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Sample records for uraniferous bog deposit

  1. Geology and recognition criteria for uraniferous humate deposits, Grants Uranium Region, New Mexico. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, S.S.; Saucier, A.E.

    1981-01-01

    The geology of the uraniferous humate uranium deposits of the Grants Uranium Region, northwestern New Mexico, is summarized. The most important conclusions of this study are enumerated. Although the geologic characteristics of the uraniferous humate deposits of the Grants Uranium Region are obviously not common in the world, neither are they bizarre or coincidental. The source of the uranium in the deposits of the Grants Uranium Region is not known with certainty. The depositional environment of the host sediments was apparently the mid and distal portions of a wet alluvial fan system. The influence of structural control on the location and accumulation of the host sediments is now supported by considerable data. The host sediments possess numerous important characteristics which influenced the formation of uraniferous humate deposits. Ilmenite-magnetite distribution within potential host sandstones is believed to be the simplest and most useful regional alteration pattern related to this type of uranium deposit. A method is presented for organizing geologic observations into what is referred to as recognition criteria. The potential of the United States for new districts similar to the Grants Uranium Region is judged to be low based upon presently available geologic information. Continuing studies on uraniferous humate deposits are desirable in three particular areas.

  2. Possibilities for detailed dating of peat bog deposits

    SciTech Connect

    Punning, J.; Ilomets, M.; Koff, T. )

    1993-01-01

    Geochemical and palynological data as well as radiocarbon dating were used to study the peat bog deposits in Niinsarre bog, northeast Estonia. The aim of this study was to establish criteria for determining a detailed chronology, which is important, for example, in studying paleoevents and historical monitoring. In some cases, they can use cumulative pollen data, as well as cumulative chemical and peat bulk density data. Material was gathered for [sup 14]C dating from three parallel samples taken from cores ca. 10--20 cm apart using a Russian peat sampler. Samples for peat bulk density, palynological and chemical measurements were taken from the same cores. To measure peat bulk density, the authors used a continuous sampling method. Sampling frequency was calculated to cover layers formed over 50 yr.

  3. Atmospheric nitrogen deposition promotes carbon loss from peat bogs.

    PubMed

    Bragazza, Luca; Freeman, Chris; Jones, Timothy; Rydin, Hkan; Limpens, Juul; Fenner, Nathalie; Ellis, Tim; Gerdol, Renato; Hjek, Michal; Hjek, Toms; Iacumin, Paola; Kutnar, Lado; Tahvanainen, Teemu; Toberman, Hannah

    2006-12-19

    Peat bogs have historically represented exceptional carbon (C) sinks because of their extremely low decomposition rates and consequent accumulation of plant remnants as peat. Among the factors favoring that peat accumulation, a major role is played by the chemical quality of plant litter itself, which is poor in nutrients and characterized by polyphenols with a strong inhibitory effect on microbial breakdown. Because bogs receive their nutrient supply solely from atmospheric deposition, the global increase of atmospheric nitrogen (N) inputs as a consequence of human activities could potentially alter the litter chemistry with important, but still unknown, effects on their C balance. Here we present data showing the decomposition rates of recently formed litter peat samples collected in nine European countries under a natural gradient of atmospheric N deposition from approximately 0.2 to 2 g.m(-2).yr(-1). We found that enhanced decomposition rates for material accumulated under higher atmospheric N supplies resulted in higher carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and dissolved organic carbon release. The increased N availability favored microbial decomposition (i) by removing N constraints on microbial metabolism and (ii) through a chemical amelioration of litter peat quality with a positive feedback on microbial enzymatic activity. Although some uncertainty remains about whether decay-resistant Sphagnum will continue to dominate litter peat, our data indicate that, even without such changes, increased N deposition poses a serious risk to our valuable peatland C sinks. PMID:17151199

  4. The biogeochemistry of an ombrotrophic bog: Evaluation of use as an archive of atmospheric mercury deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Benoit, J.M.; Fitzgerald, W.F.; Damman, A.W.H.

    1998-08-01

    The utility of ombrotrophic bogs as archives of atmospheric mercury deposition was assessed with an investigation in Arlberg Bog, Minnesota, US. Since the use of ombrotrophic bogs as archives depends on the immobility of deposited trace metals, the authors examined the postdepositional transport processes revealed by the solid-phase distributions of mercury and ancillary metals in this bog. They modeled metal speciation in bog pore-waters as a function of pe in order to understand metal behavior in ombrotrophic peat. Specifically, they considered the effect of water movement and resultant shifts in redox potential gradients on metal retention. The results indicate that Hg and Pb are immobile in ombrotrophic peat, so their distribution can be used to determine temporal changes in deposition. To substantiate the deposition estimates determined in this study, they emphasized the importance of confirming the validity of the dating scheme, assessing the degree of horizontal homogeneity in the accumulation record, and providing evidence for retention of Hg based on geochemical modeling. As recorded in Arlberg Bog, historic atmospheric Hg deposition increased gradually after the mid-1800s, peaked between 1950 and 1960, and may have declined thereafter. Preindustrial deposition was about 4 {micro}g/m{sup 2} year and recent deposition about 19 {micro}g/m{sup 2} year. The results of this study indicate that deposition at Arlberg Bog has been influenced by a regional and/or local-scale source.

  5. Bog bodies.

    PubMed

    Lynnerup, Niels

    2015-06-01

    In northern Europe during the Iron Age, many corpses were deposited in bogs. The cold, wet and anaerobic environment leads in many cases to the preservation of soft tissues, so that the bodies, when found and excavated several thousand years later, are remarkably intact. Since the 19th century the bog bodies have been studied using medical and natural scientific methods, and recently many bog bodies have been re-examined using especially modern, medical imaging techniques. Because of the preservation of soft tissue, especially the skin, it has been possible to determine lesions and trauma. Conversely, the preservation of bones is less good, as the mineral component has been leached out by the acidic bog. Together with water-logging of collagenous tissue, this means that if the bog body is simply left to dry out when found, as was the case pre-19th century, the bones may literally warp and shrink, leading to potential pitfalls in paleopathological diagnostics. Bog bodies have in several instances been crucial in determining the last meal, as gut contents may be preserved, and thus augment our knowledge on pre-historic diet by adding to, for example, stable isotope analyses. This article presents an overview of our knowledge about the taphomic processes as well as the methods used in bog body research. PMID:25998635

  6. Impact of catchment degree on peat properties in peat deposits of eutrophic bog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inisheva, L. I.; Golubina, O. A.; Rodikova, A. V.; Shinkeeva, N. A.; Bubina, A. B.

    2010-05-01

    Fundamental works of many investigators show that according to the biophysical properties peat deposit (PD) is divided into 2 layers: active and inert. It is interesting to analyze the supposed changes in PD of eutrophic bog according to different data (physical, chemical and biological). The researches were carried out at two plots of one bog (points 1 and 2, positions 56° 21' NL, 84° 47' EL, Russia, Siberia). Agricultural afforestation (pine planting) was made at one of them (point 2) 60 years ago. Now this plot is absolutely identical in ground cover to 1 point, but other conditions are significantly changed. In spring bog water level is at the depth of 20cm at 2 point (at 1 point it is near water face), it lows up to 53 cm during summer time (at 1 point - up to 37 cm). According to redox conditions zone of anoxic-oxic conditions reaches meter depth at 2 points. PDs don't significantly differ in activity of ammonifiers but in activity of cellulose-lytic aerobic microflora it follows that it is more active at 2 point in PD active layer. In spite of good aeration, more favorable conditions were created also for anaerobic cellulose-fermenting microflora in PD of 2 point in comparison with 1 one. Activity analysis of denitrifying agents and microflora of other physiological groups also showed high activity of biota at the plot with afforestation amelioration. This fact was confirmed by high coefficient of mineralization. Time of drainage effect created by afforestation amelioration influenced group composition of peat organic matter which builds up PD of examined plots. According to fractional and group composition data fracture of hard-to-hydrolyze organic matters decreased during the process of microflora activating at the plot with afforestation amelioration but FA content increased. Fractional composition of nitrogen showed that content of mineral nitrogen compounds definitely increased. Thus, 60 years of surface drainage influenced composition change of peat organic matter along all PD profile. In our opinion, it is explained by rearrangement of qualitative and quantitative composition of microbic biota in consequence of alternate anoxic-oxic conditions creation along all PD of investigated eutrophic bog located in the dingle of ancient flow. Keywords: peat deposits, eutrophic bog, Siberia, microbiological processes, change of organic matter. Acknowledgements: This research was supported by RFFR (No.No. 09-05-00235, 09-05-99007), Minister of education and science (No. 02.740.11.0325).

  7. Atmospheric Mercury Transfer to Peat Bogs Dominated by Gaseous Elemental Mercury Dry Deposition.

    PubMed

    Enrico, Maxime; Roux, Gaël Le; Marusczak, Nicolas; Heimbürger, Lars-Eric; Claustres, Adrien; Fu, Xuewu; Sun, Ruoyu; Sonke, Jeroen E

    2016-03-01

    Gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) is the dominant form of mercury in the atmosphere. Its conversion into oxidized gaseous and particulate forms is thought to drive atmospheric mercury wet deposition to terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, where it can be subsequently transformed into toxic methylmercury. The contribution of mercury dry deposition is however largely unconstrained. Here we examine mercury mass balance and mercury stable isotope composition in a peat bog ecosystem. We find that isotope signatures of living sphagnum moss (Δ(199)Hg = -0.11 ± 0.09‰, Δ(200)Hg = 0.03 ± 0.02‰, 1σ) and recently accumulated peat (Δ(199)Hg = -0.22 ± 0.06‰, Δ(200)Hg = 0.00 ± 0.04‰, 1σ) are characteristic of GEM (Δ(199)Hg = -0.17 ± 0.07‰, Δ(200)Hg = -0.05 ± 0.02‰, 1σ), and differs from wet deposition (Δ(199)Hg = 0.73 ± 0.15‰, Δ(200)Hg = 0.21 ± 0.04‰, 1σ). Sphagnum covered during three years by transparent and opaque surfaces, which eliminate wet deposition, continue to accumulate Hg. Sphagnum Hg isotope signatures indicate accumulation to take place by GEM dry deposition, and indicate little photochemical re-emission. We estimate that atmospheric mercury deposition to the peat bog surface is dominated by GEM dry deposition (79%) rather than wet deposition (21%). Consequently, peat deposits are potential records of past atmospheric GEM concentrations and isotopic composition. PMID:26849121

  8. Biological N2-Fixation Increases with Peatland Age and Decreases with N Deposition in Bogs of Western Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fillingim, H.; Popma, J. M.; Dynarski, K. A.; Wieder, R.; Vile, M. A.

    2013-12-01

    Most terrestrial ecosystems are thought be limited primarily by nitrogen, including boreal peatlands located in pristine regions. Bogs receive nutrients solely from atmospheric deposition. Because of the historically low rates of atmospheric nitrogen deposition in Alberta, Canada, the Sphagnum mosses that dominate bog ground cover in this region have formed relationships with diazotrophs in order to meet their nitrogen needs, making biological N2- fixation the dominant input of new nitrogen to these bogs. The process of N2-fixation is highly variable and is governed by a number of environmental factors. In Alberta, one factor is water availability, as these bogs occur in some of the driest climates in which peatlands are known to exist. More recent factors with the potential to greatly alter N2-fixation dynamics include increasing nitrogen deposition associated with the growing oil sands mining operations and wildfires increasing in frequency and severity with global climate change. To determine the potential importance of N2-fixation to the overall peatland nitrogen balance under current and future conditions, we incubated the moss Sphagnum fuscum, using the acetylene reduction assay calibrated with 15N2, from 3 bogs representing ages of 3, 13, and 30 years since fire. Each bog was fertilized 8 times throughout the growing season with 0, 10, and 20 kg N/ha/yr. N2-fixation rates were measured 5 times at each site throughout the summer of 2013 to account for variation due to season and weather. Mean rates of N2-fixation increased with bog age, with higher rates in the 30 year old bog (36.90 × 8.38) and subsequently lower rates in the 13 yr (25.08 × 5.63) and 3 yr (11.58 × 6.33) old bogs. As expected, we saw decreasing rates of N2-fixation in the 10 (16.96 × 5.39) and 20 kg N/ha/yr treatments (3.35 × 1.34), as compared to water-only controls (47.62 × 12.18). These results indicate that N2-fixation supplies abundant N to support net primary productivity for bogs of all ages, but the process becomes compromised when sufficient N is supplied from other sources.

  9. Current and historical record of indium deposition from the atmosphere to an ombrotrophic bog in northeastern United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, S. O.; Keach, C.; Hemond, H.

    2012-12-01

    The industrial production of indium is increasing dramatically due to new uses in the rapidly growing electronics, photovoltaic, and LED industries. Little is known, however, about the natural or industrial cycling of indium or its environmental behavior, despite the fact that industrial emissions to the atmosphere appear to have already exceeded natural emissions. The history of metal deposition from the atmosphere is often reflected in the vertical profiles of the metals in ombrotrophic bogs, which by definition do not receive surface or subsurface runoff. Analysis of a peat core obtained using a novel freeze corer at Thoreau's Bog in Concord, MA shows that the rate of indium deposition to the bog increased beginning in the early 1900s, peaked in the early 1970s, and then decreased dramatically to pre-1900 values by the present time. This profile is counter to the pattern of indium's industrial use, which has increased only in the past 30-40 years. The profile coincides well, however, with the estimated history of particulate emissions from smelting and from coal combustion in North America. Back-trajectory analysis suggests that smelting was the dominant source of atmospheric particles with high indium concentrations deposited to the bog. This study suggests that metal smelting and coal burning are currently indium's primary industrial environmental sources. While releases from the semiconductor and electronics industries are comparatively small at present, this scenario may change with the rapid growth of indium use in these industries.

  10. Mercury deposition in ombrotrophic bogs in New Brunswick, Nova Scotia and Prince Edward Island. Atlantic region surveillance report number EPS-5-AR-98-4

    SciTech Connect

    Rutherford, L.A.; Matthews, S.L.

    1998-12-31

    A study was conducted to determine historical atmospheric mercury deposition patterns in the Maritime Provinces. Investigators measured mercury concentrations in peat cores from five ombrotrophic bogs in Kejimkujik, Fundy, Kouchibougouac, and Cape Breton Highlands national parks and in East Baltic Bog, Prince Edward Island. Results presented and discussed include deposition rates calculated using lead-210 date estimates, temporal trends in mercury concentrations, and spatial patterns of mercury deposition.

  11. Recent lead deposition trends in the Czech Republic as recorded by peat bogs and tree rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuna, Milan; Mihaljevi?, Martin; ebek, Ond?ej; Ettler, Vojt?ch; Handley, Michael; Navrtil, Tom; Goli, Viktor

    2011-09-01

    The lead (Pb) content and 206Pb/ 207Pb ratio were studied in three peat profiles dated by 210Pb from the border-area mountains of the Czech Republic and in the tree rings of spruce trees located in their immediate vicinity. Both archives document a similar progress in Pb pollution levels and Pb accumulation in the 1950's-1990's. The deposition rate (DR) of Pb in peat bogs attained maximum values of 40 mg Pb m -2 y -1 in the "Black Triangle" area and 15 mg Pb m -2 y -1 in more distant areas in this period. The Pb isotopic record of both archives from the contaminated area exhibit a similar trend in the presence of the individual sources of Pb, in which Pb derived from combustion of coal predominates. The peat cores in more distant areas document well the effect of automobile Pb in the atmosphere and its substantial reduction after 2000. The two archives differ in individual patterns following from the differences in the rates of formation of their biomass and different means of deposition of Pb in the two archives.

  12. Small scale controls of greenhouse gas release under elevated N deposition rates in a restoring peat bog in NW Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glatzel, S.; Forbrich, I.; Krüger, C.; Lemke, S.; Gerold, G.

    2008-06-01

    In Central Europe, most bogs have a history of drainage and many of them are currently being restored. Success of restoration as well as greenhouse gas exchange of these bogs is influenced by environmental stress factors as drought and atmospheric nitrogen deposition. We determined the methane and nitrous oxide exchange of sites in the strongly decomposed center and less decomposed edge of the Pietzmoor bog in NW Germany in 2004. Also, we examined the methane and nitrous oxide exchange of mesocosms from the center and edge before, during, and following a drainage experiment as well as carbon dioxide release from disturbed unfertilized and nitrogen fertilized surface peat. In the field, methane fluxes ranged from 0 to 3.8 mg m-2 h-1 and were highest from hollows. Field nitrous oxide fluxes ranged from 0 to 574 μg m-2 h-1 and were elevated at the edge. A large Eriophorum vaginatum tussock showed decreasing nitrous oxide release as the season progressed. Drainage of mesocosms decreased methane release to 0, even during rewetting. There was a tendency for a decrease of nitrous oxide release during drainage and for an increase in nitrous oxide release during rewetting. Nitrogen fertilization did not increase decomposition of surface peat. Our examinations suggest a competition between vascular vegetation and denitrifiers for excess nitrogen. We also provide evidence that the von Post humification index can be used to explain nitrous oxide release from bogs, if the role of vascular vegetation is also considered. An assessment of the greenhouse gas release from nitrogen saturated restoring bogs needs to take into account elevated release from fresh Sphagnum peat as well as from sedges growing on decomposed peat. Given the high atmospheric nitrogen deposition, restoration will not be able to achieve an oligotrophic ecosystem in the short term.

  13. Recent atmospheric dust deposition in an ombrotrophic peat bog in Great Hinggan Mountain, Northeast China.

    PubMed

    Bao, Kunshan; Xing, Wei; Yu, Xiaofei; Zhao, Hongmei; McLaughlin, Neil; Lu, Xianguo; Wang, Guoping

    2012-08-01

    Recent deposition of atmospheric soil dust (ASD) was studied using (210)Pb-dated Sphagnum-derived peat sequences from Great Hinggan Mountain in northeast China. Physicochemical indices of peat including dry bulk density, water content, ash content, total organic carbon and mass magnetic susceptibility were measured. Acid-insoluble concentration of lithogenic metals (Al, Ca, Fe, Mn, V and Ti) were measured using ICP-AES. The basic physicochemical properties were used to assess the peat trophic status and indicated that the sections above 45-60 cm are rain-fed peat. A continuous record of ASD fluxes over the past 150 years was reconstructed based on the geochemical data obtained from the ombrotrophic zone, and the average input rate of ASD is 13.4-68.1 g m(-2) year(-1). The source of soil dust deposited in peat was dominated by the long-range transport of mineral aerosol from the drylands in north China and Mongolia. The temporal variation of ASD fluxes in the last 60 years coincides well with the meteorological records of dust storm frequency during 1954-2002 in north China. This suggests that the reconstructed sequence of atmospheric dust deposition is reliable and we can look back in time at the dust evolution before 1949. Dust storm events were observed occasionally in the late Qing dynasty, and their frequency and intensity were smaller than dust weather occurring in recent times. Four peaks of ASD fluxes were distinguished and correlated with the historical events at that time. This study presents the first atmospheric soil dust data in peat records in northeast China, and complements a global database of peat bog archives of atmospheric deposition. The results reflect the patterns of local environmental change over the past century in north China and will be helpful in formulating policies to achieve sustainable and healthy development. PMID:22664536

  14. Elevated Nitrogen Deposition Enhances the Net CO2 Sink Strength in Alberta Bogs along a Post-fire Chronosequence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wieder, R. K.; Vile, M. A.; Albright, C. M.; Scott, K. D.

    2014-12-01

    About 30% of the landscape of northern Alberta, Canada is occupied by peatlands, which persist at the low end range of both mean annual precipitation (<500 mm/yr) and mean annual atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition (< 1 kg/ha/yr) across which peatlands are found globally. Ombrotrophic bogs in this region function as a net sink for atmospheric CO2 of over 75 g/m2/yr, taking into consideration changes in CO2 sink strength as a function of time since fire. In addition to fire, a new disturbance is emerging in the Athabasca Oil Sands Region (AOSR) of northern Alberta, where development of the oil sands resource has increased atmospheric N deposition to as much as 2.5 kg/ha/yr. To examine the effects of elevated N deposition on bog C cycling, we experimentally applied N (as NH4NO3 solutions) to replicated plots at levels equivalent to 0 (water added with no N), 10, and 20 kg/ha/yr, and controls (no waher, no N added) at five bog sites, aged at 2, 12, 32, 73, and 113 years since fire in 2013 (6 plots per N treatment per site). Understory net ecosystem exchange of CO2 (NEE) was measured repeatedly throughout the 2013 and 2014 growing season (and in 2011 and 2012 at the most recently burned site) using the closed chamber approach. Using a rectangular hyperbola equation to characterize NEE as a function of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) and near-surface air temperature (T), monthly and annual NEE was estimated based on hourly measurements of PAR and T at each site. Across all sites, a general pattern emerged that N additions enhanced the net CO2 sink strength of the bogs, with no effect on ecosystem respiration. Net primary production of Sphagnum fuscum, the dominant peat-forming moss, was not affected by N addition, suggesting that the overall response of NEE to N addition is the result of enhanced growth of ericaceous shrubs. These findings suggest that while elevated N deposition in the AOSR may enhance the strength of the overall CO2 sink of bogs in the short term, in the longer term, increased shrub growth has the potential to shade Sphagnum mosses, compromising the future bog CO2sink strength across the region.

  15. Determination of atmospheric nitrogen deposition to a semi-natural peat bog site in an intensively managed agricultural landscape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurkuck, Miriam; Brümmer, Christian; Mohr, Karsten; Grünhage, Ludger; Flessa, Heinz; Kutsch, Werner L.

    2014-11-01

    Rising levels of atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition have been found to affect the primary productivity and species composition of most terrestrial ecosystems. Highly vulnerable ecosystems such as nutrient-poor bogs are expected to respond to increasing N input rates with a decrease in plant species diversity. Our study site - a moderately drained raised bog and one of only very few remaining protected peatland areas in Northwestern Germany - is surrounded by highly fertilised agricultural land and intensive livestock production. We quantified the annual deposition of atmospheric N over a period of two years. Dry deposition rates of different N species and their reactants were calculated from day and night-time concentrations measured by a KAPS denuder filter system. Dry N deposition amounted to 10.9 ± 1.0 kg N ha-1 yr-1 (year 1) and 10.5 ± 1.0 kg N ha-1 yr-1 (year 2). More than 80% of total deposited N was attributed to ammonia (NH3). A strong seasonality in NH3 concentrations and depositions could be observed. Day and night-time concentrations and depositions, however, did not differ significantly. Total N deposition including bulk N deposition resulted in about 25 kg N ha-1 yr-1. Our results suggest that the intensive agricultural land management of surrounding areas and strongly emitting animal husbandry lead to N inputs into the protected peatland area that exceed the ecosystem's specific critical load up to fivefold. This gives rise to the assumption that a further shift in plant species composition with a subsequent alteration of the local hydrological regime can be expected.

  16. Retention of As and Sb in ombrotrophic peat bogs: records of As, Sb, and Pb deposition at four Scottish sites.

    PubMed

    Cloy, Joanna M; Farmer, John G; Graham, Margaret C; MacKenzie, Angus B

    2009-03-15

    Possible postdepositional As migration in ombrotrophic peat bogs was investigated by comparing depth profiles of As with those of Sb and Pb, two elements considered to be essentially immobile in peat, and those of redox-sensitive, potentially mobile nutrient elements such as Mn, Fe, P, and S in 210Pb-dated cores from four Scottish bogs. Concentration profiles of As were similar to those of Sb and Pb rather than these other elements, indicating that As is bound strongly to organic matter and is relatively immobile in ombrotrophic peat. Historical records of atmospheric anthropogenic As, Sb, and Pb deposition during the industrial and postindustrial periods were derived, site-specific maxima (up to 1.55, 1.33, and 45 mg m(-2) y(-1), respectively) occurring between the late 1890s and 1960s, reflecting emissions from diverse sources such as mining and smelting, coal combustion, and also, in the case of Pb, exhaust emissions from the use of leaded gasoline. Since the mid-1980s, fluxes of Pb decreased (4-7 fold) more rapidly than those of As and Sb (2-3 fold), attributable to both the gradual elimination of leaded gasoline and recent new sources of the latter elements. Relative trends in derived anthropogenic As, Sb, and Pb deposition largely agreed with other Scottish peat and moss archive records, direct measurements of deposition, and UK emissions, i.e., four different types of data source. PMID:19368168

  17. Retention of As and Sb in ombrotrophic peat bogs: records of As, Sb, and Pb deposition at four Scottish sites

    SciTech Connect

    Joanna M. Cloy; John G. Farmer; Margaret C. Graham; Angus B. MacKenzie

    2009-03-15

    Possible postdepositional As migration in ombrotrophic peat bogs was investigated by comparing depth profiles of As with those of Sb and Pb, two elements considered to be essentially immobile in peat, and those of redox-sensitive, potentially mobile nutrient elements such as Mn, Fe, P, and S in {sup 210}Pb-dated cores from four Scottish bogs. Concentration profiles of As were similar to those of Sb and Pb rather than these other elements, indicating that As is bound strongly to organic matter and is relatively immobile in ombrotrophic peat. Historical records of atmospheric anthropogenic As, Sb, and Pb deposition during the industrial and postindustrial periods were derived, site-specific maxima (up to 1.55, 1.33, and 45 mg m{sup -2} y{sup -1}, respectively) occurring between the late 1890s and 1960s, reflecting emissions from diverse sources such as mining and smelting, coal combustion, and also, in the case of Pb, exhaust emissions from the use of leaded gasoline. Since the mid-1980s, fluxes of Pb decreased (4-7 fold) more rapidly than those of As and Sb (2-3 fold), attributable to both the gradual elimination of leaded gasoline and recent new sources of the latter elements. Relative trends in derived anthropogenic As, Sb, and Pb deposition largely agreed with other Scottish peat and moss archive records, direct measurements of deposition, and UK emissions, i.e., four different types of data source. 36 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Bog bursts.

    PubMed

    Tallis, J

    2001-10-01

    Variously attributed to earthquakes, lightening strikes, Acts of God, witchcraft, the wrath of the fairies, or the fertile Irish imagination, bog bursts are dramatic but poorly understood natural phenomena. This article attempts a scientific appraisal. PMID:11584136

  19. Inputs of Nitrogen to Bogs of Alberta, Canada: the Importance of Biological Nitrogen Fixation VS. Atmospheric Deposition from Oil Sands Mining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prsa, T.; Vile, M. A.; Wieder, R.; Vitt, D. H.

    2010-12-01

    Bogs of Alberta, Canada are peatlands that are both Sphagnum-moss dominated and nutrient limited. Due to their ombrotrophic nature, nitrogen (N) is deposited only via atmospheric deposition (wet/dry) and biological N2 fixation. Historically, bogs of Alberta are unpolluted with low rates of atmospheric N deposition (< 1 kg ha-1 yr-1), as opposed to eastern Canada and western Europe where rates are considerably higher (>15 kg ha-1 yr-1). Due to the extensive rich bitumen deposits under northern Alberta, however, the Oil Sands Mining (OSM) industry has been growing exponentially since the late 1960s. Bogs situated near OSM, therefore, are likely to experience increased N deposition and the consequences and impacts of such a phenomenon are as yet, unknown. Additional N inputs into these N-limited ecosystems may cause an imbalance in the N-cycle, specifically, biological N2 fixation. Our goal was to quantify inputs of N to the system from both rates of biological N2 fixation and bulk atmospheric deposition. In summer 2010, we used acetylene reduction assay (ARA) to indirectly measure N2 fixation rates in the four most abundant moss species: Sphagnum fuscum, S. capillifolium, S. angustifolium and Pleurozium schreberi at three bog sites varying in proximity to OSM: McMurray, McKay and Utikuma bog (51, 24 and 300 km, respectively) throughout the growing season (May-August comprising 6 sampling efforts). We measured atmospheric N deposition with ion exchange resin columns (10 per site). An ANOVA and subsequent ad hoc test indicated that Utikuma had significantly lower atmospheric N deposition rates (0.130 0.19 mg m-2 d-1; SE) than both McMurray and McKay (0.337 0.03 and 0.262 0.03 mg m-2 da-1, respectively; F2,24 = 9.04, p<0.0012), demonstrating that sites closest to the OSM region do exhibit higher rates of atmospheric N deposition. Alternatively, for inputs of N via N2 fixation, we found that McMurray (700.6 144.7 mol m-2 da-1) had significantly higher ARA rates than McKay and Utikuma (205.8 27.9 and 376.7 73.9 mol m-2 da-1, respectively; F2,264 = 7.60, p<0.0006). A one-way ANOVA showed significant differences in ARA rates among moss species (F2,263 = 7.60, p<0.0006). Duncans multiple range test indicated that S. fuscum and S. capillifolium hummocks had significantly higher rates (768.5 138.3 and 495.8 115.5 mol m-2 da-1, respectively), as compared to S. angustifolium and P. schreberi (284.9 45.5 and 24.9 5.6 mol m-2 da-1, respectively). Peak rates were recorded in mid-June and early July (678.1 127.2 and 1009.7 263.9 mol m-2 da-1, respectively) across all the sites (F5,228 = 5.68, p<0.0001). This study is the first to simultaneously examine N2 fixation in a variety of mosses and atmospheric N inputs in Alberta bogs located close to OSM over a growing season. Our results suggest that despite increased N deposition, N2 fixation continues to represent the dominant input of N into Albertas bogs. In addition to S. fuscum and S. capillifolium being the prevalent hosts for N2-fixers, these species comprise the highest percent cover of Albertas bogs (~80%).

  20. Historical records of atmospheric metal deposition along the St. Lawrence Valley (eastern Canada) based on peat bog cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pratte, Steve; Mucci, Alfonso; Garneau, Michelle

    2013-11-01

    The recent history of atmospheric As, Cd, Ni, Pb and Zn deposition and the stable Pb isotope signatures were reconstructed from short cores collected at three peat bogs along the St. Lawrence Valley (SLV). The onset of industrial activity was recorded around 1810-1850 AD. As, Cd, Pb and, to a certain extent, Ni deposition rates reached maxima between 1940 and the early 1970s. Trace metals likely originated from coal-burning and ore smelting between 1850 and 1950 AD, and were replaced thereafter, at least in the case of Pb, by the combustion of leaded gasolines until the mid-1980s. Trace metal contents and accumulation rates were greater in the two cores recovered from the southwestern SLV than further northeast, as expected from their proximity to urban and industrial centers of eastern Canada and the U.S. Mid-West and the direction of the prevalent winds. A rapid decrease in metal accumulation rates since the 1970s suggests that mitigation policies were effective in reducing atmospheric metal emissions. Nevertheless, metal accumulation rates and stable Pb isotope signatures have not yet returned to their pre-industrial values.

  1. Reconnaissance of Colorado Front Range bogs for uranium and other elements

    SciTech Connect

    Owen, D.E.; Schumann, R.R.; Otton, J.K.

    1987-08-01

    Alpine bogs form along spring-fed valley floors and in steam drainages restricted by moraines, slides, and beaver dams. The bogs are generally young (Holocene) and contain a few tens of centimeters to several meters of peat and organic-rich muck. Organic matter has a great affinity for cations such as uranium; the geochemical enrichment factor between the peats and uraniferous ground water can approach 10,000 to 1. Because the bog sediments are geologically young, the uranium is in gross disequilibrium and has low radioactivity, thus it is undetectable by ground and aerial gamma surveys. Communities that derive a part of their water supplies from drainages containing uraniferous bogs face a potential health threat because the uranium is loosely bound and may easily be remobilized by ground water moving through the bogs. Reconnaissance sampling of bogs was conducted in the Colorado Front Range from the South Park area to the Colorado-Wyoming state line. Several bogs have uranium concentrations of 1000-3000 ppm, but most bogs have uranium concentrations in the 10-100 ppm range. Zinc concentrations of 100-1000 ppm are found in some bogs and many other metallic elements are present in concentrations between 10 and 100 ppm. Concentrations between 100 and 1000 ppm of some of the rare earth elements (e.g., Ce, La, Nd, Yb) were found in the Cripple Creek area.

  2. Past atmospheric deposition of metals in northern Indiana measured in a peat core from Cowles bog

    SciTech Connect

    Cole, K.L. ); Engstrom, D.R. ); Futyma, R.P. ); Stottlemyer, R. )

    1990-04-01

    A peat core from a calcareous fen was used to assess past metal accumulation from atmospheric sources in northern Indiana. Total concentrations of Al, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sr, and Zn were measured at intervals along the core, which were dated by {sup 210}Pb, radiocarbon, and pollen analysis. The deposition of airborne metal particulates rose dramatically from presettlement levels as industrialization occurred upwind, with accumulation rates for some metals increasing by 2 orders of magnitude. Recent accumulation rates are about half of the peak rates of the 1970s, presumably because of emission controls and reduced production. This study, the first such record from a calcareous fen, should be less affected by postdepositional mobility than records from acidic peatlands. This method of retrospective, long-term monitoring of airborne particulates can be applied in many areas lacking such records.

  3. Bog Plant Tissue Chemistry and N and S Accumulation in Peat are Influenced by Elevated N and S Deposition from Alberta Oil Sands Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wieder, R.; Vile, M. A.; Quinn, J.; Albright, C. M.; Scott, K. D.; Vitt, D. H.

    2013-12-01

    Development of the oil sands resource in northern Alberta, Canada has led to elevated atmospheric N and S deposition, the N coming mainly from the exhaust of diesel fueled-trucks that haul the raw oil sands from the mine sites and the S coming mainly from refining. Against a background deposition of < 1 kg/ha/yr for both N and S, at sites within 15 km of the oil sands mining region we have measured current N and S deposition to be as high as 2 and 27 kg/ha/yr. With a goal of developing monitoring tools to assess the spatial extent of elevated N and S deposition in the region, we collected leaves, needles, or whole plants of 12 bog species (lichens: Cladina mitis and Evernia mesomorpha; Sphagnum mosses: S. capillifolium and S. fuscum; a tree: Picea mariana; ericaceous shrubs: Ledum groenlandicum, Oxycoccos microcarpus and Vaccinium vitis-idaea; deciduous forbs: Rubus chamaemorus and Smilacina trifolia) from 5 bogs ranging from 11 to over 250 km from the oil sands mining area. Samples were collected on 23 dates between May and October of 2009-2012 and were analyzed for C, N, and S concentrations. Six species (C. mitis, E. mesomorpha, S. fuscum, O. microcarpus, V. vitis-idaea, and R. chamaemorus) exhibited statistically significant increases in C:N ratio with increasing distance from the oil sands mining area. Five species (C. mitis, E. mesomorpha, S. fuscum, S. capillifolium, O. microcarpus) exhibited statistically significant increases in C:S ratio with increasing distance from the oil sands mining area. For three species (S. fuscum, E. mesomorpha, O. microcarpus), N concentrations gradually and significantly increased (C:N ratios decreased) over the four years of the study, with the rate of increase as high as 1 mg/g/yr at sites in close proximity to the oil sands mining area. In contrast, S concentrations in plant tissues generally did not increase over the four years, possibly because of increasing efforts to control S emissions from stacks. Using 210Pb-dated cores collected from 15 bogs ranging from ranging from 11 to over 250 km from the oil sands mining area, we demonstrated greater net N and S accumulation in peat over the most recent 25 years, as compared to the 25-50 time horizon. Moreover, net N and S accumulation decreased exponentially with distance from the oil sands mining region. These relationships indicate that higher N and S accumulation in peat is evident within a distance of about 20 km from the oil sands mining area. Our findings reveal that elevated N and S deposition from oil sands development affects plant tissue chemistry, with potential ramifications for both N and S cycling and potential vegetation change in bogs, and that atmospherically deposited N and S are retained in bog peat deposits.

  4. Grass species influence on plant N uptake - Determination of atmospheric N deposition to a semi-natural peat bog site using a 15N labelling approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurkuck, Miriam; Brmmer, Christian; Spott, Oliver; Flessa, Heinz; Kutsch, Werner L.

    2014-05-01

    Large areas of natural peat bogs in Northwestern Germany have been converted to arable land and were subjected to draining and peat cutting in the past. The few protected peatland areas remaining are affected by high nitrogen (N) deposition. Our study site - a moderately drained raised bog - is surrounded by highly fertilized agricultural land and livestock production. In this study, we used a 15N pool dilution technique called 'Integrated Total Nitrogen Input' (ITNI) to quantify annual deposition of atmospheric N into biomonitoring pots over a two-year period. Since it considers direct N uptake by plants, it was expected to result in higher N input than conventional methods for determination of N deposition (e.g. micrometeorological approaches, bulk N samplers). Using Lolium multiflorum and Eriophorum vaginatum as monitor plants and low, medium and high levels of fertilization, we aimed to simulate increasing N deposition to planted pots and to allocate airborne N after its uptake by the soil-plant system in aboveground biomass, roots and soil. Increasing N fertilization was positively correlated with biomass production of Eriophorum vaginatum, whereas atmospheric plant N uptake decreased and highest airborne N input of 899.8 67.4 g N d-1 pot-1 was found for low N fertilization. In contrast, Lolium multiflorum showed a clear dependency of N supply on plant N uptake and was highest (688.7 41.4 g N d-1 pot-1) for highly fertilized vegetation pots. Our results suggest that grass species respond differently to increasing N input. While crop grasses such as Lolium multiflorum take up N according to N availability, species adopted to nutrient-limited conditions like Eriophorum vaginatum show N saturation effects with increasing N supply. Total airborne N input ranged from about 24 to 66 kg N ha-1 yr-1 dependent on the used indicator plant and the amount of added fertilizer. Parallel determination of atmospheric N deposition using a micrometeorological approach complemented with bulk samplers was about 24 kg N ha-1 yr-1 during both years of experiments and was thus at the lower range of results obtained by the ITNI method. The low 15N recovery rate of about 50 % during some experiments indicated an underestimation of the applied ITNI approach, resulting in a maximum possible N uptake of twice as high as the determined N input. Most likely, the intensive agricultural land management of the surrounding areas leads to this high N deposition into the protected peatland area. As a result, increasing sensitivity of ombrotrophic vegetation with a subsequent change in plant species composition and a decline in bog-specific vegetation cannot be excluded.

  5. Historical records of atmospheric Pb deposition in four Scottish ombrotrophic peat bogs: An isotopic comparison with other records from western Europe and Greenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cloy, J. M.; Farmer, J. G.; Graham, M. C.; MacKenzie, A. B.; Cook, G. T.

    2008-06-01

    Cores collected from ombrotrophic peat bogs in west central, east central, northeast and southwest Scotland were dated (14C, 210Pb) and analyzed (ICP-OES, ICP-MS) to derive and compare their historical records of atmospheric anthropogenic Pb deposition over the past 2500 years. On the basis of Pb isotopic composition (e.g., 206Pb/207Pb), clear indications of Pb contamination during the pre-Roman/Roman, post-Roman and medieval periods were attributed to the mining and smelting of Pb ores from Britain and elsewhere in Europe. Between the 17th and early 20th centuries, during the industrial period, the mining and smelting of indigenous Scottish Pb ores were the most important sources of anthropogenic Pb deposition at three of the sites. In contrast, at the most southerly site, influences from the use of both British Pb ores and imported Australian Pb ores (in more southern parts of Britain) since the late 19th century were evident. At each of the sites, Australian-Pb-influenced car exhaust emissions (from the 1930s to late 1990s), along with significant contributions from coal combustion (until the late 1960s and onset of the postindustrial period), were evident. Atmospheric anthropogenic Pb deposition across Scotland was greatest (10 to 40 mg m-2 a-1) between the late 1880s and late 1960s, increasing southward, declining to 0.44 to 5.7 mg m-2 a-1 by the early 2000s. The records from four peat bogs extend knowledge of the chronology of atmospheric Pb deposition trends across the northern hemisphere, there being general agreement with other environmental archive records from not only Scotland but also other countries in western Europe and Greenland. Nevertheless, during all periods investigated here, the isotopic composition of atmospheric Pb deposition across western Europe and Greenland exhibited variations in the relative importance of different sources of anthropogenic Pb, as well as some differences in timings and magnitudes of anthropogenic Pb contamination, arising from variations in local and regional sources of Pb deposition and possibly climatic regimes.

  6. Inertia in an ombrotrophic bog ecosystem in response to 9 years' realistic perturbation by wet deposition of nitrogen, separated by form.

    PubMed

    Sheppard, Lucy J; Leith, Ian D; Mizunuma, Toshie; Leeson, Sarah; Kivimaki, Sanna; Neil Cape, J; van Dijk, Netty; Leaver, David; Sutton, Mark A; Fowler, David; Van den Berg, Leon J L; Crossley, Alan; Field, Chris; Smart, Simon

    2014-02-01

    Wet deposition of nitrogen (N) occurs in oxidized (nitrate) and reduced (ammonium) forms. Whether one form drives vegetation change more than the other is widely debated, as field evidence has been lacking. We are manipulating N form in wet deposition to an ombrotrophic bog, Whim (Scottish Borders), and here report nine years of results. Ammonium and nitrate were provided in rainwater spray as NH4 Cl or NaNO3 at 8, 24 or 56 kg N ha(-1)  yr(-1) , plus a rainwater only control, via an automated system coupled to site meteorology. Detrimental N effects were observed in sensitive nonvascular plant species, with higher cumulative N loads leading to more damage at lower annual doses. Cover responses to N addition, both in relation to form and dose, were species specific and mostly dependent on N dose. Some species were generally indifferent to N form and dose, while others were dose sensitive. Calluna vulgaris showed a preference for higher N doses as ammonium N and Hypnum jutlandicum for nitrate N. However, after 9 years, the magnitude of change from wet deposited N on overall species cover is small, indicating only a slow decline in key species. Nitrogen treatment effects on soil N availability were likewise small and rarely correlated with species cover. Ammonium caused most N accumulation and damage to sensitive species at lower N loads, but toxic effects also occurred with nitrate. However, because different species respond differently to N form, setting of ecosystem level critical loads by N form is challenging. We recommend implementing the lowest value of the critical load range where communities include sensitive nonvascular plants and where ammonium dominates wet deposition chemistry. In the context of parallel assessment at the same site, N treatments for wet deposition showed overall much smaller effects than corresponding inputs of dry deposition as ammonia. PMID:24038771

  7. Bog iron formation in the Nassawango Creek watershed, Maryland, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bricker, O.P.; Newell, W.L.; Simon, N.S.

    2004-01-01

    The Nassawango bog ores in the modern environment for surficial geochemical processes were studied. The formation of Nassawango bog ores was suggested to be due to inorganic oxidation when groundwater rich in ferrous iron emerges into the oxic, surficial environment. It was suggested that the process, providing a phosphorus sink, may be an unrecognized benefit for mitigating nutrient loading from agricultural lands. It is found that without the effect of iron fixing bacteria, bog deposites could not form at significant rates.

  8. Historical records of atmospheric Pb deposition in four Scottish ombrotrophic peat bogs: An isotopic comparison with other records from western Europe and Greenland - article no. GB2016

    SciTech Connect

    Cloy, J.M.; Farmer, J.G.; Graham, M.C.; MacKenzie, A.B.; Cook, G.T.

    2008-05-15

    Cores collected from ombrotrophic peat bogs in west central, east central, northeast and southwest Scotland were dated (C-14, Pb-210) and analyzed (ICP-OES, ICP-MS) to derive and compare their historical records of atmospheric anthropogenic Pb deposition over the past 2500 years. On the basis of Pb isotopic composition (e. g., Pb-206/Pb-207), clear indications of Pb contamination during the pre-Roman/Roman, post-Roman and medieval periods were attributed to the mining and smelting of Pb ores from Britain and elsewhere in Europe. Between the 17th and early 20th centuries, during the industrial period, the mining and smelting of indigenous Scottish Pb ores were the most important sources of anthropogenic Pb deposition at three of the sites. In contrast, at the most southerly site, influences from the use of both British Pb ores and imported Australian Pb ores (in more southern parts of Britain) since the late 19th century were evident. At each of the sites, Australian-Pb-influenced car exhaust emissions (from the 1930s to late 1990s), along with significant contributions from coal combustion (until the late 1960s and onset of the post industrial period), were evident. Atmospheric anthropogenic Pb deposition across Scotland was greatest (similar to 10 to 40 mg m{sup -2} a{sup -1}) between the late 1880s and late 1960s, increasing southward, declining to 0.44 to 5.7 mg m{sup 2} a{sup -1} by the early 2000s.

  9. The Vanishing Bog.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanif, Muhammad

    1990-01-01

    Directions for the construction of a model bog habitat are provided including examples of plants and animals which may be suitable. Activities that use this model are suggested. Background information on the ecology and chemistry of the bog is included. (CW)

  10. Nature and origins of acidity in bogs

    SciTech Connect

    Urban, N.R.

    1987-01-01

    To elucidate the causes of acidity in bogs, all of the processes generating and consuming acidity in a small peat bog in northern Minnesota were measured. These processes include ion exchange, plant nutrient uptake, atmospheric deposition, decomposition, organic acid production, sulfate reduction, and denitrification. Organic acid production was found to be the dominant source of acidity, responsible for the low pH of bog waters and the high acidity in the outflow. Net biological uptake (NBU) is the next largest source of acidity. Ion exchange accounts for only about 40% of the NBU-acidity. Plant uptake and ion exchange are much larger sources of acidity on an annual basis, but much of this acidity is neutralized by decomposition. Sulfate reduction and denitrification are quantitatively unimportant at this site because inputs (NO/sub 3//sup -/ and SO/sub 4/=) are low. Bog water samples and peat cores from bogs across northeastern North America were analyzed to determine if geographic trends in the rates of acidity-generating and -consuming processes exist. Rates of organic acid production varied little across the transect. Higher values of NBU-acidity were observed in maritime bogs than in midcontinental bogs. The effects of transformations of sulfur and nitrogen on the hydrogen-ion cycle were examined in detail. Nitrate appears to be taken up by bryophytes and little is lost to denitrification. Alkalinity from nitrate uptake is low. In contrast, there is a dynamic cycle of oxidation and reduction of sulfur within bogs. Inorganic forms of sulfur are not important storage pools in peat; 35% of the total sulfur input is accumulated as organic S.

  11. Skeletal analysis and comparison of bog bodies from Northern European peat bogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pestka, Jan M.; Barvencik, Florian; Beil, Frank T.; Marshall, Robert P.; Jopp, Eilin; Schilling, Arndt F.; Bauerochse, Andreas; Fansa, Mamoun; Pschel, Klaus; Amling, Michael

    2010-04-01

    Although numerous bodies were deposited in Western European bogs in the past centuries, few were found and underwent archeological analysis. No studies comparing skeletal structure and mineralization of bog bodies from different ages have been performed to this day. Therefore, the aim of this study was to analyze and compare skeletal features and specifics of the human remains of three bog bodies from the Iron and Middle Ages found in Northern European peat bogs. Demineralization due to the acidic environment in peat bogs was comparably pronounced in all three bodies. Still, the macroscopic state of skeletal preservation was excellent. In addition to contact radiography, we used peripheral quantitative computed tomography to measure cortical bone mineral density. The conservation of skeletal three-dimensional microstructural elements was assessed by high-resolution microcomputed tomography analysis. These techniques revealed severe differences in bone mineral density and enabled us to determine handedness in all three bodies. Additionally, unique skeletal features like intravital bone lesions, immobilization osteoporosis, and Harris lines were found. A deformity of the left femoral head was observed which had the typical appearance of an advanced stage of Legg-Calve-Perthes disease. This study gives detailed insight into the skeletal microstructure and microarchitecture of 800- to 2,700-year-old bog bodies. Skeletal analysis enables us to draw conclusions not only concerning changes in the acidic environment of the bog, but also serves as a diagnostic tool to unravel life circumstances and diseases suffered by humans in the Iron and Middle Ages.

  12. The Rössing Uranium Deposit: a product of late-kinematic localization of uraniferous granites in the Central Zone of the Damara Orogen, Namibia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basson, I. J.; Greenway, G.

    2004-04-01

    The Rössing granite-hosted uranium deposit in the Central Zone of the Pan-African Damara Orogen, Namibia, is situated in the "SJ area" to the south of the Rössing Dome. The coincidence of a number of features in this area suggests that mineralization is closely linked to late-kinematic evolution of the Rössing Dome. These features include: (1) the rotation of the dome's long axis (trend of 017°), relative to the regional F 3 trend of 042°; (2) southward dome impingement, concomitant with dome rotation, producing a wedge-shaped zone of alkali-leucogranites, within which uranium mineralization is transgressive with respect to granites and their host lithologies; uranium mineralization and a high fluid flux are also confined to this arcuate zone to the south and south-east of the dome core and (3) fault modeling that indicates that the SJ area underwent late-D 3 to D 4 brittle-ductile deformation, producing a dense fault network that was exploited by leucogranites. Dome rotation and southward impingement occurred after a protracted period of transtensional tectonism in the Central Zone, from ca. 542 to 526 Ma, during which I- and S-type granites were initiated in a metamorphic core complex. Late-kinematic deformation involved a rejuvenation of the stresses that acted from ca. 600 to 550 Ma. This deformation overlapped with uranium-enriched granite intrusion in the Central Zone at 510 ± 3 Ma. Such late-kinematic, north-south transpression, which persisted into the post-kinematic cooling phase until at least 478 ± 4 Ma, was synchronous with left-lateral displacement along NNE-trending ("Welwitschia Trend") shears in the vicinity of Rössing. Late-kinematic deformation, causing block rotation, overlying dome rotation and interaction of the more competent units of the Khan Formation with the Rössing Formation in the dome rim was pivotal in the localization of uranium-enriched granites within a highly fractured, high-strain zone that was also the site of prolonged/high fluid flux.

  13. Investigating Bogs: An Interdisciplinary Adventure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pankiewicz, Philip R.; Schneider, Lois

    1995-01-01

    Presents the case for the use of bogs as ideal sites for hundreds of interdisciplinary lessons that combine chemistry, geology, various branches of biology, and wetlands archaeology. Includes general guidelines to aid in the design of interdisciplinary bog studies. (DDR)

  14. Insect biodiversity of boreal peat bogs.

    PubMed

    Spitzer, Karel; Danks, Hugh V

    2006-01-01

    Boreal peat bogs contain distinctive insects in addition to widely distributed generalists, including species restricted to bogs (tyrphobionts) and species characteristic of bogs but not confined to them (tyrphophiles). Bogs raised above the water table form characteristic habitat islands in southern boreal and temperate forest zones. Many bogs have persisted for hundreds and even thousands of years, preserving relict ecosystems related to subarctic biomes. The historical development and nature of individual bogs are reflected by differences among their insects, which are of great biogeographical and ecological interest. The environmental sensitivity of bogs also makes insects valuable as bioindicators. Moreover, few readily accessible bogs remain in a natural state. Given the scientific interest of bog insects and the fact that each relict bog habitat island is unique, further studies of the diversity of bog faunas are merited, and the conservation of these habitats should be strongly supported by entomologists. PMID:16332207

  15. Uraniferous opal, Virgin Valley, Nevada: conditions of formation and implications for uranium exploration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zielinski, R.A.

    1982-01-01

    Uraniferous, fluorescent opal, which occurs in tuffaceous sedimentary rocks at Virgin Valley, Nevada, records the temperature and composition of uranium-rich solutions as well as the time of uranium-silica coprecipitation. Results are integrated with previous geologic and geochronologic data for the area to produce a model for uranium mobility that may be used to explore for uranium deposits in similar geologic settings. Uraniferous opal occurs as replacements of diatomite, or silicic air-fall ash layers in tuffaceous lakebeds of the Virgin Valley Formation (Miocene) of Merriam (1907). Fission-track radiography shows uranium to be homogeneously dispersed throughout the opal structure, suggesting coprecipitation of dissolved uranium and silica gel. Fluid inclusions preserved within opal replacements of diatomite have homogenization temperatures in the epithermal range and are of low salinity. Four samples of opal from one locality all have U-Pb apparent ages which suggest uraniferous opal precipitation in late Pliocene time. These ages correspond to a period of local, normal faulting, and highangle faults may have served as vertical conduits for transport of deep, thermalized ground water to shallower levels. Lateral migration of rising solutions occurred at intersections of faults with permeable strata. Silica and some uranium were dissolved from silica-rich host strata of 5-20 ppm original uranium content and reprecipitated as the solutions cooled. The model predicts that in similar geologic settings, ore-grade concentrations of uranium will occur in permeable strata that intersect high-angle faults and that contain uranium source rocks as well as efficient reductant traps for uranium. In the absence of sufficient quantities of reductant materials, uranium will be flushed from the system or will accumulate in low-grade disseminated hosts such as uraniferous opal. ?? 1982.

  16. Redox Characteristics, Sequestration, and Concentration of Uranium in a Holocene Peat bog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolanos, L.; Northrup, P.; Rasbury, T.; Zheng, Y.

    2006-05-01

    Understanding the fate of U during diagenetic processes is fundamental to predictions for how this element will be cycled through the environment and will give insight into ore development and the distribution of U in sedimentary rocks. U is known to be concentrated and immobilized in organic rich sediments. The classic model for uranium sequestration and accumulation in natural systems calls for reduction of aqueous U6+ followed by precipitation and deposition of less-soluble U4+ species, primarily uraninite. An ongoing debate concerns whether organic matter plays a direct role, by binding U, thus immobilizing it; or an indirect role by creating redox conditions thermodynamically favorable for the reduction of U and precipitation of uraninite. Reactive functional groups (e.g. carboxyl) of immature natural organic matter may form complexes with uranyl ion and may suppress the reduction of U even in the presence of microbial and thermodynamic conditions that are otherwise favorable for reduction. Thus, U may be available for reduction only upon degradation of the organic matter. There are few studies of the path to immobilization and concentration of U. Samples in this study were taken from a uraniferous Holocene peat bog. The high organic content and known age make this deposit ideal for examining the effects of organic matter on U mobility because it is formed almost exclusively by deposition and decay of natural organic matter. We have used synchrotron x-ray adsorption near edge spectroscopy (XANES) and micro-XAS to measure the in-situ oxidation state with a minimum of sample preparation and risk of contamination or reoxidation artifacts. The advantages of this method are maximized in this study by performing simultaneous XANES analysis of U and S in order to determine the redox state of the sediment as well as the U. Fe was also analyzed for additional host sediment redox characterization. Although the S and Fe analyses indicate that although the sediment Eh decreases with depth, the U remains oxidized throughout except for a narrow depth interval of partial reduction. These results suggest that a simple thermodynamic model of U reduction and precipitation does not explain the sequestration of U.

  17. Effects of grass species and grass growth on atmospheric nitrogen deposition to a bog ecosystem surrounded by intensive agricultural land use.

    PubMed

    Hurkuck, Miriam; Brmmer, Christian; Mohr, Karsten; Spott, Oliver; Well, Reinhard; Flessa, Heinz; Kutsch, Werner L

    2015-07-01

    We applied a (15)N dilution technique called "Integrated Total Nitrogen Input" (ITNI) to quantify annual atmospheric N input into a peatland surrounded by intensive agricultural practices over a 2-year period. Grass species and grass growth effects on atmospheric N deposition were investigated using Lolium multiflorum and Eriophorum vaginatum and different levels of added N resulting in increased biomass production. Plant biomass production was positively correlated with atmospheric N uptake (up to 102.7mg N pot(-1)) when using Lolium multiflorum. In contrast, atmospheric N deposition to Eriophorum vaginatum did not show a clear dependency to produced biomass and ranged from 81.9 to 138.2mgNpot(-1). Both species revealed a relationship between atmospheric N input and total biomass N contents. Airborne N deposition varied from about 24 to 55kgNha(-1)yr(-1). Partitioning of airborne N within the monitor system differed such that most of the deposited N was found in roots of Eriophorum vaginatum while the highest share was allocated in aboveground biomass of Lolium multiflorum. Compared to other approaches determining atmospheric N deposition, ITNI showed highest airborne N input and an up to fivefold exceedance of the ecosystem-specific critical load of 5-10kgNha(-1)yr(-1). PMID:26257870

  18. Effects of grass species and grass growth on atmospheric nitrogen deposition to a bog ecosystem surrounded by intensive agricultural land use

    PubMed Central

    Hurkuck, Miriam; Brümmer, Christian; Mohr, Karsten; Spott, Oliver; Well, Reinhard; Flessa, Heinz; Kutsch, Werner L

    2015-01-01

    We applied a 15N dilution technique called “Integrated Total Nitrogen Input” (ITNI) to quantify annual atmospheric N input into a peatland surrounded by intensive agricultural practices over a 2-year period. Grass species and grass growth effects on atmospheric N deposition were investigated using Lolium multiflorum and Eriophorum vaginatum and different levels of added N resulting in increased biomass production. Plant biomass production was positively correlated with atmospheric N uptake (up to 102.7 mg N pot−1) when using Lolium multiflorum. In contrast, atmospheric N deposition to Eriophorum vaginatum did not show a clear dependency to produced biomass and ranged from 81.9 to 138.2 mg N pot−1. Both species revealed a relationship between atmospheric N input and total biomass N contents. Airborne N deposition varied from about 24 to 55 kg N ha−1 yr−1. Partitioning of airborne N within the monitor system differed such that most of the deposited N was found in roots of Eriophorum vaginatum while the highest share was allocated in aboveground biomass of Lolium multiflorum. Compared to other approaches determining atmospheric N deposition, ITNI showed highest airborne N input and an up to fivefold exceedance of the ecosystem-specific critical load of 5–10 kg N ha−1 yr−1. PMID:26257870

  19. Results of reconnaissance for uraniferous coal, lignite, and carbonaceous shale in western Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hail, William James; Gill, James R.

    1953-01-01

    A reconnaissance search for uraniferous lignite and carbonaceous shale was made in western Montana and adjacent parts of Idaho during the summer of 1951. Particular emphasis in the examination was placed on coal and carbonaceous shale associated with volcanic rocks, as volcanic rocks in many areas appear to have released uranium to circulating ground water from which it was ,concentrated in carbonaceous material. Twenty-two areas in Montana and one area in Idaho were examined. The coal in five of these areas is of Cretaceous age. The coal and carbonaceous shale in the remaining 18 areas occur in Tertiary 'fake-bed' deposits of Oligocene and younger age. Both the Cretaceous and Tertiary coal and carbonaceous shale are associated with contemporaneous or younger volcanic rocks and pyrociastic sequences.

  20. Consequences of marginal drainage from a raised bog and understanding the hydrogeological dynamics as a basis for restoration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Regan, Shane; Johnston, Paul

    2010-05-01

    Raised bogs in Ireland have long been exploited for local fuel utilisation. The drainage associated with such activities alters the hydrological regime of the bog as consolidation of the peat substrate results in significant water loss and subsidence of the bog. Undisturbed raised bog environments are typically characterised by distinct ecological systems, or ecotopes, which are controlled by the relationship between surface slopes, flow path lengths and drainage conditions. Shrinkage of the main peat profile, or catotelm, invariably alters these conditions, changes of which significantly damage ecotopes of conservational value. Clara Bog, Ireland, is one of western Europe's largest remaining raised bogs and on which much hydroecological research has been conducted since the early 1990's. Though a relatively intact raised bog, it has been extensively damaged in the past with the construction of a road through the centre of the bog known to have resulted in subsidence of 9-10m. However, the western tract of Clara Bog, Clara Bog West, has also subsided significantly since the early 1990's due to on-going peat cutting activities on the bogs margins. Current research now indicates that the bog is not an isolated hydrological entity, as generally perceived of bogs, but rather that Clara Bog West is intrinsically linked to the regional groundwater table, which appears to provide a significant support' function to the bog. Hydrogeological monitoring and analysis has shown that water losses are not simply a result of lateral seepage of water through the peat profile at the bogs margins. Measurements of flow rates and electrical conductivity in drains bordering the bog indicate that little water is discharging laterally through the peat profile. However, piezometric head levels in mineral subsoil underlying the bog and close to the margins of the bog have decreased by 0.3 to 0.5m and 0.4 to 1.0m respectively since the early 1990s and it is believed that this is a result of vertical water losses in the peat profile not confined to the bog margins. Distinct zones of groundwater seepage in the marginal drains have been mapped based on hydrochemical and stable isotopic composition of the water and occur where drains have cut into permeable subsoil beneath the peat substrate and where the potentiometric surface of the regional groundwater table is below, or coincident with, the elevation at the base of the drain. Groundwater as a supporting' ecological condition is usually confined to the perimeter of a raised bog, where peat and underlying clay thin towards the margin, allowing regional groundwater and peat water to converge and mix, thereby giving rise to characteristic nutrient rich lagg' zone vegetation. However, in Clara Bog West it appears there is also a connection between the regional groundwater table and the high bog. Such a connection appears to be unique to Clara Bog West as a result of the prevailing geological conditions. A succession of Carboniferous Limestone to relatively permeable glacial till deposits to low permeability lacustrine clay sediment is the predominant underlying geology of the bog. However, there are areas where the glacial till protrudes through the lacustrine clay, which ordinarily isolates the high bog from underlying groundwater, thereby engendering a dependency on regional groundwater conditions. The hydrogeological data now suggest that drainage at the bog margin has created a hydraulic connection between these subsoil subcrops' and the marginal drains, developed within the same subsoil, thereby lowering the regional groundwater table, steepening the hydraulic gradient and resulting in significant water loss from the main bog body. As such, understanding this hydrogeological connection is central to restoration activities that will aim to arrest subsidence and restore water levels that are indicative for ecotope development, on the high bog. Acknowledgements Clara Restoration Group: Jan Streekferk (Staatsbosbeheer), Jim Ryan (National Parks and Wildlife Service), Ray Flynn (Queens University Belfast) and Michael Gill (Hydro-Environmental Services). References Ten Heggeler, M. M. A., van der Ploeg, M. J. et al. (2004). Subsidence of Clara Bog West and Acrotelm Development of Raheenmore Bog and Clara Bog East, A Comparison of 1991-1992 and 2002-2003, Department of Environmental Sciences, Sub-department of Water Resources, University of Wageningen, The Netherlands. Van der Schaaf, S., (2002). Bog hydrology, pp 54-109. In: M.G.C. Schouten (ed.). Conservation and Restoration of Raised Bogs. Geological, hydrological and ecological studies. Dublin. Dchas - The Heritage Service of the Department of the Environment and Local Government, Ireland; Staatsbosbeheer, The Netherlands; Geological Survey of Ireland.

  1. Paired charcoal and tree-ring records of high-frequency Holocene fire from two New Mexico bog sites

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Allen, C.D.; Anderson, R. Scott; Jass, R.B.; Toney, J.L.; Baisan, C.H.

    2008-01-01

    Two primary methods for reconstructing paleofire occurrence include dendrochronological dating of fire scars and stand ages from live or dead trees (extending back centuries into the past) and sedimentary records of charcoal particles from lakes and bogs, providing perspectives on fire history that can extend back for many thousands of years. Studies using both proxies have become more common in regions where lakes are present and fire frequencies are low, but are rare where high-frequency surface fires dominate and sedimentary deposits are primarily bogs and wetlands. Here we investigate sedimentary and fire-scar records of fire in two small watersheds in northern New Mexico, in settings recently characterised by relatively high-frequency fire where bogs and wetlands (Chihuahuen??os Bog and Alamo Bog) are more common than lakes. Our research demonstrates that: (1) essential features of the sedimentary charcoal record can be reproduced between multiple cores within a bog deposit; (2) evidence from both fire-scarred trees and charcoal deposits documents an anomalous lack of fire since ???1900, compared with the remainder of the Holocene; (3) sedimentary charcoal records probably underestimate the recurrence of fire events at these high-frequency fire sites; and (4) the sedimentary records from these bogs are complicated by factors such as burning and oxidation of these organic deposits, diversity of vegetation patterns within watersheds, and potential bioturbation by ungulates. We consider a suite of particular challenges in developing and interpreting fire histories from bog and wetland settings in the Southwest. The identification of these issues and constraints with interpretation of sedimentary charcoal fire records does not diminish their essential utility in assessing millennial-scale patterns of fire activity in this dry part of North America. ?? IAWF 2008.

  2. Impact of raized bogs on export of carbon and river water chemical composition in Western Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voistinova, Elena

    2010-05-01

    Bogs play an important role in functioning of the biosphere. Specific geochemical environment of the bogs results in formation of the special biogeochemical cycle of the elements. Processes of decay and transformation of organic material define the reductive conditions of bog water, form and migratory mobility of the chemical elements. Particular interest in recent years is aroused by the question of content and dynamics of the carbon in bog and river water according to indicated natural and climatic changes on the territory. The most important parts of the carbon balance in bog ecosystems together with processes of exhalation from deposit surface in the form of CO2 is its export with river water. The results of research carried out in scientific station "Vasyugansky" in south taiga subzone of Western Siberia showed that chemical composition of raised bog water includes high amounts of total iron (2,13 mg/l), ammonium ions (5,33 mg/l), humic and fulvic acids (5,21 mg/l and 45,8 mg/l), dissolved organic carbon (69,1 mg/l), COD (236,93 mgO/l), there are low mineralization and indicators of pH. Carbon comes in bog water in organic compounds: carboxylic acids, phenols, aromatic and paraffin hydrocarbons, organic phosphates, phthalates and other compounds. Formation of river waters composition in the Western Siberia takes place in the following context: high level of bogged river catchments (sometimes up to 70%), excess humidification and low heat provision. Basing on the results of study of hydrochemical runoff in small and medium rivers with different levels of bogged in river catchments (Chaya, Bakchar, Klyuch, Gavrilovka) it was noted that raised bog influence on river waters chemical composition shows in ion runoff decrease, organic substances runoff increase, increase of amounts of total iron, ammonium irons and water pH indicators decrease. Study of humic matters migration is very important in the context of formation of flexible complexes of humic and fulvic acids and heavy metals, which should be taken into account when in waterlogged regions constructing large industrial projects and in formation of water removing.

  3. Estimating methane production rates in bogs and landfills by deuterium enrichment of pore water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Siegel, D.I.; Chanton, J.P.; Glaser, P.H.; Chasar, L.S.; Rosenberry, D.O.

    2001-01-01

    Raised bogs and municipal waste landfills harbor large populations of methanogens within their domed deposits of anoxic organic matter. Although the methane emissions from these sites have been estimated by various methods, limited data exist on the activity of the methanogens at depth. We therefore analyzed the stable isotopic signature of the pore waters in two raised bogs from northern Minnesota to identify depth intervals in the peat profile where methanogenic metabolism occurs. Methanogenesis enriched the deuterium (2H) content of the deep peat pore waters by as much as +11% (Vienna Standard Mean Sea Water), which compares to a much greater enrichment factor of +70% in leachate from New York City's Fresh Kills landfill. The bog pore waters were isotopically dated by tritium (3H) to be about 35 years old at 1.5 m depth, whereas the landfill leachate was estimated as ~ 17 years old from Darcy flow calculations. According to an isotopic mass balance the observed deuterium enrichment indicates that about 1.2 g of CH4m-3 d-1 were produced within the deeper peat, compared to about 2.8 g CH4 m-3 d-1 in the landfill. The values for methane production in the bog peat are substantially higher than the flux rates measured at the surface of the bogs or at the landfill, indicating that deeper methane production may be much higher than was previously assumed.

  4. Atmospheric carbonyl sulfide exchange in bog microcosms

    SciTech Connect

    Fried, A.; Klinger, L.F.; Erickson, D.J. III )

    1993-01-22

    Measurements of Carbonyl sulfide (OCS) fluxes were carried out on bog microcosms using chamber sampling and tunable diode laser analysis. Intact bog microcosms (vascular plants, mosses, and peat) removed ambient levels of OCS in the light and dark with rates from [minus]2.4 to [minus]8.1 ng S min[sup [minus]1] m[sup [minus]2]. Peat and peat plus mosses emitted OCS in the light with rates of 17.4 and 10.9 ng S min[sup [minus]1] m[sup [minus]2], respectively. In the dark, the mosses apparently removed OCS at a rate equivalent to the peat emissions. A 3-D numerical tracer model using this data indicated that boreal bog ecosystems remove at most 1% of ambient OCS, not sufficient to account for an observed OCS depletion in boreal air masses. 13 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  5. Results of reconnaissance for uraniferous coal, lignite, and carbonaceous shale in western Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hail, William J., Jr.; Gill, James R.

    1952-01-01

    A reconnaissance search for uraniferous lignite and carbonaceous shale was made in western Montana and adjacent parts of Idaho during the summer of 1951. Particular emphasis in the examination was placed on coal and carbonaceous shale associated with volcanic rocks, as volcanic rocks in many area appear to have released uranium to circulating ground water from which it was concentrated in carbonaceous material. Twenty-two area in Montana and one area of Idaho were examine. The coal in five of these area is of Cretaceous age. The coal and carbonaceous shale in the remaining 18 area occur in Tertiary "lake-bed" deposits of Oligocene and younger age. Both the Cretaceous and Tertiary coal and carbonaceous shale are associated with contemporaneous or younger volcanic rocks and pyroclastic sequences. A sample of carbonaceous shale from the Prickly Pear Valley northeast of Helena, Montana, contained 0.013 percent uranium. A sample of carbonaceous shale from the Flint Creek Valley southwest of Drummond, Montana, contained 0.006 percent uranium. All other samples of both Cretaceous and Tertiary coal and carbonaceous shale were essentially non-radioactive. No further work is planned on the Cretaceous and Tertiary coal and carbonaceous shale in western Montana. A few localities in Idaho will be visited in the course of other work.

  6. Ferricrete, manganocrete, and bog iron occurrences with selected sedge bogs and active iron bogs and springs in the upper Animas River watershed, San Juan County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yager, Douglas B.; Church, Stanley E.; Verplanck, Philip L.; Wirt, Laurie

    2003-01-01

    During 1996 to 2000, the Bureau of Land Management, National Park Service, Environmental Protection Agency, United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Forest Service, and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) developed a coordinated strategy to (1) study the environmental effects of historical mining on Federal lands, and (2) remediate contaminated sites that have the greatest impact on water quality and ecosystem health. This dataset provides information that contributes to these overall objectives and is part of the USGS Abandoned Mine Lands Initiative. Data presented here represent ferricrete occurrences and selected iron bogs and springs in the upper Animas River watershed in San Juan County near Silverton, Colorado. Ferricretes (stratified iron and manganese oxyhydroxide-cemented sedimentary deposits) are one indicator of the geochemical baseline conditions as well as the effect that weathering of mineralized rocks had on water quality in the Animas River watershed prior to mining. Logs and wood fragments preserved in several ferricretes in the upper Animas River watershed, collected primarily along streams, yield radiocarbon ages of modern to 9,580 years B.P. (P.L. Verplanck, D.B. Yager, and S.E. Church, work in progress). The presence of ferricrete deposits along the current stream courses indicates that climate and physiography of the Animas River watershed have been relatively constant throughout the Holocene and that weathering processes have been ongoing for thousands of years prior to historical mining activities. Thus, by knowing where ferricrete is preserved in the watershed today, land-management agencies have an indication of (1) where metal precipitation from weathering of altered rocks has occurred in the past, and (2) where this process is ongoing and may confound remediation efforts. These data are included as two coverages-a ferricrete coverage and a bogs and springs coverage. The coverages are included in ArcInfo shapefile and ArcInfo interchange file format.

  7. Environmental controls of greenhouse gas release in a restoring peat bog in NW Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glatzel, S.; Forbrich, I.; Krüger, C.; Lemke, S.; Gerold, G.

    2008-01-01

    In Central Europe, most bogs have a history of drainage and many of them are currently being restored. Success of restoration as well as greenhouse gas exchange of these bogs is influenced by environmental stress factors as drought and atmospheric nitrogen deposition. We determined the methane and nitrous oxide exchange of sites in the strongly decomposed center and less decomposed edge of the Pietzmoor bog in NW Germany in 2004. Also, we examined the methane and nitrous oxide exchange of mesocosms from the center and edge before, during, and following a drainage experiment as well as carbon dioxide release from disturbed unfertilized and nitrogen fertilized surface peat. In the field, methane fluxes ranged from 0 to 3.8 mg m-2 h-1 and were highest from hollows. Field nitrous oxide fluxes ranged from 0 to 574 μg m-2 h-1 and were elevated at the edge. A large Eriophorum vaginatum tussock showed decreasing nitrous oxide release as the season progressed. Drainage of mesocosms decreased methane release to 0, even during rewetting. There was a tendency for a decrease of nitrous oxide release during drainage and for an increase in nitrous oxide release during rewetting. Nitrogen fertilization did not increase decomposition of surface peat. Our examinations suggest a competition between vascular vegetation and denitrifiers for excess nitrogen. We also provide evidence that the von Post humification index can be used to explain greenhouse gas release from bogs, if the role of vascular vegetation is also considered. An assessment of the greenhouse gas release from nitrogen saturated restoring bogs needs to take into account elevated release from fresh Sphagnum peat as well as from sedges growing on decomposed peat. Given the high atmospheric nitrogen deposition, restoration will not be able to achieve an oligotrophic ecosystem in the short term.

  8. Peat decomposition records in three pristine ombrotrophic bogs in southern Patagonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broder, T.; Blodau, C.; Biester, H.; Knorr, K. H.

    2012-04-01

    Ombrotrophic bogs in southern Patagonia have been examined with regard to paleoclimatic and geochemical research questions but knowledge about organic matter decomposition in these bogs is limited. Therefore, we examined peat humification with depth by Fourier Transformed Infrared (FTIR) measurements of solid peat, C/N ratio, and δ13C and δ15N isotope measurements in three bog sites. Peat decomposition generally increased with depth but distinct small scale variation occurred, reflecting fluctuations in factors controlling decomposition. C/N ratios varied mostly between 40 and 120 and were significantly correlated (R2 > 0.55, p < 0.01) with FTIR-derived humification indices. The degree of decomposition was lowest at a site presently dominated by Sphagnum mosses. The peat was most strongly decomposed at the driest site, where currently peat-forming vegetation produced less refractory organic material, possibly due to fertilizing effects of high sea spray deposition. Decomposition of peat was also advanced near ash layers, suggesting a stimulation of decomposition by ash deposition. Values of δ13C were 26.5 ± 2‰ in the peat and partly related to decomposition indices, while δ15N in the peat varied around zero and did not consistently relate to any decomposition index. Concentrations of DOM partly related to C/N ratios, partly to FTIR derived indices. They were not conclusively linked to the decomposition degree of the peat. DOM was enriched in 13C and in 15N relative to the solid phase probably due to multiple microbial modifications and recycling of N in these N-poor environments. In summary, the depth profiles of C/N ratios, δ13C values, and FTIR spectra seemed to reflect changes in environmental conditions affecting decomposition, such as bog wetness, but were dominated by site specific factors, and are further influenced by ash deposition and possibly by sea spray input.

  9. Peat bogs and their organic soils: Archives of atmospheric change and global environmentalsignificance (Philippe Duchaufour Medal Lecture)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shotyk, William

    2013-04-01

    A bog is much more than a waterlogged ecosystem where organic matter accumulates as peat. Peatlands such as bogs represent a critical link between the atmosphere, hydrosphere, and biosphere. Plants growing at the surface of ombrotrophic bogs receive nutrients exclusively from the atmosphere. Despite the variations in redox status caused by seasonal fluctuations in depth to water table, the low pHof the waters, and abundance of dissolved organic matter, bogs preserve a remarkably reproducible history of atmospheric pollution, climate change, landscape evolution and human history. For example, peat cores from bogs in Europe and North America have provided detailed reconstructions of the changing rates and sources of Ag, Cd, Hg, Pb, Sb, and Tl, providing new insights into the geochemical cycles of these elements, including the massive perturbations induced by human activities beginning many thousands of years ago. Despite the low pH, and perhaps because of the abundance of dissolved organic matter, bogs preserve many silicate and aluminosilicate minerals which renders them valuable archives of atmospheric dust deposition and the climate changes which drive them. In the deeper, basal peat layers of the bog, in the minerotrophic zone where pore waters are affected bymineral-water interactions in the underlying and surrounding soils and sediments, peat serves as animportant link to the hydrosphere, efficiently removing from the imbibed groundwaters such trace elements as As, Cu, Mo, Ni, Se, V, and U. These removal processes, while incompletely understood, are so effective that measuring the dissolved fraction of trace elements in the pore waters becomes a considerable challenge even for the most sophisticated analytical laboratories. While the trace elements listed above are removed from groundwaters (along with P and S), elements such as Fe and Mn are added to the waters because of reductive dissolution, an important first step in the formation of lacustrine Fe and Mn nodules. While these important chemical reactions have taken place silently and imperceptibly over millenia acrossthe Earth wherever climate and water allow bogs to form, at the same time, peat bogs represent an important component of the biosphere and provide a home to many unique plants and animals, thereby contributing to the vast biodiversity found on Earth.

  10. Pre- and syn-ore zonation in Precambrian uraniferous sodic metasomatities

    SciTech Connect

    Omel'yanenko, B.I.; Mineyeva, I.G.

    1982-04-01

    Uraniferous-sodic metasomatites in Precambrian basement faults, in which a regular change in the mineral composition in vertical section has been established are described. The authors attempt to show that this pattern is controlled by the evolution of the solutions in time and space, and that it is an expression of a verticle metasomatic zonation. (JMT)

  11. Bog breath: Sleeper factor in global warming?

    SciTech Connect

    Benyus, J.M.

    1995-04-01

    This artical examines the emission of gases from northern peatlands as plants grow and decay and its implication in the global increase in greenhouse gases, particularly carbon dioxide and methane. Bogs do extract carbon dioxide from the air, incorporating it into green plants which become buried for a long time. However, the cold, wet conditions are ideal for microbes which emit methane. Global climate change models indicate that Minnesota, for example will be 5 degrees warmer and somewhat wetter in future years. As a result bacterial metabolism and methane generation may increase considerably. This paper discusses current research and speculation and looks at possible solutions, both man-created and natural.

  12. Isotopic evidence for nitrogen mobility in peat bogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novak, Martin; Stepanova, Marketa; Jackova, Ivana; Vile, Melanie A.; Wieder, R. Kelman; Buzek, Frantisek; Adamova, Marie; Erbanova, Lucie; Fottova, Daniela; Komarek, Arnost

    2014-05-01

    Elevated nitrogen (N) input may reduce carbon (C) storage in peat. Under low atmospheric deposition, most N is bound in the moss layer. Under high N inputs, Sphagnum is not able to prevent penetration of dissolved N to deeper peat. Nitrogen may become available to the roots of invading vascular plants. The concurrent oxygenation of deeper peat layers, along with higher supply of labile organic C, may enhance microbial decomposition and lead to peat thinning. The resulting higher emissions of greenhouse gases may accelerate global warming. Seepage of N to deeper peat has never been quantified. Here we present evidence for post-depositional mobility of atmogenic N in peat, based on natural-abundance N isotope ratios. We conducted a reciprocal peat transplant experiment between two Sphagnum-dominated peat bogs in the Czech Republic (Central Europe), differing in anthropogenic N inputs. The northern site VJ received as much as 33 kg N ha-1 yr-1 via spruce canopy throughfall. The southern site was less polluted (17.6 kg N ha-1 yr-1). Isotope signatures of living moss differed between the two sites (δ15N of -3‰ and -7‰ at VJ and CB, respectively). After 18 months, an isotope mass balance was constructed. In the CB-to-VJ transplant, a significant portion of original CB nitrogen (98-31%) was removed and replaced by nitrogen of the host site throughout the top 10 cm of the profile. Nitrogen, deposited at VJ, was immobilized in imported CB peat that was up to 20 years old. Additionally, we compared N concentration and N accumulation rates in 210Pb-dated peat profiles with well-constrained data on historical atmospheric N pollution. Nationwide N emissions peaked in 1990, while VJ exhibited the highest N content in peat that formed in 1930. This de-coupling of N inputs and N retention in peat might be interpreted as a result of translocation of dissolved pollutant N downcore, corroborating our δ15N results at VJ and CB. Data from a variety of peat bogs along pollution and climatic gradients would be needed to test to what extent the record of atmospheric N inputs in peat is overprinted by variable, locally-controlled decomposition rates.

  13. Geoinformatics meets education for a peat bog information system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michel, Ulrich; Fiene, Christina; Plass, Christian

    2010-10-01

    Within the project "Expedition Bog: Young researchers are experimenting, exploring and discovering" a bog-information- system is developed by the Department of Geography (University of Education Heidelberg, Germany), the Institute for Geoinformatics and Remote Sensing (University of Osnabrueck, Germany; the NABU Umweltpyramide gGmbH. This information system will be available for schools and to the public. It is supplemented by teaching units on various topics around the bog via an online platform. The focus of the project, however, is the original encounter with the bog habitat. This is realized by a GPS scavenger hunt with small research tasks and observations, mapping and experiments. The project areas are the Huvenhoops bog and the Lauenbruecker bog in Rotenburg in Lower Saxony, Germany. Equipped with a researcher backpack, GPS device and a mobile bog book by means of a pocket PC, students can discover different learning stations in the project bogs. In our areas the students can learn more about different topics such as "the historical memory of the bog", "water", "peat moss and other plants" and "animals of the bog". Moreover small inquiry research projects can be executed. Experimenting on site helps students to develop important scientific findings and increases their curiosity and enthusiasm for nature. It also promotes a number of other basic skills such as literacy, language skills, social skills or fine motor skills. Moreover it also fosters the development of a positive attitude to science in general. The main objective of the project is to promote sustainable environmental education, as well as the development of environmental awareness. This will be accomplished through the imparting of knowledge but also through experiencing nature with all senses in the context of original encounters.

  14. Experimental study on performance of BOG compressor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Bin; Wang, Tao; Peng, Xueyuan; Feng, Jianmei

    2015-08-01

    The boil-off gas (BOG) compressor is widely used for recycling the excessive boil-off gas of liquefied natural gas (LNG), and the extra-low suction temperature brings about great challenges to design of the BOG compressor. In this paper, a test system was built to examine the effects of low suction temperature on the compressor performance, in which the lowest temperature reached -178°C by means of a plate-fin heat exchanger with liquefied nitrogen. The test results showed that, as the suction temperature decreased from 20°C to -150°C, the volumetric efficiency of the compressor dropped by 37.0%, and the power consumption decreased by 10.0%. The preheat of the gas by the pipe through the suction flange to suction valve was larger than 20°C as the suction temperature was -150°C, and this value increased with the decreased suction temperature. The pressure loss through the suction valve at lower suction temperature was larger than that at ambient temperature while the volume flow rate was kept the same.

  15. Comparisons of soil nitrogen mass balances for an ombrotrophic bog and a minerotrophic fen in northern Minnesota.

    PubMed

    Hill, Brian H; Jicha, Terri M; Lehto, LaRae L P; Elonen, Colleen M; Sebestyen, Stephen D; Kolka, Randall K

    2016-04-15

    We compared nitrogen (N) storage and flux in soils from an ombrotrophic bog with that of a minerotrophic fen to quantify the differences in N cycling between these two peatlands types in northern Minnesota (USA). Precipitation, atmospheric deposition, and bog and fen outflows were analyzed for nitrogen species. Upland and peatland soil samples were analyzed for N content, and for ambient (DN) and potential (DEA) denitrification rates. Annual atmospheric deposition was: 0.88-3.07kg NH4(+)ha(-1)y(-1); 1.37-1.42kg NO3(-)ha(-1)y(-1); 2.79-4.69kg TNha(-1)y(-1). Annual N outflows were: bog-0.01-0.04kg NH4(+)ha(-1)y(-1), NO3(-) 0.01-0.06kgha(-1)y(-1), and TN 0.11-0.69kgha(-1)y(-1); fen-NH4(+) 0.01-0.16kgha(-1)y(-1), NO3(-) 0.29-0.48kgha(-1)y(-1), and TN 1.14-1.61kgha(-1)y(-1). Soil N content depended on location within the bog or fen, and on soil depth. DN and DEA rates were low throughout the uplands and peatlands, and were correlated with atmospheric N deposition, soil N storage, and N outflow. DEA was significantly greater than DN indicating C or N limitation of the denitrification process. We highlight differences between the bog and fen, between the upland mineral soils and peat, and the importance of biogeochemical hotspots within the peatlands. We point out the importance of organic N storage, as a source of N for denitrification, and propose a plausible link between organic N storage, denitrification and N export from peatlands. Finally, we considered the interactions of microbial metabolism with nutrient availability and stoichiometry, and how N dynamics might be affected by climate change in peatland ecosystems. PMID:26851760

  16. Can a bog drained for forestry be a stronger carbon sink than a natural bog forest?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hommeltenberg, J.; Schmid, H. P.; Drsler, M.; Werle, P.

    2014-07-01

    This study compares the CO2 exchange of a natural bog forest, and of a bog drained for forestry in the pre-Alpine region of southern Germany. The sites are separated by only 10 km, they share the same soil formation history and are exposed to the same climate and weather conditions. In contrast, they differ in land use history: at the Schechenfilz site a natural bog-pine forest (Pinus mugo ssp. rotundata) grows on an undisturbed, about 5 m thick peat layer; at Mooseurach a planted spruce forest (Picea abies) grows on drained and degraded peat (3.4 m). The net ecosystem exchange of CO2 (NEE) at both sites has been investigated for 2 years (July 2010-June 2012), using the eddy covariance technique. Our results indicate that the drained, forested bog at Mooseurach is a much stronger carbon dioxide sink (-130 31 and -300 66 g C m-2 a-1 in the first and second year, respectively) than the natural bog forest at Schechenfilz (-53 28 and -73 38 g C m-2 a-1). The strong net CO2 uptake can be explained by the high gross primary productivity of the 44-year old spruces that over-compensates the two-times stronger ecosystem respiration at the drained site. The larger productivity of the spruces can be clearly attributed to the larger plant area index (PAI) of the spruce site. However, even though current flux measurements indicate strong CO2 uptake of the drained spruce forest, the site is a strong net CO2 source when the whole life-cycle since forest planting is considered. It is important to access this result in terms of the long-term biome balance. To do so, we used historical data to estimate the difference between carbon fixation by the spruces and the carbon loss from the peat due to drainage since forest planting. This rough estimate indicates a strong carbon release of +134 t C ha-1 within the last 44 years. Thus, the spruces would need to grow for another 100 years at about the current rate, to compensate the potential peat loss of the former years. In contrast, the natural bog-pine ecosystem has likely been a small but stable carbon sink for decades, which our results suggest is very robust regarding short-term changes of environmental factors.

  17. Smouldering bog wildfires and possible implications in palaeoenvironmental reconstructions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaccone, C.; Rein, G.; D'Orazio, V.; Hadden, R.; Belcher, C. M.; Miano, T. M.

    2012-04-01

    Ombrotrophic (i.e., rainwater-fed) peat bogs have been recognized as providing excellent records of past environmental changes over the last millennia. They are well known to provide information on both climatic and vegetational changes, and the deposition of organic and inorganic pollutants from anthropogenic vs. lithogenic sources. Whether they also record well past fire activity is an unresolved issue to date. Peatland ecosystems are most at risk from smouldering fires, especially in drought conditions. Smouldering fires are slow, low temperature, flameless and the most persistent form of combustion of organic matter (OM) in porous form. It is known to consume dozen of times more peat mass than flaming fires. Importantly, the in-depth oxidation reaction in smouldering leaves few charred remains, which hampers their identification in palaeoenvironmental analyses. Smouldering even consumes the possible pyrogenic char produced by flaming wildfires. Most studies on smouldering peatland fires to date have focused on ignition and carbon losses/emissions, leaving a significant gap in our understanding of OM changes following fires. In the present work, we present new data which suggest that variations in the chemical signature of OM in peatlands provides a possibility of identifying past peatland fires. In particular, we show results from a laboratory study about the physical, chemical and spectroscopic changes in OM features following a smouldering fire. We initiated a smouldering fire on top of three sphagnum peat columns (26 cm deep) each having a different initial moisture content (MC) designed to reflect dry conditions (55% MC), undisturbed conditions (90% MC), and wet conditions (210% MC). The fires were allowed to propagate downwards until they self-extinguished at some distance from the top. After the fire, we tracked chemical variations in the residual columns to determine the possible signature of natural past smouldering peatland fires. The analysis shows a consistent variation in the vertical direction of chemical markers below the point at which the fire front propagated the columns. The depth over which the chemical markers vary is apparent down to 5 cm in 55% MC (the whole residual column), and 8 cm deep in 90% MC. No significant variation of any of the chemical parameters was observed in the 210% MC column. The results of this study show that smouldering fires could occur also when bogs are in undisturbed hydrological conditions (e.g., near 100%MC), and that zone affected by smouldering fire is revealed by the presence of: 1) a strong increases of pH and ash content; 2) higher contents of aromatic and condensed molecules (as suggested by higher C/H values and by fluorescence spectra); 3) higher total N content leading to a decrease in C/N ratio. These data show potential to track similar variations in cores taken from peat bogs where they may serve as new proxies for the identification of past fire events. Moreover, these findings suggest the possibility that similar chemical and physical signatures detected in previous peatland cores may have been ascribed to the wrong past climatic or hydrological variations, as fire induced changes had not been considered before. In particular, peaks in ash content, such as those observed in our study (e.g.. ca. 13% in the 90% MC residue vs. 3% in the undisturbed peat), have in the past been ascribed to an increase of either dust depositions or mineralization processes typically linked to climatic changes. Similarly, large variations in pH values (e.g., >6 in the 90% MC residue vs.

  18. Deposited atmospheric chemicals

    SciTech Connect

    Schell, W.R.

    1986-09-01

    A mountaintop bog in western Pennsylvania serves as a reservoir for materials deposited from the atmosphere. Biological activity in the bog decomposes plant matter, which becomes humified and mineralized at increasing depths. Little or no mixing of elements occurs below the active root zone. Radionuclides produced by natural means and by nuclear weapons have been used to measure the ages of the layers deposited during the growing season of each year. The upper layers of the bog indicate that the deposition of total sulfur is at least 20 times and that of nitrogen is 45 times the value estimated prior to cutting the forest, with a doubling time for each of 25-35 yr. Bromine deposition also doubles every 35 yr. The pattern of mass and element deposition illustrates the changes in land use and industrial effluents that were sources for the material deposited on the bog. The decrease in atmospheric particle removal shows up in the 1960 and later layers. Compared with terrestrial abundances, the relative enrichments over time for chlorine, nitrogen, sulfur, and bromine are more than 100 times those calculated for 1817; lead, calcium, and antimony are 10 to 40 times greater.

  19. Radioactive waste disposal in simulated peat bog repositories

    SciTech Connect

    Schell, W.R.; Massey, C.D.

    1987-01-01

    The Low Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act of 1980 and the Low Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985 have required state governments to be responsible for providing low-level waste (LLW) disposal facilities in their respective areas. Questions are (a) is the technology sufficiently advanced to ensure that radioactive wastes can be stored for 300 to 1000 yr without entering into any uncontrolled area. (b) since actual experience does not exist for nuclear waste disposal over this time period, can the mathematical models developed be tested and verified using unequivocal data. (c) how can the public perception of the problem be addressed and the potential risk assessment of the hazards be communicated. To address the technical problems of nuclear waste disposal in the acid precipitation regions of the Northern Hemisphere, a project was initiated in 1984 to evaluate an alternative method of nuclear waste disposal that may not rely completely on engineered barriers to protect the public. Certain natural biogeochemical systems have been retaining deposited materials since the last Ice Age (12,000 to 15,000 yr). It is the authors belief that the biogeochemical system of wetlands and peat bogs may provide an example of an analogue for a nuclear waste repository system that can be tested and verified over a sufficient time period, at least for the LLW disposal problem.

  20. A hydrological study of Waen y Griafolen blanket bog, North Wales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, G.

    2010-12-01

    Many mountain rivers in North Wales have their headwaters in peat blanket bogs. An example is Waen y Griafolen, source area for the Afon Mawddach, which formed the focus of a hydrological study by Bangor University over the period 2002-2004. Fieldwork has been supplemented by groundwater and surface water modelling. The blanket bog covers an area of approximately 6 km2 within a plateau basin in Lower Paleozoic shales. The structure of the blanket bog is complex. Erica and Trichophorum vegetation communities occupy the central area of the bog on deposits of old humified peat. Eroded into the old peat surface is a system of bifurcating channels occupied by actively accumulating Juncus and Sphagnum communities. River gravel and lake clay were found beneath the active peat channels at depths of several metres, indicative of an earlier and more extensive surface drainage system eroded into the bog surface. A palaeosoil occurs at the base of the old humified peat, with tree roots identified as Salix in growth position. A sample has been dated as 8905 45 years before the reference year AD 1950. Waen y Griafolen has developed over the past 9000 years since the last ice sheets receded from upland Britain. Peat erosion represented by the buried river channels and lake bed may be linked to a period of increased rainfall across Europe at around 2600 years before the present. Groundwater levels have been continuously monitored at an instrumented borehole in the centre of the bog. It is found that the older humified peats have a surprisingly low water storage capacity and may become saturated during a single storm event. Storm flow occurs predominantly through fast surface runoff into the Juncus and Sphagnum infilled channels, where slow lateral movement takes place towards open stream courses at the basin outlet. There appears to be little vertical water movement into the underlying impermeable Ordovician shales. Climate change with an increase in winter rainfall may promote a reversion to fluvial erosion of the blanket bog. Modelling has been carried out with MODFLOW software to investigate the effects of replacing the Juncus and Sphagnum zones by gravel streams, as occurred in the 2600 b.p. erosion event. In an extreme case of complete removal of younger peat from channels, peak discharge from the basin would be almost doubled. This would have an adverse effect on flooding downstream. The Juncus / Sphagnum communities are seen as fragile. Management options to protect channel vegetation are recommended, including the blocking of surface streams to encourage a distributed water flow and maintain saturated ground conditions. References Hall G., 2008. An Integrated Meteorological /Hydrological Model for the Mawddach Catchment, North Wales. PhD Thesis, University of Wales, Bangor. Hall G. and Cratchley R., 2006. A hydrological study of Waen y Griafolen blanket bog, North Wales. Proc. International Conf. on Hydro-ecology. Carlsbad, Czech Republic

  1. U-Pb ages of uraniferous opals and implications for the history of beryllium, fluorine, and uranium mineralization at Spor Mountain, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ludwig, K. R.; Lindsey, D.A.; Zielinski, R.A.; Simmons, K.R.

    1980-01-01

    The U-Pb isotope systematics of uraniferous opals from Spor Mountain, Utah, were investigated to determine the suitability of such material for geochronologic purposes, and to estimate the timing of uranium and associated beryllium and fluorine mineralization. The results indicate that uraniferous opals can approximate a closed system for uranium and uranium daughters, so that dating samples as young as ???1 m.y. should be possible. In addition, the expected lack of initial 230Th and 231Pa in opals permits valuable information on the initial 234U/238U to be obtained on suitable samples of ???10 m.y. age. The oldest 207Pb/235U apparent age observed, 20.8 ?? 1 m.y., was that of the opal-fluorite core of a nodule from a beryllium deposit in the Spor Mountain Formation. This age is indistinguishable from that of fission-track and K-Ar ages from the host rhyolite, and links the mineralization to the first episode of alkali rhyolite magmatism and related hydrothermal activity at Spor Mountain. Successively younger ages of 13 m.y. and 8-9 m.y. on concentric outer zones of the same nodule indicate that opal formed either episodically or continuously for over 10 m.y. Several samples of both fracture-filling and massive-nodule opal associated with beryllium deposits gave 207Pb/235U apparent ages of 13-16 m.y., which may reflect a restricted period of mineralization or perhaps an averaging of 21- and <13-m.y. periods of opal growth. Several samples of fracture-filling opal in volcanic rocks as young as 6 m.y. gave 207Pb/235U ages of 3.4-4.8 m.y. These ages may reflect hot-spring activity after the last major eruption of alkali rhyolite. ?? 1980.

  2. 'Mud Bogging' Motor Sport Tied to Carbon Monoxide Poisonings, Deaths

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Poisonings, Deaths Experts recommend getting out of stuck vehicles, and having portable CO detectors To use the ... its name implies, mud bogging involves navigating a vehicle through muddy pits or tracks. The problem is, ...

  3. Peat Bog Archives: from human history, vegetation change and Holocene climate, to atmospheric dusts and trace elements of natural and anthropogenic origin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shotyk, William

    2010-05-01

    For at least two centuries, peat has been recognized as an excellent archive of environmental change. William Rennie (1807), for example, interpreted stratigraphic changes in Scottish bogs not only in terms of natural changes in paleoclimate, but was also able to identify environmental changes induced by humans, namely deforestation and the hydrological impacts which result from such activities. The use of bogs as archives of climate change in the early 20th century was accelerated by studies of fossil plant remains such as those by Lewis in Scotland, and by systematic investigations of pollen grains pioneered by von Post in Sweden. In Denmark, Glob outlined the remarkably well-preserved remains of bog bodies and associated artefacts (of cloth, wood, ceramic and metal) in Danish bogs. In Britain, Godwin provided an introduction to the use of bogs as archives of human history, vegetation change, and Holocene climate, with a more recent survey provided by Charman. Recent decades have provided many mineralogical studies of peat and there is growing evidence that many silicate minerals, whether derived from the surrounding watershed or the atmosphere (soil-derived dusts and particles emitted from volcanoes), also are well preserved in anoxic peatland waters. Similarly, geochemical studies have shown that a long list of trace metals, of both natural and anthropogenic origin, also are remarkably well preserved in peat bogs. Thus, there is growing evidence that ombrotrophic (ie 'rain-fed') peat bogs are reliable archives of atmospheric deposition of a wide range of trace elements, including conservative, lithogenic metals such as Al, Sc, Ti, Y, Zr, Hf and the REE, but also the potentially toxic Class B, or 'heavy metals' such as Cu, Ag, Hg, Pb, Sb and Tl. When high quality measurements of these elements is combined with accurate radiometric age dating, it becomes possible to create high resolution reconstructions of atmospheric soil dust fluxes, ancient and modern metal pollution, and Holocene climate change.

  4. Nitrogen dynamics in peat bogs: Comparison of sites with contrasting pollution levels (Central Europe)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novak, Martin; Bohdalkova, Leona; Stepanova, Marketa; Vile, Melanie A.; Wieder, Kelman R.

    2013-04-01

    Nitrogen belongs to chemical elements whose biogeochemical cycles are most heavily disturbed by human activities, and large regions worlwide experience elevated depositions of reactive N (NO3-, NH4+). Peatlands contain as much as 15 % of the world's soil N. It it is unclear whether fertilizing by anthopogenic N will lead to higher storage of C in wetlands. Elevated N input may lead to both higher net primary productivity, but will also augment microbial decomposition. Here we discuss two aspects of N cycling in Sphagnum-dominated bogs in the Czech Republic, an area characterized by a steep north-south pollution gradient and high annual N deposition (60 kg ha-1). These two aspects are N inventory in 210Pb-dated peat cores, and post-depositional mobility of N in peat. We compared the N inventory in two Czech bogs, differing in pollution, with cumulative atmospheric N input. We hypothesized that the total amount of N in the peat cores would be smaller than the cumulative N input (leaching of excess N from the bog, denitrification). The two bogs were VJ (industrial north) and CB (rural south). The investigated period was 1885-2002. The total amount of N was 4020 kg ha-1 at VJ and 1530 kg ha-1 at CB. Peat in the north contained 2.6 times more N than in the south. Historical rates of N deposition in the Czech Republic are well known (numerous papers by Kopacek). To estimate cumulative N inputs into the bogs, we also used the monthly N depositions between 1994 and 2002, measured in two nearby catchments. The estimated cumulative atmospheric N input was 1350 kg ha-1 at VJ, and 530 kg ha-1 at CB. In both cases, the amount of N found in peat was 3 times higher than the estimated atmospheric N input. Such high storage of N in peat is surprising. Post-depositional mobility of N may help to explain the discrepancies between atmospheric N inputs and N storage in peat. We found two-fold evidence for post-depositional mobility of N. Maximum N concentrations at VJ were observed in layers dated at 1950, whereas pollution level increased up to 1980, and dropped thereafter. At the end of an 18-month reciprocal peat transplant experiment between VJ and CB, we found that N isotope ratios N converged to the host site. The magnitude of the isotope change was 3 per mil, the affected depth was 10 cm. Our results are consistent with the concept of Lamers et al. (2000) in that both ^15N and the found shift in N peaks downcore confirmed removal of N from surface moss under high N depositions. On the other hand, the excess of stored N relative to the cumulative N input remains unexplained, and merits further study.

  5. Ecoenzymatic stoichiometry and microbial processing of organic matter in northern bogs and fens reveals a common P limitation among peatland types

    EPA Science Inventory

    We compared C, N, and P concentrations in atmospheric deposition, runoff, and soil standing stocks with microbial respiration (DHA) and ecoenzyme activity (EEA) in an ombrotrophic bog (S2) and a minerotrophic fen (S3) to investigate the environmental drivers of biogeochemical cyc...

  6. Uranium deposits at Shinarump Mesa and some adjacent areas in the Temple Mountain district, Emery County, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wyant, Donald G.

    1953-01-01

    Deposits of uraniferous hydrocarbons are associated with carnotite in the Shinarump conglomerate of Triassic age at Shinarump Mesa and adjacent areas of the Temple Mountain district in the San Rafael Swell of Emery County, Utah. The irregular ore bodies of carnotite-bearing sandstone are genetically related to lenticular uraniferous ore bodies containing disseminated asphaltitic and humic hydrocarbon in permeable sandstones and were localized indirectly by sedimentary controls. Nearly non-uraniferous bitumen commonly permeates the sandstones in the Shinarump conglomerate and the underlying Moekopi formation in the area. The ore deposits at Temple Mountain have been altered locally by hydrothermal solutions, and in other deposits throughout the area carnotite has been transported by ground and surface water. Uraniferous asphaltite is thought to be the non-volatile residue of an original weakly uraniferous crude oil that migrated into the San Rafael anticline; the ore metals concentrated in the asphaltite as the oil was devolatilized and polymerized. Carnotite is thought to have formed from the asphaltite by ground water leaching. It is concluded that additional study of the genesis of the asphaltitic uranium ores in the San Rafael Swell, of the processes by which the hydrocarbons interact and are modified (such as heat, polymerization, and hydrogenation under the influence of alpha-ray bombardment), of petroleum source beds, and of volcanic intrusive rocks of Tertiary age are of fundamental importance in the continuing study of the uranium deposits on the Colorado Plateau.

  7. A putative mechanism for bog patterning.

    PubMed

    Rietkerk, M; Dekker, S C; Wassen, M J; Verkroost, A W M; Bierkens, M F P

    2004-05-01

    The surface of bogs commonly shows various spatial vegetation patterning. Typical are "string patterns" consisting of regular densely vegetated bands oriented perpendicular to the slope. Here, we report on regular "maze patterns" on flat ground, consisting of bands densely vegetated by vascular plants in a more sparsely vegetated matrix of nonvascular plant communities. We present a model reproducing these maze and string patterns, describing how nutrient-limited vascular plants are controlled by, and in turn control, both hydrology and solute transport. We propose that the patterns are self-organized and originate from a nutrient accumulation mechanism. In the model, this is caused by the convective transport of nutrients in the groundwater toward areas with higher vascular plant biomass, driven by differences in transpiration rate. In a numerical bifurcation analysis we show how the maze patterns originate from the spatially homogeneous equilibrium and how this is affected by changes in rainfall, nutrient input, and plant properties. Our results confirm earlier model results, showing that redistribution of a limiting resource may lead to fine-scale facilitative and coarse-scale competitive plant interactions in different ecosystems. Self-organization in ecosystems may be a more general phenomenon than previously thought, which can be mechanistically linked to scale-dependent facilitation and competition. PMID:15122488

  8. Hydrologic conditions in Connors Bog Area, Anchorage, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Glass, R.L.

    1986-01-01

    Connors Bog is a wetland in Anchorage, Alaska, which provides a habitat for many wildlife species and is a popular area for driving off-road vehicles. A landfill, and residential and commercial developments are present in areas which were once wetland. The main source of water is precipitation, which averages about 15 in/yr. Estimates of evapotranspiration, which is the main component of water outflow, range from 10 to 20 in/yr. Minor amounts of groundwater and surface runoff flow into the area from the northeast and southwest and flow out of the area to the northwest and south. Within the wetland, water in peat and sand is unconfined and becomes more mineralized with depth. A leachate beneath and near an abandoned landfill is characterized by concentrations of dissolved solids, dissolved chloride, and total organics that are higher than those of the area 's natural water. The maximum lateral extent of detectable contamination in 1984 was < 500 ft from the landfill 's edge. Water in glacial deposits that underlie a poorly permeable layer of silt and clay is confined. A well completed in this confined aquifer yielded water that had a low concentration of dissolved solids, 150 mg/L. The potentiometric surface of this aquifer was about 20 ft lower than the water table during 1984. Connors Lake occupies a depression that extends below adjacent groundwater levels. The 40-acre lake has a maximum depth of about 9 ft and a low rate of biological production. The quality of water in the lake has not been adversely impacted by nearby residential development or landfill operations. Lake levels appear to be influenced by precipitation and adjacent groundwater levels. (Author 's abstract)

  9. Nutrient additions in pristine Patagonian Sphagnum bog vegetation: can phosphorus addition alleviate (the effects of) increased nitrogen loads.

    PubMed

    Fritz, C; van Dijk, G; Smolders, A J P; Pancotto, V A; Elzenga, T J T M; Roelofs, J G M; Grootjans, A P

    2012-05-01

    Sphagnum-bog ecosystems have a limited capability to retain carbon and nutrients when subjected to increased nitrogen (N) deposition. Although it has been proposed that phosphorus (P) can dilute negative effects of nitrogen by increasing biomass production of Sphagnum mosses, it is still unclear whether P-addition can alleviate physiological N-stress in Sphagnum plants. A 3-year fertilisation experiment was conducted in lawns of a pristine Sphagnum magellanicum bog in Patagonia, where competing vascular plants were practically absent. Background wet deposition of nitrogen was low (? 0.1-0.2 g N m(-2) year(-1)). Nitrogen (4 g N m(-2) year(-1)) and phosphorus (1 g P m(-2) year(-1)) were applied, separately and in combination, six times during the growing season. P-addition substantially increased biomass production of Sphagnum. Nitrogen and phosphorus changed the morphology of Sphagnum mosses by enhancing height increment, but lowering moss stem density. In contrast to expectations, phosphorus failed to alleviate physiological stress imposed by excess nitrogen (e.g. amino acid accumulation, N-saturation and decline in photosynthetic rates). We conclude that despite improving growth conditions by P-addition, Sphagnum-bog ecosystems remain highly susceptible to nitrogen additions. Increased susceptibility to desiccation by nutrients may even worsen the negative effects of excess nitrogen especially in windy climates like in Patagonia. PMID:22221295

  10. Acidophilic Methanotrophic Communities from Sphagnum Peat Bogs

    PubMed Central

    Dedysh, Svetlana N.; Panikov, Nicolai S.; Tiedje, James M.

    1998-01-01

    Highly enriched methanotrophic communities (>25 serial transfers) were obtained from acidic ombrotrophic peat bogs from four boreal forest sites. The enrichment strategy involved using media conditions that were associated with the highest rates of methane uptake by the original peat samples, namely, the use of diluted mineral medium of low buffering capacity, moderate incubation temperature (20°C), and pH values of 3 to 6. Enriched communities contained a mixture of rod-shaped bacteria arranged in aggregates with a minor contribution of Hyphomicrobium-like cells. The growth stoichiometry of isolates was characteristic of methanotrophic bacteria (CH4/O2/CO2=1:1.1:0.59), with an average apparent yield of 0.41 ± 0.03 g of biomass C/g of CH4-C. DNA from each enrichment yielded a PCR product of the expected size with primers for both mmoX and mmoY genes of soluble methane monooxygenase. Two types of sequences were obtained for PCR-amplified fragments of mmoX. One of them exhibited high identity to the mmoX protein of the Methylocystis-Methylosinus group, whereas the other showed an equal level of divergence from both the Methylosinus-Methylocystis group and Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath) and formed a distinct branch. The pH optimum for growth and for CH4 uptake was 4.5 to 5.5, which is very similar to that for the optimum CH4 uptake observed in the original peat samples. These methanotrophs are moderate acidophiles rather than acidotolerant organisms, since their growth rate and methane uptake were much lower at neutral pH. The growth of the methanotrophic community was enhanced by using media with a very low salt content (20 to 200 mg/liter), more typical of their natural environment. All four enriched communities grew on N-free medium. PMID:9501432

  11. Significant nonsymbiotic nitrogen fixation in Patagonian ombrotrophic bogs.

    PubMed

    Knorr, Klaus-Holger; Horn, Marcus A; Borken, Werner

    2015-06-01

    Nitrogen (N) nutrition in pristine peatlands relies on the natural input of inorganic N through atmospheric deposition or biological dinitrogen (N2 ) fixation. However, N2 fixation and its significance for N cycling, plant productivity, and peat buildup are mostly associated with the presence of Sphagnum mosses. Here, we report high nonsymbiotic N2 -fixation rates in two pristine Patagonian bogs with diversified vegetation and natural N deposition. Nonsymbiotic N2 fixation was measured in samples from 0 to 10, 10 to 20, and 40 to 50 cm depth using the (15) N2 assay as well as the acetylene reduction assay (ARA). The ARA considerably underestimated N2 fixation and can thus not be recommended for peatland studies. Based on the (15) N2 assay, high nonsymbiotic N2 -fixation rates of 0.3-1.4 μmol N2  g(-1)  day(-1) were found down to 50 cm under micro-oxic conditions (2 vol.%) in samples from plots covered by Sphagnum magellanicum or by vascular cushion plants, latter characterized by dense and deep aerenchyma roots. Peat N concentrations point to greater potential of nonsymbiotic N2 fixation under cushion plants, likely because of the availability of easily decomposable organic compounds and oxic conditions in the rhizosphere. In the Sphagnum plots, high N2 fixation below 10 cm depth rather reflects the potential during dry periods or low water level when oxygen penetrates the top peat layer and triggers peat mineralization. Natural abundance of the (15) N isotope of live Sphagnum (5.6 δ‰) from 0 to 10 cm points to solely N uptake from atmospheric deposition and nonsymbiotic N2 fixation. A mean (15) N signature of -0.7 δ‰ of peat from the cushion plant plots indicates additional N supply from N mineralization. Our findings suggest that nonsymbiotic N2 fixation overcomes N deficiency in different vegetation communities and has great significance for N cycling and peat accumulation in pristine peatlands. PMID:25545459

  12. Vegetation feedbacks of nutrient addition lead to a weaker carbon sink in an ombrotrophic bog.

    PubMed

    Larmola, Tuula; Bubier, Jill L; Kobyljanec, Christine; Basiliko, Nathan; Juutinen, Sari; Humphreys, Elyn; Preston, Michael; Moore, Tim R

    2013-12-01

    To study vegetation feedbacks of nutrient addition on carbon sequestration capacity, we investigated vegetation and ecosystem CO2 exchange at Mer Bleue Bog, Canada in plots that had been fertilized with nitrogen (N) or with N plus phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) for 7-12 years. Gross photosynthesis, ecosystem respiration, and net CO2 exchange were measured weekly during May-September 2011 using climate-controlled chambers. A substrate-induced respiration technique was used to determine the functional ability of the microbial community. The highest N and NPK additions were associated with 40% less net CO2 uptake than the control. In the NPK additions, a diminished C sink potential was due to a 20-30% increase in ecosystem respiration, while gross photosynthesis rates did not change as greater vascular plant biomass compensated for the decrease in Sphagnum mosses. In the highest N-only treatment, small reductions in gross photosynthesis and no change in ecosystem respiration led to the reduced C sink. Substrate-induced microbial respiration was significantly higher in all levels of NPK additions compared with control. The temperature sensitivity of respiration in the plots was lower with increasing cumulative N load, suggesting more labile sources of respired CO2 . The weaker C sink potential could be explained by changes in nutrient availability, higher woody : foliar ratio, moss loss, and enhanced decomposition. Stronger responses to NPK fertilization than to N-only fertilization for both shrub biomass production and decomposition suggest that the bog ecosystem is N-P/K colimited rather than N-limited. Negative effects of further N-only deposition were indicated by delayed spring CO2 uptake. In contrast to forests, increased wood formation and surface litter accumulation in bogs seem to reduce the C sink potential owing to the loss of peat-forming Sphagnum. PMID:23868415

  13. Peat decomposition records in three pristine ombrotrophic bogs in southern Patagonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broder, T.; Blodau, C.; Biester, H.; Knorr, K. H.

    2011-10-01

    Ombrotrophic bogs in southern Patagonia have been examined with regard to paleoclimatic and geochemical research questions but knowledge about organic matter decomposition in these bogs is limited. Therefore, we examined peat humification with depth by Fourier Transformed Infrared (FTIR) measurements of solid peat, C/N ratio, and δ13C and δ15N isotope measurements in three bog sites. Peat decomposition generally increased with depth but distinct small scale variation probably caused by environmental changes occurred. C/N ratios varied mostly between 40 and 120 and were significantly correlated (R2 > 0.55, p < 0.01) with FTIR-derived humification indices. The degree of decomposition was lowest at the site with the least sea spray input, while the peat was most decomposed at the driest site with highest sea spray deposition. Decomposition of peat was also advanced near ash layers. Values of δ13C were 26.5 ± 2‰ in the peat and partly related to decomposition indices, while δ15N in the peat varied around zero and did not consistently relate to any decomposition index. Concentrations of DOM partly related to C/N ratios, partly to FTIR derived indices. DOM was enriched in 13C and in 15N relative to the solid phase probably due to multiple microbial modifications and recycling of N in these N-poor environments. In summary, paleoclimatic signals may have influenced decomposition according to depth profiles of C/N ratios, δ13C values, and FTIR spectra, but the study also suggests that decomposition was also influenced by ash layers, sea spray input and other site specific factors.

  14. Soil data for a collapse-scar bog chronosequence in Koyukuk Flats National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska, 2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O’Donnell, Jonathan A.; Harden, Jennifer W.; Manies, Kristen L.; Jorgenson, M. Torre

    2012-01-01

    Peatlands in the northern permafrost region store large amounts of organic carbon, most of which is currently stored in frozen peat deposits. Recent warming at high-latitudes has accelerated permafrost thaw in peatlands, which will likely result in the loss of soil organic carbon from previously frozen peat deposits to the atmosphere. Here, we report soil organic carbon inventories, soil physical data, and field descriptions from a collapse-scar bog chronosequence located in a peatland ecosystem at Koyukuk Flats National Wildlife Refuge in Alaska.

  15. Biogeochemistry of carbon and related major and trace elements in peat bog soils of the middle taiga of Western Siberia (Russia).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepanova, V. A.; Mironycheva-Tokareva, N. P.; Pokrovsky, O. S.

    2012-04-01

    Global climate changes impact the status of wetland ecosystems shifting the balances of the carbon, macro-, and microelements cycles. This study aims to establish the features of accumulation and distribution of major- and trace elements in the organic layer of peat bog soils, belonging to different ecosystems of the oligotrophic bog complex located in the middle taiga of Western Siberia (Khanty-Mansiysk region, Russia). Key areas which are selected for this study include the following bog conjugate elementary ecosystems: higher ryam, lower ryam, ridge-hollow complex, and oligotrophic poor fen as characterized previously [1]. We have sampled various peat types along the entire length of the soil column (every 10 cm down to 3 m). Peat samples were analyzed for a wide range of macro- and microelements using an ICP-MS technique following full acid digestion in a microwave oven. These measurements allowed quantitative estimates of major- and trace elements in the peat deposits within the whole bog complex and individual elementary landscapes. Based on the data obtained, the lateral and radial geochemical structures of the bog landscapes were determined and clarified for the first time for middle taiga of the West Siberian plain. The similar regime of mineral nutrition during the complete bog landscape formation was detected for the peat deposits based on the measurements of some major- and trace elements (Ca, Fe, Mg, etc.). The vertical distribution of some major and some trace elements along the profile of peat column is rather uniform with relatively strong increase in the bottom organic layers. This strongly suggests the similarity of the processes of element accumulation in the peat and relatively weak post depositional redistribution of elements within the peat soil profile. Overall, obtained corroborate the existing view on chemical composition of peats being determined by botanical peat's components (which forms this peat deposit), atmospheric precipitation, position of ecosystems in the landscape (lateral migration) and types of bedrocks [2]. The results allow better understanding of the coupling between biogeochemical cycles of carbon and major and trace elements in peat soils in order to predict the future changes in both concentrations and stocks of chemical elements in the Western Siberia peat bog systems under climate warming.

  16. GHG emissions from temperate lowland bog under contrasting land use: insights from the Defra Lowland Bog Project.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Worrall, Fred; dIXON, Simon

    2015-04-01

    The Defra lowland peat project was established 3 years ago in response to the estimation that while lowland peat soils represent only 15% of the area of UK peat they represented 75% of the greenhouse gas emissions. The study has considered a range of settings, including: restored raised bog; extracted bare peat; and peat soil converted for arable. The sites were instrumented to cover as complete a range of greenhouse gases as possible and this included N2O as well as fluvial carbon fluxes. This talk will review results with particular emphasis on problems of understanding fluvial carbon fluxes from lowland raised bogs where flow directions are complex.

  17. Radiocarbon dating of Sphagnum cellulose from Mohos peat bog, East Carpathians

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubay, Katalin; Braun, Mihály; Harangi, Sándor; Palcsu, László; Túri, Marianna; Rinyu, László; Molnár, Mihály

    2015-04-01

    This work focuses on building a high-resolution age-depth model for quantitative paleoclimate study from the Mohos peat bog, East Carpathians. Peats are important archives for Quaternary science, because they preserve environmental changes. To study the chronology of peat profiles the key is in the precise coring and reliable dating. However, many studies dealing with coring and radiocarbon dating of peat deposits they often shown problems with the proper methods and material. With our novel coring technique we reached undisturbed and uncompressed peat cores from the Mohos bog. A 10 meter deep peat profile was drilled in 2012 using a modified technique of a piston corer. The core presents a continuous peat profile from the last 11.500 cal. yr BP. The chronology was based on AMS radiocarbon analyses of the separated Sphagnum samples from different depths of the profile. The peat samples were wet sieved (40-280 μm) to avoid contamination by rootlets. Dry Sphagnum samples for AMS dating were prepared using the classical acid-base-acid (ABA) method completed with an oxidative bleaching step to get clean cellulose. Sphagnum cellulose samples were converted to CO2 and later graphite and measured by EnvironMICADAS accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) in Hertelendi Laboratory (Debrecen, Hungary). Fine peat accumulation rate changes (sections with lowest accumulation values) were observed along the profile. Based on the chronology in further studies we want to focus special intervals to investigate environmental changes in the Holocene. Key words: peat, radiocarbon, cellulose

  18. Tracing of ca 800 yr old mining activity in peat bog using Pb elemental concentrations and isotope compositions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baron, S.; Carignan, J.; Ploquin, A.

    2003-04-01

    Sixty sites of slags have been documented on the Mont-Lozre in southern France. The petrographic analysis shows that slags are metallurgical wastes (800 to 850 yr BP) which certainly result from smelting activity for lead and silver extraction (Ploquin et al., 2001). The aims of this study are: 1) to trace the source of Pb ores which supplied the smelting sites, by using the Pb isotopic composition of several surrounding Pb deposits, 2) to evaluate the actual pollution caused by these slags, by using elemental and isotopic compositions of soils, water and vegetation, and 3) to document the pollution history of the region, by using elemental and isotopic compositions of peat bog cores collected in the neighbourhood of the historical smelting sites. The lead isotopic composition of galena collected in most surrounding ores is very similar to that of different slag samples. On the other hand, the high precision of the results allowed us to select the mineralised areas which were probably the ore sources. The Pb isotopic composition of slags is even more homogeneous: 208/206 Pb: 2.0920.002; 206/207 Pb: 1.1790.001; 208/204 Pb: 38.6630.025; 207/204 Pb: 15.6650.006; 206/204 Pb: 18.4760.023, and will allow source tracing in the environment. The "Narses Mortes" peat bog, around which two smelting sites have been reported, is strongly minerotrophic and contains 8 to 60% ash. A 1.40 m core have been retrieved and divided into 58 individual samples. Minerotrophic peat bog records both atmospheric deposition, soils leaching and the grounwater influence. The measured metal concentrations are normalised to Al contents of peat bog samples and the metal/Al ratios are compared to that of the Mont-Lozre granite: relative excess in metal concentrations are found in peat bog samples. An increasing excess of most metals (Pb, Zn, Cd...) was measured for surface samples, from 55 cm depth to the top of the core (23 cm depth). This profil might be attributed to atmospheric input during the last centuries. Pb and As alone are also enriched in some deeper samples (between 120--90 cm depth). At the moment, no sedimentation rates are available for this section of the peat bog. However, according to palynological data (de Beaulieu, in progress), the bottom of the core might be as old as 5000 years BP. This would place the medieval activities at the base of the surface metal enrichment (55 cm depth), having no large effect in Pb concentrations measured in peat bog. The older Pb-As enrichment remain enigmatic and may correspond to earlier anthropogenic activities (2000--2500 BP), a period for which very few traces of metallurgical activities are found in Occidental Europe. 14C dating and Pb isotope works are going on peat bog samples trying to discriminate metals sources.

  19. Terrestrial isopod community as indicator of succession in a peat bog.

    PubMed

    Antonović, Ivan; Brigić, Andreja; Sedlar, Zorana; Bedek, Jana; Soštarić, Renata

    2012-01-01

    Terrestrial isopods were studied in the Dubravica peat bog and surrounding forest in the northwestern Croatia. Sampling was conducted using pitfall traps over a two year period. Studied peat bog has a history of drastically decrease in area during the last five decades mainly due to the process of natural succession and changes in the water level. A total of 389 isopod individuals belonging to 8 species were captured. Species richness did not significantly differ between bog, edge and surrounding forest. High species richness at the bog is most likely the result of progressive vegetation succession, small size of the bog and interspecific relationships, such as predation. With spreading of Molinia grass on the peat bog, upper layers of Sphagnum mosses become less humid and probably more suitable for forest species that slowly colonise bog area. The highest diversity was found at the edge mainly due to the edge effect and seasonal immigration, but also possibly due to high abundance and predator pressure of the Myrmica ants and lycosid spiders at the bog site. The most abundant species were Trachelipus rathkii and Protracheoniscus politus, in the bog area and in the forest, respectively. Bog specific species were not recorded and the majority of the species collected belong to the group of tyrphoneutral species. However, Hyloniscus adonis could be considered as a tyrphoxenous species regarding its habitat preferences. Most of collected isopod species are widespread eurytopic species that usually inhabit various habitats and therefore indicate negative successive changes or degradation processes in the peat bog. PMID:22536107

  20. Oribatid mite species numbers increase, densities decline and parthenogenetic species suffer during bog degradation.

    PubMed

    Seniczak, Anna; Seniczak, Stanisław; Maraun, Mark; Graczyk, Radomir; Mistrzak, Marcin

    2016-04-01

    This study compared the oribatid mites in two natural and four industrially exploited bogs. One natural bog (Zakręt, Z) was located in northeastern Poland and the other one (Toporowy Staw Niżni, TSN), in southern Poland. The four exploited bogs were also located in southern Poland and can be ranked from least to most degraded as follows: Łysa Puścizna (LP), Baligówka (B), Puścizna Mała (PM) and Kaczmarka (K). In the natural bogs, the water pH was higher than in the degraded ones, but other parameters were lower (conductivity, colour value, oxygen demand, and concentration of chlorides). In the natural bogs, the Oribatida were highly abundant (average density was 169,100 ind./m(2)), but with low species diversity and one dominating species. In bog Z the most abundant was Limnozetes foveolatus that had dominance of 75 % and in bog TSN, located at higher altitude, Trimalaconothrus maior dominated (73 %). In two degraded bogs that had still good water conditions (LP and B) the oribatid communities resembled those from the natural bogs; in LP the most abundant species was Hydrozetes lacustris and in bog B, L. foveolatus. In contrast, in two more degraded bogs (PM and K) the abundance of mites was lower (average density was 17,850 ind./m(2)), species diversity of the Oribatida was higher, and no species achieved a high dominance like in the natural bogs. Additionally, in more degraded bogs the abundance of parthenogenetic species was lower than in the natural bogs. PMID:26846473

  1. Predominant anthropogenic sources and rates of atmospheric mercury accumulation in southern Ontario recorded by peat cores from three bogs: comparison with natural "background" values (past 8000 years).

    PubMed

    Givelet, Nicolas; Roos-Barraclough, Fiona; Shotyk, William

    2003-12-01

    Peat cores from three bogs in southern Ontario provide a complete, quantitative record of net rates of atmospheric Hg accumulation since pre-industrial times. For comparison with modern values, a peat core extending back 8000 years was used to quantify the natural variations in Hg fluxes for this region, and their dependence on climatic change and land use history. The net mercury accumulation rates were separated into "natural" and "excess" components by comparing the Hg/Br ratios of modern samples with the long-term, pre-anthropogenic average Hg/Br. The average background mercury accumulation rate during the pre-anthropogenic period (from 5700 years BC to 1470 AD) was 1.4 +/- 1.0 microg m(-2) per year (n = 197). The beginning of Hg contamination from anthropogenic sources dates from AD 1475 at the Luther Bog, corresponding to biomass burning for agricultural activities by Native North Americans. During the late 17th and 18th centuries, deposition of anthropogenic Hg was at least equal to that of Hg from natural sources. Anthropogenic inputs of Hg to the bogs have dominated continuously since the beginning of the 19th century. The maximum Hg accumulation rates decrease in the order Sifton Bog, in the City of London, Ontario (141 microg Hg m(-2) per year), Luther Bog in an agricultural region (89 microg Hg m(-2) per year), and Spruce Bog which is in a comparatively remote, forested region (54 microg Hg m(-2) per year). Accurate age dating of recent peat samples using the bomb pulse curve of 14C shows that the maximum rate of atmospheric Hg accumulation occurred during AD 1956 and 1959 at all sites. In these (modern) samples, the Hg concentration profiles resemble those of Pb, an element which is known to be immobile in peat bogs. The correlation between these two metals, together with sulfur, suggests that the predominant anthropogenic source of Hg (and Pb) was coal burning. While Hg accumulation rates have gone into strong decline since the late 1950's, Hg deposition rates today still exceed the average natural background values by 7 to 13 times. PMID:14710936

  2. A Regional Comparison of the Long-Term Carbon Dynamics Within Maritime Peat Bogs Along the St. Lawrence North Shore, Northeastern Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magnan, G.; Garneau, M.

    2013-12-01

    We have reconstructed the long-term carbon (C) dynamics within maritime bogs from two ecoclimatic regions between the Estuary (Baie-Comeau) and the Gulf of St. Lawrence (Havre-St.-Pierre) in northeastern Canada. The long-term average rates of C accumulation (LORCA) were calculated for eight peatlands. We also compared the Holocene variations in C sequestration between the peatlands to evaluate the influence of climate variability on their long-term C balance. The accumulation/decay processes were linked with changes in vegetation and water table depth. Overall, the LORCA decrease with the age of the peat deposits likely due to constant anoxic decay but they are significantly lower in Havre-St.-Pierre (16-46 g C m-2 yr-1) than in Baie-Comeau (53-68 g C m-2 yr-1). The regional differences in the LORCA reveal a pervasive climatic control on the long-term C balance. Our data suggest that the C accumulation in these bogs was driven by complex interactions between the peat accumulation/decay processes and the climate-mediated water table fluctuations. The higher C accumulation rates in the bogs of Baie-Comeau were promoted by stable ecohydrological conditions whereas the C balance in the bogs of Havre-St.-Pierre was more easily disrupted by past hydroclimatic changes especially during the Neoglacial cooling.

  3. New geological model of the Lagoa Real uraniferous albitites from Bahia (Brazil)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira Chaves, Alexandre

    2013-09-01

    New evidence supported by petrography (including mineral chemistry), lithogeochemistry, U-Pb geochronology by Laser Ablation Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS), and physicochemical study of fluid and melt inclusions by LA-ICP-MS and microthermometry, point to an orogenic setting of Lagoa Real (Bahia-Brazil) involving uraniferous mineralization. Unlike the previous models in which uraniferous albitites represent Na-metasomatised 1.75 Ga anorogenic granitic rocks, it is understood here that they correspond to metamorphosed sodium-rich and quartz-free 1.9 Ga late-orogenic syenitic rocks (Na-metasyenites). These syenitic rocks are rich not only in albite, but also in U-rich titanite (source of uranium). The interpretation of geochemical data points to a petrogenetic connection between alkali-diorite (local amphibolite protolith) and sodic syenite by fractional crystallization through a transalkaline series. This magmatic differentiation occurred either before or during shear processes, which in turn led to albitite and amphibolite formation. The metamorphic reactions, which include intense recrystallization of magmatic minerals, led uraninite to precipitate at 1.87 Ga under Oxidation/Reduction control. A second population of uraninites was also generated by the reactivation of shear zones during the 0.6 Ga Brasiliano Orogeny. The geotectonic implications include the importance of the Orosirian event in the Paramirim Block during paleoproterozoic S?o Francisco Craton edification and the influence of the Brasiliano event in the Paramirim Block during the West-Gondwana assembly processes. The regional microcline-gneiss, whose protolith is a 2.0 Ga syn-collisional potassic granite, represents the albitite host rock. The microcilne-gneiss has no petrogenetic association to the syenite (albitite protolith) in magmatic evolutionary terms.

  4. Bog bilberry phenolics, antioxidant capacity and nutrient profile.

    PubMed

    Colak, Nesrin; Torun, Hülya; Gruz, Jiri; Strnad, Miroslav; Hermosín-Gutiérrez, Isidro; Hayirlioglu-Ayaz, Sema; Ayaz, Faik Ahmet

    2016-06-15

    Phenolics and nutrient profiles of bog bilberry (Vaccinium uliginosum L.) collected from high mountain pastures in northeast Anatolia (Turkey) were examined for the first time in this study. The major soluble sugar identified in the berry was fructose, following by glucose, and the main organic acid identified was citric acid, followed by malic acid. Eleven phenolic acids and 17 anthocyanin 3-glycosides were identified and quantified. Caffeic acid in the free and glycoside forms and syringic acid in the ester form were the major phenolic acids, and the major individual anthocyanin present in the berry was malvidin 3-glucoside (24%). The highest total phenolics and anthocyanin contents were obtained from the anthocyanin fraction in conjunction with the highest antioxidant capacity, followed by the polyphenolic and aqueous fractions, FRAP, ORAC and DPPH, in that order. Our findings can be used to compare bog bilberry with other Vaccinium berries and to help clarify the relative potential health benefits of different berries. PMID:26868586

  5. Modelling alternative states of an ombrotrophic bog with experimentally deposed nitrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yuanqiao; Keller, Philipp; Blodau, Christian

    2015-04-01

    Nitrogen (N) pollution of peatlands alters their vegetation composition and carbon (C) sequestration. We applied a coupled carbon and nitrogen wetland model (PEATBOG) to analyse alternative steady states of an ombrotrophic bog exposed to experimentally deposited N at 1.6, 3.2 and 6.4 gN m-2 yr-1. The study predicted discontinuous responses of the peatland ecosystem to differing N deposition and a lack of recovery after 15 years of fertilization with 6.4 gN m-2 yr-1, which indicated a regime shift of the modelled ecosystem. In combination drought, as concurrent disturbance, reduced the resilience of the system and contributed to the regime shift. Internal feedbacks may interact with the direct feedback of the external disturbances from nitrogen and climatic drivers and alter the responses of the ecosystem. The result suggested that the state of a peatland exposed to N deposition may be highly uncertain due to a dominant feedback loop that emerged from all disturbances. The finding highlighted the need for systematically quantifying the relative importance of multiple disturbances to predict the potential shift of a peatland ecosystem to alternative states as response to N deposition in a changing environment.

  6. Properties and structure of raised bog peat humic acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klavins, Maris; Purmalis, Oskars

    2013-10-01

    Humic substances form most of the organic components of soil, peat and natural waters, and their structure and properties differ very much depending on their source. The aims of this study are to characterize humic acids (HAs) from raised bog peat, to evaluate the homogeneity of peat HAs within peat profiles, and to study peat humification impact on properties of HAs. A major impact on the structure of peat HAs have lignin-free raised bog biota (dominantly represented by bryophytes of different origin). On diagenesis scale, peat HAs have an intermediate position between the living organic matter and coal organic matter, and their structure is formed in a process in which more labile structures (carbohydrates, amino acids, etc.) are destroyed, while thermodynamically more stable aromatic and polyaromatic structures emerge as a result of abiotic synthesis. However, in comparison with soil, aquatic and other HAs, aromaticity of peat HAs is much lower. Comparatively, the raised bog peat HAs are at the beginning of the transformation process of living organic matter. Concentrations of carboxyl and phenolic hydroxyl groups change depending on the peat age and decomposition degree from where HAs have been isolated, and carboxylic acidity of peat HAs increases with peat depth and humification degree.

  7. Animal and vegetation patterns in natural and man-made bog pools: implications for restoration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mazerolle, M.J.; Poulin, M.; Lavoie, C.; Rochefort, L.; Desrochers, A.; Drolet, B.

    2006-01-01

    1. Peatlands have suffered great losses following drainage for agriculture, forestry, urbanisation, or peat mining, near inhabited areas. We evaluated the faunal and vegetation patterns after restoration of a peatland formerly mined for peat. We assessed whether bog pools created during restoration are similar to natural bog pools in terms of water chemistry, vegetation structure and composition, as well as amphibian and arthropod occurrence patterns. 2. Both avian species richness and peatland vegetation cover at the site increased following restoration. Within bog pools, however, the vegetation composition differed between natural and man-made pools. The cover of low shrubs, Sphagnum moss, submerged, emergent and floating vegetation in man-made pools was lower than in natural pools, whereas pH was higher than in typical bog pools. Dominant plant species also differed between man-made and natural pools. 3. Amphibian tadpoles, juveniles and adults occurred more often in man-made pools than natural bog pools. Although some arthropods, including Coleoptera bog specialists, readily colonised the pools, their abundance was two to 26 times lower than in natural bog pools. Plant introduction in bog pools, at the stocking densities we applied, had no effect on the occurrence of most groups. 4. We conclude that our restoration efforts were partially successful. Peatland-wide vegetation patterns following restoration mimicked those of natural peatlands, but 4 years were not sufficient for man-made pools to fully emulate the characteristics of natural bog pools.

  8. Terrestrial isopod community as indicator of succession in a peat bog

    PubMed Central

    Antonovi?, Ivan; Brigi?, Andreja; Sedlar, Zorana; Bedek, Jana; otari?, Renata

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Terrestrial isopods were studied in the Dubravica peat bog and surrounding forest in the northwestern Croatia. Sampling was conducted using pitfall traps over a two year period. Studied peat bog has a history of drastically decrease in area during the last five decades mainly due to the process of natural succession and changes in the water level. A total of 389 isopod individuals belonging to 8 species were captured. Species richness did not significantly differ between bog, edge and surrounding forest. High species richness at the bog is most likely the result of progressive vegetation succession, small size of the bog and interspecific relationships, such as predation. With spreading of Molinia grass on the peat bog, upper layers of Sphagnum mosses become less humid and probably more suitable for forest species that slowly colonise bog area. The highest diversity was found at the edge mainly due to the edge effect and seasonal immigration, but also possibly due to high abundance and predator pressure of the Myrmica ants and lycosid spiders at the bog site. The most abundant species were Trachelipus rathkii and Protracheoniscus politus, in the bog area and in the forest, respectively. Bog specific species were not recorded and the majority of the species collected belong to the group of tyrphoneutral species. However, Hyloniscus adonis could be considered as a tyrphoxenous species regarding its habitat preferences. Most of collected isopod species are widespread eurytopic species that usually inhabit various habitats and therefore indicate negative successive changes or degradation processes in the peat bog. PMID:22536107

  9. Geochemical evidence for the hydrology of a Tamarack-peat bog, Brimfield Township, Portage County, Ohio

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, T.P.; Miller, L.A. . Dept. of Geology and Water Resources)

    1992-01-01

    Peat Bogs and wetlands represent unique environmental settings what are increasingly subjected to anthropogenic stresses involving inputs of water and chemicals. This study used geochemical and hydrologic monitoring to determine the inputs and fates of elements of the Kent-Brimfield bog located in Portage County, Ohio. Based on physical and chemical information collected over one year, a model is proposed here describing the hydrologic connection between a bog and shallow ground water surrounding the bog. The chemical composition of precipitation, soil water and ground water in the bog vicinity were monitored for one year. Field measurements included water levels, pH, Eh, alkalinity and temperature. Trace metal content of the peat, the pore waters, soil water and ground waters were determined by GFAA, ICP and LIC methods. This bog was found to function as part of a perched water table aquifer. Water in the upper 3 m of the bog is found to be chemically similar to precipitation, but modified by reactions involving dissolution of mineral matter and biologic processes. The chemistry of water deeper in the bog (> 3m) resembles shallow ground water surrounding the bog, modified by weathering of underlying geologic materials and sulfate reduction. This similarity, along with ground water elevations within and outside of the bog, supports that shallow ground water interacts with, and helps maintain water levels in the upper surface of the bog. From these results, a model is proposed for the seasonal variations in hydrologic processes operating in the wetland and surrounding basin, and describes how wetlands may change seasonally from being influent to effluent systems.

  10. Late Holocene ecohydrological and carbon dynamics of a UK raised bog: impact of human activity and climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, T. Edward; Swindles, Graeme T.; Roucoux, Katherine H.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the ecohydrological responses of peatlands to climate change is particularly challenging over the late Holocene owing to the confounding influence of anthropogenic activity. To address this, a core spanning the last 2400 years from a raised bog in northern England was analysed using a comprehensive suite of proxy methods in an attempt to elucidate the drivers of change. A testate amoebae-based transfer function was used to quantitatively reconstruct changes in water table depth, supported by humification analysis and a plant macrofossil-derived hydroclimatic index. Pollen and plant macrofossil data were used to examine regional and local vegetation change, and human impacts were inferred from charcoal and geochemistry. Chronological control was achieved through a Bayesian age-depth model based on AMS radiocarbon dates and spheroidal carbonaceous particles, from which peat and carbon accumulation rates were calculated. Phases of both increased and decreased bog surface wetness (inferred effective precipitation) are present, with dry phases at c. AD 320-830, AD 920-1190 and AD 1850-present, and a marked period of increased effective precipitation at c. AD 1460-1850. Coherence with other records from across Northern Europe suggests that these episodes are primarily driven by allogenic climatic change. Periods of high bog surface wetness correspond to the Wolf, Sprer and Maunder sunspot activity minima, suggesting solar forcing was a significant driver of climate change over the last 1000 years. Following the intensification of agriculture and industry over the last two centuries, the combined climatic and anthropogenic forcing effects become increasingly difficult to separate due to increases in atmospheric deposition of anthropogenically derived pollutants, fertilising compounds, and additions of wind-blown soil dust. We illustrate the need for multiproxy approaches based on high-resolution palaeoecology and geochemistry to examine the recent trajectories of peatlands.

  11. Genesis of peat-bog soils in the northern taiga spruce forests of the Kola Peninsula

    SciTech Connect

    Nikonov, V.V.

    1981-01-01

    The characteristics of soil formation processes in the Peat-Bog soils of waterlogged spruce phytocenoses on the Kola Peninsula are investigated. It is found that the ash composition of the peat layer is determined primarily by the composition of the buried plant residues. The effect of the chemical composition of water feeding the peat bogs is determined. (Refs. 7).

  12. The bog landforms of continental western Canada in relation to climate and permafrost patterns

    SciTech Connect

    Vitt, D.H.; Halsey, L.A. ); Zoltai, S.C. )

    1994-02-01

    In continental western Canada, discontinuous permafrost is almost always restricted to ombrotrophic peatlands (bogs). Bogs occur mostly as islands or peninsulas in large, often complex fens or are confined to small basins. Permafrost may be present in extensive peat plateaus (or more locally as palsas) and was preceded by a well-developed layer of Sphagnum that served to insulate the peat and lower the pore water temperatures. Air photo interpretation reveals the occurrence of bogs with five types of surface physiography. Concentrated to the south are bogs without internal patterns that have never had permafrost. Dominating the mid-latitudes are bogs with internal lawns and fens with internal lawns (mostly representing former bogs) that had permafrost lenses in the past that have recently degraded. Concentrated in the northwest are peat plateaus without internal lawns or distinct collapse scars, but with permafrost; dominating in the northernmost area are peat plateaus with extensive permafrost and collapse scars. Relationships are apparent between the current - 1[degrees]C isotherm and the southern occurrence of peat plateaus and between the 0[degrees]C isotherm and the southern edge of bogs and fens with internal lawns. We interpret bogs and fens with internal lawns to represent areas where permafrost degradation is currently occurring at a greater rate than aggradation, seemingly in response to warmer regional climate, although fire frequency may also be of local importance. 54 refs., 21 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. EVALUATING CUMULATIVE EFFECTS OF DISTURBANCE ON THE HYDROLOGIC FUNCTION OF BOGS, FENS, AND MIRES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Few quantitative studies have been done on the hydrology of fens, bogs and mires, and consequently any predictions of the cumulative impacts of disturbances on their hydrologic functions is extremely difficult. or example, few data are available on the role of bogs and fens with ...

  14. Mineralogy and geochemistry of a uraniferous coal from the Red Desert Area, Sweetwater County, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Breger, Irving A.; Deul, Maurice; Meyrowitz, Robert; Rubinstein, Samuel

    1953-01-01

    A sample of subbituminous uraniferous coal from the Red Desert, Sweetwater County, Wyo., was studied mineralogically. The coal contains gypsum (6 percent), kaolinite (1 percent), quartz (0.3 percent), calcite (trace), and limonite (trace). This suite of minerals and the absence of pyrite show that the coal has been subjected to weathering and oxidation. No uranium minerals have been found; mechanical fractionation has indicated that the uranium is associated with the organic constituents of the coal. The minerals that have been isolated contain 0.0006 percent uranium, a content which is to be expected for nonuraniferous sedimentary rocks. The organic components of the coal contain approximately 0.002 percent uranium. On the basis of material balance calculations, the organic components carry 98 percent of the uranium in the coal. Fischer assays of this weathered coal from the Red Desert indicate a yield of 16.7 gallons of tar per ton on low-temperature retorting. In view of the large reserve of subbituminous coal in the Red Desert, its probable ease of mining, and its tar yield, it may be desirable to carry out further evaluation of the coal as a fuel or raw material for the manufacture of tar or chemicals. If economic factors permit utilization of the coal, the uranium, although present in small percentages, could be recovered as a byproduct.

  15. 77 FR 2970 - Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Assessment for the Proposed Elba BOG Compressor...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-20

    ... Elba BOG Compressor Project and Request for Comments on Environmental Issues; Southern LNG Company, L.L... Environmental Assessment (EA) that will discuss the environmental impacts of the Elba BOG Compressor Project... (BOG) compression facilities at its liquefied natural gas (LNG) marine terminal on Elba Island...

  16. 76 FR 77814 - Cameron LNG, LLC; Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Assessment for the Proposed BOG...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-14

    ... for the Proposed BOG Liquefaction Project, and Request for Comments on Environmental Issues The staff... assessment (EA) that will discuss the environmental impacts of the BOG Liquefaction Project involving... construct and operate facilities necessary to liquefy boil-off gas (BOG) at its existing liquefied...

  17. Comparisons of soil nitrogen mass balances for an ombrotrophic bog and a minerotrophic fen in northern Minnesota

    EPA Science Inventory

    We compared the N budgets of an ombrotrophic bog and a minerotrophic fen to quantify the importance of denitrification in peatlands and their watersheds. We also compared the watershed upland mineral soils to bog/fen peat; lagg and transition zone peat to central bog/fen peat; an...

  18. Fate of silicate minerals in a peat bog

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, P.C. ); Siegel, D.I.; Hill, B.M. ); Glaser, P.H. )

    1991-04-01

    An investigation of silicate weathering in a Minnesota mire indicates that quartz and aluminosilicates rapidly dissolve in anoxic, organic-rich, neutral-pH environments. Vertical profiles of pH, disolved silicon, and major cations were obtained at a raised bog and a spring fen and compared. Profiles of readily extractable silicon, diatom abundance, ash mineralogy, and silicate surface texture were determined from peat cores collected at each site. In the bog, normally a recharge mound, dissolved silicon increases with depth as pH increases, exceeding the background silicon concentration by a factor of two. Silicate grain surfaces, including quartz, are chemically etched at this location, despite being in contact with pore water at neutral pH with dissolved silicon well above the equilibrium solubility of quartz. The increasing silica concentrations at circum-neutral pH are consistent with a system where silicate solubility is influenced by silica-organic-acid complexes. Silica-organic-acid complexes therefore may be the cause of the almost complete absence of diatoms in decomposed peat and contribute to the formation of silica-depleted underclays commonly found beneath coal.

  19. Electrocoagulation treatment of peat bog drainage water containing humic substances.

    PubMed

    Kuokkanen, V; Kuokkanen, T; Rämö, J; Lassi, U

    2015-08-01

    Electrocoagulation (EC) treatment of 100 mg/L synthetic wastewater (SWW) containing humic acids was optimized (achieving 90% CODMn and 80% DOC removal efficiencies), after which real peat bog drainage waters (PBDWs) from three northern Finnish peat bogs were also treated. High pollutant removal efficiencies were achieved: Ptot, TS, and color could be removed completely, while Ntot, CODMn, and DOC/TOC removal efficiencies were in the range of 33-41%, 75-90%, and 62-75%, respectively. Al and Fe performed similarly as the anode material. Large scale experiments (1 m(3)) using cold (T = 10-11 °C) PBDWs were also conducted successfully, with optimal treatment times of 60-120 min (applying current densities of 60-75 A/m(2)). Residual values of Al and Fe (complete removal) were lower than their initial values in the EC-treated PBDWs. Electricity consumption and operational costs in optimum conditions were found to be low and similar for all the waters studied: 0.94 kWh/m(3) and 0.15 €/m(3) for SWW and 0.35-0.70 kWh/m(3) and 0.06-0.12 €/m(3) for the PBDWs (large-scale). Thus, e.g. solar cells could be considered as a power source for this EC application. In conclusion, EC treatment of PBDW containing humic substances was shown to be feasible. PMID:25973580

  20. Environmental assessment of remedial action at the inactive uraniferous lignite processing sites at Belfield and Bowman, North Dakota. [UMTRA Project

    SciTech Connect

    Beranich, S.; Berger, N.; Bierley, D.; Bond, T.M.; Burt, C.; Caldwell, J.A.; Dery, V.A.; Dutcher, A.; Glover, W.A.; Heydenburg, R.J.; Larson, N.B.; Lindsey, G.; Longley, J.M.; Millard, J.B.; Miller, M.; Peel, R.C.; Persson-Reeves, C.H.; Titus, F.B.; Wagner, L.

    1989-09-01

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978 (UMTRCA), to clean up the Belfield and Bowman, North Dakota, uraniferous lignite processing sites to reduce the potential health impacts associated with the residual radioactive materials remaining at these sites. Remedial action at these sites must be performed in accordance with the US Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) standards promulgated for the remedial action and with the concurrence of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the state of North Dakota. The inactive Belfield uraniferous lignite processing site is one mile southeast of Belfield, North Dakota. The inactive Bowman uraniferous lignite processing site at the former town of Griffin, is seven miles northwest of Bowman, North Dakota and 65 road miles south of Belfield. Lignite ash from the processing operations has contaminated the soils over the entire 10.7-acre designated Belfield site and the entire 12.1-acre designated Bowman site. Dispersion of the ash has contaminated an additional 20.6 acres surrounding the Belfield processing site and an additional 59.2 acres surrounding the Bowman processing site. The proposed remedial action is to relocate the contaminated materials at the Belfield processing site to the Bowman processing/disposal site for codisposal with the Bowman contaminated soils. The environmental impacts assessed in this EA were evaluated for the proposed remedial action and the no action alternative and demonstrate that the proposed action would not significantly affect the quality of the human environment and would be performed in compliance with applicable environmental laws. The no action alternative would not be consistent with the intent of Public Law 95-604 and would not comply with the EPA standards. 48 refs., 10 figs., 7 tabs.

  1. Microform-related community patterns of methane-cycling microbes in boreal Sphagnum bogs are site specific.

    PubMed

    Juottonen, Heli; Kotiaho, Mirkka; Robinson, Devin; Merilä, Päivi; Fritze, Hannu; Tuittila, Eeva-Stiina

    2015-09-01

    Vegetation and water table are important regulators of methane emission in peatlands. Microform variation encompasses these factors in small-scale topographic gradients of dry hummocks, intermediate lawns and wet hollows. We examined methane production and oxidization among microforms in four boreal bogs that showed more variation of vegetation within a bog with microform than between the bogs. Potential methane production was low and differed among bogs but not consistently with microform. Methane oxidation followed water table position with microform, showing higher rates closer to surface in lawns and hollows than in hummocks. Methanogen community, analysed by mcrA terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism and dominated by Methanoregulaceae or 'Methanoflorentaceae', varied strongly with bog. The extent of microform-related variation of methanogens depended on the bog. Methanotrophs identified as Methylocystis spp. in pmoA denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis similarly showed effect of bog, and microform patterns were stronger within individual bogs. Our results suggest that methane-cycling microbes in boreal Sphagnum bogs with seemingly uniform environmental conditions may show strong site-dependent variation. The bog-intrinsic factor may be related to carbon availability but contrary to expectations appears to be unrelated to current surface vegetation, calling attention to the origin of carbon substrates for microbes in bogs. PMID:26220310

  2. Biomonitoring of 210Po and 210Pb using lichens and mosses around a uraniferous coal-fired power plant in western Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    U?ur, A.; zden, B.; Sa, M. M.; Yener, G.

    In Gkova region where Yata?an is located there are three major uraniferous coal-fired power plants (CPPs) and they cause some pollution in the surroundings. Studies were realized over a wide area around the coal-fired power station located at Yata?an to evaluate the possible increase of natural radioactivity level due to the operation of the plant. The lichens Rhizoplaca melanophthalma, Cladonia convoluta, Cladonia pyxidata and the mosses Grimmia pulvinata, Hypnum cupressiforme were investigated for potential use as bioindicators for 210Po and 210Pb deposition. The maximum 210Po and 210Pb activities were observed around the hill close to ash stacks. The capture efficiency was the highest in one of the moss species, G. pulvinata with the activity concentration ranges of 60019-122836 and 44615-65021 Bq kg -1 for 210Po and 210Pb, respectively. Soil samples were also collected and analysed in order to investigate any possible contamination in soil profiles due to CPPs and to determine unsupported 210Pb flux. The 210Pb and 226Ra concentrations in uncultivated soil profiles varied between 582 and 2586 Bq kg -1, 505 and 585 Bq kg -1, respectively. The unsupported 210Pb inventory in the core was calculated to be 3312 Bq m -2. The corresponding annual 210Pb flux of 103 Bq m -2yr -1 is high with compare to estimates of the atmospheric flux given in literature for the same region.

  3. Species Identification of Archaeological Skin Objects from Danish Bogs: Comparison between Mass Spectrometry-Based Peptide Sequencing and Microscopy-Based Methods

    PubMed Central

    Brandt, Luise Ørsted; Schmidt, Anne Lisbeth; Mannering, Ulla; Sarret, Mathilde; Kelstrup, Christian D.; Olsen, Jesper V.; Cappellini, Enrico

    2014-01-01

    Denmark has an extraordinarily large and well-preserved collection of archaeological skin garments found in peat bogs, dated to approximately 920 BC – AD 775. These objects provide not only the possibility to study prehistoric skin costume and technologies, but also to investigate the animal species used for the production of skin garments. Until recently, species identification of archaeological skin was primarily performed by light and scanning electron microscopy or the analysis of ancient DNA. However, the efficacy of these methods can be limited due to the harsh, mostly acidic environment of peat bogs leading to morphological and molecular degradation within the samples. We compared species assignment results of twelve archaeological skin samples from Danish bogs using Mass Spectrometry (MS)-based peptide sequencing, against results obtained using light and scanning electron microscopy. While it was difficult to obtain reliable results using microscopy, MS enabled the identification of several species-diagnostic peptides, mostly from collagen and keratins, allowing confident species discrimination even among taxonomically close organisms, such as sheep and goat. Unlike previous MS-based methods, mostly relying on peptide fingerprinting, the shotgun sequencing approach we describe aims to identify the complete extracted ancient proteome, without preselected specific targets. As an example, we report the identification, in one of the samples, of two peptides uniquely assigned to bovine foetal haemoglobin, indicating the production of skin from a calf slaughtered within the first months of its life. We conclude that MS-based peptide sequencing is a reliable method for species identification of samples from bogs. The mass spectrometry proteomics data were deposited in the ProteomeXchange Consortium with the dataset identifier PXD001029. PMID:25260035

  4. Ecology and hydrology of pristine and cutover lowland raised bogs: relationships and implications for restoration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labadz, Jillian; Hart, Roger; Robbins, Jane; Butcher, David; Topliss, David

    2013-04-01

    This paper will examine relationships in vegetation communities and hydrological conditions on areas of lowland raised bog in north west England, comparing damaged and relatively intact sites on two adjacent bogs in Cumbria. Walton Moss is a relatively pristine site whilst and Bolton Fell Moss has a small nature reserve area with remnant vegetation which is surrounded by commercial peat cutting. The intended outcome is to provide a mechanism to inform management decisions, with a view to assisting in the long-term protection and rehabilitation of lowland raised bogs.

  5. Effect of mineral constituents in the bioleaching of uranium from uraniferous sedimentary rock samples, Southwestern Sinai, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Amin, Maisa M; Elaassy, Ibrahim E; El-Feky, Mohamed G; Sallam, Abdel Sattar M; Talaat, Mona S; Kawady, Nilly A

    2014-08-01

    Bioleaching, like Biotechnology uses microorganisms to extract metals from their ore materials, whereas microbial activity has an appreciable effect on the dissolution of toxic metals and radionuclides. Bioleaching of uranium was carried out with isolated fungi from uraniferous sedimentary rocks from Southwestern Sinai, Egypt. Eight fungal species were isolated from different grades of uraniferous samples. The bio-dissolution experiments showed that Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus terreus exhibited the highest leaching efficiencies of uranium from the studied samples. Through monitoring the bio-dissolution process, the uranium grade and mineralogic constituents of the ore material proved to play an important role in the bioleaching process. The tested samples asserted that the optimum conditions of uranium leaching are: 7 days incubation time, 3% pulp density, 30 °C incubation temperature and pH 3. Both fungi produced the organic acids, namely; oxalic, acetic, citric, formic, malonic, galic and ascorbic in the culture filtrate, indicating an important role in the bioleaching processes. PMID:24682031

  6. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the inactive uraniferous lignite ashing site near Bowman, North Dakota

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-11-01

    This baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the inactive uraniferous lignite ashing site near Bowman, North Dakota, evaluates the potential impacts to public health or the environment from contaminated ground water at this site. This contamination is a result of the uraniferous lignite ashing process, when coal containing uranium was burned to produce uranium. Potential risk is quantified only for constituents introduced by the processing activities and not for the constituents naturally occurring in background ground water in the site vicinity. Background ground water, separate from any site-related contamination, imposes a percentage of the overall risk from ground water ingestion in the Bowman site vicinity. The US Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project is developing plans to address soil and ground water contamination at the site. The UMTRA Surface Project involves the determination of the extent of soil contamination and design of an engineered disposal cell for long-term storage of contaminated materials. The UMTRA Ground Water Project evaluates ground water contamination. Based on results from future site monitoring activities as defined in the site observational work plan and results from this risk assessment, the DOE will propose an approach for managing contaminated ground water at the Bowman site.

  7. Fate and Transport of Road Salt During Snowmelt Through a Calcareous Fen: Kampoosa Bog, Stockbridge, Massachusetts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhodes, A. L.; Guswa, A. J.; Pufall, A.

    2007-12-01

    Kampoosa Bog is the largest and most ecologically diverse calcareous lake-basin fen in Massachusetts. Situated within a 4.7 km2 drainage basin, the open fen (approx. 20 acres) consists of a floating mat of sedges (incl. Carex aquatilis and Cladium mariscoides) that overlie peat and lake clay deposits. Mineral weathering of marble bedrock within the drainage basin supplies highly alkaline ground and surface waters to the fen basin. The natural chemistry has been greatly altered by road salt runoff from the Massaschusetts Turnpike, and in question is whether disturbance from the Turnpike and a gas pipline has facilitated aggressive growth by the invasive species Phragmites australis. Considered to be one of the most significant rare species habitats in the state, Massachusetts has designated Kampoosa Bog an Area of Critical Environmental Concern, and a committee representing several local, regional, and state agencies, organizations, and citizens manages the wetland. The purpose of this study is to characterize the hydrologic and chemical response of the wetland during snowmelt events to understand the fate and movement of road salt (NaCl). Concentrations of Na and Cl in the fen groundwater are greatest close to the Turnpike. Concentrations decrease with distance downstream but are still greatly elevated relative to sites upstream of the Turnpike. During snowmelt events, the fen's outlet shows a sharp rise in Na and Cl concentrations at the onset of melting that is soon diluted by the added meltwater. The Na and Cl flux, however, is greatest at peak discharge, suggesting that high-flow events are significant periods of export of dissolved salts from the fen. Pure dissolution of rock salt produces an equal molar ratio between Na and Cl, and sodium and chloride imbalances in stream and ground waters suggest that ~20% of the Na is stored on cation exchange sites within the peat. The largest imbalances between Na and Cl occur deeper within the peat, where the peat is more compact and groundwater has a longer residence time. CEC measurements show that Ca>Mg>Na>K on exchange sites and suggest that Na in groundwater preferentially displaces Mg. Management questions to be addressed include what percentage of applied salt is flushed through the fen during snowmelt each year? How much salt is retained in the fen? For how long would salt concentrations remain elevated if salt application were to cease?

  8. Climate-driven expansion of blanket bogs in Britain during the Holocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallego-Sala, A. V.; Charman, D. J.; Harrison, S. P.; Li, G.; Prentice, I. C.

    2016-01-01

    Blanket bog occupies approximately 6 % of the area of the UK today. The Holocene expansion of this hyperoceanic biome has previously been explained as a consequence of Neolithic forest clearance. However, the present distribution of blanket bog in Great Britain can be predicted accurately with a simple model (PeatStash) based on summer temperature and moisture index thresholds, and the same model correctly predicts the highly disjunct distribution of blanket bog worldwide. This finding suggests that climate, rather than land-use history, controls blanket-bog distribution in the UK and everywhere else. We set out to test this hypothesis for blanket bogs in the UK using bioclimate envelope modelling compared with a database of peat initiation age estimates. We used both pollen-based reconstructions and climate model simulations of climate changes between the mid-Holocene (6000 yr BP, 6 ka) and modern climate to drive PeatStash and predict areas of blanket bog. We compiled data on the timing of blanket-bog initiation, based on 228 age determinations at sites where peat directly overlies mineral soil. The model predicts that large areas of northern Britain would have had blanket bog by 6000 yr BP, and the area suitable for peat growth extended to the south after this time. A similar pattern is shown by the basal peat ages and new blanket bog appeared over a larger area during the late Holocene, the greatest expansion being in Ireland, Wales, and southwest England, as the model predicts. The expansion was driven by a summer cooling of about 2 °C, shown by both pollen-based reconstructions and climate models. The data show early Holocene (pre-Neolithic) blanket-bog initiation at over half of the sites in the core areas of Scotland and northern England. The temporal patterns and concurrence of the bioclimate model predictions and initiation data suggest that climate change provides a parsimonious explanation for the early Holocene distribution and later expansion of blanket bogs in the UK, and it is not necessary to invoke anthropogenic activity as a driver of this major landscape change.

  9. Climate-driven expansion of blanket bogs in Britain during the Holocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallego-Sala, A. V.; Charman, D. J.; Harrison, S. P.; Li, G.; Prentice, I. C.

    2015-10-01

    Blanket bog occupies approximately 6 % of the area of the UK today. The Holocene expansion of this hyperoceanic biome has previously been explained as a consequence of Neolithic forest clearance. However, the present distribution of blanket bog in Great Britain can be predicted accurately with a simple model (PeatStash) based on summer temperature and moisture index thresholds, and the same model correctly predicts the highly disjunct distribution of blanket bog worldwide. This finding suggests that climate, rather than land-use history, controls blanket-bog distribution in the UK and everywhere else. We set out to test this hypothesis for blanket bogs in the UK using bioclimate envelope modelling compared with a database of peat initiation age estimates. We used both pollen-based reconstructions and climate model simulations of climate changes between the mid-Holocene (6000 yr BP, 6 ka) and modern climate to drive PeatStash and predict areas of blanket bog. We compiled data on the timing of blanket-bog initiation, based on 228 age determinations at sites where peat directly overlies mineral soil. The model predicts large areas of northern Britain would have had blanket bog by 6000 yr BP, and the area suitable for peat growth extended to the south after this time. A similar pattern is shown by the basal peat ages and new blanket bog appeared over a larger area during the late Holocene, the greatest expansion being in Ireland, Wales and southwest England, as the model predicts. The expansion was driven by a summer cooling of about 2 °C, shown by both pollen-based reconstructions and climate models. The data show early Holocene (pre-Neolithic) blanket-bog initiation at over half of the sites in the core areas of Scotland, and northern England. The temporal patterns and concurrence of the bioclimate model predictions and initiation data suggest that climate change provides a parsimonious explanation for the early Holocene distribution and later expansion of blanket bogs in the UK, and it is not necessary to invoke anthropogenic activity as a driver of this major landscape change.

  10. Persistent versus transient tree encroachment of temperate peat bogs: effects of climate warming and drought events.

    PubMed

    Heijmans, Monique M P D; van der Knaap, Yasmijn A M; Holmgren, Milena; Limpens, Juul

    2013-07-01

    Peatlands store approximately 30% of global soil carbon, most in moss-dominated bogs. Future climatic changes, such as changes in precipitation patterns and warming, are expected to affect peat bog vegetation composition and thereby its long-term carbon sequestration capacity. Theoretical work suggests that an episode of rapid environmental change is more likely to trigger transitions to alternative ecosystem states than a gradual, but equally large, change in conditions. We used a dynamic vegetation model to explore the impacts of drought events and increased temperature on vegetation composition of temperate peat bogs. We analyzed the consequences of six patterns of summer drought events combined with five temperature scenarios to test whether an open peat bog dominated by moss (Sphagnum) could shift to a tree-dominated state. Unexpectedly, neither a gradual decrease in the amount of summer precipitation nor the occurrence of a number of extremely dry summers in a row could shift the moss-dominated peat bog permanently into a tree-dominated peat bog. The increase in tree biomass during drought events was unable to trigger positive feedbacks that keep the ecosystem in a tree-dominated state after a return to previous 'normal' rainfall conditions. In contrast, temperature increases from 1 C onward already shifted peat bogs into tree-dominated ecosystems. In our simulations, drought events facilitated tree establishment, but temperature determined how much tree biomass could develop. Our results suggest that under current climatic conditions, peat bog vegetation is rather resilient to drought events, but very sensitive to temperature increases, indicating that future warming is likely to trigger persistent vegetation shifts. PMID:23526779

  11. Measurements of methane and carbon dioxide fluxes on the Bakchar bog in warm season

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krasnov, Oleg A.; Maksyutov, Shamil S.; Davydov, Denis K.; Fofonov, Aleksander V.; Glagolev, Mikhail V.

    2015-11-01

    Data terrain-atmosphere fluxes of methane and carbon dioxide overseen for measurement campaign Plotnikovo-2014 on the bog's Flux-NIES automatic complex (N56°51.29' E82° 50.91') in the warn season. Six vegetative groups on the bog's surface were taken in comparison. Improvement precise method used to determinate the sensitivity for the gases analyzers and calculating of the CO2 and CH4 fluxes measured by automated chamber-based technique.

  12. The Auchenorrhyncha fauna of peat bogs in the Austrian part of the Bohemian Forest (Insecta, Hemiptera)

    PubMed Central

    Holzinger, Werner E.; Schlosser, Lydia

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The first overview on the Auchenorrhyncha fauna of peat bogs of the Austrian Bohemian Forest is presented. Seven oligotrophic peat bog sites were studied in 2011 by suction sampler (“G-Vac”) and 93 Auchenorrhyncha species (with 7465 adult specimens) were recorded. Eleven species (about 18 % of the individuals) are tyrphobiontic or tyrphophilous. The relative species abundance plot is not very steep; the six most abundant species represent 50 % of the individuals. The most common species is Conomelus anceps (17 % of the individuals). Compared to the whole Austrian Auchenorrhyncha fauna, the fauna of peat bogs comprises distinctly more univoltine species and more species hibernating in nymphal stage. Densities of adult Auchenorrhyncha in peat bogs are low in spring (about 10–60 individuals per m²) and high in July, with up to 180 (±50) individuals per m². Disturbed peat bogs have higher species numbers and higher Auchenorrhyncha densities in total, but lower numbers and densities in peat bog specialists. PMID:24039517

  13. The water balance as an approach to assessing groundwater dependency in raised bog wetlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Regan, Shane

    2014-05-01

    The management of raised bogs, as active peat-forming ecosystems, requires an understanding of the relationships between regional hydrology and wetland ecohydrological processes. Marginal drainage, < 20 years, of Clara Bog, Ireland, has resulted in dramatic morphological changes. Differential peat consolidation has fragmented what was one topographic catchment area into four distinct catchment areas. Runoff has reduced by c. 40% from the original main catchment area and there has been a c. 25% decrease of suitably saturated areas supporting the growth of sphagnum moss species. In undisturbed bog systems the recharge rate of water seeping through the bog body to the regional groundwater table is in the order of 40 mm/ year. The downward seepage rate in Clara is > 100 mm/ year. A reduction in pore water pressure, due to drainage of the regional groundwater table, has disturbed the structure of the peat substratum and induced water loss from peat storage, resulting in the ecohydrological modification of the bog surface. Numerical modelling of a simulated raised groundwater table reduces the leakage rate to between 30 and 50 mm/ year. The significance is that the hydraulic gradient of the regional groundwater table is an important environmental supporting condition in raised bog ecosystems, implying indirect groundwater dependence.

  14. Polyphenolic Compositions and Chromatic Characteristics of Bog Bilberry Syrup Wines.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shu-Xun; Yang, Hang-Yu; Li, Si-Yu; Zhang, Jia-Yue; Li, Teng; Zhu, Bao-Qing; Zhang, Bo-Lin

    2015-01-01

    Phenolic compounds determine the color quality of fruit wines. In this study, the phenolic compound content and composition, color characteristics and changes during 6 months of bottle aging were studied in wines fermented with bog bilberry syrup under three different pHs. The total anthocyanins and total phenols were around 15.12-16.23 mg/L and 475.82 to 486.50 mg GAE/L in fresh wines and declined 22%-31% and about 11% in bottle aged wines, respectively. In fresh wines, eight anthocyanins, six phenolic aids and 14 flavonols, but no flavon-3-ols were identified; Malvidin-3-O-glucoside, petunidin-3-O-glucoside and delphinium-3-O-glucoside were the predominant pigments; Chlorogentic acid was the most abundant phenolic acid, and quercetin-3-O-galactoside and myricetin-3-O-galactoside accounted for nearly 90% of the total flavonols. During 6 months of bottle storage, the amounts of all the monomeric anthocyanins and phenolic acids were reduced dramatically, while the glycosidyl flavonols remained constant or were less reduced and their corresponding aglycones increased a lot. The effects of aging on blueberry wine color were described as the loss of color intensity with a dramatic change in color hue, from initial red-purple up to final red-brick nuances, while the pH of the fermentation matrix was negatively related to the color stability of aged wine. PMID:26556321

  15. Hydrologic conditions in the Klatt Bog area, Anchorage, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Glass, R.L.

    1986-01-01

    Klatt Bog is a 2.3 sq mi wetland in Anchorage, Alaska which provides habitat for many wildlife species but also offers potential sites for residential, commercial, and agricultural developments. Precipitation, the main source of water for the area, averages 15 in/yr; during the 1983 study period, precipitation was 12.16 inches. Estimates of evapotranspiration, considered to be the major component of water outflow, range from 10 to 20 inches. Surface runoff and groundwater outflow during 1983 are estimated to be 2.8 and < 0.2 inches, respectively. During summer, most of the runoff is derived from groundwater discharge near the upgradient eastern edge of the wetland. The wetland 's aquifer system is composed of fibrous peat which overlies a poorly permeable layer of silt and clay. The aquifer is recharged by infiltration of precipitation and inflow of groundwater from upland areas east of the wetland. During 1983 the water table was at or within 3 ft of land surface in most areas and its seasonal fluctuation was < 2 feet. Water collected from four shallow observation wells, two ponds, and two sites on a stream had concentrations of dissolved iron ranging from 2,300 to 6,100 micrograms/L. (Author 's abstract)

  16. Increased tree establishment in Lithuanian peat bogs--insights from field and remotely sensed approaches.

    PubMed

    Edvardsson, Johannes; imanauskien?, Rasa; Taminskas, Julius; Bauien?, Ieva; Stoffel, Markus

    2015-02-01

    Over the past century an ongoing establishment of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), sometimes at accelerating rates, is noted at three studied Lithuanian peat bogs, namely Ker?plis, R?kyva and Auktumala, all representing different degrees of tree coverage and geographic settings. Present establishment rates seem to depend on tree density on the bog surface and are most significant at sparsely covered sites where about three-fourth of the trees have established since the mid-1990s, whereas the initial establishment in general was during the early to mid-19th century. Three methods were used to detect, compare and describe tree establishment: (1) tree counts in small plots, (2) dendrochronological dating of bog pine trees, and (3) interpretation of aerial photographs and historical maps of the study areas. In combination, the different approaches provide complimentary information but also weigh up each other's drawbacks. Tree counts in plots provided a reasonable overview of age class distributions and enabled capturing of the most recently established trees with ages less than 50 years. The dendrochronological analysis yielded accurate tree ages and a good temporal resolution of long-term changes. Tree establishment and spread interpreted from aerial photographs and historical maps provided a good overview of tree spread and total affected area. It also helped to verify the results obtained with the other methods and an upscaling of findings to the entire peat bogs. The ongoing spread of trees in predominantly undisturbed peat bogs is related to warmer and/or drier climatic conditions, and to a minor degree to land-use changes. Our results therefore provide valuable insights into vegetation changes in peat bogs, also with respect to bog response to ongoing and future climatic changes. PMID:25310886

  17. A new peat bog testate amoeba transfer function and quantitative palaeohydrological reconstructions from southern Patagonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Bellen, S.; Mauquoy, D.; Payne, R.; Roland, T. P.; Hughes, P. D.; Daley, T. J.; Street-Perrot, F. A.; Loader, N.

    2013-12-01

    Testate amoebae have been used extensively as proxies for environmental change and palaeoclimate reconstructions in European and North American peatlands. The presence of these micro-organisms in surface samples is generally significantly linked to the local water table depth (WTD) and preservation of the amoeba shells downcore allows for millennial length water table reconstructions. Peat bog archive records in southern Patagonia are increasingly the focus of palaeoecological research due to the possibility of detecting changes in the Southern Westerlies. These Sphagnum magellanicum-dominated peat bogs are characterised by a wide range of water table depths, from wet hollows to high hummocks (>100 cm above the water table). Here we present the first transfer function for this region along with ~2k-year palaeorecords from local peat bogs. A modern dataset (155 samples) was sampled along transects from five bogs in 2012 and 2013. Measurements of WTD, pH and conductivity were taken for all samples. The transfer function model was based on the 2012 dataset, while the 2013 samples served as an independent test set to validate the model. Besides the standard leave-one-out cross-validation, we applied leave-one-site-out and leave-one transect-out cross-validation, which are effective means of verifying the degree of clustering in the dataset. To ensure that the environmental gradient had been evenly sampled we quantified the root-mean-squared error of prediction (RMSEP) individually for segments of this gradient. Ordinations showed a clear hydrological gradient in amoeba assemblages, with the dominant Assulina muscorum at the dry end and Amphitrema wrightianum and Difflugia globulosa at the wet end. Canonical correspondence analysis showed that WTD was the most important environmental variable, accounting for 18% of the variance in amoeba assemblages. A weighted averaging-partial least squares model showed best performance in cross-validation, using the 2013 data as an independent test set. Any spatial autocorrelation was minimal although the model still appeared less effective in predicting WTD for sites not included in the training set. The segment-wise RMSEP showed that the WTD gradient was generally evenly sampled with RMSEP below 15 cm for most of the gradient, much lower than the standard deviation of the mean of all WTDs. Preliminary results from peat cores sampled from the same peat bogs show surprisingly stable water tables over the last ~2k years in Andorra bog but more variation in nearby Tierra Australis bog. Peat accumulation rates in Andorra bog are among the highest recorded in temperate bogs with around 4 m of peat accumulated during the last 2k years.

  18. Can restoration convert a degraded bog in southern Bavaria to a carbon sink and climate cooler?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frster, Christoph; Drsler, Matthias

    2014-05-01

    The peatland area of Germany is about 14.000 km (Succow & Joosten 2001) with 8% natural like bogs and 4% natural like fens (Hper 2006). All other peatland areas are more or less intensively used and thus, lost their sink function for carbon. If, theoretically, all German peatlands would be rewetted, this restoration would lead to a carbon mitigation of 9.5 Mio. t CO2-C equivalents (Freibauer et al. 2009). In test areas like the studied bog, the viability and potential of peatland restoration for climate mitigation can be proofed. The investigated bog is situated close to the Bavarian Alps; one part of this bog is extensively used and had been rewetted in 1993 except of a small stripe; management was stopped totally at another stripe. The second part of this bog had been drained without any further use. Here a Calluna heath established, accompanied by Pine trees. The restoration of this bog heath was done in two time steps; here a chronosequence of succession after restoration at different water table levels was investigated. To get to the greenhouse gas (GHG) balances of CO2 CH4 and N2O, gas flux measurements were done for two years using the chamber technique of Drsler (2005). At both areas, the degraded sites were sources for GHG (+203 to +736 g CO2-C-equiv m-2 a-1). Restoration reduced these emissions depending on water table and succession of bog species (-51 to +557 g CO2-C-equiv m-2 a-1). Depending on the vegetation's vitality GHG balances of already established natural like sites varied in between the years (-189 to +264 g CO2-C-equiv m-2 a-1) mainly driven by the oscillation of their water table. Stop of management and development of Sphagnum communities turned most of the sites into sinks for GHG (-216 to +7 g CO2-C-equiv m-2 a-1). Thus restoration turned degraded bogs efficiently to carbon sinks and climate coolers in dependence of a proper water table management, withdrawal of land use and vegetation succession. Key words: bog, greenhouse gases, restoration, water table

  19. Fen to bog transitions in high latitudes: what conditions lead to permafrost aggradation?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Treat, C. C.; Jones, M.; Loisel, J.

    2014-12-01

    Northern high-latitude peatlands accumulated an estimated 436 Gt of carbon over the Holocene. Vegetation changes, such as the succession from fen to bog species, are often clearly visible in peat profiles and can be caused by organic matter accumulation or by changes in regional climate. Most peatlands developed during the early Holocene as fens under a climate that was warmer than today due to a summer insolation maximum. Subsequent transition to bogs facilitated permafrost aggradation during the mid- to late-Holocene. Teasing out permafrost aggradation in peat cores remains a challenge, as they often resemble dry bogs. However, in many locations permafrost aggradation can be assumed especially if thermokarst is evident later in the peat record (i.e., an abrupt transition from dry bog or plateau peat to wet Sphagnum riparium or even fen peat). We used a database of existing peat core records from around the northern high latitudes to determine transition of fen to bog from plant macrofossils and determined permafrost aggradation from both plant macrofossils and physical peat properties to improve constraints on methane emissions from northern peatlands throughout the Holocene. Here, we examine the spatial and temporal trends of the fen to bog transition and permafrost aggradation in the northern high latitude regions by compiling a database of existing records of macrofossil assemblages and peat properties (carbon, nitrogen, and bulk density). We find that the timing of the fen-to-bog transition varied throughout the northern high latitudes, from 5200 yr BP in Alaska and Western Canada to < 1000 yr BP in Eastern Canada and Siberia. Similarly, the first occurrences of permafrost aggradation varied across the high latitudes, ranging from 4000 yr BP in Western Canada to the Little Ice Age in southern regions and parts of Western Siberia. The spatial and temporal differences in the fen to bog transition and permafrost aggradation suggest that methane emissions differed considerably across northern high latitudes throughout the Holocene. Identifying controls of the fen-to-bog transition and permafrost aggradation in the northern high latitudes has important implications for both carbon sequestration and methane emissions from northern peatlands to the atmosphere throughout the Holocene.

  20. CO2 and CH4 fluxes of contrasting pristine bogs in southern Patagonia (Tierra del Fuego, Argentina)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Münchberger, Wiebke; Blodau, Christian; Kleinebecker, Till; Pancotto, Veronica

    2015-04-01

    South Patagonian peatlands cover a wide range of the southern terrestrial area and thus are an important component of the terrestrial global carbon cycle. These extremely southern ecosystems have been accumulating organic material since the last glaciation up to now and are - in contrast to northern hemisphere bogs - virtually unaffected by human activities. So far, little attention has been given to these pristine ecosystems and great carbon reservoirs which will potentially be affected by climate change. We aim to fill the knowledge gap in the quantity of carbon released from these bogs and in what controls their fluxes. We study the temporal and spatial variability of carbon fluxes in two contrasting bog ecosystems in southern Patagonia, Tierra del Fuego. Sphagnum-dominated bog ecosystems in Tierra del Fuego are similar to the ones on the northern hemisphere, while cushion plant-dominated bogs can almost exclusively be found in southern Patagonia. These unique cushion plant-dominated bogs are found close to the coast and their occurrence changes gradually to Sphagnum-dominated bogs with increasing distance from the coast. We conduct closed chamber measurements and record relevant environmental variables for CO2 and CH4 fluxes during two austral vegetation periods from December to April. Chamber measurements are performed on microforms representing the main vegetation units of the studied bogs. Gas concentrations are measured with a fast analyzer (Los Gatos Ultraportable Greenhouse Gas Analyzer) allowing to accurately record CH4 fluxes in the ppm range. We present preliminary results of the carbon flux variability from south Patagonian peat bogs and give insights into their environmental controls. Carbon fluxes of these two bog types appear to be highly different. In contrast to Sphagnum-dominated bogs, cushion plant-dominated bogs release almost no CH4 while their CO2 flux in both, photosynthesis and respiration, can be twice as high as for Sphagnum-dominated bogs. Water table fluctuations in the cushion plant-dominated bog seem to be negligible and CH4 is mainly released from Sphagnum lawns suggesting the importance of the vegetation type for CH4 fluxes in these special ecosystems. Our results will help to understand which conditions favor the development of either a cushion plant-dominated or Sphagnum-dominated bog which is not yet known.

  1. The Sphagnum microbiome supports bog ecosystem functioning under extreme conditions.

    PubMed

    Bragina, Anastasia; Oberauner-Wappis, Lisa; Zachow, Christin; Halwachs, Bettina; Thallinger, Gerhard G; Müller, Henry; Berg, Gabriele

    2014-09-01

    Sphagnum-dominated bogs represent a unique yet widely distributed type of terrestrial ecosystem and strongly contribute to global biosphere functioning. Sphagnum is colonized by highly diverse microbial communities, but less is known about their function. We identified a high functional diversity within the Sphagnum microbiome applying an Illumina-based metagenomic approach followed by de novo assembly and MG-RAST annotation. An interenvironmental comparison revealed that the Sphagnum microbiome harbours specific genetic features that distinguish it significantly from microbiomes of higher plants and peat soils. The differential traits especially support ecosystem functioning by a symbiotic lifestyle under poikilohydric and ombrotrophic conditions. To realise a plasticity-stability balance, we found abundant subsystems responsible to cope with oxidative and drought stresses, to exchange (mobile) genetic elements, and genes that encode for resistance to detrimental environmental factors, repair and self-controlling mechanisms. Multiple microbe-microbe and plant-microbe interactions were also found to play a crucial role as indicated by diverse genes necessary for biofilm formation, interaction via quorum sensing and nutrient exchange. A high proportion of genes involved in nitrogen cycle and recycling of organic material supported the role of bacteria for nutrient supply. 16S rDNA analysis indicated a higher structural diversity than that which had been previously detected using PCR-dependent techniques. Altogether, the diverse Sphagnum microbiome has the ability to support the life of the host plant and the entire ecosystem under changing environmental conditions. Beyond this, the moss microbiome presents a promising bio-resource for environmental biotechnology - with respect to novel enzymes or stress-protecting bacteria. PMID:25113243

  2. Historical accumulation rates of mercury in four Scottish ombrotrophic peat bogs over the past 2000 years.

    PubMed

    Farmer, John G; Anderson, Peter; Cloy, Joanna M; Graham, Margaret C; MacKenzie, Angus B; Cook, Gordon T

    2009-10-15

    The historical accumulation rates of mercury resulting from atmospheric deposition to four Scottish ombrotrophic peat bogs, Turclossie Moss (northeast Scotland), Flanders Moss (west-central), Red Moss of Balerno (east-central) and Carsegowan Moss (southwest), were determined via analysis of (210)Pb- and (14)C-dated cores up to 2000 years old. Average pre-industrial rates of mercury accumulation of 4.5 and 3.7 microg m(-2) y(-1) were obtained for Flanders Moss (A.D. 1-1800) and Red Moss of Balerno (A.D. 800-1800), respectively. Thereafter, mercury accumulation rates increased to typical maximum values of 51, 61, 77 and 85 microg m(-2) y(-1), recorded at different times possibly reflecting local/regional influences during the first 70 years of the 20th century, at the four sites (TM, FM, RM, CM), before declining to a mean value of 27+/-15 microg m(-2) y(-1) during the late 1990s/early 2000s. Comparison of such trends for mercury with those for lead and arsenic in the cores and also with direct data for the declining UK emissions of these three elements since 1970 suggested that a substantial proportion of the mercury deposited at these sites over the past few decades originated from outwith the UK, with contributions to wet and dry deposition arising from long-range transport of mercury released by sources such as combustion of coal. Confidence in the chronological reliability of these core-derived trends in absolute and relative accumulation of mercury, at least since the 19th century, was provided by the excellent agreement between the corresponding detailed and characteristic temporal trends in the (206)Pb/(207)Pb isotopic ratio of lead in the (210)Pb-dated Turclossie Moss core and those in archival Scottish Sphagnum moss samples of known date of collection. The possibility of some longer-term loss of volatile mercury released from diagenetically altered older peat cannot, however, be excluded by the findings of this study. PMID:19646736

  3. Draft Genome Sequences of Three Chromobacterium subtsugae Isolates from Wild and Cultivated Cranberry Bogs in Southeastern Massachusetts

    PubMed Central

    Vöing, Kristin; Harrison, Alisha

    2015-01-01

    Chromobacterium subtsugae was isolated from cranberry bogs in Massachusetts. While it is unknown what environmental role these bacteria play in bog soils, they hold potential as biological control agents against the larvae of insect pests. Potential virulence genes were identified, including the violacein synthesis pathway, siderophores, and several chitinases. PMID:26358592

  4. Draft Genome Sequences of Three Chromobacterium subtsugae Isolates from Wild and Cultivated Cranberry Bogs in Southeastern Massachusetts.

    PubMed

    Vöing, Kristin; Harrison, Alisha; Soby, Scott D

    2015-01-01

    Chromobacterium subtsugae was isolated from cranberry bogs in Massachusetts. While it is unknown what environmental role these bacteria play in bog soils, they hold potential as biological control agents against the larvae of insect pests. Potential virulence genes were identified, including the violacein synthesis pathway, siderophores, and several chitinases. PMID:26358592

  5. Lead isotope ratios in bone ash of blesbok (Damaliscus pygargus phillipsi): a means of screening for the accumulation of contaminants from uraniferous rocks.

    PubMed

    Nöthling, Johan O; Du Toit, Johannes S; Myburgh, Jan G

    2014-09-19

    This study was done to determine whether blesbok (Damaliscus pygargus phillipsi) from the Krugersdorp Game Reserve (KGR) in Gauteng Province, South Africa have higher concentrations of (238)U and higher (206)Pb/(204)Pb and (207)Pb/(204)Pb ratios in their bone ash than blesbok from a nearby control reserve that is not exposed to mine water and has no outcrops of uraniferous rocks. Eight blesbok females from the KGR and seven from the control site, all killed with a brain shot, were used. A Thermo X-series 2 quadrupole ICPMS was used to measure the concentrations of (238)U and lead and a Nu Instruments NuPlasma HR MC-ICP-MS to measure the lead isotope ratios in the tibial ash from each animal. KGR blesbok had higher mean concentrations of (238)U (P = 0.02) and ratios of (206)Pb/(204)Pb and (207)Pb/(204)Pb (P < 0.00001) than the control blesbok. The probability of rejecting the false null hypothesis of no difference in the (206)Pb/(204)Pb or (207)Pb/(204)Pb ratios between KGR and control reserve animals (the power of the test) was 0.999. The blesbok from the KGR accumulated contaminants from an uraniferous environment. The (206)Pb/(204)Pb and (207)Pb/(204)Pb ratios in tibial ash proved effective in confirming accumulation of contaminants from uraniferous rocks. PMID:24967558

  6. The core microbiome bonds the Alpine bog vegetation to a transkingdom metacommunity.

    PubMed

    Bragina, Anastasia; Berg, Christian; Berg, Gabriele

    2015-09-01

    Bog ecosystems fulfil important functions in Earth's carbon and water turnover. While plant communities and their keystone species Sphagnum have been well studied, less is known about the microbial communities associated with them. To study our hypothesis that bog plants share an essential core of their microbiome despite their different phylogenetic origins, we analysed four plant community plots with 24 bryophytes, vascular plants and lichen species in two Alpine bogs in Austria by 16S rDNA amplicon sequencing followed by bioinformatic analyses. The overall bog microbiome was classified into 32 microbial phyla, while Proteobacteria (30.8%), Verrucomicrobia (20.3%) and Planctomycetes (15.1%) belonged to the most abundant groups. Interestingly, the archaeal phylum Euryarcheota represented 7.2% of total microbial abundance. However, a high portion of micro-organisms remained unassigned at phylum and class level, respectively. The core microbiome of the bog vegetation contained 177 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) (150 526 seq.) and contributed to 49.5% of the total microbial abundance. Only a minor portion of associated core micro-organisms was host specific for examined plant groups (5.9-11.6%). Using our new approach to analyse plant-microbial communities in an integral framework of ecosystem, vegetation and microbiome, we demonstrated that bog vegetation harboured a core microbiome that is shared between plants and lichens over the whole ecosystem and formed a transkingdom metacommunity. All micro- and macro-organisms are connected to keystone Sphagnum mosses via set of microbial species, for example Burkholderia bryophila which was found associated with a wide spectrum of host plants and is known for a beneficial plant-microbe interaction. PMID:26335913

  7. Mineralogical and geochemical aspects of the formation of precambrian uraniferous albities

    SciTech Connect

    Mineeva, I.G.

    1986-03-01

    As Soviet security requires that information that might indicate the location of uranium deposits be withheld, it is somewhat difficult to determine to what extent the features described are generalizations from numerous occurrences or represent a specific deposit. Nevertheless, the paper reports the complex geologic history involved (as it so often is for this element) in the concentrations of uranium to economic levels. Descriptions include: zoning, post albite processes, carbonization and ore formation, marker elements, and uranium redeposition. 7 references.

  8. Interactions between Nitrogen Fixation and Methane Cycling in Northern Minnesota Peat Bogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warren, M. J.; Gaby, J. C.; Lin, X.; Morton, P. L.; Kostka, J. E.; Glass, J. B.

    2014-12-01

    Peatlands cover only 3% of the Earth's surface, yet store a third of soil carbon. Increasing global temperatures have the potential to change peatlands from a net sink to a net source of atmospheric carbon. N is a limiting nutrient in oligotrophic Sphagnum-dominated peatlands and biological N2 fixation likely supplies a significant but unknown fraction of N inputs. Moreover, environmental controls on diazotrophic community composition in N-limited peatlands are poorly constrained. Thus, improved understanding of feedbacks between the CH4 and N cycles is critical for predicting future changes to CH4 flux from peat bogs. We coupled measurements of N2 fixation activity measured by the acetylene (C2H2) reduction assay (ARA) with molecular analyses of expression and diversity of nifH genes encoding the molybdenum (Mo)-containing nitrogenase from two peat bogs in the Marcell Experimental Forest, Minnesota, USA. The top 10 cm of peat was sampled from the high CH4 flux S1 bog and the low CH4 flux Zim bog in April and June 2014. Despite similar N concentrations in the top 10 cm of both bogs (0.5-1.0 μM NO2-+NO3- and 2-3 μM NH4+), the S1 bog displayed variable ARA activity (1-100 nmol C2H4 h-1 g-1) whereas the Zim bog had consistently low ARA activity (<1 nmol C2H4 h-1 g-1). Highest ARA activity was measured in June from S1 bog hollows with higher moisture content incubated without O2 in the light (20-100 nmol C2H4 h-1 g-1). Dissolved Fe (1-25 μM) was higher in hollow vs. hummock samples, and at S1 vs. Zim bog, while dissolved V (4-14 nM) was consistently higher than Mo (1-4 nM), suggesting that alternative V or Fe-containing nitrogenases might be present in these bogs. In contrast, Cu, an essential micronutrient for aerobic methanotrophs, was higher in hummocks (25-48 nM) than hollows (6-17 nM). The facultative methanotroph Methylocella was the dominant diazotroph in the S1 bog based on high throughput next generation sequencing of nifH cDNA amplicons. Given previous reports of C2H2 inhibition of methanotrophy, we measured CH4 consumption in the presence or absence of 1% C2H2. Preliminary results suggest minimal effect of C2H2 on CH4 oxidation. Future measurements of 15N2 incorporation coupled to molecular analysis will elucidate whether methanotroph diazotrophy was suppressed by C2H2 in ARA incubations.

  9. Relationship between peat geochemistry and depositional environments, Cranberry Island, Maine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Raymond, R., Jr.; Cameron, C.C.; Cohen, A.D.

    1987-01-01

    The Heath, Great Cranberry Island, Maine, offers a unique locality for studying lateral and vertical relationships between radically different peat types within 1 km2. The majority of The Heath is a Sphagnum moss-dominated raised bog. Surrounding the raised bog is a swamp/marsh complex containing grass, sedge, Sphagnum moss, alder, tamarack, and skunk cabbage. Swamp/ marsh-deposited peat occurs both around the margins of The Heath and under Sphagnum-dominated peat, which was deposited within the raised bog. A third peat type, dominated by herbaceous aquatics, is present underlying the swamp/marsh-dominated peat but is not present as a dominant botanical community of The Heath. The three peat types have major differences in petrographic characteristics, ash contents, and associated minerals. Sulfur contents range from a low of 0.19 wt.% (dry) within the raised bog to a high of 4.44 wt% (dry) near the west end of The Heath, where swamp/marsh peat occurring directly behind a storm beach berm has been influenced by marine waters. The presence of major geochemical variations within a 1-km2 peat deposit suggests the need for in-depth characterization of potential peat resources prior to use. ?? 1987.

  10. Lake or bog? Reconstructing baseline ecological conditions for the protected Galpagos Sphagnum peatbogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coffey, Emily E. D.; Froyd, Cynthia A.; Willis, Katherine J.

    2012-10-01

    This paper documents the first 10,000 year old plant macrofossil record of vegetation changes on the central island of Santa Cruz, providing information on Sphagnum bog vegetation patterns, local extinction of key taxa, and temporal successions in the Galpagos humid highlands. Vegetation change is reconstructed through examination of Holocene sedimentary sequences obtained from three Sphagnum bogs located within volcanic caldera forming the high elevation central ridge system of Santa Cruz Island. Results indicate that these specialized Sphagnum bog ecosystems are dynamic and have undergone considerable changes in vegetation composition, transitioning from diverse hygrophilous herbs and submerged aquatic ecosystems to drier Sphagnum/Pteridium bog systems, during the last 10,000 cal yr BP. Additionally a new aquatic genus previously undocumented on the islands, Elatine, was discovered at two of the study sites, but it is now extinct on the archipelago. Some of the observed vegetation successions may have been driven by climatic shifts occurring within the eastern equatorial Pacific (EEP). Other drivers including anthropogenic change are also considered significant over the last hundred years, placing strain on this naturally dynamic system. This study helps reveal patterns of change in the humid highlands over the last 10,000 cal yr BP regarding vegetation variability, climatic shifts, the historical influence of fire, tortoise disturbance, and recent anthropogenic impacts on the island.

  11. A probe for sampling interstitial waters of stream sediments and bog soils

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nowlan, G.A.; Carollo, C.

    1974-01-01

    A probe for sampling interstitial waters of stream sediments and bog soils is described. Samples can be obtained within a stratigraphic interval of 2-3 cm, to a depth of 60-80 cm, and with little or no contamination of the samples by sediment or air. ?? 1974.

  12. What rules GHG-(greenhouse gas)-fluxes in a prealpine bog - management or watertable?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frster, Christoph; Drsler, Matthias

    2010-05-01

    Being an important sink of carbon, the small stripe of bogs in the foreland of the Alps plays an important role for the carbon balance of Germany. A big part was drained for peat-use and to get agricultural land in the last centuries. Restoration of these degraded bogs can help to rebuild this function, whereas the watertable is an important co-factor for the amount of mitigation of greenhouse gases (CO2, CH4 and N2O). To estimate GHG-balances gas-flux measurements, using the chamber method developed by Drsler (2005) were done in 2007 and 2008 on a degraded bog-meadow, which was partly rewetted in 1993 and which is still managed in large areas. This mosaic of restored, drained and managed areas showed big differences in their carbon-balances from a high source (~ 500 g CO2-C m-2 a-1) to a moderate sink (~ -200 g CO2-C m-2 a-1). Where the management was stopped in 1993, some Sphagnum-communities developed which helped to turn these areas from moderate sources (47 g CO2-C m-2 a-1) or sinks (-58 g CO2-C m-2 a-1) to permanent sinks with uptakes between (-150 and -250 g CO2-C m-2 a-1). Key words: bog, carbon-balance, greenhouse gases, restoration, watertable

  13. Ecology of southeastern shrub bogs (pocosins) and Carolina bays: a community profile

    SciTech Connect

    Sharitz, R.R.; Gibbons, J.W.

    1982-11-01

    Shrub bogs of the Southeast occur in areas of poorly developed internal drainage that typically but not always have highly developed organic or peat soils. Pocosins and Carolina bays are types or subclasses of shrub bogs on the coastal plains of the Carolinas and Georgia. They share roughly the same distribution patterns, soil types, floral and faunal species composition and other community attributes, but differ in geological formation. Carolina bays may contain pocosin as well as other communities, but are defined more by their unique elliptical shape and geomorphometry. The pocosin community is largely defined by its vegetation, a combination of a dense shrub understory and a sparser canopy. The community is part of a complex successional sequence of communities (sedge bogs, savannas, cedar bogs, and bay forests) that may be controlled by such factors as fire, hydroperiod, soil type, and peat depth. Pocosins and Carolina bays harbor a number of animal groups and may be locally important in their ecology. Although few species are endemic to these habitats, they may provide important refuges for a number of species. These communities are simultaneously among the least understood and most rapidly disappearing habitats of the Southeast. Forestry and agricultural clearage are current impacts.

  14. UV-SENSITIVE COMPLEX PHOSPHORUS: ASSOCIATION WITH DISSOLVED HUMIC MATERIALS AND IRON IN A BOG LAKE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The concentration of UV-sensitive complex phosphorus compounds in water from an acid bog lake was linearly related to the concentration of dissolved high molecular weight humic material (DHM) both seasonally and diurnally. The first-order rate of photoreduction (Fe(+3) to Fe(+2) ...

  15. Processes in the pore waters of peat deposits

    SciTech Connect

    Levshenko, T.V.; Efremova, A.G.; Galkina, Z.M.; Surkova, T.E.; Tolstov, K.A.

    1983-01-01

    The composition of the waters of modern peat bogs that have developed in the intracontinental regions under the conditions of bogs of the high-moor, mixed, and lowmoor types have been investigated for the case of a number of peat deposits of the Smolensk, Volgorad, and Pskov provinces. During the work the pH of the deposits and the C1-, Alk, SO/sup 2/-, Ca/sup 2 +/, Mg/sup 2 +/, K- contents of the pore water of modern peat beds were studied. The thickness of the deposits studied amounted to 5-7 m. Samples were taken every 0.5 m in depth. The water was separated from the deposits by pressing out.

  16. Environmental assessment of no remedial action at the inactive uraniferous lignite ashing sites at Belfield and Bowman, North Dakota

    SciTech Connect

    1997-06-01

    The Belfield and Bowman sites were not included on the original congressional list of processing sites to be designated by the Secretary of Energy. Instead, the sites were nominated for designation by the Dakota Resource Council in a letter to the DOE (September 7, 1979). In a letter to the DOE (September 12, 1979), the state of North Dakota said that it did not believe the sites would qualify as processing sites under the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) because the activities at the sites involved only the ashing of uraniferous lignite coal and the ash was shipped out of state for actual processing. Nevertheless, on October 11, 1979, the state of North Dakota agreed to the designation of the sites because they met the spirit of the law (reduce public exposure to radiation resulting from past uranium operations). Therefore, these sites were designated by the Secretary of Energy for remedial action. Because of the relatively low health impacts determined for these sites, they were ranked as low priority and scheduled to be included in the final group of sites to be remediated.

  17. Environmental assessment of remedial action at the inactive uraniferous lignite ashing sites at Belfield and Bowman, North Dakota

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) of 1978 authorized the US Department of Energy (DOE) to perform remedial actions at Belfield and Bowman inactive lignite ashing sites in southwestern North Dakota to reduce the potential public health impacts from the residual radioactivity remaining at the sites. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) promulgated standards (40 CFR 192) that contain measures to control the residual radioactive materials and other contaminated materials, and proposed standards to protect the groundwater from further degradation. Remedial action at the Belfield and Bowman sites must be performed in accordance with these standards and with the concurrence of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the state of North Dakota. The Belfield and Bowman designated sites were used by Union Carbide and Kerr-McGee, respectively, to process uraniferous lignite in the 1960s. Uranium-rich ash from rotary kiln processing of the lignite was loaded into rail cars and transported to uranium mills in Rifle, Colorado, and Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico, respectively. As a result of the ashing process, there is a total of 158,400 cubic yards (yd{sup 3}) [121,100 cubic meters (m{sup 3})] of radioactive ash-contaminated soils at the two sites. Windblown ash-contaminated soil covers an additional 21 acres (8.5 ha) around the site, which includes grazing land, wetlands, and a wooded habitat.

  18. Small is beautiful: why microtopography should be included in bog hydrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Appels, Willemijn; van der Ploeg, Martine; Oosterwoud, Marieke; Cirkel, Gijsbert; van der Zee, Sjoerd; Witte, Jan-Philip

    2014-05-01

    Microtopography can have a large effect on flow processes at the soil surface and the composition of soil water. In peat areas, microtopography is shaped by differences in species, the growth rate and transpiration of the vegetation, and the amount of water flowing from higher areas. Microtopography is often represented by a roughness parameter in hillslope hydrological models. In areas without a strong topographical gradient however, microtopography may be underestimated when accumulated in a single parameter, especially in the presence of shallow groundwater systems. In this study, we review the intricate relationships between microtopography, surface runoff, and ecohydrology in systems featuring shallow water tables. In an analogy to surface runoff, the hydrology of a raised bog can be described as a combination of open water flow on a saturated medium, instead of the traditional acrotelm-catotelm concept that only acknowledges the saturated medium. We explored water flow through the microtopography of a raised bog with a simple conceptual model that accounts explicitly for microtopographic features and the changing flow directions these may cause. With this approach we were able to investigate the activation of fast flow paths on different areas of the bog as a function of their wetness level and bog-specific morphological features, such as hummocks and hollows. Our type of approach could be used to improve the understanding of the spatial and temporal variability of rainfall-runoff responses on raised bogs. In addition, similar approaches could be used to investigate how various runoff regimes affect the mixing of water with different chemical signatures, another driver of variations of the occurrence of plant species.

  19. Geology and recognition criteria for uranium deposits of the quartz-pebble conglomerate type. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Button, A.; Adams, S.S.

    1981-03-01

    This report is concerned with Precambrian uraniferous conglomerates. This class of deposit has been estimated to contain between approximately 16 and 35 percent of the global uranium reserve in two rather small areas, one in Canada, the other in South Africa. Similar conglomerates, which are often gold-bearing, are, however, rather widespread, being found in parts of most Precambrian shield areas. Data have been synthesized on the geologic habitat and character of this deposit type. The primary objective has been to provide the most relevant geologic observations in a structural fashion to allow resource studies and exploration to focus on the most prospective targets in the shortest possible time.

  20. Study of speciation and size fractionation of trace element between soil solution, bog, river and lake within a boreal watershed (North Karelia, NW Russia) using fractional filtration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilina, Svetlana M.; Lapitsky, Sergey A.; Alekhin, Yuriy V.; Pokrovsky, Oleg S.; Viers, Jerome

    2010-05-01

    This work is aimed at studying the evolution of migration forms of true dissolved compounds and colloidal entities using an integrated approach of molecular mass distribution and differences in the association of trace elements (TE) with organic matter (OM) or Fe colloids in the system soil water-bog-river-lake. Characterization of TE speciation with colloids during TE migration from the site of colloids origin (bog and soil solutions) towards the transit zone (river) and finally to the deposition, accumulation or transformation zone (lake) is a main fundamental task of this problem. The objects of study include a small stream watershed Vostochniy and the river Palayoki (North Karelia, Russia). The water samplings were performed in July and August 2008 and 2009 and included soil solution, nourishing bog, the middle part of the brook originated from the swamp, the mouth of the brook and the lake Zipringa. We sampled large volumes (50 - 100 liters), and we applied, directly in the in-field-installed "clean laboratory" the sequential frontal filtration and ultrafiltration of samples through the filters of progressively decreasing poresize 100, 20, 10, 5, 0.8, 0.4, 0.2 and 0.1 microns; 100 kDa (0.0065 micron), 10 kDa (0.003 micron) and 1 kDa (0.0014 micron). This allowed separation of organic matter, coarse and fine particulate matter and colloids. All filtrates and selected retentates were analyzed for a wide range of macro-and micronutrients using ICP-MS. In filtrates of the river water, a significant decrease of iron concentration occurred in the range of 5 micron to 0.22 micron and from 100 kDa to 1 kDa. For alkali and alkaline earth elements (Mg, K, Ca), as well as for Cu, Ni, Cr the concentrations changed after passing through the 10 kDa membrane. Na concentration remains constant in all filtrates. The filtrates of the soil solution are characterized by a significant decreases in Na, K, after 0.1 micron, Ca, Cu in the range of 0.22 micron - 100 kDa and Mg, Ni in the range of 0.1 micron - 100 kDa. The changing of REEs concentrations occurred in the fraction smaller than 100 kDa for river water and in the fraction larger than 100 kDa in the soil solution. Concerning the evolution of element concentration in the system "soil solution - nourishing bog - river - lake", the concentration of Ca and Mg increases (with a little decrease in the stage "the nourishing bog - the middle current - the mouth"), and the concentration of Cu, Ni, Cr, Ti, Al decreases (with a slight increase in the interval "the nourishing swamp - the middle current - the mouth). The lanthanides have a maximum of their concentration in the river mouth and the minimum in the lake. Concentration of Fe, Zn in the soil solution is an order of magnitude higher than in the river and lake water. The ratio Fe / Me (where Me = Al, Cu, Zn, Ni, Co, Cr, Mn) naturally decreases in the course of filtration, whereas the ratio of Fe to Ti increases in a series of consecutive filtrates of soil solution. These observations can be interpreted as a result of interplay between the processes of TE leaching from soil and peat, complexation with colloids in the lake water and microbiological transformation of colloids in the course of the river flow and in the lake water. Results of the present study allow straightforward evaluation of the transformation of TE colloidal status between the site of their origin, migration and consumption (deposition) The work is executed at a Russian Federal Property Fund and CNRS support (?? 08-05-00312_a, 07-05-92212-CNRS_a).

  1. Factors affecting the sorption of cesium in a nutrient-poor boreal bog.

    PubMed

    Lusa, M; Bomberg, M; Virtanen, S; Lempinen, J; Aromaa, H; Knuutinen, J; Lehto, J

    2015-09-01

    (135)Cs is among the most important radionuclides in the long-term safety assessments of spent nuclear fuel, due to its long half-life of 2.3My and large inventory in spent nuclear fuel. Batch sorption experiments were conducted to evaluate the sorption behavior of radiocesium ((134)Cs) in the surface moss, peat, gyttja, and clay layers of 7-m-deep profiles taken from a nutrient-poor boreal bog. The batch distribution coefficient (Kd) values of radiocesium increased as a function of sampling depth. The highest Kd values, with a geometric mean of 3200L/kg dry weight (DW), were observed in the bottom clay layer and the lowest in the 0.5-1.0m peat layer (50L/kgDW). The maximum sorption in all studied layers was observed at a pH between 7 and 9.5. The in situ Kd values of (133)Cs in surface Sphagnum moss, peat and gyttja samples were one order of magnitude higher than the Kd values obtained using the batch method. The highest in situ Kd values (9040L/kgDW) were recorded for the surface moss layer. The sterilization of fresh surface moss, peat, gyttja and clay samples decreased the sorption of radiocesium by 38%, although the difference was not statistically significant. However, bacteria belonging to the genera Pseudomonas, Paenibacillus, Rhodococcus and Burkholderia isolated from the bog were found to remove radiocesium from the solution under laboratory conditions. The highest biosorption was observed for Paenibacillus sp. V0-1-LW and Pseudomonas sp. PS-0-L isolates. When isolated bacteria were added to sterilized bog samples, the removal of radiocesium from the solution increased by an average of 50% compared to the removal recorded for pure sterilized peat. Our results demonstrate that the sorption of radiocesium in the bog environment is dependent on pH and the type of the bog layer and that common environmental bacteria prevailing in the bog can remove cesium from the solution phase. PMID:26010098

  2. High potential of nitrogen fixation in pristine, ombrotrophic bogs in Southern Patagonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knorr, Klaus-Holger; Horn, Marcus A.; Bahamonde Aguilar, Nelson A.; Borken, Werner

    2015-04-01

    Nitrogen (N) input in pristine peatlands occurs via natural input of inorganic N through atmospheric deposition or biological dinitrogen (N2) fixation. However, N2 fixation is to date mostly attributed to bacteria and algae associated to Sphagnum and its contribution to plant productivity and peat buildup has been often underestimated in previous studies. Based on net N storage, exceptionally low N deposition, and high abundance of vascular plants at pristine peatlands in Southern Patagonia, we hypothesized that there must be a high potential of non-symbiotic N2 fixation not limited to the occurrence of Sphagnum. To this end, we chose two ombrotrophic bogs with spots that are dominated either by Sphagnum or by vascular, cushion-forming plants and sampled peat from different depths for incubation with 15N2 to determine N2 fixation potentials. Moreover, we analyzed 15N2 fixation by a nodule-forming, endemic conifer inhabiting the peatlands. Results from 15N2 uptake were compared to the conventional approach to study N2 fixation by the acetylene reduction assay (ARA). Using 15N2 as a tracer, high non-symbiotic N2 fixation rates of 0.3-1.4 μmol N g-1 d-1 were found down to 50 cm under micro-oxic conditions (2 vol.%) in samples from both plots either covered by Sphagnum magellanicum or by vascular cushion plants. Peat N concentrations suggested a higher potential of non-symbiotic N2 fixation under cushion plants, likely because of the availability of easily decomposable organic compounds as substrates and oxic conditions in the rhizosphere. In the Sphagnum plots, high N2 fixation below 10 cm depth would rather reflect a potential fixation that may switch on during periods of low water levels when oxygen penetrates deeper into the peat. 15N natural abundance of live Sphagnum from 0-10 cm pointed to N uptake solely from atmospheric deposition and non-symbiotic N2 fixation. 15N signatures of peat from the cushion plant plots indicated additional N supply from N mineralization. Nitrogen fixation by the conifer Lepidothamnus fonkii was exceptionally high, reaching 3.1 μmol N g-1 d.w. d-1 detected in roots, stems, and green biomass. For L. fonkii, we could identify a specific association with Beijerinckiaceae as N2 fixing bacteria in the root nodules, whereas the rhizosphere peat was dominated by other diazotrophs. The ARA considerably underestimated N2 fixation and can thus not be recommended for peatland studies. Our findings suggest that non-symbiotic or associative N2 fixation overcomes N deficiency in different vegetation communities and has great significance for N cycling and peat accumulation in pristine peatlands.

  3. Investigation of gas exchange processes in peat bog ecosystems by means of innovative Raman gas spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Frosch, Torsten; Keiner, Robert; Michalzik, Beate; Fischer, Bernhard; Popp, Jürgen

    2013-02-01

    Highly sensitive Raman gas spectroscopy is introduced for simultaneous real time analysis of O(2), CO(2), CH(4), and N(2) in order to elucidate the dynamics of greenhouse gases evolving from climate-sensitive ecosystems. The concentrations and fluxes of this suite of biogenic gases were quantified in the head space of a water-saturated, raised peat bog ecotron. The intact peat bog, exhibiting various degradation stages of peat and sphagnum moss, was exposed to various light regimes in order to determine important ecosystem parameters such as the maximum photosynthesis rate of the sphagnum as well as the extent of soil and plant respiration. Miniaturized Raman gas spectroscopy was proven to be an extremely versatile analytical technique that allows for onsite multigas analysis in high temporal resolution. Therefore it is an urgently needed tool for elucidation of complex biochemical processes especially in climate-sensitive ecosystems and consequently for the estimation of climate-relevant gas budgets. PMID:23320649

  4. Stable strontium isotopic ratios from archaeological organic remains from the Thorsberg peat bog.

    PubMed

    von Carnap-Bornheim, Claus; Nosch, Marie-Louise; Grupe, Gisela; Mekota, Anna-Maria; Schweissing, Mike M

    2007-01-01

    Stable strontium isotope ratios in archaeological finds have frequently been used to determine their place of origin, in order to reconstruct migration and trade. Peat bogs offer favourable burial conditions for the preservation of organic remains such as woollen textiles and leather by a natural tanning process. However, these finds are impregnated by peat substances including contaminant strontium which is likely to mask the original (87)Sr/(86)Sr isotopic ratio of the specimens. In this paper, we present a pilot study analysing stable strontium isotopic ratios from Iron Age textile and leather finds from the Thorsberg peat bog, focusing on a sample processing method which permits the quantitative removal of contaminating strontium from the specimens. PMID:17410552

  5. CO2 soil fluxes at bog and forest ecosystems in southern taiga of European Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, Dmitrii; Ivanov, Aleksey; Vasenev, Ivan; Kurbatova, Juliya

    2015-04-01

    Bogs and spruce forests are typical natural ecosystems of the southern taiga of European Russia. They play an important role in carbon balance between soil and atmosphere. In the Central Forest Reserve (33°00' E, 56°30' N) for over 15 years conduct research of these processes. One of the research methods of CO2 emissions is the chamber method, which allows to analyze the local variation of the intensity of fluxes and its depending of the type of vegetation, microrelief and meteorological parameters. Period of measurements was 5 months - from June to November 2013-2014. In the bog were investigated 3 areas - pine boggy forest, as well as hummocks and hollows in the middle of bog. As the forest ecosystem was chosen paludified shallow-peat spruce forest. From the data obtained it can be concluded that in all ecosystems were observed 2 periods with a minimum values of CO2 emission: the first - in early July, associated with a high level of ground water and decrease the intensity of decomposition of organic matter, and the second - in November, associated with natural processes and seasonal cooling. The average intensity of CO2 emissions in summer-autumn season between all ecosystems varied greatly: in the boggy pine forest - 500 mgCO2/m2*h), hummocks - 550 mgCO2/m2*h, hollows - 290 mgCO2/m2*h) and paludified shallow-peat spruce forest - 750 mgCO2/m2*h. Based on these researches, it was found that the intensity of CO2 emissions significantly below in the bog than in paludified shallow-peat spruce forest because it is limited by the level of ground water. In the paludified shallow-peat spruce forest, fluxes are more depend on soil temperature and less on the groundwater level.

  6. Properties and structure of peat humic acids depending on humification and precursor biota in bogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klavins, Maris; Purmalis, Oskars

    2013-04-01

    Humic substances form most of the organic component of soil, peat and natural waters, but their structure and properties very much differs depending on their source. The aim of this study is to characterize humic acids from raised bog peat profiles to evaluate the homogeneity of humic acids isolated from the bog bodies and study peat humification impact on properties of humic acids. A major impact on the structure of peat humic acids have raised bog biota (dominantly represented by bryophytes of different origin) void of lignin. For characterization of peat humic acids their elemental (CHNOS), functional (-COOH, phenolic OH) analysis, spectroscopic characterization (UV, fluorescence, FTIR, 1H NMR, CP/MAS 13C NMR, ESR) and degradation studies (Py-GC/MS) were done. Peat humic acids (HA) have an intermediate position between the living organic matter and coal organic matter and their structure is formed in a process in which more labile structures (carbohydrates, amino acids, etc.) are destroyed, but thermodynamically more stable aromatic and polyaromatic structures emerge. Comparatively, the studied peat HAs are at the start of the transformation process of living organic matter. Concentrations of carboxyl and phenolic hydroxyl groups changes depending on the depth of peat from which HAs have been isolated: and carboxylic acidity is increasing with depth of peat location and the humification degree. The ability to influence the surface tension of peat humic acids isolated from a well-characterized bog profile demonstrates dependence on age and humification degree. With increase of the humification degree and age of humic acids, their molecular complexity and ability to influence surface tension decreases; even so, the impact of the biological precursor (peat-forming bryophytes and plants) can be identified.

  7. Water and energy exchanges of a subarctic bog in northern Quebec, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadeau, D. F.; Rousseau, A. N.; Coursolle, C.; Margolis, H. A.

    2012-12-01

    The La Grande Rivire watershed in northern Quebec, Canada, hosts the largest hydropower complex of the province, producing nearly 40% of the overall provincial peak load. Although the watershed is mostly occupied by boreal forest, wetlands (25% of the surface cover) play a key role in the hydrology of the region and on the water supply to hydropower reservoirs. This paper studies the water and energy budgets of a highly remote 60-ha bog (53.7N, 78.2W) inside the La Grande Rivire watershed near James Bay, with a main focus on the physical processes controlling evapotranspiration. The analysis is based on eddy covariance data collected during a summer field campaign in 2012, during which a network of 30 small lysimeters was also deployed to measure the spatial variability of daily evaporative fluxes. The applicability of Monin-Obukhov similarity scaling for humidity is carefully studied, along with a detailed analysis of atmospheric and soil (e.g. water table depth) controls on latent heat fluxes. We also study how the thermal inertia of the thick peat layer affects local turbulence properties in the atmospheric boundary layer, particularly under stable stratification. This study allows us to gain a better understanding of energy and water fluxes partitioning in subarctic bogs, but also to develop appropriate formulations for evaporation over these surfaces in hydrological models. Eddy correlation station installed over a subarctic bog in northern Quebec, Canada, during summer 2012.

  8. Carbon balance of a European mountain bog at contrasting stages of regeneration.

    PubMed

    Bortoluzzi, Estelle; Epron, Daniel; Siegenthaler, Andy; Gilbert, Daniel; Buttler, Alexandre

    2006-01-01

    Carbon dioxide and methane (CH4) fluxes were measured in a cutover bog of the Jura Mountains (France) together with biotic and abiotic variables for two entire vegetation periods in order to compare the carbon balance of the bog at three stages of regeneration. Among all factors, air temperature and vegetation index (including leaf area of vascular plants, bryophyte density and bryophyte desiccation) were the two main determinants of ecosystem respiration and gross photosynthesis at light saturation. During 2004 and 2005, the vegetated plots acted as carbon sinks. Net carbon exchange ranged between 67 and 166 g C m(-2) yr(-1) for the Eriophorum-dominated plots and between 93 and 183 g C m(-2) yr(-1) for the Sphagnum-dominated plots. The bare peat plots represented a net carbon source (between -19 and -32 g C m(-2) yr(-1)). Methane fluxes accounted for a very small part of the total carbon efflux (< 2%). The recovery of vegetation in our naturally regenerating bog was beneficial for the carbon sequestration after the relatively short period of 20 yr. PMID:17096796

  9. Methane fluxes during the cold season: distribution and mass transfer in the snow cover of bogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smagin, A. V.; Shnyrev, N. A.

    2015-08-01

    Fluxes and profile distribution of methane in the snow cover and different landscape elements of an oligotrophic West-Siberian bog (Mukhrino Research Station, Khanty-Mansiisk autonomous district) have been studied during a cold season. Simple models have been proposed for the description of methane distribution in the inert snow layer, which combine the transport of the gas and a source of constant intensity on the soil surface. The formation rates of stationary methane profiles in the snow cover have been estimated (characteristic time of 24 h). Theoretical equations have been derived for the calculation of small emission fluxes from bogs to the atmosphere on the basis of the stationary profile distribution parameters, the snow porosity, and the effective methane diffusion coefficient in the snow layer. The calculated values of methane emission significantly (by 2-3 to several tens of times) have exceeded the values measured under field conditions by the closed chamber method (0.008-0.25 mg C/(m2 h)), which indicates the possibility of underestimating the contribution of the cold period to the annual emission cycle of bog methane.

  10. Evaluating cumulative effects of disturbance on the hydrologic function of bogs, fens, and mires

    SciTech Connect

    Siegel, D.I.

    1988-01-01

    Few quantitative studies have been done on the hydrology of fens, bogs, and mires and, consequently, any predictions of the cumulative impacts of disturbances on their hydrologic functions is extremely difficult. Bogs and fens are, in a sense, hydrobiologic systems, and any evaluation of cumulative impacts on them will have to consider the complicated interactions, barely understood, among the wetland hydrology, water chemistry, and biota, and place the effect of individual wetland impacts within the context of the cumulative impacts contributed to the watershed from other geomorphic areas and land uses. It is difficult to evaluate the potential cumulative impacts on wetland hydrology because geologic settings of wetlands are often complex and the methods used to measure wetland stream flow, ground-water flow, and evapotranspiration are inexact. Their very scale makes it difficult to quantify the hydrologic function accurately. The paper reviews current understanding of the hydrologic function of bogs, fens, and mires at different scales and in different physiographic settings, and presents hypotheses on potential cumulative impacts on the hydrologic function that might occur with multiple disturbances.

  11. The new European Competence Centre for Moor and Climate - A European initiative for practical peat bog and climate protection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smidt, Geerd; Tänzer, Detlef

    2013-04-01

    The new European Competence Centre for Moor and Climate (EFMK) is an initiative by different local communities, environmental protection NGOs, agricultural services, and partners from the peat and other industries in Lower Saxony (Germany). The Centre aims to integrate practical peat bog conservation with a focus on green house gas emission after drainage and after water logging activities. Together with our partners we want to break new ground to protect the remaining bogs in the region. Sphagnum mosses will be produced in paludiculture on-site in cooperation with the local peat industry to provide economic and ecologic alternatives for peat products used in horticulture business. Land-use changes are needed in the region and will be stimulated in cooperation with agricultural services via compensation money transfers from environmental protection funds. On a global scale the ideas of Carbon Credit System have to be discussed to protect the peat bogs for climate protection issues. Environmental education is an important pillar of the EFMK. The local society is invited to explore the unique ecosystem and to participate in peat bog protection activities. Future generations will be taught to understand that the health of our peat bogs is interrelated with the health of the local and global climate. Besides extracurricular classes for schools the centre will provide infrastructure for Master and PhD students, as well for senior researchers for applied research in the surrounding moor. International partners in the scientific and practical fields of peat bog ecology, renaturation, green house gas emissions from peat bogs, and environmental policy are invited to participate in the European Competence Center for Moor and Climate.

  12. A comparison of antimony and lead profiles over the past 2500 years in Flanders Moss ombrotrophic peat bog, Scotland.

    PubMed

    Cloy, Joanna M; Farmer, John G; Graham, Margaret C; MacKenzie, Angus B; Cook, Gordon T

    2005-12-01

    Two cores collected in 2001 and 2004 from Flanders Moss ombrotrophic peat bog in central Scotland were dated (14C, 210Pb) and analysed (ICP-OES, ICP-MS) to derive and compare the historical atmospheric deposition records of Sb and Pb over the past 2500 years. After correction, via Sc, for contributions from soil dust, depositional fluxes of Sb and Pb peaked from ca. 1920-1960 A.D., with >95% of the anthropogenic inventories deposited post-1800 A.D. Over the past two centuries, trends in Sb and Pb deposition have been broadly similar, with fluctuations in the anthropogenic Sb/Pb ratio reflecting temporal variations in the relative input from emission sources such as the mining and smelting of Pb ores (in which Sb is commonly present, as at Leadhills/Wanlockhead in southern Scotland), combustion of coal (for which the Sb/Pb ratio is approximately an order of magnitude greater than in Pb ores) and exhaust emissions (Pb from leaded petrol) and abrasion products from the brake linings (Sb from heat-resistant Sb compounds) of automobiles. The influence of leaded petrol has been most noticeable in recent decades, firstly through the resultant minima in Sb/Pb and 206Pb/207Pb ratios (the latter arising from the use of less radiogenic Australian Pb in alkylPb additives) and then, during its phasing out and the adoption of unleaded petrol, complete by 2000 A.D., the subsequent increase in both Sb/Pb and 206Pb/207Pb ratios. The extent of the 20th century maximum anthropogenic enrichment of Sb and Pb, relative to the natural Sc-normalised levels of the Upper Continental Crust, was similar at approximately 50- to 100-fold. Prior to 1800 A.D., the influence of metallurgical activities on Sb and Pb concentrations in the peat cores during both the Mediaeval and Roman/pre-Roman periods was discernible, small Sb and Pb peaks during the latter appearing attributable, on the basis of Pb isotopic composition, to the mining/smelting of Pb ores indigenous to Britain. PMID:16307064

  13. Holocene Paleoclimate Reconstruction in Eastern Canada: Evidence from δ18O of plant cellulose from the Mer Bleue Bog, Ottawa, Ontario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Bilali, H.; Patterson, R.

    2009-12-01

    We present a 9000-year high resolution oxygen isotope composition of cellulose (δ18Ocel) record from an ombrotrophic bog in Eastern Canada to demonstrate the potential of cellulose isotopic composition of plants from peat deposits as a proxy for paleoclimate reconstruction. We measured the δ18Ocel extracted from selected sphagnum constituent (plant macrofossils) collected from the Mer Bleue Bog. The results show that δ18Ocel follows the general trend of Holocene paleotemperature variation for this region through the last 9000 years and the Northern Hemisphere paleotemperature record for the last 2000 years. The δ18Ocel variations delineate three distinct intervals with low values corresponding to; 200 to 800 cal. yr. B.P. (Little Ice Age), 2800 to 3400 cal. yr. B.P. (similar to a cooling period reported in Western Canada and Ireland) and 4200 to 4600 cal. yr. B.P. These periods correspond well with the reconstructed Holocene sunspot numbers record based on the reconstructed 14C and 10Be based solar irradiance record. Low δ18Ocel values also occur during the well-known minima centered at about 1810 to 1820 year A.D. interval (Dalton Minimum/Tambora volcanic event). These finding suggest that solar activity may be a major forcing factor for paleotemperature variation in Eastern Canada. Time series analysis of the dataset indicates the presence of millennial scale cycles (1300 yr) comparable to the Dansgaard-Oeschger/Bond (~1500 yr) events recognized previously in paleoclimate records from around the world that have also been correlated to fluctuations in solar irradiance.

  14. Embryogenesis and tadpole description of Hyperolius castaneus Ahl, 1931 and H. jackie Dehling, 2012 (Anura, Hyperoliidae) from montane bog pools.

    PubMed

    Lehr, Edgar; Dehling, J Maximilian; Greenbaum, Eli; Sinsch, Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    Tadpoles of Hyperolius castaneus and Hyperolius jackie were found in the Nyungwe National Park in Rwanda and adjacent areas. Tadpoles of both species were identified by DNA-barcoding. At the shore of a bog pool three clutches of Hyperolius castaneus of apparently different age, all laid on moss pads (Polytrichum commune, Isotachis aubertii) or grass tussocks (Andropogon shirensis) 2-5 cm above the water level, were found. One clutch of Hyperolius castaneus was infested by larval dipterid flies. The most recently laid clutch contained about 20 eggs within a broad egg-jelly envelope. The eggs were attached to single blades of a tussock and distributed over a vertical distance of 8 cm. A pair of Hyperolius castaneus found in axillary amplexus was transported in a plastic container to the lab for observation. The pair deposited a total of 57 eggs (15 eggs attached to the upper wall of the transport container, 42 eggs floated in the water). Embryogenesis of the clutch was monitored in the plastic container at 20 2 C (air temperature) and documented by photos until Gosner Stage 25. The description of the tadpole of Hyperolius castaneus is based on a Gosner Stage 29 individual from a series of 57 tadpoles (Gosner stages 25-41). The description of the tadpole of Hyperolius jackie is based on a Gosner Stage 32 individual from a series of 43 tadpoles (Gosner stages 25-41). Egg laying behavior and embryogenesis are unknown for Hyperolius jackie. The labial tooth row formula for both species is 1/3(1) with a narrow median gap of the tooth row. Variation in external morphology was observed in size and labial tooth row formula within the species. With the tadpole descriptions of Hyperolius castaneus and Hyperolius jackie, 36 tadpoles of the 135 known Hyperolius species have been described, including five of the eleven Hyperolius species known from Rwanda. PMID:26798309

  15. Embryogenesis and tadpole description of Hyperolius castaneus Ahl, 1931 and H. jackie Dehling, 2012 (Anura, Hyperoliidae) from montane bog pools

    PubMed Central

    Lehr, Edgar; Dehling, J. Maximilian; Greenbaum, Eli; Sinsch, Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Tadpoles of Hyperolius castaneus and Hyperolius jackie were found in the Nyungwe National Park in Rwanda and adjacent areas. Tadpoles of both species were identified by DNA-barcoding. At the shore of a bog pool three clutches of Hyperolius castaneus of apparently different age, all laid on moss pads (Polytrichum commune, Isotachis aubertii) or grass tussocks (Andropogon shirensis) 2–5 cm above the water level, were found. One clutch of Hyperolius castaneus was infested by larval dipterid flies. The most recently laid clutch contained about 20 eggs within a broad egg-jelly envelope. The eggs were attached to single blades of a tussock and distributed over a vertical distance of 8 cm. A pair of Hyperolius castaneus found in axillary amplexus was transported in a plastic container to the lab for observation. The pair deposited a total of 57 eggs (15 eggs attached to the upper wall of the transport container, 42 eggs floated in the water). Embryogenesis of the clutch was monitored in the plastic container at 20 ± 2 °C (air temperature) and documented by photos until Gosner Stage 25. The description of the tadpole of Hyperolius castaneus is based on a Gosner Stage 29 individual from a series of 57 tadpoles (Gosner stages 25–41). The description of the tadpole of Hyperolius jackie is based on a Gosner Stage 32 individual from a series of 43 tadpoles (Gosner stages 25–41). Egg laying behavior and embryogenesis are unknown for Hyperolius jackie. The labial tooth row formula for both species is 1/3(1) with a narrow median gap of the tooth row. Variation in external morphology was observed in size and labial tooth row formula within the species. With the tadpole descriptions of Hyperolius castaneus and Hyperolius jackie, 36 tadpoles of the 135 known Hyperolius species have been described, including five of the eleven Hyperolius species known from Rwanda. PMID:26798309

  16. Temperature-Induced Increase in Methane Release from Peat Bogs: A Mesocosm Experiment

    PubMed Central

    van Winden, Julia F.; Reichart, Gert-Jan; McNamara, Niall P.; Benthien, Albert; Damst, Jaap S. Sinninghe.

    2012-01-01

    Peat bogs are primarily situated at mid to high latitudes and future climatic change projections indicate that these areas may become increasingly wetter and warmer. Methane emissions from peat bogs are reduced by symbiotic methane oxidizing bacteria (methanotrophs). Higher temperatures and increasing water levels will enhance methane production, but also methane oxidation. To unravel the temperature effect on methane and carbon cycling, a set of mesocosm experiments were executed, where intact peat cores containing actively growing Sphagnum were incubated at 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25C. After two months of incubation, methane flux measurements indicated that, at increasing temperatures, methanotrophs are not able to fully compensate for the increasing methane production by methanogens. Net methane fluxes showed a strong temperature-dependence, with higher methane fluxes at higher temperatures. After removal of Sphagnum, methane fluxes were higher, increasing with increasing temperature. This indicates that the methanotrophs associated with Sphagnum plants play an important role in limiting the net methane flux from peat. Methanotrophs appear to consume almost all methane transported through diffusion between 5 and 15C. Still, even though methane consumption increased with increasing temperature, the higher fluxes from the methane producing microbes could not be balanced by methanotrophic activity. The efficiency of the Sphagnum-methanotroph consortium as a filter for methane escape thus decreases with increasing temperature. Whereas 98% of the produced methane is retained at 5C, this drops to approximately 50% at 25C. This implies that warming at the mid to high latitudes may be enhanced through increased methane release from peat bogs. PMID:22768100

  17. Spatial variation in rates of carbon and nitrogen accumulation in a boreal bog

    SciTech Connect

    Ohlson, M.; Oekland, R.H.

    1998-12-01

    Although previous studies hint at the occurrence of substantial spatial variation in the accumulation rates of C and N in bogs, the extent to which rates may vary on high-resolution spatial and temporal scales is not known. A main reason for the lack of knowledge is that it is problematic to determine the precise age of peat at a given depth. The authors determined rates of carbon and nitrogen accumulation in the uppermost decimeters of a bog ecosystem using the pine method, which enables accurate dating of surface peat layers. They combined accumulation data with numerical and geostatistical analyses of the recent vegetation to establish the relationship between bog vegetation and rate of peat accumulation. Use of a laser technique for spatial positioning of 151 age-determined peat cores within a 20 x 20 m plot made it possible to give the first tine-scaled account of spatial and temporal variation in rates of mass, carbon, and nitrogen accumulation during the last century. Rates of C and N accumulation were highly variable at all spatial scales studied. For example, after {approximately}125 yr of peat growth, C and N accumulation varied by factors of five and four, respectively, from 25 to 125 g/dm{sup 2} for C, and from 0.7 to 2.6 g/dm{sup 2} for N. It takes 40 yr of peat accumulation before significant amounts of C are lost through decay. Hummocks built up by Sphagnum fuscum and S. rubellum were able to maintain average rates of C accumulation that exceed 2 g{center_dot}dm{sup {minus}2}{center_dot} yr{sup {minus}1} during 50 yr of growth. The authors argue that data on spatial variation in rates of C accumulation are necessary to understand the role of boreal peatlands in the greenhouse effect and global climate.

  18. Fate of N in a peatland, Whim bog: N immobilisation in the vegetation and peat, leakage into pore water and losses as N2O depend on the form of N

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheppard, L. J.; Leith, I. D.; Leeson, S. R.; van Dijk, N.; Field, C.; Levy, P.

    2012-07-01

    Peatlands' vast carbon reserves accumulated under low nitrogen availability. Carbon and nitrogen cycling are inextricably linked, so what are the consequences of increased reactive nitrogen deposition for the sustainability and functioning of peatlands, and does the form of the nitrogen deposition make a difference? We have addressed these questions for an ombrotrophic peatland, Whim bog in SE Scotland, using a globally unique field simulation of reactive N deposition as dry deposited ammonia and wet deposited reduced N, ammonium and oxidised N, nitrate, added as ammonium chloride or sodium nitrate. The effects of 10 yr of reactive N additions, 56 kg N ha-1 yr-1, depended on the N form. Ammonia-N deposition caused the keystone Sphagnum species, together with the main shrub Calluna and the pleurocarpous mosses to disappear, exposing up to 30% of the peat surface. This led to a significant increase in soil water nitrate and nitrous oxide emissions. By contrast wet deposited N, despite significantly reducing the cover of Sphagnum and Pleurozium moss, did not have a detrimental effect on Calluna cover nor did it significantly change soil water N concentrations or nitrous oxide emissions. Importantly 10 yr of wet deposited N did not bare the peat surface nor significantly disrupt the vegetation, enabling the N to be retained within the carbon rich peatland ecosystems. However, given the significant role of Sphagnum in maintaining conditions that retard decomposition this study suggests that all nitrogen forms will eventually compromise carbon sequestration by peatlands through loss of some keystone Sphagnum species.

  19. GPR attenuation analyses using spectral ratios of primary and multiple arrivals: examples from Welsh peat bogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Booth, A.; Carless, D.; Kulessa, B.

    2014-12-01

    Ground penetrating radar (GPR) is widely applied to qualitative and quantitative interpretation of near-surface targets. Surface deployments of GPR most widely characterise physical properties in terms of some measure of GPR wavelet velocity. Wavelet amplitude is less-often considered, potentially due to difficulties in measuring this quantity: amplitudes are distorted by the anisotropic radiation pattern of antennas, and the ringy GPR wavelet can make successive events difficult to isolate. However, amplitude loss attributes could provide a useful means of estimating the physical properties of a target. GPR energy loss is described by the bandwidth-limited quality factor Q* which, for low-loss media, is proportional to the ratio of dielectric permittivity, ?, and electrical conductivity, ?. Comparing the frequency content of two arrivals yields an estimate of interval Q*, but only if they are sufficiently distinct. There may be sufficient separation between a primary reflection and its long-path multiple (i.e. a 'repeat path' of the primary reflection) therefore a dataset that is rich in multiples may be suitable for robust Q* analysis. The Q* between a primary and multiple arrival describes all frequency-dependent loss mechanisms in the interval between the free-surface and the multiple-generating horizon: assuming that all reflectivity is frequency-independent, Q* can be used to estimate ? and/or ?. We measure Q* according to the spectral ratio method, for synthetic and real GPR datasets. Our simulations are performed using the finite-difference algorithm GprMax, and represent our example data of GPR acquisitions over peat bogs. These data are a series of 100 MHz GPR acquisitions over sites in the Brecon Beacons National Park of South Wales. The base of the bogs (the basal peat/mineral soil contact) is often a strong multiple-generating horizon. As an example, data from Waun Ddu bog show these events lagging by ~75 ns: GPR velocity is measured here at 0.034 m/ns (relative ? of 77.9) and spectral ratios suggest Q* of 19.9 [-6.6 +19.4]. This Q* implies that the bulk ? of the bog is 21.7 [-10.7 +10.8] mS/m. Our measurements require in situ verification (e.g. comparison with co-located electrical resistivity profiles) but our method provides a promising addition to the suite of GPR analysis tools.

  20. Effects of Fire on Boreal Bogs and Implications of Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benscoter, B. W.; Vitt, D. H.; Wieder, R. K.

    2007-12-01

    Peatland ecosystems, which are predominantly found in northern boreal regions of Canada and Russia, accumulate carbon because photosynthetic production of the mosses dominating the ground layer exceeds their decomposition, thereby generating peat. Production and decomposition rates, and therefore peat accumulation, are species-specific and climatically controlled. While primary production of these systems is relatively low, the cold, wet, nutrient poor conditions found therein result in slow rates of decomposition. Therefore, changes in climate or vegetation composition will have an affect on boreal peatland function. Fire is the most prevalent disturbance for boreal peatlands of western Canada. Ombrotrophic, forested bog peatlands are most affected by fire due to a drier peat surface relative to other peatland landforms and an extensive Picea mariana canopy. In addition to direct C losses during peat combustion, fire has indirect affects on bog C cycling through removal of the ground layer vegetation and alteration of the surface environment. Because peat accumulation varies among species, functional recovery post-fire is linked to ground layer succession, which varies with combustion severity. To assess the post-fire compositional and functional recovery trajectories of western Canadian bogs, we monitored the ground layer community structure, production, and decomposition from 2003 to 2006 along a chronosequence of historically burned bogs (1-105 years since fire). Ground layer succession was tri-phasic, grading from pioneer true mosses early post-fire (1-10 ysf) to a Sphagnum-dominated community (20-80 ysf), followed by feathermoss encroachment at the longest recovery times (>90 ysf). However, the ground layer biomass production trajectory was asymptotic, stabilizing at ca. 20 years post-fire coinciding with Sphagnum dominance of the ground layer community. Decomposition in the upper peat column (top 40-cm) did not vary along the chronosequence, although surface (<2-cm) decomposition was not assessed. From our results, we developed models to assess the impact of an altered fire regime on peatland C storage. Increases in annual extent of wildfire and combustion severity under a 2xCO2 scenario substantially extend the peatland C pool recovery time. Furthermore, other models suggest a substantial reduction of the fire return interval (< 70 yrs) will cause peatlands to become sources, rather than sinks, of atmospheric C. Warming will enhance this effect, requiring less of a reduction in fire interval to trigger the functional switch.

  1. Impact of environmental factors on dissolved organic carbon concentrations in German bogs under grassland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frank, Stefan; Tiemeyer, Brbel; Freibauer, Annette

    2013-04-01

    Peatlands cover about 5% of Germany's land area. Agricultural use combined with drainage increases the greenhouse gas emissions and alters the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations in the soil- and groundwater of these ecosystems. Cycling of DOC is influenced by a complex interaction of environmental factors such as peat characteristics, groundwater level, meteorological conditions, pH-value and ionic strength. Reasons for elevated DOC concentrations are debated in literature, but only a few studies on the dynamic of DOC in raised bogs in Germany have been conducted so far. In Germany, raised bogs are mainly used as grassland. Therefore, five grassland study sites and one natural reference have been selected. The bog "Ahlenmoor" has a deep, medium to weakly decomposed peat layer. There, three study sites represent different land use intensities with a corresponding groundwater table (intensive grassland, extensive grassland, natural reference). The bog relict "Groes Moor" is characterised by a shallow amorphous peat layer, which is partly mixed with sand. There, three sites in an extensive grassland were chosen to study the effects of soil carbon concentrations (9 to 48 %) and groundwater levels. At each site, nine suction plates (three replicates in each depth) and three tensiometers were installed in 15, 30 and 60 cm. Soil water was sampled fortnightly from June 2011 to December 2012 and analysed for electrical conductivity, pH-value and DOC concentration. Compared to most literature values, DOC concentrations at our study sites were very high (on average, 197 to 55 mg/L). At the "Ahlenmoor", an increase in agricultural intensity and a lower groundwater table increases both the DOC concentrations and their variability in the soil water in order intensive grassland > extensive grassland > natural site. Surprisingly, soil carbon concentration and groundwater table gradients as investigated in the "Groes Moor" did only lead to minor differences in the DOC concentrations. At these sites, the highest DOC concentrations were measured in the zone of transition between peat and mineral layer. No consistent relationship between DOC concentrations and electrical conductivity or pH-value could be found. In the "Ahlenmoor", seasonal variations of temperature and water table position influence DOC concentrations. The highest values were measured in late summer after warm and dry periods. At the study sites of the "Groes Moor", the seasonal variation of temperature and groundwater table had no impact on DOC concentrations. Our results show that while it is difficult to unravel all factors controlling DOC concentrations, drainage and physical disturbance clearly increase DOC concentrations.

  2. Botanical reconnaissance of Big Run Bog Candidate Research Natural Area. Forest Service general technical report (Final)

    SciTech Connect

    Muzika, R.M.; Hunsucker, R.; DeMeo, T.

    1996-07-25

    To document the botanical diversity of the Big Run Bog candidate Research Natural Area on the Monongahela National Forest in West Virginia, a botanical survey was conducted in 1993-94. The survey identified 193 species of vascular plants in 118 genera and 52 families. Six species of rare vascular plants were found. Vascular plant families with the most species present were Cyperaceae (24), Asteraceae (23), Poaceae (16), and Ericaceae (14). For each taxon, family, species, habitat and estimated abundance are reported. Nonvascular plants totaled 87 species in 55 genera and 33 families.

  3. Reconstructing the environmental impact of smelters using Pb isotope analyses of peat cores from bogs: Flin Flon, Manitoba and Harjavalta, Finland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shotyk, W.

    2012-04-01

    Located on the Manitoba - Saskatchewan border, the city of Flin Flon has been home to a metallurgical complex since 1930, processing Cu and Zn ores from surrounding mines and consisting of a concentrator, Zn plant, and Cu smelter. Peat cores were collected from two sites, dated using 210Pb, and measured for a broad suite of potentially toxic trace metals. A peat core collected from the bog at Kotyk Lake (30 km NE of FF) shows declines in 206Pb/207Pb from the natural "background" values of 1.25 at the base of the core, to a minimum of 1.02. A peat core collected from the bog at Sask Lake (88 km NW of FF) shows declines in 206Pb/207Pb from the natural "background" values of 1.35 at the base of the core to a minimum of 1.05. But the isotopic evolution of Pb shows significantly declines in 206Pb/207Pb beginning in the late 1800's, presumably because of long-range atmospheric transport from other sources. The 206Pb/207Pb values increase in both cores starting in the 1960's, and reach a recent maximum in the 1990's, apparently reflecting the growing use and eventually phase out of leaded gasoline use. Since the 1990's, the 206Pb/207Pb have continued their decline, apparently reflecting the elimination of leaded gasoline and the growing relative importance of Pb from the smelter. The temporal evolution in Pb enrichment factors follows the history of the metallurgical complex, with the maximum EF values (calculated using Sc) reaching maxima of ca. 100 x (Kotyk Lake) and 10 x (Sask Lake). The maximum rates of atmospheric Pb accumulation are approximately 1200 and 120 μg/m2/yr, respectively. In Finland, peat cores were taken from three bogs: the Pyhäsuo mire in SW Finland, 6 km NE from the Cu Ni smelter at Harjavalta (HAR); at the Viurusuo complex in eastern Finland, 8 km SW of the Cu Ni mine in the town of Outokumpu (OUT); and at Hietajärvi (HJ), in the Patvinsuo National Park of eastern Finland. The cores from HJ and OUT document 3,000 years of anthropogenic Pb and provide a remarkably similar evolution of Pb isotopes, reaching values as low as 206Pb/207Pb = 1.151 (AD 1982) and 1.148 (AD 1984), respectively. At HAR, the minimum values are lower (206Pb/207Pb = 1.120) and earlier (AD 1954 -1967), presumably because of emissions from the smelter. The Pb concentrations in the porewaters from HAR are approximately an order of magnitude greater than the other sites, and the 206Pb/207Pb values significantly lower (ca. 1.12 vs. 1.15), because of the combined effects of greater Pb deposition and surface water acidification (pH 3.5 versus pH 4.0 in the other bogs).

  4. Holocene monsoon variability inferred from Targo Xian peat bog in the Tangra Yumco basin, central Tibetan Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henkel, Karoline; Haberzettl, Torsten; Miehe, Sabine; Frenzel, Peter; Daut, Gerhard; Dietze, Elisabeth; Kasper, Thomas; Ahlborn, Marieke; Musbacher, Roland

    2013-04-01

    The Tibetan Plateau is the greatest plateau on Earth with an average altitude of 4,500 m asl. Due to its high elevation, large area and significant role in the formation of the Asian Monsoon Systems (e.g., Indian Ocean and East-Asian Summer Monsoon) it is considered to react very sensitive to climate variations. The numerous lake systems on the Tibetan Plateau represent excellent archives reflecting variations in the strength of the monsoon system in terms of hydrological changes expressed in lake level fluctuations. For example, terraces and lacustrine deposits around the saline lake Tangra Yumco indicate lake level highstands up to ~215 m higher than the present lake level. To study Holocene lake level variations we investigated a 3.6 m long sediment core recovered from a peat bog (near the Targo Xian settlement, 3046'N, 8640'E) on a recessional lake level terrace ~150 m above the present shoreline of Tangra Yumco. In particular, our analyses of sedimentological (grain size), geochemical (CNS and ICP-OES) and mineralogical (XRD) data allow a detailed and high-resolution interpretation of the hydrological conditions during the Holocene. The existence of two carbonate layers in the Targo Xian record, separated by a sand layer and intercalated in peat sequences at the bottom and top of the core, provide evidence for two stable lake stages at the coring position. Peat at the bottom of the core, which is radiocarbon-dated to 11,130 +130/-345 cal BP, indicates wetland conditions similar to the Recent situation (Miehe et al., submitted). After a transition zone, a layer of pure aragonitic lake marl gives evidence for a lake stage. During this stage, high values of the total inorganic carbon (TIC) and Ca/Ti ratios as well as low C/N ratios point to a stable lake due to wet climatic conditions. This carbonate layer can be correlated with a 2-3 m thick carbonate layer found in outcrops around the present lake Tangra Yumco presenting a high lake level until approx. 2.3 (+/-0.2) ka BP (OSL age, Long et al. 2012). Results of former investigations of other lakes on the Tibetan Plateau (e.g., lake Nam Co (Kasper et al., 2012)) point to a strong Indian Ocean Summer Monsoon during the Early to Mid Holocene. In the presented record, a falling lake level and a possible desiccation of the coring location is shown by a coarse sand layer including gravel. Another lake marl section above is well delimited from the other sections in its mineralogical composition as it is composed by calcite reflecting an additional lake stage at the coring site. This led to the assumption, that this second lake stage was characterized by a smaller lake with a higher detrital input which existed until approx. 930 +45/-135 cal BP. After an oscillation of dry and wet (peat production) phases a constant peat bog developed and is still present. References: Kasper, T. et al. (2012): doi: 10.1016/j.quascirev.2012.02.011 Long, H. et al. (2012): doi: 10.1016/j.quageo.2011.11.005 Miehe et al. (submitted): JOPL

  5. Functioning of microbial complexes in aerated layers of a highmoor peat bog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golovchenko, A. V.; Bogdanova, O. Yu.; Stepanov, A. L.; Polyanskaya, L. M.; Zvyagintsev, D. G.

    2010-09-01

    Monitoring was carried out using the luminescent-microscopic method of the abundance parameters of different groups of microorganisms in a monolith and in the mixed layers of a highmoor peat bog (oligotrophic residual-eutrophic peat soil) in a year-long model experiment. The increase of the aeration as a result of mixing of the layers enhanced the activity of the soil fungi. This was attested to by the following changes: the increase of the fungal mycelium length by 6 times and of the fungal biomass by 4 times and the double decrease of the fraction of spores in the fungal complex. The response of the fungal complex to mixing was different in the different layers of the peat bog. The maximal effect was observed in the T1 layer and the minimal one in the T2 layer. The emission of CO2 in the mixed samples was 1.5-2 times higher than that from the undisturbed peat samples. In contrast with the fungi, the bacteria and actinomycetes were not affected by the aeration of the highmoor layers.

  6. Phylogenetic Analysis and In Situ Identification of Bacteria Community Composition in an Acidic Sphagnum Peat Bog

    PubMed Central

    Dedysh, Svetlana N.; Pankratov, Timofei A.; Belova, Svetlana E.; Kulichevskaya, Irina S.; Liesack, Werner

    2006-01-01

    The Bacteria community composition in an acidic Sphagnum peat bog (pH 3.9 to 4.5) was characterized by a combination of 16S rRNA gene clone library analysis, rRNA-targeted fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), and cultivation. Among 84 environmental 16S rRNA gene clones, a set of only 16 cloned sequences was closely related (?95% similarity) to taxonomically described organisms. Main groups of clones were affiliated with the Acidobacteria (24 clones), Alphaproteobacteria (20), Verrucomicrobia (13), Actinobacteria (8), Deltaproteobacteria (4), Chloroflexi (3), and Planctomycetes (3). The proportion of cells that hybridized with oligonucleotide probes specific for members of the domains Bacteria (EUB338-mix) and Archaea (ARCH915 and ARC344) accounted for only 12 to 22% of the total cell counts. Up to 24% of the EUB338-positive cells could be assigned by FISH to specific bacterial phyla. Alphaproteobacteria and Planctomycetes were the most numerous bacterial groups (up to 1.3 107 and 1.1 107 cells g?1 peat, respectively). In contrast to conventional plating techniques, a novel biofilm-mediated enrichment approach allowed us to isolate some representatives of predominant Bacteria groups, such as Acidobacteria and Planctomycetes. This novel strategy has great potential to enable the isolation of a significant proportion of the peat bog bacterial diversity. PMID:16517660

  7. Phylogenetic analysis and in situ identification of bacteria community composition in an acidic Sphagnum peat bog.

    PubMed

    Dedysh, Svetlana N; Pankratov, Timofei A; Belova, Svetlana E; Kulichevskaya, Irina S; Liesack, Werner

    2006-03-01

    The Bacteria community composition in an acidic Sphagnum peat bog (pH 3.9 to 4.5) was characterized by a combination of 16S rRNA gene clone library analysis, rRNA-targeted fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), and cultivation. Among 84 environmental 16S rRNA gene clones, a set of only 16 cloned sequences was closely related (>or=95% similarity) to taxonomically described organisms. Main groups of clones were affiliated with the Acidobacteria (24 clones), Alphaproteobacteria (20), Verrucomicrobia (13), Actinobacteria (8), Deltaproteobacteria (4), Chloroflexi (3), and Planctomycetes (3). The proportion of cells that hybridized with oligonucleotide probes specific for members of the domains Bacteria (EUB338-mix) and Archaea (ARCH915 and ARC344) accounted for only 12 to 22% of the total cell counts. Up to 24% of the EUB338-positive cells could be assigned by FISH to specific bacterial phyla. Alphaproteobacteria and Planctomycetes were the most numerous bacterial groups (up to 1.3x10(7) and 1.1x10(7) cells g-1 peat, respectively). In contrast to conventional plating techniques, a novel biofilm-mediated enrichment approach allowed us to isolate some representatives of predominant Bacteria groups, such as Acidobacteria and Planctomycetes. This novel strategy has great potential to enable the isolation of a significant proportion of the peat bog bacterial diversity. PMID:16517660

  8. Multi-omics of permafrost, active layer and thermokarst bog soil microbiomes.

    PubMed

    Hultman, Jenni; Waldrop, Mark P; Mackelprang, Rachel; David, Maude M; McFarland, Jack; Blazewicz, Steven J; Harden, Jennifer; Turetsky, Merritt R; McGuire, A David; Shah, Manesh B; VerBerkmoes, Nathan C; Lee, Lang Ho; Mavrommatis, Kostas; Jansson, Janet K

    2015-05-14

    Over 20% of Earth's terrestrial surface is underlain by permafrost with vast stores of carbon that, once thawed, may represent the largest future transfer of carbon from the biosphere to the atmosphere. This process is largely dependent on microbial responses, but we know little about microbial activity in intact, let alone in thawing, permafrost. Molecular approaches have recently revealed the identities and functional gene composition of microorganisms in some permafrost soils and a rapid shift in functional gene composition during short-term thaw experiments. However, the fate of permafrost carbon depends on climatic, hydrological and microbial responses to thaw at decadal scales. Here we use the combination of several molecular 'omics' approaches to determine the phylogenetic composition of the microbial communities, including several draft genomes of novel species, their functional potential and activity in soils representing different states of thaw: intact permafrost, seasonally thawed active layer and thermokarst bog. The multi-omics strategy reveals a good correlation of process rates to omics data for dominant processes, such as methanogenesis in the bog, as well as novel survival strategies for potentially active microbes in permafrost. PMID:25739499

  9. Multi-omics of Permafrost, Active Layer and Thermokarst Bog Soil Microbiomes

    SciTech Connect

    Hultman, Jenni; Waldrop, Mark P.; Mackelprang, Rachel; David, Maude; McFarland, Jack; Blazewicz, Steven J.; Harden, Jennifer W.; Turetsky, Merritt; McGuire, A. David; Shah, Manesh B.; VerBerkmoes, Nathan C.; Lee, Lang Ho; Mavrommatis, Konstantinos; Jansson, Janet K.

    2015-03-04

    Over 20% of Earth’s terrestrial surface is underlain by permafrost with vast stores of carbon that, if thawed may represent the largest future transfer of C from the biosphere to the atmosphere 1. This process is largely dependent on microbial responses, but we know little about microbial activity in intact, let alone in thawing permafrost. Molecular approaches have recently revealed the identities and functional gene composition of microorganisms in some permafrost soils 2-4 and a rapid shift in functional gene composition during short-term thaw experiments 3. However, the fate of permafrost C depends on climatic, hydrologic, and microbial responses to thaw at decadal scales 5, 6. Here the combination of several molecular “omics” approaches enabled us to determine the phylogenetic composition of the microbial community, including several draft genomes of novel species, their functional potential and activity in soils representing different states of thaw: intact permafrost, seasonally thawed active layer and thermokarst bog. The multi-omics strategy revealed a good correlation of process rates to omics data for dominant processes, such as methanogenesis in the bog, as well as novel survival strategies for potentially active microbes in permafrost.

  10. Multi-omics of permafrost, active layer and thermokarst bog soil microbiomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hultman, Jenni; Waldrop, Mark P.; Mackelprang, Rachel; David, Maude M.; McFarland, Jack; Blazewicz, Steven J.; Harden, Jennifer; Turetsky, Merritt R.; McGuire, A. David; Shah, Manesh B.; Verberkmoes, Nathan C.; Lee, Lang Ho; Mavrommatis, Kostas; Jansson, Janet K.

    2015-05-01

    Over 20% of Earth's terrestrial surface is underlain by permafrost with vast stores of carbon that, once thawed, may represent the largest future transfer of carbon from the biosphere to the atmosphere. This process is largely dependent on microbial responses, but we know little about microbial activity in intact, let alone in thawing, permafrost. Molecular approaches have recently revealed the identities and functional gene composition of microorganisms in some permafrost soils and a rapid shift in functional gene composition during short-term thaw experiments. However, the fate of permafrost carbon depends on climatic, hydrological and microbial responses to thaw at decadal scales. Here we use the combination of several molecular `omics' approaches to determine the phylogenetic composition of the microbial communities, including several draft genomes of novel species, their functional potential and activity in soils representing different states of thaw: intact permafrost, seasonally thawed active layer and thermokarst bog. The multi-omics strategy reveals a good correlation of process rates to omics data for dominant processes, such as methanogenesis in the bog, as well as novel survival strategies for potentially active microbes in permafrost.

  11. Heat transport in the Red Lake Bog, Glacial Lake Agassiz Peatlands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKenzie, J.M.; Siegel, D.I.; Rosenberry, D.O.; Glaser, P.H.; Voss, C.I.

    2007-01-01

    We report the results of an investigation on the processes controlling heat transport in peat under a large bog in the Glacial Lake Agassiz Peatlands. For 2 years, starting in July 1998, we recorded temperature at 12 depth intervals from 0 to 400 cm within a vertical peat profile at the crest of the bog at sub-daily intervals. We also recorded air temperature 1 m above the peat surface. We calculate a peat thermal conductivity of 0.5 W m-1 ??C-1 and model vertical heat transport through the peat using the SUTRA model. The model was calibrated to the first year of data, and then evaluated against the second year of collected heat data. The model results suggest that advective pore-water flow is not necessary to transport heat within the peat profile and most of the heat is transferred by thermal conduction alone in these waterlogged soils. In the spring season, a zero-curtain effect controls the transport of heat through shallow depths of the peat. Changes in local climate and the resulting changes in thermal transport still may cause non-linear feedbacks in methane emissions related to the generation of methane deeper within the peat profile as regional temperatures increase. Copyright ?? 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Hounsfield Units ranges in CT-scans of bog bodies and mummies.

    PubMed

    Villa, Chiara; Lynnerup, Niels

    2012-01-01

    Mummification processes, either artificial or natural, preserve the tissues from postmortem decay, but change them from their original state. In this study we provided the first comprehensive set of Hounsfield Unit (HU) ranges specific for tissues mummified under different environmental conditions (peat bog, cold-dry and hot-dry environment). We also analyzed the impact of different museal preservation techniques on the HU ranges, as e.g. in the Tollund Man and Grauballe Man, two bog bodies from Denmark. The HU results for mummies were compared with HU results from forensic cases, cremated and inhumated ancient human skeletal remains, and fossil animal bones. Knowledge of the typical HU range for the different tissues in mummies may help to avoid misinterpretation of increased or reduced radiodensity as evidence of paleopathological conditions. Finally, we demonstrate the practical benefit of using our re-defined HU ranges by showing the improved results of 3D visualization from automatic segmentation in an Inca mummy from Mount Llullaillaco. PMID:22606909

  13. Stable (206Pb, 207Pb, 208Pb) and radioactive (210Pb) lead isotopes in 1 year of growth of Sphagnum moss from four ombrotrophic bogs in southern Germany: Geochemical significance and environmental implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shotyk, William; Kempter, Heike; Krachler, Michael; Zaccone, Claudio

    2015-08-01

    The surfaces of Sphagnum carpets were marked with plastic mesh and 1 year later the production of plant matter was harvested in four ombrotrophic bogs from two regions of southern Germany: Upper Bavaria (Oberbayern, OB) and the Northern Black Forest (Nordschwarzwald, NBF). Radioactive, 210Pb was determined in solid samples using ultralow background gamma spectrometry while total Pb concentrations and stable isotopes (206Pb, 207Pb, 208Pb) were determined in acid digests using ICP-SMS. Up to 12 samples (40 × 40 cm) were collected per site, and 6-10 sites investigated per bog. The greatest variations within a given sampling site were in the range 212-532 Bq kg-1 for 210Pb activity, whereas 206Pb/207Pb and 208Pb/206Pb varied less than 1%. The median values of all parameters for the sites (6-10 per bog) were not significantly different. The median activities of 210Pb (Bq kg-1) in the mosses collected from the bogs in NBF (HO = 372 ± 56, n = 55; WI = 342 ± 58, n = 93) were slightly less from those in OB (GS = 394 ± 50, n = 55; KL = 425 ± 58, n = 24). However, the mosses in the NBF bogs exhibited much greater productivity (187-202 g m-2 a-1) compared to those of OB (71-91 g m-2 a-1), and this has a profound impact on the accumulation rates of 210Pb (Bq m-2 a-1), with the bogs in the NBF yielding fluxes (HO = 73 ± 30; WI = 65 ± 20) which are twice those of OB (GS = 29 ± 11; KL = 40 ± 13). Using the air concentrations of 210Pb measured at Schauinsland (SIL) in the southern Black Forest and average annual precipitation, the atmospheric fluxes of 210Pb at SIL (340 Bq m-2 a-1) exceeds the corresponding values obtained from the mosses by a factor of five, providing the first quantitative estimate of the net retention efficiency of 210Pb by Sphagnum. When the 210Pb activities of all moss samples are combined (n = 227), a significant decrease with increasing plant production rate is observed; in contrast, total Pb concentrations show the opposite trend. The contrasting behaviour of 210Pb and total Pb in the mosses may reflect differences in the particle size distribution of the corresponding aerosols, their physical and chemical properties, the extent of their interaction with plant surfaces, or some combination of these factors. The 206Pb/207Pb ratios from NBF (HO = 1.159 ± 0.002, n = 19; WI = 1.157 ± 0.003, n = 48) and OB (GS = 1.157 ± 0.003, n = 28; KL = 1.159 ± 0.003, n = 15) are uniform and indicate that both regions are impacted by Pb from predominately anthropogenic sources. Although Sphagnum moss represents an established receptor in monitoring atmospheric Pb deposition, the physical characteristics (size, morphology, composition) of the three predominant kinds of Pb-bearing aerosols considered here, namely 210Pb (adsorbed onto aerosol surfaces, following decay of 222Rn), anthropogenic Pb (sub-micron aerosols from high temperature combustion processes) and lithogenic Pb soil-derived mineral dusts (tens of microns, from chemical weathering of crustal rocks), are fundamentally different and these have consequences for the retention efficiency of the three kinds of particles.

  14. Development of a high resolution modeling tool for prediction of waterflows through complex mires: Example of the Mukhrino bog complex in West Siberian middle Taiga Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zarov, Evgeny A.; Schmitz, Oliver; Bleuten, Wladimir

    2015-04-01

    Water flow through peat bogs differ substantially from mineral soil landscapes. Permeability of the peatlayers decrease dramatically with depth within the permanently watersaturated peat layers (Catotelm), whereas the 10-60 cm thick superficial layer (Acrotelm) has a very high conductivity. Water flows predominantly in this acrotelm layer where an open structure of stems of mosses and few plants hardly limit water flow. By omitting this superficial flow infrastructures in many places block the waterflow. Moreover, the different bog types within a complex bog have different hydrological conductivities. Without considering the typical water-flow of bogs the construction of roads and platforms for oil and gas production threatens downhill mire ecosystems by partly drainage. The objective of our study was to develop a modeling tool which can be used to predict quantitatively spatially distributed water-flow of a bog complex. A part of the extensive bog complex "Mukhrino bog complex" located at the left bank of Irtysh river near the West Siberian town Khanty-Mansiysk' was chosen as modeling area. Water discharge from this bog catchment occurs by "waterfalls" at the East margin where a scarp with ca. 8 m elevation difference has been developed by backward erosion into the bog by the Mukhrino river. From field observations it was proven that no discharge of groundwater occurred at the margin of the bog catchment area. We used PCRaster-MODFLOW as modeling environment. The model area size was 3.8 km2, cell size 5 m and the model included 3 Acrotelm layers and 3 Catotelm layers. Thickness of Acrotelm and Catotelm have been measured by coring in transects. Input data of rain, snow have been recorded in the study area. Evapotranspiration was measured with small lysimeters and crop factors for different land unit types (open water, raised bog, patterned bog, poor fens) were elaborated by water balance modeling (1-D). Land unit types have been mapped by supervised classification of a satellite image (QuickBird). For modeling open water type was split into shallow lakes and deep "primary" lakes. From the model output of water level heads and flows in three dimensions it was concluded that 95% occurs by superficial flow through the Catotelm layers. Water flow through the Catotelm occurs bit was of minor importance. With the modeling tool a virtual dam was created through the modeling area and the accumulated water-flow across this dam calculated. The tool proved to be suitable for calculation of optimization of permeability of road constructions through mires avoiding damaging the high valuable bog ecosystems.

  15. Trench Logs and Scarp Data from an Investigation of the Steens Fault Zone, Bog Hot Valley and Pueblo Valley, Humboldt County, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Personius, Stephen F.; Crone, Anthony J.; Machette, Michael N.; Kyung, Jai Bok; Cisneros, Hector; Lidke, David J.; Mahan, Shannon

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: This report contains field and laboratory data from a study of the Steens fault zone near Denio, Nev. The 200-km-long Steens fault zone forms the longest, most topographically prominent fault-bounded escarpment in the Basin and Range of southern Oregon and northern Nevada. The down-to-the-east normal fault is marked by Holocene fault scarps along nearly half its length, including the southern one-third of the fault from the vicinity of Pueblo Mountain in southern Oregon to the southern margin of Bog Hot Valley (BHV) southwest of Denio, Nev. We studied this section of the fault to better constrain late Quaternary slip rates, which we hope to compare to deformation rates derived from a recently established geodetic network in the region (Hammond and Thatcher, 2005). We excavated a trench in May 2003 across one of a series of right-stepping fault scarps that extend south from the southern end of the Pueblo Mountains and traverse the floor of Bog Hot Valley, about 4 km south of Nevada State Highway 140. This site was chosen because of the presence of well-preserved fault scarps, their development on lacustrine deposits thought to be suitable for luminescence dating, and the proximity of two geodetic stations that straddle the fault zone. We excavated a second trench in the southern BHV, but the fault zone in this trench collapsed during excavation and thus no information about fault history was documented from this site. We also excavated a soil pit on a lacustrine barrier bar in the southern Pueblo Valley (PV) to better constrain the age of lacustrine deposits exposed in the trench. The purpose of this report is to present photomosaics and trench logs, scarp profiles and slip data, soils data, luminescence and radiocarbon ages, and unit descriptions obtained during this investigation. We do not attempt to use the data presented herein to construct a paleoseismic history of this part of the Steens fault zone; that history will be the subject of a future report.

  16. Summer methane fluxes from a boreal bog in northern Quebec, Canada, using eddy covariance measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadeau, Daniel F.; Rousseau, Alain N.; Coursolle, Carole; Margolis, Hank A.; Parlange, Marc B.

    2013-12-01

    A boreal bog located in the James Bay lowlands, Canada, was instrumented with an open-path gas analyzer to monitor the turbulent fluxes of methane throughout the summer of 2012. The mostly continuous eddy covariance measurements permitted the study of methane dynamics at the hourly, daily and seasonal scales. To exclude data segments for which the biological methane fluxes were underestimated due to inefficient atmospheric transport under stable stratification, we applied a novel approach based on both the atmospheric stability parameter ? = z/L and the friction velocity u?, where z is the measurement height and L the Obukhov length. The field measurements revealed the existence of at least one sustained ebullition event, triggered by low barometric pressures, a declining water table and increasing mechanical turbulence - suggesting that large-scale release of methane bubbles can be an important transport mechanism of methane in boreal bogs. The validity of similarity scaling for atmospheric methane under convective conditions was also assessed and the normalized standard deviations of methane concentrations did not scale well with ?, highlighting the heterogeneity in natural methane production and release across the bog. Overall the hourly emissions ranged between -2.0 and 32.1 mg CH4 m-2 h-1, with a summertime mean of 2.4 mg CH4 m-2 h-1. At the daily scale, the two main controls on methane emissions were found to be the water table position and the peat temperature at 0.3 m under the surface. Contrary to other studies, seasonal methane emissions peaked when the water table was at its maximum distance from the surface, around mid-August. No clear diurnal pattern could be found in methane emissions, indicating that methane was produced quite deep within the peat. The seasonal emissions were estimated at 4.4 g CH4 m-2, and compared well with other observations over similar landscapes using different measurement techniques. Given that methane releases and transport are greatly affected by local characteristics such as climate and vegetative cover, this study emphasizes the need for further in situ continuous measurements of methane fluxes across northern peatlands.

  17. Modeling regional groundwater flow in a peat bog complex in Ontario, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durejka, Stefan; Knorr, KLaus-Holger; Blodau, Christian; Frei, Sven

    2013-04-01

    Peatlands are important ecohydrological systems and contribute significantly to the global carbon cycle. They function as carbon sinks through CO2-sequestration but also emit methane depending i.a. on the prevailing hydrological structures. Knowledge of their hydrology including exchange between the groundwater and surface water domain is thus necessary to understand wetland environments and to determine their vulnerability to climate changes. The impact of proposed wetter conditions on wetland hydrological homeostastis in northern bogs is uncertain to this date. Elevated water tables due to changing hydrological flow patterns may affect the characteristics of wetlands as a carbon reservoir. Modeling approaches allow quantifying and qualifying of these flow patterns on a longer time scale. Luther Bog is located in Southern Ontario. The ombotrophic bog to poor fen is partially bordered by Luther Lake which inundates the area since its creation in 1952. In this study the interaction between the wetland and the adjacent lake is modeled using the fully-integrated HydroGeoSphere model. A transient three-dimensional groundwater mode is set up for a small catchment with the lake level implemented as a constant-head boundary condition. Hydraulic properties of the peat were estimated executing bail tests on multilevel piezometers at different sites within the wetland. The first hypothesis is that the wet conditions in the runoff network keep the water table in the wetland high over a specific transition zone. The Second is that there may be a reversal of flow directions over the hydrological year, due to varying boundary conditions, e.g. evapotranspiration and precipitation. First results indicate that exchange rates may be very slow. This is supported by manual measurements of little hydraulic gradients and little topographic gradients. The results also show a seasonal effect in flow directions in both, the groundwater and the surface water domain. The model will be tested upon its sensitivity to variations in the anisotropy of hydraulic conductivities as this is difficult to determine in the field using known approaches, e.g. bail tests. A transport simulation will be conducted to determine the exact amount of exchange water and the extent of the exchange zone.

  18. Effects of land use intensity on the full greenhouse gas balance in an Atlantic peat bog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beetz, S.; Liebersbach, H.; Glatzel, S.; Jurasinski, G.; Buczko, U.; Hper, H.

    2012-06-01

    The assessment of emission factors for many peatlands is difficult, and reliable data on the exchange of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) between soil and atmosphere of these areas is particularly scarce. Reasons for this are the multitude of soil and land use combinations that control greenhouse gas exchange and the high effort associated with data acquisition. We investigated the greenhouse gas exchange of a peat bog restoration sequence over a period of 2 yr (July 2007-June 2009) in an Atlantic raised bog in Northwest Germany. We set up three sites representing different land use intensities: intensive grassland (mineral fertilizer, cattle manure and 4-5 cuts per year); extensive grassland (no fertilizer or manure, maximal 1 cutting per year); near-natural peat bog (almost no anthropogenic influence). We obtained seasonal and annual estimates of greenhouse gas exchange based on closed chamber measurements. CH4 and N2O fluxes were recorded bi-weekly, CO2 NEE determinations were carried out 3-4 weekly. To get annual sums the CH4 and N2O fluxes were interpolated linearly while NEE was modelled. The intensive grassland site emitted 548 169 g CO2-C m-2 in the first and 817 140 g CO2-C m-2 in the second year. The extensive grassland site showed a slight uptake in the first year (-148 143 g CO2-C m-2), and a small emission of 88 146 g CO2-C m-2 in the second year. In contrast to these agriculturally used sites, the near-natural site took up CO2-C in both years (-8 68 g CO2-C m-2 and -127 53 g CO2-C m-2). Under consideration of N2O and CH4 exchange, the total average greenhouse warming potential (GWP) for 2008 amounts to 441 157 g m-2, 14 152 g m-2 and 31 68 g m-2 CO2-C-equivalent for the intensive grassland, the extensive grassland and the near-natural site, respectively. Despite inter-annual variability, rewetting contributes considerably to mitigating GHG emission from formerly drained peatlands. Already extensively used grassland on moderately drained peat approaches the carbon sequestration potential of near-natural sites, albeit it may oscillate between being a small sink and being a small source depending on interannual climatic variability.

  19. Purple Pitcher Plant (Sarracenia rosea) Dieback and Partial Community Disassembly following Experimental Storm Surge in a Coastal Pitcher Plant Bog

    PubMed Central

    Abbott, Matthew J.; Battaglia, Loretta L.

    2015-01-01

    Sea-level rise and frequent intense hurricanes associated with climate change will result in recurrent flooding of inland systems such as Gulf Coastal pitcher plant bogs by storm surges. These surges can transport salt water and sediment to freshwater bogs, greatly affecting their biological integrity. Purple pitcher plants (Sarracenia rosea) are Gulf Coast pitcher plant bog inhabitants that could be at a disadvantage under this scenario because their pitcher morphology may leave them prone to collection of saline water and sediment after a surge. We investigated the effects of storm surge water salinity and sediment type on S. rosea vitality, plant community structure, and bog soil-water conductivity. Plots (containing ≥1 ramet of S. rosea) were experimentally flooded with fresh or saline water crossed with one of three sediment types (local, foreign, or no sediment). There were no treatment effects on soil-water conductivity; nevertheless, direct exposure to saline water resulted in significantly lower S. rosea cover until the following season when a prescribed fire and regional drought contributed to the decline of all the S. rosea to near zero percent cover. There were also significant differences in plant community structure between treatments over time, reflecting how numerous species increased in abundance and a few species decreased in abundance. However, in contrast to S. rosea, most of the other species in the community appeared resilient to the effects of storm surge. Thus, although the community may be somewhat affected by storm surge, those few species that are particularly sensitive to the storm surge disturbance will likely drop out of the community and be replaced by more resilient species. Depending on the longevity of these biological legacies, Gulf Coastal pitcher plant bogs may be incapable of fully recovering if they become exposed to storm surge more frequently due to climate change. PMID:25874369

  20. Purple pitcher plant (Sarracenia rosea) Dieback and partial community disassembly following experimental storm surge in a coastal pitcher plant bog.

    PubMed

    Abbott, Matthew J; Battaglia, Loretta L

    2015-01-01

    Sea-level rise and frequent intense hurricanes associated with climate change will result in recurrent flooding of inland systems such as Gulf Coastal pitcher plant bogs by storm surges. These surges can transport salt water and sediment to freshwater bogs, greatly affecting their biological integrity. Purple pitcher plants (Sarracenia rosea) are Gulf Coast pitcher plant bog inhabitants that could be at a disadvantage under this scenario because their pitcher morphology may leave them prone to collection of saline water and sediment after a surge. We investigated the effects of storm surge water salinity and sediment type on S. rosea vitality, plant community structure, and bog soil-water conductivity. Plots (containing ≥1 ramet of S. rosea) were experimentally flooded with fresh or saline water crossed with one of three sediment types (local, foreign, or no sediment). There were no treatment effects on soil-water conductivity; nevertheless, direct exposure to saline water resulted in significantly lower S. rosea cover until the following season when a prescribed fire and regional drought contributed to the decline of all the S. rosea to near zero percent cover. There were also significant differences in plant community structure between treatments over time, reflecting how numerous species increased in abundance and a few species decreased in abundance. However, in contrast to S. rosea, most of the other species in the community appeared resilient to the effects of storm surge. Thus, although the community may be somewhat affected by storm surge, those few species that are particularly sensitive to the storm surge disturbance will likely drop out of the community and be replaced by more resilient species. Depending on the longevity of these biological legacies, Gulf Coastal pitcher plant bogs may be incapable of fully recovering if they become exposed to storm surge more frequently due to climate change. PMID:25874369

  1. Simulated thaw development of a peat plateau-bog complex in a discontinuous permafrost region, Northwest Territories, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurylyk, Barret; Hayashi, Masaki; Quinton, William; Voss, Clifford

    2015-04-01

    Air temperatures at high latitudes have increased at rates that exceed globally averaged trends, and this warming has produced rapid permafrost degradation in many areas. In discontinuous permafrost regions of the Taiga Plains of northwestern Canada, past climate warming has created a complex landscape mosaic of fully thawed bogs/fens and remnant peat plateaus underlain by thin permafrost. The thawing of peat plateaus can alter the landscape hydrologic connectivity by creating pathways to efficiently convey water from bogs to nearby rivers and lakes. Extensive monitoring of the thermal regime of a peat plateau-bog complex in the Scotty Creek watershed (61.3° N, 121.3° W), Northwest Territories, Canada has identified rapid permafrost degradation in the past decade. In addition, satellite images indicate major landscape evolution due to permafrost thaw since 1970, and these changes have resulted in increased discharge at the watershed outlet. These long term comprehensive data facilitate the numerical modeling of idealized permafrost environments based on observed data. The objective of this research project is to elucidate fundamental processes that contribute to multi-dimensional permafrost thaw and associated hydrological changes in discontinuous permafrost regions. The thaw evolution in this peat plateau-bog complex is simulated using SUTRA, a numerical groundwater flow and coupled heat transport model that has been modified to include dynamic freeze-thaw processes. To accommodate complex surface processes, measured climate data from 1900-2010 are used to drive a separate soil-vegetation-atmosphere energy transfer model. Near-surface temperatures produced by the vertical transfer model for the peat plateau and bog are applied as the upper thermal boundary conditions for the multi-dimensional subsurface heat transport simulations in SUTRA (1900-2010). The simulated thaw development of this peat plateau will be compared to satellite imagery to assess the ability of this sequential modeling approach to reproduce observed permafrost degradation.

  2. Effects of bryophytes on succession from alkaline marsh to Sphagnum bog

    SciTech Connect

    Glime, J.M.; Wetzel, R.G.; Kennedy, B.J.

    1982-10-01

    The alkaline eastern marsh of Lawrence Lake, a marl lake in southwestern Michigan, was sampled by randomly placed line transects to determine the bryophyte cover and corresponding vascular plant zones. Cluster analysis indicated three distinct bryophyte zones which correspond with the recognized vascular plant zones. Mosses occupied over 50% of the surface in some areas. Invasion of Sphagnum, vertical zonation of the mosses on hummocks, zonation with distance from the lake, the abundance of non-Sphagnum moss hummocks, and the ability of the non-Sphagnum species to lower the pH of marsh water during laboratory incubations are evidence that non-Sphagnum mosses facilitate succession from alkaline marsh to Sphagnum bog.

  3. Effect of fire on phosphorus forms in Sphagnum moss and peat soils of ombrotrophic bogs.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guoping; Yu, Xiaofei; Bao, Kunshan; Xing, Wei; Gao, Chuanyu; Lin, Qianxin; Lu, Xianguo

    2015-01-01

    The effect of burning Sphagnum moss and peat on phosphorus forms was studied with controlled combustion in the laboratory. Two fire treatments, a light fire (250 °C) and a severe fire (600 °C), were performed in a muffle furnace with 1-h residence time to simulate the effects of different forest fire conditions. The results showed that fire burning Sphagnum moss and peat soils resulted in losses of organic phosphorus (Po), while inorganic phosphorus (Pi) concentrations increased. Burning significantly changed detailed phosphorus composition and availability, with severe fires destroying over 90% of organic phosphorus and increasing the availability of inorganic P by more than twofold. Our study suggest that, while decomposition processes in ombrotrophic bogs occur very slowly, rapid changes in the form and availability of phosphorus in vegetation and litter may occur as the result of forest fires on peat soils. PMID:24630445

  4. A new species of mermithid (Nematoda) in chironomids eclosing from a northern Minnesota bog.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Arthur A; Kleve, Maurice G

    2008-12-01

    Hydromermis haggardi n. sp. (Nematoda: Mermithidae) is described from the hemocoel of chironomid imagos eclosing from Lake Alice Bog in northern Minnesota in June and July 2007. The species is distinguished from the other 27 described members of the genus by the subventral mouth, tulip shape to anterior end of esophagus, colorless vesicular trophosome, single nonbifurcated spicule, short body lengths of both males and females, structure of the S-shaped vagina, decrease in body width at vulva, brevity of postparasitic stage, and the greater development of a posterior ventral protractor muscle in the males. An anomalous adult male bearing large oval structures in the posterior testis is reported. Evidence is presented for the developmental interaction of the new species with Lanceimermis palustris Johnson and Kleve, 2004. PMID:19127971

  5. Climate-growth relationships for bog-grown black spruce in northern Minnesota

    SciTech Connect

    Vogel, K.J. )

    1993-06-01

    Black spruce (Picea mariana) tree-ring chronologies were derived for three bogs in northern Minnesota. Standard chronologies were highly intercorrelated (0.72 to 0.87). The ring-width variability attributable to a common signal ranged from 38.6 to 56.8 percent which is large for closed canopy eastern forests. These chronologies exhibited great serial correlation, therefore all chronologies were autoregressively modelled prior to climatic analyses. Each chronology was compared to monthly temperature and precipitation data from a nearby weather station. Strengths of linear relationships were measured by the product-moment correlation coefficient. May and August temperatures from the previous year and March precipitation of the current year were significantly correlated with ring-width indices. These data suggest that tree-ring chronologies from mid-continental peatlands may be a valuable, though presently ignored, source of paleoclimatic data.

  6. High methane emissions dominate annual greenhouse gas balances 30 years after bog rewetting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanselow-Algan, M.; Schmidt, S. R.; Greven, M.; Fiencke, C.; Kutzbach, L.; Pfeiffer, E.-M.

    2015-02-01

    Natural peatlands are important carbon sinks and sources of methane (CH4). In contrast, drained peatlands turn from a carbon sink to a carbon source and potentially emit nitrous oxide (N2O). Rewetting of peatlands thus implies climate change mitigation. However, data about the time span that is needed for the re-establishment of the carbon sink function by restoration is scarce. We therefore investigated the annual greenhouse gas (GHG) balances of three differently vegetated bog sites 30 years after rewetting. All three vegetation communities turned out to be sources of carbon dioxide (CO2) ranging between 0.6 1.43 t CO2 ha-2 yr-1 (Sphagnum-dominated vegetation) and 3.09 3.86 t CO2 ha-2 yr-1 (vegetation dominated by heath). While accounting for the different global warming potential (GWP) of the three greenhouse gases, the annual GHG balance was calculated. Emissions ranged between 25 and 53 t CO2-eq ha-1 yr-1 and were dominated by large emissions of CH4 (22 up to 51 t CO2-eq ha-1 yr-1), while highest rates were found at purple moor grass (Molinia caerulea) stands. These are to our knowledge the highest CH4 emissions so far reported for bog ecosystems in temperate Europe. As the restored area was subject to large fluctuations in water table, we conclude that the high CH4 emission rates were caused by a combination of both the temporal inundation of the easily decomposable plant litter of this grass species and the plant-mediated transport through its tissues. In addition, as a result of the land use history, the mixed soil material can serve as an explanation. With regards to the long time span passed since rewetting, we note that the initial increase in CH4 emissions due to rewetting as described in the literature is not limited to a short-term period.

  7. Sorption of radioiodide in an acidic, nutrient-poor boreal bog: insights into the microbial impact.

    PubMed

    Lusa, M; Bomberg, M; Aromaa, H; Knuutinen, J; Lehto, J

    2015-05-01

    Batch sorption experiments were conducted to evaluate the sorption behaviour of iodide and the microbial impact on iodide sorption in the surface moss, subsurface peat, gyttja, and clay layers of a nutrient-poor boreal bog. The batch distribution coefficient (Kd) values of iodide decreased as a function of sampling depth. The highest Kd values, 4800 L/Kg dry weight (DW) (geometric mean), were observed in the fresh surface moss and the lowest in the bottom clay (geometric mean 90 mL/g DW). In the surface moss, peat and gyttja layers, which have a high organic matter content (on average 97%), maximum sorption was observed at a pH between ∼ 4 and 5 and in the clay layer at pH 2. The Kd values were significantly lower in sterilized samples, being 20-fold lower than the values found for the unsterilized samples. In addition, the recolonization of sterilized samples with a microbial population from the fresh samples restored the sorption capacity of surface moss, peat and gyttja samples, indicating that the decrease in the sorption was due to the destruction of microbes and supporting the hypothesis that microbes are necessary for the incorporation of iodide into the organic matter. Anoxic conditions reduced the sorption of iodide in fresh, untreated samples, similarly to the effect of sterilization, which supports the hypothesis that iodide is oxidized into I2/HIO before incorporation into the organic matter. Furthermore, the Kd values positively correlated with peroxidase activity in surface moss, subsurface peat and gyttja layers at +20 °C, and with the bacterial cell counts obtained from plate count agar at +4 °C. Our results demonstrate the importance of viable microbes for the sorption of iodide in the bog environment, having a high organic matter content and a low pH. PMID:25752706

  8. Natural and anthropogenic enrichments of molybdenum, thorium, and uranium in a complete peat bog profile, Jura Mountains, Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Krachler, Michael; Shotyk, William

    2004-05-01

    A core from an ombrotrophic Swiss bog representing 12 370 (14)C years of peat accumulation was evaluated as a possible archive of atmospheric deposition of Mo, Th and U. Calcium, Sr, and Ba were also determined to quantify weathering inputs, Mn to follow possible redox transformations, and Rb to identify plant uptake. Each of these elements was determined using ICP-MS, following digestion in a microwave heated autoclave using 3 ml HNO(3) and 0.1 ml HBF(4). Calcium and Sr clearly identify the thickness of the ombrotrophic zone because they are enriched in the minerogenic zone relative to the concentration of mineral matter. The concentration of Ba, however, is proportional to the concentration of mineral matter in all samples, and is not added to peat column by weathering reactions at the peat-sediment interface. The lowest element concentrations are found during the Holocene climate optimum (5320 to 8030 (14)C year BP) with the following natural background values (n= 18): Mo 0.08 +/- 0.02 microg g(-1), U 0.029 +/- 0.008 microg g(-1), Ba 5.2 +/- 2.6 microg g(-1), Th 0.070 +/- 0.022 microg g(-1) and Rb 0.63 +/- 0.09 microg g(-1). By far the highest concentrations of Ba, Mn, Rb and Th were found during the Younger Dryas cold climate event (10 590 (14)C year BP) when the flux of atmospheric soil dust was at its post-glacial maximum. Molybdenum and U are elevated in concentration throughout the minerogenic zone because of sediment weathering and this masks the atmospheric signal in samples older than ca. 8000 (14)C year BP (ca. 9000 calendar years). Enrichment factors (EF) calculated using Sc as a conservative, lithogenic element shows that minerogenic peats are enriched in Mo up to 18x and U 26x, relative to the natural "background" values. During the two millennia prior to industrialisation, the accumulation rate of atmospheric Mo averaged 0.23 +/- 0.13 microg m(-2) year(-1). With the onset of the Industrial Revolution, Mo accumulation rates rapidly and continuously increased to approximately 10 microg m(-2) year(-1) in the late 1980s. These data suggest that Mo in atmospheric aerosols today is derived predominately from anthropogenic emissions. Uranium does not show the same enrichment pattern which suggests that steel-making rather than coal combustion is the primary source of atmospheric Mo contamination at this site. PMID:15152310

  9. Using stable isotopes of water to re-evaluate the recharge/discharge functions of North American bogs and fens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levy, Zeno; Siegel, Donald; Glaser, Paul; Dasgupta, Soumitri

    2014-05-01

    In North American mires hydrologists commonly find raised bog crests and low-lying fen water tracks to be focal points for groundwater recharge and discharge, respectively. To further test these observations we synoptically surveyed vertical profiles of peat pore water ?18O/?2H and major mineral solutes from a range of bog and fen landforms across the Glacial Lake Agassiz Peatlands (GLAP) of northern Minnesota. We also sampled a detailed transect through a 150 km2 bog-fen complex in the Red Lake II peatland watershed of the GLAP. The molar ratios of Ca/Mg in the pore water beneath the Red Lake II bog crest are depleted in Mg with respect to the atmospheric average of 3.6, indicative of preferential flushing of Mg from the peat by meteoric recharge. Higher solute concentrations in the middle of the peat profile at an adjacent fen show focused groundwater discharge with Ca/Mg ratios of ~1.4, similar to that of water from local wells tapping underlying glacial till. However, contrary to expectations, we find evidence that modern recharge has penetrated throughout the peat column beneath both bog and fen landforms throughout the GLAP. Landform surface features control the isotopic recharge value. These landform-specific isotope signatures propagate through vertical pore water profiles. Pore waters deeper than 0.5 m partition into discrete ranges of ?18O according to three a priori landform classifications: 1) -11.9 0.4 o for bog crests, 2) -10.6 0.1 o for Sphagnum lawns, and 3) -8.8 1.0 o for fen water tracks. The fen water tracks have standing water at their surface that is seasonally enriched by isotope fractionating evaporation and therefore fingerprints recharge to depths ?3 m. Incongruities between isotope and solute mixing trends may be related to the dual porosity nature of peat and matrix diffusion, which could supply solutes to active pore spaces following flushing by meteoric recharge. This buffering of base solutes in the deep peat may influence methanogenic bacteria that are sensitive to pH. Our results support the hypothesis that the downward transport of labile carbon substrates from the surface of northern peat basins fuels methane production in deeper peat strata.

  10. The supply of trace elements from the atmosphere recorded in a natural archive by the example of the Ilas ombrotrophic bog in the White Sea drainage basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shevchenko, V. P.; Kusnetsov, O. L.; Politova, N. V.; Zaretskaya, N. E.; Kutenkov, S. A.; Lisitzin, A. P.; Pokrovsky, O. S.

    2015-12-01

    The results of studies are presented for the elemental composition of peat from the Ilas ombrotrophic bog (White Sea drainage basin). The calculations of enrichment factors of trace elements over the section of the bog peat relatively to the average composition of the Earth's continental crust showed that the concentrations of most of chemical elements is determined by the contributions of lithogenic and biogenic sources, and the content of trace elements is equal to the background level. Enrichment growth since the beginning of intense development of European industry until the early 21th century was revealed only for Zn, Sb, Pb, and Cd. These elements were supplied to the bog resulting from long-range air transport and precipitation from the atmosphere. No pronounced heavy-metal contamination caused by the Arkhangelsk agglomeration was revealed for the peat in the Ilas bog.

  11. Optimization of UA of heat exchangers and BOG compressor exit pressure of LNG boil-off gas reliquefaction system using exergy analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kochunni, Sarun Kumar; Ghosh, Parthasarathi; Chowdhury, Kanchan

    2015-12-01

    Boil-off gas (BOG) generation and its handling are important issues in Liquefied natural gas (LNG) value chain because of economic, environment and safety reasons. Several variants of reliquefaction systems of BOG have been proposed by researchers. Thermodynamic analyses help to configure them and size their components for improving performance. In this paper, exergy analysis of reliquefaction system based on nitrogen-driven reverse Brayton cycle is carried out through simulation using Aspen Hysys 8.6®, a process simulator and the effects of heat exchanger size with and without related pressure drop and BOG compressor exit pressure are evaluated. Nondimensionalization of parameters with respect to the BOG load allows one to scale up or down the design. The process heat exchanger (PHX) requires much higher surface area than that of BOG condenser and it helps to reduce the quantity of methane vented out to atmosphere. As pressure drop destroys exergy, optimum UA of PHX decreases for highest system performance if pressure drop is taken into account. Again, for fixed sizes of heat exchangers, as there is a range of discharge pressures of BOG compressor at which the loss of methane in vent minimizes, the designer should consider choosing the pressure at lower value.

  12. Effects of land use intensity on the full greenhouse gas balance in an Atlantic peat bog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beetz, S.; Liebersbach, H.; Glatzel, S.; Jurasinski, G.; Buczko, U.; Hper, H.

    2013-02-01

    Wetlands can either be net sinks or net sources of greenhouse gases (GHGs), depending on the mean annual water level and other factors like average annual temperature, vegetation development, and land use. Whereas drained and agriculturally used peatlands tend to be carbon dioxide (CO2) and nitrous oxide (N2O) sources but methane (CH4) sinks, restored (i.e. rewetted) peatlands rather incorporate CO2, tend to be N2O neutral and release CH4. One of the aims of peatland restoration is to decrease their global warming potential (GWP) by reducing GHG emissions. We estimated the greenhouse gas exchange of a peat bog restoration sequence over a period of 2 yr (1 July 2007-30 June 2009) in an Atlantic raised bog in northwest Germany. We set up three study sites representing different land use intensities: intensive grassland (deeply drained, mineral fertilizer, cattle manure and 4-5 cuts per year); extensive grassland (rewetted, no fertilizer or manure, up to 1 cutting per year); near-natural peat bog (almost no anthropogenic influence). Daily and annual greenhouse gas exchange was estimated based on closed-chamber measurements. CH4 and N2O fluxes were recorded bi-weekly, and net ecosystem exchange (NEE) measurements were carried out every 3-4 weeks. Annual sums of CH4 and N2O fluxes were estimated by linear interpolation while NEE was modelled. Regarding GWP, the intensive grassland site emitted 564 255 g CO2-C equivalents m-2 yr-1 and 850 238 g CO2-C equivalents m-2 yr-1 in the first (2007/2008) and the second (2008/2009) measuring year, respectively. The GWP of the extensive grassland amounted to -129 231 g CO2-C equivalents m-2 yr-1 and 94 200 g CO2-C equivalents m-2 yr-1, while it added up to 45 117 g CO2-C equivalents m-2 yr-1 and -101 93 g CO2-C equivalents m-2 yr-1 in 2007/08 and 2008/09 for the near-natural site. In contrast, in calendar year 2008 GWP aggregated to 441 201 g CO2-C equivalents m-2 yr-1, 14 162 g CO2-C equivalents m-2 yr-1 and 31 75 g CO2-C equivalents m-2 yr-1 for the intensive grassland, extensive grassland, and near-natural site, respectively. Despite inter-annual variability, rewetting contributes considerably to mitigating GHG emission from formerly drained peatlands. Extensively used grassland on moderately drained peat approaches the carbon sequestration potential of near-natural sites, although it may oscillate between being a small sink and being a small source depending on inter-annual climatic variability.

  13. Soil carbon balance on drained and afforested transitional bog in forest research station Vesetnieki in Latvia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lupiķis, Ainārs; Lazdiņš, Andis

    2015-04-01

    Around 0.8 mill. ha forests in Latvia are located on organic soils and 0.5 mill. ha of these forests are drained. Drainage of organic soils alters carbon stock and may has impact on the climate change. The aim of this study is to analyse the impact of drainage on a soil carbon stock in transitional bog (average growing stock before drainage 50 m3*ha-1) located in central part of Latvia in research station "Vesetnieki". Drainage was done in 1960. Average peat thickness is around 4.5 m; dominant tree species are pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and spruce (Picea abies Karst.) with average growing stock 226 m3*ha-1 and 213 m3*ha-1. Volumetric peat samples were taken from soil surface down to 80 cm depth in 30 sample plots in drained sites and non-drained areas (transitional bog), which have been left as a control. Bulk density, carbon content in peat was determined to evaluate carbon stock changes in soil. Ground surface levelling in drained sites was done before drainage and repeatedly in 1966, 1970, 1975, 1977, 1982 and 2014 to calculate peat subsidence. The rate of peat subsidence after drainage increased rapidly, and 14 years after drainage 15.8 cm decrease of the surface level was found. The rate of the peat subsidence decreased later, and the ground level reduced by 9.9 cm in the following 40 years, reaching 25.7±3.5 cm from initial ground surface level in the 2014. The rapid decrease of the surface level after drainage can be explained by physical alters and by decomposition of the peat surface layers, however, it is not possible to assess now, which of these processes dominated. However, the significant (α=0.05) increase of the peat bulk density and carbon content in upper layers (0-80 cm) in drained sites compared to non-drained leads to conclusion that the compaction was the dominating process. Average carbon stock (0-80 cm deep soil layer) in non-drained areas is 339±29 tons*ha-1 and 513±27 tons*ha-1 in drained sites. We compared carbon stock in upper 80 cm soil layer in transitional bog (339±29 tons*ha-1) with peat layer in drained sites 54.3 cm corresponding to 80 cm in non-drained (359±19 tons*ha-1). The study reveals that soils in drained sites have accumulated 0.36 tons*ha-1*a-1 more carbon than soils in non-drained sites, however the difference on carbon stock between sites is not statistically significant (α=0.05). If non-drained organic soils are considered to be a carbon sink or at least not a carbon source, then we can conclude that drained organic soil in research station "Vesetnieki" in 50 years period did not become a carbon source.

  14. Overriding control of methane flux temporal variability by water table dynamics in a Southern Hemisphere, raised bog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodrich, J. P.; Campbell, D. I.; Roulet, N. T.; Clearwater, M. J.; Schipper, L. A.

    2015-05-01

    There are still large uncertainties in peatland methane flux dynamics and insufficient understanding of how biogeochemical processes scale to ecosystems. New Zealand bogs differ from Northern Hemisphere ombrotrophic systems in climatic setting, hydrology, and dominant vegetation, offering an opportunity to evaluate our knowledge of peatland methane biogeochemistry gained primarily from northern bogs and fens. We report eddy covariance methane fluxes from a raised bog in New Zealand over 2.5 years. Annual total methane flux in 2012 was 29.1 g CH4 m-2 yr-1, whereas during a year with a severe drought (2013) it was 20.6 g CH4 m-2 yr-1, both high compared to Northern Hemisphere bogs and fens. Drier conditions led to a decrease in fluxes from ~100 mg CH4 m-2 d-1 to ~20 mg CH4 m-2 d-1, and subsequent slow recovery of flux after postdrought water table rise. Water table depth regulated the temperature sensitivity of methane fluxes, and this sensitivity was greatest when the water table was within 100 mm of the surface, corresponding to the shallow rooting zone of the dominant vegetation. A correlation between daytime CO2 uptake and methane fluxes emerged during times with shallow water tables, suggesting that controls on methane production were critical in determining fluxes, more so than oxidation. Water table recession through this shallow zone led to increasing methane fluxes, whereas changes in temperature during these periods were not correlated. Models of methane fluxes should consider drought-induced lags in seasonal flux recovery that depend on drought characteristics and location of the critical zone for methane production.

  15. Parameter Calculation Technique for the Waste Treatment Facilities Using Naturally-Aerated Blocks in the Bog Ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akhmed-Ogly, K. V.; Savichev, O. G.; Tokarenko, O. G.; Pasechnik, E. Yu; Reshetko, M. V.; Nalivajko, N. G.; Vlasova, M. V.

    2014-08-01

    Technique for the domestic wastewater treatment in the small residential areas and oil and gas facilities of the natural and man-made systems including a settling tank for mechanical treatment and a biological pond with peat substrate and bog vegetation for biological treatment has been substantiated. Technique for parameters calculation of the similar natural and man-made systems has been developed. It was proven that effective treatment of wastewater can be performed in Siberia all year round.

  16. Fate of N in a peatland, Whim bog: immobilisation in the vegetation and peat, leakage into pore water and losses as N2O depend on the form of N

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheppard, L. J.; Leith, I. D.; Leeson, S. R.; van Dijk, N.; Field, C.; Levy, P.

    2013-01-01

    Peatlands represent a vast carbon reserve that has accumulated under conditions of low nitrogen availability. Given the strong coupling between the carbon and nitrogen cycles, we need to establish the consequences of the increase in reactive nitrogen deposition for the sustainability of peatlands, and whether the form in which the nitrogen is deposited makes a difference. We have addressed these questions using a globally unique field simulation of reactive N deposition as dry deposited ammonia and wet deposited reduced N, ammonium and oxidised N, nitrate, added as ammonium chloride or sodium nitrate, to an ombrotrophic peatland, Whim bog in SE Scotland. Here we report the fate of 56 kg N ha-1 yr-1 additions over 10 yr and the consequences. The effects of 10 yr of reactive N additions depended on the form in which the N was applied. Ammonia-N deposition caused the keystone Sphagnum species, together with the main shrub Calluna and the pleurocarpous mosses, to disappear, exposing up to 30% of the peat surface. This led to a significant increase in soil water nitrate and nitrous oxide emissions. By contrast wet deposited N, despite significantly reducing the cover of Sphagnum and Pleurozium moss, did not have a detrimental effect on Calluna cover nor did it significantly change soil water N concentrations or nitrous oxide emissions. Importantly 10 yr of wet deposited N did not bare the peat surface nor significantly disrupt the vegetation enabling the N to be retained within the carbon rich peatland ecosystems. However, given the significant role of Sphagnum in maintaining conditions that retard decomposition, this study suggests that all nitrogen forms will eventually compromise carbon sequestration by peatlands through loss of some keystone Sphagnum species.

  17. Low impact of dry conditions on the CO2 exchange of a Northern-Norwegian blanket bog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lund, Magnus; Bjerke, J. W.; Drake, B. G.; Engelsen, O.; Hansen, G. H.; Parmentier, F. J. W.; Powell, T. L.; Silvennoinen, H.; Sottocornola, M.; Tømmervik, H.; Weldon, S.; Rasse, D. P.

    2015-02-01

    Northern peatlands hold large amounts of organic carbon (C) in their soils and are as such important in a climate change context. Blanket bogs, i.e. nutrient-poor peatlands restricted to maritime climates, may be extra vulnerable to global warming since they require a positive water balance to sustain their moss dominated vegetation and C sink functioning. This study presents a 4.5 year record of land-atmosphere carbon dioxide (CO2) exchange from the Andøya blanket bog in northern Norway. Compared with other peatlands, the Andøya peatland exhibited low flux rates, related to the low productivity of the dominating moss and lichen communities and the maritime settings that attenuated seasonal temperature variations. It was observed that under periods of high vapour pressure deficit, net ecosystem exchange was reduced, which was mainly caused by a decrease in gross primary production. However, no persistent effects of dry conditions on the CO2 exchange dynamics were observed, indicating that under present conditions and within the range of observed meteorological conditions the Andøya blanket bog retained its C uptake function. Continued monitoring of these ecosystem types is essential in order to detect possible effects of a changing climate.

  18. Comparative characteristic of the sphagnum moss and peat of upland bogs in Siberia, Russia and central part of Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mezhibor, Antonina; Podkozlin, Ivan

    2013-04-01

    This research represents the results of the ICP-MS study for the moss and peat samples from two upland bogs of Germany and one bog from Siberia, Russia (Tomsk region). Moss and upland peat are widely used for ecological studies. These substances enable to detect atmospheric pollution because of the peculiar structure of sphagnum moss. According to the obtained results, we can resume that moss and peat in Tomsk region are more enriched in such chemical elements as Cr, Fe, As, Sr, Y, Zr, Ba, La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Tb, Yb, Lu, Hf, Hg, Th, and U. The samples from Germany are more enriched in Mn, Cu, Zn, and Se. The geochemical composition of the bogs reflects the specificity of industries that pollute the atmosphere with definite chemical elements. Thus, REE, Th and U in the moss and peat of Tomsk region can originate from nuclear facility near the Tomsk city. Coal combustion in power stations can be the source of Cr, As, Sr and REE as well. Mn, Cu, Zn, and Se possibly can originate from metallurgical facilities in Germany.

  19. The microbial impact on the sorption behaviour of selenite in an acidic, nutrient-poor boreal bog.

    PubMed

    Lusa, M; Bomberg, M; Aromaa, H; Knuutinen, J; Lehto, J

    2015-09-01

    (79)Se is among the most important long lived radionuclides in spent nuclear fuel and selenite, SeO3(2-), is its typical form in intermediate redox potential. The sorption behaviour of selenite and the bacterial impact on the selenite sorption in a 7-m-deep profile of a nutrient-poor boreal bog was studied using batch sorption experiments. The batch distribution coefficient (Kd) values of selenite decreased as a function of sampling depth and highest Kd values, 6600L/kg dry weight (DW), were observed in the surface moss and the lowest in the bottom clay at 1700L/kg DW. The overall maximum sorption was observed at pH between 3 and 4 and the Kd values were significantly higher in unsterilized compared to sterilized samples. The removal of selenite from solution by Pseudomonas sp., Burkholderia sp., Rhodococcus sp. and Paenibacillus sp. strains isolated from the bog was affected by incubation temperature and time. In addition, the incubation of sterilized surface moss, subsurface peat and gyttja samples with added bacteria effectively removed selenite from the solution and on average 65% of selenite was removed when Pseudomonas sp. or Burkholderia sp. strains were used. Our results demonstrate the important role of bacteria for the removal of selenite from the solution phase in the bog environment, having a high organic matter content and a low pH. PMID:26048060

  20. Water and Energy Exchanges over a Subarctic Bog in Northern Quebec, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isabelle, P.; Nadeau, D. F.; Rousseau, A. N.

    2013-12-01

    A significant fraction of the energy supply to eastern Canada and to the northeastern US comes from large hydropower plants located in the Canadian boreal shield. For instance, the La Grande River watershed near James Bay (Canada), hosts a hydropower complex producing nearly 40% of the overall peak load of Quebec. In this northern, remote and vast (?100,000 km2) watershed, boreal forest is predominant, but wetlands (25% of the surface cover) are of key importance to the river's water budget. Unfortunately, little is known about how boreal wetlands affect regional hydrological processes, and hence, how they contribute to inflows to hydropower reservoirs. This study aims to gain a deeper understanding of evapotranspiration processes over boreal wetlands, based on field observations. The study site is a 60-ha bog (53.7N, 78.2W) located next to the Necopastic River, a tributary of the La Grande River. The peatland is of ombrotrophic type, meaning that it receives most of its water and nutrients from precipitation. The analysis relies on data collected by a flux tower during a field campaign throughout summer 2012., as well as detailed measurements of the water budget in this sub-watershed. One key finding is that the atmosphere is neutrally-stratified for more than 60% of the summer. The impact of this unusual feature of the atmospheric boundary layer on water vapor fluxes is carefully analyzed. As expected, eddy covariance evapotranspiration data compared well with classical formulas (Priestley-Taylor, Penman, Penman-Monteith, FAO), particularly with Priestley-Taylor. Given nearly all these formulations command direct measurements or estimations of net radiation, and that the cost of net radiometers is prohibitive, we tested the less frequently used profile method, which simply requires one or two additional measurement levels of wind speed, temperature and humidity. The latter method led to promising results, especially considering its ease of implementation and low cost. This study ultimately gives us a better understanding of water and energy exchanges between subarctic bogs and the atmosphere, with a precise insight on the appropriate evapotranspiration formulations to use in hydrological modelling. It also provides interesting options for measuring evapotranspiration on such a vast and highly remote territory.

  1. High methane emissions dominated annual greenhouse gas balances 30 years after bog rewetting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanselow-Algan, M.; Schmidt, S. R.; Greven, M.; Fiencke, C.; Kutzbach, L.; Pfeiffer, E.-M.

    2015-07-01

    Natural peatlands are important carbon sinks and sources of methane (CH4). In contrast, drained peatlands turn from a carbon sink to a carbon source and potentially emit nitrous oxide (N2O). Rewetting of peatlands thus potentially implies climate change mitigation. However, data about the time span that is needed for the re-establishment of the carbon sink function by restoration are scarce. We therefore investigated the annual greenhouse gas (GHG) balances of three differently vegetated sites of a bog ecosystem 30 years after rewetting. All three vegetation communities turned out to be sources of carbon dioxide (CO2) ranging between 0.6 ± 1.43 t CO2 ha-2 yr-1 (Sphagnum-dominated vegetation) and 3.09 ± 3.86 t CO2 ha-2 yr-1 (vegetation dominated by heath). While accounting for the different global warming potential (GWP) of CO2, CH4 and N2O, the annual GHG balance was calculated. Emissions ranged between 25 and 53 t CO2-eq ha-1 yr-1 and were dominated by large emissions of CH4 (22-51 t CO2-eq ha-1 yr-1), with highest rates found at purple moor grass (Molinia caerulea) stands. These are to our knowledge the highest CH4 emissions so far reported for bog ecosystems in temperate Europe. As the restored area was subject to large fluctuations in the water table, we assume that the high CH4 emission rates were caused by a combination of both the temporal inundation of the easily decomposable plant litter of purple moor grass and the plant-mediated transport through its tissues. In addition, as a result of the land use history, mixed soil material due to peat extraction and refilling can serve as an explanation. With regards to the long time span passed since rewetting, we note that the initial increase in CH4 emissions due to rewetting as described in the literature is not inevitably limited to a short-term period.

  2. Seasonal and interannual variation in water vapor and heat fluxes in a West Siberian continental bog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimoyama, K.; Hiyama, T.; Fukushima, Y.; Inoue, G.

    2003-10-01

    The seasonal and interannual variation in the energy fluxes of a West Siberian continental bog were measured from April to October in 1999 and 2000 using the eddy covariance method. The energy balance closure rate (=[sensible + latent heat fluxes]/[available energy]) ranged from ˜0.8 to 0.9 and showed a better energy balance and less scattering using the soil heat flux estimated from an area-averaged soil thermal parameter rather than from a plot-based measurement. The net radiation (Rn) increased drastically after snowmelt because the surface albedo (a) dropped from its highest value to its lowest value over the course of the snowmelt. The snowmelt water raised the water table (zwt) to its highest level; it then gradually decreased. The seasonal and interannual variation in a, which ranged from 0.09-0.19, depended on zwt, because surface wetness was closely related to zwt through the capillary uptake of Sphagnum moss. The seasonal variation in the latent heat flux (lE) was similar to that in Rn. The largest lE was observed in the middle of June, and was ˜120 Wm-2 (4.2 mm d-1) in both years. Conversely, the sensible heat flux (H) did not show an obvious seasonal pattern and was lower than lE during the growing season. The Bowen ratio (Br) in the early growing season was 0.57 and 0.60, and the values in the peak growing season were 0.65 and 0.78, in 1999 and 2000, respectively. The lower Br was related to the higher zwt; specifically, it was due to the wetter surface conditions. An interannual comparison of the monthly mean atmospheric water vapor deficit (δe) and lE showed a significant relationship with a higher lE observed in the year with a higher δe. Therefore in the bog studied the interannual variation in the water vapor flux was controlled mainly by zwt and δe.

  3. Holocene methane flux reconstruction from peat macrofossils at Siikaneva bog and fen, Finland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathijssen, Paul; Korrensalo, Aino; Tuittila, Eeva-Stiina; Väliranta, Minna; Mellais, Annina

    2015-04-01

    Previous studies have shown that a correlation exists between methane flux and peatland plant species abundance. Furthermore, it has been demonstrated that the composition of plant species or functional groups of species can be used as indicator for methane fluxes in peatlands, using weighted averaging. This method has the potential to be very useful in palaeoecological studies of peatlands as well. This method offers the possibility to reconstruct past methane flux based on vegetation remains still present in the peat archive and together with reconstructions of carbon accumulation can give a more complete picture of peatlands' carbon dynamics during the Holocene. Furthermore, effects of changes in hydrology or temperature on methane fluxes can be studied over much longer time scales, compared to what experimental setups allow for. For four peat cores from Siikaneva peatland in southern Finland, we reconstructed the methane flux during the Holocene. Two cores represent a part of the peatland that has currently a fen type vegetation. The other two cores were taken from a part of the peatland that has transformed into a bog, around 3.5 - 5.5 cal. year before present. The development of methane flux during the fen to bog transition is especially of interest. We used vegetation data and methane flux data from chamber measurement from all microtopographies found on Siikaneva and from a few similar peatlands in southern and central Finland as a training set. The plant species were classified into functional groups. Firstly, because it has been shown that usage of functional groups leads to better predictions of methane flux when compared to e.g. species or dominant species. Secondly, the information from the peat cores used as input for the reconstruction is based on progressively decomposed plant remains in subsequent peat layers, for which identification to species level is not always possible (most notably for sedges). We compare the predictive performance of two types of vegetation classification: one based on growth form and typical microtopography; and the other based on plant traits expected to influence methane production and transport.

  4. Characterization of Groundwater Flow Processes in the Cedar Creek Watershed and the Cedarburg Bog in Southeastern Wisconsin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graham, J. P.; Han, W. S.; Feinstein, D.; Hart, D. J.

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to characterize the geology and groundwater flow of the bog as well as the surrounding area, notably the Cedar Creek Watershed, a HUC (Hydrologic Unit Code) 12 watershed. The watershed is approximately 330 km2, and borders the sub-continental divide separating the Mississippi River Basin from the Great Lakes Basin. The Cedar Creek watershed is composed of mostly agricultural and urban land with a significant stress of groundwater withdrawal for both irrigation and residential use. This watershed has importance due to the contribution to both the Milwaukee River and Lake Michigan, and is integral in the study of regional groundwater flow of Southeastern Wisconsin. Furthermore, the Cedarburg Bog, located in the northeast corner of the Cedar Creek Watershed preserves diverse ecology and is recognized by the U.S. Department of Interior as a National Landmark. Groundwater is the primary driver for the diverse and unique ecology that is contained within the bog. Within the Cedar Creek Watershed, well data and glacial geology maps (Mickelson and Syverson, 1997) were integrated to develop a 3-dimensional subsurface map and watershed-scale groundwater flow model using the LAK3 and the SFR2 package to simulate surface water-aquifer interactions. The model includes 10 zones of the glacial sediments and the weathered and consolidated Silurian Dolomite bedrock. The hydraulic conductivity and storage parameters were calibrated with 203 head targets using universal parameter estimation code (PEST). Then, a series of future climate scenarios, developed by the Wisconsin Initiative on Climate Change Impact, were implemented to the USGS Soil-Water-Balance Code (SWB) to identify variations in recharge. The simulated recharge scenarios were adopted to predict the response of groundwater resources in the watershed and the Cedarburg Bog. Preliminary results produced from the MODFLOW model indicate the bog is acting as a recharge zone under current recharge conditions, approximately 12.7cm/year, with regional groundwater flow from the groundwater divide to Lake Michigan and a mean residual on calibration targets of 4.32mKnowledge acquired from this investigation can be used to better inform local agencies of potential threats, as well as predict future changes within this groundwater system.

  5. Ecosystem Phenology from Eddy-covariance Measurements: Spring Photosynthesis in a Cool Temperate Bog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lafleur, P.; Moore, T. R.; Poon, D.; Seaquist, J.

    2005-12-01

    The onset and increase of spring photosynthetic flux of carbon dioxide is an important attribute of the carbon budget of northern ecosystems and we used eddy-covariance measurements from March to May over 5 years at the Mer Bleue ombrotrophic bog to establish the important controls. The onset of ecosystem photosynthesis (day-of-year from 86 to 101) was associated with the disappearance on the snow cover and there is evidence that photosynthesis can continue after a thin new snowfall. The growth of photosynthesis during the spring period was partially associated with light (daily photosynthetically active radiation) but primarily with temperature, with the strongest correlation being observed with peat temperature at a depth of 5 and 10 cm, except in one year in which there was a long snow cover. The vegetation comprises mosses, which are able to photosynthesize very early, evergreen shrubs, which appear dependent on soil warming, and deciduous shrubs, which leaf-out only in late spring. We observed changes in shrub leaf colour from brown to green and concomitant increases in foliar nitrogen and chlorophyll concentrations during the spring in this "evergreen" system. We analyzed MODIS images for periods of overlap of tower and satellite data and found a generally strong correlation, though the infrequent satellite measurements were unable to pick out the onset and timing of rapid growth of photosynthesis in this ecosystem.

  6. Variation in methane production pathways associated with permafrost decomposition in collapse scar bogs of Alberta, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prater, James L.; Chanton, Jeffrey P.; Whiting, Gary J.

    2007-12-01

    Stable isotope analysis was used to determine the distribution of methanogenic pathways at permafrost collapse scar bogs to test the hypothesis that microbial respiration and methane production are stimulated by the input of organic matter associated with permafrost degradation and collapse. An alternative hypothesis is that recently assimilated carbon produced by the fen-like vegetation (Carex, Eriophorum) growing in open water moats formed by the collapsing edge of these features stimulates microbial respiration. We found that CO2 reduction was the dominant pathway for methanogenesis within the Sphagnum areas that dominate the surface cover of these features, but relatively more acetate fermentation occurred near collapse scar moats. Methane emission and net CO2 uptake were correlated. Both were elevated in collapse scar moats and then decreased along a transect from the moats toward the center Sphagnum-dominated areas. There also appeared to be a shift toward relatively more acetate fermentation in deeper samples associated with increasing cation (calcium and magnesium) concentrations. Our results indicate that organic inputs from permafrost degradation alone do not appear to stimulate acetate fermentation. Permafrost decomposition provides conditions along the collapsing edge that are conducive to colonization by fen-like vegetation that stimulates acetate fermentation and increases methane production and emission rates.

  7. Nitrogen supply differentially affects litter decomposition rates and nitrogen dynamics of sub-arctic bog species.

    PubMed

    Aerts, R; van Logtestijn, R S P; Karlsson, P S

    2006-01-01

    High-latitude peatlands are important soil carbon sinks. In these ecosystems, the mineralization of carbon and nitrogen are constrained by low temperatures and low nutrient concentrations in plant litter and soil organic matter. Global warming is predicted to increase soil N availability for plants at high-latitude sites. We applied N fertilizer as an experimental analogue for this increase. In a three-year field experiment we studied N fertilization effects on leaf litter decomposition and N dynamics of the four dominant plant species (comprising >75% of total aboveground biomass) in a sub-arctic bog in northern Sweden. The species were Empetrum nigrum (evergreen shrub), Eriophorum vaginatum (graminoid), Betula nana (deciduous shrub) and Rubus chamaemorus (perennial forb). In the controls, litter mass loss rates increased in the order: Empetrum

  8. Atmospheric methane sources - Alaskan tundra bogs, an alpine fen, and a subarctic boreal marsh

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sebacher, D. I.; Harriss, R. C.; Grice, S. S.; Bartlett, K. B.; Sebacher, S. M.

    1986-01-01

    Methane (CH4) flux measurements from Alaska tundra bogs, an alpine fen, and a subarctic boreal marsh were obtained at field sites ranging from Prudhoe Bay on the coast of the Arctic Ocean to the Alaskan Range south of Fairbanks during August 1984. In the tundra, average CH4 emission rates varied from 4.9 mg CH4 per sq m per day (moist tundra) to 119 mg CH4 per sq m per day (waterlogged tundra). Fluxes averaged 40 mg CH4 per sq m per day from wet tussock meadows in the Brooks Range and 289 mg Ch4 per sq m per day from an alpine fen in the Alaskan Range. The boreal marsh had an average CH4 emission rate of 106 mg CH4 per sq m per day. Significant emissions were detected in tundra areas where peat temperatures were as low as 4 C, and permafrost was only 25 cm below the ground surface. Emission rates from the 17 sites sampled were found to be logarithmically related to water levels at the sites. Extrapolation of the data to an estimate of the total annual CH4 emission from all arctic and boreal wetlands suggests that these ecosystems are a major source of atmospheric CH4 and could account for up to 23 percent of global CH4 emissions from wetlands.

  9. Late Holocene peatland carbon dynamics inferred from Teringi Bog in southern Estonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, Kristyn; Stansell, Nathan; Klein, Eric; Borges, Alberto

    2015-04-01

    Radiocarbon dated peat cores collected along a transect from Teringi Bog, an ombotrophic peatland, record changes in carbon accumulation rates during the late Holocene in response to shifting climatic conditions. Stable oxygen isotope records from nearby lakes indicate that periods of wetter conditions during the Holocene occurred at times when carbon accumulation rates were higher at Teringi. This suggests that shifting water table conditions drove much of the observed changes in carbon dynamics. Modern surface process observations indicate that carbon accumulation rates are indeed more variable at locations where the height of the water table is highly sensitive to rainfall amounts. In addition, carbon isotopes measured on water samples indicate that there is a close relationship between δ13C values and methane concentrations, suggesting that methanogenesis is strongly biomediated, and likewise varies as a function of the regional hydrology. Regardless, all of the cores collected indicate that there was a trend toward higher carbon accumulation rates from ~4.2 to 3.5 ka when precipitation amounts were higher, followed by lower values under drier conditions until ~2.8 ka. There was then a trend toward higher carbon accumulation rates through the remaining late Holocene. These observations further highlight the importance of high latitude peatland in global carbon dynamics as both a potential sink and source of CO2 and CH4.

  10. Superfund record of decision (EPA Region 2): Burnt Fly Bog, Marlboro Township, NJ, September 30, 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1999-03-01

    This decision document presents the selected remedial action for the Westerly Wetlands, Northerly Wetlands, and Tar Patch Area at the Burnt Fly Bog Superfund Site. It addresses contaminated soil present on the three remaining contaminated areas on the Site, including the Westerly Wetlands, Northerly Wetlands, and Tar Patch Area. The major components of the selected remedy include: Excavation and off-site disposal of contaminated soil from the Northerly Wetlands; Excavation and off-site disposal of contaminated soil from the Tar Patch Area; Backfilling the excavated area in the Northerly Wetland and reestablishing wetlands; Backfilling the excavated area in the Tar Patch Area and creating wetlands; Provision of additional security fencing around the Westerly Wetlands, and the recording of a Deed Notice for the Westerly Wetlands, Northerly Wetlands, and Tar Patch Area; Monitoring of surface water and sediment in the Westerly Wetlands, surface water and sediment in the existing sedimentation basin located in the Downstream Area, and surface water, sediment and, if necessary, biota in Burnt Fly Brook; and Biological sampling in the Westerly Wetlands.

  11. The Permo-Triassic uranium deposits of Gondwanaland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    le Roux, J. P.; Toens, P. D.

    The world's uranium provinces are time bound and occur in five distinct periods ranging from the Proterozoic to the Recent. One of these periods embraces the time of Gondwana sedimentation and probably is related to the proliferation of land plants from the Devonian on-ward. Decaying vegetal matter produced reducing conditions that enhanced uranium precipitation. The association of uranium with molassic basins adjacent to uplifted granitic and volcanic arcs suggests that lithospheric plate subduction, leading to anatexis of basement rocks and andesitic volcanism, created favorable conditions for uranium mineralization. Uranium occurrences of Gondwana age are of four main types: sandstone-hosted, coal-hosted, pelite-hosted, and vein-type deposits. Sandstone-hosted deposits commonly occur in fluviodeltaic sediments and are related to the presence of organic matter. These deposits commonly are enriched in molybdenum and other base metal sulfides and have been found in South Africa, Zimbabwe, Zambia, Angola, Niger, Madagascar, India, Australia, Argentina, and Brazil. Coalhosted deposits contain large reserves of uranium but are of low grade. In Africa they are mostly within the Permian Ecca Group and its lateral equivalents, as in the Springbok Flats, Limpopo, Botswana, and Tanzania basins. Uraniferous black shales are present in the Gabon and Amazon basins but grades are low. Vein-type uranium is found in Argentina, where it occurs in clustered veins crosscutting sedimentary rocks and quartz porphyries.

  12. Influence of water table on carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, and methane fluxes from taiga bog microcosms

    SciTech Connect

    Funk, D.W.; Pullmann, E.R.; Peterson, K.M.

    1994-09-01

    Hydrological changes, particularly alterations in water table level, may largely overshadow the more direct effects of global temperature increase upon carbon cycling in arctic and subarctic wetlands. Frozen cores (n=40) of intact soils and vegetation were collected from a bog near Fairbanks, Alaska, and fluxes of CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, and Co in response to water table variation were studied under controlled conditions in the Duke University phytotron. Core microcosms thawed to a 20-cm depth over 30 days under a 20 hour photoperiod with a day/night temperature regime of 20/10{degrees}C. After 30 days the water table in 20 microcosms was decreased from the soil surface to -15 cm and maintained at the soil surface in 20 control cores. Outward fluxes of CO{sub 2} (9-16 g m{sup -2}d{sup -1}) and CO (3-4 mg m{sup -2}d{sup -1}) were greatest during early thaw and decreased to near zero for both gases before the water table treatment started. Lower water table tripled CO{sub 2} flux to the atmosphere when compared with control cores. Carbon monoxide was emitted at low rates from high water table cores and consumed by low water table cores. Methane fluxes were low (<1 mg m{sup -2}d{sup -1}) in all cores during thaw. High water table cores increased CH{sub 4} flux to 8-9 mg m{sup -2}d{sup -1} over 70 days and remained high relative to the low water table cores (<0.74 mg m{sup -2}d{sup -1}). Although drying of wetland taiga soils may decrease CH{sub 4} emissions to the atmosphere, the associated increase in CO{sub 2} due to aerobic respiration will likely increase the global warming potential of gas emissions from these soils. 43 refs., 4 figs.

  13. Liquid chromatography determination of natural dyes in extracts from historical Scottish textiles excavated from peat bogs.

    PubMed

    Surowiec, Izabella; Quye, Anita; Trojanowicz, Marek

    2006-04-21

    Textiles excavated from Scottish sites belonging now to the collections of the National Museums of Scotland, including seventeenth century textiles from peat bogs in the Scottish Highlands and Islands, were selected for analysis by high performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detection (PDA HPLC) to detect whether any dyes remained and, if so, to identify their biological sources. Dye components were identified in 36 of the 81 samples analysed. Although it was not possible to identify the exact sources of the dyestuffs because of the wide-spread occurrence of these natural dyes components, the study has shown that textiles previously not thought to have been coloured had detectable traces of dye. Before the historical textiles were analyzed, an improved extraction procedure that combined the routine acid hydrolysis method with one using dimethylformamide (DMF) was applied. The DMF method enabled increased recovery of major flavonoid and anthraquinoid compounds, and very high efficiency of recovery of indigotin even in textiles with no colour visible, thereby complementing the acid hydrolysis method already in use. Extracts from historical thread samples were analysed by PDA HPLC using a reversed-phase gradient system comprising of a C18 column (150 mm x 4.6 mm i.d., 25 +/- 1 degrees C) with water, methanol and o-phosphoric acid at an eluent flow rate of 1.2 ml/min. A preliminary investigation to improve the detection limits further for a selection of natural dyes was made by comparing results from the 4.6mm internal diameter (i.d.) column with a narrow bore C18 column (2.1 mm i.d.). An increase in the detector response was observed for narrow-bore column proving its possibility of enhancement of sensitivity. PMID:16309689

  14. Factors affecting leachate and gas carbon loadings at the Vancouver landfill site at Burns Bog

    SciTech Connect

    Wreford, K.

    1995-12-31

    Landfill gas represents either a potential energy source when recovered and modified, or a significant contributor to the build-up of greenhouse gases in the troposphere when released. An analysis of short-term and long-term variation in landfill gas production and composition and leachate characteristics in response to fluctuations in temperature, barometric pressure and precipitation was undertaken at the Burns Bog Site located in Delta, B.C. Gas composition (%CH{sub 4}, %CO{sub 2}, %O{sub 2}, %C{sub 2}H{sub 4}) and production measurements were undertaken at individual wells spanning the entire active gas producing area of the site, in addition to measurements from the header lines. Leachate samples were obtained from the pumping station of the collection ditch, and analyzed for the parameters of interest (COD, VFA, TOC, pH, NH{sub 4}{sup +}{minus}N). Preliminary results indicate that precipitation is the predominant factor affecting gas composition, with high CH{sub 4} and relatively low CO{sub 2} production following periods of heavy rainfall. This is most likely due to increased methanogenesis under the enhanced anaerobic conditions, in addition to the dissolution of CO{sub 2} and release in the leachate. The relative production of the key parameters of the gas and leachate were analyzed in order to determine possible effects of the measured climatic factors on this balance. Spatial and temporal trends in the production and composition of the landfill gas are highlighted in order to augment present understanding of the decomposition process of the refuse following burial, and the management practices which may lead to its optimization.

  15. [Spatial structure of communities of heterotrophic flagellates from a sphagnum bog].

    PubMed

    Tikhonenkov, D V; Maze?, Iu A

    2009-01-01

    Spatial distribution pattern of heterotrophic flagellates within a macroscopically homogenous sphagnum parcel of a transitional bog in the southern taiga was studied. Under investigation was horizontal pattern at different scales (1 cm, 10 cm, 1 m, 10 m) and the vertical heterogeneity of the community in the sphagnum quagmire. 105 species and forms of heterotrophic flagellates were revealed. Predominating were euglenids, less abundant are kynetoplastids and cercomonads. The most numerous appeared to be Cryptomonas sp., Heteromita minima, Goniomonas truncata, Protaspis simplex, Bodo designis, B. saltans, Phyllomitus apiculatus, Paraphysomonas sp., Petalomonas minuta. More abundant species were characterized by less patchy distribution than less abundant. At a smaller scale, the community was formed by the species with different degree of patchiness while at larger scales, all the species possess nearly the same distribution pattern. The same number of samples of equal sizes revealed nearly the same species numbers independently of distances between the sample sites, as the samples at each scale differ from each other nearly at the same magnitude. An averaged size of the species aggregations in the community is as large as several centimeters. Such a scale is probably a characteristic size (minimum area) of the community of the sphagnum dwelling heterotrophic flagellates. Rather low environmental heterogeneity within the sphagnum quagmire leads to significant homogeneity of the community at larger scales. Vertical differentiation of the heterotrophic flagellate community within that quagmire appeared to be very unstable with the time. The same species are characterized by different preferences to the depths at different spatial-temporal loci. Specific vertical distributions and community patterns are formed under different local conditions. PMID:19326857

  16. Hydrological responses to managed burning and grazing in an upland blanket bog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clay, Gareth D.; Worrall, Fred; Clark, Emma; Fraser, Evan D. G.

    2009-10-01

    SummaryThe management of the UK uplands by rotational burning and grazing is a widespread practice that aims to control the development of vegetation in order to create suitable habitats for grouse and sheep. By modifying the above ground biomass it is possible that above and/or below ground hydrological regimes may be altered. This study investigates the effect burning has on various hydrological parameters of an upland blanket bog. The study was conducted on a long-term experimental site examining different combinations of managed burning and grazing intensities. The study has found that: Although depth to water table shows strong seasonal trends, the shallowest water tables were found on those sites that were burnt every 20 years and grazed by sheep. The deepest water tables were found on those sites that had never been burnt. In the year following a managed burn, water tables on those sites that were burnt were significantly shallower than before the burn. Hydraulic conductivity, as determined by dipwell slug tests, was found to be significantly lower on those plots that were burnt every 20 years. Runoff occurrence was recorded and occurred at a significantly greater frequency on those sites that had recently been burnt. By using antecedent weather conditions, significant parameters were found that could be used to model runoff generation. This paper demonstrates how the use of managed burning in upland settings can affect various hydrological responses of the peatland. These variations in hydrological response will have important consequences on DOC export through changes in water table and the partitioning of precipitation into runoff.

  17. Characterization of the efficiency of sedimentation basins downstream of harvested peat bogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samson-Do, Myriam; St-Hilaire, André

    2015-04-01

    Peat harvesting is a very lucrative industry in the provinces of Quebec and New-Brunswick (Canada). Peat enters in many potting mix used for horticulture. However, harvesting this resource has some impacts on the environment. First, industries need to drain the peat bog to dry the superficial layer. Then, it is harvested with industrial vacuums and the underlying layer is allowed to dry. The drained water is laden with suspended sediments (mostly organic peat fibers) that may affect biota of the stream where it is discharged. To counter the problem, this water does not go directly on the stream but first flows through a sedimentation basin, built to reduce suspended sediment loads. This work focuses on characterizing and eventually modeling the efficiency of those sedimentation basins. Seven basins were studied in Rivière-du-Loup, St-Valère and Escoumins (Quebec, Canada). They each have a different ratio basin area/drained area (4.7 10-4 to 20.3 10-4). To continuously monitor the sediment loads (calculated from sediment concentrations and discharge) entering and leaving basins, a nephelometer and a level logger were installed in the water column upstream and downstream of sedimentation basins. Their trapping efficiency was measured during the ice-free period (May to October) and for each significant rain event, since it is known that the rain and subsequent runoff induce most of the peat transport in and out of the basin. Results show that the event efficiency decreases as the basin is filled up with trapped sediments. For one basin, the efficiency was 85August. Trapping efficiency can be used as a tool to estimate basin dimensions. This has been done for municipal sedimentation ponds that trap minerals and will be adapted to the current context, where the dominant sediment is organic.

  18. Modeling seasonal to annual carbon balance of Mer Bleue Bog, Ontario, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frolking, Steve; Roulet, Nigel T.; Moore, Tim R.; Lafleur, Peter M.; Bubier, Jill L.; Crill, Patrick M.

    2002-07-01

    Northern peatlands contain enormous quantities of organic carbon within a few meters of the atmosphere and play a significant role in the planetary carbon balance. We have developed a new, process-oriented model of the contemporary carbon balance of northern peatlands, the Peatland Carbon Simulator (PCARS). Components of PCARS are (1) vascular and nonvascular plant photosynthesis and respiration, net aboveground and belowground production, and litterfall; (2) aerobic and anaerobic decomposition of peat; (3) production, oxidation, and emission of methane; and (4) dissolved organic carbon loss with drainage water. PCARS has an hourly time step and requires air and soil temperatures, incoming radiation, water table depth, and horizontal drainage as drivers. Simulations predict a complete peatland C balance for one season to several years. A 3-year simulation was conducted for Mer Bleue Bog, near Ottawa, Ontario, and results were compared with multiyear eddy covariance tower CO2 flux and ancillary measurements from the site. Seasonal patterns and the general magnitude of net ecosystem exchange of CO2 were similar for PCARS and the tower data, though PCARS was generally biased toward net ecosystem respiration (i.e., carbon loss). Gross photosynthesis rates (calculated directly in PCARS, empirically inferred from tower data) were in good accord, so the discrepancy between model and measurement was likely related to autotrophic and/or heterotrophic respiration. Modeled and measured methane emission rates were quite low. PCARS has been designed to link with the Canadian Land Surface Scheme (CLASS) land surface model and a global climate model (GCM) to examine climate-peatland carbon feedbacks at regional scales in future analyses.

  19. Ecophysiological adaptations of anaerobic bacteria to low pH: analysis of anaerobic digestion in acidic bog sediments.

    PubMed Central

    Goodwin, S; Zeikus, J G

    1987-01-01

    The dynamics of anaerobic digestion were examined in the low-pH sediments of Crystal Bog in Wisconsin. The sediments (pH 4.9) contained 71% organic matter and the following concentrations of dissolved gases (micromoles per liter): CO2, 1,140; CH4, 490; and H2, 0.01. The rate of methane production was 6.2 mumol/liter of sediment per h, which is slower than eutrophic, neutral sediments. Microbial metabolic processes displayed the following pH optima: hydrolysis reactions, between 4.2 and 5.6; aceticlastic methanogenesis, 5.2; and hydrogen-consuming reactions, 5.6. The turnover rate constants for key intermediary metabolites were (h-1): glucose, 1.10; lactate, 0.277; acetate, 0.118; and ethanol, 0.089. The populations of anaerobes were low, with hydrolytic groups (10(6)/ml) several orders of magnitude higher than methanogens (10(2)/ml). The addition of carbon electron donors to the sediment resulted in the accumulation of hydrogen, whereas the addition of hydrogen resulted in the accumulation of fatty acids and the inhibition of hydrogen-producing acetogenic reactions. Strains of Lactobacillus, Clostridium, and Sarcina ventriculi were isolated from the bog, and their physiological attributes were characterized in relation to hydrolytic process functions in the sediments. The present studies provide evidence that the pH present in the bog sediments alter anaerobic digestion processes so that total biocatalytic activity is lower but the general carbon and electron flow pathways are similar to those of neutral anoxic sediments. PMID:3103534

  20. The importance of dissolved free oxygen during formation of sandstone-type uranium deposits

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Granger, Harry Clifford; Warren, C.G.

    1979-01-01

    One factor which distinguishes t, he genesis of roll-type uranium deposits from the Uravan Mineral Belt and other sandstone-type uranium deposits may be the presence and concentration of dissolved free oxygen in the ore-forming. solutions. Although dissolved oxygen is a necessary prerequisite for the formation of roll-type deposits, it is proposed that a lack of dissolved oxygen is a prerequisite for the Uravan deposits. Solutions that formed both types of deposits probably had a supergene origin and originated as meteoric water in approximate equilibrium with atmospheric oxygen. Roll-type deposits were formed where the Eh dropped abruptly following consumption of the oxygen by iron sulfide minerals and creation of kinetically active sulfur species that could reduce uranium. The solutions that formed the Uravan deposits, on the other hand, probably first equilibrated with sulfide-free ferrous-ferric detrital minerals and fossil organic matter in the host rock. That is, the uraniferous solutions lost their oxygen without lowering their Eh enough to precipitate uranium. Without oxygen, they then. became incapable of oxidizing iron sulfide minerals. Subsequent localization and formation of ore bodies from these oxygen-depleted solutions, therefore, was not necessarily dependent on large reducing capacities.

  1. The formation of basal-type uranium deposits in south central British Columbia

    SciTech Connect

    Boyle, D.R.

    1982-08-01

    The basal-type uranium deposits in south central British Columbia occur within unconsolidated, late Miocene fluvial paleochannel sediments that overlie major fault zones within the Okanagan Highlands Intrusive Complex. Five uranium deposits have been outlined to date, of which the Blizzard (4,020 metric tons U) and Tyee (650 metric tons U) are the largest. The basement intrusive complex underlying the deposits varies in age from early Cretaceous to Eocene and is comprised of quartz monzonite, granodiorite, Coryell monzonite, porphyritic granite, and pegmatite. Uranium mineralization is present in the form of uranous (ningyoite) or uranyl (saleeite, autunite) phosphates coating clastic grains and filling voids. Because of very strong reducing conditions related to large concentrations of marcasite and organic material, ningyoite is the only uranium mineral in the Tyee deposit, whereas the Blizzard deposit contains a more complex assemblage of minerals (saleeite, autunite, ningyoite). The observed paragenetic sequence of mineral precipitation in the Blizzard deposit (autunite-saleeite-ningyoite) indicates that the uranyl minerals, saleeite and autunite, are primary. Investigations of the source of the ore-forming elements (U, Ca, Mg, PO/sub 4/) showed the deposits to be formed by the infiltration into fluvial sediments of deep-seated, structurally controlled, ground waters that migrated in a well-developed regional hydrologic system within the Complex. Research indicates that the ore-forming ground waters were cold, slightly bicarbonated (150-400 ppm), highly uraniferous (10-50 ppb), and slightly oxidizing (dissolved oxygen = 2-4 ppm).

  2. Modeling CH4 and CO2 cycling using porewater stable isotopes in a thermokarst bog, interior Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neumann, R. B.; Blazewicz, S.; Waldrop, M. P.

    2014-12-01

    Methane emitted from wetlands represents the end product of various microbial processes operating within anaerobic wetland soils. Determining the rate at which these microbial reactions occur is challenging, making it difficult to gain a mechanistic understanding of the factors and conditions that influence microbial rates and ultimately methane emissions. One approach for estimating in-situ reaction rates involves tracking the time evolution of porewater concentrations and stable carbon isotopes of CH4 and CO2. Microbes preferentially use isotopically light carbon substrates, which causes the carbon product pool to become isotopically lighter and the carbon substrate pool become isotopically heavier. Different microbial biochemical pathways fractionate carbon to different extents, allowing for differentiation between microbial reactions. This is a powerful approach to estimate in-situ rates, but, as we show in our presentation, it is possible for different combinations of reaction rates to provide equally good fits to the evolution of these data. The solution is non-unique and depends on the set of considered reactions. We used two different reaction network models on a set of porewater data collected from a thermokarst bog at the Alaska Peatland Experiment (APEX) outside of Fairbanks, AK to estimate in-situ microbial reaction rates during the summer season. Both models included methane production, methane oxidation and fermentation/respiration, but only one model included homoacetogenesis. We found that both reaction networks explained the evolution of dissolved gas concentrations and stable carbon isotope data, but predicted rates that differed from each other by up to a factor of six. The methane production rates estimated by the model that included homoacetogenesis aligned better with measured rates of methane emission. Despite differences in the magnitude of modeled rates, results from the two models told a similar story about the spatial and temporal patterns of microbial rates at the site. Modeled rates were higher at the edge of the bog than in the center of the bog, and rates at the edge increased during the summer while those in the center did not change with time. In both the center and at the edge of the bog, modeled rates increased with depth. We present hypotheses for these patterns.

  3. Linking glacial deposits and lake sediments for paleoclimate studies in the Northern Romanian Carpathians

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zamosteanu, Andrei; Mindrescu, Marcel; Anselmetti, Flavio; Akçar, Naki; Lowick, Sally E.; Vogel, Hendrik

    2015-04-01

    Timing and extent of glaciations in the Carpathian mountains are still controversely discussed, mostly due to the lack of well dated geomorphological and geochronological studies. We present the preliminary results of geomorphological and sedimentological analyses of glacial and lacustrine deposits in Bistricioara Valley located in the Rodna Mountains (Northern Romanian Carpathians). Most of the glacial deposits in the Romanian Carpathians, such as moraines, typically occur above 1600 m a.s.l. marking the maximum lowering of past glaciations. Most of the glacial lakes occur between 1800 and 2000 m a.s.l. Field surveys included mapping of moraines and erratic boulders using detailed topographical maps and aerial photos. A Digital Elevation Model (DEM) was derived using GIS (ArcMap 10.1) from 1:25000 topographic maps, which was further completed by field survey data. The resulting geomorphological map shows a series of moraines, which indicate the occurrence of several glacial phases in the study area. Sediment samples were collected from a peat bog (1630 m a.s.l.) dammed by a large lateral moraine within Bistricioara Mare, one of the largest glacial cirques in the Romanian Carpathians. A Russian corer was used to extract the sediment profile from the peat bog (approx. 5 m long sediment core). A X-ray computed tomography (CT) system was employed for the study of sedimentary and deformation structures and X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF) for multi-element analysis at high resolution. Glacial deposits from the lateral moraine in front of the peat bog were also sampled, as well as from the frontal moraines, upstream and downstream of the peat bog. This set of samples from multiple archives allows to link and merge the chronologies and the paleoenvironmental records of glacial deposits and lake sediments. Moreover, we employed cosmogenic nuclide dating for the reconstruction of glacial stages and their paleoclimatic implications during deglaciation in this area of Rodna Massif. The lake sediment succession showed an evolution from a basal glacially-influenced lacustrine environment to a shallow lake and eventually to a peat bog. The 5 m-long sediment core allows a good temporal resolution to document environmental and palaeoclimatic changes in the region since deglaciation. The lithostratigraphic profile exhibits several abrupt changes. The transitions from the clastic-rich lowest 30 cm of the profile to the overlying units reflects a change in the detritic input that is mostly related to initial proximity to a glacial source. The overlying sections are mostly characterized by differences in the amount of organic matter, which are in turn related to the climate variability. Anthropogenic influences cannot be discarded and will be further investigated

  4. A 5 Year Study of Carbon Fluxes from a Restored English Blanket Bog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Worrall, F.; Dixon, S.; Evans, M.

    2014-12-01

    This study aimed to measure the effects of ecological restoration on blanket peat water table depths, DOC concentrations and CO2 fluxes. In April 2003 the Bleaklow Plateau, an extensive area of deep blanket peat in the Peak District National Park, northern England, was devegetated by a wildfire. As a result the area was selected for large scale restoration. In this study we considered a 5-year study of four restored sites in comparison to both an unrestored, bare peat control and to vegetated control that did not require restoration. Results suggested that sites with revegetation alongside slope stabilisation had the highest rates of photosynthesis and were the largest net (daylight hours) sinks of CO2. Bare sites were the largest net sources of CO2 and had the deepest water table depths. Sites with gully wall stabilisation were between 5-8 times more likely to be net CO2 sinks than the bare sites. Revegetation without gully flow blocking using plastic dams did not have a large effect on water table depths in and around the gullies investigated whereas a blocked gully had water table depths comparable to a naturally revegetating gully. A ten centimetre lowering in water table depth decreased the probability of observing a net CO2 sink, on a given site, by up to 30%. With respect to DOC the study showed that the average soil porewater DOC concentration on the restored sites rose significantly over the 5 year study representing a 34% increase relative to the vegetated control and an 11% increase relative to the unrestored, bare control. Soil pore water concentrations were not significantly different from surface runoff DOC concentrations and therefore restoration as conducted by this study would have contributed to water quality deterioration in the catchment. The most important conclusion of this research was that restoration interventions were apparently effective at increasing the likelihood of net CO2 sink behaviour and raising water tables on degraded, climatically marginal blanket bog. However, had water table restoration been conducted alongside revegetation then a significant decline in DOC concentrations could have also been realised.

  5. Biogeochemical indicators of peatland degradation - a case study of a temperate bog in northern Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krger, J. P.; Leifeld, J.; Glatzel, S.; Szidat, S.; Alewell, C.

    2014-12-01

    Peatlands store a great proportion of the global soil carbon pool and can loose carbon via the atmosphere due to degradation. In Germany, most of the greenhouse gas emissions from organic soils are attributed to sites managed as grassland. Here we investigated a land-use gradient from near-natural wetland (NW) to an extensively managed (GE) to an intensively managed grassland site (GI), all formed in the same bog complex in northern Germany. Vertical depth profiles of ?13C, ?15N, ash content, C/N ratio, bulk density, as well as radiocarbon ages were studied to identify peat degradation and to calculate carbon loss. At all sites, including the near-natural site, ?13C depth profiles indicate aerobic decomposition in the upper horizons. Depth profiles of ?15Ndiffered significantly between sites with increasing ?15N values in the top layers with increasing intensity of use, indicating that the peat is more decomposed. At both grassland sites, the ash content peaked within the first centimeter. In the near-natural site, ash contents were highest in 10-60 cm depth. This indicates that not only the managed grasslands, but also the near-natural site, is influenced by anthropogenic activities, most likely due to the drainage of the surrounding area. However, we found very young peat material in the first centimeter of the NW, indicating recent peat growth. The NW site accumulates carbon today even though it is and probably was influenced by anthropogenic activities in the past indicated by ?13C and ash content depth profiles. Based on the enrichment of ash content and changes in bulk density, we calculated carbon loss from these sites in retrograde. As expected land use intensification leads to a higher carbon loss which is supported by the higher peat ages at the intensive managed grassland site. All investigated biogeochemical parameters together indicate degradation of peat due to (i) conversion to grassland, (ii) historical drainage as well as recent development and (iii) land use intensification.

  6. Sphagnum mosses from 21 ombrotrophic bogs in the athabasca bituminous sands region show no significant atmospheric contamination of "heavy metals".

    PubMed

    Shotyk, William; Belland, Rene; Duke, John; Kempter, Heike; Krachler, Michael; Noernberg, Tommy; Pelletier, Rick; Vile, Melanie A; Wieder, Kelman; Zaccone, Claudio; Zhang, Shuangquan

    2014-11-01

    Sphagnum moss was collected from 21 ombrotrophic (rain-fed) peat bogs surrounding open pit mines and upgrading facilities of Athabasca bituminous sands in Alberta (AB). In comparison to contemporary Sphagnum moss from four bogs in rural locations of southern Germany (DE), the AB mosses yielded lower concentrations of Ag, Cd, Ni, Pb, Sb, and Tl, similar concentrations of Mo, but greater concentrations of Ba, Th, and V. Except for V, in comparison to the "cleanest", ancient peat samples ever tested from the northern hemisphere (ca. 6000-9000 years old), the concentrations of each of these metals in the AB mosses are within a factor of 3 of "natural, background" values. The concentrations of "heavy metals" in the mosses, however, are proportional to the concentration of Th (a conservative, lithophile element) and, therefore, contributed to the plants primarily in the form of mineral dust particles. Vanadium, the single most abundant trace metal in bitumen, is the only anomaly: in the AB mosses, V exceeds that of ancient peat by a factor of 6; it is therefore enriched in the mosses, relative to Th, by a factor of 2. In comparison to the surface layer of peat cores collected in recent years from across Canada, from British Columbia to New Brunswick, the Pb concentrations in the mosses from AB are far lower. PMID:25259407

  7. Contrasting wetland CH4 emission responses to simulated glacial atmospheric CO2 in temperate bogs and fens.

    PubMed

    Boardman, Carl P; Gauci, Vincent; Watson, Jonathan S; Blake, Stephen; Beerling, David J

    2011-12-01

    Wetlands were the largest source of atmospheric methane (CH(4) ) during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), but the sensitivity of this source to exceptionally low atmospheric CO(2) concentration ([CO(2) ]) at the time has not been examined experimentally. We tested the hypothesis that LGM atmospheric [CO(2) ] reduced CH(4) emissions as a consequence of decreased photosynthate allocation to the rhizosphere. We exposed minerotrophic fen and ombrotrophic bog peatland mesocosms to simulated LGM (c. 200 ppm) or ambient (c. 400 ppm) [CO(2) ] over 21 months (n = 8 per treatment) and measured gaseous CH(4) flux, pore water dissolved CH(4) and volatile fatty acid (VFA; an indicator of plant carbon supply to the rhizosphere) concentrations. Cumulative CH(4) flux from fen mesocosms was suppressed by 29% (P < 0.05) and rhizosphere pore water [CH(4) ] by c. 50% (P < 0.01) in the LGM [CO(2) ], variables that remained unaffected in bog mesocosms. VFA analysis indicated that changes in plant root exudates were not the driving mechanism behind these results. Our data suggest that the LGM [CO(2) ] suppression of wetland CH(4) emissions is contingent on trophic status. The heterogeneous response may be attributable to differences in species assemblage that influence the dominant CH(4) production pathway, rhizosphere supplemented photosynthesis and CH(4) oxidation. PMID:21899554

  8. Effect of trap color and height on captures of blunt-nosed and sharp-nosed leafhoppers (hemiptera: cicadellidae) and non-target arthropods in cranberry bogs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A series of field experiments were conducted in cranberry bogs in 2006-2010 to determine adult attraction of the two most economically important leafhopper pests of cultivated Vaccinium spp. in the northeast USA, the blunt-nosed leafhopper, Limotettix vaccinii, and sharp-nosed leafhopper, Scaphytopi...

  9. Acid Deposition

    EPA Science Inventory

    This indicator presents acid deposition trends in the contiguous U.S. from 1989 to 2007. Data are broken down by wet and dry deposition and deposition of nitrogen and sulfur compounds. Acid deposition is particularly damaging to lakes, streams, and forests and the plants and a...

  10. Atmospheric Deposition of Indium in the Northeastern United States: Flux and Historical Trends.

    PubMed

    White, Sarah Jane O; Keach, Carrie; Hemond, Harold F

    2015-11-01

    The metal indium is an example of an increasingly important material used in electronics and new energy technologies, whose environmental behavior and toxicity are poorly understood despite increasing evidence of detrimental health impacts and human-induced releases to the environment. In the present work, the history of indium deposition from the atmosphere is reconstructed from its depositional record in an ombrotrophic bog in Massachusetts. A novel freeze-coring technique is used to overcome coring difficulties posed by woody roots and peat compressibility, enabling retrieval of relatively undisturbed peat cores dating back more than a century. Results indicate that long-range atmospheric transport is a significant pathway for the transport of indium, with peak concentrations of 69 ppb and peak fluxes of 1.9 ng/cm2/yr. Atmospheric deposition to the bog began increasing in the late 1800s/early 1900s, and peaked in the early 1970s. A comparison of deposition data with industrial production and emissions estimates suggests that both coal combustion and the smelting of lead, zinc, copper, and tin sulfides are sources of indium to the atmosphere in this region. Deposition appears to have decreased considerably since the 1970s, potentially a visible effect of particulate emissions controls instated in North America during that decade. PMID:26426729

  11. Carbon dioxide flux and net primary production of a boreal treed bog: responses to warming and water table manipulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munir, T. M.; Perkins, M.; Kaing, E.; Strack, M.

    2014-09-01

    Mid-latitude treed bogs are significant carbon (C) stocks and are highly sensitive to global climate change. In a dry continental treed bog, we compared three sites; control, recent (1-3 years; experimental) and older drained (10-13 years; drained) with water levels at 38, 74 and 120 cm below the surface, respectively. At each site we measured carbon dioxide (CO2) fluxes and tree root respiration (Rr) (across hummock-hollow microtopography of the forest floor) and net primary production (NPP) of trees during the growing seasons (May to October) of 2011-2013. The carbon (C) balance was calculated by adding net CO2 exchange of the forest floor (NEff-Rr) to the NPP of the trees. From cooler and wetter 2011 to driest and warmest 2013, The control site was a~C sink of 92, 70 and 76 g m-2, experimental site was a C source of 14, 57 and 135 g m-2, and drained site was a progressively smaller source of 26, 23 and 13 g m-2, respectively. Although all microforms at the experimental site had large net CO2 emissions, the longer-term drainage and deeper water level at the drained site resulted in the replacement of mosses with vascular plants (shrubs) at the hummocks and lichens at the hollows leading to the highest CO2 uptake at drained hummocks and significant losses at hollows. The tree NPP was highest at the drained site. We also quantified the impact of climatic warming at all water table treatments by equipping additional plots with open-top chambers (OTCs) that caused a passive warming on average of ∼1 C and differential air warming of ∼6 C (at mid-day full sun) across the study years. Warming significantly enhanced the shrub growth and CO2 sink function of the drained hummocks (exceeding the cumulative respiration losses at hollows induced by the lowered water level warming). There was an interaction of water level with warming across hummocks that resulted in largest net CO2 uptake at warmed drained hummocks. Thus in 2013, the warming treatment enhanced the sink function of control by 13 g m-2, reduced the source function of experimental by 10 g m-2, and significantly enhanced the sink function of the drained site by 73 g m-2. Therefore, drying and warming in continental bogs is expected to initially accelerate C losses via respiration but persistent drought and warming is expected to restore the peatland's original C sink function as a result of transitional shift of vegetation between the microforms and increased NPP of trees over time.

  12. How will the semi-natural vegetation of the UK have changed by 2030 given likely changes in nitrogen deposition?

    PubMed

    Stevens, Carly J; Payne, Richard J; Kimberley, Adam; Smart, Simon M

    2016-01-01

    Nitrogen deposition is known to have major impacts on contemporary ecosystems but few studies have addressed how these impacts will develop over coming decades. We consider likely changes to British semi-natural vegetation up to the year 2030 both qualitatively, based on knowledge of species responses from experimental and gradient studies, and quantitatively, based on modelling of species relationships in national monitoring data. We used historical N deposition trends and national predictions of changing deposition to calculate cumulative deposition from 1900 to 2030. Data from the Countryside Survey (1978, 1990 and 1998) was used to parameterise models relating cumulative N deposition to Ellenberg N which were then applied to expected future deposition trends. Changes to habitat suitability for key species of grassland, heathland and bog, and broadleaved woodland to 2030 were predicted using the MultiMOVE model. In UK woodlands by 2030 there is likely to be reduced occurrence of lichens, increased grass cover and a shift towards more nitrophilic vascular plant species. In grasslands we expect changing species composition with reduced occurrence of terricolous lichens and, at least in acid grasslands, reduced species richness. In heaths and bogs we project overall reductions in species richness with decreased occurrence of terricolous lichens and some bryophytes, reduced cover of dwarf shrubs and small increases in grasses. Our study clearly suggests that changes in vegetation due to nitrogen deposition are likely to continue through coming decades. PMID:26439678

  13. Geology and recognition criteria for sandstone uranium deposits in mixed fluvial-shallow marine sedimentary sequences, South Texas. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, S.S.; Smith, R.B.

    1981-01-01

    Uranium deposits in the South Texas Uranium Region are classical roll-type deposits that formed at the margin of tongues of altered sandstone by the encroachment of oxidizing, uraniferous solutions into reduced aquifers containing pyrite and, in a few cases, carbonaceous plant material. Many of the uranium deposits in South Texas are dissimilar from the roll fronts of the Wyoming basins. The host sands for many of the deposits contain essentially no carbonaceous plant material, only abundant disseminated pyrite. Many of the deposits do not occur at the margin of altered (ferric oxide-bearing) sandstone tongues but rather occur entirely within reduced, pyurite-bearing sandstone. The abundance of pyrite within the sands probably reflects the introduction of H/sub 2/S up along faults from hydrocarbon accumulations at depth. Such introductions before ore formation prepared the sands for roll-front development, whereas post-ore introductions produced re-reduction of portions of the altered tongue, leaving the deposit suspended in reduced sandstone. Evidence from three deposits suggests that ore formation was not accompanied by the introduction of significant amounts of H/sub 2/S.

  14. Response of Sphagnum fuscum to Nitrogen Deposition: A Case Study of Ombrogenous Peatlands in Alberta, Canada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vitt, D.H.; Wieder, K.; Halsey, L.A.; Turetsky, M.

    2003-01-01

    Peatlands cover about 30% of northeastern Alberta and are ecosystems that are sensitive to nitrogen deposition. In polluted areas of the UK, high atmospheric N deposition (as a component of acid deposition) has been considered among the causes of Sphagnum decline in bogs (ombrogenous peatlands). In relatively unpolluted areas of western Canada and northern Sweden, short-term experimental studies have shown that Sphagnum responds quickly to nutrient loading, with uptake and retention of nitrogen and increased production. Here we examine the response of Sphagnum fuscum to enhanced nitrogen deposition generated during 34 years of oil sands mining through the determination of net primary production (NPP) and nitrogen concentrations in the upper peat column. We chose six continental bogs receiving differing atmospheric nitrogen loads (modeled using a CALPUFF 2D dispersion model). Sphagnum fuscum net primary production (NPP) at the high deposition site (Steepbank - mean of 600 g/m2; median of 486 g/m2) was over three times as high than at five other sites with lower N deposition. Additionally, production of S. fuscum may be influenced to some extent by distance of the moss surface from the water table. Across all sites, peat nitrogen concentrations are highest at the surface, decreasing in the top 3 cm with no significant change with increasing depth. We conclude that elevated N deposition at the Steepbank site has enhanced Sphagnum production. Increased N concentrations are evident only in the top 1-cm of the peat profile. Thus, 34 years after mine startup, increased N-deposition has increased net primary production of Sphagnum fuscum without causing elevated levels of nitrogen in the organic matter profile. A response to N-stress for Sphagnum fuscum is proposed at 14-34 kg ha-1 yr-1. A review of N-deposition values reveals a critical N-deposition value of between 14.8 and 15.7 kg ha -1 yr-1 for NPP of Sphagnum species.

  15. Microbial activity of peat soils of boggy larch forests and bogs in the permafrost zone of central Evenkia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grodnitskaya, I. D.; Karpenko, L. V.; Knorre, A. A.; Syrtsov, S. N.

    2013-01-01

    The microbial activity of peat soils was studied in boggy larch forests and in an oligo-mesotrophic bog in the basins of the Kochechum and Nizhnaya Tunguska rivers (central Evenkia). It was found that the organic matter transformation in the peat soils of all the plots is mainly performed by oligotrophic bacteria composing 88-98% of the total bacterial complex. The major contribution to the organic matter destruction belonged to the heterotrophic microorganisms, the activity of which depended on the permafrost depth and the soil temperature, the soil acidity, and the botanical composition of the peat. Peat soils were characterized by different activities as judged from their microbiological and biochemical parameters. The functioning of microbial communities in the studied ecotopes of the permafrost zone was within the range of natural variations, which pointed to their ecological stability.

  16. CH4 production via CO2 reduction in a temperate bog - A source of (C-13)-depleted CH4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lansdown, J. M.; Quay, P. D.; King, S. L.

    1992-01-01

    The paper reports measurements, taken over two annual cycles, of the flux and delta(C-13) of CH4 released from an acidic peat bog located in the foothills of the Cascade Range in Washington state, U.S. Measurements of the rate of aceticlastic methanogenesis and CO2 reduction in peat soil, using (C-14)-labeled acetate and sodium bicarbonate, show that acetate was not an important CH4 precursor and that CO2 reduction could account for all of the CH4 production. The in situ kinetic isotope effect for CO2 reduction, calculated using the delta-(C-13) of soil water CO2 and CH4 flux, was 0.932 +/- 0.007.

  17. Methods of processing uraniferous ores

    SciTech Connect

    Gruet, M.; Lafforgue, P.; Michel, P.

    1981-11-17

    Refractory uranium is crushed and impregnated with a concentrated aqueous solution of sulphuric acid to provide a mixture which retains a solid phase consistency. The impregnated mixture is disintegrated in an aqueous solution to form a thick paste or pulp. The pulp is digested for a duration not exceeding 10 hours and the uranium recovered by solid/liquid separation. The sulphuric acid content of the concentrated solution is selected for the residual acidity at the end of pulp digestion to be of from 10 g/l to 40 g/l.

  18. Diversity and community structure of Archaea inhabiting the rhizoplane of two contrasting plants from an acidic bog.

    PubMed

    Cadillo-Quiroz, Hinsby; Yavitt, Joseph B; Zinder, Stephen H; Thies, Janice E

    2010-05-01

    Plant root exudates increase nutrient availability and influence microbial communities including archaeal members. We examined the archaeal community inhabiting the rhizoplane of two contrasting vascular plants, Dulichium arundinaceum and Sarracenia purpurea, from an acidic bog in upstate NY. Multiple archaeal 16S rRNA gene libraries showed that methanogenic Archaea were dominant in the rhizoplane of both plants. In addition, the community structure (evenness) of the rhizoplane was found markedly different from the bulk peat. The archaeal community in peat from the same site has been found dominated by the E2 group, meanwhile the rhizoplane communities on both plants were co-dominated by Methanosarcinaceae (MS), rice cluster (RC)-I, and E2. Complementary T-RFLP analysis confirmed the difference between bulk peat and rhizoplane, and further characterized the dominance pattern of MS, RC-I, and E2. In the rhizoplane, MS was dominant on both plants although as a less variable fraction in S. purpurea. RC-I was significantly more abundant than E2 on S. purpurea, while the opposite was observed on D. arundinaceum, suggesting a plant-specific enrichment. Also, the statistical analyses of T-RFLP data showed that although both plants overlap in their community structure, factors such as plant type, patch location, and time could explain nearly a third of the variability in the dataset. Other factors such as water table, plant replicate, and root depth had a low contribution to the observed variance. The results of this study illustrate the general effects of roots and the specific effects of plant types on their nearby archaeal communities which in bog-inhabiting plants were mainly composed by methanogenic groups. PMID:20024684

  19. Are bogs reservoirs for emerging disease vectors? Evaluation of culicoides populations in the Hautes Fagnes Nature Reserve (Belgium).

    PubMed

    Zimmer, Jean-Yves; Smeets, Franois; Simonon, Grgory; Fagot, Jean; Haubruge, Eric; Francis, Frdric; Losson, Bertrand

    2013-01-01

    Several species of Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) biting midges serve as biological vectors for the bluetongue virus (BTV) and the recently described Schmallenberg virus (SBV) in northern Europe. Since their recent emergence in this part of the continent, these diseases have caused considerable economic losses to the sheep and cattle industries. Much data is now available that describe the distribution, population dynamics, and feeding habits of these insects. However, little is known regarding the presence of Culicoides in unusual habitats such as peaty marshes, nor their potential vector capacity. This study evaluated Culicoides biting midges present in the bogs of a Belgian nature reserve compared to those residing at a nearby cattle farm. Culicoides were trapped in 2011 at four different sites (broadleaved and coniferous forested areas, open environments, and at a scientific station) located in the Hautes Fagnes Nature Reserve (Belgium). An additional light trap was operated on a nearby cattle farm. Very high numbers of biting midges were captured in the marshy area and most of them (70 to 95%) were Culicoides impunctatus, a potential vector of BTV and other pathogens. In addition, fewer numbers of C. obsoletus/C. scoticus species, C. chiopterus, and C. dewulfi were observed in the bogs compared to the farm. The wet environment and oligotrophic nature of the soil were probably responsible for these changes in the respective populations. A total of 297,808 Culicoides midges belonging to 27 species were identified during this study and 3 of these species (C. sphagnumensis, C. clintoni and C. comosioculatus) were described in Belgium for the first time. PMID:23799137

  20. Are Bogs Reservoirs for Emerging Disease Vectors? Evaluation of Culicoides Populations in the Hautes Fagnes Nature Reserve (Belgium)

    PubMed Central

    Zimmer, Jean-Yves; Smeets, Franois; Simonon, Grgory; Fagot, Jean; Haubruge, Eric; Francis, Frdric; Losson, Bertrand

    2013-01-01

    Several species of Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) biting midges serve as biological vectors for the bluetongue virus (BTV) and the recently described Schmallenberg virus (SBV) in northern Europe. Since their recent emergence in this part of the continent, these diseases have caused considerable economic losses to the sheep and cattle industries. Much data is now available that describe the distribution, population dynamics, and feeding habits of these insects. However, little is known regarding the presence of Culicoides in unusual habitats such as peaty marshes, nor their potential vector capacity. This study evaluated Culicoides biting midges present in the bogs of a Belgian nature reserve compared to those residing at a nearby cattle farm. Culicoides were trapped in 2011 at four different sites (broadleaved and coniferous forested areas, open environments, and at a scientific station) located in the Hautes Fagnes Nature Reserve (Belgium). An additional light trap was operated on a nearby cattle farm. Very high numbers of biting midges were captured in the marshy area and most of them (70 to 95%) were Culicoides impunctatus, a potential vector of BTV and other pathogens. In addition, fewer numbers of C. obsoletus/C. scoticus species, C. chiopterus, and C. dewulfi were observed in the bogs compared to the farm. The wet environment and oligotrophic nature of the soil were probably responsible for these changes in the respective populations. A total of 297,808 Culicoides midges belonging to 27 species were identified during this study and 3 of these species (C. sphagnumensis, C. clintoni and C. comosioculatus) were described in Belgium for the first time. PMID:23799137

  1. Reconciling models and measurements to assess trends in atmospheric mercury deposition.

    PubMed

    Sunderland, Elsie M; Cohen, Mark D; Selin, Noelle E; Chmura, Gail L

    2008-11-01

    Changes in atmospheric mercury deposition are used to evaluate the effectiveness of regulations controlling emissions. This analysis can be complicated by seemingly incongruent data from different model runs, model types, and field measurements. Here we present a case study example that describes how to identify trends in regional scale mercury deposition using best-available information from multiple data sources. To do this, we use data from three atmospheric chemistry models (CMAQ, GEOS-Chem, HYSPLIT) and multiple sediment archives (ombrotrophic bog, headwater lake, coastal salt marsh) from the Bay of Fundy region in Canada. Combined sediment and modeling data indicate that deposition attributable to US and Canadian emissions has declined in recent years, thereby increasing the relative significance of global sources. We estimate that anthropogenic emissions in the US and Canada account for 28-33% of contemporary atmospheric deposition in this region, with the rest from natural (14-32%) and global sources (41-53%). PMID:18299164

  2. Dissolved carbon and nitrogen quantity and quality at natural, drained and re-wetted bog sites in Lower Saxony (Germany)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frank, Stefan; Tiemeyer, Brbel; Freibauer, Annette

    2013-04-01

    5 % of Germany's land area is covered with peatlands. Due to the large carbon and nitrogen stocks, changes in peatland hydrology for agricultural use have a huge impact on C and N cycling in the peatland and on the export to the atmosphere and adjacent ecosystems. Nonetheless, only a few studies focussed on the impact of drainage and re-wetting on C and N cycling in German raised bogs. Four study sites in the "Ahlenmoor" near Cuxhaven (Northwestern Germany) were chosen. This bog has a deep, medium to weakly decomposed peat layer. The sites represent a gradient of the groundwater level combined with land use differences (intensive and extensive grassland, natural site, re-wetted peat-cutting area). The mean annual groundwater level decreases from the natural and re-wetted sites (near surface) to the extensive grassland (30 cm below surface) and, finally, the intensive grassland (56 cm). The "Peeper" technique (dialysis sampler) was used to measure soil water chemistry in a high spatial resolution. At each site, three peepers (0-60 cm, 12 chambers each) collected soil water samples via diffusion. Monthly sampling was conducted from February 2012 till November 2012. The soil water solution was analysed for pH, EC, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), dissolved organic nitrogen (DON), NH4+, NO3- and SUVA(280). Samples taken in November 2012 were additionally analysed for dissolved CO2, CH4 and N2O. Average DOC concentrations ranged from 211 to 41 mg/L and decreased in order intensive > extensive grassland > re-wetted = natural site. After 10 years of restoration, the re-wetted and the natural site show similar DOC concentrations. Average SUVA(280) values of 3.7 to 3.3 L/(mg m) were higher at the grassland sites than at the re-wetted and the natural site. This indicates a distinct increase in aromaticity of DOC in grassland sites as a result of more intense humification of the upper peat layer. In contrast to mineral soils, SUVA(280) remained constant with depth at our sites. Total nitrogen decreased in same order as DOC and was mainly composed of DON. NH4+ dominates the inorganic nitrogen fraction. The comparison of peat C/N to DOC/DON ratios indicates that the more degraded upper layer is the main source of carbon and nitrogen in the soil solution. Dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) was mainly measured as dissolved CO2-C (13.6 mg/L), followed by CH4-C (1.7 mg/L). While CH4-C was present over the whole profile at the re-wetted and the natural site, it was missing in the upper 40 cm of the grassland sites. Instead, dissolved N2O-N was found (19.8 g/L). Especially in natural bogs with low DOC concentrations, DIC may be a relevant part of the carbon budget. Our results show that the groundwater level in combination with land use has a huge impact on C- and N-quality and quantity between sites and within the peat profile, and that re-wetting may result in a return to "natural" DOC concentration levels and properties.

  3. Greenhouse gas exchange of rewetted bog peat extraction sites and a Sphagnum cultivation site in northwest Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beyer, C.; Höper, H.

    2015-04-01

    During the last decades an increasing area of drained peatlands has been rewetted. Especially in Germany, rewetting is the principal treatment on cutover sites when peat extraction is finished. The objectives are bog restoration and the reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The first sites were rewetted in the 1980s. Thus, there is a good opportunity to study long-term effects of rewetting on greenhouse gas exchange, which has not been done so far on temperate cutover peatlands. Moreover, Sphagnum cultivating may become a new way to use cutover peatlands and agriculturally used peatlands as it permits the economical use of bogs under wet conditions. The climate impact of such measures has not been studied yet. We conducted a field study on the exchange of carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide at three rewetted sites with a gradient from dry to wet conditions and at a Sphagnum cultivation site in NW Germany over the course of more than 2 years. Gas fluxes were measured using transparent and opaque closed chambers. The ecosystem respiration (CO2) and the net ecosystem exchange (CO2) were modelled at a high temporal resolution. Measured and modelled values fit very well together. Annually cumulated gas flux rates, net ecosystem carbon balances (NECB) and global warming potential (GWP) balances were determined. The annual net ecosystem exchange (CO2) varied strongly at the rewetted sites (from -201.7 ± 126.8 to 29.7± 112.7g CO2-C m-2 a-1) due to differing weather conditions, water levels and vegetation. The Sphagnum cultivation site was a sink of CO2 (-118.8 ± 48.1 and -78.6 ± 39.8 g CO2-C m-2 a-1). The annual CH4 balances ranged between 16.2 ± 2.2 and 24.2 ± 5.0g CH4-C m-2 a-1 at two inundated sites, while one rewetted site with a comparatively low water level and the Sphagnum farming site show CH4 fluxes close to 0. The net N2O fluxes were low and not significantly different between the four sites. The annual NECB was between -185.5 ± 126.9 and 49.9 ± 112.8 g CO2-C m-2 a-1 at the rewetted sites and -115.8 ± 48.1 and -77 ± 39.8 g CO2-C m-2 a-1 at the Sphagnum cultivating site. The annual GWP100 balances ranged from -280.5 ± 465.2 to 644.5 ± 413.6 g CO2-eq. m-2 a-1 at the rewetted sites. In contrast, the Sphagnum farming site had a cooling impact on the climate in both years (-356.8 ± 176.5 and -234.9 ± 145.9 g CO2-C m-2 a-1). If the carbon exported through the harvest of the Sphagnum biomass and the additional CO2 emission from the decay of the organic material is considered, the NECB and GWP100 balances are near neutral. Peat mining sites are likely to become net carbon sinks and a peat accumulating ("growing") peatland within 30 years of rewetting, but the GWP100 balance may still be positive. A recommended measure for rewetting is to achieve a water level of a few centimetres below ground. Sphagnum farming is a climate-friendly alternative to conventional commercial use of bogs. A year-round constant water level of a few centimetres below ground level should be maintained.

  4. Greenhouse gas emissions from rewetted bog peat extraction sites and a Sphagnum cultivation site in Northwest Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beyer, C.; Hper, H.

    2014-03-01

    During the last three decades, an increasing area of drained peatlands was rewetted. This was done with the objective to convert these sites from sources back to sinks or, at least, to much smaller sources of greenhouse gases (GHG). However, available data is still scarce, especially on the long-term climatic effects of rewetting of temperate bogs. Moreover, first field trials are established for Sphagnum cultivating (paludiculture) on wet bog sites and an assessment of the climate impact of such measures has not been studied yet. We conducted a field study on the exchange of carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide at three rewetted sites with a gradient from dry to wet conditions and at a Sphagnum cultivation site in NW Germany over more than two years. Gas fluxes were measured using transparent and opaque closed chambers. The ecosystem respiration (CO2) and the net ecosystem exchange (CO2) were modelled in high time resolution using automatically monitored climate data. Measured and modelled values fit very well together (R2 between 0.88 and 0.98). Annually cumulated gas flux rates, net ecosystem carbon balances (NECB) and global warming potential (GWP) balances were determined. The annual net ecosystem exchange (CO2) varied strongly at the rewetted sites (from -201.7 126.8 to 29.7 112.7 g CO2-C m-2 a-1) due to different weather conditions, water level and vegetation. The Sphagnum cultivation site was a sink of CO2 (-118.8 48.1 and -78.6 39.8 g CO2-C m-2 a-1). The yearly CH4 balances ranged between 16.2 2.2 and 24.2 5.0 g CH4-C m-2 a-1 at two inundated sites, while one rewetted site with a comparatively low water level and the Sphagnum farming site show CH4 fluxes close to zero. The net N2O fluxes were low and not significantly different between the four sites. The annual NECB at the rewetted sites was between -183.8 126.9 and 51.6 112.8 g CO2-C m-2 a-1 and at the Sphagnum cultivating site -114.1 48.1 and -75.3 39.8 g CO2-C m-2 a-1. The yearly GWP100 balances ranged from -280.5 465.2 to 644.5 413.6 g CO2-eq. m-2 a-1 at the rewetted sites. In contrast, the Sphagnum farming site had a cooling impact on the climate in both years (-356.8 176.5 and -234.9 145.9 g CO2-C m-2 a-1). If the exported carbon through the harvest of the Sphagnum biomass and the additional CO2 emission from the decay of the organic material is considered, the NECB and GWP100 balances are near neutral. Peat mining sites are likely to become net carbon sinks and a peat accumulating ("growing") peatland within 30 years after rewetting, but the GWP100 balance may still be positive. A recommended measure for rewetting is to achieve a water level of a few centimetres below ground surface. Sphagnum farming is a climate friendly alternative to conventional commercial use of bogs. A year round constant water level of a few centimetres below ground level should be maintained.

  5. Peat bogs offer a reliable, local source of fuel in several states

    SciTech Connect

    Punwani, D.V.

    1981-10-01

    With total estimated US peat resources equivalent to the energy content of 240-billion bbl of oil, peat could be a significant energy resource even if only a fraction of it can be recovered. Resource estimates include only those areas (mostly in eight states) with at least 80 acres/sq mi of peat, where the deposits are at least 4 ft deep. Peat fuel properties, new equipment for peat harvesting and dewatering, and modern combustion technology are described. Conversion to synthetic fuels looks promising.

  6. 13C/Palynological evidence of differential residence times of organic carbon prior to its sedimentation in East African Rift Lakes and peat bogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hillaire-Marcel, Claude; Aucour, Anne-Marie; Bonnefille, Raymonde; Riollet, Guy; Vincens, Annie; Williamson, David

    Most terrestrial plants producing large amounts of organic matter in the East African Rift follow the Calvin (C3) photosynthetic pathway. Their end products have ?13C values of ca. -27 2 (vs. PDB). On the contrary, most Cyperaceae (notably Cyperus papyrus and C. latifolius) are characterized by higher 13C contents 13C = -10.5 1 ) in relation to their Hatch and Slack (C4) photosynthetic cycle. In consequence, ?13C values in total organic matter (TOM) from peat bog or lake cores essentially responded to the proportion of detritus from C4-Cyperaceae. Immediate evidence of the development or disappearance of Cyperaceae around lake margins or in peat bogs can be found in pollen assemblages. Lag times between pollen signals and correlative 13C shifts in TOM from cores are therefore indicative of the residence time of organic matter prior to its sedimentation. Delayed sedimentation of TOM will result in 14C anomalies which depend on several parameters, most of them being site specific as shown by examples from a peat bog in Burundi and from southern Lake Tanganyika. An independent assessment of the chronology by high resolution paleomagnetic correlations indicates a ca. 1.5 ka apparent 14C age of TOM in Lake Tanganyika at the Pleistocene-Holocene transition.

  7. Carbon dioxide fluxes over a raised open bog at the Kinosheo Lake tower site during the Northern Wetlands Study (NOWES)

    SciTech Connect

    Neumann, H.H.; Hartog, G. den; King, K.M.; Chipanshi, A.C.

    1994-01-20

    Measurements of carbon dioxide concentration and flux were made above a raised open bog at Lake Kinosheo in the southern Hudson Bay lowlands during the Northern Wetlands Study (NOWES) experiment in 1990. Continuous concentration measurements by infrared gas analyzers (IRGA) and spot flask samples were taken over the period July 1 to July 29. Afternoon CO{sub 2} values were only 5 to 7 parts per million by volume (ppmv) lower than measurements over the same period at Canadian background monitoring stations. This suggested that there was little draw-down by local photosynthetic sinks. CO{sub 2} fluxes were measured at 8 and 18 m by Bowen ratio and eddy correlation methods, respectively. The methods produced comparable results on averaged data but often diverged considerably on individual half-hour results. Fluxes were small. Daytime values averaged to -0.068 mg/m{sup 2}/s by eddy correlation and -0.077 mg/m{sup 2}/s by Bowen ratio over the period June 25 to July 28 (negative denotes downward flux), while at night, flux densities were +0.062 mg/m{sup 2}/s and +0.085 mg/m{sup 2}/s. Integration of the mean diurnal curve gave a net flux of -1.7 g/m{sup 2}/d. Comparable data for this type of ecosystem were not found. However, Coyne and Kelley (1975), measuring near Barrow, Alaska, over wet meadow tundra dominated by sedges and grasses, found net fluxes of -7.2 g/m{sup 2}/d. Typical net CO{sub 2} fluxes from other active temperature ecosystems have been found to be -10 to -20 g/m{sup 2}/d. Mean half hourly fluxes were almost constant at +0.06 mg/m{sup 2}/s through the nighttime hours. About one half-hour after sunrise the flux reversed direction. Uptake peaked about 0900 eastern daylight time (EDT) and then gradually declined but remained downward until near sunset. The early peak was interpreted to signify that the many plants in the bog experienced water stress during the day as evaporative demand increased and nighttime dew was evaporated. 20 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Geochemical response of a calcareous fen to road salt contamination during snow melt and precipitation events: Kampoosa Bog, Stockbridge, MA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhodes, A. L.; Guswa, A. J.

    2008-12-01

    Kampoosa Bog is the largest and most diverse calcareous lake-basin fen remaining in Massachusetts, and it is one of the state's elite Areas of Critical Environmental Concern (ACEC). The ground water chemistry of the fen has been greatly altered by road salt runoff (NaCl) from the Massachusetts Turnpike, which crosses the northern margin of the wetland complex. Ground water samples collected at different depths within the wetland, measurements of exchangeable Na from an eight-meter core, and hydraulic conductivity measurements suggest that ground water flow and contamination is largely a near- surface phenomenon. Detailed sampling of surface and ground waters during three spring snow melt events and one precipitation event characterizes the geochemical response of the wetland to hydrologic events. Overall, Na:Cl ratios for surface and ground water samples are less than one, and sodium and chloride imbalances suggest that 20-30% of sodium from rock salt is stored on cation exchange sites on organic material. Na:Cl ratios greater than one for fen ground water sampled during Snow Melt 2007 suggest that sodium can be released from cation exchange sites back to ground water under dilute conditions. The total mass of Na and Cl exported from the wetland is greatest under conditions of high discharge. The flux of dissolved salts at the outlet of the fen during Snow Melt 2005 accounts for ~ 24% Na and ~ 32% Cl of rock salt added to the Massachusetts Turnpike during 2004-2005. Estimates of annual fluxes of Na and Cl are on par with the amount of road salt applied, and sodium and chloride concentrations in shallow groundwater have decreased since 2002. The months of March, April and May are the primary months for salt export, accounting for more than half of the annual salt flux in 2005. Concerning the annual net export of sodium and chloride, large rain events may be more important with removing dissolved salts from the fen than snow melt because snow melt also is a time when contamination enters the wetland. The mass of sodium and chloride exported from Kampoosa Bog is consistent with the length of roadway miles within the watershed. Therefore, changes in the amount of salt applied are likely to have significant effects on the long-term concentrations of contamination.

  9. Reconstructing historical Pb and Hg pollution in NW Spain using multiple cores from the Chao de Lamoso bog (Xistral Mountains)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martnez Cortizas, A.; Peiteado Varela, E.; Bindler, R.; Biester, H.; Cheburkin, A.

    2012-04-01

    We have applied a single-bog multi-core approach to reconstruct historical Pb and Hg accumulation in an ombrotrophic bog from NW Spain, Chao de Lamoso (Xistral Mountains). Mercury was determined using a LECO-ALTEC AMA-254 analyzer, Pb with an EMMA-XRF analyzer and stable lead isotopes (four cores) by Quadrupole ICP-MS. Maximum concentrations were 74-122 ?g g-1 for Pb and 142-300 ng g-1 for Hg. Higher variability was found for Hg than for Pb (2-3 times and 1.5 times, respectively). The slopes of the relationship between Hg and Pb cumulative inventories also suggested differences in relative accumulation of both elements. This substantial spatial variability indicates that, compared with Pb, a more extended sampling may be needed for an accurate estimation of Hg accumulation in mires. The isotopic records showed higher and almost constant 206Pb/207Pb ratios (average 1.174 0.004) in the lower sections and a continuous decrease to the surface (minimum 1.141). By using the change in the isotopic composition of Pb we estimated a chronology for the last 200 years which enabled and approximation of the temporal trends in metal pollution. Based on the average isotopic composition of the studied cores and the application of a simple binary mixing model, six periods with increasing proportions of pollution Pb were identified: prior to 1875 AD, with an average proportion lower than 16%; 1875-1910 AD, increasing up to 24%; 1910-1950 AD, up to 35%; 1950-1970, up to 54%; 1970-1980 AD, up to 74%; and after 1980 AD, increasing up to 80%. The period with the highest rate of increase in recent (since 1900 AD) pollution Pb (equivalent to 2% year-1) seems to have started at the maximum in Pb accumulation around the early 1970s. The Hg records showed a more simple evolution with four main phases: prior to 1875 AD with enrichments around 1.5-fold the background, 1875-1955 AD with increasing enrichments; from 1955 AD to 1980 AD with maximum values (up to 4.2-fold); and from 1980 AD to present, with a steady decline to 2.4-fold. For the most recent period (after 1980 AD), the combination of decreasing Pb and Hg concentrations and accumulation rates/enrichments, and low 206Pb/207Pb ratios, may point to a higher relative importance of local sources (i.e. coal burning in a nearby power plant) in atmospheric metal pollution in the area.

  10. Age-dependent impacts of peatland restoration on the net ecosystem CO2 exchange of blanket bogs in Northern Scotland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hambley, Graham; Hill, Timothy; Saunders, Matthew; Arn Teh, Yit

    2015-04-01

    The Flow Country of Northern Scotland is the largest area of contiguous blanket bog in the UK covering an area in excess of 400 km2. This region is the single largest peat and soil C repository in the UK, and plays a key role in mediating regional atmospheric exchanges of greenhouse gases (GHGs) such as carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and water vapour (H2O). However, these peatlands were subject to significant afforestation in the 1980s, where large areas of blanket bog were drained and planted with Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis) and Lodgepole Pine (Pinus contorta), resulting in modifications to micro-topographic features, vegetation composition and soil properties such as bulk density and water holding capacity, all of which are known to influence the production and emission of key GHGs. Since the late 1990s restoration work has been undertaken to remove forest plantations and to restore the peatland areas by raising the water table, predominantly by drain and furrow blocking, in order to encourage the recolonisation of Sphagnum species. Here we report findings from an eddy covariance study of CO2 and H2O exchange from an unmanaged peatland and a chronosequence of restored peatland sites, which were felled in 1998 and 2004. Located within the Forsinard Flows National Nature Reserve in Northern Scotland, these sites are being studied to better understand the key drivers of carbon dynamics in these ecosystems and also assess the age-dependent impacts of peatland restoration on the net CO2 sink strength. Preliminary data show rates of CO2 uptake increased with time since restoration, with peak assimilation rates of -9.9 and -14.4 micro mol CO2 m-2 s-1 measured at the 10 and 16 year old restoration sites, respectively. Carbon losses through ecosystem respiration followed a similar pattern. The data collected to date indicates that while peatland restoration is actively increasing CO2 uptake at each of the sites, more long-term observational data is required to produce robust carbon budgets and assess the vulnerability of these ecosystems to future climatic change.

  11. Carbon dioxide fluxes over a raised open bog at the Kinosheo Lake tower site during the Northern Wetlands Study (NOWES)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neumann, H. H.; Den Hartog, G.; King, K. M.; Chipanshi, A. C.

    1994-01-01

    Measurements of carbon dioxide concentration and flux were made above a raised open bog at Lake Kinosheo in the southern Hudson Bay lowlands during the Northern Wetlands Study (NOWES) experiment in 1990. The flux measurements were made using micrometeorological techniques. They provide the first nondisturbing, larger-scale CO2 flux measurements for this ecosystem and are the first to integrate the exchange over the whole 24 hours of the day. Continuous concentration measurements by infrared gas analyzers (IRGA) and spot flask samples were taken over the period July 1 to July 29. Afternoon CO2 values were only 5 to 7 parts per million by volume (ppmv) lower than measurements over the same period at Canadian background monitoring stations. This suggested that there was little draw-down by local photosynthetic sinks. CO2 fluxes were measured at 8 and 18 m by Bowen ratio and eddy correlation methods, respectively. The methods produced comparable results on averaged data but often diverged considerably on individual half-hour results. Fluxes were small. Daytime values averaged to -0.068 mg/sq m/s by eddy correlation and -0.077 mg/sq m/s by Bowen ratio over the period June 25 to July 28 (negative denotes downward flux), while at night, flux densities were +0.062 mg/sq m/s and +0.085 mg/sq m/s. Integration of the mean diurnal curve gave a net flux of -1.7 g/sq m/d. Comparable data for this type of ecosystem were not found. However, Coyne and Kelley (1975), measuring near Barrow, Alaska, over wet meadow tundra dominated by sedges and grasses, found net fluxes of -7.2 g/sq m/d. Typical net CO2 fluxes from other active temperature ecosystems have been found to be -10 to -20 g/sq m/d (Monteith, 1976). Mean half hourly fluxes were almost constant at +0.06 mg/sq m/s through the nighttime hours. About one half-hour after sunrise the flux reversed direction. Uptake peaked about 0900 eastern daylight time (EDT) and then gradually declined but remained downward until near sunset. The early peak was interpreted to signify that the many plants in the bog experienced water stress during the day as evaporative demand increased and nighttime dew was evaporated.

  12. History and environmental impact of mining activity in Celtic Aeduan territory recorded in a peat bog (Morvan, France).

    PubMed

    Monna, F; Petit, C; Guillaumet, J P; Jouffroy-Bapicot, I; Blanchot, C; Dominik, J; Losno, R; Richard, H; Lvque, J; Chateau, C

    2004-02-01

    The present study aims to document historical mining and smelting activities by means of geochemical and pollen analyses performed in a peat bog core collected around the Bibracte oppidum (Morvan, France), the largest settlement of the great Aeduan Celtic tribe (ca. 180 B.C. to 25 A.D.). The anthropogenic Pb profile indicates local mining operations starting from the Late Bronze Age, ca. cal. 1300 B.C. Lead inputs peaked at the height of Aeduan civilization and then decreased after the Roman conquest of Gaul, when the site was abandoned. Other phases of mining are recognized from the 11th century to modern times. They have all led to modifications in plant cover, probably related in part to forest clearances necessary to supply energy for mining and smelting. Zn, Sb, Cd, and Cu distributions may result from diffusional and biological processes or from the influence of groundwater and underlying mineral soil, precluding their interpretation for historical reconstruction. The abundance of mineral resources, in addition to the strategic location, might explain why early settlers founded the city of Bibracte at that particular place. About 20% of the anthropogenic lead record was accumulated before our era and about 50% before the 18th century, which constitutes a troublesome heritage. Any attempts to develop control strategies in accumulating environments should take into account past human activities in order to not overestimate the impact of contemporary pollution. PMID:14968849

  13. Determination of the organic carbon content in bog and river waters of the taiga zone based on their optical density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Efremova, T. T.; Sekretenko, O. P.; Efremov, S. P.

    2014-08-01

    Based on the data of long-term studies of bog and river waters in the taiga zone of Western Siberia, highly significant linear regression models for the relationships between the organic matter content and optical density of the water were developed. The parameters of the relationships obtained are proposed to be used for the determination of the water-soluble carbon content. The inclusion only of the optical density values into the calculated formulas makes them convenient for practical application. Regression models were developed on the basis of the data on determining the carbon content using the bichromate method, which is widely used in soil and hydrochemical studies. The calculated method forms prerequisites for the operational monitoring of the water-soluble organic substances, since the obtained results can be comparable with the earlier published data on the carbon content determined by the same method. These regression models seem to also be suitable for the determination of the organic carbon in the water extracts of organic soils.

  14. Mining for Nonribosomal Peptide Synthetase and Polyketide Synthase Genes Revealed a High Level of Diversity in the Sphagnum Bog Metagenome

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Christina A.; Oberauner-Wappis, Lisa; Peyman, Armin; Amos, Gregory C. A.; Wellington, Elizabeth M. H.

    2015-01-01

    Sphagnum bog ecosystems are among the oldest vegetation forms harboring a specific microbial community and are known to produce an exceptionally wide variety of bioactive substances. Although the Sphagnum metagenome shows a rich secondary metabolism, the genes have not yet been explored. To analyze nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs) and polyketide synthases (PKSs), the diversity of NRPS and PKS genes in Sphagnum-associated metagenomes was investigated by in silico data mining and sequence-based screening (PCR amplification of 9,500 fosmid clones). The in silico Illumina-based metagenomic approach resulted in the identification of 279 NRPSs and 346 PKSs, as well as 40 PKS-NRPS hybrid gene sequences. The occurrence of NRPS sequences was strongly dominated by the members of the Protebacteria phylum, especially by species of the Burkholderia genus, while PKS sequences were mainly affiliated with Actinobacteria. Thirteen novel NRPS-related sequences were identified by PCR amplification screening, displaying amino acid identities of 48% to 91% to annotated sequences of members of the phyla Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Cyanobacteria. Some of the identified metagenomic clones showed the closest similarity to peptide synthases from Burkholderia or Lysobacter, which are emerging bacterial sources of as-yet-undescribed bioactive metabolites. This report highlights the role of the extreme natural ecosystems as a promising source for detection of secondary compounds and enzymes, serving as a source for biotechnological applications. PMID:26002894

  15. Mining for Nonribosomal Peptide Synthetase and Polyketide Synthase Genes Revealed a High Level of Diversity in the Sphagnum Bog Metagenome.

    PubMed

    Mller, Christina A; Oberauner-Wappis, Lisa; Peyman, Armin; Amos, Gregory C A; Wellington, Elizabeth M H; Berg, Gabriele

    2015-08-01

    Sphagnum bog ecosystems are among the oldest vegetation forms harboring a specific microbial community and are known to produce an exceptionally wide variety of bioactive substances. Although the Sphagnum metagenome shows a rich secondary metabolism, the genes have not yet been explored. To analyze nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs) and polyketide synthases (PKSs), the diversity of NRPS and PKS genes in Sphagnum-associated metagenomes was investigated by in silico data mining and sequence-based screening (PCR amplification of 9,500 fosmid clones). The in silico Illumina-based metagenomic approach resulted in the identification of 279 NRPSs and 346 PKSs, as well as 40 PKS-NRPS hybrid gene sequences. The occurrence of NRPS sequences was strongly dominated by the members of the Protebacteria phylum, especially by species of the Burkholderia genus, while PKS sequences were mainly affiliated with Actinobacteria. Thirteen novel NRPS-related sequences were identified by PCR amplification screening, displaying amino acid identities of 48% to 91% to annotated sequences of members of the phyla Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Cyanobacteria. Some of the identified metagenomic clones showed the closest similarity to peptide synthases from Burkholderia or Lysobacter, which are emerging bacterial sources of as-yet-undescribed bioactive metabolites. This report highlights the role of the extreme natural ecosystems as a promising source for detection of secondary compounds and enzymes, serving as a source for biotechnological applications. PMID:26002894

  16. Chromobacterium vaccinii sp. nov., isolated from native and cultivated cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait.) bogs and irrigation ponds.

    PubMed

    Soby, Scott D; Gadagkar, Sudhindra R; Contreras, Cristina; Caruso, Frank L

    2013-05-01

    A large number of Gram-negative, motile, mesophilic, violacein-producing bacteria were isolated from the soils and roots of Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait. and Kalmia angustifolia L. plants and from irrigation ponds associated with wild and cultivated cranberry bogs in Massachusetts, USA. Phylogenetic analyses of 16S rRNA gene sequences placed these isolates in a clade with Chromobacterium species, but the specialized environment from which they were isolated, their low genomic DNA relatedness with Chromobacterium violaceum ATCC 12472(T) and C. subtsugae PRAA4-1(T), significant differences in fatty acid composition and colony morphology indicate that the cranberry and Kalmia isolates comprise a separate species of Chromobacterium, for which the name Chromobacterium vaccinii sp. nov. is proposed. Strain MWU205(T) ( = ATCC BAA-2314(T)  = DSM 25150(T)) is proposed as the type strain for the novel species. Phenotypic analysis of 26 independent isolates of C. vaccinii sp. nov. indicates that, despite close geographical and biological proximity, there is considerable metabolic diversity among individuals within the population. PMID:22984138

  17. The structure of the microbial communities in low-moor and high-moor peat bogs of Tomsk oblast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobrovol'skaya, T. G.; Golovchenko, A. V.; Kukharenko, O. S.; Yakushev, A. V.; Semenova, T. A.; Inisheva, L. A.

    2012-03-01

    The number, structure, and physical state of the microbial communities in high-moor and low-moor peat bogs were compared. Distinct differences in these characteristics were revealed. The microbial biomass in the high-moor peat exceeded that in the low-moor peat by 2-9 times. Fungi predominated in the high-moor peat, whereas bacteria were the dominant microorganisms in the low-moor peat. The micromycetal complexes of the high-moor peat were characterized by a high portion of dark-colored representatives; the complexes of the low-moor peat were dominated by fast-growing fungi. The species of the Penicillum genus were dominant in the high-moor peat; the species of Trichoderma were abundant in the low-moor peat. In the former, the bacteria were distinguished as minor components; in the latter, they predominated in the saprotrophic bacterial complex. In the high-moor peat, the microorganisms were represented by bacilli, while, in the low-moor peat, by cytophages, myxobacteria, and actinobacteria. The different physiological states of the bacteria in the studied objects reflecting the duration of the lag phase and the readiness of the metabolic system to consume different substrates were demonstrated for the first time. The relationships between the trophic characteristics of bacterial habitats and the capacity of the bacteria to consume substrates were established.

  18. How well do environmental archives of atmospheric mercury deposition in the Arctic reproduce rates and trends depicted by atmospheric models and measurements?

    PubMed

    Goodsite, M E; Outridge, P M; Christensen, J H; Dastoor, A; Muir, D; Travnikov, O; Wilson, S

    2013-05-01

    This review compares the reconstruction of atmospheric Hg deposition rates and historical trends over recent decades in the Arctic, inferred from Hg profiles in natural archives such as lake and marine sediments, peat bogs and glacial firn (permanent snowpack), against those predicted by three state-of-the-art atmospheric models based on global Hg emission inventories from 1990 onwards. Model veracity was first tested against atmospheric Hg measurements. Most of the natural archive and atmospheric data came from the Canadian-Greenland sectors of the Arctic, whereas spatial coverage was poor in other regions. In general, for the Canadian-Greenland Arctic, models provided good agreement with atmospheric gaseous elemental Hg (GEM) concentrations and trends measured instrumentally. However, there are few instrumented deposition data with which to test the model estimates of Hg deposition, and these data suggest models over-estimated deposition fluxes under Arctic conditions. Reconstructed GEM data from glacial firn on Greenland Summit showed the best agreement with the known decline in global Hg emissions after about 1980, and were corroborated by archived aerosol filter data from Resolute, Nunavut. The relatively stable or slowly declining firn and model GEM trends after 1990 were also corroborated by real-time instrument measurements at Alert, Nunavut, after 1995. However, Hg fluxes and trends in northern Canadian lake sediments and a southern Greenland peat bog did not exhibit good agreement with model predictions of atmospheric deposition since 1990, the Greenland firn GEM record, direct GEM measurements, or trends in global emissions since 1980. Various explanations are proposed to account for these discrepancies between atmosphere and archives, including problems with the accuracy of archive chronologies, climate-driven changes in Hg transfer rates from air to catchments, waters and subsequently into sediments, and post-depositional diagenesis in peat bogs. However, no general consensus in the scientific community has been achieved. PMID:23506852

  19. Reconnaissance of uranium and copper deposits in parts of New Mexico, Colorado, Utah, Idaho, and Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gott, Garland B.; Erickson, Ralph L.

    1952-01-01

    Because of the common association of uranium and copper in several of the commercial uranium deposits in the Colorado Plateau Province, a reconnaissance was made of several known deposits of copper disseminated through sandstone to determine whether they might be a source of uranium. In order to obtain more information regarding the relationship between copper, uranium and carbonaceous materials, some of the uraniferious asphaltrite deposits in the Shinarump conglomerate along the west flank of the San Rafael Swell were also investigated briefly. During this reconnaissance 18 deposits were examined in New Mexico, eight in Utah, two in Idaho, and one each in Wyoming and Colorado. No uranium deposits of commercial grade are associated with the copper deposits that were examined. The uraniferous asphaltites in the Shinarump conglomerate of Triassic age on the west flank of the San Rafael Swell, however, are promising from the standpoint of commercial uranium production. Spectrographic analyses of crude oil, asphalt, and bituminous shales show a rather consistent suite of trace metals including vanadium, nickel, copper, cobalt, chromium, lead zinc, and molybdenum. The similarity of the metal assemblage, including uranium of the San Rafael Swell asphaltites, to the metal assemblage in crude oil and other bituminous materials suggests that these metals were concentrated in the asphaltites from petroleum. However, the hypothesis that uranium minerals were already present before the hydrocarbons were introduced and that some sort of replacement or uranium minerals by carbon compounds was effected after the petroleum migrated into the uranium deposit should not be disregarded. The widespread association of uranium with asphaltic material suggests that it also may have been concentrated by some agency connected with the formation of petroleum. The problem of the association of uranium and other trace metals with hydrocarbons should be studied further both in the field and in the laboratory.

  20. Lake and Bog Sediment Records of Holocene Climate and Glacier Variability in the Cordillera Vilcabamba of Southern Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schweinsberg, A.; Licciardi, J. M.; Rodbell, D. T.; Stansell, N.

    2013-12-01

    Records of past fluctuations in climatically sensitive tropical glaciers are among the best indicators of regional paleoclimatic trends and forcings. However, continuous sediment records in this region remain limited, particularly during the Holocene. Here we present the first continuous records of glacier activity in the Cordillera Vilcabamba (1320'S) of southern Peru from lake and bog sediment cores in stratigraphic contact with 10Be-dated moraines. Completed analyses include sediment lithostratigraphy, magnetic susceptibility, and biogenic silica, in conjunction with AMS radiocarbon dates on charcoal. Carbon measurements, bulk density, and bulk sedimentation rates are used to derive a record of clastic sediment flux that serves as a proxy indicator of former glacier activity. Visually distinct sedimentological variations, magnetic susceptibility peaks, and radiocarbon dates were correlated among adjacent cores to construct one composite record representative of each coring site. Three composite cores are presented: two from the Rio Blanco valley and one from the Yanama valley. Sediment records from these two glaciated valleys suggest a series of environmental changes during the last ~12,000 calendar years BP. Clastic sediment flux trends are broadly consistent with published evidence that the early to middle Holocene was relatively warm and arid in the southern Peruvian Andes. An episode of high clastic flux in the late Holocene may reflect enhanced glacial activity in response to the onset of cooler and wetter conditions. A prominent peak in magnetic susceptibility at 1660 cal yr BP is present in all composite cores and serves as a chronostratigraphic marker. In addition, our new basal radiocarbon ages place limits on the cosmogenic 10Be production rate in the high Andes, suggesting the cosmogenic 10Be production rate is considerably lower than previously published estimates.

  1. The influence of past and present hydrological conditions on Sphagnum recolonization and succession in a block-cut bog, Qubec

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, Jonathan S.; Whitehead, Grant S.

    2004-02-01

    This study of an abandoned cutover bog aims to understand the processes controlling moisture conditions that have led to distinct spatial patterns of Sphagnum recolonization, and also how substrate conditions may have changed since abandonment and the implications for plant establishment. Two (unreplicated) symmetrical 12 3.5 m2 quadrats either side of the centre-line of a block-cut trench were treated by removing all recolonized vegetation, including Sphagnum, from one quadrat (REMOV), examining Sphagnum-covered (SPHAG) peat in the other, and bare peat (BARE) in both. Average volumetric soil moisture contents in the peat (2 cm below the surface) of the SPHAG and REMOV substrates were similar (86%), but greater than in BARE peat (78%). In a location not manipulated for this experiment, where Sphagnum cushions have re-established on bare cutover peat, beneath the cushions was 5-14% greater than in bare cutover peat directly adjacent to it, indicating that cushions can regulate local substrate water storage, and benefit from it during periods of increased water demand. This may have assisted in the lateral expansion of Sphagnum. A loosely structured 0.5 to 1.0 cm thick organic litter layer (chiefly Ericaceae) overlying the BARE peat substrate slowed the rate of drying of bare peat in a laboratory sample. The laboratory tests found the capillary fringe to be up to 26 cm above the water table. The dry conditions and the larger pore structure of this litter layer hindered upward capillary flow and, therefore, plant water availability. In (occluded) ditches and low areas, the capillary fringe remained within 5 cm of the surface, and these locations supported the most complete Sphagnum cover. In slightly higher areas, where the capillary fringe was about 20 cm below the surface, and because of the leaf litter, capillary water supply to the surface is sufficiently restricted to limit Sphagnum recolonization. These locations may have to await lateral expansion of Sphagnum cushions to achieve a full cover.

  2. Initiation of Sphagnum moss hummocks in bogs and the presence of vascular plants: Is there a link?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pouliot, Rmy; Rochefort, Line; Karofeld, Edgar; Mercier, Caroline

    2011-07-01

    Establishment of specific vascular plants and Sphagnum species, as well as asymmetrical competition and facilitation between the two types of plants are apparently important in the development of microtopography in peatlands. To determine whether peatland vascular plants can facilitate the initiation of Sphagnum hummocks, and consequently the differentiation of bog microtopography, we investigated the effects of vascular plant life form and structure on Sphagnum stem length and biomass. We showed that Sphagnum stem length and biomass were enhanced by low density of vascular plants and other introduced structures, which thus favoured hummock formation. Dense covers of vascular plants also promoted moss height growth, but the Sphagnum stems were etiolated and fluffy, their densities were too low and biomass was too small to initiate clear hummocks. We also showed that vascular plants contributed to microhabitats with stable temperatures and high relative humidity favourable to Sphagnum growth. Stress-gradient hypothesis, predicting that the relative frequencies of facilitation and competition events will vary inversely along abiotic stress gradients, could explain the nature of the interaction between mosses and vascular plants. At the onset of microstructures formation in peatlands, abiotic stress is probably more important and facilitation events could be frequent. Microclimatic effects of vascular plants may be essential for Sphagnum growth. Then, the presence of ericaceous shrubs or young trees enhances the microtopography by physically reinforcing the hummocks. During accentuation of microtopography, the positive interactions between Sphagnum mosses and vascular plants may be replaced by competition as abiotic stress declines. This study introduces new evidence for the role of vascular plants in the formation and maintenance of hummocks, especially under drier growing conditions.

  3. Lab incubation experiments verify microbial respiration from recent photosynthetic production in deep peat within bog and fen environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corbett, J.; Burdige, D. J.; Glaser, P. H.; Chanton, J.

    2012-12-01

    Pore water radiocarbon values of DOC and respiration products (CH4 and CO2) have shown a more enriched signature as compared to solid phase peat. The more modern DOC is thought to be advected downward from surficial layers and does not come only from the peat. Peats were rinsed to remove any residual modern DOC and incubated for 160 days to determine if the radiocarbon values of the produced DOC was similar to the peat or if the produced DOC values did in fact mimic those found in pore water samples. Radiocarbon values of respiration products and DOC produced in the incubations of both fen and bog peat from various depths were more similar to peat radiocarbon values than respiration products and DOC values from pore water collected in the field (Figure 1). The more radiocarbon enriched respiration products and DOC in field samples imply that DOC from pore water must come from a more modern source. The comparison between incubation and field pore water measurements strongly suggests an alternative source of DOC in pore water than just peat leachate. It is likely that the more modern DOC was brought down to depth in the peat column from more surficial layers via advective transport which has been shown to be a main component of water and solute movement in the Glacial Lake Agassiz Peatlands.ig 1. RLII Fen peat incubations compared to pore water data. Peat (black circles). Pore water samples are represented with closed symbols: DOC from 2007 (black squares), DOC from 2008 (grey squares), DIC from 2007 (black triangles). Incubation samples are represented with open symbols: DOC from incubations (white squares) and DIC from incubations (white triangles).

  4. Usual and unusual CIELAB color parameters for the study of peat organic matter properties: Tremoal do Pedrido bog (NW Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanmartín, P.; Silva-Sánchez, N.; Martínez-Cortizas, A.; Prieto, B.

    2015-04-01

    We have tested the practical application of color measurements in the study of organic matter properties (C and N content, C/N ratios, degree of peat humification-DPH) of a 335 cm long peat core sampled at Tremoal do Pedrido bog. Usual and unusual CIELAB color parameters were measured on samples that were sectioned at high resolution (slices of 1 cm in thickness). The objective of the study is twofold: (i) describe a rapid, cost-effective and non-destructive method of assessing peat properties without the need of extractions and chemical methods and (ii) contribute to further research on applied colorimetry using the well-known CIELAB coordinates: L*, a*, b*, C*ab and hab (‘usual CIELAB color parameters’) and the less well-known CIELAB parameters: [a* x b*], [a*/b*], [(a*/b*) x 1000], [1000 x a*/(L*+ b*)], [2000 x a*/(L* x b*)] and RLab= [a*(a*2+b*2)1/2 1010]/(b* x L*6) (‘unusual CIELAB color parameters’). Our findings show that L* and hab coordinates as well as [(a*/b*) x 1000], [2000 x a*/(L* x b*)] and RLab parameters give the best bivariate Spearman's correlations. Linear regression equations were calculated to predict peat properties from all CIELAB parameters under study and a notable fit (R2: 0.65-0.79) was obtained. The evaluation presented here indicates that the determination of usual and unusual CIELAB parameters offers potential for the study of peat organic matter properties and encourages the routine application of this methodology on other peat cores and organic soils.

  5. Ditch blocking, water chemistry and organic carbon flux: evidence that blanket bog restoration reduces erosion and fluvial carbon loss.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Lorraine; Wilson, Jared; Holden, Joseph; Johnstone, Ian; Armstrong, Alona; Morris, Michael

    2011-05-01

    The potential for restoration of peatlands to deliver benefits beyond habitat restoration is poorly understood. There may be impacts on discharge water quality, peat erosion, flow rates and flood risk, and nutrient fluxes. This study aimed to assess the impact of drain blocking, as a form of peatland restoration, on an upland blanket bog, by measuring water chemistry and colour, and loss of both dissolved (DOC) and particulate organic carbon (POC). The restoration work was designed to permit the collection of a robust experimental dataset over a landscape scale, with data covering up to 3 years pre-restoration and up to 3 years post-restoration. An information theoretic approach to data analyses provided evidence of a recovery of water chemistry towards more 'natural' conditions, and showed strong declines in the production of water colour. Drain blocking led to increases in the E4:E6 ratio, and declines in specific absorbance, suggesting that DOC released from blocked drains consisted of lighter, less humic and less decomposed carbon. Whilst concentrations of DOC showed slight increases in drains and streams after blocking, instantaneous yields of both DOC and POC declined markedly in streams over the first year post-restoration. Attempts were made to estimate total annual fluvial organic carbon fluxes for the study site, and although errors around these estimates remain considerable, there is strong evidence of a large reduction in aquatic organic carbon flux from the peatland following drain-blocking. Potential mechanisms for the observed changes in water chemistry and organic carbon release are discussed, and we highlight the need for more detailed information, from more sites, to better understand the full impacts of peatland restoration on carbon storage and release. PMID:21440287

  6. The effects of ecological restoration on CO2 fluxes from a climatically marginal upland blanket bog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dixon, Simon; Qassim, Suzane; Rowson, James; Worrall, Fred; Evans, Martin

    2013-04-01

    A legacy of gully incision, deposition of industrially-derived aerial pollutants, inappropriate management and wildfire has left large expanses of the topographic Bleaklow Plateau (Peak District National Park, England, UK) bare of vegetation and susceptible to massive erosion of the peat soils. The consequence of such degradation has been to decrease the capacity of the peatland on the plateau to provide important ecosystem services including; loss of net C sink function, discolouration of surface waters, mobilisation to surface waters of stored heavy metals and infilling of upland reservoirs with peat-derived sediment. In response to on-going and worsening degradation a programme of ecological restoration has been undertaken. Restoration methods include: seeding with a lawn grass mix; liming; fertilisation; slope stabilisation; and gully blocking. This talk will present data from a five-year, observational-study of CO2 fluxes from eight sites, with four sites sampling different restoration treatments and four sampling bare and least disturbed areas. The results of the analysis reveal that sites with revegetation alongside slope stabilisation were most productive and were the largest net (daylight hours) sinks of CO2. Unrestored, bare sites, while having relatively low gross fluxes of CO2 were the largest net sources of CO2. Revegetation without slope stabilisation took longer (~18 months) to show an impact on CO2 flux in comparison to the sites with slope stabilisation. Binary logistic regression indicated that a ten centimetre increase in water table depth decreases the odds of observing a net CO2 sink, on a given site, by up to 30%. Sites with slope stabilisation were between 5-8x more likely to be net CO2 sinks than the bare sites. Sites without slope stabilisation were only 2-2.3x more likely to be net CO2 sinks compared to the bare sites. The most important conclusion of this research is that revegetation appears to be effective at increasing the likelihood of net CO2 behaviour on degraded, climatically marginal blanket peat, with revegetation alongside slope stabilisation having the greatest impact.

  7. Biochemical processes of oligotrophic peat deposits of Vasyugan Mire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inisheva, L. I.; Sergeeva, M. A.

    2009-04-01

    The problem of peat and mire ecosystems functioning and their rational use is the main problem of biosphere study. This problem also refers to forecasting of biosphere changes results which are global and anthropogenic. According to many scientists' research the portion of mires in earth carbon balance is about 15% of world's stock. The aim of this study is to investigate biochemical processes in oligotrophic deposits in North-eastern part of Vasyugan Mire. The investigations were made on the territory of scientific-research ground (56? 03 and 56? 57 NL, 82? 22 and 82? 42 EL). It is situated between two rivers Bakchar and Iksa (in outskirts of the village Polynyanka, Bakchar region, Tomsk oblast). Evolution of investigated mire massif began with the domination of eutrophic phytocenosis - Filicinae, then sedge. Later transfer into oligotrophic phase was accompanied by formation of meter high-moor peat deposit. The age of three-meter peat deposit reaches four thousand years. Biochemical processes of carbon cycle cover the whole peat deposit, but the process activity and its direction in different layers are defined by genesis and duration of peat formation. So, the number of cellulose-fermenting aerobes in researched peat deposits ranges from 16.8 to 75.5 million CFU/g, and anaerobic bacteria from 9.6 to 48.6 million CFU/g. The high number of aerobes is characteristic for high water levels, organizing by raised bog peats. Their number decreases along the profile in 1.7 - 2 times. The number of microflora in peat deposit is defined by the position in the landscape profile (different geneses), by the depth, by hydrothermic conditions of years and individual months. But microflora activity shows along all depth of peat deposit. We found the same in the process of studying of micromycete complex structure. There was revealed either active component micromycete complex - mycelium, or inert one - spores in a meter layer of peat deposit. If mushrooms spores are observed in all deposit layers, mycelium of mushrooms deepens into the peat deposit (to 2 meters) within the limits of aerobic (meter) zone and only in particular months of dry years. The existence of seasonal dynamics of eukaryotic cells, and also capability of yeast and other groups of micromycetes for growth, testifies about vital activity of a number of eukaryotic cells at a depth of 2 meters. Researched peat deposits are biochemically active along the whole profile. But they are different in a microflora number of individual physiological groups either in items of the landscape, or in deposit depth. The largest quantity of aerobic cellulose-fermenting microorganisms is marked during dry years. Anaerobic cellulose-fermenting microorganisms dominate during wet years. The quantity of microbe biomass increases in bottom lifts of peat deposits. This fact testifies about viable condition of microbe complex at depth. The formation process of carbon dioxide in peat deposits of Vasyugan Mire actively occurs during dry years and is defined by hydrothermic conditions of a meter layer of peat deposit. The intensity of CO2 isolation for certain correlates with the temperature in horizon of 0 - 50 sm. and with bog waters level. The study of gas composition for the three years showed that the largest concentration of carbon dioxide in peat soils is marked along the whole profile during a dryer year (0.08 - 2.65 millimole/l), increasing other years' level in about 1.5 0 2 times. Emission of carbon dioxide in peat

  8. Demographic and genetic status of an isolated population of bog turtles (Glyptemys muhlenbergii): Implications for managing small populations of long-lived animals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pittman, Shannon E.; King, T.L.; Faurby, S.; Dorcas, M.E.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we sought to determine the population stability and genetic diversity of one isolated population of the federally-threatened bog turtle (Glyptemys muhlenbergii) in North Carolina. Using capture-recapture data, we estimated adult survival and population growth rate from 1992 to 2007. We found that the population decreased from an estimated 36 adult turtles in 1994 to approximately 11 adult turtles in 2007. We found a constant adult survival of 0. 893 (SE = 0. 018, 95% confidence interval, 0. 853-0. 924) between 1992 and 2007. Using 18 microsatellite markers, we compared the genetic status of this population with five other bog turtle populations. The target population displayed allelic richness (4. 8 ?? 0. 5) and observed heterozygosity (0. 619 ?? 0. 064) within the range of the other bog turtle populations. Coalescent analysis of population growth rate, effective population size, and timing of population structuring event also indicated the genetics of the target population were comparable to the other populations studied. Estimates of effective population size were a proportion of the census size in all populations except the target population, in which the effective population size was larger than the census size (30 turtles vs. 11 turtles). We attribute the high genetic diversity in the target population to the presence of multiple generations of old turtles. This study illustrates that the demographic status of populations of long-lived species may not be reflected genetically if a decline occurred recently. Consequently, the genetic integrity of populations of long-lived animals experiencing rapid demographic bottlenecks may be preserved through conservation efforts effective in addressing demographic problems. ?? 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  9. Ecophysiological adaptations of anaerobic bacteria to low pH: analysis of anaerobic digestion in acidic bog sediments. [Lactobacillus; Clostridium; Sarcina ventriculi

    SciTech Connect

    Goodwin, S.; Zeikus, G.J.

    1987-01-01

    The dynamics of anaerobic digestion were examined in the low-pH sediments of Crystal Bog in Wisconsin. The sediments (pH 4.9) contained 71% organic matter and the following concentrations of dissolved gases (micromoles per liter):CO/sub 2/, 1140; CH/sub 4/, 490; and H/sub 2/, 0.01. The rate of methane production was 6.2 ..mu..mol/liter of sediment per h, which is slower than eutrophic, neutral sediments. Microbial metabolic processes displayed the following pH optima: hydrolysis reactions, between 4.2 and 5.6; aceticlastic methanogenesis, 5.2; and hydrogen-consuming reactions, 5.6. The turnover rate constants for key intermediary metabolites were (h/sup -1/): glucose, 1.10; lactate, 0.277; acetate, 0.118; and ethanol, 0.089. The populations of anaerobes were low, with hydrolytic groups (10/sup 6//ml) several orders of magnitude higher than methanogens (10/sup 2//ml). The addition of carbon electron donors to the sediment resulted in the accumulation of hydrogen, whereas the addition of hydrogen resulted in the accumulation of fatty acids and the inhibition of hydrogen-producing acetogenic reactions. Strains of Lactobacillus, Clostridium, and Sarcina ventriculi were isolated from the bog, and their physiological attributes were characterized in relation to hydrolytic process functions in the sediments. The present studies provide evidence that the pH present in the bog sediments alter anaerobic digestion processes s, that total biocatalytic activity is lower bu the general carbon and electron flow pathways are similar to those of neutral anoxic sediments.

  10. Dom Export from Coastal Temperate Bog Forest Watersheds to Marine Ecosystems: Improving Understanding of Watershed Processes and Terrestrial-Marine Linkages on the Central Coast of British Columbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliver, A. A.; Giesbrecht, I.; Tank, S. E.; Hunt, B. P.; Lertzman, K. P.

    2014-12-01

    The coastal temperate bog forests of British Columbia, Canada, export high amounts of dissolved organic matter (DOM) relative to the global average. Little is known about the factors influencing the quantity and quality of DOM exported from these forests or the role of this terrestrially-derived DOM in near-shore marine ecosystems. The objectives of this study are to better understand patterns and controls of DOM being exported from bog forest watersheds and its potential role in near-shore marine ecosystems. In 2013, the Kwakshua Watershed Ecosystems Study at Hakai Beach Institute (Calvert Island, BC) began year-round routine collection and analysis of DOM, nutrients, and environmental variables (e.g. conductivity, pH, temperature, dissolved oxygen) of freshwater grab samples from the outlets of seven watersheds draining directly to the ocean, as well as near-shore marine samples adjacent to freshwater outflows. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) varied across watersheds (mean= 11.45 mg L-1, sd± 4.22) and fluctuated synchronously with seasons and storm events. In general, higher DOC was associated with lower specific UV absorbance (SUVA254; mean= 4.59 L mg-1 m-1, sd± 0.55). The relationship between DOC and SUVA254 differed between watersheds, suggesting exports in DOM are regulated by individual watershed attributes (e.g. landscape classification, flow paths) as well as precipitation. We are using LiDAR and other remote sensing data to examine watershed controls on DOC export. At near-shore marine sites, coupled CTD (Conductivity Temperature Depth) and optical measures (e.g. spectral slopes, slope ratios (SR), EEMs), showed a clear freshwater DOM signature within the system following rainfall events. Ongoing work will explore the relationship between bog forest watershed attributes and DOM flux and composition, with implications for further studies on biogeochemical cycling, carbon budgets, marine food webs, and climate change.

  11. Comment on "Soil CO2, CH4 and N2O fluxes from an afforested lowland raised peat bog in Scotland: implications for drainage and restoration" by Yamulki et al. (2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artz, R. R. E.; Chapman, S. J.; Saunders, M.; Evans, C. D.; Matthews, R. B.

    2013-11-01

    Yamulki and co-authors address in their recent publication the important issue of net emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs) from peatlands where land use conversion has taken place. In their case, they studied conversion to forestry versus peatland restoration after a first rotation of plantation forestry. They monitored soil-derived fluxes of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) using opaque chamber measurements on planted and unplanted control treatments (with or without drainage), and an unplanted plot within a restored (felled) block on former lowland raised bog. They propose that their measurements of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions at these sites suggest that the total net GHG emissions, in 100 yr carbon dioxide equivalents, of the restored peat bog would be higher than that of the peat bog with trees. We believe there are a number of issues with the measurement, calculation and comparison of these greenhouse budgets that may invalidate this conclusion.

  12. Data deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    Geologists at the University of Michigan have decoded a precise record of long-term changes in Earth's ancient climate and ocean currents hidden inside dark, crusty deposits coating rocks on the Pacific ocean floor.These depositscalled ferromanganese crustsconstitute an important new data source for geochemists who currently rely on ice cores and shells of microscopic ocean animals, among other sources, for data on Earth's paleoclimate, according to John Christensen, assistant research scientist in geological sciences at the University of Michigan. The isotopic signature is distinctive. It's like adding different-colored dyes to the ocean and tracking them as they swirl around, he says.

  13. Elevated Nitrogen Deposition from Alberta Oil Sands Development Stimulates Phosphatase Activity in Dominant Sphagnum Moss Species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kashi, N. N.; Wieder, R.; Vile, M. A.

    2013-12-01

    Emissions of NOx associated with Alberta oil sands (AOS) development are leading to locally elevated atmospheric N deposition, in a region where background N deposition has been historically quite low (< 1 kg/ha/yr). This elevated N deposition has the potential to alter the ecosystem structure and function of nutrient-poor boreal peatlands. Nitrogen enrichment may alter soil microbial activity, which could be manifested in changes in extracellular enzyme activities. Since 2011, we have been experimentally adding N as NH4NO3 in simulated precipitation at 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 kg N ha/yr/ plus no-water controls to a boreal bog and a poor fen (3 replicate plots per treatment). In 2013, acid phosphatase activities in living plant capitulum of Sphagnum angustifolium, Sphagnum fuscum, and Sphagnum magellanicum were quantified in June and July using 4-methyumbelliferylphosphate and fluorescence detection of the enzymatically released methylumbelliferone (MUF). Phosphatase activities did not differ with N treatment for S. angustifolium in the bog (p=0.3409) or the poor fen (p=0.0629), or for S. fuscum in the bog (p=0.1950), averaging 35.0 0.7, 61.6 1.2, and 41.6 0.9 ?mol MUF/g DWT/hr, respectively. For S. fuscum in the poor fen, phosphatase activities differed between N treatments (p=0.0275), ranging 40.6 1.1 ?mol MUF/g DWT/hr in the control plots to 73.7 2.0 ?mol MUF/g DWT/hr in the 5 kg/ha/yr N treatment plots; increasing N deposition did not result in a gradual change in enzyme activity. On the other hand, S. magellanicum phosphatase activities differed between N treatments (p=0.0189) and showed a pattern of generally increasing activity with increasing N deposition (37.4 0.5 ?mol MUF/g DWT/hr in control plots; 97.9 4.5 ?mol MUF/g DWT/hr in the 25 kg/ha/yr N treatment plots). The differing phosphatase responses between these dominant Sphagnum species suggest unique differences in nutrient balance and/or microbial activity. Combining the three moss species and weighting by their abundances within each plot (percent cover), phosphatase activities differed between N treatments in the bog (p=0.0388) and the poor fen (p=0.0005), with the latter exhibiting a clear increase in enzyme activity with increasing N deposition, and a doubling of phosphatase activity between the control plots and the 25 kg/kg/yr N deposition treatment. Although the three moss species responded differently, at the plot scale, increasing N deposition stimulated phosphatase activity, suggesting that microbial enzyme activity in peat is sensitive to increasing N deposition from oil sands development, with potential consequences for peatland nutrient cycling.

  14. The Effects of Peatland Plant Functional Types and Altered Hydrology on Porewater Chemistry in a Northern Bog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daniels, A.; Kane, E. S.; Lilleskov, E. A.; Kolka, R. K.; Chimner, R. A.; Potvin, L. R.; Romanowicz, K. J.

    2012-12-01

    Northern wetlands, peatlands in particular, have been shown to store around 30% of the world's soil carbon and thus play a significant role in the carbon cycle of our planet. Carbon accumulation in peatlands is the result of retarded decomposition due to low oxygen availability in these water-logged environments. Changes in our planet's climate cycles are altering peatland hydrology and vegetation communities, resulting in changes in their ability to sequester carbon through increases in peat carbon oxidation and mineralization. To date, the consequences of altered hydrology and changes in vegetation communities, and their interactive effects on carbon storage, are not well understood. We have initiated a research plan that assesses the varying roles that water table variation and vegetation communities have on extracellular enzyme activity and labile carbon availability in porewater from an ombrotrophic bog. We assessed the effects of plant functional group (ericaceous shrubs, sedges, and bryophytes) and water table position on biogeochemical processes. Specifically, we measured dissolved organic carbon (DOC), total dissolved nitrogen (TDN), enzyme activity, organic acids, anions and cations, spectral indexes of aromaticity, and phenolic content in addressing our hypotheses of responses to climate change drivers. Research on these components will evaluate the relative importance of biology, water table, and their interactive affects on the porewater quality of peatlands. We hypothesized that oxygen availability will strongly influence decomposition in these systems but that this response will largely be mediated by changes in plant community and the enzymes associated with root exudates and mycorrhizae. To date, our data confirm vegetation and water table related patterns. Acetate and propionate concentrations in the sedge-dominated communities dropped significantly with depth and drainage, relative to the control and ericaceous treatments, which likely reflects changes in redox potential owing to physiological differences in sedges which contain aerenchyma cell, and a reduction in the products of anaerobic metabolism. DOC increased in the lowered water table treatments in all vegetation community types. Enzymatic activities have changed in response to water table level and vegetation community. While we have not detected significant levels of peroxidase enzymes in porewater, initial results indicate that hydrolase enzyme activities were higher in the sedge-dominated communities with a lowered water table. Through this research, we are hoping to advance our knowledge of the drivers behind peatland biogeochemistry and how ombrotrophic peat systems may respond to climate change influences.

  15. High specificity but contrasting biodiversity of Sphagnum-associated bacterial and plant communities in bog ecosystems independent of the geographical region.

    PubMed

    Opelt, Katja; Berg, Christian; Schönmann, Susan; Eberl, Leo; Berg, Gabriele

    2007-10-01

    Mosses represent ecological niches that harbor a hitherto largely uncharacterized microbial diversity. To investigate which factors affect the biodiversity of bryophyte-associated bacteria, we analyzed the bacterial communities associated with two moss species, which exhibit different ecological behaviors and importance in bog ecosystems, Sphagnum magellanicum and Sphagnum fallax, from six temperate and boreal bogs in Germany and Norway. Furthermore, their surrounding plant communities were studied. Molecular analysis of bacterial communities was determined by single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis using eubacterial and genus-specific primers for the dominant genera Burkholderia and Serratia as well as by sequence analysis of a Burkholderia 16S rRNA gene clone library. Plant communities were analyzed by monitoring the abundance and composition of bryophyte and vascular plant species, and by determining ecological indicator values. Interestingly, we found a high degree of host specificity for associated bacterial and plant communities of both Sphagnum species independent of the geographical region. Calculation of diversity indices on the basis of SSCP gels showed that the S. fallax-associated communities displayed a statistically significant higher degree of diversity than those associated with S. magellanicum. In contrast, analyses of plant communities of Sphagnum-specific habitats resulted in a higher diversity of S. magellanicum-specific habitats for all six sites. The higher content of nutrients in the S. fallax-associated ecosystems can explain higher diversity of microorganisms. PMID:18043652

  16. Emission of CO2 from the surface of oligotrophic bogs with due account for their microrelief in the southern taiga of European Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glukhova, T. V.; Vompersky, S. E.; Kovalev, A. G.

    2013-12-01

    The results of studying the carbon dioxide fluxes from the soil's surface during three years taking into account the microrelief are summarized. More precise estimates were obtained for the annual CO2 emission from the oligotrophic peat bogs differing in vegetation and waterlogging in the southern taiga of European Russia. The maximum differences in the rates of the CO2 emission related to the microrelief elements are characteristic of the treeless ridge-pool complex, where the hollows (without vegetation) emitted CO2 twice less than the flat areas and thrice less than the hummocks. In the forest bogs, the differences related to the microrelief were significantly lower. In the areas with the ridge-pool microrelief, the weighted average (for 3 years) CO2 emission was 436 g C/m2 per year; in the better drained natural dwarf shrub-cotton grass-sphagnum pine forest, 930; and in the drained pine forest, 1292 g C/m2 per year. The share of the CO2 amount emitted in the cold period (November-April) amounted to 10% of its annual flux from the peat soils of the ridge-pool complex and 17 and 24%, respectively, in the natural and drained pine forests.

  17. Antioxidant properties, phenolic composition and potentiometric sensor array evaluation of commercial and new blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum) and bog blueberry (Vaccinium uliginosum) genotypes.

    PubMed

    Kraujalytė, Vilma; Venskutonis, Petras Rimantas; Pukalskas, Audrius; Česonienė, Laima; Daubaras, Remigijus

    2015-12-01

    Antioxidant properties of juices of newly bred and known blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum) genotypes and wild bog blueberry (Vaccinium uliginosum) were evaluated by ABTS(+) scavenging capacity (RSC), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), total phenolic content (TPC) and total anthocyanin content (TAC) assays. TPC varied in the range of 0.85-2.81 mg gallic acid equiv./mL, RSC, FRAP and ORAC values were 6.38-20.9, 3.07-17.8 and 4.21-45.68 μmol Trolox equiv./g, respectively. New blueberry genotypes and bog blueberry demonstrated stronger antioxidant properties and TAC than other studied genotypes. The content of quinic (203-3614 μg/mL), chlorogenic (20.0-346.8 μg/mL) acids and rutin (0.00-26.88 μg/mL) measured by UPLC/ESI-QTOF-MS varied depending on the genotype. Juices were evaluated by electronic tongue; PCA score plot showed that the method discriminates different genotypes although some juice samples were located very closely and overlapping. Significant differences were observed between L(∗), a(∗), b(∗) colour parameters of some genotypes. PMID:26041234

  18. Flourish or flush: effects of simulated extreme rainfall events on Sphagnum-dwelling testate amoebae in a subarctic bog (Abisko, Sweden).

    PubMed

    Tsyganov, Andrey N; Keuper, Frida; Aerts, Rien; Beyens, Louis

    2013-01-01

    Extreme precipitation events are recognised as important drivers of ecosystem responses to climate change and can considerably affect high-latitude ombrotrophic bogs. Therefore, understanding the relationships between increased rainfall and the biotic components of these ecosystems is necessary for an estimation of climate change impacts. We studied overall effects of increased magnitude, intensity and frequency of rainfall on assemblages of Sphagnum-dwelling testate amoebae in a field climate manipulation experiment located in a relatively dry subarctic bog (Abisko, Sweden). The effects of the treatment were estimated using abundance, species diversity and structure of living and empty shell assemblages of testate amoebae in living and decaying layers of Sphagnum. Our results show that increased rainfall reduced the mean abundance and species richness of living testate amoebae. Besides, the treatment affected species structure of both living and empty shell assemblages, reducing proportions of hydrophilous species. The effects are counterintuitive as increased precipitation-related substrate moisture was expected to have opposite effects on testate amoeba assemblages in relatively dry biotopes. Therefore, we conclude that other rainfall-related factors such as increased infiltration rates and frequency of environmental disturbances can also affect testate amoeba assemblages in Sphagnum and that hydrophilous species are particularly sensitive to variation in these environmental variables. PMID:22956212

  19. Groundwater flow with energy transport and water-ice phase change: Numerical simulations, benchmarks, and application to freezing in peat bogs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKenzie, J.M.; Voss, C.I.; Siegel, D.I.

    2007-01-01

    In northern peatlands, subsurface ice formation is an important process that can control heat transport, groundwater flow, and biological activity. Temperature was measured over one and a half years in a vertical profile in the Red Lake Bog, Minnesota. To successfully simulate the transport of heat within the peat profile, the U.S. Geological Survey's SUTRA computer code was modified. The modified code simulates fully saturated, coupled porewater-energy transport, with freezing and melting porewater, and includes proportional heat capacity and thermal conductivity of water and ice, decreasing matrix permeability due to ice formation, and latent heat. The model is verified by correctly simulating the Lunardini analytical solution for ice formation in a porous medium with a mixed ice-water zone. The modified SUTRA model correctly simulates the temperature and ice distributions in the peat bog. Two possible benchmark problems for groundwater and energy transport with ice formation and melting are proposed that may be used by other researchers for code comparison. ?? 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Atmospheric mercury deposition recorded in an ombrotrophic peat core from Xiaoxing'an Mountain, Northeast China

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Shunlin; State Key laboratory of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Science, Guiyang ; Huang, Zhongwei; Liu, Jun; Yang, Zaichan; Lin, Qinhua

    2012-10-15

    The historical mercury accumulation rates (Hg AR) resulting from atmospheric deposition to Xiaoxing'an Mountain were determined via analysis of {sup 210}Pb- and {sup 14}C-dated cores up to 5000 years old. Natural Hg AR background, pre-industrial Hg AR and maximum industrial Hg AR in Northeast China were 2.2 {+-}1.0 {mu}g/m{sup 2}/yr for 5100-4500 BP, 5.7 {mu}g/m{sup 2}/yr and 112.4 {mu}g/m{sup 2}/yr, respectively. We assumed that the increase in Hg deposition in the Xiaoxing'an mountain area during industrial time was mainly attributed to local anthropogenic emissions around this peat bog.

  1. Evidence for differential effects of reduced and oxidised nitrogen deposition on vegetation independent of nitrogen load.

    PubMed

    van den Berg, Leon J L; Jones, Laurence; Sheppard, Lucy J; Smart, Simon M; Bobbink, Roland; Dise, Nancy B; Ashmore, Mike R

    2016-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) deposition impacts natural and semi-natural ecosystems globally. The responses of vegetation to N deposition may, however, differ strongly between habitats and may be mediated by the form of N. Although much attention has been focused on the impact of total N deposition, the effects of reduced and oxidised N, independent of the total N deposition, have received less attention. In this paper, we present new analyses of national monitoring data in the UK to provide an extensive evaluation of whether there are differences in the effects of reduced and oxidised N deposition across eight habitat types (acid, calcareous and mesotrophic grasslands, upland and lowland heaths, bogs and mires, base-rich mires, woodlands). We analysed data from 6860 plots in the British Countryside Survey 2007 for effects of total N deposition and N form on species richness, Ellenberg N values and grass:forb ratio. Our results provide clear evidence that N deposition affects species richness in all habitats except base-rich mires, after factoring out correlated explanatory variables (climate and sulphur deposition). In addition, the form of N in deposition appears important for the biodiversity of grasslands and woodlands but not mires and heaths. Ellenberg N increased more in relation to NHx deposition than NOy deposition in all but one habitat type. Relationships between species richness and N form were habitat-specific: acid and mesotrophic grasslands appear more sensitive to NHx deposition while calcareous grasslands and woodlands appeared more responsive to NOy deposition. These relationships are likely driven by the preferences of the component plant species for oxidised or reduced forms of N, rather than by soil acidification. PMID:26476695

  2. Holocene climate dynamics in the Eastern Italian Alps: a multi-proxy study from ice and peat bogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poto, Luisa; Gabrieli, Jacopo; Segnana, Michela; Festi, Daniela; Oeggl, Klaus; Barbante, Carlo

    2014-05-01

    The Eastern Italian Alps are located near one of the areas in the world with some of the longest records of extreme environmental use by human activity. In this area, paleo-climate studies are hampered by the lack of high-resolution multi-proxy records with adequate chronological control. With this project, we propose to reconstruct Holocene climatic and environmental variations in the Eastern Italian Alps using terrestrial and glaciological archives. We aim to study the characteristics of different climate stages in this sector of the Alps using an ice core drilled on the top of the Ortles glacier (46°30' N, 10°32 E, 3850 m a.s.l.) and ombrotrophic peat bog records from the Dolomites (Danta di Cadore, 46°34' N, 12°33 E, 1400 m a.s.l. and Coltrondo 46°39'28.37''N 12°26'59.17''E, 1800 m a.s.l., Belluno province). The study of global climatic change require a holistic and multi-proxy approach to better understand several complex and often non-linear relationships. In the Italian Alps our study on peat cores represents the first attempt where a multi-proxy approach is applied, and here we report our first results. A 7.0 m peat sequence was extracted in Danta di Cadore. The depth-age scale, based upon independent 14C and 210Pb dates and modeled with the Clam method (Blaauw, 2010), demonstrates that the archive covers more than 13,200 years (cal BP). We determined physical proprieties, Ca and Ti trends, pore water pH, conductivity, and Ca/Mg ratios to identify changes in trophic conditions. The results confirm that the uppermost 400 cm are composed of ombrotrophic peat representing the longest Eastern Alpine ombrotrophic record yet obtained, covering the last 7,000 years. The oldest radiocarbon age (13,200 years cal BP) provides evidence that, during the Bölling-Alleröd interstadial, the upper part of the Piave Glacier was ice-free up to 1400 m a.s.l.. At that time pollen assemblages show that a conifer forest characterized the local vegetation. This forest was then affected by the climatic cooling of the Younger Dryas, which caused an opening of the vegetation. The climatic amelioration occurring at the onset of the Holocene favored the local expansion of warmth-demanding species. X-ray Fluorescence Core Scanner (XRF-CS) analysis was applied for the first time on Eastern Alpine peat sequences. XRF-CS signals were calibrated with ICP-MS, showing very high correlation and demonstrating that the XRF-CS technique provides reliable quantitative data. Results provide information about geochemical processes occurring in the bog. The impact of mining activity was also evaluated. Concentration levels and enrichment factors (EFs) of several trace elements such as Pb, Ag and Cd correspond to the historical data about mining activities in the Cadore region. Lead isotopes ratios were measured to identify natural and anthropogenic sources of Pb emissions. Results show an increase of Pb deriving from fuel combustion over the last decades that gradually overlie the impacts of mining activity. The decreasing 206Pb/207Pb trend reached its minimum value of 1.153 in the 1990s and then increased again. In these years, Italy started to follow EU rules to limit global pollutants in the atmosphere, and finally banned leaded fuels in 2002. Both 206Pb/207Pb ratio and Pb fluxes show a particular event between 1975 and 1980: this behavior is characteristic of the ILE (Isotopic Lead Experiment), a large-scale isotopic tracer experiment which was carried out in the Piedmont region (N-W Italy). This multi-proxy approach that integrates, using new chronological insights, chemical physical and biological features of the core, improves our understanding of Eastern Alpine Holocene climate, helping to delineate biotic and abiotic responses to climate dynamics during the present interglacial. Blaauw, M. 2010. Methods and code for 'classical' age modeling of radiocarbon sequences. Quarternary Geochronology, 5: 512-518.

  3. Seasonality of atmospheric nitrogen deposition at a semi-natural peatland site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurkuck, M.; Brümmer, C.; Kutsch, W. L.

    2012-04-01

    Large areas of natural peat bogs in Northwestern Germany have been converted to arable land and are characterised by decades of draining and peat cutting. Our study site - a semi-natural raised bog - is one of only very few remaining protected peatland areas. However, it is surrounded by highly fertilized agricultural land and poultry farms. In this study, we use a combined approach of independent methods to quantify seasonal variations of atmospheric nitrogen deposition most likely originated from agricultural practices. Concentrations and fluxes of ammonia and its atmospheric reactants are measured by a KAPS-denuder system integrated over one-week periods. Additionally, total nitrogen input from the atmosphere into a soil-plant model ecosystem is investigated by a 15N dilution method called 'Integrated Total Nitrogen Input' (ITNI). With this approach, we aim to allocate atmospheric nitrogen after its uptake by the ecosystem in aboveground biomass, roots and soil. First results from April to November 2011 show average ammonia concentrations ranging from 0.9 to 13.0 μg m-3. A first maximum of 8.8 μg m-3 could be observed in spring followed by relatively stable concentrations (mean: 3.7 μg m-3) in summer. Autumn ammonia concentrations reached a second peak of 13.0 μg m-3. By now, winter concentrations tend to be lower than those during the rest of the measuring period. Using the KAPS-denuder system within a gradient setup, deposition of ammonia was found to be between 0.08 to 0.25 kg NH3-N ha-1 week-1. The proportion of concentrations and fluxes of other N compounds such as HNO3, aerosol NH4 and NO3 was usually around 20 % of total measured nitrogen. During the first months of investigation, we found a total dry N deposition of about 5.4 kg ha-1. Extrapolation of data to one year amounts approximately to 9 kg ha-1 yr1. Our results suggest that the intensive agricultural land management of surrounding areas most likely leads to increasing N input into the protected peatland area. The critical load for this nutrient-poor ecosystem might be exceeded and a future change in vegetation and hydrology is expected. Key words: nitrogen deposition, raised bog, 15N isotopes, KAPS denuder

  4. Long-term change of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon deposition to peatlands of eastern Canada.

    PubMed

    Dreyer, Annekatrin; Radke, Michael; Turunen, Jukka; Blodau, Christian

    2005-06-01

    To date, studies about historic PAH (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) deposition at a regional scale have rarely been published. To address this research gap, we sampled 17 ombrotrophic peatlands across eastern Canada. The peat cores from hollows were dated with 210Pb for the period of about 1850-2000 and analyzed fortheir PAH concentration, so PAH deposition could be reconstructed. Peat samples were extracted by accelerated solvent extraction (ASE). The extracts were purified by column chromatography with aluminum oxide and silica gel. PAH were measured by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). Overall reconstructed deposition rates of sigma-11 PAH ranged from 4 to 1432 microg m(-2) year(-1). Three different long-term trends in PAH deposition could be distinguished: sites with two separated periods of maximum PAH deposition, sites with one period of maximum PAH deposition, and sites with no clearly separated period of maximum PAH deposition. Increasing PAH depositions were caused by rapid industrialization accompanied by extensive use of fossil fuels; decreasing PAH depositions were caused by substitution of these fuels and movements of PAH emitting industry to different regions. At all sites either phenanthrene (20-60%) or benzo[b+k]fluoranthene (10-40%) was the predominant PAH. Detailed analysis of three bogs suggested that combustion of coal and vehicle exhausts mainly contributed to the peat PAH burden. The temporal trends of PAH deposition indicated that increases in the PAH deposition rates followed the industrial development in Canada, particularly in the periods 1880-1910 and 1940-1960. Recent abatement efforts were reflected in decreased PAH deposition rates to about 15% of the maximum. PMID:15984765

  5. Differences in hydrophyte life forms induce spatial heterogeneity of CH4 production and its carbon isotopic signature in a temperate bog peatland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itoh, Masayuki; Shimamura, Tetsuya; Ohte, Nobuhito; Takemon, Yasuhiro

    2015-07-01

    To clarify the effect of differences in hydrophyte life forms on methane (CH4) production and its carbon stable isotopic signature (δ13C-CH4), we analyzed CH4 and carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations, their stable carbon isotope values, and chemical constituents dissolved in pore water in a small floating peat bog in Japan. Because eutrophication has modified the surrounding water quality, the bog vegetation on the mat has been, in part, replaced by fen-type vegetation. We hypothesized that differences in hydrophyte habitats affect redox conditions, including dissolved oxygen (DO) in water and therefore the amounts and carbon isotopic values of CH4 and CO2 dissolved in pore water. Between the habitats of two Sphagnum species, DO was considerably higher, and CH4 concentrations were significantly lower in Sphagnum cuspidatum Ehrh. habitats in hollow (DO: 0.62 ± 0.20 mg/L (standard error (SE)) and CH4: 0.18 ± 0.02 mmol/L) than in Sphagnum palustre L. habitats in hummock (DO: 0.29 ± 0.08 and CH4: 0.82 ± 0.06) in pore water (10 cm depth). Both DO and CH4 concentrations in three vascular plant habitats (Rhynchospora fauriei Franch., Phragmites australis [reed], and Menyanthes trifoliata L.) in pore water (10 cm depth) were intermediate relative to the two Sphagnum species. However, CH4 flux in M. trifoliata site was significantly higher than that at both Sphagnum sites, suggesting that the type of gas transport (diffusive or convective via root and stem) affected the depth profile of CH4 concentrations and its flux. δ13C-CH4 values in pore water also varied among the vegetation types, even within Sphagnum species (e.g., at 10 cm depth, δ13C-CH4: R. fauriei, -55.3 ± 1.8‰ (SE); P. australis, -57.5 ± 1.6‰; M. trifoliata, -56.7 ± 1.5‰; S. cuspidatum, -71.2 ± 1.4‰; and S. palustre, -60.4 ± 0.6‰). Our results suggest that significant differences arise in CH4 concentration and δ13C-CH4 values among the hydrophyte habitats even within a small peat bog and that change in vegetation relative to trophic conditions can affect CH4 emissions and associated δ13C-CH4 values.

  6. Application of soil magnetometry on peat-bogs and soils in areas affected by historical and prehistoric ore mining and smelting.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magiera, Tadeusz; Mendakiewicz, Maria; Szuszkiewicz, Marcin; Chrost, Leszak

    2015-04-01

    The valleys of upper Brynica and Stoła located in northern part of Upper Silesia were areas of historical human activities since prehistoric times. Historically confirmed mining and smelting of iron, silver and lead ores on this areas has been dated back to early Middle Ages, however recently some geochemical and radiometric analyses suggest even prehistoric time of such activities. The aim of this study was to check if it is possible to find any magnetic signal suggesting such activities in peat-bogs and soils of this area. This magnetic properties would be a result of presence of historical Technogenic Magnetic Particles (TMPs) arisen during the primitive smelting processes in the past. Many different types of TMPs were separated from the depth of 15-30 cm of soil profiles and also were present in deeper parts of peat-bogs accompanied by fine charcoal particles. The peat-bog horizons dated by radiocarbon (C14) for 2000 BC were contaminated by some heavy metals (Cu, Zn, Cd, Ag, Pb, Mn, Fe, Sr, Sc) and slightly increased magnetic susceptibility signal was also observed. On the base of soil surface magnetic measurement using MS2D Bartington sensor complemented by magnetic gradiometer system Grad 601-02 for the deeper soil penetration, some local magnetic anomalies were detected. In areas of local 'hot spots', the vertical cores up to 30 cm in depth were collected using the HUMAX core sampler. Vertical distribution of magnetic susceptibility along the cores was measured in the laboratory using the MS2C Bartington core sensor. The core section with increased susceptibility values were analyzed and TMPs were separated using a hand magnet. The separation of fine fraction of TMPs was carried out in an ultrasonic bath from the fine soil material suspended in isopropanol to avoid their coagulation. Irregular ceramic particles, ash and ore particles, as well as strong magnetic particles of metallic iron; all with diameter up to 10 mm and almost regular shape and rounded edges were magnetically separated from the 15-30 cm of topsoil cores. In order to determinate the mineralogical composition of magnetic particles in soil samples a SEM-EDS technique was used. On the base of the magnetic prescreening the archeological excavations on the study area are planning.

  7. Export of dissolved organic carbon and nitrogen from drained and re-wetted bog sites in Lower Saxony (Germany)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frank, Stefan; Tiemeyer, Bärbel; Freibauer, Annette

    2014-05-01

    Today, nearly all peatlands in Germany are drained for agriculture, forestry and peat cutting. The export of dissolved organic carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) may be important for the overall C and N balances and affects downstream ecosystems. While drainage generally increases solute losses, there is nearly no C and N export data of raised bogs in Germany which can be used to evaluate both the impact of drainage associated with intensive land use and the re-wetting of peat cutting sites. In the "Ahlenmoor" (North-Western Germany), four sampling points were chosen. Three sampling points represent a deeply drained intensively used grassland at various scales ranging from a drainage pipe (DP, 0.08 ha) and a drainage ditch (DD, 6.8 ha) to a collector ditch (CD, 20 ha). The fourth sampling point (RW) is a former peat cutting site (23 ha) re-wetted 10 years ago. At this site, polder technique was used to establish water tables at the soil surface. Sampling and discharge measurements were conducted bi-weekly from June 2011 to June 2013. Water table levels were recorded with automatic pressure sensors, and rating curves between discharge and water levels were used to calculate continuous discharge values. Samples were analyzed for dissolved organic carbon (DOC), particulate organic carbon (POC), dissolved organic nitrogen (DON), ammonium (NH4+), nitrate (NO3-), sulphate (SO42-), pH, electric conductivity (EC) and specific UV absorbance (SUVA). The discharge did not vary strongly between the sampling points and was slightly lower in the second year. Concentrations of all measured solutes were higher at the intensive grassland (DP, DD and CD) than at the re-wetted site. Surprisingly, SUVA showed no difference between all sites, while the DOC to DON ratio was narrower at DP, DD and CD than at RW. This indicates an export of more degraded dissolved organic matter (DOM) from the drained area. At the grassland sites, no statistical differences were found between the three scales except for SO42-, NO3- and pH. Thus, the grassland shows rather homogenous export patterns over various spatial scales, and there seem to be no fast mineralization or degradation of the exported DOM during the initial stage of export. In total, average losses of DOC (457 kg ha-1 a-1) and POC (40 kg ha-1 a-1) from the drained area were nearly thrice as high as from the re-wetted site (124 and 73 kg ha-1 a-1). The total nitrogen losses were even more reduced by re-wetting and dominated at all sites by DON (19.1 kg ha-1 a-1 at the grassland sites, 3.9 kg ha-1 a-1 at the re-wetted site). NH4+ (drained: 5.2 kg ha-1 a-1, re-wetted: 0.8 kg ha-1 a-1) and NO3- (drained: 1.6 kg ha-1 a-1, re-wetted: not detectable) played a minor role. Overall, differences in the export could rather be explained by differences in solute concentration than in discharge.

  8. Lanceimermis palustris n. sp. and Telomermis palustris n. sp. (Nematoda: Mermithidae) parasites of chironomid (Insecta: Diptera) adults from Lake Alice Bog in northern Minnesota.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Arthur A; Kleve, Maurice G

    2004-12-01

    In the summer of 2003, chironomid imagoes eclosing from Lake Alice Bog in Minnesota yielded mermithid nematodes of 2 new species. Lanceimermis palustris n. sp. is distinguished from the other 14 species of the genus by the subventral mouth position, thinness of the hook-shaped spicule, body index, and structure of the male tail muscles. Telomermis palustris n. sp. is distinguished from the only other species of the genus by the structure of the amphids, body length, maximum body width, length of the esophagus, and the presence of a minute larval terminal horn. Lanceimermis palustris n. sp. hosts were Chironomus maturus Johannsen and T. palustris n. sp. hosts were Tanytarsus mendax Kieffer, Paratanytarsus nr. dissimilis n. sp., and Micropsectra polita (Malloch). In both mermithid species, the percent of mermithid males per host increased with the intensity of the infection. PMID:15715243

  9. Tundra in the rain: differential vegetation responses to three years of experimentally doubled summer precipitation in Siberian shrub and Swedish bog tundra.

    PubMed

    Keuper, Frida; Parmentier, Frans-Jan W; Blok, Daan; van Bodegom, Peter M; Dorrepaal, Ellen; van Hal, Jurgen R; van Logtestijn, Richard S P; Aerts, Rien

    2012-01-01

    Precipitation amounts and patterns at high latitude sites have been predicted to change as a result of global climatic changes. We addressed vegetation responses to three years of experimentally increased summer precipitation in two previously unaddressed tundra types: Betula nana-dominated shrub tundra (northeast Siberia) and a dry Sphagnum fuscum-dominated bog (northern Sweden). Positive responses to approximately doubled ambient precipitation (an increase of 200 mm year(-1)) were observed at the Siberian site, for B. nana (30 % larger length increments), Salix pulchra (leaf size and length increments) and Arctagrostis latifolia (leaf size and specific leaf area), but none were observed at the Swedish site. Total biomass production did not increase at either of the study sites. This study corroborates studies in other tundra vegetation types and shows that despite regional differences at the plant level, total tundra plant productivity is, at least at the short or medium term, largely irresponsive to experimentally increased summer precipitation. PMID:22864700

  10. Seasonal climate manipulations have only minor effects on litter decomposition rates and N dynamics but strong effects on litter P dynamics of sub-arctic bog species.

    PubMed

    Aerts, R; Callaghan, T V; Dorrepaal, E; van Logtestijn, R S P; Cornelissen, J H C

    2012-11-01

    Litter decomposition and nutrient mineralization in high-latitude peatlands are constrained by low temperatures. So far, little is known about the effects of seasonal components of climate change (higher spring and summer temperatures, more snow which leads to higher winter soil temperatures) on these processes. In a 4-year field experiment, we manipulated these seasonal components in a sub-arctic bog and studied the effects on the decomposition and N and P dynamics of leaf litter of Calamagrostis lapponica, Betula nana, and Rubus chamaemorus, incubated both in a common ambient environment and in the treatment plots. Mass loss in the controls increased in the order Calamagrostis < Betula < Rubus. After 4 years, overall mass loss in the climate-treatment plots was 10 % higher compared to the ambient incubation environment. Litter chemistry showed within each incubation environment only a few and species-specific responses. Compared to the interspecific differences, they resulted in only moderate climate treatment effects on mass loss and these differed among seasons and species. Neither N nor P mineralization in the litter were affected by the incubation environment. Remarkably, for all species, no net N mineralization had occurred in any of the treatments during 4 years. Species differed in P-release patterns, and summer warming strongly stimulated P release for all species. Thus, moderate changes in summer temperatures and/or winter snow addition have limited effects on litter decomposition rates and N dynamics, but summer warming does stimulate litter P release. As a result, N-limitation of plant growth in this sub-arctic bog may be sustained or even further promoted. PMID:22526945

  11. Peat Bog Wildfire Smoke Exposure in Rural North Carolina Is Associated with Cardiopulmonary Emergency Department Visits Assessed Through Syndromic Surveillance

    EPA Science Inventory

    In June 2008 burning deposits of peat produced haze and air pollution far in excess of National Ambient Air Quality Standards, encroaching on rural communities of eastern North Carolina (NC). While the association of mortality and morbidity with exposure to urban air pollution is...

  12. Peat bog wildfire smoke exposure in rural North Carolina is associated with Cardiopulmonary emergency department visits assessed through syndromic surveillance

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: In June 2008 burning deposits of peat produced haze and air pollution far in excess of National Ambient Air Quality Standards, encroaching on rural communities of eastern North Carolina (NC). While the association of mortality and morbidity with exposure to urban air ...

  13. Peat Bog Wildfire Smoke Exposure in Rural North Carolina Is Associated with Cardio-Pulmonary Emergency Department Visits

    EPA Science Inventory

    In June 2008 burning deposits of peat produced haze and air pollution far in excess of National Ambient Air Quality Standards, encroaching on rural communities of eastern North Carolina (NC). While the association of mortality and morbidity with exposure to urban air pollution i...

  14. Nitrogen deposition and prey nitrogen uptake control the nutrition of the carnivorous plant Drosera rotundifolia.

    PubMed

    Millett, J; Foot, G W; Svensson, B M

    2015-04-15

    Nitrogen (N) deposition has important negative impacts on natural and semi-natural ecosystems, impacting on biotic interactions across trophic levels. Low-nutrient systems are particularly sensitive to changes in N inputs and are therefore more vulnerable to N deposition. Carnivorous plants are often part of these ecosystems partly because of the additional nutrients obtained from prey. We studied the impact of N deposition on the nutrition of the carnivorous plant Drosera rotundifolia growing on 16 ombrotrophic bogs across Europe. We measured tissue N, phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) concentrations and prey and root N uptake using a natural abundance stable isotope approach. Our aim was to test the impact of N deposition on D. rotundifolia prey and root N uptake, and nutrient stoichiometry. D. rotundifolia root N uptake was strongly affected by N deposition, possibly resulting in reduced N limitation. The contribution of prey N to the N contained in D. rotundifolia ranged from 20 to 60%. N deposition reduced the maximum amount of N derived from prey, but this varied below this maximum. D. rotundifolia tissue N concentrations were a product of both root N availability and prey N uptake. Increased prey N uptake was correlated with increased tissue P concentrations indicating uptake of P from prey. N deposition therefore reduced the strength of a carnivorous plant-prey interaction, resulting in a reduction in nutrient transfer between trophic levels. We suggest that N deposition has a negative impact on D. rotundifolia and that responses to N deposition might be strongly site specific. PMID:25655989

  15. Effects of experimental nitrogen deposition on peatland carbon pools and fluxes: a modeling analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Y.; Blodau, C.; Moore, T. R.; Bubier, J. L.; Juutinen, S.; Larmola, T.

    2014-07-01

    Nitrogen (N) pollution of peatlands alters their carbon (C) balances, yet long-term effects and controls are poorly understood. We applied the model PEATBOG to analyze impacts of long-term nitrogen (N) fertilization on C cycling in an ombrotrophic bog. Simulations of summer gross ecosystem production (GEP), ecosystem respiration (ER) and net ecosystem exchange (NEE) were evaluated against 8 years of observations and extrapolated for 80 years to identify potential effects of N fertilization and factors influencing model behavior. The model successfully simulated moss decline and raised GEP, ER and NEE on fertilized plots. GEP was systematically overestimated in the model compared to the field data due to high tolerance of Sphagnum to N deposition in the model. Model performance regarding the 8 year response of GEP and NEE to N was improved by introducing an N content threshold shifting the response of photosynthesis capacity to N content in shrubs and graminoids from positive to negative at high N contents. Such changes also eliminated the competitive advantages of vascular species and led to resilience of mosses in the long-term. Regardless of the large changes of C fluxes over the short-term, the simulated GEP, ER and NEE after 80 years depended on whether a graminoid- or shrub-dominated system evolved. When the peatland remained shrub-Sphagnum dominated, it shifted to a C source after only 10 years of fertilization at 6.4 g N m-2 yr-1, whereas this was not the case when it became graminoid-dominated. The modeling results thus highlight the importance of ecosystem adaptation and reaction of plant functional types to N deposition, when predicting the future C balance of N-polluted cool temperate bogs.

  16. Effects of experimental nitrogen deposition on peatland carbon pools and fluxes: a modelling analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Y.; Blodau, C.; Moore, T. R.; Bubier, J.; Juutinen, S.; Larmola, T.

    2015-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) pollution of peatlands alters their carbon (C) balances, yet long-term effects and controls are poorly understood. We applied the model PEATBOG to explore impacts of long-term nitrogen (N) fertilization on C cycling in an ombrotrophic bog. Simulations of summer gross ecosystem production (GEP), ecosystem respiration (ER) and net ecosystem exchange (NEE) were evaluated against 8 years of observations and extrapolated for 80 years to identify potential effects of N fertilization and factors influencing model behaviour. The model successfully simulated moss decline and raised GEP, ER and NEE on fertilized plots. GEP was systematically overestimated in the model compared to the field data due to factors that can be related to differences in vegetation distribution (e.g. shrubs vs. graminoid vegetation) and to high tolerance of vascular plants to N deposition in the model. Model performance regarding the 8-year response of GEP and NEE to N input was improved by introducing an N content threshold shifting the response of photosynthetic capacity (GEPmax) to N content in shrubs and graminoids from positive to negative at high N contents. Such changes also eliminated the competitive advantages of vascular species and led to resilience of mosses in the long-term. Regardless of the large changes of C fluxes over the short-term, the simulated GEP, ER and NEE after 80 years depended on whether a graminoid- or shrub-dominated system evolved. When the peatland remained shrub-Sphagnum-dominated, it shifted to a C source after only 10 years of fertilization at 6.4 g N m-2 yr-1, whereas this was not the case when it became graminoid-dominated. The modelling results thus highlight the importance of ecosystem adaptation and reaction of plant functional types to N deposition, when predicting the future C balance of N-polluted cool temperate bogs.

  17. Carbon dioxide flux and net primary production of a boreal treed bog: Responses to warming and water-table-lowering simulations of climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munir, T. M.; Perkins, M.; Kaing, E.; Strack, M.

    2015-02-01

    Midlatitude treed bogs represent significant carbon (C) stocks and are highly sensitive to global climate change. In a dry continental treed bog, we compared three sites: control, recent (1-3 years; experimental) and older drained (10-13 years), with water levels at 38, 74 and 120 cm below the surface, respectively. At each site we measured carbon dioxide (CO2) fluxes and estimated tree root respiration (Rr; across hummock-hollow microtopography of the forest floor) and net primary production (NPP) of trees during the growing seasons (May to October) of 2011-2013. The CO2-C balance was calculated by adding the net CO2 exchange of the forest floor (NEff-Rr) to the NPP of the trees. From cooler and wetter 2011 to the driest and the warmest 2013, the control site was a CO2-C sink of 92, 70 and 76 g m-2, the experimental site was a CO2-C source of 14, 57 and 135 g m-2, and the drained site was a progressively smaller source of 26, 23 and 13 g CO2-C m-2. The short-term drainage at the experimental site resulted in small changes in vegetation coverage and large net CO2 emissions at the microforms. In contrast, the longer-term drainage and deeper water level at the drained site resulted in the replacement of mosses with vascular plants (shrubs) on the hummocks and lichen in the hollows leading to the highest CO2 uptake at the drained hummocks and significant losses in the hollows. The tree NPP (including above- and below-ground growth and litter fall) in 2011 and 2012 was significantly higher at the drained site (92 and 83 g C m-2) than at the experimental (58 and 55 g C m-2) and control (52 and 46 g C m-2) sites. We also quantified the impact of climatic warming at all water table treatments by equipping additional plots with open-top chambers (OTCs) that caused a passive warming on average of ~ 1 C and differential air warming of ~ 6 C at midday full sun over the study years. Warming significantly enhanced shrub growth and the CO2 sink function of the drained hummocks (exceeding the cumulative respiration losses in hollows induced by the lowered water level warming). There was an interaction of water level with warming across hummocks that resulted in the largest net CO2 uptake at the warmed drained hummocks. Thus in 2013, the warming treatment enhanced the sink function of the control site by 13 g m-2, reduced the source function of the experimental by 10 g m-2 and significantly enhanced the sink function of the drained site by 73 g m-2. Therefore, drying and warming in continental bogs is expected to initially accelerate CO2-C losses via ecosystem respiration, but persistent drought and warming is expected to restore the peatland's original CO2-C sink function as a result of the shifts in vegetation composition and productivity between the microforms and increased NPP of trees over time.

  18. Natural bog pine ecosystem in southern Germany is a steady and robust sink of CO2 but a minor source of CH4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hommeltenberg, Janina; Schmid, Hans Peter; Droesler, Matthias; Werle, Peter

    2013-04-01

    Natural peatland ecosystems sequester carbon dioxide. They do this slowly but steadily, but also emit methane in small rates. Thus peatlands have both positive and negative greenhouse gas balance impacts on the climate system due to their influence on atmospheric CO2 and CH4 concentration. We present data of net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE) of almost three years (July 2010 to March 2013) and of methane fluxes over a period of nine months (July 2012 to March 2013), measured by eddy covariance technique in the bog forest "Schechenfilz". The site (4748' N; 1119' E, 590 m a.s.l.) is an ICOS-ecosystems associate site, located in the pre-alpine region of southern Germany, where a natural Pinus mugo rotundata forest grows on an undisturbed, almost 6 m thick peat layer. The slow growing bog pines and their low rates of carbon sequestration, in combination with high water table and thus low availability of oxygen, lead to low carbon dioxide fluxes. Photosynthesis as well as soil respiration are considerably attenuated compared to upland sites. Additionally, the high soil water content is damping the impact of dry and hot periods on CO2 exchange. Thus the CO2 balance is very robust to changing environmental parameters. While the CO2 exchange is clearly related to soil temperature and photosynthetic active radiation, we have not yet identified a parameter that governs variations in methane exchange. Various environmental parameters appear to be related to methane emissions (including soil moisture, soil and air temperature and wind direction), but the scatter with respect to half hourly methane fluxes is too large to be useful for gap modeling. Analysis of daily averages reduces the scatter, but since methane exchange exhibits considerable daily variation, daily averages are not useful to fill data gaps of half hourly fluxes. In consequence, as the daily course is the summary result of all environmental parameters having influence on the methane exchange at the half-hour time scale of the measurements, the ensemble mean diurnal variation method over a suitable number of days is considered the most practical choice of gap filling method for methane fluxes at Schechenfilz site for estimating daily and annual sums. Overall, the annual CO2 uptake is estimated at a magnitude between -50 and -80 g C m-2 a-1, whereas the annual methane emissions are estimated to be about +6 g C m-2 a-1. Since N2O emissions can be neglected at natural peatland sites, the natural bog-pine ecosystem Schechenfilz is indicated to be a weak net sink of greenhouse gases in the past year, even if the higher global warming potential of methane is considered.

  19. Dry deposition module for regional acid deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Sheih, C.M.; Wesely, M.L.; Walcek, C.J.

    1986-07-01

    Methods to compute surface dry-deposition velocities for sulfur dioxide, sulfate, ozone, NO plus NO/sub 2/, and nitric acid vapor over much of the North American continent were developed for use with atmospheric numerical models of long-range transport and deposition. The resulting dry-deposition module, actually a FORTRAN subroutine and a landuse map, was designed for use with Eulerian models but can also produce maps and averages of deposition velocities for other types of models. The module provides much of the data required to compute deposition velocities: a computerized landuse map, surface roughnesses keyed to landuse type and season, and similarly keyed surface resistances of pollutant uptake.

  20. Uraniferous Phosphates: Resource, Security Risk, or Contaminant

    SciTech Connect

    LeMone, D.V.; Goodell, Ph.C.; Gibbs, S.G.; Winston, J.W.

    2008-07-01

    The escalation of the price of uranium (U) yellow cake (summer high = $130/0.454 kg (lb) has called into question the continuing availability of sufficient stockpiles and ores to process. As was developed during the years following World War II, the establishment and maintenance of a strategic inventory is a reasonable consideration for today. Therefore, it becomes critical to look at potential secondary resources beyond the classical ore suites now being utilized. The most economically viable future secondary source seems to be the byproducts of the beneficiation of phosphoric acids derived from phosphate ores. Phosphorous (P) is an essential nutrient for plants; its deficiency can result in highly restrictive limitations in crop productivity. Acidic soils in tropical and subtropical regions of the world are often P deficient with high P-sorption (fixation) capacities. To correct this deficiency, efficient water-soluble P fertilizers are required. The use of raw phosphate rocks not only adds phosphate but also its contained contaminants, including uranium to the treated land. Another immediate difficulty is phosphogypsum, the standard byproduct of simple extraction. It, for practical purposes, has been selectively classified as TENORM by regulators. The imposition of these standards presents major current and future disposal and re-utilization problems. Therefore, establishing an economically viable system that allows for uranium byproduct extraction from phosphoric acids is desirable. Such a system would be dependent on yellow cake base price stability, reserve estimates, political conditions, nation-state commitment, and dependence on nuclear energy. The accumulation of yellow cake from the additional extraction process provides a valuable commodity and allows the end acid to be a more environmentally acceptable product. The phosphogypsum already accumulated, as well as that which is in process, will not make a viable component for a radiation disposal devise (RDD). Concern for weapon proliferation by rogue nation states from the byproduct production of yellowcake is an unlikely scenario. To extract the fissile U-235 (0.07%) isotope from the yellowcake (99.3%) requires the erection of a costly major gaseous diffusion or a cascading centrifuge facility. Such a facility would be extremely difficult to mask. Therefore, from a diminished security risk and positive economic and environmental viewpoints, the utilization of a phosphoric acid beneficiation process extracting uranium is desirable. (authors)

  1. Snow Accumulation and Spring Melt Rates of Bogs and Fens in the North Granny Creek Catchment Basin, Hudson Bay Lowlands, Ontario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, C. F.; Price, J. S.

    2009-05-01

    The Hudson Bay Lowlands contain one of the most extensive, contiguous peatland complexes in the world. Interlinked patterned peatlands developed in this region because of the cool climate, low-gradient topography and an underlying layer of low conductivity marine sediments. There is currently little research regarding the mechanisms that control runoff and surface water connectivity in this region, especially the functions of different peatland types on runoff production and flow pathways. Runoff generation in these systems is dependent on several factors such as soil and pool storage capacity, snow accumulation and melt rates, and peatland morphometry. Snowmelt accounts for a major portion of total annual runoff in this region and the timing of the melt will determine effective runoff production from a peatland catchment. One of the objectives of this project is to identify the processes and mechanisms that generate spring snowmelt runoff in different peatland types (i.e. bogs and fens) and quantify the relative contribution of each type in a peatland-dominated catchment basin. This research is being conducted in a 30 km2 catchment basin located near the DeBeers Victor diamond mine, located 90 km west of Attawapiskat, Ontario. The North Granny Creek basin is located approximately 3 km from the mine pit and is comprised of several peatland types and forms. The surface hydrology of this area is expected to be affected by groundwater depressurization due to dewatering of the mine pit by deep groundwater pumping wells. Effects of this activity on surface hydrology could possibly include increased soil storage capacity due to drier conditions and decreased melt rates due to reduced inputs of warm groundwater. Surface water connectivity is usually at a maximum in the spring because of a relatively impermeable frost table and low soil storage capacity which reduces infiltration. These effects of melt will not be observed uniformly over the entire catchment because of the differing hydrological properties of peatland types. Fens are expected to experience melt quicker than bogs and will receive and convey most of the runoff waters. Snow survey data from the springs of 2008 and 2009 coupled with stream discharge measurements will be used to determine the characteristics of different peatland types that control snow accumulation, melt rates and runoff production and their respective contributions. Since it is expected that the surface hydrology of this area will change over time because of groundwater depressurization it is important to develop a base line characterization of runoff generation and flowpaths within and between peatland types. An examination of snow accumulation and melt characteristics is necessary in northern peatland complexes to fully understand the response of these environments to changes in hydrology.

  2. Ages of 24 widespread tephras erupted since 30,000 years ago in New Zealand, with re-evaluation of the timing and palaeoclimatic implications of the Lateglacial cool episode recorded at Kaipo bog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowe, David J.; Blaauw, Maarten; Hogg, Alan G.; Newnham, Rewi M.

    2013-08-01

    Tephras are important for the NZ-INTIMATE project because they link all three records comprising the composite inter-regional stratotype developed for the New Zealand climate event stratigraphy (NZ-CES). Here we firstly report new calendar ages for 24 widespread marker tephras erupted since 30,000 calendar (cal.) years ago in New Zealand to help facilitate their use as chronostratigraphic dating tools for the NZ-CES and for other palaeoenvironmental and geological applications. The selected tephras comprise 12 rhyolitic tephras from Taupo, nine rhyolitic tephras from Okataina, one peralkaline rhyolitic tephra from Tuhua, and one andesitic tephra each from Tongariro and Egmont/Taranaki volcanic centres. Age models for the tephras were obtained using three methods: (i) 14C-based wiggle-match dating of wood from trees killed by volcanic eruptions (these dates published previously); (ii) flexible depositional modelling of a high-resolution 14C-dated age-depth sequence at Kaipo bog using two Bayesian-based modelling programs, Bacon and OxCal's P_Sequence function, and the IntCal09 data set (with SH offset correction -44 17 yr); and (iii) calibration of 14C ages using OxCal's Tau_Boundary function and the SHCal04 and IntCal09 data sets. Our preferred dates or calibrated ages for the 24 tephras are as follows (youngest to oldest, all mid-point or mean ages of 95% probability ranges): Kaharoa AD 1314 12; Taupo (Unit Y) AD 232 10; Mapara (Unit X) 2059 118 cal. yr BP; Whakaipo (Unit V) 2800 60 cal. yr BP; Waimihia (Unit S) 3401 108 cal. yr BP; Stent (Unit Q) 4322 112 cal. yr BP; Unit K 5111 210 cal. yr BP; Whakatane 5526 145 cal. yr BP; Tuhua 6577 547 cal. yr BP; Mamaku 7940 257 cal. yr BP; Rotoma 9423 120 cal. yr BP; Opepe (Unit E) 9991 160 cal. yr BP; Poronui (Unit C) 11,170 115 cal. yr BP; Karapiti (Unit B) 11,460 172 cal. yr BP; Okupata 11,767 192 cal. yr BP; Konini (bed b) 11,880 183 cal. yr BP; Waiohau 14,009 155 cal. yr BP; Rotorua 15,635 412 cal. yr BP; Rerewhakaaitu 17,496 462 cal. yr BP; Okareka 21,858 290 cal. yr BP; Te Rere 25,171 964 cal. yr BP; Kawakawa/Oruanui 25,358 162 cal. yr BP; Poihipi 28,446 670 cal. yr BP; and Okaia 28,621 1428 cal. yr BP. Secondly, we have re-dated the start and end of the Lateglacial cool episode (climate event NZce-3 in the NZ-CES), previously referred to as the Lateglacial climate reversal, as defined at Kaipo bog in eastern North Island, New Zealand, using both Bacon and OxCal P_Sequence modelling with the IntCal09 data set. The ca 1200-yr-long cool episode, indicated by a lithostratigraphic change in the Kaipo peat sequence to grey mud with lowered carbon content, and a high-resolution pollen-derived cooling signal, began 13,739 125 cal. yr BP and ended 12,550 140 cal. yr BP (mid-point ages of the 95% highest posterior density regions, Bacon modelling). The OxCal modelling, generating almost identical ages, confirmed these ages. The Lateglacial cool episode (ca 13.8-12.6 cal. ka BP) thus overlaps a large part of the entire Antarctic Cold Reversal chronozone (ca 14.1-12.4 cal. ka BP or ca 14.6-12.8 cal. ka BP), and an early part of the Greenland Stadial-1 (Younger Dryas) chronozone (ca 12.9-11.7 cal. ka BP). The timing of the Lateglacial cool episode at Kaipo is broadly consistent with the latitudinal patterns in the Antarctic Cold Reversal signal suggested for the New Zealand archipelago from marine and terrestrial records, and with records from southern South America.

  3. Landscape dynamics and fire activity since 6740 cal yr BP in the Cantabrian region (La Molina peat bog, Puente Viesgo, Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez-Obiol, R.; García-Codron, J. C.; Pèlachs, A.; Pérez-Haase, A.; Soriano, J. M.

    2016-03-01

    A lack of paleobotanic studies with adequate resolution and multiproxy approaches has limited proper discussion of vegetation dynamics in Cantabria and of the role of fires in the configuration of the plant landscape during the Holocene in the northwest part of the Iberian peninsula. The pollen diagram of La Molina peat bog in Puente Viesgo (43°15‧38″ N-3°58‧37″ W; ETRS89), located at 484 m.a.s.l., and the study of its sedimentary charcoals allowed the acquisition of a continuous and thorough fire sequence for the last 6700 cal yr BP and an understanding of its relationship to the forest. The results show the importance of human influence on the incidence and characteristics of fire activity during the different phases studied: the Neolithic, Bronze Age, Iron Age, Roman period, and Middle Ages. A synergy seems to exist between dry climate periods (especially during Bond events 3 and 4) and a greater presence of biomass. As the Holocene advances, vegetation coverage clearly tends to decrease. This study provides key elements for understanding the role of fire activity in the forest dynamics of deciduous and evergreen Quercus, Corylus, Pinus, Fagus, and Alnus and demonstrates the strongly artificialized character of the present landscape.

  4. How much does fluvial dissolved organic carbon export from blanket bogs vary at the regional scale? An example from the Pennine region of Yorkshire, UK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grayson, Richard; Blundell, Antony; Holden, Joseph

    2014-05-01

    Often only one or a very small number of stream sampling points are used to infer wider regional export of fluvial carbon from peatlands. However, we suggest that the amount of fluvial carbon being exported varies enormously within regions even when blanket peat is the dominant land cover type. Here we present results from an extensive and comprehensive monitoring project covering blanket peat dominated catchments across the Pennine region of the UK using data from 2006 onwards. Up to the start of January 2014 the dataset contained dissolved organic carbon (DOC) data for approximately 11500 stream water samples (both routine spot samples and storm event samples). The majority of these DOC measurements also have associated UV-Vis absorbance data allowing an insight into the composition of the DOC present, specifically the dominance of humic versus fulvic acids and the degree of aromaticity (SUVA254). Additional data to support interpretation of the regional variability of DOC includes particulate organic carbon, discharge, pH, conductivity and turbidity, water table depth, soil water chemistry and meteorological data. We provide an unparalleled insight into the spatial and temporal variability of DOC in a region of blanket bogs showing how catchment attributes influence fluvial DOC, how there are hotspots of DOC production and how high flow events regulating DOC export and its composition.

  5. Deposition head for laser

    DOEpatents

    Lewis, Gary K. (Los Alamos, NM); Less, Richard M. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1999-01-01

    A deposition head for use as a part of apparatus for forming articles from materials in particulate form in which the materials are melted by a laser beam and deposited at points along a tool path to form an article of the desired shape and dimensions. The deposition head delivers the laser beam and powder to a deposition zone, which is formed at the tip of the deposition head. A controller comprised of a digital computer directs movement of the deposition zone along the tool path and provides control signals to adjust apparatus functions, such as the speed at which the deposition head moves along the tool path.

  6. Origin and depositional environment of clastic deposits in the Hilo drill hole, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beeson, M.H.; Clague, D.A.; Lockwood, J.P.

    1996-01-01

    Volcaniclastic units cored at depths of about 87, 164, 178, 226, and 246 m below sea level and carbonate units located between depths of 27 and 53 m below sea level in the Hilo drill core were found to be deposited at or near sea level. Four of these units are hydroclastic deposits, formed when subaerially erupted Mauna Loa lava flows entered the ocean and fragmented to produce quenched, glassy fragments during hydrovolcanic explosions. Ash units 24 and 26, at 178 m depth, accumulated at sea level in a freshwater bog. They contain pyroxenes crystallized from tholeiitic magma that we infer erupted explosively at the summit of Kilauea volcano. Two carbon-rich layers from these ashes have a weighted average radiocarbon age of 38.6 ?? 0.9 ka; the ashes probably correlate with the oldest and thickest part of the Pahala ash. Ash unit 44, at the transition from Mauna Kea to Mauna Loa lava flows, was probably nearly 3.2 m thick and is inferred to be equivalent to the lower thick part of the composite Homelani ash mapped in Hilo and on the flanks of Mauna Kea. The age of this part of Homelani ash is between 128 ?? 33 and 200 ?? 10 ka; it may have erupted subglacially during the Pohakuloa glacial maxima on Mauna Kea. Beach sand units 12 and 22 were derived from nearby Mauna Loa and Mauna Kea lava flows. The middle of beach sand unit 38 was derived mainly from lava erupted near the distal end of the subaerial east rift zone of Kilauea volcano; these sands were transported about 33 km northwest to Hilo Bay by prevailing longshore currents. Combined age, depth, and sea level markers in the core allow us to determine that lava flow recurrence intervals averaged one flow every 4 kyr during the past 86 kyr and one flow every 16 kyr between 86 and 200 ka at the drill site and that major explosive eruptions that deposit thick ash in Hilo have occurred only twice in the last 400 kyr. These recurrence intervals support the moderate lava flow hazard zonation (zone 3) for coastal Hilo previously determined from surficial mapping.

  7. Paleontological analysis of a lacustrine carbonaceous uranium deposit at the Anderson mine, Date Creek basin, west-central Arizona (U.S.A.)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Otton, J.K.; Bradbury, J.P.; Forester, R.M.; Hanley, J.H.

    1990-01-01

    The Tertiary sedimentary sequence of the Date Creek basin area of Arizona is composed principally of intertonguing alluvial-fan and lacustrine deposits. The lacustrine rocks contain large intermediate- to, locally, high-grade uranium deposits that form one of the largest uranium resources in the United States (an estimated 670,000 tons of U3O8 at an average grade of 0.023% is indicated by drilling to date). At the Anderson mine, about 50,000 tons of U3O8 occurs in lacustrine carbonaceous siltstones and mudstones (using a cutoff grade of 0.01%). The Anderson mine constitutes a new class of ore deposit, a lacustrine carbonaceous uranium deposit. Floral and faunal remains at the Anderson mine played a critical role in creating and documenting conditions necessary for uranium mineralization. Organic-rich, uraniferous rocks at the Anderson mine contain plant remains and ostracodes having remarkably detailed preservation of internal features because of infilling by opaline silica. This preservation suggests that the alkaline lake waters in the mine area contained high concentrations of dissolved silica and that silicification occurred rapidly, before compaction or cementation of the enclosing sediment. Uranium coprecipitated with the silica. Thinly laminated, dark-colored, siliceous beds contain centric diatoms preserved with carbonaceous material suggesting that lake waters at the mine were locally deep and anoxic. These alkaline, silica-charged waters and a stagnant, anoxic environment in parts of the lake were necessary conditions for the precipitation of large amounts of uranium in the lake-bottom sediments. Sediments at the Anderson mine contain plant remains and pollen that were derived from diverse vegetative zones suggesting about 1500 m of relief in the area at the time of deposition. The pollen suggests that the valley floor was semiarid and subtropical, whereas nearby mountains supported temperate deciduous forests. ?? 1990.

  8. Peat Bog Wildfire Smoke Exposure in Rural North Carolina Is Associated with Cardiopulmonary Emergency Department Visits Assessed through Syndromic Surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Stone, Susan L.; Cascio, Wayne E.; Neas, Lucas M.; Kilaru, Vasu J.; Carraway, Martha Sue; Szykman, James J.; Ising, Amy; Cleve, William E.; Meredith, John T.; Vaughan-Batten, Heather; Deyneka, Lana; Devlin, Robert B.

    2011-01-01

    Background: In June 2008, burning peat deposits produced haze and air pollution far in excess of National Ambient Air Quality Standards, encroaching on rural communities of eastern North Carolina. Although the association of mortality and morbidity with exposure to urban air pollution is well established, the health effects associated with exposure to wildfire emissions are less well understood. Objective: We investigated the effects of exposure on cardiorespiratory outcomes in the population affected by the fire. Methods: We performed a population-based study using emergency department (ED) visits reported through the syndromic surveillance program NC DETECT (North Carolina Disease Event Tracking and Epidemiologic Collection Tool). We used aerosol optical depth measured by a satellite to determine a high-exposure window and distinguish counties most impacted by the dense smoke plume from surrounding referent counties. Poisson log-linear regression with a 5-day distributed lag was used to estimate changes in the cumulative relative risk (RR). Results: In the exposed counties, significant increases in cumulative RR for asthma [1.65 (95% confidence interval, 1.25–2.1)], chronic obstructive pulmonary disease [1.73 (1.06–2.83)], and pneumonia and acute bronchitis [1.59 (1.07–2.34)] were observed. ED visits associated with cardiopulmonary symptoms [1.23 (1.06–1.43)] and heart failure [1.37 (1.01–1.85)] were also significantly increased. Conclusions: Satellite data and syndromic surveillance were combined to assess the health impacts of wildfire smoke in rural counties with sparse air-quality monitoring. This is the first study to demonstrate both respiratory and cardiac effects after brief exposure to peat wildfire smoke. PMID:21705297

  9. Dissolved organic carbon in peat porewater increases with warming: a field manipulation experiment in a northern temperate bog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kane, E. S.; Mazzoleni, L. R.; Kratz, C. J.; Hribljan, J. A.; Johnson, C. P.; Pypker, T. G.; Chimner, R. A.

    2010-12-01

    Studies conducted across northern Europe and North America have shown increases in dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in lake and stream water in recent decades. While there is little consensus as to the exact mechanisms for the increases in DOC, hypotheses converge on such climate change factors as warming, increased precipitation variability, and changes in atmospheric deposition, and their effects on catchment processes. In this study, we tested the effects of warming on peat porewater composition by actively warming a peatland with infrared lamps mounted 1.24 m above the peat surface for two years. Mean growing season peat temperatures in the warmed plots (n=5) were 1.9 ± 0.4 °C warmer than the control plots at 5 cm depth (t statistic = 5.03, p = 0.007). Mean porewater DOC concentrations measured throughout the growing season were 15% higher in the warmed plots (73.9 ± 3.6 mg L-1) than in the control plots (64.1 ± 2.9 mg L-1) at 25 cm (t statistic = 3.50, p = 0.01). While total dissolved nitrogen (TDN) concentrations were not affected by the warming, changes in dissolved organic N followed the trends in DOC. DOC from the warmed plots decayed nearly twice as fast as control plot DOC in 2 month laboratory incubations, and had a higher relative abundance of low molecular weight organic matter associated with cellulose and aminosugars (as determined by ultra high resolution electrospray ionization mass spectrometry). Complementary research of ecosystem C cycling at the site also showed warming increased net primary production, and together with preliminary analysis of changes in extracellular enzymes suggest that at least part of the increased DOC concentrations observed with warming was derived from microbial/plant interactions in the rhizosphere.

  10. Handbook on surficial uranium deposits. Chapter 3. World distribution relative to climate and physical setting

    SciTech Connect

    Carlisle, D

    1983-01-01

    This chapter discusses regional controls which affect the world distribution of surficial chemogenic uranium deposits. The most important of these are (1) climate, (2) geomorphology, including physiographic and climatic stability, and (3) provenance, i.e., the weathering terrain from which uranium and associated substances are derived. The three economically important environments are the calcrete environment, simple evaporative environments and paludal environments. Of these three categories, the calcrete uranium environment is probably the most uniquely constrained in terms of regional climate, geomorphic setting, provenance (vanadium as well as uranium) and especially the need for long term stability of both climate and physiography. Purely evaporative deposits, though subject to some of the same kinds of constraints, can also reflect local circumstances and a wider range of climates, physiographic settings, and source terrains. The third category encompassing bogs, marshes and organic-rich playas can form under an even wider range of climates and settings provided only that organic materials accumulate in abundance and are contacted by uranium-bearing waters. For all of these reasons and also because of the great economic importance of the calcrete environment as well as its relative novelty and complexity the discussion in this chapter is focused on calcrete, dolocrete and gypcrete uranium deposits. Objective data are reviewed first follwed by inferences and suggestions. 13 figures.

  11. Cascadia Tsunami Deposit Database

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peters, Robert; Jaffe, Bruce; Gelfenbaum, Guy; Peterson, Curt

    2003-01-01

    The Cascadia Tsunami Deposit Database contains data on the location and sedimentological properties of tsunami deposits found along the Cascadia margin. Data have been compiled from 52 studies, documenting 59 sites from northern California to Vancouver Island, British Columbia that contain known or potential tsunami deposits. Bibliographical references are provided for all sites included in the database. Cascadia tsunami deposits are usually seen as anomalous sand layers in coastal marsh or lake sediments. The studies cited in the database use numerous criteria based on sedimentary characteristics to distinguish tsunami deposits from sand layers deposited by other processes, such as river flooding and storm surges. Several studies cited in the database contain evidence for more than one tsunami at a site. Data categories include age, thickness, layering, grainsize, and other sedimentological characteristics of Cascadia tsunami deposits. The database documents the variability observed in tsunami deposits found along the Cascadia margin.

  12. Sampling Tsunami Deposits

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Dr. Starin Fernanda, Geological Survey & Mines Bureau of Sri Lanka, preparing a trench for sampling of tsunami deposit. Leaves on the surface days or weeks after the tsunami and blanket the sand deposited by the tsunami....

  13. A 15 000-year record of climate change in northern New Mexico, USA, inferred from isotopic and elemental contents of bog sediments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cisneros-Dozal, L. M.; Heikoop, J.M.; Fessenden, J.; Anderson, R. Scott; Meyers, P.A.; Allen, C.D.; Hess, M.; Larson, T.; Perkins, G.; Rearick, M.

    2010-01-01

    Elemental (C, N, Pb) and isotopic (??13C, ??15N) measurements of cored sediment from a small bog in northern New Mexico reveal changes in climate during the Late Pleistocene and Holocene. Abrupt increases in Pb concentration and ??13C values ca. 14 420 cal. YBP indicate significant runoff to the shallow lake that existed at that time. Weathering and transport of local volcanic rocks resulted in the delivery of Pb-bearing minerals to the basin, while a 13C-enriched terrestrial vegetation source increased the ??13C values of the sedimentary material. Wet conditions developed over a 300 a period and lasted for a few hundred years. The Younger Dryas period (ca. 12 700-11 500 cal. YBP) caused a reduction in terrestrial productivity reflected in decreasing C/N values, ??15N values consistently greater than 0??? and low organic content. By contrast, aquatic productivity increased during the second half of this period, evidenced by increasing ??13C values at the time of highest abundance of algae. Dry conditions ca. 8 000-6 000 cal. YBP were characterised by low organic carbon content and high Pb concentrations, the latter suggesting enhanced erosion and aeolian transport of volcanic rock. The range in ??13C, ??15N and C/N values in the sedimentary record fall within the range of modern plants, except during the periods of runoff and drought. The sedimentary record provides evidence of natural climate variability in northern New Mexico, including short- (multi-centennial) and long-(millennial) term episodes during the Late Pleistocene and Holocene. Copyright ?? 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Ecohydrological Processes in Cutover Peatlands: The Impact of Peatland Restoration (Rewetting) on the Site Hydrology and Water Balance of an Abandoned Block-cut bog in Quebec

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ketcheson, S. J.; Price, J. S.

    2009-05-01

    Artificial drainage networks established throughout peatlands during the peat extraction process often remain active following abandonment, maintaining a water table relatively far from the surface of the peat and hindering the survival and reestablishment of Sphagnum mosses. In an effort to restore a suitable hydrological regime, the primary drainage network of an abandoned cutover peatland (the Cacouna bog) was blocked with a series of peat dams, resulting in a site-averaged water table rise of 32 cm. The components of the water balance and site hydrology were monitored over three consecutive study periods (2005-2006 prior to rewetting; 2007 following rewetting), permitting quantification of the altered hydrologic conditions due to rewetting. Following ditch blocking, runoff was reduced from 23 to 10% of precipitation during the 2005/2006 (two-year average) and 2007 seasons, respectively. The higher water table and blocked drainage network resulted in increased runoff variability, dependant upon antecedent conditions (capacity to retain additional water on-site) and event-based precipitation dynamics. Evapotranspiration (ET) remained the major water loss from the site in each year, comprising 91, 77 and 91% of total outputs during the 2005, 2006 and 2007 seasons, respectively. ET rates were 25% higher in 2007 following rewetting (3.6 mm/day), compared to pre-restoration ET rates of 2.7 mm/day during both the 2005 and 2006 study periods. Storage changes were restricted following rewetting, due to reduced runoff losses limiting water table drawdown, thereby constraining peat compression and preventing undue drying of the unsaturated zone. An average surface level rebound of 3 cm was observed, increasing the mean hydraulic conductivity by an order of magnitude. There is a need to understand the impact of site rewetting on the system hydrology, to facilitate a timely return to a functioning ecohydrological state following disturbance. The intention of this presentation is to provide an overview of the hydrological regime prior to, and following, rewetting.

  15. The effects of ecological restoration, on soil-pore water quality and DOC concentrations, on a British upland blanket bog.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qassim, Suzane; Dixon, Simon; Rowson, James; Worrall, Fred; Evans, Martin

    2013-04-01

    Polluted by past atmospheric deposition, eroded and burnt, the Bleaklow plateau (Peak district National Park, UK) has long been degraded. Peatlands are important carbon reservoirs and can act as sources or sinks of carbon. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) is carbon lost from peatlands via the fluvial pathway and as the major component of water colour it is costly to remove during water treatment processes. The Bleaklow Summit peatlands, were subjected to a large wildfire in 2003 devegetating 5.5km2. This fire prompted stakeholders to initiate a large-scale programme of restoration of the plateau. This study considered restoration techniques across four sites: all four sites were seeded with lawn grass, limed and fertilised; to raise the pH and allow establishment of vegetation. In addition to these interventions, one site also had a mulch of Calluna vulgaris applied to the surface to allow soil stabilisation and promote vegetation establishment and another site had biodegradable geojute textile mesh installed, to stabilize the steep gully surfaces. Another site had a gully block installed, to reduce peat desiccation and erosion. This study will compare the four restored sites to two types of comparators: bare soil sites where no restoration was undertaken and a naturally vegetated site unaffected by the 2003 wildfire. Each site had six replicate dipwells, installed in two groups of three. The depth to the water table was monitored and soil water samples collected for analysis, monthly for 5 years, from Nov 2006 - Jan 2012. No significant difference in DOC concentration was found between control and treated sites. There was, however, a significant difference in DOC composition between sites and over the 5 year period of monitoring. UV-vis absorbance of the samples is used to quantify the fulvic to humic components of DOC. The vegetated control was not significantly different to the bare sites; however the vegetated control had a significantly greater humic fraction of than the seeded, limed and fertilised only site, as well as the seeded, limed, C. vulgaris mulched site. This is possibly related to vegetation and litter layer establishment. A suite of water quality data (conductivity, pH and cation data) are now being analysed in combination with DOC to increase understanding of the relationship between bare site re-vegetation and DOC compositional change.

  16. Lipid D/H Ratios from Multiple Sources and Deposits Indicate Drier Little Ice Age at Washington Island (4°43`N, 160°25`W), Central Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muegler, I.; Sachse, D.; Sachs, J. P.

    2010-12-01

    To compare the sensitivity of biomarker D/H ratios from two distinct climate archives, a lake and a peat bog on the Tropical Pacific Island of Terrania, compound-specific hydrogen isotope ratios (expressed as δD values) were determined on lipid biomarkers from various biological sources deposited in the two climate archives. At present, Terrania or Washington Island (4°43`N, 160°25`W) permanently lies in the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ) and receives an annual precipitation of 2,903 mm. The interior of this lens shaped island contains a freshwater lake and peat bogs. Previous studies on the lake sediments found evidence for a substantially drier climate at times during the Little Ice Age (AD 1400-1850) based on the lithologic transition from modern freshwater sediments to a sequence of pure cyanobacterial mat in concert with δD values from total lipid extracts (Sachs et al., 2009). Here we report on δD values from lipids of various sources: dinoflagellate algae (dinosterol and a saturated C30 sterol (4α -methyl-24-ethyl-5α -cholestan-3β-ol), microbial sources (diploptene and nC21 alkane) and higher plants (fern-7-ene, β-sitosterol and stigmastanol). Mean δD values from all lipids, measured in both archives, are significantly enriched in deuterium by between 22 and 86‰ during previously inferred drier climate conditions and simultaneously record the transition towards a freshwater lake at around AD1550. Measured δD values of all lipids cover a wide range from -281‰ to -105‰ during freshwater deposition and from -185‰ to -50‰ when climate was drier. In agreement with the observed isotopic difference between lipids produced via the acetogenic and the mevalonic acid biosynthetic pathway δD values for algae and higher plant sterols are depleted in deuterium relative to the nC21 alkane by 150‰ on average. The consistent δD values from dinosterol and 4α -methyl-24-ethyl-5α -cholestan-3β-ol from the lake and peat deposits signify the robustness of these lipid δD values to indicate hydrologic changes in the sedimentary record. δD values among lipids of similar and disparate sources and/or biosynthetic origin from Washington Island lake (AD ~ 800-1550) and peat bog (AD~1200-1660) sediments are significantly enriched in deuterium prior to AD 1560/1640 and thus both suggest drier climate conditions resembling today’s environmental and depositional setting at Christmas Island which is located 300km SSE of Washington Island beyond the influence of the ITCZ.

  17. Geochronology and Fluid-Rock Interaction Associated with the Nopal I Uranium Deposit, Pena Blanca, Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    M. Fayek; P. Goodell; M. Ren; A. Simmons

    2005-07-11

    The Nopal I uranium (U) deposit, Pena Blanca District, Mexico, largely consists of secondary U{sup 6+} minerals, which occur within a breccia pipe mainly hosted by the 44 Ma Nopal and Colorados volcanic formations. These two units overly the Pozos conglomerate formation and Cretaceous limestone. Three new vertical diamond drill holes (DDHs) were recently drilled at Nopal I. DDH-PB1 with continuous core was drilled through the Nopal I deposit and two additional DDHs were drilled {approx}50 m on either side of the cored hole. These DDHs terminate 20 m below the current water table, thus allowing the detection of possible gradients in radionuclide contents resulting from transport from the overlying uranium deposit. Primary uraninite within the main ore body is rare and fine-grained ({approx}50 micrometers), thus making geochronology of the Nopal I deposit very difficult. Uranium, lead and oxygen isotopes can be used to study fluid-uraninite interaction, provided that the analyses are obtained on the micro-scale. Secondary ionization mass spectrometry (SIMS) permits in situ measurement of isotopic ratios with a spatial resolution on the scale of a few {micro}m. Preliminary U-Pb results show that uraninite from the main ore body gives an age of 32 {+-} 8 Ma, whereas uraninite from the uraniferous Pozos conglomerate that lies nearly 100 m below the main ore body and 25 meters above the water table, gives a U-Pb age that is <1 Ma. Oxygen isotopic analyses show that uraninite from the ore body has a {delta}{sup 18}O = -10.8{per_thousand}, whereas the uraninite within the Pozos conglomerate has a {delta}{sup 18}O = +1.5{per_thousand}. If it is assumed that both uraninites precipitated from meteoric water ({delta}{sup 18}O = -7{per_thousand}), then calculated precipitation temperatures are 55 C for the uraninite from the ore body and 20 C for uraninite hosted by the Pozos conglomerate. These temperatures are consistent with previous studies that calculated precipitation temperatures for clay minerals associated with uraninite.

  18. Dry deposition velocities

    SciTech Connect

    Sehmel, G.A.

    1984-03-01

    Dry deposition velocities are very difficult to predict accurately. In this article, reported values of dry deposition velocities are summarized. This summary includes values from the literature on field measurements of gas and particle dry deposition velocities, and the uncertainties inherent in extrapolating field results to predict dry deposition velocities are discussed. A new method is described for predicting dry deposition velocity using a least-squares correlation of surface mass transfer resistances evaluated in wind tunnel experiments. 14 references, 4 figures, 1 table.

  19. Biomimetic thin film deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rieke, P. C.; Campbell, A. A.; Tarasevich, B. J.; Fryxell, G. E.; Bentjen, S. B.

    1991-04-01

    Surfaces derivatized with organic functional groups were used to promote the deposition of thin films of inorganic minerals. These derivatized surfaces were designed to mimic the nucleation proteins that control mineral deposition during formation of bone, shell, and other hard tissues in living organisms. By the use of derivatized substrates control was obtained over the phase of mineral deposited, the orientation of the crystal lattice and the location of deposition. These features are of considerable importance in many technically important thin films, coatings, and composite materials. Methods of derivatizing surfaces are considered and examples of controlled mineral deposition are presented.

  20. Atmospheric deposition to forests

    SciTech Connect

    Lovett, G.M.

    1983-01-01

    The processes of wet and dry deposition in forests are described with special reference to the northeastern United States and to chemical species important in acidic deposition. For wet deposition, it is noted that background or natural pH values are probably in the range of 5 to 7, but current pH values over most of the eastern United States are less than 4.6. Both meteorological and chemical factors influence the acidity of precipitation. The best long-term data record for the northeastern United States (that of the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest in central New Hampshire) indicates no significant trend in rainfall acidity in the period of record (1964 to 1980), but the data do indicate that nitric acid has increased in importance relative to sulfuric acid in its contribution to that acidity. Deposition decreases along a southwest to northeast transect through the northeastern states. Deposition to high-elevation ecosystems is severalfold higher than deposition to nearby lowland ecosystems because of increased rain and snowfall, the effect of cloud water deposition, and possibly increased dry deposition. Theory and the few measurements available suggest particle deposition to be important for alkaline materials, such as soil dust, and gaseous deposition to be important for H/sup +/, N, and S. The importance of dry deposition relative to wet deposition increases with increasing proximity to pollution source areas. The forest canopy influences atmospheric deposition to the forest floor by taking up or releasing nutrients and strong acidity, releasing weak acidity, and trapping dry depositions. 60 references, 2 figures.

  1. Uranium and organic matters: use of pyrolysis-gas chromatography, carbon, hydrogen, and uranium contents to characterize the organic matter from sandstone-type deposits

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leventhal, Joel S.

    1979-01-01

    Organic matter seems to play an important role in the genesis of uranium deposits in sandstones in the western United States. Organic materials associated with ore from the Texas coastal plain, Tertiary basins of Wyoming, Grants mineral belt of New Mexico, and the Uravan mineral belt of Utah and Colorado vary widely in physical appearance and chemical composition. Partial characterization of organic materials is achieved by chemical analyses to determine atomic hydrogen-to-carbon (H/C) ratios and by gas chromatographic analyses to determine the molecular fragments evolved during stepwise pyrolysis. From the pyrolysis experiments the organic materials can be classified and grouped: (a) lignites from Texas and Wyoming and (b) hydrogen poor materials, from Grants and Uravan mineral belts and Wyoming; (c) naphthalene-containing materials from Grants mineral belt and Wyoming; and (d) complex and aromatic materials from Uravan, Grants and Wyoming. The organic materials analyzed have atomic H/C ratios that range from approximately 0.3 to at least 1.5. The samples with higher H/C ratios yield pyrolysis products that contain as many as 30 carbon atoms per molecule. Samples with low H/C ratios are commonly more uraniferous and yield mostly methane and low-molecular-weight gases during pyrolysis.

  2. High soil solution carbon und nitrogen concentrations in a drained Atlantic bog are reduced to natural levels by 10 yr of rewetting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frank, S.; Tiemeyer, B.; Gelbrecht, J.; Freibauer, A.

    2013-10-01

    Artificial drainage of peatlands causes dramatic changes in the release of greenhouse gases and in the export of dissolved carbon (C) and nutrients to downstream ecosystems. Rewetting anthropogenically altered peatlands offers a possibility to reduce nitrogen (N) and C losses. In this study, we investigate the impact of drainage and rewetting on the cycling of dissolved C and N as well as on dissolved gases over a period of 1 yr and 4 month, respectively. The peeper technique was used to receive a high vertical sampling resolution. Within one Atlantic bog complex a near natural site, two drained grasslands sites with different mean water table positions, and a former peat cutting area rewetted 10 yr ago were chosen. Our results clearly indicate that drainage increased the concentration of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), ammonia, nitrate and dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) compared to the near natural site. Drainage depth further determined the release and therefore the concentration level of DOC and N species, but the biochemical cycling and therefore dissolved organic matter (DOM) quality and N species composition were unaffected. Thus, especially deep drainage can cause high DOC losses. In general, DOM at drained sites was enriched in aromatic moieties as indicated by SUVA280 and showed a higher degradation status (lower DOC to DON ratio) compared to the near natural site. At the drained sites, equal C to N ratios of uppermost peat layer and DOC to DON ratio of DOM in soil solution suggest that the uppermost degraded peat layer is the main source of DOM. Nearly constant DOC to DON ratios and SUVA280 values with depth furthermore indicated that DOM moving downwards through the drained sites remained largely unchanged. DON and ammonia contributed most to the total dissolved nitrogen (TN). The subsoil concentrations of nitrate were negligible due to strong decline in nitrate around mean water table depth. Methane production during the winter months at the drained sites moved downwards to areas which were mostly water saturated over the whole year (>40 cm). Above these depths, the recovery of the water table in winter months led to the production of nitrous oxide around mean water table depth at drained sites. 10 yr after rewetting, the DOM quality (DOC to DON ratio and SUVA280) and quantity were comparable to the near natural site, indicating the re-establishment of mostly pristine biochemical processes under continuously water logged conditions. The only differences occur in elevated dissolved methane and ammonia concentrations reflecting the former disturbance by drainage and peat extraction. Rewetting via polder technique seems to be an appropriate way to revitalize peatlands on longer timescales and to improve the water quality of downstream water bodies.

  3. How do climate and human impact affect Sphagnum peatlands under oceanic-continental climatic conditions? 2000 years of fire and hydrological history of a bog in Northern Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcisz, Katarzyna; Tinner, Willy; Colombaroli, Daniele; Kołaczek, Piotr; Słowiński, Michał; Fiałkiewicz-Kozieł, Barbara; Lamentowicz, Mariusz

    2014-05-01

    Climate change affects many natural processes and the same applies to human impact For instance climate change and anthropogenic activities may cause increased fire activity or change peatland dynamics. Currently it is still unknown how Sphagnum peatlands in the oceanic-continental transition zone of Poland may respond to combined effects of heat waves, drought and fire. The aim of the study was to reconstruct the last 2000 years palaeohydrology and fire history at Linje bog in Northern Poland. The main task was to determine the drivers of fire episodes, particularly to identify climatic and anthropogenic forcing. A two-meter peat core was extracted and subsampled with a high resolution. Micro- and macroscopic charcoal analyses were applied to determine past fire activity and the results compared with palaeohydrological reconstructions based on testate amoeba analysis. Palynological human indicators were used to reconstruct human activity. A depth-age model including 20 14C dates was constructed to calculate peat accumulation rates and charcoal influx. We hypothesised that: 1) fire frequency in Northern Poland was determined by climatic conditions (combination of low precipitation and heat waves), as reflected in peatland water table, and that 2) past fire episodes in the last millennium were intensified by human activity. Furthermore climate may have influenced human activity over harvest success and the carrying capacity. Our study shows that fire was important for the studied ecosystem, however, its frequency has increased in the last millennium in concomitance with land use activities. Landscape humanization and vegetation opening were followed by a peatland drying during the Little Ice Age (from ca. AD 1380). Similarly to other palaeoecological studies from Poland, Linje peatland possessed an unstable hydrology during the Little Ice Age. Increased fire episodes appeared shortly before the Little Ice Age and most severe fires were present in the time when recorded water table was the lowest. We acknowledge the support of RE-FIRE SCIEX project 12.286 and grant PSPB-013/2010 from Switzerland through the Swiss Contribution to the enlarged European Union.

  4. Small scale soil carbon and moisture gradients in a drained peat bog grassland and their influence on CO2, CH4 and N2O fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leiber-Sauheitl, K.; Fu, R.; Freibauer, A.

    2012-04-01

    Due to the UNFCCC report requirements of each country on the emissions of greenhouse gases from key sources the joint research project "Organic Soils" was established in Germany. The project's objective is to improve the data set on greenhousegas emissions from organic soils in Germany. Within 12 German Project Catchments emissions from different types of organic soils, e.g. under different land uses and hydrological conditions, are measured. At the location "Groes Moor" near Gifhorn (Lower Saxony) the effects of small-scale soil organic carbon and groundwater level gradients on the GHG fluxes (CO2, CH4 and N2O) are quantified. The study area is located within a former peat bog altered by drainage and peat cutting, which is currently grassland under extensive agricultural use. The focus of the study is on the acquisition of CO2, CH4 and N2O fluxes on six sites via manual closed chambers. In order to calculate the annual CO2 exchange rate, values are interpolated on a 0.5 hour scale between measurement campaigns. In combination with continually logged meteorological parameters, such as the photosynthetic active radiation as well as air and soil temperatures, we calculate the daily CO2 ecosystem exchange of the different sites. During the 2011 campaign, CO2 was determined as the most important greenhouse gas. The groundwater table was the dominant variable influencing gas emissions. Another important factor was the vegetation composition. In detail, highest CO2 emissions occurred with a water table of 40-50 cm below ground level, temperatures above 10C and low plant biomass amounts. Due to the more complex formation of N2O by a number of processes, each being promoted by different soil conditions, the measurement of N2O fluxes in the field was complemented by a laboratory experiment. In this, the use of stable isotope tracer techniques enabled us to quantify the contribution of single biochemical pathways to the overall formation of N2O under controlled conditions. This together with the prediction of the systems CO2 exchange, gives valuable information on how degraded peatlands can be restored best or at least be cultivated in a way to achieve climate neutral conditions. Thus, our study improves the prediction, how peatland soils will react to changes of soil and climate conditions with respect to their greenhouse gas emissions.

  5. Revealing spatial distribution of soil organic carbon contents and stocks of a disturbed bog relict by in-situ NIR and apparent EC mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bechtold, Michel; Tiemeyer, Brbel; Don, Axel; Altdorff, Daniel; van der Kruk, Jan; Huisman, Johan A.

    2013-04-01

    Previous studies showed that in-situ visible near-infrared (vis-NIR) spectroscopy can overcome the limitations of conventional soil sampling. Costs can be reduced and spatial resolution enhanced when mapping field-scale variability of soil organic carbon (SOC). Detailed maps can help to improve SOC management and lead to better estimates of field-scale total carbon stocks. Knowledge of SOC field patterns may also help to reveal processes and factors controlling SOC variability. In this study, we apply in situ vis-NIR and apparent electrical conductivity (ECa) mapping to a disturbed bog relict. The major question of this application study was how field-scale in-situ vis-NIR mapping performs for a very heterogeneous area and under difficult grassland conditions and under highly-variable water content conditions. Past intensive peat cutting and deep ploughing in some areas, in combination with a high background heterogeneity of the underlying mineral sediments, have led to a high variability of SOC content (5.6 to 41.3 %), peat layer thickness (25 to 60 cm) and peat degradation states (from nearly fresh to amorphous). Using a field system developed by Veris Technologies (Salina KS, USA), we continuously collected vis-NIR spectra at 10 cm depth (measurement range: 350 nm to 2200 nm) over an area of around 12 ha with a line spacing of about 12 m. The system includes a set of discs for measuring ECa of the first 30 and 90 cm of the soil. The same area was also mapped with a non-invasive electro-magnetic induction (EMI) setup that provided ECa data of the first 25, 50 and 100 cm. For calibration and validation of the spatial data, we took 30 representative soil samples and 15 soil cores of about 90 cm depth, for which peat thickness, water content, pore water EC, bulk density (BD), as well as C and N content were determined for various depths. Preliminary results of the calibration of the NIR spectra to the near-surface SOC contents indicate good data quality despite the challenging site conditions. Bore hole data indicates that the peat layer is characterized by lower BD, higher pore water EC, higher SOC content, and higher water contents compared to the underlying mineral sediments. This ECa contrast at the peat-sand interface is promising for using the various ECa investigation depths as predictors for peat thickness. Preliminary EMI results also show a correlation between ECa and SOC content, most strongly for the 25 cm EMI signal. We evaluate how vis-NIR and ECa data can be used in a joined approach to estimate SOC content as well as SOC stock distribution.

  6. Age models for peat deposits on the basis of coupled lead-210 and radiocarbon data.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piotrowska, Natalia; de Vleeschouwer, François; Sikorski, Jarosław; Sensuła, Barbara; Michczyński, Adam; Fiałkiewicz-Kozieł, Barbara; Palowski, Bernard

    2010-05-01

    The study presents three examples of age-model construction based on the results of 210Pb and 14C dating methods applied to peat deposits. The three sites are ombrotrophic peat bogs: the Misten (Belgium), Slowinskie Bloto (N Poland) and Puscizna Mala (S Poland). All sites have been subjected to multiproxy studies aimed at reconstructing paleoenvironment and human activity, covering the last 1500, 1300 and 1800 years, respectively (De Vleeschouwer et al. 2009A, 2009B, in prep., Fialkiewicz-Koziel, ongoing PhD). A detailed comparison between 210Pb and post-bomb 14C results in the Misten bog has also been carried out by Piotrowska et al. (2009). In all cores, the 210Pb activity was calculated using 210Po and 208Po activities after acid-extraction from bulk samples, subsequent deposition on silver discs and measurements by alpha spectrometry. Unsupported 210Pb was detected until 35cm in Slowinskie Bloto, 15cm in the Misten and 19cm in Puscizna Mala. Constant Rate of Supply (CRS) model was then applied to compute ages of each 1-cm core interval. For the Misten and Slowinskie Bloto, radiocarbon measurements were performed on selected aboveground plant macrofossils, mainly Sphagnum spp. or Calluna vulgaris, Erica tetralix, and Andromeda polyfolia. Radiocarbon ages were determined using accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) after acid-alkali-acid wash, combustion, purification of carbon dioxide and graphitisation. For Puscizna Mala bulk samples were dated after chemical preparation of benzene for liquid scintillation counting (LSC) or CO2 for gas proportional counting (GPC). Radiocarbon calibration was undertaken using the Intcal04 calibration curve and OxCal 4 software. As a priori information the 210Pb-derived ages were used in a P_Sequence model (Bronk Ramsey, 2008). A number of dates characterized by low agreement with stratigraphical order had to be considered as outliers and rejected from the final age model. For building a continuous age models a non-linear approach called generalized additive model (GAM) was used, as described by Heegaard et al. (2005). The calculations were performed within each period on the middle-point of the 95.4 % range of calibrated age, while an uncertainty equal to half of this range was assumed. The results of 210Pb dating are described by Gaussian distribution and in their case 1-sigma range was used. The resulting age-depth relationships provide a mean age and an age range for each 1-cm thick slice of peat, and allows for calculation of sedimentation rates. This study highlights some important issues connected with radiocarbon dating of peat sequences. Commonly known problems are wide ranges of calibrated ages caused by wiggles in calibration curve for the period just beyond the range of precise 210Pb dates, which can undoubtedly be solved by 14C-dating more samples from thinner slices. It also emphasizes the great potential of Bayesian analysis applied in radiocarbon calibration. The high suitability of coupled 210Pb-14C dating applied to dating of peat deposits was also confirmed. Bronk Ramsey C., 2008. Deposition Models for Chronological Records. Quaternary Science Reviews 27: 42-60. De Vleeschouwer F., Piotrowska N., Sikorski J., Pawlyta J., Cheburkin A., Le Roux G., Lamentowicz M., Fagel N., Mauquoy D., 2009A. Multiproxy evidences of Little Ice Age palaeoenvironmental changes in a peat bog from northern Poland. The Holocene 19,4: 625-637. De Vleeschouwer F., Fagel N., Cheburkin A., Pazdur A., Sikorski J., Mattielli N., Renson V., Fialkiewicz B., Piotrowska N., Le Roux G., 2009B. Anthropogenic impacts in North Poland over the last 1300 years and possible influence of climate on human activities. Science of the Total Environment 407: 5674-5684. De Vleeschouwer F., Luthers C., Court-Picon M., Mauquoy D., Wastiaux C., Le Roux G., Moschen R., Pawlyta J., Pazdur A., Sikorski J., Piotrowska N. In preparation. Multiproxy paleoenvironmental study in the Misten bog (East Belgium) during the last millenium. To be submitted in Quaternary International in June 2010. De Vleeschouwer F., Fagel N. Sikorski J., 2010. Development of lead 210 measurement in peat using polonium extraction. A comparison of techniques. Submitted to Geochronometria. Heegaard E., Birks H.J.B. and Telford R.J., 2005. Relationships between calibrated ages and depth in stratigraphical sequences: an estimation procedure by mixed-effect regression. The Holocene 15: 612-618. Piotrowska N., De Vleeschouwer F., Sikorski J., Pawlyta J., Fagel N., Le Roux G., Pazdur A., 2009. Intercomparison of radiocarbon bomb pulse and 210Pb age models. A study in a peat bog core from North Poland. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B, document DOI: 10.1016/j.nimb.2009.10.124 (in print, accepted proofs).

  7. Anastomosed river deposits, sedimentation rates, basin subsidence and locations in proximal molasse basins

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D.G.

    1984-07-01

    Recent research on large sized modern anastomosing river systems (upper Columbia River, British Columbia, Canada, and Magdalena River, Colombia, South America) has recognized six depositional environments: channel, levee, crevasse-splay, lacustrine, marsh, and peat bog or swamp. Average sedimentation rates in both river systems are 5 mm/yr and 3.8 mm/yr, respectively. Such rapid sedimentation rates (vertical accretion) are keeping pace with equivalent rates of basin subsidence. High rates of sedimentation and basin subsidence are most likely to be found at proximal locations in molasse basins during major orogenic pulses. Such conditions were present during the Columbian and Laramide orogenies during the early Cretaceous and Tertiary in the foreland adjacent to the Rocky Mountain system. Thus, channel and crevasse-splay shale-encased sandstone reservoirs and coal, common in anastomosed fluvial rock sequences in proximal molasse settings, should be encountered in parts of the Western Interior sedimentary basin. Such deposits probably have been interpreted as deltaic or alluvial plain and should be reexamined to better predict sandstone trends for hydrocarbon exploration.

  8. Radionuclide deposition control

    DOEpatents

    Brehm, William F. (Richland, WA); McGuire, Joseph C. (Richland, WA)

    1980-01-01

    The deposition of radionuclides manganese-54, cobalt-58 and cobalt-60 from liquid sodium coolant is controlled by providing surfaces of nickel or high nickel alloys to extract the radionuclides from the liquid sodium, and by providing surfaces of tungsten, molybdenum or tantalum to prevent or retard radionuclide deposition.

  9. Alternative fuel deposit formation

    SciTech Connect

    TeVelde, J.; Spadaccini, L.J.; Szetela, E.J.; Glickstein, M.R.

    1984-01-01

    A heated-tube apparatus was used to evaluate the deposit formation rates of four liquid hydrocarbon fuels and to determine the effect fuel deposits have on the heat transfer characteristics of aircraft gas turbine fuel systems. The fuels tested were: a low- aromatic JP-5, a blend of 80 percent JP-5 20 percent hydrocracked gas oil, a blend of 50 percent JP-5 and 50 percent No. 2 heating oil, and a shale derived JP-5. Deposit formation rates ranging from 10 microgram/sq cm hr to 3000 microgram/sq cm hr were obtained at tube wall temperatures ranging from 480 K to 800 K, with peak formation rates occurring at initial surface temperatures of 644 K to 672 K. Results indicate that deposit formation rate correlates very well with initial surface temperature and the thermal stability rankings derived from present experimental results agree very well with rankings based upon independent JFTOT analysis. The deposit thermal resistance, as calculated from heat transfer measurements, correlates well with measured deposit quantity and thickness. Heat transfer analyses indicate that the deposit thermal conductivity increases with increasing deposit thickness, and ranges from values approximating the thermal conductivity of the fuel to values approaching that of amorphous carbon.

  10. Solution deposition assembly

    DOEpatents

    Roussillon, Yann; Scholz, Jeremy H; Shelton, Addison; Green, Geoff T; Utthachoo, Piyaphant

    2014-01-21

    Methods and devices are provided for improved deposition systems. In one embodiment of the present invention, a deposition system is provided for use with a solution and a substrate. The system comprises of a solution deposition apparatus; at least one heating chamber, at least one assembly for holding a solution over the substrate; and a substrate curling apparatus for curling at least one edge of the substrate to define a zone capable of containing a volume of the solution over the substrate. In another embodiment of the present invention, a deposition system for use with a substrate, the system comprising a solution deposition apparatus; at heating chamber; and at least assembly for holding solution over the substrate to allow for a depth of at least about 0.5 microns to 10 mm.

  11. Biomimetic thin film deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Rieke, P.R.; Graff, G.E.; Campbell, A.A.; Bunker, B.C.; Baskaran, S.; Song, L.; Tarasevich, B.J.; Fryxell, G.E.

    1995-09-01

    Biological mineral deposition for the formation of bone, mollusk shell and other hard tissues provides materials scientists with illustrative materials processing strategies. This presentation will review the key features of biomineralization and how these features can be of technical importance. We have adapted existing knowledge of biomineralization to develop a unique method of depositing inorganic thin films and coating. Our approach to thin film deposition is to modify substrate surfaces to imitate the proteins found in nature that are responsible for controlling mineral deposition. These biomimetic surfaces control the nucleation and growth of the mineral from a supersaturated aqueous solution. This has many processing advantages including simple processing equipment, environmentally benign reagents, uniform coating of highly complex shapes, and enhanced adherence of coating. Many different types of metal oxide, hydroxide, sulfide and phosphate materials with useful mechanical, optical, electronic and biomedical properties can be deposited.

  12. Tsunami Deposit Data Base

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keating, B. H.; Wanink, M.

    2007-05-01

    A digital database has been established describing tsunami deposits around the world (3 phases; 15 months). The projects involved the review and tabulation of data derived from books, catalogs, journals, preprints, citations and abstracts (currently 1000 references), into a database designed to provide a comprehensive review of the types of tsunami deposits, their geographic distribution and location, sedimentary characteristics, fossil content, age, preservation, run-up, wave height and inundation observations, etc. (34 parameters). The tsunami occurrences can be divided into many subjects, e.g., Volcanogenic (N=375), Seismites (N=49), Co-seismic (N=258), K/T Boundary Impact-triggered debris flows (N=97), Landslides (N=43), etc. Numerous publications compare tsunami deposits to storm deposits (N=38), or analyze the origin of megaboulders (N=22). Tsunami deposits occur throughout geologic time (Pre-Cambrian to present day), and because of plate tectonics, they occur along plate margins (primarily subduction zones) as well as interior to plates. In addition, they occur in epi-continental seas, fjords, etc. Few publications describe depositional processes. Deposits generated by tsunamis occur in multiple environments such as the marine, fresh water, and subaerial. Common characteristics of tsunami deposits include: 1) Deposition of thin sand sheets (can be normal, massive, inversely graded, chaotic or bimodal). 2) Erosional: basal uncomformity, mud balls, rip-up clasts, reworked fossils produced by scouring. 3) Lithology: Stacks of couplets reflecting marine incursions (often sands) into fresh water or subaerial environments (mud, soil, peat). 4) Fossil: Couplets reflects marine fossils, fresh water fossils or a mixed assemblage. 5) Geomorphology: The sand sheets taper landward and can rise in elevation. 6) Deformation: syn-depositional (soft sediments) and intraformational (stiff sediments).

  13. High soil solution carbon and nitrogen concentrations in a drained Atlantic bog are reduced to natural levels by 10 years of rewetting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frank, S.; Tiemeyer, B.; Gelbrecht, J.; Freibauer, A.

    2014-04-01

    Anthropogenic drainage of peatlands releases additional greenhouse gases to the atmosphere, and dissolved carbon (C) and nutrients to downstream ecosystems. Rewetting drained peatlands offers a possibility to reduce nitrogen (N) and C losses. In this study, we investigate the impact of drainage and rewetting on the cycling of dissolved C and N as well as on dissolved gases, over a period of 1 year and a period of 4 months. We chose four sites within one Atlantic bog complex: a near-natural site, two drained grasslands with different mean groundwater levels and a former peat cutting area rewetted 10 years ago. Our results clearly indicate that long-term drainage has increased the concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), ammonium, nitrate and dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) compared to the near-natural site. DON and ammonium contributed the most to the total dissolved nitrogen. Nitrate concentrations below the mean groundwater table were negligible. The concentrations of DOC and N species increased with drainage depth. In the deeply-drained grassland, with a mean annual water table of 45 cm below surface, DOC concentrations were twice as high as in the partially rewetted grassland with a mean annual water table of 28 cm below surface. The deeply drained grassland had some of the highest-ever observed DOC concentrations of 195.8 ± 77.3 mg L-1 with maximum values of >400 mg L-1. In general, dissolved organic matter (DOM) at the drained sites was enriched in aromatic moieties and showed a higher degradation status (lower DOC to DON ratio) compared to the near-natural site. At the drained sites, the C to N ratios of the uppermost peat layer were the same as of DOM in the peat profile. This suggests that the uppermost degraded peat layer is the main source of DOM. Nearly constant DOM quality through the profile furthermore indicated that DOM moving downwards through the drained sites remained largely biogeochemically unchanged. Unlike DOM concentration, DOM quality and dissolved N species distribution were similar in the two grasslands and thus unaffected by the drainage depth. Methane production during the winter months at the drained sites was limited to the subsoil, which was quasi-permanently water saturated. The recovery of the water table in the winter months led to the production of nitrous oxide around mean water table depth at the drained sites. The rewetted and the near-natural site had comparable DOM quantity and quality (DOC to DON ratio and aromaticity). 10 years after rewetting quasi-pristine biogeochemical conditions have been re-established under continuously water logged conditions in the former peat cut area. Only the elevated dissolved methane and ammonium concentrations reflected the former disturbance by drainage and peat extraction. Rewetting via polder technique seems to be an appropriate way to revitalize peatlands on longer timescales and to improve the water quality of downstream water bodies.

  14. Deposition times in the northeastern United States during the Holocene: establishing valid priors for Bayesian age models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goring, S.; Williams, J. W.; Blois, J. L.; Jackson, S. T.; Paciorek, C. J.; Booth, R. K.; Marlon, J. R.; Blaauw, M.; Christen, J. A.

    2012-08-01

    Age-depth relationships in sedimentary archives such as lakes, wetlands and bogs are non-linear with irregular probability distributions associated with calibrated radiocarbon dates. Bayesian approaches are thus well-suited to understanding relationships between age and depth for use in paleoecological studies. Bayesian models for the accumulation of sediment and organic matter within basins combine dated material from one or more records with prior information about the behavior of deposition times (yr/cm) based on expert knowledge. Well-informed priors are essential to good modeling of the age-depth relationship, but are particularly important in cases where data may be sparse (e.g., few radiocarbon dates), or unclear (e.g., age-reversals, coincident dates, age offsets, outliers and dates within a radiocarbon plateau). Here we assessed Holocene deposition times using 204 age-depth models obtained from the Neotoma Paleoecology Database (www.neotomadb.org) for both lacustrine and palustrine environments across the northeastern United States. These age-depth models were augmented using biostratigraphic events identifiable within pollen records from the northeastern United States during the Holocene and late-Pleistocene. Deposition times are significantly related to depositional environment (palustrine and lacustrine), sediment age, and sediment depth. Spatial variables had non-significant relationships with deposition time when site effects were considered. The best-fit model was a generalized additive mixed model that relates deposition time to age, stratified by depositional environment with site as a random factor. The best-fit model accounts for 63.3% of the total deviance in deposition times. The strongly increasing accumulation rates of the last 500-1000 years indicate that gamma distributions describing lacustrine deposition times (? = 1.08, ? = 18.28) and palustrine deposition times (? = 1.23, ? = 22.32) for the entire Holocene may be insufficient for Bayesian approaches since there is strong variation in the gamma parameters both in the most recent sediments and throughout the Holocene. Time-averaged gamma distributions for lacustrine (? = 1.35, ? = 19.64) and palustrine samples (? = 1.40, ? = 20.72) show lower overall deposition times, but variability remains. The variation in gamma parameters through time may require the use of multiple gamma distributions during the Holocene to generate accurate age-depth models. We present estimates of gamma parameters for deposition times at 1000 yr intervals. The parameters generated in this study can be used directly within Bacon to act as Bayesian priors for sedimentary age models.

  15. World oil shale deposits

    SciTech Connect

    Hook, C.O.; Russell, P.L.

    1982-01-01

    The article estimates resources in-place and their oil equivalent. The major deposits are described in the U.S., Australia, USSR, Peoples Republic of China, Morocco, Israel, Jordan, Syria, Europe and South America. 2 refs.

  16. Chemical vapor deposition growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruth, R. P.; Manasevit, H. M.; Kenty, J. L.; Moudy, L. A.; Simpson, W. I.; Yang, J. J.

    1976-01-01

    A chemical vapor deposition (CVD) reactor system with a vertical deposition chamber was used for the growth of Si films on glass, glass-ceramic, and polycrystalline ceramic substrates. Silicon vapor was produced by pyrolysis of SiH4 in a H2 or He carrier gas. Preliminary deposition experiments with two of the available glasses were not encouraging. Moderately encouraging results, however, were obtained with fired polycrystalline alumina substrates, which were used for Si deposition at temperatures above 1,000 C. The surfaces of both the substrates and the films were characterized by X-ray diffraction, reflection electron diffraction, scanning electron microscopy optical microscopy, and surface profilometric techniques. Several experiments were conducted to establish baseline performance data for the reactor system, including temperature distributions on the sample pedestal, effects of carrier gas flow rate on temperature and film thickness, and Si film growth rate as a function of temperature.

  17. Becquerel Crater Deposit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 28 May 2002) The finely layered deposit in Becquerel crater, seen in the center of this THEMIS image, is slowly being eroded away by the action of windblown sand. Dark sand from a source north of the bright deposit is collecting along its northern edge, forming impressive barchan style dunes. These vaguely boomerang-shaped dunes form with their two points extending in the downwind direction, demonstrating that the winds capable of moving sand grains come from the north. Grains that leave the dunes climb the eroding stair-stepped layers, collecting along the cliff faces before reaching the crest of the deposit. Once there, the sand grains are unimpeded and continue down the south side of the deposit without any significant accumulation until they fall off the steep cliffs of the southern margin. The boat-hull shaped mounds and ridges of bright material called yardangs form in response to the scouring action of the migrating sand. To the west, the deposit has thinned enough that the barchan dunes extend well into the deeply eroded north-south trending canyons. Sand that reaches the south side collects and reforms barchan dunes with the same orientation as those on the north side of the deposit. Note the abrupt transition between the bright material and the dark crater floor on the southern margin. Steep cliffs are present with no indication of rubble from the obvious erosion that produced them. The lack of debris at the base of the cliffs is evidence that the bright material is readily broken up into particles that can be transported away by the wind. The geological processes that are destroying the Becquerel crater deposit appear active today. But it is also possible that they are dormant, awaiting a particular set of climatic conditions that produces the right winds and perhaps even temperatures to allow the erosion to continue.

  18. Peat deposits in Panama: Their potential for use in energy applications

    SciTech Connect

    Ramirez, A.; Thayer, G.; Cohen, A.D.; Allen, A.

    1986-12-01

    A major peak bog has been discovered in the Changuinola area of Panama. The bog averages 8-m deep, is thought to be 82 km/sup 2/, in area and the peat has an ash content of about 4%. It is estimated that this size peat bog could support a 30-MW power plant for 360 years. Preliminary cost estimates for using the peat in an electrical power plant give an estimated cost of electricity of 0.09$US/kWh if wet mining is used and 0.079$US/kWh if milled peat is used. 2 refs., 4 figs.

  19. 76 FR 21265 - Interest on Deposits; Deposit Insurance Coverage

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION 12 CFR Parts 329 and 330 RIN 3064-AD78 Interest on Deposits; Deposit Insurance Coverage AGENCY: Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC). ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking (NPR) and request...

  20. Pulsed laser deposition: Prospects for commercial deposition of epitaxial films

    SciTech Connect

    Muenchausen, R.E.

    1999-03-01

    Pulsed laser deposition (PLD) is a physical vapor deposition (PVD) technique for the deposition of thin films. The vapor source is induced by the flash evaporation that occurs when a laser pulse of sufficient intensity (about 100 MW/cm{sup 2}) is absorbed by a target. In this paper the author briefly defines pulsed laser deposition, current applications, research directed at gaining a better understanding of the pulsed laser deposition process, and suggests some future directions to enable commercial applications.

  1. Venus - Landslide Deposits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The Magellan spacecraft has observed remnant landslide deposits apparently resulting from the collapse of volcanic structures. This image, centered at 45.2 degrees south latitude, 201.4 degrees east longitude, shows a collapse deposit 70 kilometers (43 miles) across. The bright, highly textured deposit near the center of the image probably consists of huge blocks of fractured volcanic rock, many as large as several hundred meters across. A remnant of the volcano itself, about 20 kilometers (12.4 miles) across, is seen at the center of the image. The distorted radar appearance of the volcano is a result of extremely steep slopes on the 'scars' from which the landslide material originated. A field of numerous small volcanic domes can be seen in the northern half of the image. The bright irregular lineaments trending to the north-northwest are ridges caused by regional tectonic deformation of the upper layers of the Venusian crust.

  2. Atmospheric N deposition and feedbacks on net ecosystem CO2 exchange at a semi-natural peatland site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurkuck, Miriam; Brmmer, Christian; Spott, Oliver; Flessa, Heinz; Kutsch, Werner L.

    2013-04-01

    Large areas of Northern Germany have been converted from natural peat bogs to arable land and were subjected to draining and peat cutting in the past. The few protected peatland areas remaining are affected by high nitrogen (N) deposition. This is the case at our study site - a semi-natural raised bog - which although located in a natural park, is surrounded by highly fertilized agricultural land and highly emitting animal husbandry farms. In this study, we use a combined approach of two independent methods to quantify atmospheric N deposition. We further investigate possible feedbacks of seasonal variation in N deposition on net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE). Fluxes of ammonia (NH3) and its atmospheric reactants are measured by a KAPS-denuder system. Additionally, total N input from the atmosphere into a soil-plant model ecosystem is investigated by a 15N dilution method called 'Integrated Total Nitrogen Input' (ITNI). With this approach, we allocate atmospheric N after its uptake by the ecosystem into its different fractions and investigate both plant-species effects (Lolium multiflorum, Eriophorum vaginatum) and influences of the plant biomass production induced by different amounts of fertilizer addition. Continuous eddy-covariance measurements are carried out to measure NEE. Maximum NH3 depositions of 0.41 0.04 kg ha-1 week-1 were found in spring 2012. The proportion of fluxes of other N compounds such as HNO3, aerosol NH4 and NO3 was usually around 20 % of total dry N measured by KAPS denuders. In total, dry N deposition was 11.2 0.9 kg N ha-1 yr-1 over the first year of experiments. Complemented with wet N measurements using bulk samplers, total N depositions of about 25.0 kg ha-1 yr-1 were found. The mean atmospheric N uptake determined with the ITNI system was 3.99 0.82 mg N g-1 dry weight from July to October 2011. About two third of total deposited airborne N was allocated in above-ground plant biomass and roots. Upscaling of data based on pot area resulted in a total N input of 24.06 3.55 kg N ha-1 yr-1 into the ITNI system. Cumulative NEE was about -241 g C m-2 yr-1 for the first year of experiments with the strongest CO2 uptake being observed during spring and early summer. During winter, photosynthesis slightly exceeded respiration. Our results show that the critical load of N deposition for peatlands (~5 kg N ha-1 yr-1) is fivefold exceeded. Most likely, the intensive agricultural land management of the surrounding areas leads to this high N deposition into the protected peatland area. Future changes in plant species composition and the local hydrological regime cannot be excluded. A link between N input and comparatively high CO2 uptake will be discussed.

  3. Atmospheric Pb deposition since the Industrial Revolution recorded by five Swiss peat profiles: Enrichment factors, fluxes, isotopic composition, and sources

    SciTech Connect

    Weiss, D.; Shotyk, W.; Kramers, J.D.; Appleby, P.G.; Cheburkin, A.K.

    1999-05-01

    Atmospheric Pb deposition since the Industrial Revolution was studied in western, central, and southern Switzerland using five rural peat bogs. Similar temporal patterns were found in western and central Switzerland, with two distinct periods of Pb enrichment relative to the natural background: between 1880 and 1920 with enrichments ranging from 40 to 80 times, and between 1960 and 1980 with enrichments ranging from 80 to 100 times. The fluxes also were generally elevated in those time periods: in western Switzerland between 1.16 and 1.55 {micro}g cm{sup {minus}2} y{sup {minus}1} during the second period. Between the Industrial Revolution and 1985, nonradiogenic Pb became increasingly important in all five cores because of the replacement of coal by oil after ca. 1920, the use of Australian Pb in industry, and the extensive combustion of leaded gasoline after 1950. The introduction of unleaded gasoline in 1985 had a pronounced effect on the Pb deposition in all five cores. Enrichments dropped sharply, and the isotopic ratios reverted back toward natural values. The cores from western and central Switzerland showed very similar isotopic trends throughout the time period studied, implying that these sites were influenced contemporaneously by similar pollution sources and atmospheric pathways. Southern Switzerland revealed a different record with respect to the Pb pollution: it was dominated by a single massive Pb enrichment dated between 1930 and 1950.

  4. Nanoparticle Deposition onto Biofilms

    PubMed Central

    Miller, J.K.; Neubig, R.; Clemons, C.B.; Kreider, K.L.; Wilber, J.P.; Young, G.W.; Ditto, A.J.; Yun, Y.H.; Milsted, A.; Badawy, H.T.; Panzner, M.J.; Youngs, W.J.; Cannon, C.L.

    2012-01-01

    We develop a mathematical model of nanoparticles depositing onto and penetrating into a biofilm grown in a parallel-plate flow cell. We carry out deposition experiments in a flow cell to support the modeling. The modeling and the experiments are motivated by the potential use of polymer nanoparticles as part of a treatment strategy for killing biofilms infecting the deep passages in the lungs. In the experiments and model, a fluid carrying polymer nanoparticles is injected into a parallel-plate flow cell in which a biofilm has grown over the bottom plate. The model consists of a system of transport equations describing the deposition and diffusion of nanoparticles. Standard asymptotic techniques that exploit the aspect ratio of the flow cell are applied to reduce the model to two coupled partial differential equations. We perform numerical simulations using the reduced model. We compare the experimental observations with the simulation results to estimate the nanoparticle sticking coefficient and the diffusion coefficient of the nanoparticles in the biofilm. The distributions of nanoparticles through the thickness of the biofilm are consistent with diffusive transport, and uniform distributions through the thickness are achieved in about four hours. Nanoparticle deposition does not appear to be strongly influenced by the flow rate in the cell for the low flow rates considered. PMID:22878680

  5. "Total Deposition (TDEP) Maps"

    EPA Science Inventory

    The presentation provides an update on the use of a hybrid methodology that relies on measured values from national monitoring networks and modeled values from CMAQ to produce of maps of total deposition for use in critical loads and other ecological assessments. Additionally, c...

  6. Calcium Pyrophosphate Deposition (CPPD)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... out whether calcium pyrophosphate crystals are present. An X-ray of the joint may help detect whether calcium-containing deposits are present in the cartilage. Doctors call this X-ray appearance chondrocalcinosis, which is almost always due to ...

  7. Injector deposits - The tip of intake system deposit problems

    SciTech Connect

    Taniguchi, B.Y.; Peyla, R.J.; Parsons, G.M.; Hoekman, S.K.; Voss, D.A.

    1986-01-01

    A comprehensive program encompassing laboratory engine, laboratory vehicle, and taxi fleet tests was undertaken to evaluate fuel variables and induction system deposits in modern spark-ignition engines. The widespread fuel injector deposit problem was the primary focus. Injector and vehicle design, driving cycle, and fuel composition were found to be major contributing factors to injector deposition. Commercial gasoline additives capable of preventing and removing injector deposits were also identified. Some of these additives control intake valve and port deposits as well, while others actually contribute to valve and port deposits.

  8. Testing the potential of bacterial branched tetraether membrane lipids as temperature proxy in peat and immature coal deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weijers, J. W. H.; Steinmann, P.; Hopmans, E. C.; Basiliko, N.; Finkelstein, S. A.; Johnson, K. R.; Schouten, S.; Sinninghe Damsté, J. S.

    2012-04-01

    Branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraether (brGDGT) membrane lipids occur ubiquitously in peat and soil. In soil, the degree of methylation and cyclisation of branched tetraethers (MBT index and CBT ratio, respectively) has shown to relate to both soil pH and annual mean air temperature (MAT). Using this relation, past annual MATs can be reconstructed by analysing brGDGTs in marine sediment records near large river outflows. More recently, the potential of this MBT/CBT proxy is also being explored in lakes. Despite being more abundant in peat than soils, however, the utility of the proxy has not yet been fully explored in peat records. Present day peat records generally extent back to the early Holocene, but if the MBT/CBT proxy were shown to be applicable in peat deposits, there is also potential to apply it to immature coal deposits like lignites, which could provide valuable snapshots of continental climate back to the early Cenozoic. Here results are presented of analyses of different peats in south eastern Canada, showing that the pH of peat along a nutrient gradient is rather well reflected by the CBT. Annual MAT reconstructions based on the MBT/CBT soil calibration, however, tend to overestimate measured MAT. This is also the case for peat analysed from the surface of Etang de la Gruère peat bog in the Swiss Jura Mountains. Along the 6m depth profile of this bog (~13ka), CBT-reconstructed pH is compared with in-situ measured pore water pH showing that the brGDGT composition does not reflect present-day in-situ conditions. Instead, it reflects a stratigraphic boundary between Carex and Sphagnum dominated peat at 4 m depth that is not present in the pore water profile, testifying to a 'fossil' nature of the brGDGTs down the peat bog. Analyses of three immature coals of the Argonne Premium Coal Series reveal that branched GDGTs are present in the most immature coal, the Beulah Zap lignite (Ro = 0.25%), and only just above detection limit in the Wyodak Anderson coal (Ro = 0.32%), both of about the same age (Late Palaeocene). In the more mature Illinois #6 coal (Ro = 0.46%), brGDGTs are completely absent. In the Denver Basin, a comparison is made between outcrop and drilled core samples of Palaeocene lignites. BrGDGTs are preserved in the core samples, although in low quantities compared to peat. Outcrop samples are clearly overprinted by modern soil derived brGDGTs, despite digging a meters deep trench, which shows the need to obtain fresh non-weathered samples by coring. Reconstructed annual MAT for both the Beulah Zap and the Denver Basin lignites are several degrees higher than estimates based on leaf margin and oxygen isotope analyses from the same sites. Both reconstructions do testify, nevertheless, to the warm continental conditions during the early Cenozoic of the central U.S.A.. Although further validation is required, potentially in the form of a specific peat calibration, these results do show potential for application of the MBT/CBT temperature proxy in peat and lignite deposits.

  9. MEASUREMENTS OF DRY DEPOSITION VELOCITY MODEL EVALUATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) nationwide network to Deposition Network dry deposition of gases and particles, the National Dry Deposition Network (NDDN), measures not deposition, but concentration of pollutants and meteorological relevant to deposition processe...

  10. Thermal spray shape deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiss, L. E.; Prinz, F. B.; Adams, D. A.; Siewiorek, D. P.

    1992-09-01

    This paper describes a new spray-forming process based on thermal spray shape deposition. Shape deposition processes build 3D shapes by incremental material buildup of thin, planar cross-sectional layers. These processes do not require preformed mandrels and can directly build 3D structures of arbitrary geometric complexity. The basis for the thermal spray approach is to spray each layer using a disposable mask that has the shape of the current cross section. Masks can be produced from paper rolls, for example, with a CO2 laser. In addition to applications for rapid prototyping, this approach makes possible the fabrication of composite structures and integrated electronic/mechanical assemblies that are not feasible with conventional manufacturing technologies.

  11. Uranium deposits of Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    1991-09-01

    Brazil is a country of vast natural resources, including numerous uranium deposits. In support of the country`s nuclear power program, Brazil has developed the most active uranium industry in South America. Brazil has one operating reactor (Angra 1, a 626-MWe PWR), and two under construction. The country`s economic challenges have slowed the progress of its nuclear program. At present, the Pocos de Caldas district is the only active uranium production. In 1990, the Cercado open-pit mine produced approximately 45 metric tons (MT) U{sub 3}O{sub 8} (100 thousand pounds). Brazil`s state-owned uranium production and processing company, Uranio do Brasil, announced it has decided to begin shifting its production from the high-cost and nearly depleted deposits at Pocos de Caldas, to lower-cost reserves at Lagoa Real. Production at Lagoa Real is schedules to begin by 1993. In addition to these two districts, Brazil has many other known uranium deposits, and as a whole, it is estimated that Brazil has over 275,000 MT U{sub 3}O{sub 8} (600 million pounds U{sub 3}O{sub 8}) in reserves.

  12. Radionuclides deposition over Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Pourchet, M; Magand, O; Frezzotti, M; Ekaykin, A; Winther, J-G

    2003-01-01

    A detailed and comprehensive map of the distribution patterns for both natural and artificial radionuclides over Antarctica has been established. This work integrates the results of several decades of international programs focusing on the analysis of natural and artificial radionuclides in snow and ice cores from this polar region. The mean value (37+/-20 Bq m(-2)) of (241)Pu total deposition over 28 stations is determined from the gamma emissions of its daughter (241)Am, presenting a long half-life (432.7 yrs). Detailed profiles and distributions of (241)Pu in ice cores make it possible to clearly distinguish between the atmospheric thermonuclear tests of the fifties and sixties. Strong relationships are also found between radionuclide data ((137)Cs with respect to (241)Pu and (210)Pb with respect to (137)Cs), make it possible to estimate the total deposition or natural fluxes of these radionuclides. Total deposition of (137)Cs over Antarctica is estimated at 760 TBq, based on results from the 90-180 degrees East sector. Given the irregular distribution of sampling sites, more ice cores and snow samples must be analyzed in other sectors of Antarctica to check the validity of this figure. PMID:12763325

  13. Electrophoretic deposition of biomaterials

    PubMed Central

    Boccaccini, A. R.; Keim, S.; Ma, R.; Li, Y.; Zhitomirsky, I.

    2010-01-01

    Electrophoretic deposition (EPD) is attracting increasing attention as an effective technique for the processing of biomaterials, specifically bioactive coatings and biomedical nanostructures. The well-known advantages of EPD for the production of a wide range of microstructures and nanostructures as well as unique and complex material combinations are being exploited, starting from well-dispersed suspensions of biomaterials in particulate form (microsized and nanoscale particles, nanotubes, nanoplatelets). EPD of biological entities such as enzymes, bacteria and cells is also being investigated. The review presents a comprehensive summary and discussion of relevant recent work on EPD describing the specific application of the technique in the processing of several biomaterials, focusing on (i) conventional bioactive (inorganic) coatings, e.g. hydroxyapatite or bioactive glass coatings on orthopaedic implants, and (ii) biomedical nanostructures, including biopolymer–ceramic nanocomposites, carbon nanotube coatings, tissue engineering scaffolds, deposition of proteins and other biological entities for sensors and advanced functional coatings. It is the intention to inform the reader on how EPD has become an important tool in advanced biomaterials processing, as a convenient alternative to conventional methods, and to present the potential of the technique to manipulate and control the deposition of a range of nanomaterials of interest in the biomedical and biotechnology fields. PMID:20504802

  14. Intricately Rippled Sand Deposits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for Intricately Rippled Sand Deposits (QTVR)

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit welcomed the beginning of 2006 on Earth by taking this striking panorama of intricately rippled sand deposits in Gusev Crater on Mars. This is an approximate true-color rendering of the 'El Dorado' ripple field provided by Spirit over the New Year's holiday weekend. The view spans about 160 degrees in azimuth from left to right and consists of images acquired by Spirit's panoramic camera on Spirit's 708th and 710th Martian days, or sols, (Dec. 30, 2005 and Jan. 1, 2006). Spirit used the Pancam's 750-nanometer, 530-nanometer and 430-nanometer filters to capture the colors on Mars. Scientists have eliminated seams between individual frames in the sky portion of the mosaic to better simulate the vista a person standing on Mars would see. Spirit spent several days acquiring images, spectral data, and compositional and mineralogical information about these large sand deposits before continuing downhill toward 'Home Plate.'

  15. A record of Late Pleistocene and Holocene carbon accumulation and climate change from an equatorial peat bog (Kalimantan, Indonesia): implications for past, present and future carbon dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Page, S. E.; Wst, R. A. J.; Weiss, D.; Rieley, J. O.; Shotyk, W.; Limin, S. H.

    2004-10-01

    A 9.5 m core from an inland peatland in Kalimantan, Indonesia, reveals organic matter accumulation started around 26 000 cal. yr BP, providing the oldest reported initiation date for lowland ombrotrophic peat formation in SE Asia. The core shows clear evidence for differential rates of peat formation and carbon storage. A short period of initial accumulation is followed by a slow rate during the LGM, with fastest accumulation during the Holocene. Between 13 000 and 8000 cal. yr BP, > 450 cm of peat were deposited, with highest rates of peat (> 2 mm yr-1) and carbon (> 90 g C m-2yr-1) accumulation between 9530 and 8590cal.yrBP. These data suggest that Kalimantan peatlands acted as a large sink of atmospheric CO2 at this time. Slower rates of peat (0.15-0.38mmyr-1) and carbon (7.4-24.0gCm-2yr-1) accumulation between 8000 and 500cal.yrBP coincide with rapid peat formation in coastal locations elsewhere in SE Asia. The average LORCA (long-term apparent carbon accumulation rate) for the 9.5m core is 56gCm-2yr-1. These data suggest that studies of global carbon sources, sinks and their dynamics need to include information on the past and present sizeable peat deposits of the tropics. Copyright

  16. Liquefaction in Deposits of River

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Liquefaction in recent deposits of the Pajaro River formed sand volcanoes along a fissure 6-7 m (19.7-23 ft) long. Variation in grain size and partial erosion of the conical deposits of sand show that venting of the slurry of sand and water was a complex series of depositional and erosional events t...

  17. Deposition of SOCs in forests

    SciTech Connect

    Horstmann, M.; McLachlan, M.S.

    1995-12-31

    The bulk deposition, wet-only deposition, dry-only deposition and ambient air concentrations of PCDD/Fs, PCBs and PAHs were measured in an 80 year old spruce forest, an 80 year old mixed deciduous (beech and oak) forest, and in an adjacent clearing over a period of 1--2 years. The deposition of the less volatile compounds that are primarily particle bound in the atmosphere was similar at both sites. These compounds were deposited primarily through wet deposition, as shown by the measurements in the clearing. In contrast, the deposition of the more volatile compounds was much higher at the forest sites than in the clearing. For instance, the annual deposition of Cl{sub 4}DF was 5 times higher in the spruce forest and 8 times higher in the deciduous forest. The excess deposition in the deciduous forest was almost completely due to the leaf fall in October--December, while about half of the excess deposition in the spruce forest was the result of needle fall. A further, as yet unexplained deposition mechanism accounted for the remainder of the flux in the spruce forest. Other studies have shown that more volatile SOCs are deposited to vegetation primarily through dry gaseous deposition. Hence, while forests have little influence on the deposition of less volatile compounds like the higher chlorinated PCDD/Fs and the 5--6 ring PAHs, dry deposition to leaves/needles and their subsequent falling to the forest floor make forest soils an extremely important sink for more volatile SOC.

  18. Fluidized Crater Ejecta Deposit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    The Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) onboard the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) spacecraft continued to obtain high resolution images of the red planet into August 1998. At this time, each ground track (the portion of Mars available for MOC imaging on a given orbit) covers areas from about 40oN on the late afternoon side of the planet, up over the sunlit north polar cap, and down the early morning side of Mars to about 20oN latitude. Early morning and late afternoon views provide good shadowing to reveal subtle details on the martian surface. Views of Mars with such excellent lighting conditions will not be seen by MOC once MGS's Science Phasing Orbits end in mid-September 1998.

    The image shown here, MOC image 47903, was targeted on Friday afternoon (PDT), August 7, 1998. This picture of ejecta from a nameless 9.1 kilometer (5.7 mile)-diameter crater was designed to take full advantage of the present lighting conditions. When the image was taken (around 5:38 p.m. (PDT) on Saturday, August 8, 1998), the Sun had just risen and was only about 6o above the eastern horizon. With the Sun so low in the local sky, the contrast between sunlit and shadowed surfaces allowed new, subtle details to be revealed on the surface of the crater ejecta deposit.

    The crater shown here has ejecta of a type that was first identified in Mariner 9 and Viking Orbiter images as 'fluidized' ejecta. Ejecta is the material that is thrown out from the crater during the explosion that results when a meteor--piece of a comet or asteroid--collides with the planet. Fluidized ejecta is characterized by its lobate appearance, and sometimes by the presence of a ridge along the margin of the ejecta deposit. In the case of the crater shown here, there are two ridges that encircle the crater ejecta--this type of ejecta deposit is sometimes called a double-lobe rampart deposit. The MOC image shows that this particular crater also has 'normal' ejecta that occurs out on the plains, beyond the outermost ridge of the main, fluidized ejecta deposit.

    Fluidized or 'rampart' ejecta deposits have long been thought by many Mars scientists to result from an impact into a surface that contains water. The water would have been underground, and could have been frozen or liquid. According to the prevailing model, when the meteor hit, this water was released--along with tons of rock and debris--and the ejecta flowed like mud. Images with resolutions higher than those presently attainable from the 11.6 hr elliptical orbit are needed to see the specific features (such as large boulders 'rafted' by the dense mud) that would confirm or refute this model. Such images may be acquired once MGS is in its mapping orbit.

    MOC image 47903 was received and processed by the MOC team at Malin Space Science Systems on Monday afternoon (PDT), August 10, 1998. The image center is located at 27.92oN latitude and 184.66oW longitude, in the northern Tartarus Montes region.

  19. Database of recent tsunami deposits

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peters, Robert; Jaffe, Bruce E.

    2010-01-01

    This report describes a database of sedimentary characteristics of tsunami deposits derived from published accounts of tsunami deposit investigations conducted shortly after the occurrence of a tsunami. The database contains 228 entries, each entry containing data from up to 71 categories. It includes data from 51 publications covering 15 tsunamis distributed between 16 countries. The database encompasses a wide range of depositional settings including tropical islands, beaches, coastal plains, river banks, agricultural fields, and urban environments. It includes data from both local tsunamis and teletsunamis. The data are valuable for interpreting prehistorical, historical, and modern tsunami deposits, and for the development of criteria to identify tsunami deposits in the geologic record.

  20. Coffee ring deposition in bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandre, Shreyas; Wu, Ning; Aizenberg, Joanna; Mahadevan, Lakshminarayanan

    2010-11-01

    Microscopic particles suspended in a liquid are transported and deposited at a contact line, as the contact line recedes due to evaporation. A particle layer of uniform thickness is deposited if the particle concentration is above a threshold; below this threshold the deposit forms periodic bands oriented parallel to the contact line. We present a model for the formation of these bands based on evaporation leading to the breakup of the thin liquid film near the contact line. The threshold results from a competition between evaporation speed and deposition speed. Using this model, we predict the thickness and length of the bands, making the control of patterned deposition possible.

  1. Electrophoretic Deposition for Fabricating Microbatteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    West, William; Whitacre, Jay; Bugga, Ratnakumar

    2003-01-01

    An improved method of fabrication of cathodes of microbatteries is based on electrophoretic deposition. Heretofore, sputtering (for deposition) and the use of photoresist and liftoff (for patterning) have been the primary methods of fabricating components of microbatteries. The volume of active electrode material that can be deposited by sputtering is limited, and the discharge capacities of prior microbatteries have been limited accordingly. In addition, sputter deposition is slow. In contrast, electrophoretic deposition is much faster and has shown promise for increasing discharge capacities by a factor of 10, relative to those of microbatteries fabricated by prior methods.

  2. Multi-chamber deposition system

    DOEpatents

    Jacobson, Richard L.; Jeffrey, Frank R.; Westerberg, Roger K.

    1989-06-27

    A system for the simultaneous deposition of different coatings onto a thin web within a large volume vacuum chamber is disclosed which chamber is provided with a plurality of deposition chambers in which the different layers are deposited onto the film as its moves from a supply roll to a finished take-up roll of coated web. The deposition chambers provided within the large vacuum chamber are provided with separate seals which minimize back diffusion of any dopant gas from adjacent deposition chambers.

  3. Multi-chamber deposition system

    DOEpatents

    Jacobson, Richard L.; Jeffrey, Frank R.; Westerberg, Roger K.

    1989-10-17

    A system for the simultaneous deposition of different coatings onto a thin web within a large volume vacuum chamber is disclosed which chamber is provided with a plurality of deposition chambers in which the different layers are deposited onto the film as its moves from a supply roll to a finished take-up roll of coated web. The deposition chambers provided within the large vacuum chamber are provided with separate seals which minimize back diffusion of any dopant gas from adjacent deposition chambers.

  4. Spectroscopy in carbon deposits characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasieczna, S.; Ryczkowski, J.; Borowiecki, T.; Sto?ecki, K.

    2004-10-01

    Carbon deposits formed on the top of the catalysts is characterized by a different morphology. This depends, among the others, on the temperature of the catalytical reaction conducted. Application of FT-IR/PA (Fourier transform infrared photoacoustic) spectroscopy allows to distinguish the carbon deposit forms created during the reaction. Deposits formed at high temperature (steam reforming, hydrogenolysis) are graphite-like materials. In the contrary, at low temperature (hydrogenation of benzene) deposits formed exhibit functional groups on its surface. Moreover, deposit created at low temperature has two parts: soluble and insoluble.

  5. Chemical vapor deposition sciences

    SciTech Connect

    1992-12-31

    Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) is a widely used method for depositing thin films of a variety of materials. Applications of CVD range from the fabrication of microelectronic devices to the deposition of protective coatings. New CVD processes are increasingly complex, with stringent requirements that make it more difficult to commercialize them in a timely fashion. However, a clear understanding of the fundamental science underlying a CVD process, as expressed through computer models, can substantially shorten the time required for reactor and process development. Research scientists at Sandia use a wide range of experimental and theoretical techniques for investigating the science of CVD. Experimental tools include optical probes for gas-phase and surface processes, a range of surface analytic techniques, molecular beam methods for gas/surface kinetics, flow visualization techniques and state-of-the-art crystal growth reactors. The theoretical strategy uses a structured approach to describe the coupled gas-phase and gas-surface chemistry, fluid dynamics, heat and mass transfer of a CVD process. The software used to describe chemical reaction mechanisms is easily adapted to codes that model a variety of reactor geometries. Carefully chosen experiments provide critical information on the chemical species, gas temperatures and flows that are necessary for model development and validation. This brochure provides basic information on Sandia`s capabilities in the physical and chemical sciences of CVD and related materials processing technologies. It contains a brief description of the major scientific and technical capabilities of the CVD staff and facilities, and a brief discussion of the approach that the staff uses to advance the scientific understanding of CVD processes.

  6. The Chilean nitrate deposits.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ericksen, G.E.

    1983-01-01

    The nitrate deposits in the arid Atacama desert of northern Chile consist of saline-cemented surficial material, apparently formed in and near a playa lake that formerly covered the area. Many features of their distribution and chemical composition are unique. The author believes the principal sources of the saline constituents were the volcanic rocks of late Tertiary and Quaternary age in the Andes and that the nitrate is of organic origin. Possible sources of the nitrate, iodate, perchlorate and chromate are discussed. -J.J.Robertson

  7. [Triglyceride deposit cardiomyovasculopathy].

    PubMed

    Hirano, Ken-Ichi

    2013-09-01

    Cholesterol is a vital causal factor and focus of research into heart diseases, however the involvement of triglycerides remains unclear. We recently reported a patient suffering from severe congestive heart failure and needing cardiac transplantation. Massive accumulation of triglycerides was noted in coronary atherosclerotic lesions as well as in the myocardium. We named this phenotype"triglyceride deposit cardiomyovasculopathy (TGCV)". The patient was identified as homozygous for a genetic mutation in the adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL), an essential molecule for hydrolysis of intracellular triglycerides. In this paper, we describe clinical characteristics of ATGL deficiency and discuss what we can learn from this disorder. PMID:24205734

  8. Spray deposition - A summary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, Richard E.; Lawley, Alan

    Important findings are presented from six studies concerning the application of the Osprey metal spray-deposition process to (1) Cu-base alloys, (2) Cu-base case-hardening alloys, (3) preform formation, (4) 7075 and 8090 Al alloys, (5) superalloys, and (6) superalloy tubes. It is in the aggregate shown that while the details of the process are materials-specific, there are no technical barriers to scale-up and commercialization. Each of the alloy systems considered can be spray-formed into various near-net-shape products.

  9. Deposition System Controller

    SciTech Connect

    2005-10-01

    This software is a complete thin film deposition controller. The software takes as its input a script file that dictates enablinig/disabling of sputtering power supplies, pause times, velocities and distances to move a substrate. An emulator has been created and built into the software package that can debug in advance any deposition script and decide if there is an overrun condition, accidental infinite look, and can estimate a time for completion. All necessary process variables are data logged and recorded for later inspection. This emulator currently interfaces to a Parker-Compumotor SX6 stepper moror indexer, but the software is written in such a way that it is easily modifiable for interface to othe brand and models of motor drivers. Other process I/O variables may be easily added. The software uses any multifunction DAQ card from National Instruments via their free NIDAQ API package, but again, the software is written such that othe brand DAQ cards may be used.

  10. Deposition System Controller

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2005-10-01

    This software is a complete thin film deposition controller. The software takes as its input a script file that dictates enablinig/disabling of sputtering power supplies, pause times, velocities and distances to move a substrate. An emulator has been created and built into the software package that can debug in advance any deposition script and decide if there is an overrun condition, accidental infinite look, and can estimate a time for completion. All necessary process variablesmore » are data logged and recorded for later inspection. This emulator currently interfaces to a Parker-Compumotor SX6 stepper moror indexer, but the software is written in such a way that it is easily modifiable for interface to othe brand and models of motor drivers. Other process I/O variables may be easily added. The software uses any multifunction DAQ card from National Instruments via their free NIDAQ API package, but again, the software is written such that othe brand DAQ cards may be used.« less

  11. Nitrogen fixation in boreal peatlands: the effects of increased N deposition on N2-fixation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popma, J. M.; Wieder, R.; Lamers, L.; Vile, M. A.

    2013-12-01

    Boreal peatlands are of great importance to global carbon and nitrogen cycling. While covering only 3-4 % of the terrestrial surface, they account for 25-30 % of the world's soil C and 9-15 % of the world's soil N. In Western Canada atmospheric dry deposition rates are extremely low: approximately 1 kg N ha-1 yr-1. Though these systems have been functioning as net sinks over the past 11,000 years, natural and anthropogenic disturbances might compromise the historical balance of C and N. Biological N2-fixation has recently been shown to represent a very significant input of N into these systems, contributing to 62% of total N in Western Canada. Interactions between N deposition and biological N2-fixation are as yet, unknown, but the impact of elevated deposition of N-compounds from increased industrial expansion of oil sands mining to peatlands, is concerning. Given that nitrogenase, the enzyme responsible for catalyzing N2-fixation, is energetically costly when active, enhanced inputs of atmospheric N deposition could be a major determinant for enzyme activity and rates of biological N input to these bogs. Understanding interactions between N deposition and N2 fixation in boreal peatlands can aid in predicting the consequences of increased N deposition and setting critical loads. We conducted a field-fertilization experiment in a poor fen in Alberta, Canada, to determine the effects of enhanced N deposition on a dominant fen species Sphagnum angustifolium. The experiment consisted of seven N treatments: Control, 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 kg N ha-1 y1, n=3. N2-fixation was measured during summer 2012 and 2013 using the acetylene reduction assay (ARA). ARA rates were converted to rates of N2-fixation by calibrating ARA with paired 15N2-incubations. In both 2012 and 2013, with increasing N deposition from 0 kg N ha-1 yr-1 to 25 kg N ha-1 yr-1, rates of N2 fixation decreased, with highest rates in the 0 kg N ha-1 yr-1 treatment mosses (54.2 × 1.40; 48.58 × 7.12 kg N ha-1 yr-1, mean × std err for 2012 and 2013, respectively) followed by progressively lower rates with a low of 5.02 × 0.87 in 2012 and 8.94 × 3.09 in 2013 (mean × std err). As biological N2-fixation is an energetically costly process, up-regulating enzyme activity when N availability is low and down-regulating activity when N deposition is enhanced makes thermodynamic and evolutionary sense. N2-fixation shows to be one of the most early-warning indicators to the early response of boreal peatlands to increased N deposition, and can aid in setting critical loads to protect these historically pristine ecosystems.

  12. The influence of climate change on recent peat accumulation patterns of Distichia muscoides cushion bogs in the high-elevation tropical Andes of Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benavides, Juan C.; Vitt, Dale H.; Wieder, R. Kelman

    2013-12-01

    Extensive cushions of Distichia muscoides found at high elevations in the Andes form deep deposits of peat and function as peatland. The location of Distichia peatlands at the highest elevations makes them susceptible to the effects of global change including global warming. Accumulation rates of organic matter are the key function of peatland ecosystems and are highly susceptible to changes in climate. This study used 210Pb chronologies to infer the recent dynamics of three Distichia muscoides peatlands located above 4000 m in elevation. Chronological markers from dated volcanic eruptions were correlated to the 210Pb chronologies of Distichia peat and validated the 210Pb chronologies. Changes in 210Pb activity with depth indicated rapid accumulation in recent times. Organic matter had a mean accumulation rate of 1400 g m-2 yr-1 during the past 10 years, with values well above the observed regional accumulation rate of 300-400 g m-2 yr-1. The same pattern was observed in peat accretion rates, with growth rates of 1-2 cm per year during the last 10 years. Cushion plants engineer their own environment, allowing the system to be less susceptible to direct changes in climate. However, the high rates of peat accretion in recent times may be originated from increasing temperatures and excess water from nearby glacier melt. However, glaciers are predicted to disappear during the next 20 years in the northern Andes, reducing water inputs in tropical high-elevation ecosystems.

  13. Chemical vapor deposition growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruth, R. P.; Manasevit, H. M.; Kenty, J. L.; Moudy, L. A.; Simpson, W. I.; Yang, J. J.

    1976-01-01

    The chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method for the growth of Si sheet on inexpensive substrate materials is investigated. The objective is to develop CVD techniques for producing large areas of Si sheet on inexpensive substrate materials, with sheet properties suitable for fabricating solar cells meeting the technical goals of the Low Cost Silicon Solar Array Project. Specific areas covered include: (1) modification and test of existing CVD reactor system; (2) identification and/or development of suitable inexpensive substrate materials; (3) experimental investigation of CVD process parameters using various candidate substrate materials; (4) preparation of Si sheet samples for various special studies, including solar cell fabrication; (5) evaluation of the properties of the Si sheet material produced by the CVD process; and (6) fabrication and evaluation of experimental solar cell structures, using standard and near-standard processing techniques.

  14. Lunar western limb pyroclastic deposits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coombs, Cassandra R.; Hawke, B. Ray

    1991-01-01

    It has become increasingly evident that the lunar pyroclastic volcanism played an important role in the formation and resurfacing of many areas of the Moon. On-going analysis of lunar Orbiter and Apollo photographs continues to locate and identify pyroclastic deposits and suggests that they just may be more ubiquitous than once thought. Located near mare/highland boundaries, many of these deposits formed contemporaneously with effusive mare volcanism. The mantling deposits formed as products of fire-fountaining. Probable source vents for these deposits include irregular depressions at the head of associated sinuous rilles and/or along irregular fractures in the floors of ancient craters. Here, researchers provide a brief synopsis of the nature of the dark mantling deposits and briefly discuss several newly identified deposits on the western limb.

  15. Space Station surface deposition monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, E. R.

    1988-01-01

    Quartz crystal microbalance sensors are recommended to verify and monitor surface deposition on the early transverse boom as well as the later dual-keel Space Station configurations. Performance and placement of these sensors are discussed and compared to imposed maximum mass deposition rate requirements at the science instrument and critical power locations. Additional measurements are suggested to gain further knowledge on properties of the deposited material.

  16. Momentum Deposition in Curvilinear Coordinates

    SciTech Connect

    Cleveland, Mathew Allen; Lowrie, Robert Byron; Rockefeller, Gabriel M.; Thompson, Kelly Glen; Wollaber, Allan Benton

    2015-08-03

    The momentum imparted into a material by thermal radiation deposition is an important physical process in astrophysics and inertial confinement fusion (ICF) simulations. In recent work we presented a new method of evaluating momentum deposition that relies on the combination of a time-averaged approximation and a numerical integration scheme. This approach robustly and efficiently evaluates the momentum deposition in spherical geometry. Future work will look to extend this approach to 2D cylindrical geometries.

  17. (Acidic deposition and the environment)

    SciTech Connect

    Garten, C.T.; Lindberg, S.E.; Van Miegroet, H.

    1990-10-24

    The travelers presented several papers at the Fourth International Conference on Acidic Deposition. These covered the following topics: atmospheric chemistry and deposition of airborne nitrogen compounds, soil solution chemistry in high-elevation spruce forests, and forest throughfall measurements for estimating total sulfur deposition to ecosystems. In addition, S. E. Lindberg was invited to organize and chair a conference session on Throughfall and Stemflow Experiments, and to present an invited lecture on Atmospheric Deposition and Canopy Interactions of Metals and Nitrogen in Forest Ecosystems: The Influence of Global Change'' at the 110th Anniversary Celebration of the Free University of Amsterdam.

  18. U-Pb SHRIMP dating of uraniferous opals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nemchin, A.A.; Neymark, L.A.; Simons, S.L.

    2006-01-01

    U-Pb and U-series analyses of four U-rich opal samples using sensitive high-resolution ion microprobe (SHRIMP) demonstrate the potential of this technique for the dating of opals with ages ranging from several tens of thousand years to millions of years. The major advantages of the technique, compared to the conventional thermal ionisation mass spectrometry (TIMS), are the high spatial resolution (???20 ??m), the ability to analyse in situ all isotopes required to determine both U-Pb and U-series ages, and a relatively short analysis time which allows obtaining a growth rate of opal as a result of a single SHRIMP session. There are two major limitations to this method, determined by both current level of development of ion probes and understanding of ion sputtering processes. First, sufficient secondary ion beam intensities can only be obtained for opal samples with U concentrations in excess of ???20 ??g/g. However, this restriction still permits dating of a large variety of opals. Second, U-Pb ratios in all analyses drifted with time and were only weakly correlated with changes in other ratios (such as U/UO). This drift, which is difficult to correct for, remains the main factor currently limiting the precision and accuracy of the U-Pb SHRIMP opal ages. Nevertheless, an assumption of similar behaviour of standard and unknown opals under similar analytical conditions allowed successful determination of ages with precisions of ???10% for the samples investigated in this study. SHRIMP-based U-series and U-Pb ages are consistent with TIMS dating results of the same materials and known geological timeframes. ?? 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Enhanced nitrogen deposition over China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xuejun; Zhang, Ying; Han, Wenxuan; Tang, Aohan; Shen, Jianlin; Cui, Zhenling; Vitousek, Peter; Erisman, Jan Willem; Goulding, Keith; Christie, Peter; Fangmeier, Andreas; Zhang, Fusuo

    2013-02-28

    China is experiencing intense air pollution caused in large part by anthropogenic emissions of reactive nitrogen. These emissions result in the deposition of atmospheric nitrogen (N) in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, with implications for human and ecosystem health, greenhouse gas balances and biological diversity. However, information on the magnitude and environmental impact of N deposition in China is limited. Here we use nationwide data sets on bulk N deposition, plant foliar N and crop N uptake (from long-term unfertilized soils) to evaluate N deposition dynamics and their effect on ecosystems across China between 1980 and 2010. We find that the average annual bulk deposition of N increased by approximately 8 kilograms of nitrogen per hectare (P < 0.001) between the 1980s (13.2 kilograms of nitrogen per hectare) and the 2000s (21.1 kilograms of nitrogen per hectare). Nitrogen deposition rates in the industrialized and agriculturally intensified regions of China are as high as the peak levels of deposition in northwestern Europe in the 1980s, before the introduction of mitigation measures. Nitrogen from ammonium (NH4(+)) is the dominant form of N in bulk deposition, but the rate of increase is largest for deposition of N from nitrate (NO3(-)), in agreement with decreased ratios of NH3 to NOx emissions since 1980. We also find that the impact of N deposition on Chinese ecosystems includes significantly increased plant foliar N concentrations in natural and semi-natural (that is, non-agricultural) ecosystems and increased crop N uptake from long-term-unfertilized croplands. China and other economies are facing a continuing challenge to reduce emissions of reactive nitrogen, N deposition and their negative effects on human health and the environment. PMID:23426264

  20. Re-evaluation of the petrogenesis of the Proterozoic Jabiluka unconformity-related uranium deposit, Northern Territory, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polito, Paul A.; Kurt Kyser, T.; Thomas, David; Marlatt, Jim; Drever, Garth

    2005-11-01

    The world class Jabiluka unconformity-related uranium deposit in the Alligator Rivers Uranium Field, Australia, contains >163,000 tons of contained U3O8. Mineralization is hosted by shallow-to-steeply dipping basement rocks comprising graphitic units of chlorite-biotite-muscovite schist. These rocks are overlain by flat-lying coarse-grained sandstones belonging to the Kombolgie Subgroup. The deposit was discovered in 1971, but has never been mined. The construction of an 1,150 m decline into the upper eastern sector of the Jabiluka II deposit combined with closely spaced underground drilling in 1998 and 1999 allowed mapping and sampling from underground for the first time. Structural mapping, drill core logging and petrographic studies on polished thin sections established a detailed paragenesis that provided the framework for subsequent electron microprobe and X-ray diffraction, fluid inclusion, and O-H, U-Pb and 40Ar/39Ar isotope analysis. Uranium mineralization is structurally controlled within semi-brittle shears that are sub-conformable to the basement stratigraphy, and breccias that are developed within the hinge zone of fault-related folds adjacent to the shears. Uraninite is intimately associated with chlorite, sericite, hematite quartz. Electron microprobe and X-ray diffraction analysis of syn-ore illite and chlorite indicates a mineralization temperature of 200C. Pre- and syn-ore minerals extracted from the Kombolgie Subgroup overlying the deposit and syn-ore alteration minerals in the Cahill Formation have ?18Ofluid and ? D fluid values of 4.03.7 and -2717, respectively. These values are indistinguishable from illite separates extracted from diagenetic aquifers in the Kombolgie Subgroup up to 70 km to the south and east of the deposit and believed to be the source of the uraniferous fluid. New fluid inclusion microthermometry data reveal that the mineralising brine was saline, but not saturated. U-Pb and 207Pb/206Pb ratios of uraninite by laser-ablation ICP-MS suggest that massive uraninite first precipitated at ca. 1,680 Ma, which is coincident with the timing of brine migration out from the Kombolgie Subgroup as indicated by 40Ar/39Ar ages of 1,68311 Ma from sandstone-hosted illite. Unmineralized breccias cemeted by chlorite, quartz and sericite cross-cut the mineralized breccias and are in turn cut by straight-sided, high-angle veins of drusy quartz, sulphide and dolomite. U-Pb and 207Pb/206Pb ratios combined with fluid inclusion and stable isotope data indicate that these post-ore minerals formed when mixing between two fluids occurred sometime between ca. 1,450 and 550 Ma. Distinct 207Pb/206Pb age populations occur at ca. 1,30237, 1,19127 and 80257 Ma, which respectively correlate with the intrusion of the Maningkorrirr/Mudginberri phonolitic dykes and the Derim Derim Dolerite between 1,370 and 1,316 Ma, the amalgamation of Australia and Laurentia during the Grenville Orogen at ca. 1,140 Ma, and the break-up of Rodinia between 1,000 and 750 Ma.

  1. Hydrothermal alteration of organic matter in uranium ores, Elliot Lake, Canada: Implications for selected organic-rich deposits

    SciTech Connect

    Mossman, D.J.; Nagy, B.; Davis, D.W.

    1993-07-01

    Organic matter in the uraniferous Matinenda Formation, Elliot Lake, is preserved in the forms of syngenetic kerogen and solid bitumen as it is in many of the Oklo uranium deposits and in the Witwatersrand gold-uranium ores. The Elliot Lake kerogen is a vitrinite-like material considered to be remnants of the Precambrian cyanobacterial mats. The kerogen at Elliot Lake has reflectances (in oil) ranging from 2.63-7.31% RO{sub max}, high aromaticity, relatively low (0.41-0.60) atomic H/C ratios, and it contains cryptocrystalline graphite. Bitumen, present primarily as dispersed globules (up to 0.5 mm dia.), has reflectances from 0.72-1.32% RO{sub max}, atomic H/C ratios of 0.71-0.81, and is somewhat less aromatic than the kerogen. Overall similarity in molecular compositions indicates that liquid bitumen was derived from kerogen by processes similar to hydrous pyrolysis. The carbon isotopic composition of kerogen ({minus}15.62 to {minus}24.72%), and the now solid bitumen ({minus}25.91 to {minus}33.00%) are compatible with these processes. Despite having been subjected to several thermal episodes, ca. 2.45 Ga old kerogen of microbiological origin here survived as testimony of the antiquity of life on Earth. U-Pb isotopic data from discrete kerogen grains at Elliot Lake form a scattered array intersecting concordia at 2130 {+-} 100 Ma, correspond to the Nipissing event. U-Pb systems were totally reset by this event. Uranium and lead show subsequently partial mobility, the average of which is indicated by the lower concordia intersect of 550 {+-} 260 Ma. The migrated bitumen contains virtually no uranium and thorium but has a large excess of {sup 206}Pb, which indicates that the once liquid bitumen must have acted as a sink for mobile intermediate decay products of {sup 238}U. Emplacement of the Nipissing diabase may have been responsible for producing the bitumen and, indirectly, for its enrichment in {sup 206}Pb as a result of outgassing of {sup 222}Rn.

  2. From Leaf Synthesis to Senescence: n-Alkyl Lipid Abundance and D/H Composition Among Plant Species in a Temperate Deciduous Forest at Brown's Lake Bog, Ohio, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freimuth, E. J.; Diefendorf, A. F.; Lowell, T. V.

    2014-12-01

    The hydrogen isotope composition (D/H, δD) of terrestrial plant leaf waxes is a promising paleohydrology proxy because meteoric water (e.g., precipitation) is the primary hydrogen source for wax synthesis. However, secondary environmental and biological factors modify the net apparent fractionation between precipitation δD and leaf wax δD, limiting quantitative reconstruction of paleohydrology. These secondary factors include soil evaporation, leaf transpiration, biosynthetic fractionation, and the seasonal timing of lipid synthesis. Here, we investigate the influence of each of these factors on n-alkyl lipid δD in five dominant deciduous angiosperm tree species as well as shrubs, ferns and grasses in the watershed surrounding Brown's Lake Bog, Ohio, USA. We quantified n-alkane and n-alkanoic acid concentrations and δD in replicate individuals of each species at weekly to monthly intervals from March to October 2014 to assess inter- and intraspecific isotope variability throughout the growing season. We present soil, xylem and leaf water δD from each individual, and precipitation and atmospheric water vapor δD throughout the season to directly examine the relationship between source water and lipid isotope composition. These data allow us to assess the relative influence of soil evaporation and leaf transpiration among plant types, within species, and along a soil moisture gradient throughout the catchment. We use leaf water δD to approximate biosynthetic fractionation for each individual and test whether this is a species-specific and seasonal constant, and to evaluate variation among plant types with identical growth conditions. Our high frequency sampling approach provides new insights into the seasonal timing of n-alkane and n-alkanoic acid synthesis and subsequent fluctuations in concentration and δD in a temperate deciduous forest. These results will advance understanding of the magnitude and timing of secondary influences on the modern leaf wax δD signal, thereby improving paleohydrology information extracted from leaf wax δD.

  3. Vacuum vapor deposition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poorman, Richard M. (inventor); Weeks, Jack L. (inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A method and apparatus is described for vapor deposition of a thin metallic film utilizing an ionized gas arc directed onto a source material spaced from a substrate to be coated in a substantial vacuum while providing a pressure differential between the source and the substrate so that, as a portion of the source is vaporized, the vapors are carried to the substrate. The apparatus includes a modified tungsten arc welding torch having a hollow electrode through which a gas, preferably inert, flows and an arc is struck between the electrode and the source. The torch, source, and substrate are confined within a chamber within which a vacuum is drawn. When the arc is struck, a portion of the source is vaporized and the vapors flow rapidly toward the substrate. A reflecting shield is positioned about the torch above the electrode and the source to ensure that the arc is struck between the electrode and the source at startup. The electrode and the source may be confined within a vapor guide housing having a duct opening toward the substrate for directing the vapors onto the substrate.

  4. Melas Chasma Deposits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Erosion of the interior layered deposits of Melas Chasma, part of the huge Valles Marineris canyon system, has produced cliffs with dramatic examples of spur and gulley morphology and beautiful exposures of finely layered sediments.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -10.4, Longitude 284.9 East (75.1 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

  5. Chemical vapor deposition growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruth, R. P.; Manasevit, H. M.; Campbell, A. G.; Johnson, R. E.; Kenty, J. L.; Moudy, L. A.; Shaw, G. L.; Simpson, W. I.; Yang, J. J.

    1978-01-01

    The objective was to investigate and develop chemical vapor deposition (CVD) techniques for the growth of large areas of Si sheet on inexpensive substrate materials, with resulting sheet properties suitable for fabricating solar cells that would meet the technical goals of the Low Cost Silicon Solar Array Project. The program involved six main technical tasks: (1) modification and test of an existing vertical-chamber CVD reactor system; (2) identification and/or development of suitable inexpensive substrate materials; (3) experimental investigation of CVD process parameters using various candidate substrate materials; (4) preparation of Si sheet samples for various special studies, including solar cell fabrication; (5) evaluation of the properties of the Si sheet material produced by the CVD process; and (6) fabrication and evaluation of experimental solar cell structures, using impurity diffusion and other standard and near-standard processing techniques supplemented late in the program by the in situ CVD growth of n(+)/p/p(+) sheet structures subsequently processed into experimental cells.

  6. Chemical vapor deposition growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruth, R. P.; Manasevit, H. M.; Johnson, R. E.; Kenty, J. L.; Moudy, L. A.; Simpson, W. I.; Yang, J. J.

    1976-01-01

    A laboratory type CVD reactor system with a vertical deposition chamber and sample pedestal heated by an external RF coil has been extensively modified by installation of mass flow controllers, automatic process sequence timers, and special bellows-sealed air-operated valves for overall improved performance. Various film characterization procedures, including classical metallography, SEM analyses, X ray diffraction analyses, surface profilometry, and electrical measurements (resistivity, carrier concentration, mobility, spreading resistance profiles, and minority-carrier lifetime by the C-V-t method) area used to correlate Si sheet properties with CVD parameters and substrate properties. Evaluation procedures and measurements are given. Experimental solar cell structures were made both in epitaxial Si sheet (on sapphire substrates) and in polycrystalline material on alumina substrates, the former to provide an indication of what might be an upper limit on performance of the latter. Preliminary results are given, as obtained in cell structures not specially designed to allow for the unique properties of the sheet material, and fabricated in material known to be far from optimum for photovoltaic performance. Low power conversion efficiencies have been obtained in the epitaxial as well as the polycrystalline Si sheet.

  7. Variable temperature semiconductor film deposition

    DOEpatents

    Li, X.; Sheldon, P.

    1998-01-27

    A method of depositing a semiconductor material on a substrate is disclosed. The method sequentially comprises (a) providing the semiconductor material in a depositable state such as a vapor for deposition on the substrate; (b) depositing the semiconductor material on the substrate while heating the substrate to a first temperature sufficient to cause the semiconductor material to form a first film layer having a first grain size; (c) continually depositing the semiconductor material on the substrate while cooling the substrate to a second temperature sufficient to cause the semiconductor material to form a second film layer deposited on the first film layer and having a second grain size smaller than the first grain size; and (d) raising the substrate temperature, while either continuing or not continuing to deposit semiconductor material to form a third film layer, to thereby anneal the film layers into a single layer having favorable efficiency characteristics in photovoltaic applications. A preferred semiconductor material is cadmium telluride deposited on a glass/tin oxide substrate already having thereon a film layer of cadmium sulfide.

  8. SOIL REACTION AND ACIDIC DEPOSITION

    EPA Science Inventory

    This chapter discusses the major chemical processes by which acidic deposition interacts with soils. he focus is on forest soils, as the effects of acidic deposition on soils used for production of food and fiber are generally small compared to effects of agricultural practices s...

  9. Variable temperature semiconductor film deposition

    DOEpatents

    Li, Xiaonan (Golden, CO); Sheldon, Peter (Lakewood, CO)

    1998-01-01

    A method of depositing a semiconductor material on a substrate. The method sequentially comprises (a) providing the semiconductor material in a depositable state such as a vapor for deposition on the substrate; (b) depositing the semiconductor material on the substrate while heating the substrate to a first temperature sufficient to cause the semiconductor material to form a first film layer having a first grain size; (c) continually depositing the semiconductor material on the substrate while cooling the substrate to a second temperature sufficient to cause the semiconductor material to form a second film layer deposited on the first film layer and having a second grain size smaller than the first grain size; and (d) raising the substrate temperature, while either continuing or not continuing to deposit semiconductor material to form a third film layer, to thereby anneal the film layers into a single layer having favorable efficiency characteristics in photovoltaic applications. A preferred semiconductor material is cadmium telluride deposited on a glass/tin oxide substrate already having thereon a film layer of cadmium sulfide.

  10. MODELING DEPOSITION OF INHALED PARTICLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Modeling Deposition of Inhaled Particles: ABSTRACT

    The mathematical modeling of the deposition and distribution of inhaled aerosols within human lungs is an invaluable tool in predicting both the health risks associated with inhaled environmental aerosols and the therapeut...

  11. Deposited films with improved microstructures

    DOEpatents

    Patten, James W. (Richland, WA); Moss, Ronald W. (Richland, WA); McClanahan, Edwin D. (Richland, WA)

    1984-01-01

    Methods for improving microstructures of line-of-sight deposited films are described. Columnar growth defects ordinarily produced by geometrical shadowing during deposition of such films are eliminated without resorting to post-deposition thermal or mechanical treatments. The native, as-deposited coating qualities, including homogeneity, fine grain size, and high coating-to-substrate adherence, can thus be retained. The preferred method includes the steps of emitting material from a source toward a substrate to deposit a coating non-uniformly on the substrate surface, removing a portion of the coating uniformly over the surface, again depositing material onto the surface, but from a different direction, and repeating the foregoing steps. The quality of line-of-sight deposited films such as those produced by sputtering, progressively deteriorates as the angle of incidence between the flux and the surface becomes increasingly acute. Depositing non-uniformly, so that the coating becomes progressively thinner as quality deteriorates, followed by uniformly removing some of the coating, such as by resputtering, eliminates the poor quality portions, leaving only high quality portions of the coating. Subsequently sputtering from a different direction applies a high quality coating to other regions of the surface. Such steps can be performed either simultaneously or sequentially to apply coatings of a uniformly high quality, closed microstructure to three-dimensional or large planar surfaces.

  12. Ni-Co laterite deposits

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marsh, Erin E.; Anderson, Eric D.

    2011-01-01

    Nickel-cobalt (Ni-Co) laterite deposits are an important source of nickel (Ni). Currently, there is a decline in magmatic Ni-bearing sulfide lode deposit resources. New efforts to develop an alternative source of Ni, particularly with improved metallurgy processes, make the Ni-Co laterites an important exploration target in anticipation of the future demand for Ni. This deposit model provides a general description of the geology and mineralogy of Ni-Co laterite deposits, and contains discussion of the influences of climate, geomorphology (relief), drainage, tectonism, structure, and protolith on the development of favorable weathering profiles. This model of Ni-Co laterite deposits represents part of the U.S. Geological Survey Mineral Resources Program's effort to update the existing models to be used for an upcoming national mineral resource assessment.

  13. The short-term effects of ecological restoration on carbon dioxide fluxes from a Molinia caerulea dominated marginal upland blanket bog.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gatis, Naomi; Luscombe, David; Grand-Clement, Emilie; Hartley, Iain; Anderson, Karen; Brazier, Richard E.

    2014-05-01

    Peat soils in the UK represent a significant long-term carbon store. Despite this the annual imbalance between uptake and release is small and susceptible to change in response to land management, atmospheric deposition and climate change. The shallow marginal peatlands of Exmoor, southwest England, have historically been subject to extensive drainage and are known to be vulnerable to future changes in climate as they lie at the southern edge of the ombrotrophic peatland climatic envelope. However little is known about the processes that drive CO2 fluxes from degraded Molinia caerulea dominated upland mires or the potential effect that restoration through drainage blocking will have. The Mires-on-the-Moors project (www.upstreamthinking.org), funded by South West Water aims to restore the eco-hydrological functionality to over 2000 hectares of drained mire by April 2015. We hypothesised that such mire restoration will return these upland mires to peat forming/carbon sequestering systems. Partitioned below-ground respiration fluxes as well as biotic and abiotic variables, were collected on various dates in 2012 and 2013 along six transects adjacent to three pairs of drainage ditches. One of each pair was restored by blocking with peat dams in spring 2013 whilst the other remained unrestored to act as a control. Monitoring locations were arranged along transects to investigate the spatial variation in gas fluxes with respect to the drainage ditches. By partitioning below-ground fluxes it was possible to monitor root-derived (autotrophic) and more importantly soil-derived (heterotrophic) respiration providing an insight to the effects of ditch blocking on the long term carbon store. Here we present CO2 fluxes for the growing seasons at two critical stages in the restoration process: (a) immediately pre-restoration and (b) immediately post- restoration, and discuss the temporally and spatially variable processes driving below-ground CO2 fluxes. Respiration rates were comparatively low in these shallow humified peats, with daily mean total, heterotrophic and autotrophic respiration reached 1.34, 0.60 and 0.23 ?molCm-2s-1 respectively. As expected soil temperature had a significant control on respiration rates, once this was accounted for water level showed a weak effect on total and heterotrophic respiration. Distinguishing the effects of ecological restoration between a wetter baseline period and a drier post-restoration period had its challenges. However, by expressing the respiration rates in the restored sites as a proportion of that observed in the control sites, the confounding effect of climate variability could be accounted for. This allowed us to determine that heterotrophic respiration decreased at the restored sites comparative to the control sites following restoration, indicating the immediate effect of restoration was to reduce decomposition of the peat store, with implications for carbon sequestration rates.

  14. Deposition + Erosion = Textures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released 7 May 2003

    Toward the westernmost extent of the Medusae Fossae Formation, a 5000+ km long belt of eroding sediments, the interleaving of erosional surfaces produces dramatic textural variations. In the lower third of this image, the cross-hatched MFF layer is being stripped back from a surface that was already heavily eroded before the MFF layer was deposited. Also, note the sinuous and, in places, dendritic ridges that are either linear dunes or inverted channels.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -3.9, Longitude 154.1East (205.9). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  15. TULSA UNIVERSITY PARAFFIN DEPOSITION PROJECTS

    SciTech Connect

    Michael Volk; Cem Sarica

    2003-10-01

    As oil and gas production moves to deeper and colder water, subsea multiphase production systems become critical for economic feasibility. It will also become increasingly imperative to adequately identify the conditions for paraffin precipitation and predict paraffin deposition rates to optimize the design and operation of these multiphase production systems. Although several oil companies have paraffin deposition predictive capabilities for single-phase oil flow, these predictive capabilities are not suitable for the multiphase flow conditions encountered in most flowlines and wellbores. For deepwater applications in the Gulf of Mexico, it is likely that multiphase production streams consisting of crude oil, produced water and gas will be transported in a single multiphase pipeline to minimize capital cost and complexity at the mudline. Existing single-phase (crude oil) paraffin deposition predictive tools are clearly inadequate to accurately design these pipelines because they do not account for the second and third phases, namely, produced water and gas. The objective of this program is to utilize the current test facilities at The University of Tulsa, as well as member company expertise, to accomplish the following: enhance our understanding of paraffin deposition in single and two-phase (gas-oil) flows; conduct focused experiments to better understand various aspects of deposition physics; and, utilize knowledge gained from experimental modeling studies to enhance the computer programs developed in the previous JIP for predicting paraffin deposition in single and two-phase flow environments. These refined computer models will then be tested against field data from member company pipelines. The following deliverables are scheduled during the first three projects of the program: (1) Single-Phase Studies, with three different black oils, which will yield an enhanced computer code for predicting paraffin deposition in deepwater and surface pipelines. (2) Two-Phase Studies, with a focus on heat transfer and paraffin deposition at various pipe inclinations, which will be used to enhance the paraffin deposition code for gas-liquid flow in pipes. (3) Deposition Physics and Water Impact Studies, which will address the aging process, improve our ability to characterize paraffin deposits and enhance our understanding of the role water plays in paraffin deposition in deepwater pipelines. As in the previous two studies, knowledge gained in this suite of studies will be integrated into a state-of-the-art three-phase paraffin deposition computer program.

  16. Sputter Deposition of Metallic Sponges

    SciTech Connect

    Jankowski, A F; Hayes, J P

    2002-01-18

    Metallic films are grown with a sponge-like morphology in the as-deposited condition using planar magnetron sputtering. The morphology of the deposit is characterized by metallic continuity in three dimensions with continuous porosity on the sub-micron scale. The stabilization of the metallic sponge is directly correlated with a limited range for the sputter deposition parameters of working gas pressure and substrate temperature. This sponge-like morphology augments the features as generally understood in the classic zone models of growth for physical vapor deposits. Nickel coatings are deposited with working gas pressures up to 4 Pa and for substrate temperatures up to 1100 K. The morphology of the deposits is examined in plan and in cross-section with scanning electron microscopy. The parametric range of gas pressure and substrate temperature (relative to absolute melt point) for the deposition processing under which the metallic sponges are produced appear universal for many metals, as for example, including gold, silver, and aluminum.

  17. 24 CFR 26.20 - Depositions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Depositions. 26.20 Section 26.20... PROCEDURES Hearings Before Hearing Officers Discovery 26.20 Depositions. (a) Taking oral deposition. A party may take the oral deposition of any person. Reasonable written notice of deposition shall...

  18. Atmospheric Mercury Deposition Monitoring National Atmospheric Deposition Program (NADP)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Atmospheric Deposition Program (NADP) developed and operates a collaborative network of atmospheric mercury monitoring sites based in North America the Atmospheric Mercury Network (AMNet). The justification for the network was growing interest and demand from many ...

  19. Jet aircraft fuel system deposits

    SciTech Connect

    Hazlett, R.N.; Hall, J.M.

    1981-03-01

    Deposits samples were from the valve cavity of a fuel nozzle of a CF6-50A engine, from the fuel manifold adjacent to the combustor nozzles of a TR-30 engine, fuel test devices, and heat exchange tubes, operated in the laboratories of the Naval Air Propulsion Center and the Air Force Aero Propulsion Laboratory. Carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen and oxygen in the deposits were determined with a Perkin Elmer Elemental Analyzer. Sulfur was determined on a separate sample by modifying ASTM method D3120-75. The high amount of oxygen, nitrogen and sulfur found in the deposits is noteworthy. The data reported generally corroborates the information from the literature. All of the deposits from the engines and the test devices point to the importance of compounds containing hereto atoms. The importance of oxidation in triggering solids formation has been reviewed. It would appear that the trace primary oxidation reactions occurring in a fuel system would be insufficient to give the high concentration of oxygen in the deposit. However, if the compounds undergoing oxidation were oxygen-containing compounds rather than hydrocarbons the high oxygen concentrations in the deposit would be more reasonable. The high enhancement factors observed, causes one to conclude that some nitrogen and sulfur compounds found in fuels are very susceptible to oxidation and subsequent deposit formation. The high concentrations of hereto atoms implies that the deposits have highly polar characteristics. Since such material would have little attraction for the non-polar fuel, the insolubility of deposits may be due primarily to polarity differences rather than high molecular weight.

  20. Plasma Deposition of Amorphous Silicon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calcote, H. F.

    1982-01-01

    Strongly adhering films of silicon are deposited directly on such materials as Pyrex and Vycor (or equivalent materials) and aluminum by a non-equilibrium plasma jet. Amorphous silicon films are formed by decomposition of silicon tetrachloride or trichlorosilane in the plasma. Plasma-jet technique can also be used to deposit an adherent silicon film on aluminum from silane and to dope such films with phosphorus. Ability to deposit silicon films on such readily available, inexpensive substrates could eventually lead to lower cost photovoltaic cells.

  1. Particle deposition in ventilation ducts

    SciTech Connect

    Sippola, Mark R.

    2002-09-01

    Exposure to airborne particles is detrimental to human health and indoor exposures dominate total exposures for most people. The accidental or intentional release of aerosolized chemical and biological agents within or near a building can lead to exposures of building occupants to hazardous agents and costly building remediation. Particle deposition in heating, ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems may significantly influence exposures to particles indoors, diminish HVAC performance and lead to secondary pollutant release within buildings. This dissertation advances the understanding of particle behavior in HVAC systems and the fates of indoor particles by means of experiments and modeling. Laboratory experiments were conducted to quantify particle deposition rates in horizontal ventilation ducts using real HVAC materials. Particle deposition experiments were conducted in steel and internally insulated ducts at air speeds typically found in ventilation ducts, 2-9 m/s. Behaviors of monodisperse particles with diameters in the size range 1-16 {micro}m were investigated. Deposition rates were measured in straight ducts with a fully developed turbulent flow profile, straight ducts with a developing turbulent flow profile, in duct bends and at S-connector pieces located at duct junctions. In straight ducts with fully developed turbulence, experiments showed deposition rates to be highest at duct floors, intermediate at duct walls, and lowest at duct ceilings. Deposition rates to a given surface increased with an increase in particle size or air speed. Deposition was much higher in internally insulated ducts than in uninsulated steel ducts. In most cases, deposition in straight ducts with developing turbulence, in duct bends and at S-connectors at duct junctions was higher than in straight ducts with fully developed turbulence. Measured deposition rates were generally higher than predicted by published models. A model incorporating empirical equations based on the experimental measurements was applied to evaluate particle losses in supply and return duct runs. Model results suggest that duct losses are negligible for particle sizes less than 1 {micro}m and complete for particle sizes greater than 50 {micro}m. Deposition to insulated ducts, horizontal duct floors and bends are predicted to control losses in duct systems. When combined with models for HVAC filtration and deposition to indoor surfaces to predict the ultimate fates of particles within buildings, these results suggest that ventilation ducts play only a small role in determining indoor particle concentrations, especially when HVAC filtration is present. However, the measured and modeled particle deposition rates are expected to be important for ventilation system contamination.

  2. Static substrate deposition: Toward longer time scale deposition simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grochola, Gregory; Snook, Ian K.; Russo, Salvy P.

    2011-10-01

    We report on the development of a new method for simulating the deposition of atoms onto surfaces, which allows for longer time scales and/or larger system sizes. The method involves simulating only the deposited material on a purely static substrate and corrects for the missing thermal fluctuations and energy exchange effects that surface atoms experience as a result of a static substrate. This method may be viewed as an intermediate approximation between the discrete kinetic Monte Carlo and the full molecular dynamics (MD) methods, because it retains the full trajectory dynamics for the deposited atoms. The method can achieve speed-up times of approximately two orders of magnitude for submonolayer depositions on large simulation substrates. We first apply the method to an ideal prototypical system involving the deposition of Pt material on Pt substrates with two-dimensional Ag monolayer substrate patterns, where we show that it produces nanostructures and small cluster diffusion behavior almost identical to that observed during full MD simulations. As an ideal second application of the method, we use it to deposit Pt and Au onto a reconstructed Au(111) surface representative of a herringbone reconstruction and comment on the findings. Finally, we comment on the limitations and possible future improvements.

  3. Induction of indirect N2O and NO emissions by atmospheric nitrogen deposition in (semi-)natural ecosystems in Switzerland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bühlmann, Tobias; Hiltbrunner, Erika; Körner, Christian; Rihm, Beat; Achermann, Beat

    2015-02-01

    During the past century atmospheric nitrogen deposition increased dramatically due to human activities worldwide. Currently, it exceeds the critical load for nitrogen (CLN) in over 90% of the Swiss forest area and raised bogs, in 80% of all fens and in 30% of species-rich grassland areas in Switzerland. Indirect gaseous nitrogen losses (HNO2, NO, N2O, N2) from these soils induced by atmospheric nitrogen deposition are likely to be substantial. However, the approaches to estimate these indirect N emissions provided by the international organisations (UNFCCC, IPCC; UNECE, EMEP/EEA) are based on agricultural data only. They may not be suitable to estimate the indirect emissions from (semi-)natural ecosystems such as forests, extensively used grassland, and wetlands. The present study aims at calculating ecosystem-specific annual indirect N2O and NO emissions of (semi-)natural ecosystems in Switzerland for the years 1990, 2000, 2007 and 2010 using a simple linear model similar to the international guidelines. The approach here is based on empirical data for (semi-)natural ecosystems, derived from a literature survey, is driven by atmospheric nitrogen deposition and is ecosystem-specific with a high spatial resolution of 100 m × 100 m. Our results show that such ecosystems represent a strong source of indirect N emissions induced by atmospheric nitrogen deposition and emitted 1.61 ± 0.32 Gg N2O-N and 2.51 ± 0.53 Gg NO-N into the atmosphere in Switzerland in the year 2010, corresponding to 21% of the total Swiss N2O emissions and 10% of the NOx emissions. Thanks to the reduction of N emissions and thereby reduced atmospheric N deposition, the indirect N2O and NO emissions from (semi-)natural ecosystems are estimated to have been both reduced by c. 20% from 1990 to 2010. We conclude that the source strength for N2O and NO emissions of (semi-)natural ecosystems have been underestimated by the current approaches of IPCC and EMEP/EEA by a factor of 4.4 and 17, respectively. In regions and countries with a high fraction of (semi-)natural ecosystems, the approach offered here has the potential to improve the estimate of indirect N emissions substantially.

  4. Liquefaction in Deposits of River

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Liquefaction in recent deposits of San Lorenzo River caused cracking and differential settling of river levee southeast of Riverside Avenue Bridge. Bridge piers and the north abutment area were also damaged by liquefaction....

  5. Modeling Deposition of Inhaled Particles

    EPA Science Inventory

    The mathematical modeling of the deposition and distribution of inhaled aerosols within human lungs is an invaluable tool in predicting both the health risks associated with inhaled environmental aerosols and the therapeutic dose delivered by inhaled pharmacological drugs. Howeve...

  6. The zeolite deposits of Greece

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stamatakis, M.G.; Hall, A.; Hein, J.R.

    1996-01-01

    Zeolites are present in altered pyroclastic rocks at many localities in Greece, and large deposits of potential economic interest are present in three areas: (1) the Evros region of the province of Thrace in the north-eastern part of the Greek mainland; (2) the islands of Kimolos and Poliegos in the western Aegean; and (3) the island of Samos in the eastern Aegean Sea. The deposits in Thrace are of Eocene-Oligocene age and are rich in heulandite and/or clinoptilolite. Those of Kimolos and Poliegos are mainly Quaternary and are rich in mordenite. Those of Samos are Miocene, and are rich in clinoptilolite and/or analcime. The deposits in Thrace are believed to have formed in an open hydrological system by the action of meteoric water, and those of the western Aegean islands in a similar way but under conditions of high heat flow, whereas the deposits in Samos were formed in a saline-alkaline lake.

  7. WET DEPOSITION AND SNOWPACK MONITORING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Accurate measurement of snowfall is critical to the assessment of acidic deposition trends, particularly in areas where snow represents 30 percent or more of the annual precipitation. Such areas include the intermountain west, characterized by complex topography and meterology, h...

  8. Chemical enhancement of surface deposition

    DOEpatents

    Patch, Keith D. (Lexington, MA); Morgan, Dean T. (Sudbury, MA)

    1997-07-29

    A method and apparatus for increasing the deposition of ions onto a surface, such as the adsorption of uranium ions on the detecting surface of a radionuclide detector. The method includes the step of exposing the surface to a complexing agent, such as a phosphate ion solution, which has an affinity for the dissolved species to be deposited on the surface. This provides, for example, enhanced sensitivity of the radionuclide detector.

  9. Vapor deposition of hardened niobium

    DOEpatents

    Blocher, Jr., John M. (Columbus, OH); Veigel, Neil D. (Columbus, OH); Landrigan, Richard B. (Columbus, OH)

    1983-04-19

    A method of coating ceramic nuclear fuel particles containing a major amount of an actinide ceramic in which the particles are placed in a fluidized bed maintained at ca. 800.degree. to ca. 900.degree. C., and niobium pentachloride vapor and carbon tetrachloride vapor are led into the bed, whereby niobium metal is deposited on the particles and carbon is deposited interstitially within the niobium. Coating apparatus used in the method is also disclosed.

  10. Chemical enhancement of surface deposition

    DOEpatents

    Patch, K.D.; Morgan, D.T.

    1997-07-29

    A method and apparatus are disclosed for increasing the deposition of ions onto a surface, such as the adsorption of uranium ions on the detecting surface of a radionuclide detector. The method includes the step of exposing the surface to a complexing agent, such as a phosphate ion solution, which has an affinity for the dissolved species to be deposited on the surface. This provides, for example, enhanced sensitivity of the radionuclide detector. 16 figs.

  11. A Radon Progeny Deposition Model

    SciTech Connect

    Guiseppe, V. E.; Elliott, S. R.; Hime, A.; Rielage, K.; Westerdale, S.

    2011-04-27

    The next generation low-background detectors operating underground aim for unprecedented low levels of radioactive backgrounds. Although the radioactive decays of airborne radon (particularly {sup 222}Rn) and its subsequent progeny present in an experiment are potential backgrounds, also problematic is the deposition of radon progeny on detector materials. Exposure to radon at any stage of assembly of an experiment can result in surface contamination by progeny supported by the long half life (22 y) of {sup 210}Pb on sensitive locations of a detector. An understanding of the potential surface contamination from deposition will enable requirements of radon-reduced air and clean room environments for the assembly of low background experiments. It is known that there are a number of environmental factors that govern the deposition of progeny onto surfaces. However, existing models have not explored the impact of some environmental factors important for low background experiments. A test stand has been constructed to deposit radon progeny on various surfaces under a controlled environment in order to develop a deposition model. Results from this test stand and the resulting deposition model are presented.

  12. A radon progeny deposition model

    SciTech Connect

    Rielage, Keith; Elliott, Steven R; Hime, Andrew; Guiseppe, Vincente E; Westerdale, S.

    2010-12-01

    The next generation low-background detectors operating underground aim for unprecedented low levels of radioactive backgrounds. Although the radioactive decays of airborne radon (particularly {sup 222}Rn) and its subsequent progeny present in an experiment are potential backgrounds, also problematic is the deposition of radon progeny on detector materials. Exposure to radon at any stage of assembly of an experiment can result in surface contamination by progeny supported by the long half life (22 y) of {sup 210}Pb on sensitive locations of a detector. An understanding of the potential surface contamination from deposition will enable requirements of radon-reduced air and clean room environments for the assembly of low background experiments. It is known that there are a number of environmental factors that govern the deposition of progeny onto surfaces. However, existing models have not explored the impact of some environmental factors important for low background experiments. A test stand has been constructed to deposit radon progeny on various surfaces under a controlled environment in order to develop a deposition model. Results from this test stand and the resulting deposition model are presented.

  13. Nitrogen deposition in Mediterranean forests.

    PubMed

    Rod, F; Avila, A; Rodrigo, A

    2002-01-01

    Atmospheric deposition of inorganic nitrogen was studied at two forested sites in the Montseny mountains (northeast Spain), peripheral to the Barcelona conurbation, and at a nearby lowland town, using bulk deposition, wet-only deposition, throughfall, and dry deposition inferred from branch-washes and surrogate surfaces (metacrylate plates). Bulk deposition inputs of ammonium and nitrate did not show significant temporal trends over a 16-year period. Bulk inputs of inorganic N were moderate, ranging from 6 to 10 kg N ha(-1) year(-1) depending on the time period considered and the degree of site exposure to polluted air masses from the Barcelona conurbation. Large dry-sedimented particles played a minor role, since wet-only inputs were virtually identical to bulk inputs. On the contrary, branch- and plate-washes indicated substantial dry inputs of N gases and small particles. Total atmospheric deposition was estimated at 15-22 kg N ha(-1) year(-1), most of it being retained within the studied broadleaved evergreen forests. Ecosystem N availability is thus likely to be increasing in these forests. PMID:11939283

  14. Release of nitrous oxide and dinitrogen from a transition bog under drained and rewetted conditions due to denitrification: results from a [15N]nitrate-bromide double-tracer study.

    PubMed

    Tauchnitz, Nadine; Spott, Oliver; Russow, Rolf; Bernsdorf, Sabine; Glaser, Bruno; Meissner, Ralph

    2015-01-01

    Denitrification is well known being the most important nitrate-consuming process in water-logged peat soils, whereby the intermediate compound nitrous oxide (N(2)O) and the end product dinitrogen (N(2)) are ultimately released. The present study was aimed at evaluating the release of these gases (due to denitrification) from a nutrient-poor transition bog ecosystem under drained and three differently rewetted conditions at the field scale using a (15)N-tracer approach ([(15)N]nitrate application, 30?kg N ha(-1)) and a common closed-chamber technique. The drained site is characterized by a constant water table (WT) of -30?cm (here referred to as D30), while rewetted sites represent a constant WT of -15?cm, a constant WT of 0?cm (i.e. waterlogged), and an initial WT of 0?cm (which decreased slightly during the experiment), respectively, (here referred to as R15, R0, and R0(d), respectively). The highest N(2)O emissions were observed at D30 (291?g N(2)O-N m(-2) h(-1)) as well as at R0d (665?g N(2)O-N m(-2) h(-1)). At the rewetted peat sites with a constant WT (i.e. R15 and R0), considerably lower N2O emissions were observed (maximal 37?g N(2)O-N m(-2) h(-1)). Concerning N(2) only at the initially water-logged peat site R0d considerable release rates (up to 3110?g N(2)-N m(-2) h(-1)) were observed, while under drained conditions (D30) no N(2) emission and under rewetted conditions with a constant WT (R15 and R0) significantly lower N(2) release rates (maximal 668?g N(2)-N m(-2) h(-1)) could be detected. In addition, it has been found that natural WT fluctuations at rewetted peat sites, in particular a rapid drop down of the WT, can induce high emission rates for both N(2)O and N(2). PMID:25692907

  15. Metal film deposition by laser breakdown chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jervis, T. R.

    1985-01-01

    Dielectric breakdown of gas mixtures can be used to deposit homogeneous thin films by chemical vapor deposition with appropriate control of flow and pressure conditions to suppress gas phase nucleation and particle formation. Using a pulsed CO2 laser operating at 10.6 microns where there is no significant resonant absorption in any of the source gases, we have succeeded in depositing homogeneous films from several gas phase precursors by gas phase laser pyrolysis. Nickel and molybdenum from the respective carbonyls and tungsten from the hexafluoride have been examined to date. In each case the gas precursor is buffered to reduce the partial pressure of the reactants and to induce breakdown. The films are spectrally reflective and uniform over a large area. Films have been characterized by Auger electron spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, pull tests, and resistivity measurements. The highest quality films have resulted from the nickel depositions. Detailed X-ray diffraction analysis of these films yields a very small domain size (approx. 50 A) consistent with rapid quenching from the gas phase reaction zone. This analysis also shows nickel carbide formation consistent with the temperature of the reaction zone and the Auger electron spectroscopy results which show some carbon and oxygen incorporation (8% and 1% respectively). Gas phase transport and condensation of the molybdenum carbonyl results in substantial carbon and oxygen contamination of the molybdenum films requiring heated substrates, a requirement not consistent with the goals of the program to maximize the quench rate of the deposition. Results from tungsten deposition experiments representing a reduction chemistry instead of the decomposition chemistry involved in the carbonyl experiments are also reported.

  16. Deposition of ozone to tundra

    SciTech Connect

    Jacob, D.J.; Fan, S.M.; Wofsy, S.C.; Spiro, P.A.; Bakwin, P.S.; Ritter, J.A.; Browell, E.V.; Gregory, G.L.; Fitzjarrald, D.R.; Moore, K.E. NASA, Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA New York State Univ., Albany )

    1992-10-01

    Eddy correlation measurements of O3 deposition fluxes to tundra during the Arctic Boundary Layer Expedition (ABLE 3A) are reported. The mean O[sub 3] deposition velocity was 0.24 cm/s in the daytime and 0.12 cm/s at night. The day-to-day difference in deposition velocity was driven by both atmospheric stability and surface reactivity. The mean surface resistance to O[sub 3] deposition was 2.6 s/cm in the daytime and 3.4 s/cm at night. The relatively low surface resistance at night is attributed to light-insensitive uptake of O[sub 3] at dry upland tundra surfaces. The small day-tonight difference in surface resistance is attributed to additional stomatal uptake by wet meadow tundra plants in the daytime. The mean O[sub 3] deposition flux to the world north of 60 deg N in July-August is estimated at 8.2 x 10 exp 10 molecules/sq cm/s. Suppression of photochemical loss by small anthropogenic inputs of nitrogen oxides could have a major effect on O[sub 3] concentrations in the summertime Arctic troposphere. 34 refs.

  17. Deposition of ozone to tundra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacob, D. J.; Fan, S.-M.; Wofsy, S. C.; Spiro, P. A.; Bakwin, P. S.; Ritter, J. A.; Browell, E. V.; Gregory, G. L.; Fitzjarrald, D. R.; Moore, K. E.

    1992-01-01

    Eddy correlation measurements of O3 deposition fluxes to tundra during the Arctic Boundary Layer Expedition (ABLE 3A) are reported. The mean O3 deposition velocity was 0.24 cm/s in the daytime and 0.12 cm/s at night. The day-to-day difference in deposition velocity was driven by both atmospheric stability and surface reactivity. The mean surface resistance to O3 deposition was 2.6 s/cm in the daytime and 3.4 s/cm at night. The relatively low surface resistance at night is attributed to light-insensitive uptake of O3 at dry upland tundra surfaces. The small day-tonight difference in surface resistance is attributed to additional stomatal uptake by wet meadow tundra plants in the daytime. The mean O3 deposition flux to the world north of 60 deg N in July-August is estimated at 8.2 x 10 exp 10 molecules/sq cm/s. Suppression of photochemical loss by small anthropogenic inputs of nitrogen oxides could have a major effect on O3 concentrations in the summertime Arctic troposphere.

  18. Particle Deposition During Airway Closure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tai, Cheng-Feng; Halpern, David; Grotberg, James B.

    2011-11-01

    Inhaled aerosol particles deposit in the lung and may be from environmental, toxic, or medical therapy sources. While much research focuses on inspiratory deposition, primarily at airway bifurcations due to inertial impaction, there are other mechanisms that allow the particles to reach the airway surface, such as gravitational settling and diffusion depending on particle size. We introduce a new mechanism not previously studied, i.e. aerosol deposition from airway closure. The airways are lined with a liquid layer. Due to the surface tension driven instability, a liquid plug can form from this layer which blocks the airway. This process of airway closure tends to occur toward the end of expiration. In this study, the efficiency of the impaction of the particles during airway closure will be investigated. The particles will be released from the upstream of the airway and convected by the air flow and deposited onto the closing liquid layer. We solve the governing equations using a finite volume approach in conjunction with a sharp interface method for the interfaces. Once the velocity field of the gas flow is obtained, the path of the particles will be calculated and the efficiency of the deposition can be estimated. We acknowledge support from the National Institutes of Health grant number NIH HL85156.

  19. Particle Deposition During Airway Closure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tai, Cheng-Feng; Halpern, David; Grotberg, James

    2010-11-01

    Inhaled aerosol particles deposit in the lung and may be from environmental, toxic, or medical therapy sources. While much research focuses on inspiratory deposition, primarily at airway bifurcations due to inertial impaction, there are other mechanisms that allow the particles to reach the airway surface, such as gravitational settling and diffusion depending on particle size. We introduce a new mechanism not previously studied, i.e. aerosol deposition from airway closure. The airways are lined with a liquid layer. Due to the surface tension driven instability, a liquid plug can form from this layer which blocks the airway. This process of airway closure tends to occur toward the end of expiration. In this study, the efficiency of the impaction of the particles during airway closure will be investigated. The particles will be released from the upstream of the airway and convected by the air flow and deposited onto the closing liquid layer. We solve the governing equations using a finite volume approach in conjunction with a sharp interface method for the interfaces. Once the velocity field of the gas flow is obtained, the path of the particles will be calculated and the efficiency of the deposition can be estimated.

  20. Elucidating effects of atmospheric deposition and peat decomposition processes on mercury accumulation rates in a northern Minnesota peatland over last 10,000 cal years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nater, E. A.; Furman, O.; Toner, B. M.; Sebestyen, S. D.; Tfaily, M. M.; Chanton, J.; Fissore, C.; McFarlane, K. J.; Hanson, P. J.; Iversen, C. M.; Kolka, R. K.

    2014-12-01

    Climate change has the potential to affect mercury (Hg), sulfur (S) and carbon (C) stores and cycling in northern peatland ecosystems (NPEs). SPRUCE (Spruce and Peatland Responses Under Climate and Environmental change) is an interdisciplinary study of the effects of elevated temperature and CO2 enrichment on NPEs. Peat cores (0-3.0 m) were collected from 16 large plots located on the S1 peatland (an ombrotrophic bog treed with Picea mariana and Larix laricina) in August, 2012 for baseline characterization before the experiment begins. Peat samples were analyzed at depth increments for total Hg, bulk density, humification indices, and elemental composition. Net Hg accumulation rates over the last 10,000 years were derived from Hg concentrations and peat accumulation rates based on peat depth chronology established using 14C and 13C dating of peat cores. Historic Hg deposition rates are being modeled from pre-industrial deposition rates in S1 scaled by regional lake sediment records. Effects of peatland processes and factors (hydrology, decomposition, redox chemistry, vegetative changes, microtopography) on the biogeochemistry of Hg, S, and other elements are being assessed by comparing observed elemental depth profiles with accumulation profiles predicted solely from atmospheric deposition. We are using principal component analyses and cluster analyses to elucidate relationships between humification indices, peat physical properties, and inorganic and organic geochemistry data to interpret the main processes controlling net Hg accumulation and elemental concentrations in surface and subsurface peat layers. These findings are critical to predicting how climate change will affect future accumulation of Hg as well as existing Hg stores in NPE, and for providing reference baselines for SPRUCE future investigations.

  1. 46 CFR 287.11 - Time deposits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Time deposits. 287.11 Section 287.11 Shipping MARITIME... OF CONSTRUCTION RESERVE FUNDS 287.11 Time deposits. Deposits in the construction reserve fund not invested in securities may be placed in time deposits when, in the judgment of the taxpayer, it...

  2. 46 CFR 287.11 - Time deposits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Time deposits. 287.11 Section 287.11 Shipping MARITIME... OF CONSTRUCTION RESERVE FUNDS 287.11 Time deposits. Deposits in the construction reserve fund not invested in securities may be placed in time deposits when, in the judgment of the taxpayer, it...

  3. 46 CFR 287.11 - Time deposits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Time deposits. 287.11 Section 287.11 Shipping MARITIME... OF CONSTRUCTION RESERVE FUNDS 287.11 Time deposits. Deposits in the construction reserve fund not invested in securities may be placed in time deposits when, in the judgment of the taxpayer, it...

  4. 24 CFR 891.635 - Security deposits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Security deposits. 891.635 Section... Assistance 891.635 Security deposits. The general requirements for security deposits on assisted units are... a security deposit equal to one month's rent payable by the family. (b) The Borrower shall...

  5. 16 CFR 1605.7 - Depositions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... taken by deposition at any stage of any investigation. Such depositions may be taken before any person... writing by the person taking the deposition or under such person's direction and shall then be submitted to the deponent for signature unless the deponent waives the right to sign the deposition....

  6. 16 CFR 1605.7 - Depositions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... taken by deposition at any stage of any investigation. Such depositions may be taken before any person... writing by the person taking the deposition or under such person's direction and shall then be submitted to the deponent for signature unless the deponent waives the right to sign the deposition....

  7. 16 CFR 1605.7 - Depositions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... taken by deposition at any stage of any investigation. Such depositions may be taken before any person... writing by the person taking the deposition or under such person's direction and shall then be submitted to the deponent for signature unless the deponent waives the right to sign the deposition....

  8. 29 CFR 18.22 - Depositions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Depositions. 18.22 Section 18.22 Labor Office of the... ADMINISTRATIVE LAW JUDGES General 18.22 Depositions. (a) When, how, and by whom taken. The deposition of any witness may be taken at any stage of the proceeding at reasonable times. Depositions may be taken by...

  9. 12 CFR 19.171 - Deposition subpoenas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Deposition subpoenas. 19.171 Section 19.171... PROCEDURE Discovery Depositions and Subpoenas 19.171 Deposition subpoenas. (a) Issuance. At the request of... at a discovery deposition under paragraph (a) of this section. The attendance of a witness may...

  10. 39 CFR 955.17 - Depositions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Depositions. 955.17 Section 955.17 Postal Service... APPEALS 955.17 Depositions. (a) When depositions permitted. After an appeal has been docketed and... for good cause shown, order the taking of testimony of any person by deposition upon oral...

  11. 39 CFR 3001.33 - Depositions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Depositions. 3001.33 Section 3001.33 Postal... Applicability 3001.33 Depositions. (a) When permissible. The testimony of a witness may be taken by deposition... the hearing is closed. An authorization to take the deposition of a witness will be issued only if...

  12. 27 CFR 71.125 - Depositions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Depositions. 71.125... Miscellaneous 71.125 Depositions. The administrative law judge may take or order the taking of depositions by... testimony shall be reduced to writing by the person taking the deposition, or under his direction, and...

  13. 30 CFR 44.25 - Depositions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Depositions. 44.25 Section 44.25 Mineral... Depositions. (a) Purpose. For reasons of unavailability or for purpose of discovery, the testimony of any witness may be taken by deposition. (b) Form. Depositions may be taken before any person having the...

  14. 16 CFR 2.10 - Depositions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Depositions. 2.10 Section 2.10 Commercial... Inquiries; Investigations; Compulsory Processes 2.10 Depositions. In investigations other than those... taken by deposition at any stage of such investigation. Such depositions may be taken before any...

  15. 31 CFR 15.737-22 - Depositions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Depositions. 15.737-22 Section 15.737... INTEREST Administrative Enforcement Proceedings 15.737-22 Depositions. Depositions for use at a hearing.... Depositions may be taken upon oral or written interrogatories, upon not less than 10 days' written notice...

  16. 39 CFR 3001.33 - Depositions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Depositions. 3001.33 Section 3001.33 Postal... Applicability 3001.33 Depositions. (a) When permissible. The testimony of a witness may be taken by deposition... the hearing is closed. An authorization to take the deposition of a witness will be issued only if...

  17. 45 CFR 501.5 - Depositions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Depositions. 501.5 Section 501.5 Public Welfare..., DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE RULES OF PRACTICE SUBPOENAS, DEPOSITIONS, AND OATHS 501.5 Depositions. (a) Application to take. (1) An application to take a deposition must be in writing setting forth the reason...

  18. 39 CFR 955.17 - Depositions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Depositions. 955.17 Section 955.17 Postal Service... APPEALS 955.17 Depositions. (a) When depositions permitted. After an appeal has been docketed and... for good cause shown, order the taking of testimony of any person by deposition upon oral...

  19. 29 CFR 18.22 - Depositions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Depositions. 18.22 Section 18.22 Labor Office of the... ADMINISTRATIVE LAW JUDGES General 18.22 Depositions. (a) When, how, and by whom taken. The deposition of any witness may be taken at any stage of the proceeding at reasonable times. Depositions may be taken by...

  20. 12 CFR 19.171 - Deposition subpoenas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Deposition subpoenas. 19.171 Section 19.171... PROCEDURE Discovery Depositions and Subpoenas 19.171 Deposition subpoenas. (a) Issuance. At the request of... at a discovery deposition under paragraph (a) of this section. The attendance of a witness may...

  1. 19 CFR 210.28 - Depositions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Depositions. 210.28 Section 210.28 Customs Duties... ADJUDICATION AND ENFORCEMENT Discovery and Compulsory Process 210.28 Depositions. (a) When depositions may be... investigation, any party may take the testimony of any person, including a party, by deposition upon...

  2. 12 CFR 622.10 - Depositions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Depositions. 622.10 Section 622.10 Banks and... Formal Hearings 622.10 Depositions. (a) Application to take deposition. Any party desiring to take the deposition of any person shall make written application to the presiding officer setting forth the name...

  3. 7 CFR 47.16 - Depositions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Depositions. 47.16 Section 47.16 Agriculture... Depositions. (a) Application for taking deposition. Upon the application of a party to the proceeding, the... of testimony by deposition. The application shall be in writing, shall be filed with the...

  4. 30 CFR 44.25 - Depositions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Depositions. 44.25 Section 44.25 Mineral... Depositions. (a) Purpose. For reasons of unavailability or for purpose of discovery, the testimony of any witness may be taken by deposition. (b) Form. Depositions may be taken before any person having the...

  5. 15 CFR 904.241 - Depositions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Depositions. 904.241 Section 904.241... and Appeal Procedures Discovery 904.241 Depositions. (a) Notice. If a motion for deposition is granted, and unless otherwise ordered by the Judge, the party taking the deposition of any person...

  6. 22 CFR 92.49 - Deposition defined.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE LEGAL AND RELATED SERVICES NOTARIAL AND RELATED SERVICES Depositions and Letters Rogatory 92.49 Deposition defined. A deposition is the testimony of a witness taken in... interrogatories, oral or written. (For the distinction between a deposition and an affidavit see 92.22.)...

  7. 25 CFR 571.11 - Depositions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Depositions. 571.11 Section 571.11 Indians NATIONAL... INVESTIGATIONS Subpoenas and Depositions 571.11 Depositions. (a) Any party wishing to depose a witness shall... shown. A Commissioner or a presiding official may order testimony to be taken by deposition in...

  8. 22 CFR 18.17 - Depositions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Depositions. 18.17 Section 18.17 Foreign... Administrative Enforcement Proceedings 18.17 Depositions. Depositions for use at a hearing may, with the... Director General or the respondent or their duly authorized representatives. Depositions may be taken...

  9. 31 CFR 15.737-22 - Depositions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Depositions. 15.737-22 Section 15.737... INTEREST Administrative Enforcement Proceedings 15.737-22 Depositions. Depositions for use at a hearing.... Depositions may be taken upon oral or written interrogatories, upon not less than 10 days' written notice...

  10. 22 CFR 92.49 - Deposition defined.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE LEGAL AND RELATED SERVICES NOTARIAL AND RELATED SERVICES Depositions and Letters Rogatory 92.49 Deposition defined. A deposition is the testimony of a witness taken in... interrogatories, oral or written. (For the distinction between a deposition and an affidavit see 92.22.)...

  11. 12 CFR 622.10 - Depositions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Depositions. 622.10 Section 622.10 Banks and... Formal Hearings 622.10 Depositions. (a) Application to take deposition. Any party desiring to take the deposition of any person shall make written application to the presiding officer setting forth the name...

  12. 45 CFR 501.5 - Depositions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Depositions. 501.5 Section 501.5 Public Welfare..., DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE RULES OF PRACTICE SUBPOENAS, DEPOSITIONS, AND OATHS 501.5 Depositions. (a) Application to take. (1) An application to take a deposition must be in writing setting forth the reason...

  13. 27 CFR 71.125 - Depositions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Depositions. 71.125... Miscellaneous 71.125 Depositions. The administrative law judge may take or order the taking of depositions by... testimony shall be reduced to writing by the person taking the deposition, or under his direction, and...

  14. 25 CFR 571.11 - Depositions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Depositions. 571.11 Section 571.11 Indians NATIONAL... INVESTIGATIONS Subpoenas and Depositions 571.11 Depositions. (a) Any party wishing to depose a witness shall... shown. A Commissioner or a presiding official may order testimony to be taken by deposition in...

  15. 22 CFR 18.17 - Depositions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Depositions. 18.17 Section 18.17 Foreign... Administrative Enforcement Proceedings 18.17 Depositions. Depositions for use at a hearing may, with the... Director General or the respondent or their duly authorized representatives. Depositions may be taken...

  16. 16 CFR 2.10 - Depositions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Depositions. 2.10 Section 2.10 Commercial... Inquiries; Investigations; Compulsory Processes 2.10 Depositions. In investigations other than those... taken by deposition at any stage of such investigation. Such depositions may be taken before any...

  17. 46 CFR 287.11 - Time deposits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Time deposits. 287.11 Section 287.11 Shipping MARITIME... OF CONSTRUCTION RESERVE FUNDS § 287.11 Time deposits. Deposits in the construction reserve fund not invested in securities may be placed in time deposits when, in the judgment of the taxpayer, it...

  18. Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation Semiannual Regulatory Agenda

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-20

    ... [The Regulatory Plan and Unified Agenda of Federal Regulatory and Deregulatory Actions] Part XX Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation Semiannual Regulatory Agenda ] FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION (FDIC) FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION 12 CFR Ch. III AGENCY: Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation. ACTION: Semiannual regulatory...

  19. Acid deposition and forest decline

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, A.H.; Siccama, T.G.

    1983-01-01

    The available evidence does not show a clear cause and effect relationship between acid deposition and forest decline and dieback in the US. The second of two articles examines soil and vegetation changes, summarizes the theories on spruce and fir dieback in Central Europe, and assesses the possible natural and manmade causes. The location, topography and other characteristics of the high-elevation forests of eastern North America cause them to be receptors of high levels of acid deposition and airborn trace metals. The authors find several possible pathways for acid deposition to contribute to spruce mortality, but none are supported by convincing evidence. However, there is evidence for the triggering effect of drought in a situation of multiple stresses. 55 references, 13 figures, 1 table.

  20. Io - A surface evaporite deposit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fanale, F. P.; Johnson, T. V.; Matson, D. L.

    1974-01-01

    A model is suggested for Io's surface composition involving evaporite salt deposits, rich in sodium and sulfur. According to this model, these deposits were produced as a result of the migration of salt-saturated aqueous solutions to Io's surface from a warm or hot interior followed by loss of the water to space. This model satisfies cosmochemical constraints based on Io's initial composition, current density, and thermal history. Salt-rich assemblages are easily derivable from the leaching of carbonaceous chondritic material. The chemical and optical properties of such deposits, after modification by irradiation, can be used to explain Io's overall albedo and spectral reflectance, its dark reddish poles, and the observed sodium emission as well as or better than other currently suggested materials.

  1. Cathodic Arc Deposition of Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Ian G.

    1998-08-01

    Cathodic arc deposition is a plasma-based technology for the fabrication of films. The process can be carried out either at high vacuum or in a low pressure gaseous environment, and films can be formed for example of metals, ceramics, diamond-like carbon, some semiconductors and superconductors, and more. The plasma stream can be filtered to remove microdroplet contamination, and the ion energy can be controlled by substrate bias, thereby transforming the straightforward deposition method into hybrids with other surface modification processes such as ion beam-assisted deposition, ion beam mixing, and ion implantation. The method provides a versatile and powerful plasma too