soil acidity, and the botanical composition of the peat. Peat soils were characterized by different activities as judged from their microbiological and biochemical parameters. The functioning of microbial communities in the studied ecotopes of the permafrost zone was within the range of natural variations, which pointed to their ecological stability.

Grodnitskaya, I. D.; Karpenko, L. V.; Knorre, A. A.; Syrtsov, S. N.

2013-01-01

244

The spatial and temporal relationships between CO2 and CH4 exchange in a temperate ombrotrophic bog  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the relationships between CO2 and CH4 fluxes across space and time at a temperate ombrotrophic bog in Canada to assess the coupling between plant production and CH4 emissions. Based on periodic manual chamber measurements, we show that maximum net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEEmax) was a good predictor of the spatial variations in CH4 flux among the wetter Eriophorum and lawn sites (r2 = 0.61-0.88), but not the drier hummock sites (r2 = 0.04-0.49). Also, we observed large interannual variability in the NEEmax-CH4 relationship at the Eriophorum and lawn sites, with a smaller regression slope in 2010 that had a seasonal mean water table 8 cm lower than in 2009. Results of cross-correlation of instantaneous gross ecosystem production (GEP) and CH4 flux from autochambers show a moderate relationship (? = -0.31) in the Eriophorum community at a lag of 9-12 h, suggesting a rapid turnover of recent photosynthate for methanogenesis. On the other hand, we found in two Maianthemum-dominated chambers that the temperature-independent residuals of daily mean CH4 flux lagged behind GEP by 18-26 days at the seasonal scale. The lagged correlations between GEP and CH4 flux by month were particularly strong in the late growing season in the Eriophorum and Maianthemum/Ledum communities. Our results suggest the presence of spatial and temporal coupling of plant production and CH4 emissions in this bog, whose strength varies with species composition, water table position, and plant phenology.

Lai, Derrick Y. F.; Roulet, Nigel T.; Moore, Tim R.

2014-06-01

245

Reconnaissance of uranium and copper deposits in parts of New Mexico, Colorado, Utah, Idaho, and Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Because of the common association of uranium and copper in several of the commercial uranium deposits in the Colorado Plateau Province, a reconnaissance was made of several known deposits of copper disseminated through sandstone to determine whether they might be a source of uranium. In order to obtain more information regarding the relationship between copper, uranium and carbonaceous materials, some of the uraniferious asphaltrite deposits in the Shinarump conglomerate along the west flank of the San Rafael Swell were also investigated briefly. During this reconnaissance 18 deposits were examined in New Mexico, eight in Utah, two in Idaho, and one each in Wyoming and Colorado. No uranium deposits of commercial grade are associated with the copper deposits that were examined. The uraniferous asphaltites in the Shinarump conglomerate of Triassic age on the west flank of the San Rafael Swell, however, are promising from the standpoint of commercial uranium production. Spectrographic analyses of crude oil, asphalt, and bituminous shales show a rather consistent suite of trace metals including vanadium, nickel, copper, cobalt, chromium, lead zinc, and molybdenum. The similarity of the metal assemblage, including uranium of the San Rafael Swell asphaltites, to the metal assemblage in crude oil and other bituminous materials suggests that these metals were concentrated in the asphaltites from petroleum. However, the hypothesis that uranium minerals were already present before the hydrocarbons were introduced and that some sort of replacement or uranium minerals by carbon compounds was effected after the petroleum migrated into the uranium deposit should not be disregarded. The widespread association of uranium with asphaltic material suggests that it also may have been concentrated by some agency connected with the formation of petroleum. The problem of the association of uranium and other trace metals with hydrocarbons should be studied further both in the field and in the laboratory.

Gott, Garland B.; Erickson, Ralph L.

1952-01-01

246

Annual variation of methane emissions from forested bogs in West Siberia (2005-2009): a case of high CH4 and precipitation rate in the summer of 2007  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have been conducting continuous measurements of CH4 and CO2 on a network of towers (JR-STATION: Japan-Russia Siberian Tall Tower Inland Observation Network) located in taiga, steppe, and wetland biomes of Siberia. Here we describe measurements from two forested bog sites, Karasevoe (KRS; 58°15' N, 82°25' E) and Demyanskoe (DEM; 59°47' N, 70°52' E), in West Siberia from 2005 to

M. Sasakawa; A. Ito; T. Machida; N. Tsuda; Y. Niwa; D. Davydov; A. Fofonov; M. Arshinov

2010-01-01

247

Metapopulation dynamics of the bog fritillary butterfly: comparison of demographic parameters and dispersal between a continuous and a highly fragmented landscape  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the effects of habitat loss and fragmentation on population functioning. We compared demography (daily and total population sizes) and dispersal (dispersal rate and dispersal kernels) of the bog fritillary butterfly in two 6-km2 landscapes differing in their degree of fragmentation. In 2000, we conducted a Capture-Mark-Recapture experiment in a highly fragmented system in the marginal part of the

Gwénaëlle Mennechez; Nicolas Schtickzelle; Michel Baguette

2003-01-01

248

CH 4 production, oxidation and emission in a U.K. ombrotrophic peat bog: Influence of SO 4 2? from acid rain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Factors influencing the rates of production and emission of CH4, CH4 oxidation and rates of SO42? reduction, were measured in the peat of an ombrotrophic bog in New Galloway, Scotland. Vertical concentration profiles of CH4 and O2 showed that the water table essentially represented the oxic-anoxic boundary in the peat. This boundary was usually at the surface in the case

David B. Nedwell; Andrea Watson

1995-01-01

249

An attempt to compare variations of carbon stable isotopes composition in two replicate cores from a Baltic bog in N Poland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two one-meter long monolith cores were taken from Stazki mire. Stazki mire is well preserved Baltic type raised bog with a very small evidence of exploitation. Stable isotopic composition of carbon (13C) was investigated in the bulk organic matter of Sphagnum. One centimetre resolution sampling was chosen for the investigation. Only carefully selected, leaf-free Sphagnum stems were collected for the

Jacek Pawlyta; Mariusz Lamentowicz; Tomasz Goslar

2010-01-01

250

Demographic and genetic status of an isolated population of bog turtles ( Glyptemys muhlenbergii ): implications for managing small populations of long-lived animals  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we sought to determine the population stability and genetic diversity of one isolated population of the federally-threatened\\u000a bog turtle (Glyptemys muhlenbergii) in North Carolina. Using capture–recapture data, we estimated adult survival and population growth rate from 1992 to 2007.\\u000a We found that the population decreased from an estimated 36 adult turtles in 1994 to approximately 11 adult

Shannon E. Pittman; Timothy L. King; Søren Faurby; Michael E. Dorcas

251

Micropaleontological observations on a Sphagnum bog in East Carpathian region – testate amoebae (Rhizopoda: Testacea) and their potential use for reconstruction of micro- and macroclimatic changes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the possibilities of reconstructing the hydrological history of an East Carpathian Sphagnum bog (Fenyves-teto, near Erzsébetbánya) based on the Testacea fauna and the humification. A Russian-type sampler was used to supply undisturbed cores of 400 cm in depth. The exotic marker method (Lycopodium clavatum as a marker) was used for quantitative estimation of the abundances. Humic acid concentration was

Csaba Schnitchen; E Niký O Magyari; Béla Tóthmérész; István Grigorszky; Mihály Braun

2003-01-01

252

Dissolved carbon and nitrogen quantity and quality at natural, drained and re-wetted bog sites in Lower Saxony (Germany)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

5 % of Germany's land area is covered with peatlands. Due to the large carbon and nitrogen stocks, changes in peatland hydrology for agricultural use have a huge impact on C and N cycling in the peatland and on the export to the atmosphere and adjacent ecosystems. Nonetheless, only a few studies focussed on the impact of drainage and re-wetting on C and N cycling in German raised bogs. Four study sites in the "Ahlenmoor" near Cuxhaven (Northwestern Germany) were chosen. This bog has a deep, medium to weakly decomposed peat layer. The sites represent a gradient of the groundwater level combined with land use differences (intensive and extensive grassland, natural site, re-wetted peat-cutting area). The mean annual groundwater level decreases from the natural and re-wetted sites (near surface) to the extensive grassland (30 cm below surface) and, finally, the intensive grassland (56 cm). The "Peeper" technique (dialysis sampler) was used to measure soil water chemistry in a high spatial resolution. At each site, three peepers (0-60 cm, 12 chambers each) collected soil water samples via diffusion. Monthly sampling was conducted from February 2012 till November 2012. The soil water solution was analysed for pH, EC, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), dissolved organic nitrogen (DON), NH4+, NO3- and SUVA(280). Samples taken in November 2012 were additionally analysed for dissolved CO2, CH4 and N2O. Average DOC concentrations ranged from 211 to 41 mg/L and decreased in order intensive > extensive grassland > re-wetted = natural site. After 10 years of restoration, the re-wetted and the natural site show similar DOC concentrations. Average SUVA(280) values of 3.7 to 3.3 L/(mg m) were higher at the grassland sites than at the re-wetted and the natural site. This indicates a distinct increase in aromaticity of DOC in grassland sites as a result of more intense humification of the upper peat layer. In contrast to mineral soils, SUVA(280) remained constant with depth at our sites. Total nitrogen decreased in same order as DOC and was mainly composed of DON. NH4+ dominates the inorganic nitrogen fraction. The comparison of peat C/N to DOC/DON ratios indicates that the more degraded upper layer is the main source of carbon and nitrogen in the soil solution. Dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) was mainly measured as dissolved CO2-C (13.6 mg/L), followed by CH4-C (1.7 mg/L). While CH4-C was present over the whole profile at the re-wetted and the natural site, it was missing in the upper 40 cm of the grassland sites. Instead, dissolved N2O-N was found (19.8 µg/L). Especially in natural bogs with low DOC concentrations, DIC may be a relevant part of the carbon budget. Our results show that the groundwater level in combination with land use has a huge impact on C- and N-quality and quantity between sites and within the peat profile, and that re-wetting may result in a return to "natural" DOC concentration levels and properties.

Frank, Stefan; Tiemeyer, Bärbel; Freibauer, Annette

2013-04-01

253

Greenhouse gas emissions from rewetted bog peat extraction sites and a Sphagnum cultivation site in Northwest Germany  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the last three decades, an increasing area of drained peatlands was rewetted. This was done with the objective to convert these sites from sources back to sinks or, at least, to much smaller sources of greenhouse gases (GHG). However, available data is still scarce, especially on the long-term climatic effects of rewetting of temperate bogs. Moreover, first field trials are established for Sphagnum cultivating (paludiculture) on wet bog sites and an assessment of the climate impact of such measures has not been studied yet. We conducted a field study on the exchange of carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide at three rewetted sites with a gradient from dry to wet conditions and at a Sphagnum cultivation site in NW Germany over more than two years. Gas fluxes were measured using transparent and opaque closed chambers. The ecosystem respiration (CO2) and the net ecosystem exchange (CO2) were modelled in high time resolution using automatically monitored climate data. Measured and modelled values fit very well together (R2 between 0.88 and 0.98). Annually cumulated gas flux rates, net ecosystem carbon balances (NECB) and global warming potential (GWP) balances were determined. The annual net ecosystem exchange (CO2) varied strongly at the rewetted sites (from -201.7 ± 126.8 to 29.7 ± 112.7 g CO2-C m-2 a-1) due to different weather conditions, water level and vegetation. The Sphagnum cultivation site was a sink of CO2 (-118.8 ± 48.1 and -78.6 ± 39.8 g CO2-C m-2 a-1). The yearly CH4 balances ranged between 16.2 ± 2.2 and 24.2 ± 5.0 g CH4-C m-2 a-1 at two inundated sites, while one rewetted site with a comparatively low water level and the Sphagnum farming site show CH4 fluxes close to zero. The net N2O fluxes were low and not significantly different between the four sites. The annual NECB at the rewetted sites was between -183.8 ± 126.9 and 51.6 ± 112.8 g CO2-C m-2 a-1 and at the Sphagnum cultivating site -114.1 ± 48.1 and -75.3 ± 39.8 g CO2-C m-2 a-1. The yearly GWP100 balances ranged from -280.5 ± 465.2 to 644.5 ± 413.6 g CO2-eq. m-2 a-1 at the rewetted sites. In contrast, the Sphagnum farming site had a cooling impact on the climate in both years (-356.8 ± 176.5 and -234.9 ± 145.9 g CO2-C m-2 a-1). If the exported carbon through the harvest of the Sphagnum biomass and the additional CO2 emission from the decay of the organic material is considered, the NECB and GWP100 balances are near neutral. Peat mining sites are likely to become net carbon sinks and a peat accumulating ("growing") peatland within 30 years after rewetting, but the GWP100 balance may still be positive. A recommended measure for rewetting is to achieve a water level of a few centimetres below ground surface. Sphagnum farming is a climate friendly alternative to conventional commercial use of bogs. A year round constant water level of a few centimetres below ground level should be maintained.

Beyer, C.; Höper, H.

2014-03-01

254

Holocene vegetation and climate change in southern New Zealand: linkages between forest composition and quantitative surface moisture reconstructions from an ombrogenous bog  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a Holocene pollen record from an ombrotrophic bog in Southland, New Zealand, together with multiproxy data (testate amoebae, peat humification and plant macrofossils) from the same core to establish an independent semiquantitative record of peatland surface moisture. Linkages between reconstructed peatland surface moisture and regional forest composition are investigated using redundancy analysis of the forest pollen data constrained with predicted bog water-table depths. Over 32% of the pollen data variance can be explained by surface moisture changes in the bog, suggesting a common cause of water-table and regional vegetation change. Water tables were higher during the early to mid-Holocene when the forest was dominated by podocarp taxa. Water tables lowered after about 3300 cal. yr BP coevally with the expansion of Nothofagus species, culminating with the dominance of Nothofagus subgenus Fuscospora in the past 1200 cal. yr BP. This is in apparent opposition to the warm/dry to cool/wet trend suggested by subjective interpretation of pollen data alone, from this and other studies. We suggest that during the late Holocene, drier summers associated with shifts in solar insolation caused reduced surface wetness and summer humidity, which together with a trend to cooler winters, apparently favoured the regeneration of Nothofagus species.

Wilmshurst, Janet M.; McGlone, Matt S.; Charman, Dan J.

2002-10-01

255

Effects of short-term drying and irrigation on electron flow in mesocosms of a northern bog and an alpine fen.  

PubMed

Methane emissions and element mobility in wetlands are controlled by soil moisture and redox conditions. We manipulated soil moisture by weekly drying and irrigation of mesocosms of peat from a bog and iron and sulfur rich fen. Water table changed more strongly in the decomposed fen peat ( approximately 11 cm) than in the fibric bog peat ( approximately 5 cm), where impacts on redox processes were larger due to larger change in air filled porosity. Methanogenesis was partly decoupled from acetogenesis and acetate accumulated up to 5.6 mmol L(-1) in the fen peat after sulfate was depleted. Irrigation and drying led to rapid redox-cycles with sulfate, hydrogen sulfide, nitrate, and methane being produced and consumed on the scale of days, contributing substantially to the total electron flow and suggesting short-term resilience of the microbial community to intermittent aeration. Anaerobic CO2 production was partly balanced by methanogenesis (0-34%), acetate fermentation (0-86%), and sulfate reduction (1-30%) in the bog peat. In the fen peat unknown electron acceptors and aerenchymatic oxygen influx apparently drove respiration. The results suggest that regular rainfall and subsequent drying may lead to local oxidation-reduction cycles that substantially influence electron flow in electron acceptor poor wetlands. PMID:20039737

Deppe, Marianna; McKnight, Diane M; Blodau, Christian

2010-01-01

256

Recent organic matter accumulation in relation to some climatic factors in ombrotrophic peat bogs near heavy metal emission sources in Finland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Accumulation of organic matter (OM) was studied in four ombrotrophic peat bogs in Finland: Harjavalta (vicinity of a Cu-Ni smelter), Outokumpu (near a closed Cu-Ni mine), Alkkia (Ni-treated site) and Hietajärvi (a pristine site). At each sampling site, two peat cores (15 × 15 × 100 cm) were taken. Age-dating of peat was determined using 210Pb method (CRS model). The local annual temperature sum and precipitation for the past 125 years were modeled. The objective was to compare recent net accumulation rates of heavy metal polluted ombrotrophic peat bogs with those of a pristine bog, and to study the relationship between weather and net accumulation rates. Based on 210Pb age-dating, the upper 16-cm peat layer at Harjavalta, 35 cm at Outokumpu and 25 cm at Hietajärvi represents 125 years of peat formation, yielding the following average peat accumulation rates: Harjavalta 1.3 mm year - 1 , Outokumpu 2.8 mm year - 1 and Hietajärvi 2.0 mm year - 1 . At the Alkkia site, the Ni treatment in 1962 had completely stopped the peat accumulation. Net accumulation rates were related to precipitation at Outokumpu, Harjavalta and Hietajärvi sites. In addition, emissions released from the nearby located Cu-Ni smelter could have affected negatively net OM accumulation rate at Harjavalta site.

Ukonmaanaho, L.; Nieminen, T. M.; Rausch, N.; Cheburkin, A.; Le Roux, G.; Shotyk, W.

2006-10-01

257

Carbon dioxide fluxes over a raised open bog at the Kinosheo Lake tower site during the Northern Wetlands Study (NOWES)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Measurements of carbon dioxide concentration and flux were made above a raised open bog at Lake Kinosheo in the southern Hudson Bay lowlands during the Northern Wetlands Study (NOWES) experiment in 1990. The flux measurements were made using micrometeorological techniques. They provide the first nondisturbing, larger-scale CO2 flux measurements for this ecosystem and are the first to integrate the exchange over the whole 24 hours of the day. Continuous concentration measurements by infrared gas analyzers (IRGA) and spot flask samples were taken over the period July 1 to July 29. Afternoon CO2 values were only 5 to 7 parts per million by volume (ppmv) lower than measurements over the same period at Canadian background monitoring stations. This suggested that there was little draw-down by local photosynthetic sinks. CO2 fluxes were measured at 8 and 18 m by Bowen ratio and eddy correlation methods, respectively. The methods produced comparable results on averaged data but often diverged considerably on individual half-hour results. Fluxes were small. Daytime values averaged to -0.068 mg/sq m/s by eddy correlation and -0.077 mg/sq m/s by Bowen ratio over the period June 25 to July 28 (negative denotes downward flux), while at night, flux densities were +0.062 mg/sq m/s and +0.085 mg/sq m/s. Integration of the mean diurnal curve gave a net flux of -1.7 g/sq m/d. Comparable data for this type of ecosystem were not found. However, Coyne and Kelley (1975), measuring near Barrow, Alaska, over wet meadow tundra dominated by sedges and grasses, found net fluxes of -7.2 g/sq m/d. Typical net CO2 fluxes from other active temperature ecosystems have been found to be -10 to -20 g/sq m/d (Monteith, 1976). Mean half hourly fluxes were almost constant at +0.06 mg/sq m/s through the nighttime hours. About one half-hour after sunrise the flux reversed direction. Uptake peaked about 0900 eastern daylight time (EDT) and then gradually declined but remained downward until near sunset. The early peak was interpreted to signify that the many plants in the bog experienced water stress during the day as evaporative demand increased and nighttime dew was evaporated.

Neumann, H. H.; Den Hartog, G.; King, K. M.; Chipanshi, A. C.

1994-01-01

258

The Brenner Moor - A saline bog as a source for halogenated and non-halogenated volatile compounds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Brenner Moor is a small bog in the catchment area of the river Trave located in Schleswig-Holstein, North Germany, between Baltic and North Sea. The bog is fed by several saline springs with chloride concentrations up to 15 g/L. The high chloride concentrations and the high organic content of the peat make the Brenner Moor an ideal source for the abiotic formation of volatile organic halogenated compounds (VOX). VOX play an important role in the photochemical processes of the lower atmosphere and information on the atmospheric input from saline soils like the Brenner Moor will help to understand the global fluxes of VOX. Soil samples were taken in spring 2011 from several locations and depths in the vicinity of the Brenner Moor. The samples were freeze-dried, ground and incubated in water emphasising an abiotic character for the formation of volatile organic compounds. 1,2-dichloroethane and trichloromethane are the main halogenated compounds emitted from soils of the Brenner Moor. The abiotic formation of trichloromethane as well as other trihalomethanes has been part of intensive studies. A well known source is the decarboxylation of trichloroacetic acid and trichloroacetyl-containing compounds to trichloromethane [1]. Huber et al. discovered another pathway in which catechol, as a model compound for organic substances, is oxidised under Fenton-like conditions with iron(III), hydrogen peroxide and halides to form trihalomethanes [2]. Besides the halogenated compounds, the formation of sulphur compounds such as dimethyl sulfide and dimethyl disulfide and several furan derivatives could be detected which also have an impact on atmospheric chemistry, especially particle formation of clouds. Furan, methylfuran and dimethylfuran are compounds that can be obtained under Fenton-like oxidation from catechol, methyl- and dimethylcatechol and are known to be produced in natural soils [3]. A novel class of furan derivatives that are formed under abiotic conditions from the soils of the Brenner Moor contain an extended alkane chain at the number 2' position of the furan ring, namely the ethyl-, propyl-, and butylfurans. High concentrations of oxalic acid in the soil samples verify the oxidative character of the abiotic formation of the here named compounds. This study shows that atmospherically relevant organic compounds such as 1,2-dichloroethane, trichloromethane and the furan derivates do not always have an anthropogenic origin but can be formed under natural oxidative conditions. [1] Laturnus et al., 2005, Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res., 12, 1-2. [2] Huber et al., 2009, Environ. Sci. Technol., 43 (13), 4934-4939. [3] Huber et al., 2010, Environ. Sci. Technol., 44 (15), 5799-5804.

Krause, T.; Studenroth, S.; Furchner, M.; Hoffman, A.; Lippe, S.; Kotte, K.; Schöler, H. F.

2012-04-01

259

Carbon dioxide fluxes over a raised open bog at the Kinosheo Lake tower site during the Northern Wetlands Study (NOWES)  

SciTech Connect

Measurements of carbon dioxide concentration and flux were made above a raised open bog at Lake Kinosheo in the southern Hudson Bay lowlands during the Northern Wetlands Study (NOWES) experiment in 1990. Continuous concentration measurements by infrared gas analyzers (IRGA) and spot flask samples were taken over the period July 1 to July 29. Afternoon CO{sub 2} values were only 5 to 7 parts per million by volume (ppmv) lower than measurements over the same period at Canadian background monitoring stations. This suggested that there was little draw-down by local photosynthetic sinks. CO{sub 2} fluxes were measured at 8 and 18 m by Bowen ratio and eddy correlation methods, respectively. The methods produced comparable results on averaged data but often diverged considerably on individual half-hour results. Fluxes were small. Daytime values averaged to -0.068 mg/m{sup 2}/s by eddy correlation and -0.077 mg/m{sup 2}/s by Bowen ratio over the period June 25 to July 28 (negative denotes downward flux), while at night, flux densities were +0.062 mg/m{sup 2}/s and +0.085 mg/m{sup 2}/s. Integration of the mean diurnal curve gave a net flux of -1.7 g/m{sup 2}/d. Comparable data for this type of ecosystem were not found. However, Coyne and Kelley (1975), measuring near Barrow, Alaska, over wet meadow tundra dominated by sedges and grasses, found net fluxes of -7.2 g/m{sup 2}/d. Typical net CO{sub 2} fluxes from other active temperature ecosystems have been found to be -10 to -20 g/m{sup 2}/d. Mean half hourly fluxes were almost constant at +0.06 mg/m{sup 2}/s through the nighttime hours. About one half-hour after sunrise the flux reversed direction. Uptake peaked about 0900 eastern daylight time (EDT) and then gradually declined but remained downward until near sunset. The early peak was interpreted to signify that the many plants in the bog experienced water stress during the day as evaporative demand increased and nighttime dew was evaporated. 20 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

Neumann, H.H.; Hartog, G. den [Atmospheric Environment Service, Ontario (Canada)] [Atmospheric Environment Service, Ontario (Canada); King, K.M.; Chipanshi, A.C. [Univ. of Guelph, Ontario (Canada)] [Univ. of Guelph, Ontario (Canada)

1994-01-20

260

Deposition Equipment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a description for a learning module from Maricopa Advanced Technology Education Center. This PDF describes the module; access may be purchased by visiting the MATEC website. Use this module to develop your learners' ability to control deposition equipment operations. The activities are adaptable to cleanroom or laboratory, and employ the Applied Materials Precision 5000 as a prototypical CVD tool. The module takes learners through a review of the deposition process, an introduction to the systems and subsystems of a CVD tool, and through an entire operations cycle from recipe interpretation through process control of inputs/outputs.

261

Determination of the organic carbon content in bog and river waters of the taiga zone based on their optical density  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Based on the data of long-term studies of bog and river waters in the taiga zone of Western Siberia, highly significant linear regression models for the relationships between the organic matter content and optical density of the water were developed. The parameters of the relationships obtained are proposed to be used for the determination of the water-soluble carbon content. The inclusion only of the optical density values into the calculated formulas makes them convenient for practical application. Regression models were developed on the basis of the data on determining the carbon content using the bichromate method, which is widely used in soil and hydrochemical studies. The calculated method forms prerequisites for the operational monitoring of the water-soluble organic substances, since the obtained results can be comparable with the earlier published data on the carbon content determined by the same method. These regression models seem to also be suitable for the determination of the organic carbon in the water extracts of organic soils.

Efremova, T. T.; Sekretenko, O. P.; Efremov, S. P.

2014-08-01

262

The structure of the microbial communities in low-moor and high-moor peat bogs of Tomsk oblast  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The number, structure, and physical state of the microbial communities in high-moor and low-moor peat bogs were compared. Distinct differences in these characteristics were revealed. The microbial biomass in the high-moor peat exceeded that in the low-moor peat by 2-9 times. Fungi predominated in the high-moor peat, whereas bacteria were the dominant microorganisms in the low-moor peat. The micromycetal complexes of the high-moor peat were characterized by a high portion of dark-colored representatives; the complexes of the low-moor peat were dominated by fast-growing fungi. The species of the Penicillum genus were dominant in the high-moor peat; the species of Trichoderma were abundant in the low-moor peat. In the former, the bacteria were distinguished as minor components; in the latter, they predominated in the saprotrophic bacterial complex. In the high-moor peat, the microorganisms were represented by bacilli, while, in the low-moor peat, by cytophages, myxobacteria, and actinobacteria. The different physiological states of the bacteria in the studied objects reflecting the duration of the lag phase and the readiness of the metabolic system to consume different substrates were demonstrated for the first time. The relationships between the trophic characteristics of bacterial habitats and the capacity of the bacteria to consume substrates were established.

Dobrovol'skaya, T. G.; Golovchenko, A. V.; Kukharenko, O. S.; Yakushev, A. V.; Semenova, T. A.; Inisheva, L. A.

2012-03-01

263

A coherent high-precision radiocarbon chronology for the Late-glacial sequence at Sluggan Bog, Co. Antrim, Northern Ireland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Seventy-five radiocarbon dates are presented from Sluggan Bog in Co. Antrim, Northern Ireland. The Holocene peats are underlain by Late-glacial sediments, which also appear to have accumulated largely in a mire environment. The radiocarbon dates, from the Late-glacial and early Holocene part of the profile, were obtained from the humic and humin fractions of the sedimentary matrix, and from plant macrofossils. The last-named were dated by AMS and the sediment samples by radiometric (beta counting) methods. Age-depth models for the three dating series show a very high level of agreement between the two fractions and the macrofossils. No statistically significant difference is found between the beta counting and AMS results. Three tephras were located in the profile, the uppermost of which is in a stratigraphical position suggestive of the Vedde Ash, but the geochemical and radiocarbon evidence do not support this interpretation. The lower ashes are in the correct stratigraphical position for the Laacher See and Borrobol tephras, attributions substantiated by the radiocarbon evidence, but not by the geochemical data. The Sluggan sequence has generated one of the most internally consistent radiocarbon chronologies for any Late-glacial site in the British Isles, and it is suggested that in future more effort should be devoted to the search for, and analysis of, Late-glacial mire sequences, rather than the limnic records that have formed the principal focus of Late-glacial investigations hitherto. Copyright

Lowe, J. J.; Walker, M. J. C.; Scott, E. M.; Harkness, D. D.; Bryant, C. L.; Davies, S. M.

2004-02-01

264

A carbon accumulation maximum during the Medieval Climate Anomaly in the world’s biggest bog, Siberia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The West Siberia Lowland is the most carbon-rich northern wetland region, holding an important portion of total northern peatland carbon (70 Gt of 270-450 Gt C) mainly in the southern lowland (44 Gt) in very large peatlands. The largest of these, the Great Vasyugan Bog complex, spans 63,252 km2 and alone holds ~11 Gt C. Our previous work has shown that recent-past growth of WSL peat C pool has been greatest in southern WSL in large peatlands close to the southern limit of peatland distribution. In this study, we investigate a Great Vasyugan site to investigate peat carbon sensitivity in two ways: 1) assess past changes in vegetation, species-specific 13C geochemistry, and rate of carbon accumulation relative to recent-past climate variation, and 2) assess the relative lability of this deep peat C through laboratory incubations. Carbon accumulation over the last 2000 years, a period of relatively consistent vegetation and litter inputs but variable local hydrology, reached a maximum between 1150 and 1350 AD during Medieval Climate Anomaly conditions. A carbon accumulation minimum occurred between about 1350 and 1550 AD. Regardless of depth, age, or rate of carbon burial, deep peat from between 30 and 230 cm below the surface showed a similar rate of potential aerobic respiration that changed little over 42 days of incubation. Taken together, these data suggest that in some peatlanlds warmer and hydrologically-variable conditions can promote long-term belowground carbon storage.

Beilman, D.; MacDonald, G. M.

2009-12-01

265

Elevated Nitrogen Deposition from Alberta Oil Sands Development Stimulates Phosphatase Activity in Dominant Sphagnum Moss Species  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Emissions of NOx associated with Alberta oil sands (AOS) development are leading to locally elevated atmospheric N deposition, in a region where background N deposition has been historically quite low (< 1 kg/ha/yr). This elevated N deposition has the potential to alter the ecosystem structure and function of nutrient-poor boreal peatlands. Nitrogen enrichment may alter soil microbial activity, which could be manifested in changes in extracellular enzyme activities. Since 2011, we have been experimentally adding N as NH4NO3 in simulated precipitation at 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 kg N ha/yr/ plus no-water controls to a boreal bog and a poor fen (3 replicate plots per treatment). In 2013, acid phosphatase activities in living plant capitulum of Sphagnum angustifolium, Sphagnum fuscum, and Sphagnum magellanicum were quantified in June and July using 4-methyumbelliferylphosphate and fluorescence detection of the enzymatically released methylumbelliferone (MUF). Phosphatase activities did not differ with N treatment for S. angustifolium in the bog (p=0.3409) or the poor fen (p=0.0629), or for S. fuscum in the bog (p=0.1950), averaging 35.0 × 0.7, 61.6 × 1.2, and 41.6 × 0.9 ?mol MUF/g DWT/hr, respectively. For S. fuscum in the poor fen, phosphatase activities differed between N treatments (p=0.0275), ranging 40.6 × 1.1 ?mol MUF/g DWT/hr in the control plots to 73.7 × 2.0 ?mol MUF/g DWT/hr in the 5 kg/ha/yr N treatment plots; increasing N deposition did not result in a gradual change in enzyme activity. On the other hand, S. magellanicum phosphatase activities differed between N treatments (p=0.0189) and showed a pattern of generally increasing activity with increasing N deposition (37.4 × 0.5 ?mol MUF/g DWT/hr in control plots; 97.9 × 4.5 ?mol MUF/g DWT/hr in the 25 kg/ha/yr N treatment plots). The differing phosphatase responses between these dominant Sphagnum species suggest unique differences in nutrient balance and/or microbial activity. Combining the three moss species and weighting by their abundances within each plot (percent cover), phosphatase activities differed between N treatments in the bog (p=0.0388) and the poor fen (p=0.0005), with the latter exhibiting a clear increase in enzyme activity with increasing N deposition, and a doubling of phosphatase activity between the control plots and the 25 kg/kg/yr N deposition treatment. Although the three moss species responded differently, at the plot scale, increasing N deposition stimulated phosphatase activity, suggesting that microbial enzyme activity in peat is sensitive to increasing N deposition from oil sands development, with potential consequences for peatland nutrient cycling.

Kashi, N. N.; Wieder, R.; Vile, M. A.

2013-12-01

266

Atmospheric mercury deposition recorded in an ombrotrophic peat core from Xiaoxing'an Mountain, Northeast China  

SciTech Connect

The historical mercury accumulation rates (Hg AR) resulting from atmospheric deposition to Xiaoxing'an Mountain were determined via analysis of {sup 210}Pb- and {sup 14}C-dated cores up to 5000 years old. Natural Hg AR background, pre-industrial Hg AR and maximum industrial Hg AR in Northeast China were 2.2 {+-}1.0 {mu}g/m{sup 2}/yr for 5100-4500 BP, 5.7 {mu}g/m{sup 2}/yr and 112.4 {mu}g/m{sup 2}/yr, respectively. We assumed that the increase in Hg deposition in the Xiaoxing'an mountain area during industrial time was mainly attributed to local anthropogenic emissions around this peat bog.

Tang, Shunlin, E-mail: tangshunlin@vip.gyig.ac.cn [Institute of Resources and Environment, Henan Polytechnic University, Jiaozuo, Henan province (China) [Institute of Resources and Environment, Henan Polytechnic University, Jiaozuo, Henan province (China); State Key laboratory of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Science, Guiyang (China); Huang, Zhongwei; Liu, Jun; Yang, Zaichan [Institute of Resources and Environment, Henan Polytechnic University, Jiaozuo, Henan province (China)] [Institute of Resources and Environment, Henan Polytechnic University, Jiaozuo, Henan province (China); Lin, Qinhua [State Key laboratory of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Science, Guiyang (China)] [State Key laboratory of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Science, Guiyang (China)

2012-10-15

267

The effects of ecological restoration on CO2 fluxes from a climatically marginal upland blanket bog  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A legacy of gully incision, deposition of industrially-derived aerial pollutants, inappropriate management and wildfire has left large expanses of the topographic Bleaklow Plateau (Peak District National Park, England, UK) bare of vegetation and susceptible to massive erosion of the peat soils. The consequence of such degradation has been to decrease the capacity of the peatland on the plateau to provide important ecosystem services including; loss of net C sink function, discolouration of surface waters, mobilisation to surface waters of stored heavy metals and infilling of upland reservoirs with peat-derived sediment. In response to on-going and worsening degradation a programme of ecological restoration has been undertaken. Restoration methods include: seeding with a lawn grass mix; liming; fertilisation; slope stabilisation; and gully blocking. This talk will present data from a five-year, observational-study of CO2 fluxes from eight sites, with four sites sampling different restoration treatments and four sampling bare and least disturbed areas. The results of the analysis reveal that sites with revegetation alongside slope stabilisation were most productive and were the largest net (daylight hours) sinks of CO2. Unrestored, bare sites, while having relatively low gross fluxes of CO2 were the largest net sources of CO2. Revegetation without slope stabilisation took longer (~18 months) to show an impact on CO2 flux in comparison to the sites with slope stabilisation. Binary logistic regression indicated that a ten centimetre increase in water table depth decreases the odds of observing a net CO2 sink, on a given site, by up to 30%. Sites with slope stabilisation were between 5-8x more likely to be net CO2 sinks than the bare sites. Sites without slope stabilisation were only 2-2.3x more likely to be net CO2 sinks compared to the bare sites. The most important conclusion of this research is that revegetation appears to be effective at increasing the likelihood of net CO2 behaviour on degraded, climatically marginal blanket peat, with revegetation alongside slope stabilisation having the greatest impact.

Dixon, Simon; Qassim, Suzane; Rowson, James; Worrall, Fred; Evans, Martin

2013-04-01

268

The influence of past and present hydrological conditions on Sphagnum recolonization and succession in a block-cut bog, Québec  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study of an abandoned cutover bog aims to understand the processes controlling moisture conditions that have led to distinct spatial patterns of Sphagnum recolonization, and also how substrate conditions may have changed since abandonment and the implications for plant establishment. Two (unreplicated) symmetrical 12 × 3.5 m2 quadrats either side of the centre-line of a block-cut trench were treated by removing all recolonized vegetation, including Sphagnum, from one quadrat (REMOV), examining Sphagnum-covered (SPHAG) peat in the other, and bare peat (BARE) in both. Average volumetric soil moisture contents in the peat (2 cm below the surface) of the SPHAG and REMOV substrates were similar (86%), but greater than in BARE peat (78%). In a location not manipulated for this experiment, where Sphagnum cushions have re-established on bare cutover peat, beneath the cushions was 5-14% greater than in bare cutover peat directly adjacent to it, indicating that cushions can regulate local substrate water storage, and benefit from it during periods of increased water demand. This may have assisted in the lateral expansion of Sphagnum. A loosely structured 0.5 to 1.0 cm thick organic litter layer (chiefly Ericaceae) overlying the BARE peat substrate slowed the rate of drying of bare peat in a laboratory sample. The laboratory tests found the capillary fringe to be up to 26 cm above the water table. The dry conditions and the larger pore structure of this litter layer hindered upward capillary flow and, therefore, plant water availability. In (occluded) ditches and low areas, the capillary fringe remained within 5 cm of the surface, and these locations supported the most complete Sphagnum cover. In slightly higher areas, where the capillary fringe was about 20 cm below the surface, and because of the leaf litter, capillary water supply to the surface is sufficiently restricted to limit Sphagnum recolonization. These locations may have to await lateral expansion of Sphagnum cushions to achieve a full cover.

Price, Jonathan S.; Whitehead, Grant S.

2004-02-01

269

Lake and Bog Sediment Records of Holocene Climate and Glacier Variability in the Cordillera Vilcabamba of Southern Peru  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Records of past fluctuations in climatically sensitive tropical glaciers are among the best indicators of regional paleoclimatic trends and forcings. However, continuous sediment records in this region remain limited, particularly during the Holocene. Here we present the first continuous records of glacier activity in the Cordillera Vilcabamba (13°20'S) of southern Peru from lake and bog sediment cores in stratigraphic contact with 10Be-dated moraines. Completed analyses include sediment lithostratigraphy, magnetic susceptibility, and biogenic silica, in conjunction with AMS radiocarbon dates on charcoal. Carbon measurements, bulk density, and bulk sedimentation rates are used to derive a record of clastic sediment flux that serves as a proxy indicator of former glacier activity. Visually distinct sedimentological variations, magnetic susceptibility peaks, and radiocarbon dates were correlated among adjacent cores to construct one composite record representative of each coring site. Three composite cores are presented: two from the Rio Blanco valley and one from the Yanama valley. Sediment records from these two glaciated valleys suggest a series of environmental changes during the last ~12,000 calendar years BP. Clastic sediment flux trends are broadly consistent with published evidence that the early to middle Holocene was relatively warm and arid in the southern Peruvian Andes. An episode of high clastic flux in the late Holocene may reflect enhanced glacial activity in response to the onset of cooler and wetter conditions. A prominent peak in magnetic susceptibility at 1660 cal yr BP is present in all composite cores and serves as a chronostratigraphic marker. In addition, our new basal radiocarbon ages place limits on the cosmogenic 10Be production rate in the high Andes, suggesting the cosmogenic 10Be production rate is considerably lower than previously published estimates.

Schweinsberg, A.; Licciardi, J. M.; Rodbell, D. T.; Stansell, N.

2013-12-01

270

Demographic and genetic status of an isolated population of bog turtles (Glyptemys muhlenbergii): Implications for managing small populations of long-lived animals  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In this study, we sought to determine the population stability and genetic diversity of one isolated population of the federally-threatened bog turtle (Glyptemys muhlenbergii) in North Carolina. Using capture-recapture data, we estimated adult survival and population growth rate from 1992 to 2007. We found that the population decreased from an estimated 36 adult turtles in 1994 to approximately 11 adult turtles in 2007. We found a constant adult survival of 0. 893 (SE = 0. 018, 95% confidence interval, 0. 853-0. 924) between 1992 and 2007. Using 18 microsatellite markers, we compared the genetic status of this population with five other bog turtle populations. The target population displayed allelic richness (4. 8 ?? 0. 5) and observed heterozygosity (0. 619 ?? 0. 064) within the range of the other bog turtle populations. Coalescent analysis of population growth rate, effective population size, and timing of population structuring event also indicated the genetics of the target population were comparable to the other populations studied. Estimates of effective population size were a proportion of the census size in all populations except the target population, in which the effective population size was larger than the census size (30 turtles vs. 11 turtles). We attribute the high genetic diversity in the target population to the presence of multiple generations of old turtles. This study illustrates that the demographic status of populations of long-lived species may not be reflected genetically if a decline occurred recently. Consequently, the genetic integrity of populations of long-lived animals experiencing rapid demographic bottlenecks may be preserved through conservation efforts effective in addressing demographic problems. ?? 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

Pittman, Shannon E.; King, T.L.; Faurby, S.; Dorcas, M.E.

2011-01-01

271

Emission of CO2 from the surface of oligotrophic bogs with due account for their microrelief in the southern taiga of European Russia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The results of studying the carbon dioxide fluxes from the soil's surface during three years taking into account the microrelief are summarized. More precise estimates were obtained for the annual CO2 emission from the oligotrophic peat bogs differing in vegetation and waterlogging in the southern taiga of European Russia. The maximum differences in the rates of the CO2 emission related to the microrelief elements are characteristic of the treeless ridge-pool complex, where the hollows (without vegetation) emitted CO2 twice less than the flat areas and thrice less than the hummocks. In the forest bogs, the differences related to the microrelief were significantly lower. In the areas with the ridge-pool microrelief, the weighted average (for 3 years) CO2 emission was 436 g C/m2 per year; in the better drained natural dwarf shrub-cotton grass-sphagnum pine forest, 930; and in the drained pine forest, 1292 g C/m2 per year. The share of the CO2 amount emitted in the cold period (November-April) amounted to 10% of its annual flux from the peat soils of the ridge-pool complex and 17 and 24%, respectively, in the natural and drained pine forests.

Glukhova, T. V.; Vompersky, S. E.; Kovalev, A. G.

2013-12-01

272

Groundwater flow with energy transport and water-ice phase change: Numerical simulations, benchmarks, and application to freezing in peat bogs  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In northern peatlands, subsurface ice formation is an important process that can control heat transport, groundwater flow, and biological activity. Temperature was measured over one and a half years in a vertical profile in the Red Lake Bog, Minnesota. To successfully simulate the transport of heat within the peat profile, the U.S. Geological Survey's SUTRA computer code was modified. The modified code simulates fully saturated, coupled porewater-energy transport, with freezing and melting porewater, and includes proportional heat capacity and thermal conductivity of water and ice, decreasing matrix permeability due to ice formation, and latent heat. The model is verified by correctly simulating the Lunardini analytical solution for ice formation in a porous medium with a mixed ice-water zone. The modified SUTRA model correctly simulates the temperature and ice distributions in the peat bog. Two possible benchmark problems for groundwater and energy transport with ice formation and melting are proposed that may be used by other researchers for code comparison. ?? 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

McKenzie, J.M.; Voss, C.I.; Siegel, D.I.

2007-01-01

273

Flourish or flush: effects of simulated extreme rainfall events on Sphagnum-dwelling testate amoebae in a subarctic bog (Abisko, Sweden).  

PubMed

Extreme precipitation events are recognised as important drivers of ecosystem responses to climate change and can considerably affect high-latitude ombrotrophic bogs. Therefore, understanding the relationships between increased rainfall and the biotic components of these ecosystems is necessary for an estimation of climate change impacts. We studied overall effects of increased magnitude, intensity and frequency of rainfall on assemblages of Sphagnum-dwelling testate amoebae in a field climate manipulation experiment located in a relatively dry subarctic bog (Abisko, Sweden). The effects of the treatment were estimated using abundance, species diversity and structure of living and empty shell assemblages of testate amoebae in living and decaying layers of Sphagnum. Our results show that increased rainfall reduced the mean abundance and species richness of living testate amoebae. Besides, the treatment affected species structure of both living and empty shell assemblages, reducing proportions of hydrophilous species. The effects are counterintuitive as increased precipitation-related substrate moisture was expected to have opposite effects on testate amoeba assemblages in relatively dry biotopes. Therefore, we conclude that other rainfall-related factors such as increased infiltration rates and frequency of environmental disturbances can also affect testate amoeba assemblages in Sphagnum and that hydrophilous species are particularly sensitive to variation in these environmental variables. PMID:22956212

Tsyganov, Andrey N; Keuper, Frida; Aerts, Rien; Beyens, Louis

2013-01-01

274

Uranium deposits of Canada  

SciTech Connect

Topics covered in this book include: the history, early Aphebian conglomerate-hosted deposits; proterozoic deposits hosted by folded, metamorphosed rocks; Hudsonion classical vein deposits, Saskatchewan unconformity-associated and sedimentary-hosted deposits of Helikian age; other Helikian unconformity-associated and sedimentary-hosted rocks; and Phanerozoic deposits.

Evans, E.L.

1986-01-01

275

Holocene climate dynamics in the Eastern Italian Alps: a multi-proxy study from ice and peat bogs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Eastern Italian Alps are located near one of the areas in the world with some of the longest records of extreme environmental use by human activity. In this area, paleo-climate studies are hampered by the lack of high-resolution multi-proxy records with adequate chronological control. With this project, we propose to reconstruct Holocene climatic and environmental variations in the Eastern Italian Alps using terrestrial and glaciological archives. We aim to study the characteristics of different climate stages in this sector of the Alps using an ice core drilled on the top of the Ortles glacier (46°30' N, 10°32 E, 3850 m a.s.l.) and ombrotrophic peat bog records from the Dolomites (Danta di Cadore, 46°34' N, 12°33 E, 1400 m a.s.l. and Coltrondo 46°39'28.37''N 12°26'59.17''E, 1800 m a.s.l., Belluno province). The study of global climatic change require a holistic and multi-proxy approach to better understand several complex and often non-linear relationships. In the Italian Alps our study on peat cores represents the first attempt where a multi-proxy approach is applied, and here we report our first results. A 7.0 m peat sequence was extracted in Danta di Cadore. The depth-age scale, based upon independent 14C and 210Pb dates and modeled with the Clam method (Blaauw, 2010), demonstrates that the archive covers more than 13,200 years (cal BP). We determined physical proprieties, Ca and Ti trends, pore water pH, conductivity, and Ca/Mg ratios to identify changes in trophic conditions. The results confirm that the uppermost 400 cm are composed of ombrotrophic peat representing the longest Eastern Alpine ombrotrophic record yet obtained, covering the last 7,000 years. The oldest radiocarbon age (13,200 years cal BP) provides evidence that, during the Bölling-Alleröd interstadial, the upper part of the Piave Glacier was ice-free up to 1400 m a.s.l.. At that time pollen assemblages show that a conifer forest characterized the local vegetation. This forest was then affected by the climatic cooling of the Younger Dryas, which caused an opening of the vegetation. The climatic amelioration occurring at the onset of the Holocene favored the local expansion of warmth-demanding species. X-ray Fluorescence Core Scanner (XRF-CS) analysis was applied for the first time on Eastern Alpine peat sequences. XRF-CS signals were calibrated with ICP-MS, showing very high correlation and demonstrating that the XRF-CS technique provides reliable quantitative data. Results provide information about geochemical processes occurring in the bog. The impact of mining activity was also evaluated. Concentration levels and enrichment factors (EFs) of several trace elements such as Pb, Ag and Cd correspond to the historical data about mining activities in the Cadore region. Lead isotopes ratios were measured to identify natural and anthropogenic sources of Pb emissions. Results show an increase of Pb deriving from fuel combustion over the last decades that gradually overlie the impacts of mining activity. The decreasing 206Pb/207Pb trend reached its minimum value of 1.153 in the 1990s and then increased again. In these years, Italy started to follow EU rules to limit global pollutants in the atmosphere, and finally banned leaded fuels in 2002. Both 206Pb/207Pb ratio and Pb fluxes show a particular event between 1975 and 1980: this behavior is characteristic of the ILE (Isotopic Lead Experiment), a large-scale isotopic tracer experiment which was carried out in the Piedmont region (N-W Italy). This multi-proxy approach that integrates, using new chronological insights, chemical physical and biological features of the core, improves our understanding of Eastern Alpine Holocene climate, helping to delineate biotic and abiotic responses to climate dynamics during the present interglacial. Blaauw, M. 2010. Methods and code for 'classical' age modeling of radiocarbon sequences. Quarternary Geochronology, 5: 512-518.

Poto, Luisa; Gabrieli, Jacopo; Segnana, Michela; Festi, Daniela; Oeggl, Klaus; Barbante, Carlo

2014-05-01

276

76 FR 21265 - Interest on Deposits; Deposit Insurance Coverage  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION 12 CFR Parts 329 and 330 RIN 3064-AD78 Interest on Deposits; Deposit Insurance Coverage AGENCY: Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC). ACTION: Notice...

2011-04-15

277

Nitrogen deposition and prey nitrogen uptake control the nutrition of the carnivorous plant Drosera rotundifolia.  

PubMed

Nitrogen (N) deposition has important negative impacts on natural and semi-natural ecosystems, impacting on biotic interactions across trophic levels. Low-nutrient systems are particularly sensitive to changes in N inputs and are therefore more vulnerable to N deposition. Carnivorous plants are often part of these ecosystems partly because of the additional nutrients obtained from prey. We studied the impact of N deposition on the nutrition of the carnivorous plant Drosera rotundifolia growing on 16 ombrotrophic bogs across Europe. We measured tissue N, phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) concentrations and prey and root N uptake using a natural abundance stable isotope approach. Our aim was to test the impact of N deposition on D. rotundifolia prey and root N uptake, and nutrient stoichiometry. D. rotundifolia root N uptake was strongly affected by N deposition, possibly resulting in reduced N limitation. The contribution of prey N to the N contained in D. rotundifolia ranged from 20 to 60%. N deposition reduced the maximum amount of N derived from prey, but this varied below this maximum. D. rotundifolia tissue N concentrations were a product of both root N availability and prey N uptake. Increased prey N uptake was correlated with increased tissue P concentrations indicating uptake of P from prey. N deposition therefore reduced the strength of a carnivorous plant-prey interaction, resulting in a reduction in nutrient transfer between trophic levels. We suggest that N deposition has a negative impact on D. rotundifolia and that responses to N deposition might be strongly site specific. PMID:25655989

Millett, J; Foot, G W; Svensson, B M

2015-04-15

278

Heathland vegetation as a bio-monitor for nitrogen deposition and source attribution using ?15N values  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The %N and ?15N signals in foliar nitrogen (N) from four heathland species have been monitored in a blanket bog plant community subjected to different experimental inputs of wet and dry N deposition. Interactions with combined additional treatments of phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) were also investigated. Calluna vulgaris, Cladonia portentosa, Sphagnum capillifolium and Hypnum cupressiforme were harvested for 15N analysis prior to wet and dry treatment applications and again after 16 months field exposure. A significant increase was observed in both %N and ?15N values for all plant species in response to both wet and dry treatments whilst PK additions also produced significant decreases in foliar %N and associated ?15N values for several of the species sampled. These enrichments in the ?15N signals for post-treatment shoot tissue were attributable to the ?15N signal in the source application, a finding of potential value in using bio-monitors for assessment of N deposition.

Skinner, R. A.; Ineson, P.; Jones, H.; Sleep, D.; Leith, I. D.; Sheppard, L. J.

279

Export of dissolved organic carbon and nitrogen from drained and re-wetted bog sites in Lower Saxony (Germany)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Today, nearly all peatlands in Germany are drained for agriculture, forestry and peat cutting. The export of dissolved organic carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) may be important for the overall C and N balances and affects downstream ecosystems. While drainage generally increases solute losses, there is nearly no C and N export data of raised bogs in Germany which can be used to evaluate both the impact of drainage associated with intensive land use and the re-wetting of peat cutting sites. In the "Ahlenmoor" (North-Western Germany), four sampling points were chosen. Three sampling points represent a deeply drained intensively used grassland at various scales ranging from a drainage pipe (DP, 0.08 ha) and a drainage ditch (DD, 6.8 ha) to a collector ditch (CD, 20 ha). The fourth sampling point (RW) is a former peat cutting site (23 ha) re-wetted 10 years ago. At this site, polder technique was used to establish water tables at the soil surface. Sampling and discharge measurements were conducted bi-weekly from June 2011 to June 2013. Water table levels were recorded with automatic pressure sensors, and rating curves between discharge and water levels were used to calculate continuous discharge values. Samples were analyzed for dissolved organic carbon (DOC), particulate organic carbon (POC), dissolved organic nitrogen (DON), ammonium (NH4+), nitrate (NO3-), sulphate (SO42-), pH, electric conductivity (EC) and specific UV absorbance (SUVA). The discharge did not vary strongly between the sampling points and was slightly lower in the second year. Concentrations of all measured solutes were higher at the intensive grassland (DP, DD and CD) than at the re-wetted site. Surprisingly, SUVA showed no difference between all sites, while the DOC to DON ratio was narrower at DP, DD and CD than at RW. This indicates an export of more degraded dissolved organic matter (DOM) from the drained area. At the grassland sites, no statistical differences were found between the three scales except for SO42-, NO3- and pH. Thus, the grassland shows rather homogenous export patterns over various spatial scales, and there seem to be no fast mineralization or degradation of the exported DOM during the initial stage of export. In total, average losses of DOC (457 kg ha-1 a-1) and POC (40 kg ha-1 a-1) from the drained area were nearly thrice as high as from the re-wetted site (124 and 73 kg ha-1 a-1). The total nitrogen losses were even more reduced by re-wetting and dominated at all sites by DON (19.1 kg ha-1 a-1 at the grassland sites, 3.9 kg ha-1 a-1 at the re-wetted site). NH4+ (drained: 5.2 kg ha-1 a-1, re-wetted: 0.8 kg ha-1 a-1) and NO3- (drained: 1.6 kg ha-1 a-1, re-wetted: not detectable) played a minor role. Overall, differences in the export could rather be explained by differences in solute concentration than in discharge.

Frank, Stefan; Tiemeyer, Bärbel; Freibauer, Annette

2014-05-01

280

Tundra in the rain: differential vegetation responses to three years of experimentally doubled summer precipitation in Siberian shrub and Swedish bog tundra.  

PubMed

Precipitation amounts and patterns at high latitude sites have been predicted to change as a result of global climatic changes. We addressed vegetation responses to three years of experimentally increased summer precipitation in two previously unaddressed tundra types: Betula nana-dominated shrub tundra (northeast Siberia) and a dry Sphagnum fuscum-dominated bog (northern Sweden). Positive responses to approximately doubled ambient precipitation (an increase of 200 mm year(-1)) were observed at the Siberian site, for B. nana (30 % larger length increments), Salix pulchra (leaf size and length increments) and Arctagrostis latifolia (leaf size and specific leaf area), but none were observed at the Swedish site. Total biomass production did not increase at either of the study sites. This study corroborates studies in other tundra vegetation types and shows that despite regional differences at the plant level, total tundra plant productivity is, at least at the short or medium term, largely irresponsive to experimentally increased summer precipitation. PMID:22864700

Keuper, Frida; Parmentier, Frans-Jan W; Blok, Daan; van Bodegom, Peter M; Dorrepaal, Ellen; van Hal, Jurgen R; van Logtestijn, Richard S P; Aerts, Rien

2012-01-01

281

Effects of experimental nitrogen deposition on peatland carbon pools and fluxes: a modeling analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nitrogen (N) pollution of peatlands alters their carbon (C) balances, yet long-term effects and controls are poorly understood. We applied the model PEATBOG to analyze impacts of long-term nitrogen (N) fertilization on C cycling in an ombrotrophic bog. Simulations of summer gross ecosystem production (GEP), ecosystem respiration (ER) and net ecosystem exchange (NEE) were evaluated against 8 years of observations and extrapolated for 80 years to identify potential effects of N fertilization and factors influencing model behavior. The model successfully simulated moss decline and raised GEP, ER and NEE on fertilized plots. GEP was systematically overestimated in the model compared to the field data due to high tolerance of Sphagnum to N deposition in the model. Model performance regarding the 8 year response of GEP and NEE to N was improved by introducing an N content threshold shifting the response of photosynthesis capacity to N content in shrubs and graminoids from positive to negative at high N contents. Such changes also eliminated the competitive advantages of vascular species and led to resilience of mosses in the long-term. Regardless of the large changes of C fluxes over the short-term, the simulated GEP, ER and NEE after 80 years depended on whether a graminoid- or shrub-dominated system evolved. When the peatland remained shrub-Sphagnum dominated, it shifted to a C source after only 10 years of fertilization at 6.4 g N m-2 yr-1, whereas this was not the case when it became graminoid-dominated. The modeling results thus highlight the importance of ecosystem adaptation and reaction of plant functional types to N deposition, when predicting the future C balance of N-polluted cool temperate bogs.

Wu, Y.; Blodau, C.; Moore, T. R.; Bubier, J. L.; Juutinen, S.; Larmola, T.

2014-07-01

282

Peat bog wildfire smoke exposure in rural North Carolina is associated with Cardiopulmonary emergency department visits assessed through syndromic surveillance  

EPA Science Inventory

Background: In June 2008 burning deposits of peat produced haze and air pollution far in excess of National Ambient Air Quality Standards, encroaching on rural communities of eastern North Carolina (NC). While the association of mortality and morbidity with exposure to urban air ...

283

Peat Bog Wildfire Smoke Exposure in Rural North Carolina Is Associated with Cardio-Pulmonary Emergency Department Visits  

EPA Science Inventory

In June 2008 burning deposits of peat produced haze and air pollution far in excess of National Ambient Air Quality Standards, encroaching on rural communities of eastern North Carolina (NC). While the association of mortality and morbidity with exposure to urban air pollution i...

284

Peat Bog Wildfire Smoke Exposure in Rural North Carolina Is Associated with Cardiopulmonary Emergency Department Visits Assessed Through Syndromic Surveillance  

EPA Science Inventory

In June 2008 burning deposits of peat produced haze and air pollution far in excess of National Ambient Air Quality Standards, encroaching on rural communities of eastern North Carolina (NC). While the association of mortality and morbidity with exposure to urban air pollution is...

285

Deposition head for laser  

DOEpatents

A deposition head for use as a part of apparatus for forming articles from materials in particulate form in which the materials are melted by a laser beam and deposited at points along a tool path to form an article of the desired shape and dimensions. The deposition head delivers the laser beam and powder to a deposition zone, which is formed at the tip of the deposition head. A controller comprised of a digital computer directs movement of the deposition zone along the tool path and provides control signals to adjust apparatus functions, such as the speed at which the deposition head moves along the tool path.

Lewis, Gary K. (Los Alamos, NM); Less, Richard M. (Los Alamos, NM)

1999-01-01

286

Annual variation of methane emissions from forested bogs in West Siberia (2005-2009): a case of high CH4 and precipitation rate in the summer of 2007  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have been conducting continuous measurements of CH4 and CO2 on a network of towers (JR-STATION: Japan-Russia Siberian Tall Tower Inland Observation Network) located in taiga, steppe, and wetland biomes of Siberia. Here we describe measurements from two forested bog sites, Karasevoe (KRS; 58°15' N, 82°25' E) and Demyanskoe (DEM; 59°47' N, 70°52' E), in West Siberia from 2005 to 2009. Although both CH4 and CO2 accumulation (?CH4 and ?CO2) during nighttime (duration of 7 h beginning 21:30 LST) at KRS in July 2007 showed an anomalously high concentration, the higher ratios of ?CH4/?CO2 compared with those in other years indicate that a considerably more CH4 flux occurred relative to the CO2 flux in response to large precipitation recorded in 2007 (~2.7 mm d-1 higher than the climatological 1979-1998 base). Estimated seasonal CH4 fluxes based on the ratio of ?CH4/?CO2 and the CASA 3-hourly CO2 flux for the 2005-2009 period exhibited a seasonal variation with a maximum in July at both sites. Annual values of the CH4 emission from the forested bogs around KRS (approx. 7.8×104 km2) calculated from a process-based ecosystem model, Vegetation Integrative Simulator for Trace gases (VISIT), showed inter-annual variation of 0.54, 0.31, 0.94, 0.44, and 0.41 Tg CH4 yr-1 from 2005 to 2009, respectively, with the highest values in 2007. It was assumed in the model that the area flooded with water is proportional to the cumulative anomaly in monthly precipitation rate.

Sasakawa, M.; Ito, A.; Machida, T.; Tsuda, N.; Niwa, Y.; Davydov, D.; Fofonov, A.; Arshinov, M.

2010-11-01

287

Seasonal climate manipulations have only minor effects on litter decomposition rates and N dynamics but strong effects on litter P dynamics of sub-arctic bog species.  

PubMed

Litter decomposition and nutrient mineralization in high-latitude peatlands are constrained by low temperatures. So far, little is known about the effects of seasonal components of climate change (higher spring and summer temperatures, more snow which leads to higher winter soil temperatures) on these processes. In a 4-year field experiment, we manipulated these seasonal components in a sub-arctic bog and studied the effects on the decomposition and N and P dynamics of leaf litter of Calamagrostis lapponica, Betula nana, and Rubus chamaemorus, incubated both in a common ambient environment and in the treatment plots. Mass loss in the controls increased in the order Calamagrostis < Betula < Rubus. After 4 years, overall mass loss in the climate-treatment plots was 10 % higher compared to the ambient incubation environment. Litter chemistry showed within each incubation environment only a few and species-specific responses. Compared to the interspecific differences, they resulted in only moderate climate treatment effects on mass loss and these differed among seasons and species. Neither N nor P mineralization in the litter were affected by the incubation environment. Remarkably, for all species, no net N mineralization had occurred in any of the treatments during 4 years. Species differed in P-release patterns, and summer warming strongly stimulated P release for all species. Thus, moderate changes in summer temperatures and/or winter snow addition have limited effects on litter decomposition rates and N dynamics, but summer warming does stimulate litter P release. As a result, N-limitation of plant growth in this sub-arctic bog may be sustained or even further promoted. PMID:22526945

Aerts, R; Callaghan, T V; Dorrepaal, E; van Logtestijn, R S P; Cornelissen, J H C

2012-11-01

288

DRY DEPOSITION MODULE FOR REGIONAL ACID DEPOSITION  

EPA Science Inventory

Methods to compute surface dry deposition velocities for sulfur dioxide, sulfate, ozone, NO plus NO2, and nitric acid vapor over much of the North American continent have been developed for use with atmospheric numerical models of long-range transport and deposition. The resultin...

289

Origin and depositional environment of clastic deposits in the Hilo drill hole, Hawaii  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Volcaniclastic units cored at depths of about 87, 164, 178, 226, and 246 m below sea level and carbonate units located between depths of 27 and 53 m below sea level in the Hilo drill core were found to be deposited at or near sea level. Four of these units are hydroclastic deposits, formed when subaerially erupted Mauna Loa lava flows entered the ocean and fragmented to produce quenched, glassy fragments during hydrovolcanic explosions. Ash units 24 and 26, at 178 m depth, accumulated at sea level in a freshwater bog. They contain pyroxenes crystallized from tholeiitic magma that we infer erupted explosively at the summit of Kilauea volcano. Two carbon-rich layers from these ashes have a weighted average radiocarbon age of 38.6 ?? 0.9 ka; the ashes probably correlate with the oldest and thickest part of the Pahala ash. Ash unit 44, at the transition from Mauna Kea to Mauna Loa lava flows, was probably nearly 3.2 m thick and is inferred to be equivalent to the lower thick part of the composite Homelani ash mapped in Hilo and on the flanks of Mauna Kea. The age of this part of Homelani ash is between 128 ?? 33 and 200 ?? 10 ka; it may have erupted subglacially during the Pohakuloa glacial maxima on Mauna Kea. Beach sand units 12 and 22 were derived from nearby Mauna Loa and Mauna Kea lava flows. The middle of beach sand unit 38 was derived mainly from lava erupted near the distal end of the subaerial east rift zone of Kilauea volcano; these sands were transported about 33 km northwest to Hilo Bay by prevailing longshore currents. Combined age, depth, and sea level markers in the core allow us to determine that lava flow recurrence intervals averaged one flow every 4 kyr during the past 86 kyr and one flow every 16 kyr between 86 and 200 ka at the drill site and that major explosive eruptions that deposit thick ash in Hilo have occurred only twice in the last 400 kyr. These recurrence intervals support the moderate lava flow hazard zonation (zone 3) for coastal Hilo previously determined from surficial mapping.

Beeson, M.H.; Clague, D.A.; Lockwood, J.P.

1996-01-01

290

Uraniferous Phosphates: Resource, Security Risk, or Contaminant  

SciTech Connect

The escalation of the price of uranium (U) yellow cake (summer high = $130/0.454 kg (lb) has called into question the continuing availability of sufficient stockpiles and ores to process. As was developed during the years following World War II, the establishment and maintenance of a strategic inventory is a reasonable consideration for today. Therefore, it becomes critical to look at potential secondary resources beyond the classical ore suites now being utilized. The most economically viable future secondary source seems to be the byproducts of the beneficiation of phosphoric acids derived from phosphate ores. Phosphorous (P) is an essential nutrient for plants; its deficiency can result in highly restrictive limitations in crop productivity. Acidic soils in tropical and subtropical regions of the world are often P deficient with high P-sorption (fixation) capacities. To correct this deficiency, efficient water-soluble P fertilizers are required. The use of raw phosphate rocks not only adds phosphate but also its contained contaminants, including uranium to the treated land. Another immediate difficulty is phosphogypsum, the standard byproduct of simple extraction. It, for practical purposes, has been selectively classified as TENORM by regulators. The imposition of these standards presents major current and future disposal and re-utilization problems. Therefore, establishing an economically viable system that allows for uranium byproduct extraction from phosphoric acids is desirable. Such a system would be dependent on yellow cake base price stability, reserve estimates, political conditions, nation-state commitment, and dependence on nuclear energy. The accumulation of yellow cake from the additional extraction process provides a valuable commodity and allows the end acid to be a more environmentally acceptable product. The phosphogypsum already accumulated, as well as that which is in process, will not make a viable component for a radiation disposal devise (RDD). Concern for weapon proliferation by rogue nation states from the byproduct production of yellowcake is an unlikely scenario. To extract the fissile U-235 (0.07%) isotope from the yellowcake (99.3%) requires the erection of a costly major gaseous diffusion or a cascading centrifuge facility. Such a facility would be extremely difficult to mask. Therefore, from a diminished security risk and positive economic and environmental viewpoints, the utilization of a phosphoric acid beneficiation process extracting uranium is desirable. (authors)

LeMone, D.V.; Goodell, Ph.C. [Department of Geological Sciences, University of Texas at El Paso, Texas (United States); Gibbs, S.G. [U. T. Houston School of Public Health, El Paso, Texas (United States); Winston, J.W. [Medical Physicist, Radiological Physics, Inc., El Paso, Texas (United States)

2008-07-01

291

Sampling Tsunami Deposits  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Dr. Starin Fernanda, Geological Survey & Mines Bureau of Sri Lanka, preparing a trench for sampling of tsunami deposit. Leaves on the surface days or weeks after the tsunami and blanket the sand deposited by the tsunami....

292

Cascadia Tsunami Deposit Database  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Cascadia Tsunami Deposit Database contains data on the location and sedimentological properties of tsunami deposits found along the Cascadia margin. Data have been compiled from 52 studies, documenting 59 sites from northern California to Vancouver Island, British Columbia that contain known or potential tsunami deposits. Bibliographical references are provided for all sites included in the database. Cascadia tsunami deposits are usually seen as anomalous sand layers in coastal marsh or lake sediments. The studies cited in the database use numerous criteria based on sedimentary characteristics to distinguish tsunami deposits from sand layers deposited by other processes, such as river flooding and storm surges. Several studies cited in the database contain evidence for more than one tsunami at a site. Data categories include age, thickness, layering, grainsize, and other sedimentological characteristics of Cascadia tsunami deposits. The database documents the variability observed in tsunami deposits found along the Cascadia margin.

Peters, Robert; Jaffe, Bruce; Gelfenbaum, Guy; Peterson, Curt

2003-01-01

293

Deposition Overview - Part II  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This YouTube video, created by Southwest Center for Microsystems Education (SCME), provides an overview of the deposition processes used to fabricate micro-sized devicesâ??. The lecture runs for 10:33 seconds and covers "a brief overview of chemical vapor deposition, physical vapor deposition, and electrodeposition." More information on desposition can be found on the SCME website. 

294

Carbon dioxide flux and net primary production of a boreal treed bog: Responses to warming and water-table-lowering simulations of climate change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Midlatitude treed bogs represent significant carbon (C) stocks and are highly sensitive to global climate change. In a dry continental treed bog, we compared three sites: control, recent (1-3 years; experimental) and older drained (10-13 years), with water levels at 38, 74 and 120 cm below the surface, respectively. At each site we measured carbon dioxide (CO2) fluxes and estimated tree root respiration (Rr; across hummock-hollow microtopography of the forest floor) and net primary production (NPP) of trees during the growing seasons (May to October) of 2011-2013. The CO2-C balance was calculated by adding the net CO2 exchange of the forest floor (NEff-Rr) to the NPP of the trees. From cooler and wetter 2011 to the driest and the warmest 2013, the control site was a CO2-C sink of 92, 70 and 76 g m-2, the experimental site was a CO2-C source of 14, 57 and 135 g m-2, and the drained site was a progressively smaller source of 26, 23 and 13 g CO2-C m-2. The short-term drainage at the experimental site resulted in small changes in vegetation coverage and large net CO2 emissions at the microforms. In contrast, the longer-term drainage and deeper water level at the drained site resulted in the replacement of mosses with vascular plants (shrubs) on the hummocks and lichen in the hollows leading to the highest CO2 uptake at the drained hummocks and significant losses in the hollows. The tree NPP (including above- and below-ground growth and litter fall) in 2011 and 2012 was significantly higher at the drained site (92 and 83 g C m-2) than at the experimental (58 and 55 g C m-2) and control (52 and 46 g C m-2) sites. We also quantified the impact of climatic warming at all water table treatments by equipping additional plots with open-top chambers (OTCs) that caused a passive warming on average of ~ 1 °C and differential air warming of ~ 6 °C at midday full sun over the study years. Warming significantly enhanced shrub growth and the CO2 sink function of the drained hummocks (exceeding the cumulative respiration losses in hollows induced by the lowered water level × warming). There was an interaction of water level with warming across hummocks that resulted in the largest net CO2 uptake at the warmed drained hummocks. Thus in 2013, the warming treatment enhanced the sink function of the control site by 13 g m-2, reduced the source function of the experimental by 10 g m-2 and significantly enhanced the sink function of the drained site by 73 g m-2. Therefore, drying and warming in continental bogs is expected to initially accelerate CO2-C losses via ecosystem respiration, but persistent drought and warming is expected to restore the peatland's original CO2-C sink function as a result of the shifts in vegetation composition and productivity between the microforms and increased NPP of trees over time.

Munir, T. M.; Perkins, M.; Kaing, E.; Strack, M.

2015-02-01

295

Sphagnum-dwelling testate amoebae in subarctic bogs are more sensitive to soil warming in the growing season than in winter: the results of eight-year field climate manipulations.  

PubMed

Sphagnum-dwelling testate amoebae are widely used in paleoclimate reconstructions as a proxy for climate-induced changes in bogs. However, the sensitivity of proxies to seasonal climate components is an important issue when interpreting proxy records. Here, we studied the effects of summer warming, winter snow addition solely and winter snow addition together with spring warming on testate amoeba assemblages after eight years of experimental field climate manipulations. All manipulations were accomplished using open top chambers in a dry blanket bog located in the sub-Arctic (Abisko, Sweden). We estimated sensitivity of abundance, diversity and assemblage structure of living and empty shell assemblages of testate amoebae in the living and decaying layers of Sphagnum. Our results show that, in a sub-arctic climate, testate amoebae are more sensitive to climate changes in the growing season than in winter. Summer warming reduced species richness and shifted assemblage composition towards predominance of xerophilous species for the living and empty shell assemblages in both layers. The higher soil temperatures during the growing season also decreased abundance of empty shells in both layers hinting at a possible increase in their decomposition rates. Thus, although possible effects of climate changes on preservation of empty shells should always be taken into account, species diversity and structure of testate amoeba assemblages in dry subarctic bogs are sensitive proxies for climatic changes during the growing season. PMID:21839679

Tsyganov, Andrey N; Aerts, Rien; Nijs, Ivan; Cornelissen, Johannes H C; Beyens, Louis

2012-05-01

296

Handbook on surficial uranium deposits. Chapter 3. World distribution relative to climate and physical setting  

SciTech Connect

This chapter discusses regional controls which affect the world distribution of surficial chemogenic uranium deposits. The most important of these are (1) climate, (2) geomorphology, including physiographic and climatic stability, and (3) provenance, i.e., the weathering terrain from which uranium and associated substances are derived. The three economically important environments are the calcrete environment, simple evaporative environments and paludal environments. Of these three categories, the calcrete uranium environment is probably the most uniquely constrained in terms of regional climate, geomorphic setting, provenance (vanadium as well as uranium) and especially the need for long term stability of both climate and physiography. Purely evaporative deposits, though subject to some of the same kinds of constraints, can also reflect local circumstances and a wider range of climates, physiographic settings, and source terrains. The third category encompassing bogs, marshes and organic-rich playas can form under an even wider range of climates and settings provided only that organic materials accumulate in abundance and are contacted by uranium-bearing waters. For all of these reasons and also because of the great economic importance of the calcrete environment as well as its relative novelty and complexity the discussion in this chapter is focused on calcrete, dolocrete and gypcrete uranium deposits. Objective data are reviewed first follwed by inferences and suggestions. 13 figures.

Carlisle, D

1983-01-01

297

Ages of 24 widespread tephras erupted since 30,000 years ago in New Zealand, with re-evaluation of the timing and palaeoclimatic implications of the Lateglacial cool episode recorded at Kaipo bog  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tephras are important for the NZ-INTIMATE project because they link all three records comprising the composite inter-regional stratotype developed for the New Zealand climate event stratigraphy (NZ-CES). Here we firstly report new calendar ages for 24 widespread marker tephras erupted since 30,000 calendar (cal.) years ago in New Zealand to help facilitate their use as chronostratigraphic dating tools for the NZ-CES and for other palaeoenvironmental and geological applications. The selected tephras comprise 12 rhyolitic tephras from Taupo, nine rhyolitic tephras from Okataina, one peralkaline rhyolitic tephra from Tuhua, and one andesitic tephra each from Tongariro and Egmont/Taranaki volcanic centres. Age models for the tephras were obtained using three methods: (i) 14C-based wiggle-match dating of wood from trees killed by volcanic eruptions (these dates published previously); (ii) flexible depositional modelling of a high-resolution 14C-dated age-depth sequence at Kaipo bog using two Bayesian-based modelling programs, Bacon and OxCal's P_Sequence function, and the IntCal09 data set (with SH offset correction -44 ± 17 yr); and (iii) calibration of 14C ages using OxCal's Tau_Boundary function and the SHCal04 and IntCal09 data sets. Our preferred dates or calibrated ages for the 24 tephras are as follows (youngest to oldest, all mid-point or mean ages of 95% probability ranges): Kaharoa AD 1314 ± 12; Taupo (Unit Y) AD 232 ± 10; Mapara (Unit X) 2059 ± 118 cal. yr BP; Whakaipo (Unit V) 2800 ± 60 cal. yr BP; Waimihia (Unit S) 3401 ± 108 cal. yr BP; Stent (Unit Q) 4322 ± 112 cal. yr BP; Unit K 5111 ± 210 cal. yr BP; Whakatane 5526 ± 145 cal. yr BP; Tuhua 6577 ± 547 cal. yr BP; Mamaku 7940 ± 257 cal. yr BP; Rotoma 9423 ± 120 cal. yr BP; Opepe (Unit E) 9991 ± 160 cal. yr BP; Poronui (Unit C) 11,170 ± 115 cal. yr BP; Karapiti (Unit B) 11,460 ± 172 cal. yr BP; Okupata 11,767 ± 192 cal. yr BP; Konini (bed b) 11,880 ± 183 cal. yr BP; Waiohau 14,009 ± 155 cal. yr BP; Rotorua 15,635 ± 412 cal. yr BP; Rerewhakaaitu 17,496 ± 462 cal. yr BP; Okareka 21,858 ± 290 cal. yr BP; Te Rere 25,171 ± 964 cal. yr BP; Kawakawa/Oruanui 25,358 ± 162 cal. yr BP; Poihipi 28,446 ± 670 cal. yr BP; and Okaia 28,621 ± 1428 cal. yr BP. Secondly, we have re-dated the start and end of the Lateglacial cool episode (climate event NZce-3 in the NZ-CES), previously referred to as the Lateglacial climate reversal, as defined at Kaipo bog in eastern North Island, New Zealand, using both Bacon and OxCal P_Sequence modelling with the IntCal09 data set. The ca 1200-yr-long cool episode, indicated by a lithostratigraphic change in the Kaipo peat sequence to grey mud with lowered carbon content, and a high-resolution pollen-derived cooling signal, began 13,739 ± 125 cal. yr BP and ended 12,550 ± 140 cal. yr BP (mid-point ages of the 95% highest posterior density regions, Bacon modelling). The OxCal modelling, generating almost identical ages, confirmed these ages. The Lateglacial cool episode (ca 13.8-12.6 cal. ka BP) thus overlaps a large part of the entire Antarctic Cold Reversal chronozone (ca 14.1-12.4 cal. ka BP or ca 14.6-12.8 cal. ka BP), and an early part of the Greenland Stadial-1 (Younger Dryas) chronozone (ca 12.9-11.7 cal. ka BP). The timing of the Lateglacial cool episode at Kaipo is broadly consistent with the latitudinal patterns in the Antarctic Cold Reversal signal suggested for the New Zealand archipelago from marine and terrestrial records, and with records from southern South America.

Lowe, David J.; Blaauw, Maarten; Hogg, Alan G.; Newnham, Rewi M.

2013-08-01

298

Geochronology and Fluid-Rock Interaction Associated with the Nopal I Uranium Deposit, Pena Blanca, Mexico  

SciTech Connect

The Nopal I uranium (U) deposit, Pena Blanca District, Mexico, largely consists of secondary U{sup 6+} minerals, which occur within a breccia pipe mainly hosted by the 44 Ma Nopal and Colorados volcanic formations. These two units overly the Pozos conglomerate formation and Cretaceous limestone. Three new vertical diamond drill holes (DDHs) were recently drilled at Nopal I. DDH-PB1 with continuous core was drilled through the Nopal I deposit and two additional DDHs were drilled {approx}50 m on either side of the cored hole. These DDHs terminate 20 m below the current water table, thus allowing the detection of possible gradients in radionuclide contents resulting from transport from the overlying uranium deposit. Primary uraninite within the main ore body is rare and fine-grained ({approx}50 micrometers), thus making geochronology of the Nopal I deposit very difficult. Uranium, lead and oxygen isotopes can be used to study fluid-uraninite interaction, provided that the analyses are obtained on the micro-scale. Secondary ionization mass spectrometry (SIMS) permits in situ measurement of isotopic ratios with a spatial resolution on the scale of a few {micro}m. Preliminary U-Pb results show that uraninite from the main ore body gives an age of 32 {+-} 8 Ma, whereas uraninite from the uraniferous Pozos conglomerate that lies nearly 100 m below the main ore body and 25 meters above the water table, gives a U-Pb age that is <1 Ma. Oxygen isotopic analyses show that uraninite from the ore body has a {delta}{sup 18}O = -10.8{per_thousand}, whereas the uraninite within the Pozos conglomerate has a {delta}{sup 18}O = +1.5{per_thousand}. If it is assumed that both uraninites precipitated from meteoric water ({delta}{sup 18}O = -7{per_thousand}), then calculated precipitation temperatures are 55 C for the uraninite from the ore body and 20 C for uraninite hosted by the Pozos conglomerate. These temperatures are consistent with previous studies that calculated precipitation temperatures for clay minerals associated with uraninite.

M. Fayek; P. Goodell; M. Ren; A. Simmons

2005-07-11

299

Lipid D/H Ratios from Multiple Sources and Deposits Indicate Drier Little Ice Age at Washington Island (4°43`N, 160°25`W), Central Pacific  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To compare the sensitivity of biomarker D/H ratios from two distinct climate archives, a lake and a peat bog on the Tropical Pacific Island of Terrania, compound-specific hydrogen isotope ratios (expressed as ?D values) were determined on lipid biomarkers from various biological sources deposited in the two climate archives. At present, Terrania or Washington Island (4°43`N, 160°25`W) permanently lies in the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ) and receives an annual precipitation of 2,903 mm. The interior of this lens shaped island contains a freshwater lake and peat bogs. Previous studies on the lake sediments found evidence for a substantially drier climate at times during the Little Ice Age (AD 1400-1850) based on the lithologic transition from modern freshwater sediments to a sequence of pure cyanobacterial mat in concert with ?D values from total lipid extracts (Sachs et al., 2009). Here we report on ?D values from lipids of various sources: dinoflagellate algae (dinosterol and a saturated C30 sterol (4? -methyl-24-ethyl-5? -cholestan-3?-ol), microbial sources (diploptene and nC21 alkane) and higher plants (fern-7-ene, ?-sitosterol and stigmastanol). Mean ?D values from all lipids, measured in both archives, are significantly enriched in deuterium by between 22 and 86‰ during previously inferred drier climate conditions and simultaneously record the transition towards a freshwater lake at around AD1550. Measured ?D values of all lipids cover a wide range from -281‰ to -105‰ during freshwater deposition and from -185‰ to -50‰ when climate was drier. In agreement with the observed isotopic difference between lipids produced via the acetogenic and the mevalonic acid biosynthetic pathway ?D values for algae and higher plant sterols are depleted in deuterium relative to the nC21 alkane by 150‰ on average. The consistent ?D values from dinosterol and 4? -methyl-24-ethyl-5? -cholestan-3?-ol from the lake and peat deposits signify the robustness of these lipid ?D values to indicate hydrologic changes in the sedimentary record. ?D values among lipids of similar and disparate sources and/or biosynthetic origin from Washington Island lake (AD ~ 800-1550) and peat bog (AD~1200-1660) sediments are significantly enriched in deuterium prior to AD 1560/1640 and thus both suggest drier climate conditions resembling today’s environmental and depositional setting at Christmas Island which is located 300km SSE of Washington Island beyond the influence of the ITCZ.

Muegler, I.; Sachse, D.; Sachs, J. P.

2010-12-01

300

Evaluations of the TiO2/simulated solar UV degradations of XAD fractions of natural organic matter from a bog lake using size-exclusion chromatography.  

PubMed

This work reports on the changes in compositions of humic acids (HAs) and fulvic acids (FAs) during photocatalytic degradation. The HAs and FAs were obtained from the XAD-resin fractionation of natural-organic matter (NOM) from a bog lake (Lake Hohloh, Black Forest, Germany). Degussa P-25 titanium dioxide (TiO2) in a suspension and a solar UV simulator (batch reactor) were used in the experiments. The photocatalytic degradation of the HAs and FAs were monitored using size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) equipped with dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and ultraviolet (UV254) detection (SEC-DOC and SEC-UV254) and UV-Vis spectrophotometry. The evolutions of the photocatalytic degradations of the HA and FA fractions were selective. The photocatalytic degradation started with the degradations of high molecular weight compounds with relatively high UV254 absorbances in the HA and FA fractions to yield low molecular weight compounds showing less specific UV254 absorbances. Observance of the same tendency for the original NOM from Lake Hohloh indicates that these XAD-fractions still having complex compound mixtures. However, the larger molecular weight fractions of the FAs showed higher preferential adsorptions onto TiO2, which caused their faster degradation rates. Furthermore, FAs showed a greater reduction of the total THM formation potential (TTHMFP) and the organic halogen compounds adsorbable on activated carbon formation potential (AOXFP), in comparison with the HAs. PMID:23863374

Valencia, Sergio; Marín, Juan M; Restrepo, Gloria; Frimmel, Fritz H

2013-09-15

301

Exploring for Copper Deposits  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students assume the role of a geologist prospecting for copper deposits. From the background material, they will learn what ore deposits are and some important factors in their origin; and learn about a type of ore deposit known as a porphyry copper deposit. They will plot data from a table onto maps and use a geologic map, a soil geochemistry map, and a sediment geochemistry map to help locate the porphyry copper deposit. As a result of this activity, the students will be able to calculate an ore grade and determine whether or not an ore deposit is economically profitable based on its grade, size, and production costs. Worksheets and data tables are included.

302

Uranium and organic matters: use of pyrolysis-gas chromatography, carbon, hydrogen, and uranium contents to characterize the organic matter from sandstone-type deposits  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Organic matter seems to play an important role in the genesis of uranium deposits in sandstones in the western United States. Organic materials associated with ore from the Texas coastal plain, Tertiary basins of Wyoming, Grants mineral belt of New Mexico, and the Uravan mineral belt of Utah and Colorado vary widely in physical appearance and chemical composition. Partial characterization of organic materials is achieved by chemical analyses to determine atomic hydrogen-to-carbon (H/C) ratios and by gas chromatographic analyses to determine the molecular fragments evolved during stepwise pyrolysis. From the pyrolysis experiments the organic materials can be classified and grouped: (a) lignites from Texas and Wyoming and (b) hydrogen poor materials, from Grants and Uravan mineral belts and Wyoming; (c) naphthalene-containing materials from Grants mineral belt and Wyoming; and (d) complex and aromatic materials from Uravan, Grants and Wyoming. The organic materials analyzed have atomic H/C ratios that range from approximately 0.3 to at least 1.5. The samples with higher H/C ratios yield pyrolysis products that contain as many as 30 carbon atoms per molecule. Samples with low H/C ratios are commonly more uraniferous and yield mostly methane and low-molecular-weight gases during pyrolysis.

Leventhal, Joel S.

1979-01-01

303

Dissolved organic carbon in peat porewater increases with warming: a field manipulation experiment in a northern temperate bog  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Studies conducted across northern Europe and North America have shown increases in dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in lake and stream water in recent decades. While there is little consensus as to the exact mechanisms for the increases in DOC, hypotheses converge on such climate change factors as warming, increased precipitation variability, and changes in atmospheric deposition, and their effects on catchment processes. In this study, we tested the effects of warming on peat porewater composition by actively warming a peatland with infrared lamps mounted 1.24 m above the peat surface for two years. Mean growing season peat temperatures in the warmed plots (n=5) were 1.9 ± 0.4 °C warmer than the control plots at 5 cm depth (t statistic = 5.03, p = 0.007). Mean porewater DOC concentrations measured throughout the growing season were 15% higher in the warmed plots (73.9 ± 3.6 mg L-1) than in the control plots (64.1 ± 2.9 mg L-1) at 25 cm (t statistic = 3.50, p = 0.01). While total dissolved nitrogen (TDN) concentrations were not affected by the warming, changes in dissolved organic N followed the trends in DOC. DOC from the warmed plots decayed nearly twice as fast as control plot DOC in 2 month laboratory incubations, and had a higher relative abundance of low molecular weight organic matter associated with cellulose and aminosugars (as determined by ultra high resolution electrospray ionization mass spectrometry). Complementary research of ecosystem C cycling at the site also showed warming increased net primary production, and together with preliminary analysis of changes in extracellular enzymes suggest that at least part of the increased DOC concentrations observed with warming was derived from microbial/plant interactions in the rhizosphere.

Kane, E. S.; Mazzoleni, L. R.; Kratz, C. J.; Hribljan, J. A.; Johnson, C. P.; Pypker, T. G.; Chimner, R. A.

2010-12-01

304

Nonequilibrium Atmospheric Plasma Deposition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study is a review of plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) at atmospheric pressure. Sources for coatings over large area are presented. Millimetric torches and microplasmas are next studied for localized PECVD. A specific attention is paid to the way power is dissipated and the consequences it has on the deposition rate and on quality of thin films.

Belmonte, T.; Henrion, G.; Gries, T.

2011-06-01

305

Radionuclide deposition control  

DOEpatents

The deposition of radionuclides manganese-54, cobalt-58 and cobalt-60 from liquid sodium coolant is controlled by providing surfaces of nickel or high nickel alloys to extract the radionuclides from the liquid sodium, and by providing surfaces of tungsten, molybdenum or tantalum to prevent or retard radionuclide deposition.

Brehm, William F. (Richland, WA); McGuire, Joseph C. (Richland, WA)

1980-01-01

306

Solution deposition assembly  

DOEpatents

Methods and devices are provided for improved deposition systems. In one embodiment of the present invention, a deposition system is provided for use with a solution and a substrate. The system comprises of a solution deposition apparatus; at least one heating chamber, at least one assembly for holding a solution over the substrate; and a substrate curling apparatus for curling at least one edge of the substrate to define a zone capable of containing a volume of the solution over the substrate. In another embodiment of the present invention, a deposition system for use with a substrate, the system comprising a solution deposition apparatus; at heating chamber; and at least assembly for holding solution over the substrate to allow for a depth of at least about 0.5 microns to 10 mm.

Roussillon, Yann; Scholz, Jeremy H; Shelton, Addison; Green, Geoff T; Utthachoo, Piyaphant

2014-01-21

307

Biomimetic thin film deposition  

SciTech Connect

Biological mineral deposition for the formation of bone, mollusk shell and other hard tissues provides materials scientists with illustrative materials processing strategies. This presentation will review the key features of biomineralization and how these features can be of technical importance. We have adapted existing knowledge of biomineralization to develop a unique method of depositing inorganic thin films and coating. Our approach to thin film deposition is to modify substrate surfaces to imitate the proteins found in nature that are responsible for controlling mineral deposition. These biomimetic surfaces control the nucleation and growth of the mineral from a supersaturated aqueous solution. This has many processing advantages including simple processing equipment, environmentally benign reagents, uniform coating of highly complex shapes, and enhanced adherence of coating. Many different types of metal oxide, hydroxide, sulfide and phosphate materials with useful mechanical, optical, electronic and biomedical properties can be deposited.

Rieke, P.R.; Graff, G.E.; Campbell, A.A.; Bunker, B.C.; Baskaran, S.; Song, L.; Tarasevich, B.J.; Fryxell, G.E.

1995-09-01

308

Tsunami Deposit Data Base  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A digital database has been established describing tsunami deposits around the world (3 phases; 15 months). The projects involved the review and tabulation of data derived from books, catalogs, journals, preprints, citations and abstracts (currently 1000 references), into a database designed to provide a comprehensive review of the types of tsunami deposits, their geographic distribution and location, sedimentary characteristics, fossil content, age, preservation, run-up, wave height and inundation observations, etc. (34 parameters). The tsunami occurrences can be divided into many subjects, e.g., Volcanogenic (N=375), Seismites (N=49), Co-seismic (N=258), K/T Boundary Impact-triggered debris flows (N=97), Landslides (N=43), etc. Numerous publications compare tsunami deposits to storm deposits (N=38), or analyze the origin of megaboulders (N=22). Tsunami deposits occur throughout geologic time (Pre-Cambrian to present day), and because of plate tectonics, they occur along plate margins (primarily subduction zones) as well as interior to plates. In addition, they occur in epi-continental seas, fjords, etc. Few publications describe depositional processes. Deposits generated by tsunamis occur in multiple environments such as the marine, fresh water, and subaerial. Common characteristics of tsunami deposits include: 1) Deposition of thin sand sheets (can be normal, massive, inversely graded, chaotic or bimodal). 2) Erosional: basal uncomformity, mud balls, rip-up clasts, reworked fossils produced by scouring. 3) Lithology: Stacks of couplets reflecting marine incursions (often sands) into fresh water or subaerial environments (mud, soil, peat). 4) Fossil: Couplets reflects marine fossils, fresh water fossils or a mixed assemblage. 5) Geomorphology: The sand sheets taper landward and can rise in elevation. 6) Deformation: syn-depositional (soft sediments) and intraformational (stiff sediments).

Keating, B. H.; Wanink, M.

2007-05-01

309

Hydrologic Fluctuations Resulting From Climatic Variability Cause Methylation Events in Peatlands Impacted by Elevated Sulfate Deposition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A long-term sulfate addition experiment at the Marcell Experimental Forest of northern Minnesota has demonstrated the stimulatory effect of sulfate on mercury methylation at the ecosystem scale. Wetland margins have been shown to be principal zones of methylmercury (MeHg) production in sulfur-limited peatlands, but this research illustrates how the hydrologically isolated center of a small peatland effectively becomes a hot spot when exposed to elevated, atmospheric sulfate deposition. Furthermore, the chronic effects resulting from experimentally elevated sulfate deposition lead to the formation of a pool of reduced sulfur compounds highly sensitive to the changing redox conditions created by hydrologic and climatic variability. Our data reveal that water table rises following extended periods of drought cause natural "sulfate additions" and stimulate mercury methylation. This phenomenon was even observed in our control treatment following a severe drought in 2006. Hydrologic events that increase connectivity between the central bog and dominant wetland flowpaths, such as the infrequent, intense precipitation events predicted for this region by climate change models, could significantly increase MeHg flux from similar wetland systems.

Coleman Wasik, J. K.; Engstrom, D. R.; Swain, E. B.; Monson, B. A.; Balogh, S. J.; Jeremiason, J. D.; Kolka, R. K.; Mitchell, C. P.; Branfireun, B. A.; Almendinger, J. E.

2008-12-01

310

Ecohydrological Processes in Cutover Peatlands: The Impact of Peatland Restoration (Rewetting) on the Site Hydrology and Water Balance of an Abandoned Block-cut bog in Quebec  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Artificial drainage networks established throughout peatlands during the peat extraction process often remain active following abandonment, maintaining a water table relatively far from the surface of the peat and hindering the survival and reestablishment of Sphagnum mosses. In an effort to restore a suitable hydrological regime, the primary drainage network of an abandoned cutover peatland (the Cacouna bog) was blocked with a series of peat dams, resulting in a site-averaged water table rise of 32 cm. The components of the water balance and site hydrology were monitored over three consecutive study periods (2005-2006 prior to rewetting; 2007 following rewetting), permitting quantification of the altered hydrologic conditions due to rewetting. Following ditch blocking, runoff was reduced from 23 to 10% of precipitation during the 2005/2006 (two-year average) and 2007 seasons, respectively. The higher water table and blocked drainage network resulted in increased runoff variability, dependant upon antecedent conditions (capacity to retain additional water on-site) and event-based precipitation dynamics. Evapotranspiration (ET) remained the major water loss from the site in each year, comprising 91, 77 and 91% of total outputs during the 2005, 2006 and 2007 seasons, respectively. ET rates were 25% higher in 2007 following rewetting (3.6 mm/day), compared to pre-restoration ET rates of 2.7 mm/day during both the 2005 and 2006 study periods. Storage changes were restricted following rewetting, due to reduced runoff losses limiting water table drawdown, thereby constraining peat compression and preventing undue drying of the unsaturated zone. An average surface level rebound of 3 cm was observed, increasing the mean hydraulic conductivity by an order of magnitude. There is a need to understand the impact of site rewetting on the system hydrology, to facilitate a timely return to a functioning ecohydrological state following disturbance. The intention of this presentation is to provide an overview of the hydrological regime prior to, and following, rewetting.

Ketcheson, S. J.; Price, J. S.

2009-05-01

311

A 15 000-year record of climate change in northern New Mexico, USA, inferred from isotopic and elemental contents of bog sediments  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Elemental (C, N, Pb) and isotopic (??13C, ??15N) measurements of cored sediment from a small bog in northern New Mexico reveal changes in climate during the Late Pleistocene and Holocene. Abrupt increases in Pb concentration and ??13C values ca. 14 420 cal. YBP indicate significant runoff to the shallow lake that existed at that time. Weathering and transport of local volcanic rocks resulted in the delivery of Pb-bearing minerals to the basin, while a 13C-enriched terrestrial vegetation source increased the ??13C values of the sedimentary material. Wet conditions developed over a 300 a period and lasted for a few hundred years. The Younger Dryas period (ca. 12 700-11 500 cal. YBP) caused a reduction in terrestrial productivity reflected in decreasing C/N values, ??15N values consistently greater than 0??? and low organic content. By contrast, aquatic productivity increased during the second half of this period, evidenced by increasing ??13C values at the time of highest abundance of algae. Dry conditions ca. 8 000-6 000 cal. YBP were characterised by low organic carbon content and high Pb concentrations, the latter suggesting enhanced erosion and aeolian transport of volcanic rock. The range in ??13C, ??15N and C/N values in the sedimentary record fall within the range of modern plants, except during the periods of runoff and drought. The sedimentary record provides evidence of natural climate variability in northern New Mexico, including short- (multi-centennial) and long-(millennial) term episodes during the Late Pleistocene and Holocene. Copyright ?? 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Cisneros-Dozal, L. M.; Heikoop, J.M.; Fessenden, J.; Anderson, R. Scott; Meyers, P.A.; Allen, C.D.; Hess, M.; Larson, T.; Perkins, G.; Rearick, M.

2010-01-01

312

Directed vapor deposition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation describes the invention, design, construction, experimental evaluation and modeling of a new physical vapor deposition technique (U.S. Patent #5,534,314) for high rate, efficient deposition of refractory elements, alloys, and compounds onto flat or curved surfaces. The new Directed Vapor Deposition (DVD) technique examined in this dissertation was distinct from previous physical vapor deposition techniques because it used low vacuum electron beam (e-beam) evaporation in combination with a carrier gas stream to transport and vapor spray deposit metals, ceramics, and semiconducting materials. Because of the system's unique approach to vapor phase materials processing, detailed analyses of critical concepts (e.g. the e-beam accelerating voltage and power required for evaporation, the vacuum pumping capacity necessary to generate specific gas flow velocities exiting a nozzle) were used to reduce to practice a functioning materials synthesis tool. After construction, the ability to create low contamination films of pure metals, semi-conducting materials, and compounds via this new method was demonstrated, and oxide deposition using an oxygen-doped gas stream in combination with a pure metal evaporant source was shown to be feasible. DVD vapor transport characteristics were experimentally investigated with deposition chamber pressure, carrier gas type, and e-beam power being identified as major processing parameters which affected vapor atom trajectories. The low vacuum carrier gas streams employed in DVD showed a dramatic ability to focus the vapor stream during transport to the substrate and thereby enhance material deposition rates and efficiencies significantly under certain process conditions. Conditions for maximum deposition efficiency onto flat substrates and continuous fibers were experimentally identified by varying chamber pressure, carrier gas velocity (Mach number), and e-beam power. Deposition efficiencies peaked at about 0.5 Torr when coating flat or fibrous substrates. Higher Mach numbers led to higher efficiencies below the efficiency peak, but above the peak this Mach number trend reversed. Increasing e-beam power decreased the magnitude of the deposition efficiency peak and shifted it to higher chamber pressures. Fiber coating experiments revealed a maximum deposition efficiency over twice the level expected for pure line-of-sight deposition, and scanning electron microscopy revealed that, for conditions of maximum efficiency, vapor was depositing simultaneously on the front of the fiber facing the incoming vapor and on the fiber's sides and back. The vapor transport and deposition trends appeared to result from vapor atom collisions with gas atoms in the carrier flow, collisions which affected vapor atom form (single atom or clusters), location in the flow, and interaction with the substrate (leading to line and non-line-of-sight coating). Atomic vapor transport in DVD was investigated using Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) methods and biatomic collision theory (BCT). For atoms transported to a flat surface perpendicular to the vapor-laden carrier gas stream, the velocity vector during transport and impact location were calculated, making possible determination of adatom deposition efficiency, spatial distribution, impact energy, and incident angle with the substrate. Model results compared favorably with random walk predictions, independent experimental data of sputter atom energy loss, and low e-beam power experimental results. The model suggested that the atoms deposited in a DVD process had a low impact energy (< 0.1 eV) and a broad incident angular distribution with the substrate. The DSMC and BCT models were used to design an improved DVD system with significantly enhanced deposition efficiency.

Groves, James Frederick

313

EDITORIAL: Atomic layer deposition Atomic layer deposition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The growth method of atomic layer deposition (ALD) was introduced in Finland by Suntola under the name of atomic layer epitaxy (ALE). The method was originally used for deposition of thin films of sulphides (ZnS, CaS, SrS) activated with manganese or rare-earth ions. Such films were grown for applications in thin-film electroluminescence (TFEL) displays. The ALE mode of growth was also tested in the case of molecular beam epitaxy. Films grown by ALD are commonly polycrystalline or even amorphous. Thus, the name ALE has been replaced by ALD. In the 80s ALD was developed mostly in Finland and neighboring Baltic countries. Deposition of a range of different materials was demonstrated at that time, including II-VI semiconductors (e.g. CdTe, CdS) and III-V (e.g. GaAs, GaN), with possible applications in e.g. photovoltaics. The number of publications on ALD was slowly increasing, approaching about 100 each year. A real boom in interest came with the development of deposition methods of thin films of high-k dielectrics. This research was motivated by a high leakage current in field-effect transistors with SiO2-based gate dielectrics. In 2007 Intel introduced a new generation of integrated circuits (ICs) with thin films of HfO2 used as gate isolating layers. In these and subsequent ICs, films of HfO2 are deposited by the ALD method. This is due to their unique properties. The introduction of ALD to the electronics industry led to a booming interest in the ALD growth method, with the number of publications increasing rapidly to well above 1000 each year. A number of new applications were proposed, as reflected in this special issue of Semiconductor Science and Technology. The included articles cover a wide range of possible applications—in microelectronics, transparent electronics, optoelectronics, photovoltaics and spintronics. Research papers and reviews on the basics of ALD growth are also included, reflecting a growing interest in precursor chemistry and growth processes. Summarizing, this special issue of Semiconductor Science and Technology reflects the rapidly growing interest in the ALD growth method and demonstrates the wide range of possible practical applications of ALD-grown materials, not only of high-k dielectrics, but also of a range of different materials (e.g. ZnO). Finally, I would like to thank the IOP editorial staff, in particular Alice Malhador, for their support and efforts in making this special issue possible.

Godlewski, Marek

2012-07-01

314

AIR QUALITY AND DEPOSITION  

EPA Science Inventory

The pollution climate of an area is influenced by meteorology and emissions of air pollutants at local and regional scales. he physical and chemical state of the atmosphere determines pollutant transport, dilution, chemical transformation, and ultimately deposition. n many cases ...

315

Chemical vapor deposition growth  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A chemical vapor deposition (CVD) reactor system with a vertical deposition chamber was used for the growth of Si films on glass, glass-ceramic, and polycrystalline ceramic substrates. Silicon vapor was produced by pyrolysis of SiH4 in a H2 or He carrier gas. Preliminary deposition experiments with two of the available glasses were not encouraging. Moderately encouraging results, however, were obtained with fired polycrystalline alumina substrates, which were used for Si deposition at temperatures above 1,000 C. The surfaces of both the substrates and the films were characterized by X-ray diffraction, reflection electron diffraction, scanning electron microscopy optical microscopy, and surface profilometric techniques. Several experiments were conducted to establish baseline performance data for the reactor system, including temperature distributions on the sample pedestal, effects of carrier gas flow rate on temperature and film thickness, and Si film growth rate as a function of temperature.

Ruth, R. P.; Manasevit, H. M.; Kenty, J. L.; Moudy, L. A.; Simpson, W. I.; Yang, J. J.

1976-01-01

316

Universal Cluster Deposition System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have developed a universal cluster deposition system (UCDS), which combines a new kind of sputtering-gas-aggregation (SGA) cluster beam source with two atom beams from magnetron sputtering. A highly intense, very stable beam of nanoclusters (like Co, Fe, Ni, Si, CoSm or CoPt) are produced. A quadrupole and/or a new high transmission infinite range mass selector have been designed for the cluster beam. The size distribution (?d/d) is between 0.05+/-0.10, measured in situ by TOF. A range of mean cluster size is 2 to 10 nm. Usually the deposition rate is about 5 deg/s. The cluster concentration in the film is adjusted through the ratio of cluster and atomic beam deposition rates, as measured in situ with a rotatable quartz microbalance. The UCDS can be used to prepare coated clusters. After exiting from the cluster source, the clusters can be coated first with an atomic or molecular species in an evaporation chamber, and deposited alone or co-deposited with another material. This system is used to deposit simultaneously or alternately mesoscopic thin films or multilayers, and offers the possibility to control independently the incident cluster size and concentration, and thereby the interaction between clusters and cluster-matrix material which is of interest for fundamental research and industry applications. Magnetic properties of Co cluster-assembled materials will be discussed. * Research supported by NSF, DARPA through ARO, and CMRA

Qiang, You; Sun, Zhiguang; Sellmyer, David J.

2001-03-01

317

Pulsed laser deposition: Prospects for commercial deposition of epitaxial films  

SciTech Connect

Pulsed laser deposition (PLD) is a physical vapor deposition (PVD) technique for the deposition of thin films. The vapor source is induced by the flash evaporation that occurs when a laser pulse of sufficient intensity (about 100 MW/cm{sup 2}) is absorbed by a target. In this paper the author briefly defines pulsed laser deposition, current applications, research directed at gaining a better understanding of the pulsed laser deposition process, and suggests some future directions to enable commercial applications.

Muenchausen, R.E.

1999-03-01

318

Mucilaginibacter paludis gen. nov., sp. nov. and Mucilaginibacter gracilis sp. nov., pectin-, xylan- and laminarin-degrading members of the family Sphingobacteriaceae from acidic Sphagnum peat bog.  

PubMed

Two facultatively aerobic, heterotrophic bacteria capable of degrading pectin, xylan, laminarin and some other polysaccharides were obtained from the acidic Sphagnum peat bog Bakchar, in western Siberia, Russia, and were designated strains TPT18(T) and TPT56(T). Cells of these isolates are Gram-negative, non-motile, long rods that are covered by large capsules. On ageing, they transform into spherical L-forms. Strains TPT18(T) and TPT56(T) are acido- and psychrotolerant organisms capable of growth at pH 4.2-8.2 (with an optimum at pH 6.0-6.5) and at 2-33 degrees C (with an optimum at 20 degrees C). The major fatty acids are iso-C(15 : 0), anteiso-C(15 : 0), iso-C(17 : 0) 3-OH and summed feature 3 (iso-C(15 : 0) 2-OH and/or C(16 : 1)omega7c); the quinones are MK-7 and MK-6. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that the novel strains share 97 % sequence similarity and belong to the family Sphingobacteriaceae; however, they are related only distantly to members of the genera Pedobacter (91.8-93.3 % similarity) and Sphingobacterium (89.6-91.2 % similarity). The DNA G+C content of strains TPT18(T) and TPT56(T) is 42.4 and 46.1 mol%, respectively. The low DNA-DNA hybridization value (42 %) and a number of phenotypic differences between strains TPT18(T) and TPT56(T) indicated that they represent two separate species. Since the two isolates are clearly distinct from all currently described members of the family Sphingobacteriaceae, we propose a novel genus, Mucilaginibacter gen. nov., containing two novel species, Mucilaginibacter gracilis sp. nov. and Mucilaginibacter paludis sp. nov. The type strains of Mucilaginibacter gracilis and Mucilaginibacter paludis are respectively TPT18(T) (=ATCC BAA-1391(T) =VKM B-2447(T)) and TPT56(T) (=ATCC BAA-1394(T) =VKM B-2446(T)). PMID:17911309

Pankratov, Timofei A; Tindall, Brian J; Liesack, Werner; Dedysh, Svetlana N

2007-10-01

319

Granulicella paludicola gen. nov., sp. nov., Granulicella pectinivorans sp. nov., Granulicella aggregans sp. nov. and Granulicella rosea sp. nov., acidophilic, polymer-degrading acidobacteria from Sphagnum peat bogs.  

PubMed

Five strains of strictly aerobic, heterotrophic bacteria that form pink-red colonies and are capable of hydrolysing pectin, xylan, laminarin, lichenan and starch were isolated from acidic Sphagnum peat bogs and were designated OB1010(T), LCBR1, TPB6011(T), TPB6028(T) and TPO1014(T). Cells of these isolates were Gram-negative, non-motile rods that produced an amorphous extracellular polysaccharide-like substance. Old cultures contained spherical bodies of varying sizes, which represent starvation forms. Cells of all five strains were acidophilic and psychrotolerant, capable of growth at pH 3.0-7.5 (optimum pH 3.8-4.5) and at 2-33°C (optimum 15-22°C). The major fatty acids were iso-C(15?:?0), C(16?:?0) and summed feature 3 (C(16?:?1)?7c and/or iso-C(15?:?0) 2-OH). The major menaquinone detected was MK-8. The pigments were carotenoids. The genomic DNA G+C contents were 57.3-59.3 mol%. The five isolates were found to be members of subdivision 1 of the phylum Acidobacteria and displayed 95.3-98.9?% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to each other. The closest described relatives to strains OB1010(T), LCBR1, TPB6011(T), TPB6028(T), and TPO1014(T) were members of the genera Terriglobus (94.6-95.8?% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity) and Edaphobacter (94.2-95.4?%). Based on differences in cell morphology, phenotypic characteristics and hydrolytic capabilities, we propose a novel genus, Granulicella gen. nov., containing four novel species, Granulicella paludicola sp. nov. with type strain OB1010(T) (=DSM 22464(T) =LMG 25275(T)) and strain LCBR1, Granulicella pectinivorans sp. nov. with type strain TPB6011(T) (=VKM B-2509(T) =DSM 21001(T)), Granulicella rosea sp. nov. with type strain TPO1014(T) (=DSM 18704(T) =ATCC BAA-1396(T)) and Granulicella aggregans sp. nov. with type strain TPB6028(T) (=LMG 25274(T) =VKM B-2571(T)). PMID:20118293

Pankratov, Timofey A; Dedysh, Svetlana N

2010-12-01

320

Small scale soil carbon and moisture gradients in a drained peat bog grassland and their influence on CO2, CH4 and N2O fluxes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Due to the UNFCCC report requirements of each country on the emissions of greenhouse gases from key sources the joint research project "Organic Soils" was established in Germany. The project's objective is to improve the data set on greenhousegas emissions from organic soils in Germany. Within 12 German Project Catchments emissions from different types of organic soils, e.g. under different land uses and hydrological conditions, are measured. At the location "Großes Moor" near Gifhorn (Lower Saxony) the effects of small-scale soil organic carbon and groundwater level gradients on the GHG fluxes (CO2, CH4 and N2O) are quantified. The study area is located within a former peat bog altered by drainage and peat cutting, which is currently grassland under extensive agricultural use. The focus of the study is on the acquisition of CO2, CH4 and N2O fluxes on six sites via manual closed chambers. In order to calculate the annual CO2 exchange rate, values are interpolated on a 0.5 hour scale between measurement campaigns. In combination with continually logged meteorological parameters, such as the photosynthetic active radiation as well as air and soil temperatures, we calculate the daily CO2 ecosystem exchange of the different sites. During the 2011 campaign, CO2 was determined as the most important greenhouse gas. The groundwater table was the dominant variable influencing gas emissions. Another important factor was the vegetation composition. In detail, highest CO2 emissions occurred with a water table of 40-50 cm below ground level, temperatures above 10°C and low plant biomass amounts. Due to the more complex formation of N2O by a number of processes, each being promoted by different soil conditions, the measurement of N2O fluxes in the field was complemented by a laboratory experiment. In this, the use of stable isotope tracer techniques enabled us to quantify the contribution of single biochemical pathways to the overall formation of N2O under controlled conditions. This together with the prediction of the systems CO2 exchange, gives valuable information on how degraded peatlands can be restored best or at least be cultivated in a way to achieve climate neutral conditions. Thus, our study improves the prediction, how peatland soils will react to changes of soil and climate conditions with respect to their greenhouse gas emissions.

Leiber-Sauheitl, K.; Fuß, R.; Freibauer, A.

2012-04-01

321

How do climate and human impact affect Sphagnum peatlands under oceanic-continental climatic conditions? 2000 years of fire and hydrological history of a bog in Northern Poland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate change affects many natural processes and the same applies to human impact For instance climate change and anthropogenic activities may cause increased fire activity or change peatland dynamics. Currently it is still unknown how Sphagnum peatlands in the oceanic-continental transition zone of Poland may respond to combined effects of heat waves, drought and fire. The aim of the study was to reconstruct the last 2000 years palaeohydrology and fire history at Linje bog in Northern Poland. The main task was to determine the drivers of fire episodes, particularly to identify climatic and anthropogenic forcing. A two-meter peat core was extracted and subsampled with a high resolution. Micro- and macroscopic charcoal analyses were applied to determine past fire activity and the results compared with palaeohydrological reconstructions based on testate amoeba analysis. Palynological human indicators were used to reconstruct human activity. A depth-age model including 20 14C dates was constructed to calculate peat accumulation rates and charcoal influx. We hypothesised that: 1) fire frequency in Northern Poland was determined by climatic conditions (combination of low precipitation and heat waves), as reflected in peatland water table, and that 2) past fire episodes in the last millennium were intensified by human activity. Furthermore climate may have influenced human activity over harvest success and the carrying capacity. Our study shows that fire was important for the studied ecosystem, however, its frequency has increased in the last millennium in concomitance with land use activities. Landscape humanization and vegetation opening were followed by a peatland drying during the Little Ice Age (from ca. AD 1380). Similarly to other palaeoecological studies from Poland, Linje peatland possessed an unstable hydrology during the Little Ice Age. Increased fire episodes appeared shortly before the Little Ice Age and most severe fires were present in the time when recorded water table was the lowest. We acknowledge the support of RE-FIRE SCIEX project 12.286 and grant PSPB-013/2010 from Switzerland through the Swiss Contribution to the enlarged European Union.

Marcisz, Katarzyna; Tinner, Willy; Colombaroli, Daniele; Ko?aczek, Piotr; S?owi?ski, Micha?; Fia?kiewicz-Kozie?, Barbara; Lamentowicz, Mariusz

2014-05-01

322

films deposited by chemical vapour deposition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A few properties of polycrystalline silicon germanium (poly-Si1- x Ge x ) films can be tailored by modulating the germanium incorporation. In this paper, the structural, mechanical and electrical properties of heavily doped ultrathin (~100 nm) poly-Si1- x Ge x films (0.84 ? x ? 0.88) fabricated by low-pressure chemical vapour deposition were investigated. For a boron concentration of ~2.2 × 1021 atoms/cm3, a slight increase of germanium fraction significantly enhances the deposition rate, crystallinity and Hall mobility while having negligible influence on the Young's modulus and hardness. The grain size increases from ~6 to ~12 nm while the grain structure becomes more columnar. In addition, the resistivity decreases from 7.4 to 1.1 m ? cm with a corresponding increase in the Hall mobility from ~0.9 to ~4.2 cm2 V-1 s-1. However, the Young's modulus (~101 GPa) and hardness (~8.8 GPa) are virtually unaffected within the range of germanium fraction explored. In practice, poly-SiGe layer having low resistivity, high modulus, high mobility and low surface roughness can be successfully applied for resonators, biosensors and nanoswitches among others.

Asafa, T. B.; Witvrouw, A.; Morcos, B. S.; Vanstreels, K.; Said, S. A. M.

2014-08-01

323

Mineral deposit density; an update  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A robust method to estimate the number of undiscovered deposits is a form of mineral deposit model wherein numbers of deposits per unit area from well-explored regions are counted and the resulting frequency distribution is used either directly for an estimate or indirectly as a guideline in some other method. The 27 mineral deposit density estimates reported here for 13 different deposit types represent a start at compiling the estimates necessary to guide assessments.

Singer, Donald A.; Menzie, W. David; Sutphin, David M.; Mosier, Dan L.; Bliss, James D.; contributions to global mineral resource assessment research edited by Schulz, Klaus J.

2001-01-01

324

Venus - Landslide Deposits  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Magellan spacecraft has observed remnant landslide deposits apparently resulting from the collapse of volcanic structures. This image, centered at 45.2 degrees south latitude, 201.4 degrees east longitude, shows a collapse deposit 70 kilometers (43 miles) across. The bright, highly textured deposit near the center of the image probably consists of huge blocks of fractured volcanic rock, many as large as several hundred meters across. A remnant of the volcano itself, about 20 kilometers (12.4 miles) across, is seen at the center of the image. The distorted radar appearance of the volcano is a result of extremely steep slopes on the 'scars' from which the landslide material originated. A field of numerous small volcanic domes can be seen in the northern half of the image. The bright irregular lineaments trending to the north-northwest are ridges caused by regional tectonic deformation of the upper layers of the Venusian crust.

1992-01-01

325

MEASUREMENTS OF DRY DEPOSITION VELOCITY MODEL EVALUATION  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) nationwide network to Deposition Network dry deposition of gases and particles, the National Dry Deposition Network (NDDN), measures not deposition, but concentration of pollutants and meteorological relevant to deposition processe...

326

Volcanogenic Massive Sulfide Deposit Density  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A mineral-deposit density model for volcanogenic massive sulfide deposits was constructed from 38 well-explored control areas from around the world. Control areas contain at least one exposed volcanogenic massive sulfide deposit. The control areas used in this study contain 150 kuroko, 14 Urals, and 25 Cyprus massive sulfide subtypes of volcanogenic massive sulfide deposits. For each control area, extent of permissive rock, number of exposed volcanogenic massive sulfide deposits, map scale, deposit age, and deposit density were determined. The frequency distribution of deposit densities in these 38 control areas provides probabilistic estimates of the number of deposits for tracts that are permissive for volcanogenic massive sulfide deposits-90 percent of the control areas have densities of 100 or more deposits per 100,000 square kilometers, 50 percent of the control areas have densities of 700 or more deposits per 100,000 square kilometers, and 10 percent of the control areas have densities of 3,700 or more deposits per 100,000 square kilometers. Both map scale and the size of the control area are shown to be predictors of deposit density. Probabilistic estimates of the number of volcanogenic massive sulfide deposits can be made by conditioning the estimates on sizes of permissive area. The model constructed for this study provides a powerful tool for estimating the number of undiscovered volcanogenic massive sulfide deposits when conducting resource assessments. The value of these deposit densities is due to the consistency of these models with the grade and tonnage and the descriptive models. Mineral-deposit density models combined with grade and tonnage models allow reasonable estimates of the number, size, and grades of volcanogenic massive sulfide deposits to be made.

Mosier, Dan L.; Singer, Donald A.; Berger, Vladimir I.

2007-01-01

327

Atmospheric N deposition and feedbacks on net ecosystem CO2 exchange at a semi-natural peatland site  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Large areas of Northern Germany have been converted from natural peat bogs to arable land and were subjected to draining and peat cutting in the past. The few protected peatland areas remaining are affected by high nitrogen (N) deposition. This is the case at our study site - a semi-natural raised bog - which although located in a natural park, is surrounded by highly fertilized agricultural land and highly emitting animal husbandry farms. In this study, we use a combined approach of two independent methods to quantify atmospheric N deposition. We further investigate possible feedbacks of seasonal variation in N deposition on net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE). Fluxes of ammonia (NH3) and its atmospheric reactants are measured by a KAPS-denuder system. Additionally, total N input from the atmosphere into a soil-plant model ecosystem is investigated by a 15N dilution method called 'Integrated Total Nitrogen Input' (ITNI). With this approach, we allocate atmospheric N after its uptake by the ecosystem into its different fractions and investigate both plant-species effects (Lolium multiflorum, Eriophorum vaginatum) and influences of the plant biomass production induced by different amounts of fertilizer addition. Continuous eddy-covariance measurements are carried out to measure NEE. Maximum NH3 depositions of 0.41 ± 0.04 kg ha-1 week-1 were found in spring 2012. The proportion of fluxes of other N compounds such as HNO3, aerosol NH4 and NO3 was usually around 20 % of total dry N measured by KAPS denuders. In total, dry N deposition was 11.2 ± 0.9 kg N ha-1 yr-1 over the first year of experiments. Complemented with wet N measurements using bulk samplers, total N depositions of about 25.0 kg ha-1 yr-1 were found. The mean atmospheric N uptake determined with the ITNI system was 3.99 ± 0.82 mg N g-1 dry weight from July to October 2011. About two third of total deposited airborne N was allocated in above-ground plant biomass and roots. Upscaling of data based on pot area resulted in a total N input of 24.06 ± 3.55 kg N ha-1 yr-1 into the ITNI system. Cumulative NEE was about -241 g C m-2 yr-1 for the first year of experiments with the strongest CO2 uptake being observed during spring and early summer. During winter, photosynthesis slightly exceeded respiration. Our results show that the critical load of N deposition for peatlands (~5 kg N ha-1 yr-1) is fivefold exceeded. Most likely, the intensive agricultural land management of the surrounding areas leads to this high N deposition into the protected peatland area. Future changes in plant species composition and the local hydrological regime cannot be excluded. A link between N input and comparatively high CO2 uptake will be discussed.

Hurkuck, Miriam; Brümmer, Christian; Spott, Oliver; Flessa, Heinz; Kutsch, Werner L.

2013-04-01

328

Peat deposits in Panama: Their potential for use in energy applications  

SciTech Connect

A major peak bog has been discovered in the Changuinola area of Panama. The bog averages 8-m deep, is thought to be 82 km/sup 2/, in area and the peat has an ash content of about 4%. It is estimated that this size peat bog could support a 30-MW power plant for 360 years. Preliminary cost estimates for using the peat in an electrical power plant give an estimated cost of electricity of 0.09$US/kWh if wet mining is used and 0.079$US/kWh if milled peat is used. 2 refs., 4 figs.

Ramirez, A.; Thayer, G.; Cohen, A.D.; Allen, A.

1986-12-01

329

Age models for peat deposits on the basis of coupled lead-210 and radiocarbon data.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study presents three examples of age-model construction based on the results of 210Pb and 14C dating methods applied to peat deposits. The three sites are ombrotrophic peat bogs: the Misten (Belgium), Slowinskie Bloto (N Poland) and Puscizna Mala (S Poland). All sites have been subjected to multiproxy studies aimed at reconstructing paleoenvironment and human activity, covering the last 1500, 1300 and 1800 years, respectively (De Vleeschouwer et al. 2009A, 2009B, in prep., Fialkiewicz-Koziel, ongoing PhD). A detailed comparison between 210Pb and post-bomb 14C results in the Misten bog has also been carried out by Piotrowska et al. (2009). In all cores, the 210Pb activity was calculated using 210Po and 208Po activities after acid-extraction from bulk samples, subsequent deposition on silver discs and measurements by alpha spectrometry. Unsupported 210Pb was detected until 35cm in Slowinskie Bloto, 15cm in the Misten and 19cm in Puscizna Mala. Constant Rate of Supply (CRS) model was then applied to compute ages of each 1-cm core interval. For the Misten and Slowinskie Bloto, radiocarbon measurements were performed on selected aboveground plant macrofossils, mainly Sphagnum spp. or Calluna vulgaris, Erica tetralix, and Andromeda polyfolia. Radiocarbon ages were determined using accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) after acid-alkali-acid wash, combustion, purification of carbon dioxide and graphitisation. For Puscizna Mala bulk samples were dated after chemical preparation of benzene for liquid scintillation counting (LSC) or CO2 for gas proportional counting (GPC). Radiocarbon calibration was undertaken using the Intcal04 calibration curve and OxCal 4 software. As a priori information the 210Pb-derived ages were used in a P_Sequence model (Bronk Ramsey, 2008). A number of dates characterized by low agreement with stratigraphical order had to be considered as outliers and rejected from the final age model. For building a continuous age models a non-linear approach called generalized additive model (GAM) was used, as described by Heegaard et al. (2005). The calculations were performed within each period on the middle-point of the 95.4 % range of calibrated age, while an uncertainty equal to half of this range was assumed. The results of 210Pb dating are described by Gaussian distribution and in their case 1-sigma range was used. The resulting age-depth relationships provide a mean age and an age range for each 1-cm thick slice of peat, and allows for calculation of sedimentation rates. This study highlights some important issues connected with radiocarbon dating of peat sequences. Commonly known problems are wide ranges of calibrated ages caused by wiggles in calibration curve for the period just beyond the range of precise 210Pb dates, which can undoubtedly be solved by 14C-dating more samples from thinner slices. It also emphasizes the great potential of Bayesian analysis applied in radiocarbon calibration. The high suitability of coupled 210Pb-14C dating applied to dating of peat deposits was also confirmed. Bronk Ramsey C., 2008. Deposition Models for Chronological Records. Quaternary Science Reviews 27: 42-60. De Vleeschouwer F., Piotrowska N., Sikorski J., Pawlyta J., Cheburkin A., Le Roux G., Lamentowicz M., Fagel N., Mauquoy D., 2009A. Multiproxy evidences of Little Ice Age palaeoenvironmental changes in a peat bog from northern Poland. The Holocene 19,4: 625-637. De Vleeschouwer F., Fagel N., Cheburkin A., Pazdur A., Sikorski J., Mattielli N., Renson V., Fialkiewicz B., Piotrowska N., Le Roux G., 2009B. Anthropogenic impacts in North Poland over the last 1300 years and possible influence of climate on human activities. Science of the Total Environment 407: 5674-5684. De Vleeschouwer F., Luthers C., Court-Picon M., Mauquoy D., Wastiaux C., Le Roux G., Moschen R., Pawlyta J., Pazdur A., Sikorski J., Piotrowska N. In preparation. Multiproxy paleoenvironmental study in the Misten bog (East Belgium) during the last millenium. To be submitted in Quaternary International in June 2010. De Vleeschouwer F., Fagel N. Sikorsk

Piotrowska, Natalia; de Vleeschouwer, François; Sikorski, Jaros?aw; Sensu?a, Barbara; Michczy?ski, Adam; Fia?kiewicz-Kozie?, Barbara; Palowski, Bernard

2010-05-01

330

High soil solution carbon and nitrogen concentrations in a drained Atlantic bog are reduced to natural levels by 10 years of rewetting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Anthropogenic drainage of peatlands releases additional greenhouse gases to the atmosphere, and dissolved carbon (C) and nutrients to downstream ecosystems. Rewetting drained peatlands offers a possibility to reduce nitrogen (N) and C losses. In this study, we investigate the impact of drainage and rewetting on the cycling of dissolved C and N as well as on dissolved gases, over a period of 1 year and a period of 4 months. We chose four sites within one Atlantic bog complex: a near-natural site, two drained grasslands with different mean groundwater levels and a former peat cutting area rewetted 10 years ago. Our results clearly indicate that long-term drainage has increased the concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), ammonium, nitrate and dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) compared to the near-natural site. DON and ammonium contributed the most to the total dissolved nitrogen. Nitrate concentrations below the mean groundwater table were negligible. The concentrations of DOC and N species increased with drainage depth. In the deeply-drained grassland, with a mean annual water table of 45 cm below surface, DOC concentrations were twice as high as in the partially rewetted grassland with a mean annual water table of 28 cm below surface. The deeply drained grassland had some of the highest-ever observed DOC concentrations of 195.8 ± 77.3 mg L-1 with maximum values of >400 mg L-1. In general, dissolved organic matter (DOM) at the drained sites was enriched in aromatic moieties and showed a higher degradation status (lower DOC to DON ratio) compared to the near-natural site. At the drained sites, the C to N ratios of the uppermost peat layer were the same as of DOM in the peat profile. This suggests that the uppermost degraded peat layer is the main source of DOM. Nearly constant DOM quality through the profile furthermore indicated that DOM moving downwards through the drained sites remained largely biogeochemically unchanged. Unlike DOM concentration, DOM quality and dissolved N species distribution were similar in the two grasslands and thus unaffected by the drainage depth. Methane production during the winter months at the drained sites was limited to the subsoil, which was quasi-permanently water saturated. The recovery of the water table in the winter months led to the production of nitrous oxide around mean water table depth at the drained sites. The rewetted and the near-natural site had comparable DOM quantity and quality (DOC to DON ratio and aromaticity). 10 years after rewetting quasi-pristine biogeochemical conditions have been re-established under continuously water logged conditions in the former peat cut area. Only the elevated dissolved methane and ammonium concentrations reflected the former disturbance by drainage and peat extraction. Rewetting via polder technique seems to be an appropriate way to revitalize peatlands on longer timescales and to improve the water quality of downstream water bodies.

Frank, S.; Tiemeyer, B.; Gelbrecht, J.; Freibauer, A.

2014-04-01

331

Atmospheric Pb deposition since the Industrial Revolution recorded by five Swiss peat profiles: Enrichment factors, fluxes, isotopic composition, and sources  

SciTech Connect

Atmospheric Pb deposition since the Industrial Revolution was studied in western, central, and southern Switzerland using five rural peat bogs. Similar temporal patterns were found in western and central Switzerland, with two distinct periods of Pb enrichment relative to the natural background: between 1880 and 1920 with enrichments ranging from 40 to 80 times, and between 1960 and 1980 with enrichments ranging from 80 to 100 times. The fluxes also were generally elevated in those time periods: in western Switzerland between 1.16 and 1.55 {micro}g cm{sup {minus}2} y{sup {minus}1} during the second period. Between the Industrial Revolution and 1985, nonradiogenic Pb became increasingly important in all five cores because of the replacement of coal by oil after ca. 1920, the use of Australian Pb in industry, and the extensive combustion of leaded gasoline after 1950. The introduction of unleaded gasoline in 1985 had a pronounced effect on the Pb deposition in all five cores. Enrichments dropped sharply, and the isotopic ratios reverted back toward natural values. The cores from western and central Switzerland showed very similar isotopic trends throughout the time period studied, implying that these sites were influenced contemporaneously by similar pollution sources and atmospheric pathways. Southern Switzerland revealed a different record with respect to the Pb pollution: it was dominated by a single massive Pb enrichment dated between 1930 and 1950.

Weiss, D.; Shotyk, W.; Kramers, J.D. [Univ. of Bern (Switzerland)] [Univ. of Bern (Switzerland); Appleby, P.G. [Univ. of Liverpool (United Kingdom). Dept. of Mathematical Sciences] [Univ. of Liverpool (United Kingdom). Dept. of Mathematical Sciences; Cheburkin, A.K. [Ukrainian Academy of Sciences, Kiev (Ukraine). Inst. of Geological Sciences] [Ukrainian Academy of Sciences, Kiev (Ukraine). Inst. of Geological Sciences

1999-05-01

332

Deposition and dust results from NSTX DEPOSITION IN NSTX  

E-print Network

Deposition and dust results from NSTX · DEPOSITION IN NSTX: ­ Motivation ­ Hardware ­ Deposition Results · Plasmas · Boronization · ADVANCES IN DUST DETECTION ­ Motivation ­ Dust in NSTX ­ Results from new dust detector · Concluding remarks Charles Skinner, Lane Roquemore, Henry Kugel, PPPL William

Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory

333

MODELING DEPOSITION OF INHALED PARTICLES  

EPA Science Inventory

Modeling Deposition of Inhaled Particles: ABSTRACT The mathematical modeling of the deposition and distribution of inhaled aerosols within human lungs is an invaluable tool in predicting both the health risks associated with inhaled environmental aerosols and the therapeut...

334

Testing the potential of bacterial branched tetraether membrane lipids as temperature proxy in peat and immature coal deposits  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraether (brGDGT) membrane lipids occur ubiquitously in peat and soil. In soil, the degree of methylation and cyclisation of branched tetraethers (MBT index and CBT ratio, respectively) has shown to relate to both soil pH and annual mean air temperature (MAT). Using this relation, past annual MATs can be reconstructed by analysing brGDGTs in marine sediment records near large river outflows. More recently, the potential of this MBT/CBT proxy is also being explored in lakes. Despite being more abundant in peat than soils, however, the utility of the proxy has not yet been fully explored in peat records. Present day peat records generally extent back to the early Holocene, but if the MBT/CBT proxy were shown to be applicable in peat deposits, there is also potential to apply it to immature coal deposits like lignites, which could provide valuable snapshots of continental climate back to the early Cenozoic. Here results are presented of analyses of different peats in south eastern Canada, showing that the pH of peat along a nutrient gradient is rather well reflected by the CBT. Annual MAT reconstructions based on the MBT/CBT soil calibration, however, tend to overestimate measured MAT. This is also the case for peat analysed from the surface of Etang de la Gruère peat bog in the Swiss Jura Mountains. Along the 6m depth profile of this bog (~13ka), CBT-reconstructed pH is compared with in-situ measured pore water pH showing that the brGDGT composition does not reflect present-day in-situ conditions. Instead, it reflects a stratigraphic boundary between Carex and Sphagnum dominated peat at 4 m depth that is not present in the pore water profile, testifying to a 'fossil' nature of the brGDGTs down the peat bog. Analyses of three immature coals of the Argonne Premium Coal Series reveal that branched GDGTs are present in the most immature coal, the Beulah Zap lignite (Ro = 0.25%), and only just above detection limit in the Wyodak Anderson coal (Ro = 0.32%), both of about the same age (Late Palaeocene). In the more mature Illinois #6 coal (Ro = 0.46%), brGDGTs are completely absent. In the Denver Basin, a comparison is made between outcrop and drilled core samples of Palaeocene lignites. BrGDGTs are preserved in the core samples, although in low quantities compared to peat. Outcrop samples are clearly overprinted by modern soil derived brGDGTs, despite digging a meters deep trench, which shows the need to obtain fresh non-weathered samples by coring. Reconstructed annual MAT for both the Beulah Zap and the Denver Basin lignites are several degrees higher than estimates based on leaf margin and oxygen isotope analyses from the same sites. Both reconstructions do testify, nevertheless, to the warm continental conditions during the early Cenozoic of the central U.S.A.. Although further validation is required, potentially in the form of a specific peat calibration, these results do show potential for application of the MBT/CBT temperature proxy in peat and lignite deposits.

Weijers, J. W. H.; Steinmann, P.; Hopmans, E. C.; Basiliko, N.; Finkelstein, S. A.; Johnson, K. R.; Schouten, S.; Sinninghe Damsté, J. S.

2012-04-01

335

Deposition of ozone to tundra  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eddy correlation measurements of O3 deposition fluxes to tundra during the Arctic Boundary Layer Expedition (ABLE 3A) are reported. The mean O3 deposition velocity was 0.24 cm\\/s in the daytime and 0.12 cm\\/s at night. The day-to-day difference in deposition velocity was driven by both atmospheric stability and surface reactivity. The mean surface resistance to O3 deposition was 2.6 s\\/cm

D. J. Jacob; S.-M. Fan; S. C. Wofsy; P. A. Spiro; P. S. Bakwin; J. A. Ritter; E. V. Browell; G. L. Gregory; D. R. Fitzjarrald; K. E. Moore

1992-01-01

336

Molybdenum in marine deposits  

Microsoft Academic Search

The distribution and rates of accumulation of Mo in marine deposits have been determined and compared with the same parameters for U and Mn. High concentrations of Mo are associated both with oxidizing environments represented by the presence of ferro-manganese oxide-rich sediments (where Mo\\/U ~- 3) and with reducing environments (where Mo\\/U is about unity). The supply of Mo by

Kathe K. Bertine; Karl K. Turekian

1973-01-01

337

Deposit Insurance During EU Accession  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents a brief review of the systems of deposit insurance in accession countries, comparing their level of harmonization with the perspective of their EU integration. Studying the different practices of deposit insurance in the context of developing financial safety nets in future Europe we have found that: (i) there is overinsurance of deposits in accession countries, and (ii)

Nikolay Nenovsky; Kalina Dimitrova

2003-01-01

338

Electrophoretic deposition of biomaterials  

PubMed Central

Electrophoretic deposition (EPD) is attracting increasing attention as an effective technique for the processing of biomaterials, specifically bioactive coatings and biomedical nanostructures. The well-known advantages of EPD for the production of a wide range of microstructures and nanostructures as well as unique and complex material combinations are being exploited, starting from well-dispersed suspensions of biomaterials in particulate form (microsized and nanoscale particles, nanotubes, nanoplatelets). EPD of biological entities such as enzymes, bacteria and cells is also being investigated. The review presents a comprehensive summary and discussion of relevant recent work on EPD describing the specific application of the technique in the processing of several biomaterials, focusing on (i) conventional bioactive (inorganic) coatings, e.g. hydroxyapatite or bioactive glass coatings on orthopaedic implants, and (ii) biomedical nanostructures, including biopolymer–ceramic nanocomposites, carbon nanotube coatings, tissue engineering scaffolds, deposition of proteins and other biological entities for sensors and advanced functional coatings. It is the intention to inform the reader on how EPD has become an important tool in advanced biomaterials processing, as a convenient alternative to conventional methods, and to present the potential of the technique to manipulate and control the deposition of a range of nanomaterials of interest in the biomedical and biotechnology fields. PMID:20504802

Boccaccini, A. R.; Keim, S.; Ma, R.; Li, Y.; Zhitomirsky, I.

2010-01-01

339

Deposition of SOCs in forests  

SciTech Connect

The bulk deposition, wet-only deposition, dry-only deposition and ambient air concentrations of PCDD/Fs, PCBs and PAHs were measured in an 80 year old spruce forest, an 80 year old mixed deciduous (beech and oak) forest, and in an adjacent clearing over a period of 1--2 years. The deposition of the less volatile compounds that are primarily particle bound in the atmosphere was similar at both sites. These compounds were deposited primarily through wet deposition, as shown by the measurements in the clearing. In contrast, the deposition of the more volatile compounds was much higher at the forest sites than in the clearing. For instance, the annual deposition of Cl{sub 4}DF was 5 times higher in the spruce forest and 8 times higher in the deciduous forest. The excess deposition in the deciduous forest was almost completely due to the leaf fall in October--December, while about half of the excess deposition in the spruce forest was the result of needle fall. A further, as yet unexplained deposition mechanism accounted for the remainder of the flux in the spruce forest. Other studies have shown that more volatile SOCs are deposited to vegetation primarily through dry gaseous deposition. Hence, while forests have little influence on the deposition of less volatile compounds like the higher chlorinated PCDD/Fs and the 5--6 ring PAHs, dry deposition to leaves/needles and their subsequent falling to the forest floor make forest soils an extremely important sink for more volatile SOC.

Horstmann, M.; McLachlan, M.S. [Univ. of Bayreuth (Germany)

1995-12-31

340

Database of recent tsunami deposits  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report describes a database of sedimentary characteristics of tsunami deposits derived from published accounts of tsunami deposit investigations conducted shortly after the occurrence of a tsunami. The database contains 228 entries, each entry containing data from up to 71 categories. It includes data from 51 publications covering 15 tsunamis distributed between 16 countries. The database encompasses a wide range of depositional settings including tropical islands, beaches, coastal plains, river banks, agricultural fields, and urban environments. It includes data from both local tsunamis and teletsunamis. The data are valuable for interpreting prehistorical, historical, and modern tsunami deposits, and for the development of criteria to identify tsunami deposits in the geologic record.

Peters, Robert; Jaffe, Bruce E.

2010-01-01

341

Multi-chamber deposition system  

DOEpatents

A system for the simultaneous deposition of different coatings onto a thin web within a large volume vacuum chamber is disclosed which chamber is provided with a plurality of deposition chambers in which the different layers are deposited onto the film as its moves from a supply roll to a finished take-up roll of coated web. The deposition chambers provided within the large vacuum chamber are provided with separate seals which minimize back diffusion of any dopant gas from adjacent deposition chambers.

Jacobson, Richard L. (Roseville, MN); Jeffrey, Frank R. (Shoreview, MN); Westerberg, Roger K. (Cottage Grove, MN)

1989-10-17

342

Multi-chamber deposition system  

DOEpatents

A system for the simultaneous deposition of different coatings onto a thin web within a large volume vacuum chamber is disclosed which chamber is provided with a plurality of deposition chambers in which the different layers are deposited onto the film as its moves from a supply roll to a finished take-up roll of coated web. The deposition chambers provided within the large vacuum chamber are provided with separate seals which minimize back diffusion of any dopant gas from adjacent deposition chambers.

Jacobson, Richard L. (Roseville, MN); Jeffrey, Frank R. (Shoreview, MN); Westerberg, Roger K. (Cottage Grove, MN)

1989-06-27

343

Coffee ring deposition in bands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Microscopic particles suspended in a liquid are transported and deposited at a contact line, as the contact line recedes due to evaporation. A particle layer of uniform thickness is deposited if the particle concentration is above a threshold; below this threshold the deposit forms periodic bands oriented parallel to the contact line. We present a model for the formation of these bands based on evaporation leading to the breakup of the thin liquid film near the contact line. The threshold results from a competition between evaporation speed and deposition speed. Using this model, we predict the thickness and length of the bands, making the control of patterned deposition possible.

Mandre, Shreyas; Wu, Ning; Aizenberg, Joanna; Mahadevan, Lakshminarayanan

2010-11-01

344

Acid Deposition Lab  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity students will design an apparatus and carry out tests of fossil fuels to determine their impact on acid deposition by placing a small amount of a fossil fuel on a cotton puff and burning it to measure if acidic compounds are given off. Students will provide a diagram of their collection device and describe how it should function. Students will then draw a map showing the location of their precipitation collector and develop a graph or chart based on the results they have collected.

345

Magnetic hierarchical deposition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider random deposition of debris or blocks on a line, with block sizes following a rigorous hierarchy: the linear size equals 1/?n in generation n, in terms of a rescaling factor ?. Without interactions between the blocks, this model is described by a logarithmic fractal, studied previously, which is characterized by a constant increment of the length, area or volume upon proliferation. We study to what extent the logarithmic fractality survives, if each block is equipped with an Ising (pseudo-)spin s=±1 and the interactions between those spins are switched on (ranging from antiferromagnetic to ferromagnetic). It turns out that the dependence of the surface topology on the interaction sign and strength is not trivial. For instance, deep in the ferromagnetic regime, our numerical experiments and analytical results reveal a sharp crossover from a Euclidean transient, consisting of aggregated domains of aligned spins, to an asymptotic logarithmic fractal growth. In contrast, deep into the antiferromagnetic regime the surface roughness is important and is shown analytically to be controlled by vacancies induced by frustrated spins. Finally, in the weak interaction regime, we demonstrate that the non-interacting model is extremal in the sense that the effect of the introduction of interactions is only quadratic in the magnetic coupling strength. In all regimes, we demonstrate the adequacy of a mean-field approximation whenever vacancies are rare. In sum, the logarithmic fractal character is robust with respect to the introduction of spatial correlations in the hierarchical deposition process.

Posazhennikova, Anna I.; Indekeu, Joseph O.

2014-11-01

346

Deposit formation in hydrocarbon fuels  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The hydrocarbon fuels RP-1, commercial-grade propane, JP-7 and chemically pure propane were subjected to tests in a high pressure fuel coking apparatus in order to evaluate their thermal decomposition limits and carbon deposition rates in heated copper tubes. A fuel thermal stability parametric evaluation was conducted at 136-340 atmospheres, bulk fuel velocities of 6-30 m/sec, and tube wall temperatures of 422-811 K, and the effect of inside wall material on deposit formation was evaluated in tests using nickel-plated tubes. Results show RP-1 deposit formation at wall temperatures between 600 and 800 K, with peak deposit formation near 700 K. Substitution of deoxygenated JP-7 for RP-1 showed no improvement, and the carbon deposition rates for propane fuels were found to be higher than those of either of the kerosene fuels. Nickel plating of the tube walls significantly reduced RP-1 carbon deposition rates.

Roback, R.; Szetela, E. J.; Spadaccini, L. J.

1982-01-01

347

Global deposition of airborne dioxin.  

PubMed

We present a global dioxin model that simulates one year of atmospheric emissions, transport processes, and depositions to the earth's terrestrial and marine habitats. We map starting emission levels for each land area, and we also map the resulting deposits to terrestrial and marine environments. This model confirms that 'hot spots' of deposition are likely to be in northern Europe, eastern North America, and in parts of Asia with the highest marine dioxin depositions being the northeast and northwest Atlantic, western Pacific, northern Indian Ocean and the Mediterranean. It also reveals that approximately 40% of airborne dioxin emissions are deposited to marine environments and that many countries in Africa receive more dioxin than they produce, which results in these countries being disproportionately impacted. Since human exposure to dioxin is largely through diet, this work highlights food producing areas that receive higher atmospheric deposits of dioxin than others. PMID:23962732

Booth, Shawn; Hui, Joe; Alojado, Zoraida; Lam, Vicky; Cheung, William; Zeller, Dirk; Steyn, Douw; Pauly, Daniel

2013-10-15

348

Oxalate deposition on asbestos bodies  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report on a deposition of oxalate crystals on ferruginous bodies after occupational exposure to asbestos demonstrated in 3 patients. We investigated the mechanism and possible significance of this deposition by testing the hypothesis that oxalate generated through nonenzymatic oxidation of ascorbate by asbestos-associated iron accounts for the deposition of the crystal on a ferruginous body. Crocidolite asbestos (1000 ?g\\/mL)

Andrew J Ghio; Victor L Roggli; Judy H Richards; Kay M Crissman; Jacqueline D Stonehuerner; Claude A Piantadosi

2003-01-01

349

The deposit size frequency method for estimating undiscovered uranium deposits  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The deposit size frequency (DSF) method has been developed as a generalization of the method that was used in the National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) program to estimate the uranium endowment of the United States. The DSF method overcomes difficulties encountered during the NURE program when geologists were asked to provide subjective estimates of (1) the endowed fraction of an area judged favorable (factor F) for the occurrence of undiscovered uranium deposits and (2) the tons of endowed rock per unit area (factor T) within the endowed fraction of the favorable area. Because the magnitudes of factors F and T were unfamiliar to nearly all of the geologists, most geologists responded by estimating the number of undiscovered deposits likely to occur within the favorable area and the average size of these deposits. The DSF method combines factors F and T into a single factor (F??T) that represents the tons of endowed rock per unit area of the undiscovered deposits within the favorable area. Factor F??T, provided by the geologist, is the estimated number of undiscovered deposits per unit area in each of a number of specified deposit-size classes. The number of deposit-size classes and the size interval of each class are based on the data collected from the deposits in known (control) areas. The DSF method affords greater latitude in making subjective estimates than the NURE method and emphasizes more of the everyday experience of exploration geologists. Using the DSF method, new assessments have been made for the "young, organic-rich" surficial uranium deposits in Washington and idaho and for the solution-collapse breccia pipe uranium deposits in the Grand Canyon region in Arizona and adjacent Utah. ?? 1993 Oxford University Press.

McCammon, R.B.; Finch, W.I.

1993-01-01

350

(Acidic deposition and the environment)  

SciTech Connect

The travelers presented several papers at the Fourth International Conference on Acidic Deposition. These covered the following topics: atmospheric chemistry and deposition of airborne nitrogen compounds, soil solution chemistry in high-elevation spruce forests, and forest throughfall measurements for estimating total sulfur deposition to ecosystems. In addition, S. E. Lindberg was invited to organize and chair a conference session on Throughfall and Stemflow Experiments, and to present an invited lecture on Atmospheric Deposition and Canopy Interactions of Metals and Nitrogen in Forest Ecosystems: The Influence of Global Change'' at the 110th Anniversary Celebration of the Free University of Amsterdam.

Garten, C.T.; Lindberg, S.E.; Van Miegroet, H.

1990-10-24

351

Top-Down Nanomanufacturing: Deposition  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This overview of nanotechnology is presented by the NaMCATE project. According to the introductory page, "in related silicon processes for fabrication of MEMS (microelectromechanical devices), deposition of so-called sacrificial layers of oxides or other material are made, and then these layers are removed to free the moving mechanical components from being bonded to the surface." In this module, the various deposition processes are described. Additionally, the module provides three learning activities titled Sputtering Copper, Evaporative Deposition, and Electrochemical Deposition and Chemical Etching. Lastly, a performance assessment and powerpoint presentation are included.Users must create a free login in order to access materials.

352

Sediment and Depositional Environments lab  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will investigate sediment and depositional environments utilizing several different research tools. They will utilize a "Sedimentator" settling tube to investigate energy influences in a depositional environment. Students will investigate hand samples of a coal suite to connect their observations to an understanding of its depositional environment. They will utilize the a USGS web site to make observations concerning Hurricane Katrina sediment transport and deposition. Students will utilize microscopes to make comparisons of different kinds of beach sand, their sources and ultimately the resultant rock types.

Ann Hadley

353

Atomic Layer Deposition  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, by the Concord Consortium's Molecular Literacy project, students "undertake a simulation of the Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) technique, a CVD process in which two complementary precursors (e.g., Al(CH3)3 and H2O) are alternatively introduced into the reaction chamber, and build an atomic scale film." The activity itself is a java-based interactive resource built upon the free, open source Molecular Workbench software. In the activity, students are allowed to explore at their own pace in a digital environment which allows them to manipulate the variables in the simulation and create a report of the data captured. In addition to the activity, visitors will find an overview of the activity, a link to more information about how the process is used in manufacturing, and an explanation of the central concepts.

354

Depositing Diamondlike Carbon Films  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

New process demonstrated to make thin films (usually thousands of angstroms to few microns thick) that have properties of diamonds. Various plasma and ion-beam techniques employed to generate films. Films made by radio-frequency plasma decomposition of hydrocarbon gas or other alkanes, by low-energy carbon-ion-beam deposition, or by ion plating and dual ion technique using carbon target. Advantages of new process over others are films produced, though amorphous, are clear, extremely hard, chemically inert, of high resistivity, and have index of refraction of 3.2 properties similar to those of single-crystal diamonds. Films have possible uses in microelectronic applications, high-energy-laser and plastic windows, corrosion protection for metals, and other applications where desired properties of film shaped during the film-formation process.

Mirtich, M. J.; Sovey, J. S.; Banks, B. A.

1986-01-01

355

Enhanced nitrogen deposition over China.  

PubMed

China is experiencing intense air pollution caused in large part by anthropogenic emissions of reactive nitrogen. These emissions result in the deposition of atmospheric nitrogen (N) in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, with implications for human and ecosystem health, greenhouse gas balances and biological diversity. However, information on the magnitude and environmental impact of N deposition in China is limited. Here we use nationwide data sets on bulk N deposition, plant foliar N and crop N uptake (from long-term unfertilized soils) to evaluate N deposition dynamics and their effect on ecosystems across China between 1980 and 2010. We find that the average annual bulk deposition of N increased by approximately 8?kilograms of nitrogen per hectare (P?deposition rates in the industrialized and agriculturally intensified regions of China are as high as the peak levels of deposition in northwestern Europe in the 1980s, before the introduction of mitigation measures. Nitrogen from ammonium (NH4(+)) is the dominant form of N in bulk deposition, but the rate of increase is largest for deposition of N from nitrate (NO3(-)), in agreement with decreased ratios of NH3 to NOx emissions since 1980. We also find that the impact of N deposition on Chinese ecosystems includes significantly increased plant foliar N concentrations in natural and semi-natural (that is, non-agricultural) ecosystems and increased crop N uptake from long-term-unfertilized croplands. China and other economies are facing a continuing challenge to reduce emissions of reactive nitrogen, N deposition and their negative effects on human health and the environment. PMID:23426264

Liu, Xuejun; Zhang, Ying; Han, Wenxuan; Tang, Aohan; Shen, Jianlin; Cui, Zhenling; Vitousek, Peter; Erisman, Jan Willem; Goulding, Keith; Christie, Peter; Fangmeier, Andreas; Zhang, Fusuo

2013-02-28

356

Erosion and Deposition in Turbomachinery  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a review of erosion and deposition research in turbomachines and the associated degrada- tion in engine performance caused by particulate matter ingestion. Parameters affecting surface material losses as a result of erosion and development of experimental and analytical approaches to predict flowpath erosion and deposition are discussed. Tests results that quantify the effects of temperature, impact particle

A. Hamed; W. C. Tabakoff; R. V. Wenglarz

2006-01-01

357

Impedance characteristics of calcareous deposit  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The electrochemical impedance spectra for bare steel and sample covered with calcareous deposit in artificial seawater were determined; the dependence of the impedance on the potential was investigated; the significance of the impedance parameter Rf reflecting the effective protectiveness of the deposit is emphasized. Optimization of the cathodic polarization condition is discussed.

Wen, Guo-Mou; Zheng, Fu-Yang; Fang, Bing-Fu; Ma, Ting-Chun

1996-09-01

358

4, 29012944, 2007 Acid deposition,  

E-print Network

short-term re- ductions in stream acidity, particularly base cation dilution and organic acid increasesHESSD 4, 2901­2944, 2007 Acid deposition, climate change and acid extremes C. D. Evans et al. Title System Sciences Effects of decreasing acid deposition and climate change on acid extremes in an upland

Boyer, Edmond

359

Variable temperature semiconductor film deposition  

DOEpatents

A method of depositing a semiconductor material on a substrate is disclosed. The method sequentially comprises (a) providing the semiconductor material in a depositable state such as a vapor for deposition on the substrate; (b) depositing the semiconductor material on the substrate while heating the substrate to a first temperature sufficient to cause the semiconductor material to form a first film layer having a first grain size; (c) continually depositing the semiconductor material on the substrate while cooling the substrate to a second temperature sufficient to cause the semiconductor material to form a second film layer deposited on the first film layer and having a second grain size smaller than the first grain size; and (d) raising the substrate temperature, while either continuing or not continuing to deposit semiconductor material to form a third film layer, to thereby anneal the film layers into a single layer having favorable efficiency characteristics in photovoltaic applications. A preferred semiconductor material is cadmium telluride deposited on a glass/tin oxide substrate already having thereon a film layer of cadmium sulfide.

Li, X.; Sheldon, P.

1998-01-27

360

SOIL REACTION AND ACIDIC DEPOSITION  

EPA Science Inventory

This chapter discusses the major chemical processes by which acidic deposition interacts with soils. he focus is on forest soils, as the effects of acidic deposition on soils used for production of food and fiber are generally small compared to effects of agricultural practices s...

361

Determination of (239)Pu, (240)Pu, (241)Pu and (242)Pu at femtogram and attogram levels - evidence for the migration of fallout plutonium in an ombrotrophic peat bog profile.  

PubMed

The isotopic composition of plutonium ((239)Pu, (240)Pu, (241)Pu and (242)Pu) was investigated in a ?0.5 m long peat core from an ombrotrophic bog (Black Forest, Germany) using clean room procedures and accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). This sophisticated analytical approach was ultimately needed to detect reliably the Pu concentrations present in the peat samples at femtogram (fg) and attogram (ag) levels. The mean (240)Pu/(239)Pu isotopic ratio of 0.19 ± 0.02 (N = 32) in the peat layers, representing approximately the last 80 years, was in good agreement with the accepted value of 0.18 for the global fallout in the Northern Hemisphere. This finding is largely supported by the corresponding and rather constant (241)Pu/(239)Pu (0.0012 ± 0.0005) and (242)Pu/(239)Pu (0.004 ± 0.001) ratios. Since the Pu isotopic composition characteristic of the global fallout was also identified in peat samples pre-dating the period of atmospheric atom bomb testing (AD 1956-AD 1980), migration of Pu within the peat profile is clearly indicated. These results highlight, for the first time, the mobility of Pu in a peat bog with implications for the migration of Pu in other acidic, organic rich environments such as forest soils and other wetland types. These findings constitute a direct observation of the behaviour of Pu at fg and ag levels in the environment. The AMS measurements of Pu concentrations (referring to a corresponding activity of (240+239)Pu from 0.07 mBq g(-1) to 5 mBq g(-1)) essentially confirm our a priori estimates based on existing (241)Am and (137)Cs data in the investigated peat core and agree well with the global fallout levels from the literature. Exclusively employing the Pu isotope ratios established for the peat samples, the date of the Pu irradiation (AD 1956, correctable to AD 1964) was calculated and subsequently compared to the (210)Pb age of the peat layers; this comparison provided an additional hint that global fallout derived Pu is not fixed in the peat column, but has migrated downwards along the peat profile to layers preceding the nuclear age. PMID:23478668

Quinto, Francesca; Hrnecek, Erich; Krachler, Michael; Shotyk, William; Steier, Peter; Winkler, Stephan R

2013-04-01

362

Environmental Studies of Mineral Deposits in Alaska  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This collection of articles summarizes environmental geochemical studies of metallic mineral deposits in Alaska, including sulfide, gold, mercury, chromium, and uranium mines and deposits. The studies report metal and acid concentrations in samples collected around such mines and deposits, and evaluate environmental effects of the deposits. An introduction explains geochemical processes, how metals enter environments downstream from mineral deposits, and background geochemical studies. Other articles are: Studies of Mineral Deposits Rich in Heavy Metals; Environmental Geochemistry of Mercury Mines in Southwestern Alaska; Environmental Geochemistry of Alaskan Gold Deposits; Geochemistry of Surface Waters Draining Alaskan Chromite Deposits; and Radioactivity Concerns of Uranium and Thorium Deposits at Bokan Mountain, Southeastern Alaska.

1996-01-01

363

Re-evaluation of the petrogenesis of the Proterozoic Jabiluka unconformity-related uranium deposit, Northern Territory, Australia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The world class Jabiluka unconformity-related uranium deposit in the Alligator Rivers Uranium Field, Australia, contains >163,000 tons of contained U3O8. Mineralization is hosted by shallow-to-steeply dipping basement rocks comprising graphitic units of chlorite-biotite-muscovite schist. These rocks are overlain by flat-lying coarse-grained sandstones belonging to the Kombolgie Subgroup. The deposit was discovered in 1971, but has never been mined. The construction of an 1,150 m decline into the upper eastern sector of the Jabiluka II deposit combined with closely spaced underground drilling in 1998 and 1999 allowed mapping and sampling from underground for the first time. Structural mapping, drill core logging and petrographic studies on polished thin sections established a detailed paragenesis that provided the framework for subsequent electron microprobe and X-ray diffraction, fluid inclusion, and O-H, U-Pb and 40Ar/39Ar isotope analysis. Uranium mineralization is structurally controlled within semi-brittle shears that are sub-conformable to the basement stratigraphy, and breccias that are developed within the hinge zone of fault-related folds adjacent to the shears. Uraninite is intimately associated with chlorite, sericite, hematite ± quartz. Electron microprobe and X-ray diffraction analysis of syn-ore illite and chlorite indicates a mineralization temperature of 200°C. Pre- and syn-ore minerals extracted from the Kombolgie Subgroup overlying the deposit and syn-ore alteration minerals in the Cahill Formation have ?18Ofluid and ? D fluid values of 4.0±3.7 and -27±17‰, respectively. These values are indistinguishable from illite separates extracted from diagenetic aquifers in the Kombolgie Subgroup up to 70 km to the south and east of the deposit and believed to be the source of the uraniferous fluid. New fluid inclusion microthermometry data reveal that the mineralising brine was saline, but not saturated. U-Pb and 207Pb/206Pb ratios of uraninite by laser-ablation ICP-MS suggest that massive uraninite first precipitated at ca. 1,680 Ma, which is coincident with the timing of brine migration out from the Kombolgie Subgroup as indicated by 40Ar/39Ar ages of 1,683±11 Ma from sandstone-hosted illite. Unmineralized breccias cemeted by chlorite, quartz and sericite cross-cut the mineralized breccias and are in turn cut by straight-sided, high-angle veins of drusy quartz, sulphide and dolomite. U-Pb and 207Pb/206Pb ratios combined with fluid inclusion and stable isotope data indicate that these post-ore minerals formed when mixing between two fluids occurred sometime between ca. 1,450 and 550 Ma. Distinct 207Pb/206Pb age populations occur at ca. 1,302±37, 1,191±27 and 802±57 Ma, which respectively correlate with the intrusion of the Maningkorrirr/Mudginberri phonolitic dykes and the Derim Derim Dolerite between 1,370 and 1,316 Ma, the amalgamation of Australia and Laurentia during the Grenville Orogen at ca. 1,140 Ma, and the break-up of Rodinia between 1,000 and 750 Ma.

Polito, Paul A.; Kurt Kyser, T.; Thomas, David; Marlatt, Jim; Drever, Garth

2005-11-01

364

Vacuum vapor deposition  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method and apparatus is described for vapor deposition of a thin metallic film utilizing an ionized gas arc directed onto a source material spaced from a substrate to be coated in a substantial vacuum while providing a pressure differential between the source and the substrate so that, as a portion of the source is vaporized, the vapors are carried to the substrate. The apparatus includes a modified tungsten arc welding torch having a hollow electrode through which a gas, preferably inert, flows and an arc is struck between the electrode and the source. The torch, source, and substrate are confined within a chamber within which a vacuum is drawn. When the arc is struck, a portion of the source is vaporized and the vapors flow rapidly toward the substrate. A reflecting shield is positioned about the torch above the electrode and the source to ensure that the arc is struck between the electrode and the source at startup. The electrode and the source may be confined within a vapor guide housing having a duct opening toward the substrate for directing the vapors onto the substrate.

Poorman, Richard M. (inventor); Weeks, Jack L. (inventor)

1995-01-01

365

Chemical vapor deposition growth  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective was to investigate and develop chemical vapor deposition (CVD) techniques for the growth of large areas of Si sheet on inexpensive substrate materials, with resulting sheet properties suitable for fabricating solar cells that would meet the technical goals of the Low Cost Silicon Solar Array Project. The program involved six main technical tasks: (1) modification and test of an existing vertical-chamber CVD reactor system; (2) identification and/or development of suitable inexpensive substrate materials; (3) experimental investigation of CVD process parameters using various candidate substrate materials; (4) preparation of Si sheet samples for various special studies, including solar cell fabrication; (5) evaluation of the properties of the Si sheet material produced by the CVD process; and (6) fabrication and evaluation of experimental solar cell structures, using impurity diffusion and other standard and near-standard processing techniques supplemented late in the program by the in situ CVD growth of n(+)/p/p(+) sheet structures subsequently processed into experimental cells.

Ruth, R. P.; Manasevit, H. M.; Campbell, A. G.; Johnson, R. E.; Kenty, J. L.; Moudy, L. A.; Shaw, G. L.; Simpson, W. I.; Yang, J. J.

1978-01-01

366

Chemical vapor deposition growth  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A laboratory type CVD reactor system with a vertical deposition chamber and sample pedestal heated by an external RF coil has been extensively modified by installation of mass flow controllers, automatic process sequence timers, and special bellows-sealed air-operated valves for overall improved performance. Various film characterization procedures, including classical metallography, SEM analyses, X ray diffraction analyses, surface profilometry, and electrical measurements (resistivity, carrier concentration, mobility, spreading resistance profiles, and minority-carrier lifetime by the C-V-t method) area used to correlate Si sheet properties with CVD parameters and substrate properties. Evaluation procedures and measurements are given. Experimental solar cell structures were made both in epitaxial Si sheet (on sapphire substrates) and in polycrystalline material on alumina substrates, the former to provide an indication of what might be an upper limit on performance of the latter. Preliminary results are given, as obtained in cell structures not specially designed to allow for the unique properties of the sheet material, and fabricated in material known to be far from optimum for photovoltaic performance. Low power conversion efficiencies have been obtained in the epitaxial as well as the polycrystalline Si sheet.

Ruth, R. P.; Manasevit, H. M.; Johnson, R. E.; Kenty, J. L.; Moudy, L. A.; Simpson, W. I.; Yang, J. J.

1976-01-01

367

Deciphering human-climate interactions in an ombrotrophic peat record: REE, Nd and Pb isotope signatures of dust supplies over the last 2500 years (Misten bog, Belgium)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A high-resolution peat record from Eastern Belgium reveals the chronology of dust deposition for the last 2500 years. REE and lithogenic elements in addition to Nd and Pb isotopes were measured in a 173 cm age-dated peat profile and provide a continuous chronology of dust source and intensity. Calculated dust flux show pronounced increases c. 300 BC, 600 AD, 1000 AD, 1200 AD and from 1700 AD, corresponding to local and regional human activities combined with climate change. The Industrial Revolution samples (1700-1950 AD) are characterised by a significant enrichment in Sc-normalised REE abundance (sum REE/Sc > 25) due to intensive coal combustion. For the pre-Industrial Revolution samples, the Sc-normalised REE abundance (10 < Sum REE/Sc < 25) and the ?Nd variability (-13 to -9) are interpreted by a mixing between dust particles from local soils and long-range transport of desert particles. Three periods characterised by dominant-distal sources (c. 320 AD, 1000 AD and 1700 AD) are consistent with local wetter-than-average intervals as indicated by a lower degree of peat humification. Local erosion prevails during the drier (higher humification) intervals (100 AD, 600 AD). On a global scale, more distal supplies are driven during colder periods, in particular during the Oort and Maunder minima, suggesting a potential link between dust deposition and global climate. Combining REE abundance, fractionation between Light REE and Heavy REE and Nd isotope data in ombrotrophic peat allows one to distinguish between dust flux changes related to human and climate forcings.

Fagel, N.; Allan, M.; Le Roux, G.; Mattielli, N.; Piotrowska, N.; Sikorski, J.

2014-06-01

368

TULSA UNIVERSITY PARAFFIN DEPOSITION PROJECTS  

SciTech Connect

As oil and gas production moves to deeper and colder water, subsea multiphase production systems become critical for economic feasibility. It will also become increasingly imperative to adequately identify the conditions for paraffin precipitation and predict paraffin deposition rates to optimize the design and operation of these multiphase production systems. Although several oil companies have paraffin deposition predictive capabilities for single-phase oil flow, these predictive capabilities are not suitable for the multiphase flow conditions encountered in most flowlines and wellbores. For deepwater applications in the Gulf of Mexico, it is likely that multiphase production streams consisting of crude oil, produced water and gas will be transported in a single multiphase pipeline to minimize capital cost and complexity at the mudline. Existing single-phase (crude oil) paraffin deposition predictive tools are clearly inadequate to accurately design these pipelines because they do not account for the second and third phases, namely, produced water and gas. The objective of this program is to utilize the current test facilities at The University of Tulsa, as well as member company expertise, to accomplish the following: enhance our understanding of paraffin deposition in single and two-phase (gas-oil) flows; conduct focused experiments to better understand various aspects of deposition physics; and, utilize knowledge gained from experimental modeling studies to enhance the computer programs developed in the previous JIP for predicting paraffin deposition in single and two-phase flow environments. These refined computer models will then be tested against field data from member company pipelines. The following deliverables are scheduled during the first three projects of the program: (1) Single-Phase Studies, with three different black oils, which will yield an enhanced computer code for predicting paraffin deposition in deepwater and surface pipelines. (2) Two-Phase Studies, with a focus on heat transfer and paraffin deposition at various pipe inclinations, which will be used to enhance the paraffin deposition code for gas-liquid flow in pipes. (3) Deposition Physics and Water Impact Studies, which will address the aging process, improve our ability to characterize paraffin deposits and enhance our understanding of the role water plays in paraffin deposition in deepwater pipelines. As in the previous two studies, knowledge gained in this suite of studies will be integrated into a state-of-the-art three-phase paraffin deposition computer program.

Michael Volk; Cem Sarica

2003-10-01

369

Hydrothermal alteration of organic matter in uranium ores, Elliot Lake, Canada: Implications for selected organic-rich deposits  

SciTech Connect

Organic matter in the uraniferous Matinenda Formation, Elliot Lake, is preserved in the forms of syngenetic kerogen and solid bitumen as it is in many of the Oklo uranium deposits and in the Witwatersrand gold-uranium ores. The Elliot Lake kerogen is a vitrinite-like material considered to be remnants of the Precambrian cyanobacterial mats. The kerogen at Elliot Lake has reflectances (in oil) ranging from 2.63-7.31% RO{sub max}, high aromaticity, relatively low (0.41-0.60) atomic H/C ratios, and it contains cryptocrystalline graphite. Bitumen, present primarily as dispersed globules (up to 0.5 mm dia.), has reflectances from 0.72-1.32% RO{sub max}, atomic H/C ratios of 0.71-0.81, and is somewhat less aromatic than the kerogen. Overall similarity in molecular compositions indicates that liquid bitumen was derived from kerogen by processes similar to hydrous pyrolysis. The carbon isotopic composition of kerogen ({minus}15.62 to {minus}24.72%), and the now solid bitumen ({minus}25.91 to {minus}33.00%) are compatible with these processes. Despite having been subjected to several thermal episodes, ca. 2.45 Ga old kerogen of microbiological origin here survived as testimony of the antiquity of life on Earth. U-Pb isotopic data from discrete kerogen grains at Elliot Lake form a scattered array intersecting concordia at 2130 {+-} 100 Ma, correspond to the Nipissing event. U-Pb systems were totally reset by this event. Uranium and lead show subsequently partial mobility, the average of which is indicated by the lower concordia intersect of 550 {+-} 260 Ma. The migrated bitumen contains virtually no uranium and thorium but has a large excess of {sup 206}Pb, which indicates that the once liquid bitumen must have acted as a sink for mobile intermediate decay products of {sup 238}U. Emplacement of the Nipissing diabase may have been responsible for producing the bitumen and, indirectly, for its enrichment in {sup 206}Pb as a result of outgassing of {sup 222}Rn.

Mossman, D.J. [Mount Allison Univ., Sackville (Canada)] [Mount Allison Univ., Sackville (Canada); Nagy, B. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson (United States)] [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson (United States); Davis, D.W. [Royal Ontario Museum, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)] [Royal Ontario Museum, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

1993-07-01

370

78 FR 56583 - Deposit Insurance Regulations; Definition of Insured Deposit  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...payments; and (4) addressing global financial issues of importance to the deposit...ever intended the DIF to have global liability. Moreover, by its...banks, but could also aggravate a financial crisis that transcends national...

2013-09-13

371

Atmospheric Mercury Deposition Monitoring ? National Atmospheric Deposition Program (NADP)  

EPA Science Inventory

The National Atmospheric Deposition Program (NADP) developed and operates a collaborative network of atmospheric mercury monitoring sites based in North America ? the Atmospheric Mercury Network (AMNet). The justification for the network was growing interest and demand from many ...

372

Deposition + Erosion = Textures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

[figure removed for brevity, see original site]

Released 7 May 2003

Toward the westernmost extent of the Medusae Fossae Formation, a 5000+ km long belt of eroding sediments, the interleaving of erosional surfaces produces dramatic textural variations. In the lower third of this image, the cross-hatched MFF layer is being stripped back from a surface that was already heavily eroded before the MFF layer was deposited. Also, note the sinuous and, in places, dendritic ridges that are either linear dunes or inverted channels.

Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -3.9, Longitude 154.1East (205.9). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

2003-01-01

373

7 CFR 1902.9 - Deposits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...deposited in a supervised bank account. (2) Rural Development personnel...are deposited by Rural Development personnel in a supervised bank account, a deposit...in the supervised bank account by the borrower if authorized by Rural Development,...

2010-01-01

374

7 CFR 1902.9 - Deposits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...deposited in a supervised bank account. (2) Rural Development personnel...are deposited by Rural Development personnel in a supervised bank account, a deposit...in the supervised bank account by the borrower if authorized by Rural Development,...

2013-01-01

375

7 CFR 1902.9 - Deposits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...deposited in a supervised bank account. (2) Rural Development personnel...are deposited by Rural Development personnel in a supervised bank account, a deposit...in the supervised bank account by the borrower if authorized by Rural Development,...

2011-01-01

376

7 CFR 1902.9 - Deposits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...deposited in a supervised bank account. (2) Rural Development personnel...are deposited by Rural Development personnel in a supervised bank account, a deposit...in the supervised bank account by the borrower if authorized by Rural Development,...

2014-01-01

377

7 CFR 1902.9 - Deposits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...deposited in a supervised bank account. (2) Rural Development personnel...are deposited by Rural Development personnel in a supervised bank account, a deposit...in the supervised bank account by the borrower if authorized by Rural Development,...

2012-01-01

378

Particle deposition in ventilation ducts  

SciTech Connect

Exposure to airborne particles is detrimental to human health and indoor exposures dominate total exposures for most people. The accidental or intentional release of aerosolized chemical and biological agents within or near a building can lead to exposures of building occupants to hazardous agents and costly building remediation. Particle deposition in heating, ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems may significantly influence exposures to particles indoors, diminish HVAC performance and lead to secondary pollutant release within buildings. This dissertation advances the understanding of particle behavior in HVAC systems and the fates of indoor particles by means of experiments and modeling. Laboratory experiments were conducted to quantify particle deposition rates in horizontal ventilation ducts using real HVAC materials. Particle deposition experiments were conducted in steel and internally insulated ducts at air speeds typically found in ventilation ducts, 2-9 m/s. Behaviors of monodisperse particles with diameters in the size range 1-16 {micro}m were investigated. Deposition rates were measured in straight ducts with a fully developed turbulent flow profile, straight ducts with a developing turbulent flow profile, in duct bends and at S-connector pieces located at duct junctions. In straight ducts with fully developed turbulence, experiments showed deposition rates to be highest at duct floors, intermediate at duct walls, and lowest at duct ceilings. Deposition rates to a given surface increased with an increase in particle size or air speed. Deposition was much higher in internally insulated ducts than in uninsulated steel ducts. In most cases, deposition in straight ducts with developing turbulence, in duct bends and at S-connectors at duct junctions was higher than in straight ducts with fully developed turbulence. Measured deposition rates were generally higher than predicted by published models. A model incorporating empirical equations based on the experimental measurements was applied to evaluate particle losses in supply and return duct runs. Model results suggest that duct losses are negligible for particle sizes less than 1 {micro}m and complete for particle sizes greater than 50 {micro}m. Deposition to insulated ducts, horizontal duct floors and bends are predicted to control losses in duct systems. When combined with models for HVAC filtration and deposition to indoor surfaces to predict the ultimate fates of particles within buildings, these results suggest that ventilation ducts play only a small role in determining indoor particle concentrations, especially when HVAC filtration is present. However, the measured and modeled particle deposition rates are expected to be important for ventilation system contamination.

Sippola, Mark R.

2002-09-01

379

Amorphous carbon solar cell deposited by pulsed laser deposition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydrogenated amorphous carbon films (a-C:H) were deposited on p-type silicon substrates by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique using a mixture of graphite and camphor powders. The Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) measurement revealed the presence of hydrogen in the a-C:H films. The formation of a heterojunction between the a-C:H film and silicon substrate was confirmed by the current-voltage (I-V) measurement.

Xuemin Tian; Dilip Kumar Mishra; T. Soga; Takashi Jimbo; Masayoshi Umeno

2003-01-01

380

Impact of subjacent rocks at the water and air regime of the depleted peat deposits  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At the depleted peat deposits (after peat extraction), where the residual layer of peat with the thickness of about 0,5 meters is laid at the well water permeable rocks, vegetation typical for dry conditions is developed in case of good drainage conditions; birch trees, willow, alder-trees and buckthorn prevail in this vegetation. Water and air regime is characterized here by good aeration with prevailing of oxidative processes. If water regime is regulated, these depleted peat areas are suitable for agricultural and forest lands; however, necessity of transformation of these depleted lands into forest and agricultural lands must be ecologically and economically justified. If the residual layer of peat with the thickness of 0,05-0,3 m is based at the sapropel or peat sapropel, contrast amphibiotic water and air regime with strong fluctuation of oxidative and restoration process depending on the weather conditions is formed; this regime is formed without artificial increase of the ground waters level. This does not allow bog vegetation or vegetation typical for dry conditions to develop. Thus, within 20 and more years after completion of peat extraction, such areas are not covered by vegetation in spite of favorable agro-chemical qualities of peat layer and favorable for vegetation chemical composition of soil and ground waters. Depleted peat deposits, that are based at the sapropel, are not suitable for agricultural use, because agricultural vegetation requires stable water and air regime with good aeration and oxidative and restoration potential within 400-750 mV. Contrast amphibiotic water and air regime of the depleted peat deposits that are based at sapropel excludes possibility to use them as agricultural lands. Because of this reason, areas with residual peat layer that are based at sapropel are not suitable for forest planting. Due to periodic increase of ground waters level, rot systems of the plants can not penetrate into the required depth, and mechanical solidity of the residual low-powered peat layer does not facilitate formation of wind stable plats. Besides, due to the fact that this territory was formed at the place of former ancient lake, there is a possibility that this territory will be flooded during water full periods for long periods because columbine from the nearby territories and this will lead to the death of forest plants. It is more profitable to use these areas for re-wetting or for creation of water basins.

Rakovich, V. A.

2009-04-01

381

The zeolite deposits of Greece  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Zeolites are present in altered pyroclastic rocks at many localities in Greece, and large deposits of potential economic interest are present in three areas: (1) the Evros region of the province of Thrace in the north-eastern part of the Greek mainland; (2) the islands of Kimolos and Poliegos in the western Aegean; and (3) the island of Samos in the eastern Aegean Sea. The deposits in Thrace are of Eocene-Oligocene age and are rich in heulandite and/or clinoptilolite. Those of Kimolos and Poliegos are mainly Quaternary and are rich in mordenite. Those of Samos are Miocene, and are rich in clinoptilolite and/or analcime. The deposits in Thrace are believed to have formed in an open hydrological system by the action of meteoric water, and those of the western Aegean islands in a similar way but under conditions of high heat flow, whereas the deposits in Samos were formed in a saline-alkaline lake.

Stamatakis, M.G.; Hall, A.; Hein, J.R.

1996-01-01

382

Modeling Deposition of Inhaled Particles  

EPA Science Inventory

The mathematical modeling of the deposition and distribution of inhaled aerosols within human lungs is an invaluable tool in predicting both the health risks associated with inhaled environmental aerosols and the therapeutic dose delivered by inhaled pharmacological drugs. Howeve...

383

Ion cluster beam deposition research  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ion cluster beam deposition research is discussed. Results of metal deposition on silicon were verified. Other PV applications of ICB such as dielectric and semiconductor deposition were investigated and ICB beam as a function source parameters was characterized. It was found that: (1) cluster formation requires crucible pressure in range of 1 to 10 torr (1350 C to 1550 C for silver); (2) problems precluded operation above 1400 deg C; (3) silver deposition at 1400 deg C looked uniform but failed tape pull test; (4) current ICB modifications should permit operation at much higher temperatures. A need for cluster detector to identify presence and size of clusters is indicated and a substrate heater to make proper bond of metal to substrate may be required.

Fitzgerald, D.

1984-01-01

384

Chemical enhancement of surface deposition  

DOEpatents

A method and apparatus are disclosed for increasing the deposition of ions onto a surface, such as the adsorption of uranium ions on the detecting surface of a radionuclide detector. The method includes the step of exposing the surface to a complexing agent, such as a phosphate ion solution, which has an affinity for the dissolved species to be deposited on the surface. This provides, for example, enhanced sensitivity of the radionuclide detector. 16 figs.

Patch, K.D.; Morgan, D.T.

1997-07-29

385

Chemical enhancement of surface deposition  

DOEpatents

A method and apparatus for increasing the deposition of ions onto a surface, such as the adsorption of uranium ions on the detecting surface of a radionuclide detector. The method includes the step of exposing the surface to a complexing agent, such as a phosphate ion solution, which has an affinity for the dissolved species to be deposited on the surface. This provides, for example, enhanced sensitivity of the radionuclide detector.

Patch, Keith D. (Lexington, MA); Morgan, Dean T. (Sudbury, MA)

1997-07-29

386

Vapor deposition of hardened niobium  

DOEpatents

A method of coating ceramic nuclear fuel particles containing a major amount of an actinide ceramic in which the particles are placed in a fluidized bed maintained at ca. 800.degree. to ca. 900.degree. C., and niobium pentachloride vapor and carbon tetrachloride vapor are led into the bed, whereby niobium metal is deposited on the particles and carbon is deposited interstitially within the niobium. Coating apparatus used in the method is also disclosed.

Blocher, Jr., John M. (Columbus, OH); Veigel, Neil D. (Columbus, OH); Landrigan, Richard B. (Columbus, OH)

1983-04-19

387

The influence of climate change on recent peat accumulation patterns of Distichia muscoides cushion bogs in the high-elevation tropical Andes of Colombia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Extensive cushions of Distichia muscoides found at high elevations in the Andes form deep deposits of peat and function as peatland. The location of Distichia peatlands at the highest elevations makes them susceptible to the effects of global change including global warming. Accumulation rates of organic matter are the key function of peatland ecosystems and are highly susceptible to changes in climate. This study used 210Pb chronologies to infer the recent dynamics of three Distichia muscoides peatlands located above 4000 m in elevation. Chronological markers from dated volcanic eruptions were correlated to the 210Pb chronologies of Distichia peat and validated the 210Pb chronologies. Changes in 210Pb activity with depth indicated rapid accumulation in recent times. Organic matter had a mean accumulation rate of 1400 g m-2 yr-1 during the past 10 years, with values well above the observed regional accumulation rate of 300-400 g m-2 yr-1. The same pattern was observed in peat accretion rates, with growth rates of 1-2 cm per year during the last 10 years. Cushion plants engineer their own environment, allowing the system to be less susceptible to direct changes in climate. However, the high rates of peat accretion in recent times may be originated from increasing temperatures and excess water from nearby glacier melt. However, glaciers are predicted to disappear during the next 20 years in the northern Andes, reducing water inputs in tropical high-elevation ecosystems.

Benavides, Juan C.; Vitt, Dale H.; Wieder, R. Kelman

2013-12-01

388

A radon progeny deposition model  

SciTech Connect

The next generation low-background detectors operating underground aim for unprecedented low levels of radioactive backgrounds. Although the radioactive decays of airborne radon (particularly {sup 222}Rn) and its subsequent progeny present in an experiment are potential backgrounds, also problematic is the deposition of radon progeny on detector materials. Exposure to radon at any stage of assembly of an experiment can result in surface contamination by progeny supported by the long half life (22 y) of {sup 210}Pb on sensitive locations of a detector. An understanding of the potential surface contamination from deposition will enable requirements of radon-reduced air and clean room environments for the assembly of low background experiments. It is known that there are a number of environmental factors that govern the deposition of progeny onto surfaces. However, existing models have not explored the impact of some environmental factors important for low background experiments. A test stand has been constructed to deposit radon progeny on various surfaces under a controlled environment in order to develop a deposition model. Results from this test stand and the resulting deposition model are presented.

Rielage, Keith [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Elliott, Steven R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hime, Andrew [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Guiseppe, Vincente E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Westerdale, S. [MIT

2010-12-01

389

Comparison of High-Resolution Depositional Records of Hillslope and Fluvial-Dominated Catchments, San Gabriel Mountains, CA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Paleoseismic records from the San Gabriel Mountains, CA provide high stratigraphic resolution, carefully dated records that can be mined for interactions between sediment routing, climate change, and punctuated influence by earthquakes. To explore linkages between hillslope- and fluvial-dominated catchments I compare the depositional record of two closely-spaced but different-sized sites. The Wrightwood paleoseismic site (elev 1900 m) is an upland bog that receives hyperconcentrated and debris flows from a steep 1 km2 catchment. From A.D. 600 to 1850, individual flows occur on average every 37 years and the average sedimentation rate (0.6 mm/yr) is similar to published estimates of bedrock erosion rates in the San Gabriels. Three short periods of high flow frequency (12 yr) and fast sedimentation rates (2 cm/yr) provide roughly 50% of the sediment available to the fluvial system in only 350 years. These three periods of high sedimentation rates at Wrightwood also contain half of the 14 paleoearthquake record, suggesting that earthquakes and increased sediment production are correlated in this small catchment located close to the fault. The Pallett Creek site sits at a lower elevation (1090 m), is fed by a larger catchment (100 km2), and the depositional record consists of interbedded stream, aeolian, and marsh deposits (Sieh, 1978). From A.D. 600 to 1850, sandy deposits recur roughly every 25 years; one large flood event ~1000 years ago left thick gravel layer across the site. Lower slopes and greater average distance from the fault at Pallett Creek appear to diminish the shared signal of earthquakes and sedimentation rates documented at Wrightwood. However, the climate record shows systematic variation with both sites: pollen and vegetation records in southern California show a move to wetter climate after AD 1200 - 1400. This recent wet period coincides with a decrease in the average thickness of the clastic deposits at Wrightwood and an increase in the thickness of organic layers at Pallett Creek, suggesting that wetter climates transport less sediment off the slopes and into the fluvial system on the northern flanks of the San Gabriels, and/or that other processes (fire frequency, vegetative change?) cause increased sedimentation during drier periods.

Scharer, K.

2008-12-01

390

Characterization of zirconium thin films deposited by pulsed laser deposition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Zirconium (Zr) thin films deposited on Si (100) by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) at different pulse repetition rates are investigated. The deposited Zr films exhibit a polycrystalline structure, and the X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns of the films show the ? Zr phase. Due to the morphology variation of the target and the laser—plasma interaction, the deposition rate significantly decreases from 0.0431 Å/pulse at 2 Hz to 0.0189 Å/pulse at 20 Hz. The presence of droplets on the surface of the deposited film, which is one of the main disadvantages of the PLD, is observed at various pulse repetition rates. Statistical results show that the dimension and the density of the droplets increase with an increasing pulse repetition rate. We find that the source of droplets is the liquid layer formed under the target surface. The dense nanoparticles covered on the film surface are observed through atomic force microscopy (AFM). The root mean square (RMS) roughness caused by valleys and islands on the film surface initially increases and then decreases with the increasing pulse repetition rate. The results of our investigation will be useful to optimize the synthesis conditions of the Zr films.

Liu, Wei; Wan, Jing-Ping; Cai, Wu-Peng; Liang, Jian-Hua; Zhou, Xiao-Song; Long, Xing-Gui

2014-09-01

391

AZO electrodes deposited by atomic layer deposition for OLED fabrication  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, we present a comparative study of optimized AZO electrodes deposited by Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) with commercial ITO in terms of electrical, optical and structural properties. Despite a lower figure of merit mainly due to a higher sheet resistance, AZO-based OLEDs are shown to present a current density five times higher than ITO-based ones for the same applied voltage. These AZO electrodes fabricated by ALD could thus be promising substitutes for conventional ITO anodes in organic electronic devices.

Dugrenil, B.; Séguy, I.; Lee, Hsin-Ying; Camps, T.; Lin, Y.-C.; Doucet, J. B.; Chiu, Y.-S.; Salvagnac, L.; Bedel-Pereira, E.; Ternisien, M.; Lee, C. T.; Bardinal, V.

2014-05-01

392

Deposition of ozone to tundra  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Eddy correlation measurements of O3 deposition fluxes to tundra during the Arctic Boundary Layer Expedition (ABLE 3A) are reported. The mean O3 deposition velocity was 0.24 cm/s in the daytime and 0.12 cm/s at night. The day-to-day difference in deposition velocity was driven by both atmospheric stability and surface reactivity. The mean surface resistance to O3 deposition was 2.6 s/cm in the daytime and 3.4 s/cm at night. The relatively low surface resistance at night is attributed to light-insensitive uptake of O3 at dry upland tundra surfaces. The small day-tonight difference in surface resistance is attributed to additional stomatal uptake by wet meadow tundra plants in the daytime. The mean O3 deposition flux to the world north of 60 deg N in July-August is estimated at 8.2 x 10 exp 10 molecules/sq cm/s. Suppression of photochemical loss by small anthropogenic inputs of nitrogen oxides could have a major effect on O3 concentrations in the summertime Arctic troposphere.

Jacob, D. J.; Fan, S.-M.; Wofsy, S. C.; Spiro, P. A.; Bakwin, P. S.; Ritter, J. A.; Browell, E. V.; Gregory, G. L.; Fitzjarrald, D. R.; Moore, K. E.

1992-01-01

393

Deposition of ozone to tundra  

SciTech Connect

Eddy correlation measurements of O3 deposition fluxes to tundra during the Arctic Boundary Layer Expedition (ABLE 3A) are reported. The mean O[sub 3] deposition velocity was 0.24 cm/s in the daytime and 0.12 cm/s at night. The day-to-day difference in deposition velocity was driven by both atmospheric stability and surface reactivity. The mean surface resistance to O[sub 3] deposition was 2.6 s/cm in the daytime and 3.4 s/cm at night. The relatively low surface resistance at night is attributed to light-insensitive uptake of O[sub 3] at dry upland tundra surfaces. The small day-tonight difference in surface resistance is attributed to additional stomatal uptake by wet meadow tundra plants in the daytime. The mean O[sub 3] deposition flux to the world north of 60 deg N in July-August is estimated at 8.2 x 10 exp 10 molecules/sq cm/s. Suppression of photochemical loss by small anthropogenic inputs of nitrogen oxides could have a major effect on O[sub 3] concentrations in the summertime Arctic troposphere. 34 refs.

Jacob, D.J.; Fan, S.M.; Wofsy, S.C.; Spiro, P.A.; Bakwin, P.S.; Ritter, J.A.; Browell, E.V.; Gregory, G.L.; Fitzjarrald, D.R.; Moore, K.E. (Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States) NASA, Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA (United States) New York State Univ., Albany (United States))

1992-10-01

394

Atmospheric deposition to high-elevation forests  

SciTech Connect

Three important phenomena characterize atmospheric deposition to high-elevation forests: (1) multiple deposition mechanisms (wet, dry, and cloud deposition), (2) high rates of deposition, and (3) high spatial variability. The high rates of deposition are caused by changes in meteorological conditions with elevation, especially increasing wind speed and cloud immersion frequency. The high spatial variability of deposition is a result of the regulation of cloud and dry deposition rates by microclimatic and canopy structure conditions, which can be extremely heterogeneous in mountain landscapes. Spruce-fir forests are often [open quotes]hot spots[close quotes] of deposition when viewed in a landscape or regional context because of their elevation, exposure, and evergreen canopy. In this talk we will consider atmospheric depositions to high-elevation forests in both the northeastern and southeastern U.S., using field data and geographic information systems to illustrate deposition patterns.

Lovett, G.M.; Weathers, K.C.; Lindberg, S.E. (Institute of Ecosystem Studies, Millbrook, NY (United States) Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States))

1994-06-01

395

Evaporative Deposition in Receding Drops  

E-print Network

We present a framework for calculating the surface density profile of a stain deposited by a drop with a receding contact line. Unlike a pinned drop, a receding drop pushes fluid towards its interior, continuously deposits mass across its substrate as it evaporates, and does not produce the usual "coffee ring." For a thin, circular drop with a constant evaporation rate, we find the surface density of the stain goes as $\\eta(r) \\propto \\left(\\left(r/a_0\\right)^{-1/2}-r/a_0\\right)$, where $r$ is the radius from the drop center and $a_0$ is the initial outer radius. Under these conditions, the deposited stain has a mountain-like morphology. Our framework can easily be extended to investigate new stain morphologies left by drying drops.

Julian Freed-Brown

2014-10-09

396

Io - A surface evaporite deposit  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A model is suggested for Io's surface composition involving evaporite salt deposits, rich in sodium and sulfur. According to this model, these deposits were produced as a result of the migration of salt-saturated aqueous solutions to Io's surface from a warm or hot interior followed by loss of the water to space. This model satisfies cosmochemical constraints based on Io's initial composition, current density, and thermal history. Salt-rich assemblages are easily derivable from the leaching of carbonaceous chondritic material. The chemical and optical properties of such deposits, after modification by irradiation, can be used to explain Io's overall albedo and spectral reflectance, its dark reddish poles, and the observed sodium emission as well as or better than other currently suggested materials.

Fanale, F. P.; Johnson, T. V.; Matson, D. L.

1974-01-01

397

National Atmospheric Deposition Program (NADP)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Hosted by the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, The National Atmospheric Deposition Program/National Trends Network (NADP/NTN) is an excellent resource for precipitation data. Network collaborators include the State Agricultural Experiment Stations, U.S. Geological Survey, U.S. Department of Agriculture, along with many other government agencies, universities and private organizations. "The purpose of the network is to collect data on the chemistry of precipitation for monitoring of geographical and temporal long-term trends." At this site, users may search out weekly and daily precipitation chemistry data, isopleth maps, mercury deposition data, annual and seasonal deposition totals, and much more. Users should note, there is a five to six month time lag between data collection dates and data availability on the Website.

398

Chemical vapor deposition and atomic layer deposition of metal oxide and nitride thin films  

Microsoft Academic Search

Processes for depositing thin films with various electronic, optical, mechanical, and chemical properties are indispensable in many industries today. Of the many deposition methods available, chemical vapor deposition (CVD) has proved over time to be one of the most flexible, efficient, and cost-effective. Atomic layer deposition (ALD) is a newer process that is gaining favor as a method for depositing

Jeffrey Thomas Barton

2003-01-01

399

TULSA UNIVERSITY PARAFFIN DEPOSITION PROJECTS  

SciTech Connect

As oil and gas production moves to deeper and colder water, subsea multiphase production systems become critical for economic feasibility. It will also become increasingly imperative to adequately identify the conditions for paraffin precipitation and predict paraffin deposition rates to optimize the design and operation of these multi-phase production systems. Although several oil companies have paraffin deposition predictive capabilities for single-phase oil flow, these predictive capabilities are not suitable for the multiphase flow conditions encountered in most flowlines and wellbores. For deepwater applications in the Gulf of Mexico, it is likely that multiphase production streams consisting of crude oil, produced water and gas will be transported in a single multiphase pipeline to minimize capital cost and complexity at the mudline. Existing single-phase (crude oil) paraffin deposition predictive tools are clearly inadequate to accurately design these pipelines, because they do not account for the second and third phases, namely, produced water and gas. The objective of this program is to utilize the current test facilities at The University of Tulsa, as well as member company expertise, to accomplish the following: enhance our understanding of paraffin deposition in single and two-phase (gas-oil) flows; conduct focused experiments to better understand various aspects of deposition physics; and, utilize knowledge gained from experimental modeling studies to enhance the computer programs developed in the previous JIP for predicting paraffin deposition in single and two-phase flow environments. These refined computer models will then be tested against field data from member company pipelines.

Cem Sarica; Michael Volk

2004-06-01

400

Chapter 2 Deposition Methods 39 Chapter 2 Deposition methods  

E-print Network

Frequency Plasma Assisted Chemical Vapour Deposition (RF-CVD) RF-CVD takes place in a vacuum chamber is where the substrate sits and the grounded electrode usually comprises the chamber outer walls. Process removing waste products. RF-Power from a RF-generator is passed between the plates ionising the gas

Bristol, University of