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1

THE IMPACTS OF URBANIZATION/URBAN DEVELOPMENT IN THE CLIMATE OF PUERTO RICO  

E-print Network

of this change might be related to urbanization. Long-term weather data, digital maps, Geographic InformationTHE IMPACTS OF URBANIZATION/URBAN DEVELOPMENT IN THE CLIMATE OF PUERTO RICO Angel R. Torres analysis of century-scale climate change for Puerto Rico was done to assess the degree to which some

Gilbes, Fernando

2

Impact of Technological Developments on Urban Form and Travel Behaviour  

Microsoft Academic Search

KUMAR A. (1990) Impact of technological developments on urban form and travel behaviour, Reg. Studies24, 137–148. The growth and diffusion of new information technologies in cities are transforming the structural and spatial relationships between the residence and the workplace with a significant impact on commuting behaviour. This paper uses the Nationwide Personal Transportation Survey data for the years 1977 and

Ajay Kumar

1990-01-01

3

Process and impact evaluation of the Greater Christchurch Urban Development Strategy Health Impact Assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: despite health impact assessment (HIA) being increasingly widely used internationally, fundamental questions about its impact on decision-making, implementation and practices remain. In 2005 a collaboration between public health and local government authorities performed an HIA on the Christchurch Urban Development Strategy Options paper in New Zealand. The findings of this were incorporated into the Greater Christchurch Urban Development Strategy;

Kaaren R Mathias; Ben Harris-Roxas

2009-01-01

4

Simplifying impact of urban development on sewer systems.  

PubMed

Linking urban development and urban drainage models is a more and more popular approach when impacts of pavement of urban areas on sewer system performance are evaluated. As such an approach is a difficult task, this is not a feasible procedure for everyday engineering practice. We propose an alternative method, based on a developed simple near-quadratic relationship, which directly translates change (increase or decrease) of paved area into a change in the return period (RP) of the design rainfall event or design rainfall intensity. This formula is simple to use and compatible with existing design guidelines. A further advantage is that the calculated design RP can also be used to communicate the impact of a change in impervious areas to stakeholders or the public community. The method is developed using a set of 250 virtual and two real-world case studies and hydrodynamic simulations. It is validated on a small catchment for which we compare system performance and redesigned pipe diameters. Of course such a simplification contains different uncertainties. But these uncertainties have to be seen in the context of overall uncertainties when trying to predict city development into the future. Hence it still is a significant advantage compared to today's engineering practice. PMID:25500470

Kleidorfer, Manfred; Sitzenfrei, Robert; Rauch, Wolfgang

2014-01-01

5

An analysis of urban development and its environmental impact on the Tampa Bay watershed  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urbanization has transformed natural landscapes into anthropogenic impervious surfaces. Urban land use has become a major driving force for land cover and land use change in the Tampa Bay watershed of west-central Florida. This study investigates urban land use change and its impact on the watershed. The spatial and temporal changes, as well as the development density of urban land

George Xian; Mike Crane; Junshan Su

2007-01-01

6

Process and impact evaluation of the Greater Christchurch Urban Development Strategy Health Impact Assessment  

PubMed Central

Background despite health impact assessment (HIA) being increasingly widely used internationally, fundamental questions about its impact on decision-making, implementation and practices remain. In 2005 a collaboration between public health and local government authorities performed an HIA on the Christchurch Urban Development Strategy Options paper in New Zealand. The findings of this were incorporated into the Greater Christchurch Urban Development Strategy; Methods using multiple qualitative methodologies including key informant interviews, focus groups and questionnaires, this study performs process and impact evaluations of the Christchurch HIA including evaluation of costs and resource use; Results the evaluation found that the HIA had demonstrable direct impacts on planning and implementation of the final Urban Development Strategy as well as indirect impacts on understandings and ways of working within and between organisations. It also points out future directions and ways of working in this successful collaboration between public health and local government authorities. It summarises the modest resource use and discusses the important role HIA can play in urban planning with intersectoral collaboration and enhanced relationships as both catalysts and outcomes of the HIA process; Conclusion as one of the few evaluations of HIA that have been published to date, this paper makes a substantial contribution to the literature on the impact, utility and effectiveness of HIA. PMID:19344529

Mathias, Kaaren R; Harris-Roxas, Ben

2009-01-01

7

Development of a Tool for Siting Low Impact Development in Urban Watersheds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Low impact development (LID) -- a comprehensive land use planning and design approach with the goal of mitigating development impacts on hydrologic/nutrient cycles and ecosystems -- is increasingly being touted as an effective approach to lessen overland runoff and pollutant loadings. Examples of LIDs include riparian buffers, grassed swales, detention/retention ponds, rain gardens, green roofs and rain barrels. Broad-scale decision support tools for siting LIDs have been developed for agricultural watersheds, but are rare for urban watersheds, largely due to greater land use complexity and lack of necessary high-resolution geospatial data. Here, we develop a framework to assist city planners and water quality managers in siting LIDs in urban watersheds. One key component of this research is a framework accessible to those interested in using it. Hence, development of the framework has centered around 1) determining optimal data requirements for siting LID in an urban watershed and 2) developing a tool compatible with both open-source and commercial GIS software. We employ a wide variety of landscape metrics to evaluate the tool. A case study of the Lake Thunderbird Watershed, an urbanized watershed southeast of Oklahoma City, illustrates the effectiveness of a tool that is capable of siting LID in an urban watershed.

Martin-Mikle, C.; de Beurs, K.; Julian, J.

2013-12-01

8

Health Impact Assessment for Urban and Land-use Planning and Policy Development: Lessons from Practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is increased interest in, and awareness of, the health impacts of urban and land-use planning. At the same time, health impact assessment (HIA) has emerged internationally as an approach to strengthening the possible positive impacts of a proposed development or plan and mitigating the possible negative health impacts. This article first provides an overview of HIA, focusing on the

Patrick Harris; Ben Harris-Roxas; Marilyn Wise; Liz Harris

2010-01-01

9

PREDICTING THE IMPACT OF URBAN DEVELOPMENT ON STREAM TEMPERATURE USING A THERMAL URBAN RUNOFF MODEL (TURM)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present a Thermal Urban Runoff Model (TURM) developed by the Dane County Land Conservation Department and the University of Wisconsin-Madison to predict the effect of urban development on runoff thermal regime. The model can predict the temperature increase of runoff from impervious surface by calculating the heat transfer between runoff and the heated impervious surfaces that

A. Roa-Espinosa; T. B. Wilson; J. M. Norman; Kenneth Johnson

10

Phosphorous Attenuation in Urban Best Management (BMP) and Low Impact Development (LID) Practices  

EPA Science Inventory

While all living organisms require phosphorous (P) to live and grow, adding too much P to the environment can cause unintended and undesirable effects, such as eutrophication of surface waters and harmful algal blooms. Urban best management (BMP) and low impact development (LI...

11

Rural to Urban Migration Is an Unforeseen Impact of Development Intervention in Ethiopia  

PubMed Central

Rural development initiatives across the developing world are designed to improve community well-being and livelihoods. However they may also have unforeseen consequences, in some cases placing further demands on stretched public services. In this paper we use data from a longitudinal study of five Ethiopian villages to investigate the impact of a recent rural development initiative, installing village-level water taps, on rural to urban migration of young adults. Our previous research has identified that tap stands dramatically reduced child mortality, but were also associated with increased fertility. We demonstrate that the installation of taps is associated with increased rural-urban migration of young adults (15–30 years) over a 15 year period (15.5% migrate out, n?=?1912 from 1280 rural households). Young adults with access to this rural development intervention had three times the relative risk of migrating to urban centres compared to those without the development. We also identify that family dynamics, specifically sibling competition for limited household resources (e.g. food, heritable land and marriage opportunities), are key to understanding the timing of out-migration. Birth of a younger sibling doubled the odds of out-migration and starting married life reduced it. Rural out-migration appears to be a response to increasing rural resource scarcity, principally competition for agricultural land. Strategies for livelihood diversification include education and off-farm casual wage-labour. However, jobs and services are limited in urban centres, few migrants send large cash remittances back to their families, and most return to their villages within one year without advanced qualifications. One benefit for returning migrants may be through enhanced social prestige and mate-acquisition on return to rural areas. These findings have wide implications for current understanding of the processes which initiate rural-to-urban migration and transitions to low fertility, as well as for the design and implementation of development intervention across the rural and urban developing world. PMID:23155400

Gibson, Mhairi A.; Gurmu, Eshetu

2012-01-01

12

An analysis of urban development and its environmental impact on the Tampa Bay watershed  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Urbanization has transformed natural landscapes into anthropogenic impervious surfaces. Urban land use has become a major driving force for land cover and land use change in the Tampa Bay watershed of west-central Florida. This study investigates urban land use change and its impact on the watershed. The spatial and temporal changes, as well as the development density of urban land use are determined by analyzing the impervious surface distribution using Landsat satellite imagery. Population distribution and density are extracted from the 2000 census data. Non-point source pollution parameters used for measuring water quality are analyzed for the sub-drainage basins of Hillsborough County. The relationships between 2002 urban land use, population distribution and their environmental influences are explored using regression analysis against various non-point source pollutant loadings in these sub-drainage basins. The results suggest that strong associations existed between most pollutant loadings and the extent of impervious surface within each sub-drainage basin in 2002. Population density also exhibits apparent correlations with loading rates of several pollutants. Spatial variations of selected non-point source pollutant loadings are also assessed. ?? 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Xian, G.; Crane, M.; Su, J.

2007-01-01

13

The effects of low impact development on urban flooding under different rainfall characteristics.  

PubMed

Low impact development (LID) is generally regarded as a more sustainable solution for urban stormwater management than conventional urban drainage systems. However, its effects on urban flooding at a scale of urban drainage systems have not been fully understood particularly when different rainfall characteristics are considered. In this paper, using an urbanizing catchment in China as a case study, the effects of three LID techniques (swale, permeable pavement and green roof) on urban flooding are analyzed and compared with the conventional drainage system design. A range of storm events with different rainfall amounts, durations and locations of peak intensity are considered for holistic assessment of the LID techniques. The effects are measured by the total flood volume reduction during a storm event compared to the conventional drainage system design. The results obtained indicate that all three LID scenarios are more effective in flood reduction during heavier and shorter storm events. Their performance, however, varies significantly according to the location of peak intensity. That is, swales perform best during a storm event with an early peak, permeable pavements perform best with a middle peak, and green roofs perform best with a late peak, respectively. The trends of flood reduction can be explained using a newly proposed water balance method, i.e., by comparing the effective storage depth of the LID designs with the accumulative rainfall amounts at the beginning and end of flooding in the conventional drainage system. This paper provides an insight into the performance of LID designs under different rainfall characteristics, which is essential for effective urban flood management. PMID:24029461

Qin, Hua-peng; Li, Zhuo-xi; Fu, Guangtao

2013-11-15

14

UVQ: a tool for assessing the water and contaminant balance impacts of urban development scenarios.  

PubMed

This paper presents the water and contaminant daily simulation model of the total water cycle, called UVQ. The model has been developed to provide a means for rapidly assessing conventional and nonconventional approaches to providing water supply, stormwater and wastewater services to urban allotments, neighbourhoods and study areas. The model is placed the context of other such models developed internationally through a brief literature review. This is followed by a description of the model and output examples, which is used to illustrate the utility of the model. UVQ is an effective preliminary assessment tool for determining the impacts of urban development options on the total water cycle, as well as the performance of a wide range of non-conventional demand and supply side management techniques. It compliments other aspects of an environmental assessment of options, along with more traditional aspects such as infrastructure costing. PMID:16477975

Mitchell, V G; Diaper, C

2005-01-01

15

Ozone Air Quality Impacts of Shale Gas Development in South Texas Urban Areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent technological advances, mainly horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing, and continued drilling in shale, have increased domestic production of oil and gas in the United State (U.S.). However, shale gas developments could also affect the environment and human health, particularly in areas where oil and gas developments are new activities. This study is focused on the impacts of shale gas developing activities on summertime ozone air quality in South Texas urban areas since many of them are already ozone nonattainment areas. We use an integrated approach to investigate the ozone air quality impact of the shale gas development in South Texas urban areas. They are: (1) satellite measurement of precursors, (2) observations of ground-level ozone concentrations, and (3) air mass trajectory modeling. Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) is an important precursor to ozone formation, and summertime average tropospheric nitrogen dioxide (NO2) column densities measured by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Ozone Monitoring Instrument increased in the South Texas shale area (i.e., the Eagle Ford Shale area) in 2011 and 2012 as compared to 2008-2010. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's ground-level observations showed summertime average and peak ozone (i.e., the 4th highest daily maximum 8-hour average ozone) concentrations slightly increased from 2010 to 2012 in Austin and San Antonio. However, the frequencies of peak ozone concentrations above the 75ppb ozone standard have been significantly increasing since 2011 in Austin and San Antonio. It is expected to increase the possibilities of violating the ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) for South Texas urban areas in the future. The results of trajectory modeling showed air masses transported from the southeastern Texas could reach Austin and San Antonio and confirmed that emissions from the Eagle Ford Shale area could affect ozone air quality in South Texas urban areas in 2011 and 2012. Overall, emissions associated with shale gas activities in South Texas have been affecting ozone air quality in neighboring urban areas. Developing effective control strategies for reducing emissions from shale gas activities and improving ozone air quality is an important issue in Texas and other states in the U.S..Changes in percentage of summertime 4th highest ozone daily maximum as comparing to previous year

Chang, C.; Liao, K.

2013-12-01

16

Assessing the Impact of an Urban Systemic Professional Development Program on Classroom Practice.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The challenges faced by urban schools as they aspire to reform science education are immense. Under the auspices of the National Science Foundation through the Urban Systemic Initiative, teachers and administrators throughout the Detroit (Michigan) Public School system have been deeply involved in a wide array of professional development…

Stein, Mary; And Others

17

Urban Development in Costa Rica: The Direct and Indirect Impacts on Local and Regional Avian Assemblages  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Urban development, the pinnacle of human land use, has drastic effects on native ecosystems and the species they contain. For the first time in recorded history there are more people living in cities than in the rural areas surrounding them. Furthermore, the global rate of urbanization continues increasing; raising serious concerns for…

Norris, Jeff L.

2012-01-01

18

Watershed Watch Undergraduate Research Projects: Monitoring Environmental Impacts on Tree Growth - Urban Development and Hurricanes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Watershed Watch (NSF 0525433) is designed to engage early undergraduate students from two-year and four-year colleges in student-driven full inquiry-based instruction in the biogeosciences. Program goals for Watershed Watch are to test if inquiry-rich student-driven projects sufficiently engage undeclared students (or noncommittal STEM majors) to declare a STEM major (or remain with their STEM major). The program is a partnership between two four-year campuses - the University of New Hampshire (UNH), and Elizabeth City State University (ECSU, in North Carolina); and two two-year campuses - Great Bay Community College (GBCC, in New Hampshire) and the College of the Albemarle (COA, in North Carolina). Two Watershed Watch students from the 2009 Summer Research Institute (SRI), held on the ECSU campus, August 3-14, 2009 investigated the use of wood cores collected from loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) and bald cypress (Taxodium distichum). One student team studied the possible impacts of urban development on tree growth, focusing on the use of dendrochronology to assess the effect of environmental factors on the trees. Tree cores and foliar samples were collected at the ECSU Outdoor Classroom and compared with the same species from the Great Dismal Swamp (GDS) in Virginia. The main targets of this experiment were one aquatic tree, the bald cypress, and a land based tree, the loblolly pine. This allowed us to compare an urbanized area (ECSU) with a more natural setting (GDS) to evaluate factors impacting tree growth. This experiment suggests that there may be potentially harmful impacts of an urban environment with the data that at ECSU. The growth rings of the ECSU campus tree cores are noticeably narrow, especially in the loblolly pine from the ECSU outdoor classroom, and multiple fluctuations in more recent tree rings of the bald cypress in the ECSU campus. Growth ring compression, beginning approximately in 1956 in 100-year old loblolly pines, corresponds in timing with the nearby construction of two student dormitories within 100 feet of the trees. The other student team studied cores for evidence of possible impacts from four recent hurricanes (Isabel, category 5, 2003; Floyd, category 4, 1999; Bonnie, category 3, 1998; and Fran, Category 3, 1996) on trees from the Alligator River (near Cape Hatteras, NC) and from the ECSU campus (well inland). Cores were evaluated for the presence or absence of false growth rings that could be the result of saltwater impoundment associated with storm surges. False growth rings were seen in the cores of loblolly pine from the Alligator River site, but only for the years 2003 and 1999. No false growth rings were seen in the cores of loblolly pine from the ECSU campus. Both hurricanes Isabel and Floyd were stronger storms and had higher storm surges (8-10 ft) than either Bonnie or Fran (storm surges of 3-5 feet). The team hypothesized that the false growth rings were related to the impacts of the two stronger storms.

Rock, B. N.; Hale, S.

2009-12-01

19

UVQ: A tool for assessing the water and contaminant balance impacts of urban development scenarios  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the water and contaminant daily simulation model of the total water cycle, called UVQ. The model has been developed to provide a means for rapidly assessing conventional and non-conventional approaches to providing water supply, stormwater and wastewater services to urban allotments, neighbourhoods and study areas. The model is placed the context of other such models developed internationally

V G Mitchell; C Diaper

20

Stormwater management impacts on urban stream water quality and quantity during and after development in Clarksburg, MD  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Urbanization and urban land use leads to degradation of local stream habitat and 'urban stream syndrome.' Best Management Practices (BMPs) are often used in an attempt to mitigate the impact of urban land use on stream water quality and quantity. Traditional development has employed stormwater BMPs that were placed in a centralized manner located either in the stream channel or near the riparian zone to treat stormwater runoff from large drainage areas; however, urban streams have largely remained impaired. Recently, distributed placement of BMPs throughout the landscape has been implemented in an attempt to detain, treat, and infiltrate stormwater runoff from smaller drainage areas near its source. Despite increasing implementation of distributed BMPs, little has been reported on the catchment-scale (1-10 km^2) performance of distributed BMPs and how they compare to centralized BMPs. The Clarksburg Special Protection Area (CSPA), located in the Washington, DC exurbs within the larger Chesapeake Bay watershed, is undergoing rapid urbanization and employs distributed BMPs on the landscape that treat small drainage areas with the goal of preserving high-quality stream resources in the area. In addition, the presence of a nearby traditionally developed (centralized BMPs) catchment and an undeveloped forested catchment makes the CSPA an ideal setting to understand how the best available stormwater management technology implemented during and after development affects stream water quality and quantity through a comparative watershed analysis. The Clarksburg Integrated Monitoring Partnership is a consortium of local and federal agencies and universities that conducts research in the CSPA including: monitoring of stream water quality, geomorphology, and biology; analysis of stream hydrological and water quality data; and GIS mapping and analysis of land cover, elevation change and BMP implementation data. Here, the impacts of urbanization on stream water quantity, geomorphology, and biology during development while implementing advanced sediment and erosion control BMPs are discussed. Also, effects of centralized versus distributed stormwater BMPs and land cover on stream water quantity and quality following suburban development are presented. This includes stream response to precipitation events, baseflow and stormflow export of water, and water chemistry data. Results from this work have informed land use planning at the local level and are being incorporated through adaptive management to maintain the high-quality stream resources in the CSPA. More generally, results from this work could inform urban development stakeholders on effective strategies to curtail urban stream syndrome.

Loperfido, J. V.; Noe, G. B.; Jarnagin, S.; Mohamoud, Y. M.; Van Ness, K.; Hogan, D. M.

2012-12-01

21

Development and validation of a macroinvertebrate index of biotic integrity (IBI) for assessing urban impacts to Northern California freshwater wetlands.  

PubMed

Despite California policies requiring assessment of ambient wetland condition and compensatory wetland mitigations, no intensive monitoring tools have been developed to evaluate freshwater wetlands within the state. Therefore, we developed standardized, wadeable field methods to sample macroinvertebrate communities and evaluated 40 wetlands across Northern California to develop a macroinvertebrate index of biotic integrity (IBI). A priori reference sites were selected with minimal urban impacts, representing a best-attainable condition. We screened 56 macroinvertebrate metrics for inclusion in the IBI based on responsiveness to percent urbanization. Eight final metrics were selected for inclusion in the IBI: percent three dominant taxa; scraper richness; percent Ephemeroptera, Odonata, and Trichoptera (EOT); EOT richness; percent Tanypodinae/Chironomidae; Oligochaeta richness; percent Coleoptera; and predator richness. The IBI (potential range 0-100) demonstrated significant discriminatory power between the reference (mean?=?69) and impacted wetlands (mean?=?28). It also declined with increasing percent urbanization (R (2)?=?0.53, p?urban (stormwater and flood control ponds), as well as rural freshwater wetlands (stockponds, seasonal wetlands, and natural ponds). Biological differences between perennial and non-perennial wetlands suggest that developing separate indicators for these wetland types may improve applicability, although the existing data set was not sufficient for exploring this option. PMID:21823050

Lunde, Kevin B; Resh, Vincent H

2012-06-01

22

Urban recharge beneath low impact development and effects of climate variability and change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

low impact development (LID) planning and best management practices (BMPs) effects on recharge is important because of the increasing use of LID BMPs to reduce storm water runoff and improve surface-water quality. LID BMPs are microscale, decentralized management techniques such as vegetated systems, pervious pavement, and infiltration trenches to capture, reduce, filter, and slow storm water runoff. Some BMPs may enhance recharge, which has often been considered a secondary management benefit. Here we report results of a field and HYDRUS-2D modeling study in San Francisco, California, USA to quantify urban recharge rates, volumes, and efficiency beneath a LID BMP infiltration trench and irrigated lawn considering historical El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) variability and future climate change using simulated precipitation from the Geophysical Fluid Dynamic Laboratory (GFDL) A1F1 climate scenario. We find that in situ and modeling methods are complementary, particularly for simulating historical and future recharge scenarios, and the in situ data are critical for accurately estimating recharge under current conditions. Observed (2011-2012) and future (2099-2100) recharge rates beneath the infiltration trench (1750-3710 mm yr-1) were an order of magnitude greater than beneath the irrigated lawn (130-730 mm yr-1). Beneath the infiltration trench, recharge rates ranged from 1390 to 5840 mm yr-1 and averaged 3410 mm yr-1 for El Niño years (1954-2012) and from 1540 to 3330 mm yr-1 and averaged 2430 mm yr-1 for La Niña years. We demonstrate a clear benefit for recharge and local groundwater resources using LID BMPs.

Newcomer, Michelle E.; Gurdak, Jason J.; Sklar, Leonard S.; Nanus, Leora

2014-02-01

23

A Suite of GIS-Based Tools for Siting Low Impact Development in an Urban Watershed  

EPA Science Inventory

Low impact development (LID) -- a comprehensive land use planning and design approach with the goal of mitigating development impacts on hydrologic/nutrient cycles and ecosystems -- is increasingly being touted as an effective approach to lessen overland runoff and pollutant load...

24

Decision support for fuzzy comprehensive evaluation of urban development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urban development often impacts the economic development pattern and the spacial distribution of resource allocation of a particular area. Urban development can be conceptualized as a multicriteria decision-making problem; therefore, multicriteria evaluation has been used to trace the trend of urban development. In this paper, a fuzzy multicriteria evaluation model is developed to study the trend of urban development. First,

Shan Feng; Li D. Xu

1999-01-01

25

Urbanization and Water Quantity: Impacts and Mitigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urban and suburban development adversely impacts both surface and ground water resources by profoundly altering the hydrologic cycle. Conventional storm water management practices rely on storage to reduce runoff peaks and trap pollutants, but do not address impacts due to changes in the partitioning of water. The introduction of impervious surfaces increases the amount of storm runoff and decreases the

K. W. Potter

2005-01-01

26

A Review of the Urban Development and Transport Impacts on Public Health with Particular Reference to Australia: Trans-Disciplinary Research Teams and Some Research Gaps  

PubMed Central

Urbanization and transport have a direct effect on public health. A transdisciplinary approach is proposed and illustrated to tackle the general problem of these environmental stressors and public health. Processes driving urban development and environmental stressors are identified. Urbanization, transport and public health literature is reviewed and environmental stressors are classified into their impacts and which group is affected, the geographical scale and potential inventions. Climate change and health impacts are identified as a research theme. From an Australian perspective, further areas for research are identified. PMID:19543407

Black, Deborah; Black, John

2009-01-01

27

Urban Aerosol Impacts on Downwind Convective Storms  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impacts of urban-enhanced aerosol concentrations on convective storm development and precipita- tion over and downwind of St. Louis, Missouri, are investigated. This is achieved through the use of a cloud-resolving mesoscale model, in which sophisticated land use processes and aerosol microphysics are both incorporated. The results indicate that urban-forced convergence downwind of the city, rather than the presence of

Susan C. van den Heever; William R. Cotton

2007-01-01

28

Presented at the Low Impact Development Roundtable Conference, Baltimore, MD, July 2001. Infiltration Through Compacted Urban Soils and  

E-print Network

. Infiltration Through Compacted Urban Soils and Effects on Biofiltration Design Robert Pitt,1 Shen-En Chen,2..........................................................................................................5 Groundwater Impacts Associated with Stormwater Infiltration...........................................................................5 Relative Risks Associated with Stormwater Infiltration of Various Contaminants

Pitt, Robert E.

29

Assessing the health impact of urbanization.  

PubMed

Several components of urbanization influence health status, but it is difficult to attribute changes in health status to any particular component. The overall impact may be estimated by relating the degree of urbanization of populations to some proxy measure, like the under-5 mortality rates. In this respect the net effect of urbanization is shown to be beneficial. A variety of survey and computational methods have been used to clarify the relationship. Some illustrate the effects of urbanization upon particular clinical conditions, such as promoting the eradication of leprosy, others of particular components, such as overcrowding and pollution, on infant mortality. To help set goals, excess or avoidable mortality may be computed for a country or region by relating its experience to current mortality levels in a developed country; and changes in the levels of avoidable mortality from sentinel conditions such as infectious diseases may be related to changes in particular aspects of urbanization, e.g. improvements in levels of sanitation. Migration to the urban environment imparts the tendency to acquire the health characteristics of the host population. Rapid urbanization causes problems of psychosocial adjustment for older children. Urbanization may impact upon the incidence and prevalence of disability. Where sex-age disability-survey data exist, they may be combined with age-specific mortality data to construct an index of disability-free life expectancy, a more subtle measure for assessing the progressive impact of urbanization. Up to now, however, there have been no international studies of how levels of disability change according to the progress of urbanization, and there are no international census or survey recommendations for harmonizing the classification of disabled people.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2238695

Williams, B T

1990-01-01

30

Effectiveness of low impact development practices in two urbanized watersheds: retrofitting with rain barrel/cistern and porous pavement.  

PubMed

The impacts of urbanization on hydrology and water quality can be minimized with the use of low impact development (LID) practices in urban areas. This study assessed the performance of rain barrel/cistern and porous pavement as retrofitting technologies in two urbanized watersheds of 70 and 40 km(2) near Indianapolis, Indiana. Six scenarios consisting of the watershed existing condition, 25% and 50% implementation of rain barrel/cistern and porous pavement, and 25% rain barrel/cistern combined with 25% porous pavement were evaluated using a proposed LID modeling framework and the Long-Term Hydrologic Impact Assessment (L-THIA)-LID model. The model was calibrated for annual runoff from 1991 to 2000, and validated from 2001 to 2010 for the two watersheds. For the calibration period, R(2) and NSE values were greater than 0.60 and 0.50 for annual runoff and streamflow. Baseflow was not calibrated in this study. During the validation period, R(2) and NSE values were greater than 0.50 for runoff and streamflow, and 0.30 for baseflow in the two watersheds. The various application levels of barrel/cistern and porous pavement resulted in 2-12% reduction in runoff and pollutant loads for the two watersheds. Baseflow loads slightly increased with increase in baseflow by more than 1%. However, reduction in runoff led to reduction in total streamflow and associated pollutant loads by 1-9% in the watersheds. The results also indicate that the application of 50% rain barrel/cistern, 50% porous pavement and 25% rain barrel/cistern combined with 25% porous pavement are good retrofitting options in these watersheds. The L-THIA-LID model can be used to inform management and decision-making for implementation of LID practices at the watershed scale. PMID:23474339

Ahiablame, Laurent M; Engel, Bernard A; Chaubey, Indrajeet

2013-04-15

31

Low impact development design for urban stormwater management - A case study in USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydrology parameters for both pre-de velopment and post-development of the site in U.S. were calculated and compared. Results show that the peak flow and runoff would be tremendously increased by impervious pavements without low impact development design (LIDs). Two principal LID design parts, permeable pavements and bioretention cell, therefore will be built to improve stormwater management and treatment. Hydrology models

Ping Lu; Tao Yuan

2011-01-01

32

The Impact of Urban Development on the Water Quality in the Las Vegas Watershed  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Las Vegas, one of the fastest growing cities in the nation, must have its water strictly monitored for quality as well as degree of pollution. Samples at various sites were collected to analyze the current pollution status of our water bodies (in both residential and urban settings) in the Las Vegas watershed. These gathered samples (sediment and water) were collected and analyzed for measuring total phosphorus, total organic carbon, trace metal contents, i.e., selenium, arsenic, mercury and lead, as well as pathogens, i.e., E-coli and total coliform counts. The concentrations of various pollutions will be compared among different sites as well as natural local sites (due to the natural occurrence of a few trace metals and normal levels of other measurements) and analyzed for spatial distribution for source identification and for elucidating the cause and consequence. Preliminary analyses of the results indicate that nonpoint source pollutions (golf courses, construction sites, etc.) have larger impacts than point source pollutions such as wastewater treatment effluents. This study will help understand and evaluate the degradation of the water quality caused by the increase of human actions in recent years in Las Vegas.

Yu, A.; Simmons, C.; Acharya, K.

2009-12-01

33

Early Impacts of Residential Development on Wood Thrushes in an Urbanizing Forest1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmental protection policies sometimes protect forests along an advancing suburban front although many of the forests may be brought into close prox- imity to residential housing. Research suggests that even when forests are physically preserved, their bird communities are simplified as the surroundings be- come urbanized. However, little is known of the time required for these changes to appear or

L. E. Friesen; E. D. Cheskey; M. D. Cadman; V. E. Martin; R. J. MacKay

34

Climate change risks to United States infrastructure: impacts on coastal development, roads, bridges, and urban drainage  

EPA Science Inventory

Changes in temperature, precipitation, sea level, and coastal storms will likely increase the vulnerability of infrastructure across the United States. Using four models of vulnerability, impacts, and adaptation of infrastructure, its deployment, and its role in protecting econom...

35

Violent Loss and Urban Children: Understanding the Impact on Grieving and Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Youth attitudes, perspectives, and behaviors regarding violence and loss are shaped by a variety of community, familial, and cultural influences. Their life stories are testimonials to the impact of cumulative grief experiences, each of which are powerful reminders of the fragility of life in their world. Erroneously, some believe that youth…

Zenere, Frank

2009-01-01

36

The Use of Health Impact Assessment to Determine the Potential Impact of an Australian Urban Development Proposal on Health and Well-Being  

Microsoft Academic Search

A health impact assessment (HIA) was conducted on a local government urban proposal entitled “The Blue Mile, Wollongong City Foreshore Project”. Findings from the HIA showed that the Foreshore Project had the potential to benefit the health of residents and visitors by increasing opportunities for physical activity and social cohesion. The HIA also indicated there may be some benefits in

Susan Furber; Dian Tranter; Ben Harris-Roxas; Carolyn Dews; Erica Gray; Andy Goldie; Cate Wallace; Darren Mayne; Sarah Thackway

2011-01-01

37

The Impact of Social Segregation on Human Mobility in Developing and Urbanized Regions  

E-print Network

This study leverages mobile phone data to analyze human mobility patterns in developing countries, especially in comparison to more industrialized countries. Developing regions, such as the Ivory Coast, are marked by a number of factors that may influence mobility, such as less infrastructural coverage and maturity, less economic resources and stability, and in some cases, more cultural and language-based diversity. By comparing mobile phone data collected from the Ivory Coast to similar data collected in Portugal, we are able to highlight both qualitative and quantitative differences in mobility patterns - such as differences in likelihood to travel, as well as in the time required to travel - that are relevant to consideration on policy, infrastructure, and economic development. Our study illustrates how cultural and linguistic diversity in developing regions (such as Ivory Coast) can present challenges to mobility models that perform well and were conceptualized in less culturally diverse regions. Finally,...

Amini, Alexander; Kang, Chaogui; Sobolevsky, Stanislav; Ratti, Carlo

2014-01-01

38

Modeling Impact of Technological Changes on Urban Commercial Trips by  

E-print Network

Modeling Impact of Technological Changes on Urban Commercial Trips by Commercial Activity Routing and comprehensive development in urban freight transportation modeling. Part of the problem is the lack of deep. With well-known, yet simple, models and formulas from vehicle routing, operations research, and management

Bertini, Robert L.

39

Urban development patterns in Indonesia.  

PubMed

The author examines recent urban development in Indonesia. "Analysis of urban developments in Indonesia has been hampered in the past by weak data. Recently, the National Urban Development Strategy (NUDS) project has generated a set of improved data. This paper aims at elaborating and supplementing the NUDS study. After a discussion of definitional problems, an analysis is carried out of urban growth rates at the provincial level. Private investment is shown to be a principal determinant of urban growth rates. Other significant determinants are rural immigration and the present level of urbanisation. Private investment is shown to be strongly biased towards provinces with large urban areas. In addition, polarisation is studied at the level of individual cities. It is found that a period of rapidly increasing polarisation has come to an end during the last decade." PMID:12269028

Rietveld, P

1988-04-01

40

PREDICTING THE RELATIVE IMPACTS OF URBAN DEVELOPMENT POLICIES AND ON-ROAD VEHICLE TECHNOLOGIES ON AIR QUALITY IN THE UNITED STATES: MODELING AND ANALYSIS OF A CASE STUDY IN AUSTIN, TEXAS  

EPA Science Inventory

Urban development results in changes to land use and land cover and, consequently, to biogenic and anthropogenic emissions, meteorological processes, and processes such as dry deposition that influence future predictions of air quality. This study examines the impacts of alter...

41

Modeling the impact of urbanization on infectious disease transmission in developing countries: a case study in Changchun City, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents an integrated model to model the effects of urbanization on infectious disease transmission by coupling a cellular automata (CA) land use development model, population projection matrix model and CA epidemic model. The improvement of this model lies in using an improved CA epidemic model that can divide individuals into three states (susceptible, infected and recovered) and combine connection factor, movement factor into the epidemic model to provide more helpful outcomes in infectious disease transmission. A population density surface model and a household density surface were used to bridge the gap between urbanization and infectious disease transmission. A case study is presented involving modelling infectious disease transmission in Changchun City, a rapidly urbanizing city in China. The simulation results for Changchun City over a 30-year period show that the average numbers of susceptible individuals, infected individuals and recovered individuals in the latter time are greater than those in the previous time during the process of urbanization. In addition, the average numbers of susceptible individuals, infected individuals and recovered individuals increase with higher population growth rate.

Zhang, Ping; Atkinson, Peter; Yang, Changbao

2008-10-01

42

Assessing urbanization impacts on catchment transit times  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

isotopes have potential for assessing the hydrologic impacts of urbanization, although it is unclear whether established methods of isotope modeling translate to such disturbed environments. We tested two transit time modeling approaches (using a gamma distribution and a two-parallel linear reservoir (TPLR) model) in a rapidly urbanizing catchment. Isotopic variability in precipitation was damped in streams with attenuation inversely correlated with urban cover. The models captured this reasonably well, although the TPLR better represented the integrated dual response of urban and nonurban areas with reduced uncertainty. Percent urban cover influenced the shape of the catchment transit time distribution. Total urban cover reduced the mean transit time to <10 days compared with ~1 year and ~2-3 years with 63% and 13% urbanization, respectively, while it was at >4 years for nonurban sites.

Soulsby, Chris; Birkel, Christian; Tetzlaff, Doerthe

2014-01-01

43

The Conundrum of Impacts of Climate Change on Urbanization and the Urban Heat Island Effect  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The twenty-first century is the first urban century according to the United Nations Development Program. The focus on cities reflects awareness of the growing percentage of the world's population that lives in urban areas. In 2000, approximately 3 billion people representing about 40% of the global population resided in urban areas. The United Nations estimates that by 2025, 60% of the world s population will live in urban areas. As a consequence, the number of megacities (those cities with populations of 10 million inhabitants or more) will increase by 100 by 2025. Thus, there is a critical need to understand the spatial growth of urban areas and what the impacts are on the environment. Moreover, there is a critical need to assess how under global climate change, cities will affect the local, regional, and even global climate. As urban areas increase in size, it is anticipated there will be a concomitant growth of the Urban Heat Island effect (UHI), and the attributes that are related to its spatial and temporal dynamics. Therefore, how climate change, including the dynamics of the UHI, will affect the urban environment, must be explored to help mitigate potential impacts on the environment (e.g., air quality, heat stress, vectorborne disease) and on human health and well being, to develop adaptation schemes to cope with these impacts.

Quattrochi, Dale A.

2011-01-01

44

Urbanization and Water Quantity: Impacts and Mitigation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Urban and suburban development adversely impacts both surface and ground water resources by profoundly altering the hydrologic cycle. Conventional storm water management practices rely on storage to reduce runoff peaks and trap pollutants, but do not address impacts due to changes in the partitioning of water. The introduction of impervious surfaces increases the amount of storm runoff and decreases the amount of ground water recharge. Ground water pumping reduces the amount of ground water. Increased storm runoff causes channel enlargement and increased flood peaks, even when mitigation storage is employed. Reduced ground water results in decreased ground water discharges to aquatic systems. Enhancing the infiltration of storm runoff appears to be a feasible way to address the hydrologic alterations that usually accompany urban and suburban development. Practices that focus infiltration, such as rain gardens and bioretention facilities, appear to be particularly effective. Modeling indicates that a properly designed bioretention facility can preserve natural runoff amounts and increase ground water recharge amounts well above natural levels, perhaps even compensating for ground water pumping. Remaining research issues involve subsoil characterization, vegetation selection, ground water contamination, regulatory strategies, and long-term performance.

Potter, K. W.

2005-05-01

45

Effects of urban information and communication technology on sustainable development  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the urban information and communication technology and its impacts on sustainable development. The findings are based on the views represented in literature and the relationship between information and communication technology and sustainability in urban development. Therefore, information and communication technology as the main component of the information society should be taken into consideration in sustainable development. In

M. Navabakhsh; M. Motlaq

2009-01-01

46

Urbanization Impacts on Mammals across Urban-Forest Edges and a Predictive Model of Edge Effects  

PubMed Central

With accelerating rates of urbanization worldwide, a better understanding of ecological processes at the wildland-urban interface is critical to conserve biodiversity. We explored the effects of high and low-density housing developments on forest-dwelling mammals. Based on habitat characteristics, we expected a gradual decline in species abundance across forest-urban edges and an increased decline rate in higher contrast edges. We surveyed arboreal mammals in sites of high and low housing density along 600 m transects that spanned urban areas and areas turn on adjacent native forest. We also surveyed forest controls to test whether edge effects extended beyond our edge transects. We fitted models describing richness, total abundance and individual species abundance. Low-density housing developments provided suitable habitat for most arboreal mammals. In contrast, high-density housing developments had lower species richness, total abundance and individual species abundance, but supported the highest abundances of an urban adapter (Trichosurus vulpecula). We did not find the predicted gradual decline in species abundance. Of four species analysed, three exhibited no response to the proximity of urban boundaries, but spilled over into adjacent urban habitat to differing extents. One species (Petaurus australis) had an extended negative response to urban boundaries, suggesting that urban development has impacts beyond 300 m into adjacent forest. Our empirical work demonstrates that high-density housing developments have negative effects on both community and species level responses, except for one urban adapter. We developed a new predictive model of edge effects based on our results and the literature. To predict animal responses across edges, our framework integrates for first time: (1) habitat quality/preference, (2) species response with the proximity to the adjacent habitat, and (3) spillover extent/sensitivity to adjacent habitat boundaries. This framework will allow scientists, managers and planners better understand and predict both species responses across edges and impacts of development in mosaic landscapes. PMID:24810286

Villaseñor, Nélida R.; Driscoll, Don A.; Escobar, Martín A. H.; Gibbons, Philip; Lindenmayer, David B.

2014-01-01

47

SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT AND URBAN TRANSPORTATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sustainable Development is the main force in urban planning today. It has developed as the alternative to the modernist philosophy. This modernist paradigm has left us with massive inequalities and inefficiencies in human landscapes and threatening ecological disasters. Sustainable Development on the other hand focuses on development rather than growth; it places human needs and equality before technology and efficiency.

T A Ahmed

2009-01-01

48

The Impact of Professional Development on Elementary Teachers' Strategies for Teaching Science with Diverse Student Groups in Urban Elementary Schools  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study examined elementary teachers' instructional strategies for promoting scientific understanding and inquiry and supporting English language development with diverse student groups including English language learners. The study was part of a 5-year research and development project consisting of reform-based science curriculum units and teacher workshops aimed at providing effective science instruction to promote students' science and literacy achievement in urban elementary schools. Data consisted of 213 post-observation interviews with third, fourth, and fifth grade teachers. The teachers reported using instructional strategies to promote scientific understanding, but generally did not employ more sophisticated inquiry-based strategies. They also reported using instructional strategies to support English language development. There were significant differences among grade levels and by years of teacher participation.

Adamson, Karen; Santau, Alexandra; Lee, Okhee

2013-04-01

49

Impacts of urbanization on the carbon cycle (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Urban areas are expanding rapidly in population and land area. The impact of urban areas on carbon budgets is especially profound. Cities consume nearly 80% of total global energy use and produce approximately 70% of CO2 emissions. Expansion of urban areas in the coming decades is expected to outpace urban population growth, making urban land use change and associated impacts on regional C dynamics a critical element of the global C cycle. Despite the rapid urban expansion, the trajectories of carbon losses and gains following urban development remain poorly quantified, particularly at the urban-rural interface. This is the zone where land use change and C stocks are most dynamic, but least well quantified. While a growing body of research has allowed us to better quantify biomass in forested areas and within the boundaries of major cities, comparatively little work has addressed C stocks and dynamics in the 'middle ground' where the majority of land use change is occurring. Existing spatially-explicit regional and continental scale biomass estimates exclude urban developed areas or presume that they contain little or no biomass. Data on urban C fluxes to and from the atmosphere are likewise very sparse. Our existing network of surface CO2 observation sites intentionally avoids cities. We describe a multidisciplinary study across the greater Boston metropolitan region to characterize the sources and sinks of CO2 across urban-to-rural gradients including the development of new emissions inventories, assessment of land cover change, and process-level studies of variations in ecosystem productivity.

Hutyra, L.; Raciti, S. M.; Dunn, A. L.; Gately, C.; Sue Wing, I.; Woodcock, C.; Olofsson, P.; Friedl, M. A.

2013-12-01

50

IMPACTS OF URBANIZATION ON WATERSHED HYDROLOGIC FUNCTION  

EPA Science Inventory

Although urbanization has a major impact on watershed hydrology, there have not been studies to quantify basic hydrological relationships that are altered by the addition of impervious surfaces. The USDA-ARS and USEPA-ORD-NRMRL have initiated a pilot program to study the impacts...

51

Early urban impact on Mediterranean coastal environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A common belief is that, unlike today, ancient urban areas developed in a sustainable way within the environmental limits of local natural resources and the ecosystem's capacity to respond. This long-held paradigm is based on a weak knowledge of the processes underpinning the emergence of urban life and the rise of an urban-adapted environment in and beyond city boundaries. Here, we report a 6000-year record of environmental changes around the port city of Akko (Acre), Israel, to analyse ecological processes and patterns stemming from the emergence and growth of urban life. We show that early urban development deeply transformed pre-existing ecosystems, swiftly leading to an urban environment already governed by its own ecological rules and this, since the emergence of the cities.

Kaniewski, David; van Campo, Elise; Morhange, Christophe; Guiot, Joël; Zviely, Dov; Shaked, Idan; Otto, Thierry; Artzy, Michal

2013-12-01

52

Impacts of housing development on nutrients flow along canals in a peri-urban area of Bangkok, Thailand.  

PubMed

Change of nutrients load and flow according to land-use change induced by housing development was investigated in Bang Yai, Nonthaburi, Thailand, which located in the peri-urban area of Bangkok. Each house in the newly developed residential community was regulated to be equipped with a septic tank to collect night soil. However, greywater and leachate from the septic tank was collected by a community sewage system and discharged into the canals with insufficient treatment, while the canals still function as infrastructure for irrigation and transportation. In the study area, built-up area became 1.4 times and agricultural fields decreased by 13% from 2003 until 2007. Total nutrients load to the canals was increased by 25% as nitrogen and 14% as phosphorus according to the increase of built-up area. Net nutrients load from agricultural fields was largely set off when we evaluated nutrients inflow from the canals to the agricultural field through irrigation. Consequently, nutrients load from domestic wastewater accounted most of net nutrients load into the canal. PMID:20182088

Honda, R; Hara, Y; Sekiyama, M; Hiramatsu, A

2010-01-01

53

Urban Problems and Community Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The essays in this collection promote a conception of community development that entails building practical capacities to improve the quality of life among residents of targeted neighborhoods. The causes, consequences, and potential solutions of urban problems that lie both inside and outside neighborhood borders are emphasized. The chapters are:…

Ferguson, Ronald F., Ed.; Dickens, William T., Ed.

54

Impact of postpartum anxiety and depression on child’s mental development from two peri-urban communities of Karachi, Pakistan: a quasi-experimental study  

PubMed Central

Background Postpartum anxiety and depression has detrimental effects on the overall mental development of children. This study aims to assess the impact of postpartum anxiety and depression on children’s mental development on all sub-scales in a Pakistani population. Methods A quasi-experimental study was conducted in two peri-urban communities of Karachi, a mega city of Pakistan, to assess the impact of postpartum anxiety and depression on children’s growth and mental development. A total of 420 women were enrolled, who had given consent out of 651 pregnant women identified, during February 2004 to December 2005. Data for socio-demographic, home environment and family relationship variables were collected between 36 weeks of pregnancy and within 10 days of childbirth. Mother’s levels of anxiety and depression were assessed at 1, 2, 6, 12, 18, 24, and 30 months of childbirth. An indigenous, validated screening instrument- Aga Khan University Anxiety and Depression scale was used and diagnostic confirmation was done through a psychologist’s interview, based on DSM IV criteria. Children’s growth and development was monitored in the same sequence using an Early Childhood Development tool that consists of five subscales; socio emotional, language, cognitive, gross motor and fine motor development. Physical growth was monitored by measuring height and weight of the child. Data was analyzed using SAS 9.2. Multivariable Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE) logistic regression was conducted to identify association of postpartum anxiety and depression with each early childhood development indicator, adjusting for parental and child factors. Results A significant association of postpartum anxiety and depression with delayed development on all five subscales of children’s mental development was found in our study. Interestingly, our study found that higher maternal age had adverse effects on child’s emotional whereas positive impact on child’s cognitive development. Children’s stunting had an adverse impact on all five subscales of children’s development. Male children were at higher risk for delayed language and gross motor development relative to female children. Conclusions Our study found that postpartum anxiety and depression is associated with adverse outcomes regarding children’s mental development on all sub-scales. The impact was accentuated by low family income or child’s increasing age. PMID:24148567

2013-01-01

55

Meteorological impact on air pollutant transport in highly urbanized region.  

E-print Network

??Meteorological impacts on air pollutant transport in highly urbanized region were investigated using the mesoscale meteorological models and air quality model. Two meteorological impacts were… (more)

Ruan, Tao

2010-01-01

56

The urban impact on the regional climate of Dresden  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The principal objective of this research is to clarify the impact of urban elements such as buildings and streets on the regional climate and air quality in the framework of the BMBF-project "Regionales Klimaanpassungsprogramm f¨ur die Modellregion Dresden" (REGKLAM). Drawing on the example of Dresden this work explores how the presence of cities influences the atmospheric flow and the characteristics of the boundary layer. Persuing this target, an urban surface exchange parameterisation module (Martilli et al., 2002) was implemented in a high resolution version of the COSMO model, the forecast model of the German Weather Service (DWD). Using a mesoscale model for this regional climate study implies the advantage of embedding the focused area in a realistic large scale situation via downscaling by means of one way nesting and allows to simulate the urban impact for different IPCC-szenarios. The urban module is based on the assumption that a city could be represented by a bunch of "urban classes". Each urban class is characterised by specific properties such as typical street directions or probability of finding a building in a special height. Based on urban structure data of Dresden (vector shape-files containing the outlines of all buildings and the respective heights) an automated method of extracting the relevant geometrical input parameters for the urban module was developed. By means of this model setup we performed case studies, in which we investigate the interactions between the city structure and the meteorological variables with regard to special synoptical situations such as the Bohemian wind, a typical flow pattern of cold air, sourced from the Bohemian Basin, in the Elbe Valley, which acts then like a wind channel. Another focal point is formed by the investigation of different types of artificial cities ranging from densely builtup areas to suburban areas in order to illuminating the impact of the city type on the dynamical and thermal properties of the atmosphere.

Sändig, B.; Renner, E.

2010-09-01

57

Peace Corps: Urban Development Programming Guidelines.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide, for Peace Corp workers and administrators, is designed to assist those in the field to identify urban development project opportunities and to suggest ways to develop urban development project plans. Following a brief statement by Jorge Hardoy and an illustration of the expected growing urban population, section I, a summary, describes…

Peace Corps, Washington, DC. Information Collection and Exchange Div.

58

Urbanization and climate change impacts on future urban flooding in Can Tho city, Vietnam  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Urban development increases flood risk in cities due to local changes in hydrological and hydrometeorological conditions that increase flood hazard, as well as to urban concentrations that increase the vulnerability. The relationship between the increasing urban runoff and flooding due to increased imperviousness is better perceived than that between the cyclic impact of urban growth and the urban rainfall via microclimatic changes. The large-scale, global impacts due to climate variability and change could compound these risks. We present the case of a typical third world city - Can Tho (the biggest city in Mekong River Delta, Vietnam) - faced with multiple future challenges, namely: (i) the likely effect of climate change-driven sea level rise, (ii) an expected increase of river runoff due to climate change as estimated by the Vietnamese government, (iii) increased urban runoff driven by imperviousness, and (iv) enhancement of extreme rainfall due to urban growth-driven, microclimatic change (urban heat islands). A set of model simulations were used to construct future scenarios, combining these influences. Urban growth of the city was projected up to year 2100 based on historical growth patterns, using a land use simulation model (Dinamica EGO). A dynamic limited-area atmospheric model (WRF), coupled with a detailed land surface model with vegetation parameterization (Noah LSM), was employed in controlled numerical experiments to estimate the anticipated changes in extreme rainfall patterns due to urban heat island effect. Finally, a 1-D/2-D coupled urban-drainage/flooding model (SWMM-Brezo) was used to simulate storm-sewer surcharge and surface inundation to establish the increase in the flood hazard resulting from the changes. The results show that under the combined scenario of significant change in river level (due to climate-driven sea level rise and increase of flow in the Mekong) and "business as usual" urbanization, the flooding of Can Tho could increase significantly. The worst case may occur if a sea level rise of 100 cm and the flow from upstream happen together with high-development scenarios. The relative contribution of causes of flooding are significantly different at various locations; therefore, detailed research on adaptation are necessary for future investments to be effective.

Huong, H. T. L.; Pathirana, A.

2013-01-01

59

Modeling Approaches for Sustainable Urban Development  

E-print Network

Modeling Approaches for Sustainable Urban Development Tuesday, March 5, 2013 12:00 - 1:30 p-term sustainable development choices for urban regions is a huge challenge. Complex-systems modeling, based complex-systems modeling has been adapted and used for urban systems. Michel Morvan is a chief scientist

Hall, Sharon J.

60

URBAN LEADERSHIP DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM SUPPLEMENTAL PROGRAM APPLICATION  

E-print Network

URBAN LEADERSHIP DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM SUPPLEMENTAL PROGRAM APPLICATION as part of your Graduate College application to the Urban Leadership Program/Supervisor: #12;Part 3: LEADERSHIP EXPERIENCES: Identify any educational leadership experiences

Walker, Lawrence R.

61

A landscape based, systems dynamic model for assessing impacts of urban development on water quality for sustainable seagrass growth in Tampa Bay, Florida  

EPA Science Inventory

We present an integrated assessment model to predict potential unintended consequences of urban development on the sustainability of seagrasses and preservation of ecosystem services, such as catchable fish, in Tampa Bay. Ecosystem services are those ecological functions and pro...

62

Department of Urban and Rural Development Division of Rural Development  

E-print Network

Department of Urban and Rural Development Division of Rural Development Publication Record Johanna Geography, Lund University (2005, August). 1 #12;Department of Urban and Rural Development Division of Rural

63

Department of Urban and Rural Development Division of Rural Development  

E-print Network

Department of Urban and Rural Development Division of Rural Development Curriculum Vitae Johanna 2013.11 ­ present Postdoctoral Fellow. Division of Rural Development, Dept. of Urban and Rural of the research conducted by NAI. 1 #12;Department of Urban and Rural Development Division of Rural Development

64

A population-level approach to promoting healthy child development and school success in low-income, urban neighborhoods: impact on parenting and child conduct problems.  

PubMed

Minority children living in disadvantaged neighborhoods are at high risk for school dropout, delinquency, and poor health, largely due to the negative impact of poverty and stress on parenting and child development. This study evaluated a population-level, family-centered, school-based intervention designed to promote learning, behavior, and health by strengthening parenting, classroom quality, and child self-regulation during early childhood. Ten schools in urban districts serving primarily low-income Black students were randomly assigned to intervention or a "pre-kindergarten education as usual" control condition. Intervention included a family program (a 13-week behavioral parenting intervention and concurrent group for children) and professional development for early childhood teachers. The majority (88 %) of the pre-kindergarten population (N?=?1,050; age 4) enrolled in the trial, and nearly 60 % of parents in intervention schools participated in the family program. This study evaluated intervention impact on parenting (knowledge, positive behavior support, behavior management, involvement in early learning) and child conduct problems over a 2-year period (end of kindergarten). Intent-to-treat analyses found intervention effects on parenting knowledge, positive behavior support, and teacher-rated parent involvement. For the highest-risk families, intervention also resulted in increased parent-rated involvement in early learning and decreased harsh and inconsistent behavior management. Among boys at high risk for problems based on baseline behavioral dysregulation (age 4, 23 % of sample), intervention led to lower rates of conduct problems at age 6. Family-centered intervention at the transition to school has potential to improve population health and break the cycle of disadvantage for low-income, minority families. PMID:24590412

Dawson-McClure, Spring; Calzada, Esther; Huang, Keng-Yen; Kamboukos, Dimitra; Rhule, Dana; Kolawole, Bukky; Petkova, Eva; Brotman, Laurie Miller

2015-02-01

65

Impact of agriculture and urban development on the community structure of wetland birds in East Central Minnesota  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wetlands are one of the fastest disappearing habitats in America. Many wetlands are also being altered due to the effects of various types of land use. Because wetlands provide important habitat for many types of birds, these species can be affected by changes in wetlands due to land use. The impacts of several wetland features, including wetland size, proximity to

Christa R von Behren

2007-01-01

66

The Long-Term Impact of a Staff Development Program on Student Performance in an Urban Setting.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the efficacy of Techniques of Responsive Intervention to Validate Effective Teaching (TRIVET) as a model for training administrators and teachers to provide instructional leadership through effective classroom appraisal. The study dealt with the first of a multi-step process to have principals and teachers impact what happens…

March, Judith K.; And Others

67

Global forecasts of urban expansion to 2030 and direct impacts on biodiversity and carbon pools  

PubMed Central

Urban land-cover change threatens biodiversity and affects ecosystem productivity through loss of habitat, biomass, and carbon storage. However, despite projections that world urban populations will increase to nearly 5 billion by 2030, little is known about future locations, magnitudes, and rates of urban expansion. Here we develop spatially explicit probabilistic forecasts of global urban land-cover change and explore the direct impacts on biodiversity hotspots and tropical carbon biomass. If current trends in population density continue and all areas with high probabilities of urban expansion undergo change, then by 2030, urban land cover will increase by 1.2 million km2, nearly tripling the global urban land area circa 2000. This increase would result in considerable loss of habitats in key biodiversity hotspots, with the highest rates of forecasted urban growth to take place in regions that were relatively undisturbed by urban development in 2000: the Eastern Afromontane, the Guinean Forests of West Africa, and the Western Ghats and Sri Lanka hotspots. Within the pan-tropics, loss in vegetation biomass from areas with high probability of urban expansion is estimated to be 1.38 PgC (0.05 PgC yr?1), equal to ?5% of emissions from tropical deforestation and land-use change. Although urbanization is often considered a local issue, the aggregate global impacts of projected urban expansion will require significant policy changes to affect future growth trajectories to minimize global biodiversity and vegetation carbon losses. PMID:22988086

Seto, Karen C.; Güneralp, Burak; Hutyra, Lucy R.

2012-01-01

68

Global forecasts of urban expansion to 2030 and direct impacts on biodiversity and carbon pools.  

PubMed

Urban land-cover change threatens biodiversity and affects ecosystem productivity through loss of habitat, biomass, and carbon storage. However, despite projections that world urban populations will increase to nearly 5 billion by 2030, little is known about future locations, magnitudes, and rates of urban expansion. Here we develop spatially explicit probabilistic forecasts of global urban land-cover change and explore the direct impacts on biodiversity hotspots and tropical carbon biomass. If current trends in population density continue and all areas with high probabilities of urban expansion undergo change, then by 2030, urban land cover will increase by 1.2 million km(2), nearly tripling the global urban land area circa 2000. This increase would result in considerable loss of habitats in key biodiversity hotspots, with the highest rates of forecasted urban growth to take place in regions that were relatively undisturbed by urban development in 2000: the Eastern Afromontane, the Guinean Forests of West Africa, and the Western Ghats and Sri Lanka hotspots. Within the pan-tropics, loss in vegetation biomass from areas with high probability of urban expansion is estimated to be 1.38 PgC (0.05 PgC yr(-1)), equal to ?5% of emissions from tropical deforestation and land-use change. Although urbanization is often considered a local issue, the aggregate global impacts of projected urban expansion will require significant policy changes to affect future growth trajectories to minimize global biodiversity and vegetation carbon losses. PMID:22988086

Seto, Karen C; Güneralp, Burak; Hutyra, Lucy R

2012-10-01

69

Disaster incubation, cumulative impacts and the urban/ex-urban/rural dynamic  

SciTech Connect

This article explores environmental impacts and risks that can accumulate in rural and ex-urban areas and regions and their relation to urban and global development forces. Two Southern Ontario cases are examined: an area level water disaster and cumulative change at the regional level. The role of disaster incubation analysis and advanced environmental assessment tools are discussed in terms of their potential to contribute to more enlightened and effective assessment and planning processes. It is concluded that conventional approaches to EA and planning are characteristically deficient in addressing the full range of impacts and risks, and particularly those originating from pathogens, dispersed and insidious sources. Rigorous application of disaster incubation analysis and more advanced forms of EA has considerable potential to influence a different pattern of planning and decision making.

Mulvihill, Peter R. [Faculty of Environmental Studies, York University, 4700 Keele Street, Toronto, Ontario, M3J 1P3 (Canada)]. E-mail: prm@yorku.ca; Ali, S. Harris [Faculty of Environmental Studies, York University, 4700 Keele Street, Toronto, Ontario, M3J 1P3 (Canada)]. E-mail: hali@yorku.ca

2007-05-15

70

Development and validation of a macroinvertebrate index of biotic integrity (IBI) for assessing urban impacts to Northern California freshwater wetlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite California policies requiring assessment of ambient wetland condition and compensatory wetland mitigations, no intensive\\u000a monitoring tools have been developed to evaluate freshwater wetlands within the state. Therefore, we developed standardized,\\u000a wadeable field methods to sample macroinvertebrate communities and evaluated 40 wetlands across Northern California to develop\\u000a a macroinvertebrate index of biotic integrity (IBI). A priori reference sites were selected

Kevin B. Lunde; Vincent H. Resh

71

Chapter 1 Urban development patterns in China: The new, the renewed, and the ignored urban space  

E-print Network

; and the ignored urban space where concentrate the low incomes and rural to urban migrants. The conclusion section as urban residents, plus about 150 million rural- urban migrants living in cities but not recognizedChapter 1 Urban development patterns in China: The new, the renewed, and the ignored urban space

Illinois at Chicago, University of

72

Modeling impact of urban air pollution on health  

E-print Network

Modeling impact of urban air pollution on health: Preliminary results and testing a methodology with hospitals for the study of air pollution impact on specific deceases (old people admitted in emergency morbidity data and pollutants concentrations at the regional/urban scale Health and air quality in France

Menut, Laurent

73

Assessment of the Impact of Urban Sprawl on Net Primary Productivity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While urban areas are generally thought to reduce the photosynthetic capacity of the land, little research has been devoted to quantifying the net effect of urbanization on net primary productivity (NPP). The southeastern United States has undergone one of the highest rates of landscape change and urban sprawl in the country, representing an ideal study area in which to develop a remote sensing based methodology for a regional assessment of the impact or urbanization on ecosystem productivity. We used a combination of MODIS and nighttime Defense Meteorological Satellite Program / Operational Linescan System (DMSP/OLS) data to estimate the extent of recent urban sprawl and its impact on regional NPP in the southeastern United States. The analysis based on the nighttime data indicated that in 1992/93 urban areas amount to 4.5 % of the total surface in the region. In the year 2000, the nighttime data revealed an increase in urban developed land by 1.9 %. Estimates derived from the MODIS data indicated that land cover changes due to urban development that took place during the analyzed period reduced annual NPP of the southeastern United States by 0.4 %. Results from this study indicated that the combination of MODIS products such as NPP with nighttime data could provide rapid assessment of urban land cover changes and their impact on ecosystem productivity.

Milesi, C.; Elvidge, C. D.; Nemani, R. R.; Running, S. W.

2002-12-01

74

Urban water infrastructure optimization to reduce environmental impacts and costs.  

PubMed

Urban water planning and policy have been focusing on environmentally benign and economically viable water management. The objective of this study is to develop a mathematical model to integrate and optimize urban water infrastructures for supply-side planning and policy: freshwater resources and treated wastewater are allocated to various water demand categories in order to reduce contaminants in the influents supplied for drinking water, and to reduce consumption of the water resources imported from the regions beyond a city boundary. A case study is performed to validate the proposed model. An optimal urban water system of a metropolitan city is calculated on the basis of the model and compared to the existing water system. The integration and optimization decrease (i) average concentrations of the influents supplied for drinking water, which can improve human health and hygiene; (ii) total consumption of water resources, as well as electricity, reducing overall environmental impacts; (iii) life cycle cost; and (iv) water resource dependency on other regions, improving regional water security. This model contributes to sustainable urban water planning and policy. PMID:19939551

Lim, Seong-Rin; Suh, Sangwon; Kim, Jung-Hoon; Park, Hung Suck

2010-01-01

75

Impact of urban sprawl on water quality in eastern Massachusetts, USA.  

PubMed

A study of water quality, land use, and population variations over the past three decades was conducted in eastern Massachusetts to examine the impact of urban sprawl on water quality using geographic information system and statistical analyses. Since 1970, eastern Massachusetts has experienced pronounced urban sprawl, which has a substantial impact on water quality. High spatial correlations are found between water quality indicators (especially specific conductance, dissolved ions, including Ca, Mg, Na, and Cl, and dissolved solid) and urban sprawl indicators. Urbanized watersheds with high population density, high percentage of developed land use, and low per capita developed land use tended to have high concentrations of water pollutants. The impact of urban sprawl also shows clear spatial difference between suburban areas and central cities: The central cities experienced lower increases over time in specific conductance concentration, compared to suburban and rural areas. The impact of urban sprawl on water quality is attributed to the combined effects of population and land-use change. Per capita developed land use is a very important indicator for studying the impact of urban sprawl and improving land use and watershed management, because inclusion of this indicator can better explain the temporal and spatial variations of more water quality parameters than using individual land use or/and population density. PMID:17557170

Tu, Jun; Xia, Zong-Guo; Clarke, Keith C; Frei, Allan

2007-08-01

76

Urban-rural vapour pressure differences and their role in the development of urban heat islands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Data for a 4-year period from Göteborg, Sweden was used to investigate the urban-rural humidity differences during clear and calm nights. The purpose was to analyse the impact of the Urban Moisture Excess (UME) on the Urban Heat Island (UHI) with focus on the longwave radiation balance and the latent heat flux. The statistical analysis demonstrated that a hot summer with reduced precipitation increased the mean UME to 3 hPa (normal summer conditions demonstrated an UME of about 1 hPa) and during some nights the UME was as high as 7 hPa. The analysis also demonstrated a positive correlation between UME and UHI, with the maximum UHI preceding the maximum UME by between 2 and 5 h. An analysis of the nocturnal development of UME demonstrated that the UME could develop from three combinations of urban and rural vapour pressure changes. The initial level of the rural vapour pressure, and thus the conditions for dewfall proved to be important. The influence of an UME of 3 hPa on the downward longwave radiation was calculated to about 3 W m-2, which is 12% of the urban-rural radiation difference giving a weak enhancing effect of the UME on the UHI. Advection of dry air from the UHI circulation was considered to influence the urban vapour pressure change. After correction of the advective effect on the urban vapour pressure change, the urban-rural difference in the latent heat flux ranged from -5 to -25 W m-2, which demonstrates that UME also has a considerable negative feedback on the UHI development.

Holmer, Björn; Eliasson, Ingegärd

1999-07-01

77

The hydrological and economic impacts of changing water allocation in political regions within the peri-urban South Creek catchment in Western Sydney I: Model development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper an integrated model of the hydrological and economic impacts of deploying water within the political divisions in the South Creek catchment of the ‘peri-urban’ region of Western Sydney is presented. This model enables an assessment of the hydrological and economic merits of different water allocation-substitution strategies, both over the whole catchment and in each political region and jurisdiction within it, to be undertaken. Not only are the differences in the water allocated to each region and use revealed, but also the net present values associated with each use within each region. In addition, it is possible to determine measures of equity in water distribution using this approach. It was found that over a period from 2008 to 2031 the South Creek catchment in total would on average use approximately 50,600 ML of potable water a year, the vast majority of this is used in the two urban regions of Penrith and Blacktown. Agricultural water use was also greatest in these two regions. Over this period the allocation system was estimated to have a small net present value of approximately A301 million and the Benefit-Cost ratio was estimated to be 1.06. The urban regions of Penrith and Blacktown and the rural region of Hawkesbury were estimated to have returned a net positive benefit of A76 million, A246 million and A39 million (respectively), while water to Liverpool and Camden was delivered at a loss of A7 million and A52 million over the period assessed. It was found that across the catchment a fair degree of both physical and economic equity occurred between regions, with the exception of Liverpool, which was over endowed with water and paid a high cost for it.

Davidson, Brian; Malano, Hector; Nawarathna, Bandara; Maheshwari, Basant

2013-08-01

78

Impact of urbanization and land-use change on climate  

Microsoft Academic Search

The most important anthropogenic influences on climate are the emission of greenhouse gases and changes in land use, such as urbanization and agriculture. But it has been difficult to separate these two influences because both tend to increase the daily mean surface temperature. The impact of urbanization has been estimated by comparing observations in cities with those in surrounding rural

Eugenia Kalnay; Ming Cai

2003-01-01

79

Simulations of annual degree day impacts of urban vegetative augmentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

One approach for reducing summertime energy consumption in cities is through implementation of urban vegetation planting programs. While the direct effect of such programs is to cool individual buildings and air conditioning condenser units, there is also an indirect regional cooling associated with increasing vegetative cover. This paper models the regional cooling impacts of urban vegetation augmentation through a series

David J. Sailor

1998-01-01

80

Impact of urban agriculture on malaria vectors in Accra, Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

To investigate the impact of urban agriculture on malaria transmission risk in urban Accra larval and adult stage mosquito surveys, were performed. Local transmission was implicated as Anopheles spp. were found breeding and infected Anopheles mosquitoes were found resting in houses in the study sites. The predominant Anopheles species was Anopheles gambiae s.s.. The relative proportion of molecular forms within

Eveline Klinkenberg; PJ McCall; Michael D Wilson; Felix P Amerasinghe; Martin J Donnelly

2008-01-01

81

Hydrometeorologic impacts of urban expansion and the role of spatial arrangement (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Global land cover/land use is changing notably due to expansion of urban areas, resulting in the conversion of natural landscapes to roads, industrial areas, and buildings. The associated reduction in infiltration and runoff lag time have long been the domain of the urban hydrologist, while this landscape transformation also leads to changes in land surface heterogeneities, resulting in alterations of land-atmosphere interactions and convective processes. The integrated impacts of both impervious area and precipitation changes to flood risk in urban environments have not been well-represented by existing predictive tools, which often focus at disparate scales. This presentation attempts an integrated assessment of the multi-scale interaction of urban landcover, hydrology and convective processes, in order to investigate how urbanization has altered the hydrometeorology of urban thunderstorm events, and the role of the spatial arrangement and scale of urban landcover on urban flood frequency. Studies suggest that in some cases, urban influence creates a convergence zone upstream of the urban area, resulting in precipitation increases both upstream and downstream of the urban influence. Total runoff increases consistently with urbanization by restricting infiltration on the land surface, but this is coupled with high uncertainty in the spatial pattern of precipitation change. For some watersheds, the convective influence can result in a significant increase in peak streamflow, relative to impervious influence alone. The spatial pattern of urban development can further affect the hydrologic regime by influencing the hydrologic connectivity of urban areas at the catchment scale, while at the river basin scale the travel time from urban centers to the watershed outlet controls flood magnitudes.

Bowling, L. C.

2013-12-01

82

EVALUATION OF SECONDARY ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS OF URBAN RUNOFF POLLUTION CONTROL  

EPA Science Inventory

This report presents a generalized evaluation of the impacts associated with different urban stormwater runoff (UR) treatment techniques. The report addresses the definition of the problem, estimates the volume and characteristics of the UR and the sludges expected, evaluates six...

83

Application of the ACASA model for urban development studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since urban population is growing fast and urban areas are recognized as the major source of CO2 emissions, more attention has being dedicated to the topic of urban sustainability and its connection with the climate. Urban flows of energy, water and carbon have an important impact on climate change and their quantification is pivotal in the city design and management. Large effort has been devoted to quantitative estimates of the urban metabolism components, and several advanced models have been developed and used at different spatial and temporal scales for this purpose. However, it is necessary to develop suitable tools and indicators to effectively support urban planning and management with the goal of achieving a more sustainable metabolism in the urban environment. In this study, the multilayer model ACASA (Advanced Canopy-Atmosphere-Soil Algorithm) was chosen to simulate the exchanges of heat, water vapour and CO2 within and above urban canopy. After several calibration and evaluation tests over natural and agricultural ecosystems, the model was recently modified for application in urban and peri-urban areas. New equations to account for the anthropogenic contribution to heat exchange and carbon production, as well as key parameterizations of leaf-facet scale interactions to separate both biogenic and anthropogenic flux sources and sinks, were added to test changes in land use or urban planning strategies. The analysis was based on the evaluation of the ACASA model performance in estimating urban metabolism components at local scale. Simulated sensible heat, latent heat, and carbon fluxes were compared with in situ Eddy Covariance measurements collected in the city centre of Florence (Italy). Statistical analysis was performed to test the model accuracy and reliability. Model sensitivity to soil types and increased population density values was conducted to investigate the potential use of ACASA for evaluating the impact of planning alternative scenarios. In this contest, an in progress application of ACASA for estimating carbon exchanges alternative scenarios is represented by its integration in a software framework composed by: (i) a Cellular Automata model to simulate the urban land-use dynamics; (ii) a transportation model, able to estimate the variation of the transportation network load; (iii) the ACASA model, and (iv) the mesoscale weather model WRF for the estimation of the relevant urban metabolism components at regional scale. The CA module is able to produce future land use maps, which represent a spatial distribution of the aggregate land-use demand consistent with the main rules governing the functioning of an urban system. Such future land use maps, together with the street network including the current traffic data, are used by the transportation module for estimating future traffic data coherent with the assumed land uses trends. All these information are then used by the coupled model WRF-ACASA for estimating future maps of CO2 fluxes in the urban area under consideration, allowing to estimate the impact of future planning strategies in reducing C emissions. The in-progress application of this system to the city of Florence is presented here.

Marras, S.; Pyles, R. D.; Falk, M.; Snyder, R. L.; Paw U, K. T.; Blecic, I.; Trunfio, G. A.; Cecchini, A.; Spano, D.

2012-04-01

84

Modeling Low Impact Development Alternatives with SWIMM  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency?s Office of Water (OW) is actively promoting the use of Low Impact Development (LID) practices to help protect and restore water quality in urban and developing areas. Such practices support the concepts of green infrastructure and sustain...

85

Health Impact Assessment of Urban Waterway Decisions  

PubMed Central

Health impact assessments (HIA) promote the consideration of health in a wide range of public decisions. Although each HIA is different, common pathways, evidence bases, and strategies for community engagement tend to emerge in certain sectors, such as urban redevelopment, natural resource extraction, or transportation planning. To date, a limited number of HIAs have been conducted on decisions affecting water resources and waterfronts. This review presents four recent HIAs of water-related decisions in the United States and Puerto Rico. Although the four cases are topically and geographically diverse, several common themes emerged from the consideration of health in water-related decisions. Water resource decisions are characterized by multiple competing uses, inter-institutional and inter-jurisdictional complexity, scientific uncertainty, long time scales for environmental change, diverse cultural and historical human values, and tradeoffs between private use and public access. These four case studies reveal challenges and opportunities of examining waterfront decisions through a “health lens”. This review analyzes these cases, common themes, and lessons learned for the future practice of HIA in the waterfront zone and beyond. PMID:25547399

Korfmacher, Katrina Smith; Aviles, Katia; Cummings, B.J.; Daniell, William; Erdmann, Jared; Garrison, Valerie

2014-01-01

86

Global Forecasts of Urban Expansion to 2030 and Direct Impacts on Biodiversity and Carbon Pools  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Urban land cover change threatens biodiversity and affects ecosystem productivity through loss of habitat, biomass, and carbon storage. Yet, despite projections that world urban populations will increase to 4.3 billion by 2030, little is known about future locations, magnitudes, and rates of urban expansion. Here we develop the first global probabilistic forecasts of urban land cover change and explore the impacts on biodiversity hotspots and tropical carbon biomass. If current trends in population density continue, then by 2030, urban land cover will expand between 800,000 and 3.3 million km2, representing a doubling to five-fold increase from the global urban land cover in 2000. This would result in considerable loss of habitats in key biodiversity hotspots, including the Guinean forests of West Africa, Tropical Andes, Western Ghats and Sri Lanka. Within the pan-tropics, loss in forest biomass from urban expansion is estimated to be 1.38 PgC (0.05 PgC yr-1), equal to approximately 5% of emissions from tropical land use change. Although urbanization is often considered a local issue, the aggregate global impacts of projected urban expansion will require significant policy changes to affect future growth trajectories to minimize global biodiversity and forest carbon losses.

Seto, K. C.; Guneralp, B.; Hutyra, L.

2012-12-01

87

Global urbanization and impact on health.  

PubMed

Nearly half the world's population now lives in urban settlements. Cities offer the lure of better employment, education, health care, and culture; and they contribute disproportionately to national economies. However, rapid and often unplanned urban growth is often associated with poverty, environmental degradation and population demands that outstrip service capacity. These conditions place human health at risk. Reliable urban health statistics are largely unavailable throughout the world. Disaggregated intra-urban health data, i.e., for different areas within a city, are even more rare. Data that are available indicate a range of urban health hazards and associated health risks: substandard housing, crowding, air pollution, insufficient or contaminated drinking water, inadequate sanitation and solid waste disposal services, vector-borne diseases, industrial waste, increased motor vehicle traffic, stress associated with poverty and unemployment, among others. Local and national governments and multilateral organizations are all grappling with the challenges of urbanization. Urban health risks and concerns involve many different sectors, including health, environment, housing, energy, transportation, urban planning, and others. Two main policy implications are highlighted: the need for systematic and useful urban health statistics on a disaggregated, i.e., intra-urban, basis, and the need for more effective partnering across sectors. The humanitarian and economic imperative to create livable and sustainable cities must drive us to seek and successfully overcome challenges and capitalize on opportunities. Good urban planning and governance, exchange of best practice models and the determination and leadership of stakeholders across disciplines, sectors, communities and countries will be critical elements of success. PMID:12971682

Moore, Melinda; Gould, Philip; Keary, Barbara S

2003-08-01

88

Introduction to Urban Design and Development  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Part of MIT's innovative OpenCourseWare Project, that provides materials from MIT classes to the public on the web, the site provides materials introducing how urban areas change over time, and the future of urban development. This course examines the evolving structure of cities and the way that cities, suburbs, and metropolitan areas can be designed and developed. Boston and other American cities are studied to see how physical, social, political and economic forces interact to shape and reshape cities over time.

Silberberg, Susan

2006-11-26

89

MONITORING THE URBAN DEVELOPMENT AREAS BY USING PHOTOGRAMMETRIC TECHNIQUES  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Urban areas have been growing up and developing like living creatures. Development can be regularly or spontaneously. In Turkey, municipalities responsible for planned development of urban as the most of countries are in the world. In urban, which will be categorized in the shape of old and development areas, development plans have been using to direct the development. Planning

B. Uzun; O. Demir; F. Karsli; M. Atasoy

90

INFRASTRUCTURE ECOLOGY: AN EVOLVING PARADIGM FOR SUSTAINABLE URBAN DEVELOPMENT  

E-print Network

INFRASTRUCTURE ECOLOGY: AN EVOLVING PARADIGM FOR SUSTAINABLE URBAN DEVELOPMENT NORTH AMERICA ensuring environmental protection and sustainability. · To push for sustainable urban development and its global implications, sustainable infrastructure development is a requisite condition. #12

Das, Suman

91

Development Communication in an Urban Setting.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The application of lessons gained from rural experience with development communications to the problems of delivering social services to the poorer segments of the urban areas is described in a report on the squatter upgrading project in Lusaka, the capital of Zambia. A Project Support Communications Unit established to provide communication…

Development Communication Report, 1980

1980-01-01

92

On the urban land-surface impact on climate over Central Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For the purpose of qualifying and quantifying the impact of cities and in general the urban surfaces on climate over central Europe, the surface parameterization in regional climate model RegCM4 has been extended with the Single Layer Urban Canopy Model (SLUCM) for urban and suburban land surface. This can be used both in dynamic scale within BATS scheme and in a more detailed SUBBATS scale to treat the surface processes on a higher resolution subgrid. A set of experiments was performed over the period of 2005-2009 over central Europe, either without considering urban surfaces and with the SLUCM treatment. Results show a statistically significant impact of urbanized surfaces on temperature (up to 1.5 K increase in summer), on the boundary layer height (ZPBL, increases up to 50 m). Urbanization further influences surface wind with a winter decrease up to -0,6 m s-1 and both increases and decreases in summer depending the location with respect to cities and daytime (changes up to 0.3 ms-1). Urban surfaces significantly reduce evaporation and thus the humidity over the surface. This impacts in our simulations the summer precipitation rate showing decrease over cities up to - 2 mm day-1. We further showed, that significant temperature increases are not limited to the urban canopy layer but spawn the whole boundary layer. Above that, a small but statistically significant temperature decrease is modeled. The comparison with observational data showed significant improvement in modeling the monthly surface temperatures in summer and the models better describe the diurnal temperature variation reducing the afternoon and evening bias due to the UHI development, which was not captured by the model if one does not apply the urban parameterization. Sensitivity experiments were carried out as well to quantify the response of the meteorological conditions to changes in the parameters specific to the urban environment such as street width, building height, albedo of the roofs, anthropogenic heat release etc. and showed that the results are rather robust and the choice of the key SLUCM parameters impacts the results only slightly (mainly temperature, ZPBL and wind velocity). Further, the important conclusion is that statistically significant impacts are modeled not only over large urbanized areas (cities), but the influence of cities is evident over remote rural areas as well with minor or without any urban surfaces. We show that this is the result of the combined effect of the distant influence of surrounding cities and the influence of the minor local urban surface coverage.

Huszar, Peter; Halenka, Tomas; Belda, Michal; Zemankova, Katerina; Zak, Michal

2014-05-01

93

Indicators for assessing anthropogenic impact on urban surface and groundwater  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background, Aim and Scope  Our study focuses on the indication of anthropogenic impacts on the urban surface and groundwater in large cities, demonstrated\\u000a for the cities of Halle\\/Saale and Leipzig (Germany). For the study we selected indicator substances such as xenobiotics, trace\\u000a elements, and stable isotopes which are connected to human activities in urban areas. The xenobiotics reported here are the

Gerhard Strauch; Monika Möder; Rainer Wennrich; Karsten Osenbrück; Hans-Reinhard Gläser; Timo Schladitz; Claudia Müller; Kristin Schirmer; Frido Reinstorf; Mario Schirmer

2008-01-01

94

Using Repeated LIDAR to Characterize Topographic Changes in Riparian Areas and Stream Channel Morphology in Areas Undergoing Urban Development: An Accuracy Assessment Guide for Local Watershed Managers  

EPA Science Inventory

Urban development and the corresponding increases in impervious surfaces associated with that development have long been known to have adverse impacts upon urban riparian systems, water quality and quantity, groundwater recharge, streamflow, and aquatic ecosystem integrity. The ...

95

Forest bird communities across a gradient of urban development  

E-print Network

that urban and rural bird communities were quite distinct from each other. Rural communities had more longForest bird communities across a gradient of urban development Emily Minor & Dean Urban # Springer across a gradient of urbanization. We used field data and multivariate statistical techniques to examine

Illinois at Chicago, University of

96

Impacts of Urbanization in the Coastal Tropical City of San Juan, Puerto Rico  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Urban sprawl in tropical locations is rapidly accelerating and it is more evident in islands where a large percentage of the population resides along the coasts. This paper focuses on the analysis of the impacts of land use and land cover for urbanization in the tropical coastal city of San Juan, in the Caribbean island of Puerto Rico. A mesoscale numerical model, the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS), is used to study the impacts of land use for urbanization in the environment including specific characteristics of the urban heat island in the San Juan Metropolitan Area (SJMA), one of the most noticeable urban cores of the Caribbean. The research also makes use of the observations obtained during the airborne San Juan Atlas Mission. Surface and rawinsonde data from the mission are used to validate the atmospheric model yielding satisfactory results. Airborne high resolution remote sensing data are used to update the model's surface characteristics in order to obtain a more accurate and detailed configuration of the SJMA and perform a climate impact analysis based on land cover/land use (LCLU) changes. The impact analysis showed that the presence of the urban landscape of San Juan has an impact reflected in higher air temperatures over the area occupied by the city, with positive values of up to 2.5 C, for the simulations that have specified urban LCLU indexes in the model's bottom boundary. One interesting result of the impact analysis was the finding of a precipitation disturbance shown as a difference in total accumulated rainfall between the present urban landscape and with a potential natural vegetation, apparently induced by the presence of the urban area. Results indicate that the urban enhanced cloud formation and precipitation development occur mainly downwind of the city, including the accumulated precipitation. This spatial pattern can be explained by the presence of a larger urbanized area in the southwest sector of the city, and of the approaching northeasterly trade winds. No significant impacts were found in the sea breeze patterns of the city.

Comarazamy, Daniel E.; Gonzalez, Jorge E.; Luvall, Jeffrey C.; Rickman, Douglas L.; Mulero, Pedro J.

2007-01-01

97

An exploratory study of the impact of an inquiry-based professional development course on the beliefs and instructional practices of urban inservice teachers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Five urban teachers completed a total of 50 contact hours of professional development in which they: participated in authentic, inquiry-based experiences facilitated by a scientist; learned new science content related to the nature of science and scientific inquiry; developed inquiry-based lesson plans to implement in their classrooms; and developed science-specific strategies to mentor novice and experienced teachers. The focus of this research was to determine changes in their: beliefs and instructional practices; understanding of scientific literacy; and efficacy toward mentoring other teachers. A collective case study methodology was used in which participants completed questionnaires and were observed and interviewed, prior to and at the completion of the course. They were also asked to complete reflective journal questions during the course. While the teachers' beliefs did not change as measured by the Teacher's Pedagogical Philosophy Interview (TPPI) (teacher-centered beliefs for "Teacher Actions" and "Teacher and Content"; conceptual/student-centered for "Student Actions" and "Philosophy of Teaching"), their teacher-centered behaviors changed to conceptual/student-centered as measured by the Secondary Science Teachers Analysis Matrix (STAM). Their responses to the Constructivist Learning Environment Survey (CLES) generally correlated with their post-STAM results. Participants gained a better understanding of the creative aspect of the nature of science as measured by the Modified Nature of Scientific Knowledge Scale (MNSKS) instrument, while two novice teachers improved their personal science teaching efficacy after participation in the course as measured by the Science Teaching Efficacy Belief Instrument (STEBI). Four of the five teachers felt better prepared to mentor others to use inquiry-based instruction. In contrast to these positive trends, their outcome expectancy beliefs (STEBI subscale) were generally lower than their perceived personal teaching efficacy before and after the course, which could be an indicator of the environment in urban schools where there is often little support or equipment for innovative practices in science. Generally there was a shift from traditional to constructivist instructional practices as measured by the STAM, while results varied for teacher beliefs and efficacy regarding science instruction as measured by the TPPI, CLES, and STEBI and teachers' understanding of the nature of science as measured by the MNSKS.

Suters, Leslie Ann

98

Urban development partnerships challenges for leadership and management  

E-print Network

'Partnership' is a term which is used very liberally in the context of large scale urban development. Mixed-use, brownfield projects, transit-oriented development, urban regeneration: all these projects require partnerships ...

Khong, Daniel

2011-01-01

99

DISSOLVED OXYGEN IMPACT FROM URBAN STORM RUNOFF  

EPA Science Inventory

The primary objective of the research reported here is to determine if on a national basis a correlation exists between strength of dissolved oxygen (DO) deficits and the presence of rainfall and/or storm runoff downstream of urban areas. A secondary objective is to estimate the ...

100

Development and validation of the Noah-Urban Canopy Model for two distinct urban climates in the Los Angeles basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Increasing population in urban areas over the last 50 years has elevated the interest in urban climate processes and land-atmosphere interactions. Altered land cover in urban areas has significant impacts on surface properties, including albedo, thermal capacity, heat conductivity and soil moisture. Changes in these properties impact the heat, mass, momentum, and energy budgets of a city and ultimately results in distinct urban climates that include the urban heat island (UHI), urban-induced wind, increased precipitation downwind from urban areas, and air pollution. The focus of this study is on understanding the spatial and temporal patterns in heat and moisture fluxes in semi-arid metropolitan regions. A high resolution modeling framework using the Noah-LSM (Land Surface Model) coupled with an Urban Canopy Model (UCM) is used to simulate surface energy fluxes at a 300-m resolution over two distinct semi-arid metropolises, downtown Los Angeles and Santa Monica, CA. The model is initialized, calibrated and validated using traditional ground-based data and then with a suite of remotely sensed land surface and atmospheric variables. The differences in building type (urban type), land cover, and land surface 'greenness' between these densely urbanized regions are identified and corresponding sensible and latent heat fluxes are compared. Influence of the coastal maritime climate on energy fluxes is also evaluated. Statistical measures are used to evaluate model performance against both traditional ground-based as well as remote sensing products. Surface temperature is evaluated against MODIS and Landsat products as well as traditional ground-based observations. A previously developed high-resolution remotely-sensed evapotranspiration product is also used to validate modeled latent heat fluxes.

Vahmani, P.; Hogue, T. S.; Kim, J.

2011-12-01

101

Urban settlement issues : observations from 181 surveys of urban dwelling environments in developing countries  

E-print Network

Observations and summaries were made on 181 surveys of urban dwelling environments in developing countries, carried out by members of the Urban Settlement Design Program (U.S.D.P.), at MIT. The focus of this study is in ...

Wang, Chih-chien, M.S. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

1982-01-01

102

UN-Habitat: Sustainable Urban Development Network  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The United Nations Human Settlements Programme, or UN-HABITAT, is the organizationâ≢s agency for human settlements. The groupâ≢s main objective is to ââ¬ÃÂpromote socially and environmentally sustainable towns and cities with the goal of providing adequate shelter for all.ââˆMore specifically, the Sustainable Urban Development Network, or SUD-NET, works to reduce poverty and encourage the creation and development of ââ¬ÃÂlivable, productive and inclusive cities.ââˆThose interested in globalization and urban development worldwide will find much of interest here, including the groupâ≢s key activities, thematic focus areas, partnerships, and reports. ââ¬ÃÂCities and Climate Change Initiative,ââˆa 2009 report, is currently featured on the website, and is available for download as a PDF.

103

Evaluation of the impact of the surrounding urban morphology on building energy consumption  

SciTech Connect

Empirical models of minimum (T{sub min}), average (T{sub avg}) and maximum (T{sub max}) air temperature for Singapore estate have been developed and validated based on a long-tem field measurement. There are three major urban elements, which influence the urban temperature at the local scale. Essentially, they are buildings, greenery and pavement. Other related parameters identified for the study, such as green plot ratio (GnPR), sky view factor (SVF), surrounding building density, the wall surface area, pavement area, albedo are also evaluated to give a better understanding on the likely impact of the modified urban morphology on energy consumption. The objective of this research is to assess and to compare how the air temperature variation of urban condition can affect the building energy consumption in tropical climate of Singapore. In order to achieve this goal, a series of numerical calculation and building simulation are utilized. A total of 32 cases, considering different urban morphologies, are identified and evaluated to give better a understanding on the implication of urban forms, with the reference to the effect of varying density, height and greenery density. The results show that GnPR, which related to the present of greenery, have the most significant impact on the energy consumption by reducing the temperature by up to 2 C. The results also strongly indicate an energy saving of 4.5% if the urban elements are addressed effectively. (author)

Wong, Nyuk Hien; Chen, Yixing; Hajadi, Norwin; Sathyanarayanan, Haripriya; Manickavasagam, Yamini Vidya [Department of Building, National University of Singapore (Singapore); Jusuf, Steve Kardinal [Center for Sustainable Asian Cities, National University of Singapore (Singapore); Syafii, Nedyomukti Imam [Institute of High Performance Computing (Singapore)

2011-01-15

104

Curitiba: Towards sustainable urban development  

SciTech Connect

Curitiba is best known for its innovative public transport system based on buses but this is only one among many initiatives which have improved the environment and quality of life in the city, limited pollution and waste and reduced resource use. The public transport system has also been complemented by comprehensive initiatives in planning and land use management. This paper describes not only the development of the public transport system but also the planning and administrative framework that was needed to make it, and other initiatives taken in Curitiba, effective.

Rabinovitch, J.

1995-12-31

105

Rapid urbanization - Its impact on mental health: A South Asian perspective.  

PubMed

Rapid increase in urban population as a proportion of total population is resulting in rapid urbanization of the world. By the end of 2008, a majority of the world's population will be living in the cities. This paradigm shift in the dynamics of human population is attracting attention of demographers, sociologists, scientists, and politicians alike. Urbanization brings with it a unique set of advantages and disadvantages. Though it is driving the economies of most of the nations of the world, a serious concern regarding the impact of urbanization on mental health is warranted. The impact of urbanization on mental health in South-Asian countries needs to be examined. These countries by virtue of their developing economies and a significant proportion of population still living below poverty line are particularly vulnerable and tend to have a higher burden of diseases with an already compromised primary health care delivery system. The range of disorders and deviancies associated with urbanization is enormous and includes psychoses, depression, sociopathy, substance abuse, alcoholism, crime, delinquency, vandalism, family disintegration, and alienation. Thus, it is a heterogenous mix of problems and categorizing them to one particular subtype seems daunting and undesirable. Urbanization is affecting the entire gamut of population especially the vulnerable sections of society - elderly, children and adolescents, and women. Rapid urbanization has also led to creation of "fringe population" mostly living from hand to mouth which further adds to poverty. Poverty and mental health have a complex and multidimensional relationship. Urban population is heavily influenced by changing cultural dynamics leading to particular psychiatric problems like depression, alcoholism, and delinquency. Judicious use of resources, balanced approach to development, and sound government policies are advocated for appropriate growth of advancing economies of South-Asian region. PMID:19742238

Trivedi, Jitendra K; Sareen, Himanshu; Dhyani, Mohan

2008-07-01

106

IMPACT OF URBANIZATION ON THE HYDROLOGY OF THE POCONO CREEK WATERSHED: A MODEL STUDY  

EPA Science Inventory

The Pocono Creek watershed located in Monroe County, PA, is threatened by high population growth and urbanization. Of concern specifically is the potential impact of future developments in the watershed on the reduction of base flow and the consequent risk of degradation of wild ...

107

A Quantitative Examination of Factors that Impact Technology Integration in Urban Public Secondary Mathematics Classrooms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The problem explored in this study was whether access to technology impacted technology integration in mathematics instruction in urban public secondary schools. Access to technology was measured by availability of computers in the classroom, teacher experience, and teacher professional development. Technology integration was measured by…

Harvey-Buschel, Phyllis

2009-01-01

108

Stadium development and urban renewal : a look at Washington, DC  

E-print Network

This thesis investigates the factors, related to urban stadium development, that act as a catalyst for subsequent local urban renewal. Over the recent decades there has been substantial debate related to stadium or arena ...

Rizzo, James W. (James Watson)

2008-01-01

109

Factors Contributing to Urban Heat Island Development: A Global Perspective  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Urban heat islands (UHIs) are the result of the urban core of a city encountering temperatures that are warmer than the surrounding rural areas. Temperature in the urban core can be 2-5°C warmer during the day and as much as 10°C warmer at night compared to outlying areas. This modification of the local climate can contribute to significant health-related impacts during heat waves, increased energy consumption, a decrease in air quality, deteriorating urban ecosystems, and enhancing the thermal pollution into urban water bodies. To understand the mechanisms contributing to the formation of UHIs and to identify sound mitigation strategies requires examining the UHIs of cities around the world to look for factors that enhance or minimize the heat island effect. Numerous factors influence the strength of the UHI, and vary from city to city. Population size and density influence the magnitude and spatial extent of the UHI. The ecosystem in which the city resides affects the rural climatology. Regional weather patterns can also influence the development of UHIs, with the frequency of certain types of weather conducive to the development of strong UHIs. Local geography such as proximity to water bodies and topography can influence UHI development. Cultural and regional influences such as the use of certain types of building materials, architecture, and the density of vegetation can all contribute towards the strength of a city's UHI. To better understand how UHIs develop and to understand the factors that influence them, we have undertaken the Islands in the Sun project, which includes an analysis of the UHIs of the largest cities in the world. In this study we examine how different factors have influenced the structure of the UHI and to identify factors that can mitigate and minimize their impact. Here we present a preliminary analysis of four metropolitan areas: Minneapolis-St. Paul, Buenos Aires, Riyadh, and Jakarta. In this study we investigate how various factors define a city's UHI. The cities presented here include some of the factors that can influence the UHI signal. The magnitude, diurnal and seasonal variability of the UHI is examined in each city through temperature records and satellite imagery. The UHIs are analyzed to assess the influences of the local geography and meteorology, the ecosystem in which the city resides, and the nature of the built environment. Because the Minneapolis-St. Paul region contains numerous water bodies, special emphasis is placed on the impact of its UHI on thermal pollution.

Hertel, W.; Snyder, P. K.; Twine, T. E.

2012-12-01

110

Impact of urbanization and land-use change on climate.  

PubMed

The most important anthropogenic influences on climate are the emission of greenhouse gases and changes in land use, such as urbanization and agriculture. But it has been difficult to separate these two influences because both tend to increase the daily mean surface temperature. The impact of urbanization has been estimated by comparing observations in cities with those in surrounding rural areas, but the results differ significantly depending on whether population data or satellite measurements of night light are used to classify urban and rural areas. Here we use the difference between trends in observed surface temperatures in the continental United States and the corresponding trends in a reconstruction of surface temperatures determined from a reanalysis of global weather over the past 50 years, which is insensitive to surface observations, to estimate the impact of land-use changes on surface warming. Our results suggest that half of the observed decrease in diurnal temperature range is due to urban and other land-use changes. Moreover, our estimate of 0.27 degrees C mean surface warming per century due to land-use changes is at least twice as high as previous estimates based on urbanization alone. PMID:12774119

Kalnay, Eugenia; Cai, Ming

2003-05-29

111

The Impact of Urbanization on the Precipitation Component of the Water Cycle: A New Perspective  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is estimated that by the year 2025, 60% of the world s population will live in cities (UNFP, 1999). As cities continue to grow, urban sprawl (e.g., the expansion of urban surfaces outward into rural surroundings) creates unique problems related to land use, transportation, agriculture, housing, pollution, and development. Urban expansion also has measurable impacts on environmental processes. Urban areas modify boundary layer processes through the creation of an urban heat island (UHI). The literature indicates that the signature of the urban heat island effect may be resolvable in rainfall patterns over and downwind of metropolitan areas. However, a recent U.S. Weather Research Program panel concluded that more observational and modeling research is needed in this area (Dabberdt et al. 2000). NASA and other agencies initiated programs such as the Atlanta Land-use Analysis: Temperature and Air Quality Project (ATLANTA) (Quattrochi et al. 1998) which aimed to identify and understand how urban heat islands impact the environment. However, a comprehensive assessment of the role of urban-induced rainfall in the global water and energy cycle (GWEC) and cycling of freshwater was not a primary focus of these efforts. NASA's Earth Science Enterprise (ESE) seeks to develop a scientific understanding of the Earth system and its response to natural or human-induced changes to enable improved prediction capability for climate, weather, and natural hazards (NASA, 2000). Within this mission, the ESE has three basic thrusts: science research to increase Earth system knowledge; an applications program to transfer science knowledge to practical use in society; and a technology program to enable new, better, and cheaper capabilities for observing the earth. Within this framework, a research program is underway to further address the co-relationship between land cover use and change (e.g. urban development) and its impact on key components of the GWEC (e.g., precipitation). This presentation discusses the feasibility of using the TRMM or GPM satellite to identify precipitation anomalies likely caused by urbanization (Shepherd et al. 2002). Recent results from analyses of TRMM data around several major U.S. cities (e.g. Dallas, Atlanta, Houston) will be discussed. The presentation also summarizes a NASA-funded research effort to investigate the phenomenon of urban-induced precipitation anomalies using TRMM (future GPM) satellite-based remote sensing, an intensive ground observation/validation effort near Atlanta, and coupled atmosphere-land numerical modeling techniques.

Shephard, J. Marshal

2002-01-01

112

Managing urban growth and development in the Riyadh metropolitan area, Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper examines public sector management of urban growth and development in the Riyadh Metropolitan Area, Saudi Arabia. The focus of the paper is on institutional capacity building and development intervention. The paper traces changes in public sector management structures and development activities over the history of the city with the aim of assessing development impact and identifying forces that

Shaibu Bala Garba

2004-01-01

113

Assessing the impact of urbanization on regional net primary productivity in Jiangyin County, China.  

PubMed

Urbanization is one of the most important aspects of global change. The process of urbanization has a significant impact on the terrestrial ecosystem carbon cycle. The Yangtze Delta region has one of the highest rates of urbanization in China. In this study, carried out in Jiangyin County as a representative region within the Yangtze Delta, land use and land cover changes were estimated using Landsat TM and ETM+ imagery. With these satellite data and the BEPS process model (Boreal Ecosystem Productivity Simulator), the impacts of urbanization on regional net primary productivity (NPP) and annual net primary production were assessed for 1991 and 2002. Landsat-based land cover maps in 1991 and 2002 showed that urban development encroached large areas of cropland and forest. Expansion of residential areas and reduction of vegetated areas were the major forms of land transformation in Jiangyin County during this period. Mean NPP of the total area decreased from 818 to 699 gCm(-2)yr(-1) during the period of 1991 to 2002. NPP of cropland was only reduced by 2.7% while forest NPP was reduced by 9.3%. Regional annual primary production decreased from 808 GgC in 1991 to 691 GgC in 2002, a reduction of 14.5%. Land cover changes reduced regional NPP directly, and the increasing intensity and frequency of human-induced disturbance in the urbanized areas could be the main reason for the decrease in forest NPP. PMID:17234324

Xu, C; Liu, M; An, S; Chen, J M; Yan, P

2007-11-01

114

Introduction: population migration and urbanization in developing countries.  

PubMed

This introductory article discusses the correlation between migration and rapid urbanization and growth in the largest cities of the developing world. The topics include the characteristics of urbanization, government policies toward population migration, the change in absolute size of the rural population, and the problems of maintaining megacities. Other articles in this special issue are devoted to urbanization patterns in China, South Africa, Iran, Korea and Taiwan as newly industrialized economies (NIEs), informal sectors in the Philippines and Thailand, and low-income settlements in Bogota, Colombia, and India. It is argued that increased urbanization is produced by natural population growth, the expansion of the urban administrative area, and the in-migration from rural areas. A comparison of urbanization rates of countries by per capita gross national product (GNP) reveals that countries with per capita GNP of under US$2000 have urbanization rates of 10-60%. Rates are under 30% in Africa, the Middle East, South Asia, China, and Indonesia. Rapid urbanization appears to follow the economic growth curve. The rate of urbanization in Latin America is high enough to be comparable to urbanization in Europe and the US. Taiwan and Korea have high rates of urbanization that surpass the rate of industrialization. Thailand and Malaysia have low rates of urbanization compared to the size of their per capita GNP. Urbanization rates under 20% occur in countries without economic development. Rates between 20% and 50% occur in countries with or without industrialization. East Asian urbanization is progressing along with industrialization. Africa and the Middle East have urbanization without industrialization. In 1990 there were 20 developing countries and 5 developed countries with populations over 5 million. In 10 of 87 developing countries rural population declined in absolute size. The author identifies and discusses four patterns of urban growth. PMID:12292278

Kojima, R

1996-12-01

115

Many government agencies use urban models for development planning as  

E-print Network

Many government agencies use urban models for development planning as well as climate, air quality for 3D urban landscapes. They then integrate the resulting 3D building models into spatial databases. The complexity of application demands and technol- ogy challenges make urban modeling an intensive research area

Shahabi, Cyrus

116

Evaluation of the environmental impact of the urban energy lifecycle based on lifecycle assessment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Energy resources have environmental impact through their entire lifecycle. The evaluation of the environmental impacts of the energy lifecycle can contribute to decision making regarding energy management. In this paper, the lifecycle assessment (LCA) method is introduced to calculate the environmental impact loads of different types of energy resources (including coal, oil, natural gas, and electricity) used in urban regions. The scope of LCA includes the production, transportation, and consumption processes. The pollutant emission inventory is listed, and the environmental impact loads are acquired through the calculation of environmental impact potentials, normalization, and weighted assessment. The evaluation method is applied to Beijing, China, revealing that photochemical oxidant formation and acidification are the primary impact factors in the lifecycle of all energy resources and that the total environmental impact load increased steadily from 132.69 million person equivalents (PE) in 1996 to 208.97 million PE in 2010. Among the energy types, coal contributes most to the environmental impact, while the impacts caused by oil, natural gas, and electricity have been growing. The evaluation of the environmental impact of the urban energy lifecycle is useful for regulating energy structures and reducing pollution, which could help achieve sustainable energetic and environmental development.

Chen, Chen; Su, Meirong; Yang, Zhifeng; Liu, Gengyuan

2014-03-01

117

Impact of Urban Growth on Surface Climate: A Case Study in Oran, Algeria  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We develop a land use map discriminating urban surfaces from other cover types over a semiarid region in North Africa and use it in a land surface model to assess the impact of urbanized land on surface energy, water and carbon balances. Unlike in temperate climates where urbanization creates a marked heat island effect, this effect is not strongly marked in semiarid regions. During summer, the urban class results in an additional warming of 1.45 C during daytime and 0.81 C at night compared to that simulated for needleleaf trees under similar climate conditions. Seasonal temperatures show urban areas warmer than their surrounding during summer and slightly cooler in winter. The hydrological cycle is practically "shut down" during summer and characterized by relatively large amount of runoff in winter. We estimate the annual amount of carbon uptake to 1.94 million metric tons with only 11.9% assimilated during the rainy season. However, if urbanization expands to reach 50% of the total area excluding forests, the annual total carbon uptake will decline by 35% and the July mean temperature would increase only 0.10 C, compared to current situation. In contrast, if urbanization expands to 50% of the total land excluding forests and croplands but all short vegetation is replaced by native broadleaf deciduous trees, the annual carbon uptake would increase 39% and the July mean temperature would decrease by 0.9 C, compared to current configuration. These results provide guidelines for urban planners and land use managers and indicate possibilities for mitigating the urban heat.

Bounoua, Lahouari; Safia, Abdelmounaine; Masek, Jeffrey; Peters-Lidars, Christaq; Imhoff, Marc L.

2008-01-01

118

Third-world development: urbanizing for the future.  

PubMed

This article reviews some issues reflected in the 1996 UN Habitat II agenda and recent research on urbanization. The themes of the 1996 Habitat conference were urban development, urban poverty, and governance, civil society, and social capital. It is expected that over 50% of total world population will live in cities in the year 2000. Cities are viewed both as engines of economic growth and centers of severe economic, environmental, and social problems. There is some disagreement about whether cities are rational economic structures or what the World Bank's urban agenda is and its relationship with macroeconomic policy. Discussions of global urban issues are criticized for their neglect of issues of equity and poverty, cultural diversity, and identity and representation. Habitat II also stressed urban sustainability. There is growing recognition that urban management involves more than the "Brown Agenda" of environmental and physical aspects of urban growth. Recent studies identify how politics and power affect people's access to basic urban services. Urban economic activity can also contribute to environmental problems. Urban growth affects the provision of health services. Although there is not a consensus on the role of cities in expanding economic and social development and the best management practices, there is sufficient evidence to indicate that urban processes are varied throughout the developing world. The links between urban and rural areas differentiate cities and expose the need to understand the role of intermediate urban areas surrounding and between larger cities. Poverty has become increasingly urbanized, but the extent of poverty is unknown. Habitat II was an unprecedented effort to engage nongovernment groups, local government staff, trade unions, and the private sector and to emphasize community participation. Networks of trust and reciprocity are key to solving poverty, inequality, and disempowerment problems. PMID:12293005

Mcilwaine, C

1997-01-01

119

Urbanization and economic development: a bias toward large cities?  

PubMed

"We find that a nation's urban population percentage increases with GDP per capita; industrialization; export orientation; and possibly, foreign assistance. It decreases with the importance of agriculture. Industrialization and agricultural importance have the same implications for the concentration of urban population in cities with 100,000+ population as for the urban percentage. Greater export orientation reduces such concentration. Finally, GDP per capita, population, and export orientation reduce primacy. Political factors, such as whether a country's largest city is also its capital, affect primacy. Our results do not seem to imply that developing-country urbanization today differs fundamentally from urbanization in the past." PMID:12292335

Moomaw, R L; Shatter, A M

1996-01-01

120

Impact of urbanization on water quality and chemical flux in urban streams: implications for management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Contaminant source and biogeochemical processes are altered in urban ecosystems. Given the high impervious cover and altered hydrologic cycle, contaminant mobilization is particularly important during high discharge events. Many urban systems not only receive contaminant loading from stormwater, but also receive sewage contributions from combined sewer overflows (CSOs). Additionally, biogeochemical processes are altered by the changing chemistry and flashier hydrology. Management of contaminant loading often ignores these temporal shifts in speciation as well as the alteration of fate processes within the receiving water body, further compounding the difficult and challenging problem that many municipalities face of assessing ecological impacts. To assess potential changes in loading and chemical speciation we have collected stream water and sediment samples in the Park River sewershed (Hartford, CT) during base flow and events to assess potential for contaminant loading and mobilization. Six events have been collected to date. Trace metal, TSS and DOC concentrations increased with discharge. However, trace metal concentrations and flux values reflected the degree of urbanization and industry present in the watersheds. All samples contained low DOC with the majority of the flux occurring in the particulate phase. Dissolved transport with DOC, particularly for Hg, decreased with urbanization; however, the dominant phase, dissolved versus particulate, varied by storm. The degree of urbanization also increased TN flux as well as the distribution among N chemical species, with urbanized systems increasing in the NOx fraction. The altered watershed processes was also evident in an analysis of dissolved organic matter binding, with stormwater contributions contributing to higher microbial organic matter fractions as determined by EEMs. This shift in DOM quality has been linked to end member source contributions including forest, stormwater and sewage. Particulate fraction collection and analysis during the events have demonstrated the influence of impervious cover on increasing trace metal and mercury flux. However, the association of these metals with these solids compared with forested binding remains uncertain.

Bushey, J. T.; Aragon-jose, A. T.; Perkins, C.; Lancaster, N.; Ulatowski, G.

2012-12-01

121

Evaluation of the impact of planning alternative strategies on urban metabolism with the ACASA model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A crucial point in urban sustainable development is to evaluate the impact that future planning alternatives has on the main factors affecting the citizens liveableness, as the development of the urban heat island or the carbon emissions level. Recent advances in bio-physical sciences have led to new methods and models to estimate energy, water, and carbon fluxes. Also, several studies have addressed urban metabolism issues, but few have integrated the development of numerical tools and methodologies for the analysis of fluxes between a city and its environment with its validation and application in terms of future development alternatives. Over the past several years and most recently within the European Project "BRIDGE", CMCC tested the ACASA (Advanced-Canopy-Atmosphere-Soil Algorithm) land-surface model over agricultural ecosystems (grapes), wild vegetation (forests and Mediterranean maquis), and urban (Florence) or mixed urban/vegetated land (Helsinki). Preliminary results show success in adapting the model to mixed urban systems in each of the main fluxes of interest. The model was improved to adapt it for urban environment, and key parameterizations of leaf-facet scale interactions permit separate accounting of both biogenic and anthropogenic flux sources and sinks, and allow for easy scenario building for simulations designed to test changes in land use or urban planning. In this way, sustainable planning strategies are proposed based on quantitative assessments of energy, water, and carbon fluxes. In this research, three planning alternatives accounting for an increase in urbanization intensity were tested by ACASA in Helsinki (Finland) for the year 2008. Helsinki is located at a high latitude and is characterized by a rapid urbanization that requires a substantial amount of energy for heating. The model behavior for the baseline and alternatives scenarios (i.e., urban classes with low, mid, and high residential intensity) during the entire year was investigated and the model results were compared with in situ Eddy Covariance energy and mass flux measurements. Model sensitivity to land use change and increased population density values was tested individually first. Then, the impact of the three urban classes was evaluated by analyzing energy and mass fluxes produced by combining soil type classes, varying from silty-clay-loam to sand and bedrock, to increased population density values, respectively. Preliminary results are shown and statistical analysis was performed in order to evaluate the model performance for each scenario. From this first analysis, it appeared that ACASA model was able to adequately reproduce the increase in urban heat island and carbon emissions related to rapid urbanization. Also, the model could be used to simulate urban fluxes at both local and regional scale (when coupled to the mesoscale model WRF) and help local administration in planning future sustainable development strategies.

Marras, S.; Casula, M.; Pyles, R. D.; Paw U, K. T.; Spano, D.

2011-12-01

122

Impact of Historical Deforestation and Urbanization on Regional Climate in North Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Hokkaido Island located in North Japan has been experienced historical land use change since 150 years ago when Japanese began to develop. The original boreal forest in Hokkaido Island has been replaced by cropland, paddy field, and urban areas. This study aims to evaluate the impact of the historical land use/ land cover change on regional climate in Hokkaido area. Although the impact of deforestation on regional climate has been studied in many previous works, our knowledge on high-latitude areas with snow cover is still limited. Motivated with this fact, we conducted a dynamical downscaling experiment using regional climate model with two different vegetation map, namely original land cover and current land cover. Results in numerical experiments with different land cover maps indicate that difference in annual mean temperature is very small when it is averaged over whole island area. However, the prominent temperature differences are found over urban areas. The difference in annual mean temperature for urban area is 1.1 K due to the deforestation and urbanization effect which is very similar to those estimated using the observed trend. Therefore, we conclude that the recent urbanization in North Japan is a primary factor as well as large-scale climate change to cause rapid warming in big cities in Hokkaido Island.

Sato, T.; Sasaki, T.

2011-12-01

123

Two on Planning and Development: Low Impact Development Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These two sites should be useful for urban planners or anyone interested in the issues surrounding development and "sprawl." This second site is home to the Low Impact Development Center (LID), a nonprofit organization dedicated to "research, development and training for water resource and natural resource protection issues" relating to development. Users can download .pdf documents, including information on pilot projects and a LID lit review. The links section of the site is particularly useful as it gives annotated links for a wide range of LID-related sites.

2001-01-01

124

Urban growth and environmental impacts in Jing-Jin-Ji, the Yangtze, River Delta and the Pearl River Delta  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study investigates land cover changes, magnitude and speed of urbanization and evaluates possible impacts on the environment by the concepts of landscape metrics and ecosystem services in China's three largest and most important urban agglomerations: Jing-Jin-Ji, the Yangtze River Delta and the Pearl River Delta. Based on the classifications of six Landsat TM and HJ-1A/B remotely sensed space-borne optical satellite image mosaics with a superior random forest decision tree ensemble classifier, a total increase in urban land of about 28,000 km2 could be detected alongside a simultaneous decrease in natural land cover classes and cropland. Two urbanization indices describing both speed and magnitude of urbanization were derived and ecosystem services were calculated with a valuation scheme adapted to the Chinese market based on the classification results from 1990 and 2010 for the predominant land cover classes affected by urbanization: forest, cropland, wetlands, water and aquaculture. The speed and relative urban growth in Jing-Jin-Ji was highest, followed by the Yangtze River Delta and Pearl River Delta, resulting in a continuously fragmented landscape and substantial decreases in ecosystem service values of approximately 18.5 billion CNY with coastal wetlands and agriculture being the largest contributors. The results indicate both similarities and differences in urban-regional development trends implicating adverse effects on the natural and rural landscape, not only in the rural-urban fringe, but also in the cities' important hinterlands as a result of rapid urbanization in China.

Haas, Jan; Ban, Yifang

2014-08-01

125

Quenching Urban Thirst: Growing Cities and Their Impacts on Freshwater Ecosystems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This peer-reviewed article from Bioscience journal is on the impacts of urban development on freshwater ecosystems. The development of water resources to satisfy urban water needs has had serious impacts on freshwater ecosystem integrity and on valuable ecosystem services, but positive trends are emerging that point the way toward a solution. We demonstrate this through case studies of water resource development in and around five large urban areas: Los Angeles, Phoenix, New York, San Antonio, and Atlanta. Providing freshwater ecosystems with the water flows necessary to sustain their health, while meeting the other challenges of urban water management, will require greatly increased water productivity in conjunction with improvements in the degree to which planning and management take ecosystem needs into account. There is great potential for improvement in both these areas, but ultimately water planners will also need to set limits on human alterations to river flows in many basins in order to spur greater water productivity and protect ecosystem water allocations before water supplies become overtaxed.

THOMAS W. FITZHUGH and BRIAN D. RICHTER (;)

2004-08-01

126

Crossing-scale hydrological impacts of urbanization and climate variability in the Greater Chicago Area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper uses past hydrological records in Northeastern Illinois to disentangle the combined effects of urban development and climatic variability at different spatial scales in the Greater Chicago Area. A step increase in annual precipitation occurred in Northeastern Illinois during 1965-1972 according to climate records. Urbanization has occurred as a gradual process over the entire Greater Chicago Area, both before and after the abrupt annual precipitation increase. The analysis of streamflow trends at each gaging station is supplemented by the comparison of the evolution of streamflow indicators in a group of urban and agricultural watersheds, thanks to an original use of the Mann-Whitney test. Results suggest that urban expansion in the Greater Chicago Area has led to widespread increases in a wide variety of streamflow metrics, with the exceptions being spring flows and some of the peak flow indicators. The increases detected in small (<100 km2) urban watersheds are mitigated in large (>200 km2) ones, over which the changes in streamflow are relatively homogeneous. While the impacts of land-use change are identified across a wide range of flow indicators and spatial scales, there are indications that some of these effects are mitigated or made negligible by other factors. For example, while impervious surfaces are found to increase flooding, stormwater management facilities, an adaptation to increased flooding, mitigate their impacts at a wide range of scales. While impervious surfaces are known to reduce infiltration and baseflow, a low flow increase was triggered by water withdrawals from Lake Michigan, as a response to a rising water demand which made on-site groundwater extraction unsustainable. Our analysis thus highlights the impacts of adaptive planning and management of water resources on urban hydrology.

Rougé, Charles; Cai, Ximing

2014-09-01

127

Regional assessment of urban impacts on landcover and open space finds a smart urban growth policy performs little better than business as usual.  

PubMed

Assessment of landscape change is critical for attainment of regional sustainability goals. Urban growth assessments are needed because over half the global population now lives in cities, which impact biodiversity, ecosystem structure and ecological processes. Open space protection is needed to preserve these attributes, and provide the resources humans need. The San Francisco Bay Area, California, is challenged to accommodate a population increase of 3.07 million while maintaining the region's ecosystems and biodiversity. Our analysis of 9275 km² in the Bay Area links historic trends for three measures: urban growth, protected open space, and landcover types over the last 70 years to future 2050 projections of urban growth and open space. Protected open space totaled 348 km² (3.7% of the area) in 1940, and expanded to 2221 km² (20.2%) currently. An additional 1038 km² of protected open space is targeted (35.1%). Urban area historically increased from 396.5 km² to 2239 km² (24.1% of the area). Urban growth during this time mostly occurred at the expense of agricultural landscapes (62.9%) rather than natural vegetation. Smart Growth development has been advanced as a preferred alternative in many planning circles, but we found that it conserved only marginally more open space than Business-as-usual when using an urban growth model to portray policies for future urban growth. Scenarios to 2050 suggest urban development on non-urban lands of 1091, 956, or 179 km², under Business-as-usual, Smart Growth and Infill policy growth scenarios, respectively. The Smart Growth policy converts 88% of natural lands and agriculture used by Business-as-usual, while Infill used only 40% of those lands. Given the historic rate of urban growth, 0.25%/year, and limited space available, the Infill scenario is recommended. While the data may differ, the use of an historic and future framework to track these three variables can be easily applied to other metropolitan areas. PMID:23755204

Thorne, James H; Santos, Maria J; Bjorkman, Jacquelyn H

2013-01-01

128

Probabilistic Impact Assessment of Domestic Rainwater Harvesting in Urban Slums: West Africa Case Study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Urban populations now exceed rural populations worldwide, creating unique challenges in providing basic services, especially in developing countries where informal or illegal settlements grow in peri-urban areas. West Africa is an acute example of the problems created by rapid urban growth, with high levels of urban poverty and low water and sanitation access rates. Although considerable effort has been made in providing improved water access and urban services to slum communities, research indicates that clean water access rates are not keeping up with urbanization rates in several areas of the world and that rapidly growing slum communities are beginning to overwhelm many prior water improvements projects. In the face of these challenges, domestic rainwater harvesting is proposed as a technologically appropriate and economically viable option for enhancing water supplies to urban slum households. However, assessing the reliability, potential health impacts, and overall cost-effectiveness of these systems on a regional level is difficult for several reasons. First, long daily rainfall records are not readily available in much of the developing world, including many regions of sub-Saharan Africa. Second, significant uncertainties exist in the relevant cost, water use, and health data. Third, to estimate the potential future impacts at the regional scale, various global change scenarios should be investigated. Finally, in addition to these technical challenges, there is also a need to develop relatively simple and transparent assessment methods for informing policy makers. A procedure is presented for assessment of domestic rainwater harvesting systems using a combination of scenario, sensitivity, and trade-off analyses. Using data from West Africa, simple stochastic weather models are developed to generate rainfall sequences for the region, which are then used to estimate the reliability of providing a range of per capita water supplies. Next, a procedure is proposed for quantifying the health impacts of improved water supplies, and sensitivity analysis of cost and health data provides an indication of cost- effectiveness. Climate change impacts are assessed via weather model parameter adjustment according to statistical downscaling of general circulation model output. Future work involving the interpolation of model parameters to ungaged sites, incorporation of additional global change scenarios (e.g., population, emissions), and extension of the procedure to a full Monte Carlo analysis will be discussed as time allows.

Cowden, J. R.; Watkins, D. W.; Mihelcic, J. R.; Fry, L. M.

2007-12-01

129

Spatiotemporal trends of terrestrial vegetation activity along the urban development intensity gradient in China's 32 major cities.  

PubMed

Terrestrial vegetation plays many pivotal roles in urban systems. However, the impacts of urbanization on vegetation are poorly understood. Here we examined the spatiotemporal trends of the vegetation activity measured by MODIS Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) along Urban Development Intensity (UDI) gradient in 32 major Chinese cities from 2000 to 2012. We also proposed to use a new set of concepts (i.e., actual, theoretical, and positive urbanization effects) to better understand and quantify the impacts of urbanization on vegetation activities. Results showed that the EVI decreased significantly along a rising UDI for 28 of 32 cities (p<0.05) in linear, convex or concave form, signifying the urbanization impacts on vegetation varied across cities and UDI zones within a city. Further, the actual urbanization effects were much weaker than the theoretical estimates because of the offsetting positive effects generated by multiple urban environmental and anthropogenic factors. Examining the relative changes of EVI in various UDI zones against that in the rural area (?EVI), which effectively removed the effects of climate variability, demonstrated that ?EVI decreased markedly from 2000 to 2012 for about three-quarters of the cities in the exurban (0.05urban (0.5urban core (0.75urban and urban core of many cities could primarily be attributed to the importance of positive effects derived from the urban environment and the improvement of management and maintenance of urban green space. More work is needed to quantify mechanistically the detailed negative and positive effects of urban environmental factors and management practices on vegetation activities. PMID:24829041

Zhou, Decheng; Zhao, Shuqing; Liu, Shuguang; Zhang, Liangxia

2014-08-01

130

The Department of Housing and Urban Development and Cooperative Extension: A Case for Urban Collaboration.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

U.S. Department of Agriculture-sponsored cooperative extension systems and university programs offered through the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development may find themselves in collaboration or conflict as both expand urban outreach activities. A case study in Des Moines, Iowa, illustrates how collaboration can occur and redundancy…

Borich, Timothy O.

2001-01-01

131

The Commitment of Urban Schools to Human Development Goals.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper is concerned with the commitment of urban schools to human development goals. The urban school systems examined here are represented by localities with populations above 100,000 in each of the states on the eastern seaboard from Virginia to Florida. The vehicle for examining the relationship of school systems to human development goals…

Jones, Franklin Ross

132

NATIONWIDE ASSESSMENT OF RECEIVING WATER IMPACTS FROM URBAN STORMWATER POLLUTION. VOLUME I: SUMMARY  

EPA Science Inventory

Results of this nationwide search for documented case studies of impacts of urban runoff on receiving waters indicate that well-documented cases are scarce. Impacts previously attributed to urban stormwater runoff may be point source impacts in disguise, or they may be masked by ...

133

Does the invasive species Reynoutria japonica have an impact on soil and flora in urban wastelands?  

E-print Network

Does the invasive species Reynoutria japonica have an impact on soil and flora in urban wastelands and for urban planners and managers. We propose to assess the effects of an invasive species along an invasion.), a widespread invasive species in Europe and North America. We considered eight urban wastelands invaded

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

134

Assessing the impact of urbanization on regional net primary productivity in Jiangyin County, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urbanization is one of the most important aspects of global change. The process of urbanization has a significant impact on the terrestrial ecosystem carbon cycle. The Yangtze Delta region has one of the highest rates of urbanization in China. In this study, carried out in Jiangyin County as a representative region within the Yangtze Delta, land use and land cover

C. Xu; M. Liu; S. An; J. M. Chen; P. Yan

2007-01-01

135

76 FR 12788 - Environmental Impact Statement for a Proposed Urban Rail system in Austin, TX  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Environmental Impact Statement for a Proposed Urban Rail system in Austin, TX AGENCY: Federal...Statement (EIS) for the proposed Urban Rail system in Austin, Texas. The EIS will...described more completely within, is an Urban Rail System, similar to Streetcar, that...

2011-03-08

136

Sustainable Urbanism: Vision and Planning Process Through an Examination of Two Model Neighborhood Developments  

E-print Network

as successful models of sustainable urban development. Theyas successful models of sustainable T urban development isSustainable Urbanism: Vision and Planning Process Through an Examination of Two Model Neighborhood Developments

Kasioumi, Eirini

2011-01-01

137

The Integrated WRF/Urban Modeling System: Development, Evaluation, and Applications to Urban Environmental Problems  

EPA Science Inventory

To bridge the gaps between traditional mesoscale modelling and microscale modelling, the National Center for Atmospheric Research, in collaboration with other agencies and research groups, has developed an integrated urban modelling system coupled to the weather research and fore...

138

Urban hotel development patterns in the face of political shifts  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses changes in the spatial pattern of tourism accommodation in Jerusalem in the past 150 years. This is done with particular reference to urban development and political shifts during this period and in respect to various theoretical models relating to the location of hotels in urban areas. The time frame of the paper is divided into four chronological

Noam Shoval; Kobi Cohen-Hattab

2001-01-01

139

Prioritizing Urban Children, Teachers, and Schools through Professional Development Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

How can we better educate disadvantaged urban students? Drawing on over five years' experience in a broad partnership involving twelve urban professional development schools in five districts, a teachers' union, a comprehensive public university, and several community-based organizations, the contributors to this volume describe how they worked…

Wong, Pia Lindquist, Ed.; Glass, Ronald David, Ed.

2009-01-01

140

Resilience Development of Preservice Teachers in Urban Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Retention of teachers in urban schools continues to plague public schools. Could universities increase the likelihood that teachers will stay in urban schools longer by preparing them for some of the adversities they may face and helping them develop resilience in relation to these challenges? Could we produce resilient educators before they…

Roselle, Rene

2007-01-01

141

Two on Planning and Development: Development at the Urban Fringe and Beyond  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These two sites should be useful for urban planners or anyone interested in the issues surrounding development and "sprawl." The first, a report from the Economic Research Service (ERS) of the US Department of Agriculture, covers the "forces driving development, its character and impacts on agriculture and rural communities, the means available to channel and control growth, and the pros and cons of potential Federal roles." Users can download each of the report's seven chapters (and references and appendix) separately or as one document in .pdf format.

Anderson, William D.; Heimlich, Ralph E.

2001-01-01

142

The CLUVA project: Climate-change scenarios and their impact on urban areas in Africa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

CLUVA (CLimate change and Urban Vulnerability in Africa; http://www.cluva.eu/) is a 3 years project, funded by the European Commission in 2010. Its main objective is the estimate of the impacts of climate changes in the next 40 years at urban scale in Africa. The mission of CLUVA is to develop methods and knowledge to assess risks cascading from climate-changes. It downscales IPCC climate projections to evaluate threats to selected African test cities; mainly floods, sea-level rise, droughts, heat waves and desertification. The project evaluates and links: social vulnerability; vulnerability of in-town ecosystems and urban-rural interfaces; vulnerability of urban built environment and lifelines; and related institutional and governance dimensions of adaptation. A multi-scale and multi-disciplinary quantitative, probabilistic, modelling is applied. CLUVA brings together climate experts, risk management experts, urban planners and social scientists with their African counterparts in an integrated research effort focusing on the improvement of the capacity of scientific institutions, local councils and civil society to cope with climate change. The CLUVA approach was set-up in the first year of the project and developed as follows: an ensemble of eight global projections of climate changes is produced for east and west Africa until 2050 considering the new IPCC (International Panel on Climate Changes; http://www.ipcc.ch/) scenarios. These are then downscaled to urban level, where territorial modeling is required to compute hazard effects on the vulnerable physical system (urban ecosystems, informal settlements, lifelines such as transportation and sewer networks) as well as on the social context, in defined time frames, and risk analysis is then employed to assess expected consequences. An investigation of the existing urban planning and governance systems and its interface with climate risks is performed. With the aid of the African partners, the developed approach is currently being applied to selected African case studies: Addis Ababa - Ethiopia; Dar es Salaam - Tanzania, Douala - Cameroun; Ouagadougou - Burkina Faso, St. Louis - Senegal. The poster will illustrate the CLUVA's framework to assess climate-change-related risks at an urban scale in Africa, and will report on the progresses of selected case studies to demonstrate feasibility of a multi-scale and multi-risk quantitative approach for risk management.

Di Ruocco, Angela; Weets, Guy; Gasparini, Paolo; Jørgensen, Gertrud; Lindley, Sarah; Pauleit, Stephan; Vahed, Anwar; Schiano, Pasquale; Kabisch, Sigrun; Vedeld, Trond; Coly, Adrien; Tonye, Emmanuel; Touré, Hamidou; Kombe, Wilbard; Yeshitela, Kumelachew

2013-04-01

143

Impacts of urbanization on the hazard, vulnerability and risk of pluvial disaster  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The design capacity of an urban drainage system is often smaller than that of a fluvial protection facility such as levee. Many metropolises located in lowlands suffer pluvial inundation disaster more than pluvial flood disaster. For improving mitigation strategies, flood risk assessment is an important tool of non-structure flood control measures, especially in the countries suffering tropical cyclones and monsoon with high frequency. Locating in the hot zone of typhoon tracks in the Western Pacific, Taiwan suffers three to five typhoons annually. As results of urbanization in Taiwan, heavy rainfalls cause inundation disaster rising with the increase of population and the demand of land development. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the impacts of urbanization on the hazard, vulnerability and risk of pluvial disaster. This study applies the concept that risk is composed by hazard and vulnerability to assess the flood risk of human life. Two-dimensional overland-flow simulation is performed based on a design extreme rainfall event to calculate the score of pluvial hazard factors for human life, including flood depth, velocity and rising ratio. The score of pluvial vulnerability for human life is carried out according to the factors of resident and environment. The risk matrix is applied to show the risk by composing the inundation hazards and vulnerabilities. Additionally, flood simulations performed are concerned with different stages of drainage channel construction that indicates the progress of the pluvial disaster mitigation for evaluating the impacts of urbanization on inundation hazard. The changes of land use and density of population are concerned with the impacts of urbanization on inundation vulnerability. The Tainan City, one of the earliest cities on Taiwan, is selected as the case study because serious flooding was induced by Typhoon Morakot in 2009. Typhoon Morakot carried intense rain moved from the east slowly as low as 4 km/hr while the southwest monsoon also entered this region at the same time. The combined effect of these was that in the mid-area between typhoon and southwest monsoon, a sharp air-pressure gradient was built which unpredictably brought about heavy rainfall for about 72 hours in the study area to produce a record-breaking rainfall of 625mm in 48 hours. Through the assessing the impacts of urbanization on pluvial inundation risk of the Tainan City in the Typhoon Morakot event, the results show that the inundation hazard is decreased and the vulnerability is increased due to urbanization. Finally, the pluvial inundation risk maps for human life can provide useful information for setting mitigation strategies of flood inundation.

Pan, T.-Y.; Chang, T.-J.; Lai, J.-S.; Chang, H.-K.

2012-04-01

144

Workshop Report On Sustainable Urban Development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The key workshop goal was to explore and document how NASA technologies, such as remote sensing, climate modeling, and high-end computing and visualization along with NASA assets such as Earth Observing Satellites (EOS) and Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) can contribute to creating and managing a sustainable urban environment. The focus was on the greater Bay Area, but many aspects of the workshop were applicable to urban management at the local, regional and global scales. A secondary goal was to help NASA better understand the problems facing urban managers and to make city leaders in the Bay Area more aware of NASA's capabilities. By bringing members of these two groups together we hope to see the beginnings of new collaborations between NASA and those faced with instituting sustainable urban management in Bay Area cities.

Langhoff, Stephanie; Martin, Gary; Barone, Larry; Wagener, Wolfgang

2010-01-01

145

Cities Online: Urban Development and the Internet  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These two reports focus on the role the Internet is playing in the mission of US institutions. The first, from Darrell M. West, Brown University, updates his report for 2000 (discussed in the September 22, 2000 Scout Report) on the electronic delivery of government information and services. The 23-page report looks at the functionality and accessibility of state and government Websites, progress made from last year, and differences among the states. In general, the project found that e-government has made progress in the past year, but privacy, security, and accessibility are still troubled areas. The second report, from the Pew Internet Project (PIP), focuses more closely on community development organizations and their relationship to the Internet. PIP looks at five cities -- Austin, Texas; Cleveland, Ohio; Nashville, Tennessee; Portland, Oregon; and Washington, DC -- and the ways that institutions in these cities are using the Internet to accomplish their goals. In particular, "this research asks whether the Internet is serving as a catalyst to change the 'rules of the game' that shape social capital -- the informal norms and customs that grease the wheels of urban life." Users may download the 66-page report in .pdf format or read it online.

2001-01-01

146

ECOLOGICAL SUSTAINABILITY IN RAPIDLY URBANIZING WATERSHEDS: EVALUATING STRATEGIES DESIGNED TO MITIGATE IMPACTS ON STREAM ECOSYSTEMS  

EPA Science Inventory

Urbanization has profound impacts on the hydrology and ecology of streams via alteration in water temperatures, peak and base flows, and nutrient, sediment, and contaminant inputs. Storm water management (SWM) is commonly used to reduce these impacts; however, comprehensive w...

147

Impact on Professional Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The focus of this chapter is on the evidence to date that documents the impact of PDS engagement on four specific groups of participants: veteran P-12 teachers, university faculty, P-12 school principals, and parents and community members. In reviewing the literature concerning the impact of PDS engagement on these four groups, the authors'…

Nolan, Jim, Jr.; Grove, Doris; Leftwich, Horatio; Mark, Kelly; Peters, Brian

2011-01-01

148

Urban Impact Assessment and Adaptation Strategies to Climate Change in Europe: A Case Study for Antwerp, Berlin and Almada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate change is driven by global processes such as the global ocean circulation and its variability over time leading to changing weather patterns on regional scales as well as changes in the severity and occurrence of extreme events such as heat waves. For example, the summer 2003 European heat wave caused up to 70.000 excess deaths over four months in Central and Western Europe. As around 75% of Europe's population resides in urban areas, it is of particular relevance to examine the impact of seasonal to decadal-scale climate variability on urban areas and their populations. This study aims at downscaling the spatially coarse resolution CMIP5 climate predictions to the local urban scale and investigating the relation between heat waves and the urban-rural temperature increment (urban heat island effect). The resulting heat stress effect is not only driven by climatic variables but also impacted by urban morphology. Moreover, the exposure varies significantly with the geographical location. All this information is coupled with relevant socio-economic datasets such as population density, age structure, etc. focussing on human health. The analyses are conducted in the framework of the NACLIM FP7 project funded by the European Commission involving local stakeholders such as the cities of Antwerp (BE), Berlin (DE) and Almada (PT) represented by different climate and urban characteristics. The end-user needs have been consolidated in a climate services plan including the production of heat risk exposure maps and the analysis of various scenarios considering e.g. the uncertainty of the global climate predictions, urban expansion over time and the impact of mitigation measures such as green roofs. The results of this study will allow urban planners and policy makers facing the challenges of climate change and develop sound strategies for the design and management of climate resilient cities.

Stevens, Catherine; Thomas, Bart

2014-05-01

149

Analysis of climate change impacts on Urban Heat Island through geospatial data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Through spatio-temporal changes of micro and macro-meteorological conditions in metropolitan areas, climate change due to increased anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases and carbon dioxide (CO2) represents a long-term climate hazard with high potential to alter the intensity, temporal pattern, and spatial extent of the urban heat island (UHI). Instrumental observations and numerical reconstructions of global temperature evolution reveal a pronounced warming during the past 150 years. One expression of this warming is the observed increase in the occurrence of summer heat waves. Conceptually this increase is understood as a shift of the statistical distribution towards warmer temperatures, while changes in the width of the distribution are often considered small. Urban areas tend to experience a relatively higher temperature compared with the surrounding rural areas. This thermal difference, in conjunction with waste heat released from urban houses, transportation and industry, contribute to the development of urban heat island (UHI). Summer heat waves will affect much more urban temperatures and microclimates with adverse effects on human health. Remote sensing is a key application in global change science and urban climatology. Urbanization, the conversion of other types of land to uses associated with growth of populations and economy has a great impact on both micro-climate as well as macro-climate. Remote sensing derived biophysical attributes provide great potential for establishing parameters describing urban land cover/use (construction materials and the composition and structure of urban canopies) for improving the understanding of the urban surface energy budgets, and observing the urban heat island (UHI) effect.In this study, Landsat TM and ETM+ , MODIS, IKONOS images over Bucharest metropolitan area from 1988 to 2008 have been selected to retrieve the urban biogeophysical parameters and brightness temperatures in relation with changes of cover/use types. The spatial distribution of heat islands has been changed from a mixed pattern, where bare land, semi-bare land and land under development were warmer than other surface types, to extensive UHI. Our analysis showed that higher temperature in the UHI was located with a scattered pattern, which was related to certain land-cover types. In order to analyze the relationship between UHI and land-cover changes, this study attempted to employ a quantitative approach in exploring the relationship between temperature and several indices, including the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI), Normalized Difference Bareness Index (NDBaI) and Normalized Difference Build-up Index (NDBI). It was found that correlations between NDVI, NDWI, NDBaI and temperature are negative when NDVI is limited in range, but positive correlation is shown between NDBI and temperature.Such analysis is very helpful in urban mesoscale models and urban climate studies.

Zoran, M.

2010-09-01

150

11:776:402 Weeds: Impact & Management in Urban Landscapes (WIMUL) (3 credits)  

E-print Network

11:776:402 Weeds: Impact & Management in Urban Landscapes (WIMUL) (3 credits) Normally OfferedCompanion Description: This is a senior level course which, in three modules, examines the impact of weeds in urban.); industrial sites; rights of way (rails & roads); etc. Module 1 of WIMUL covers the basic principles of weed

Chen, Kuang-Yu

151

Estimating Water Quality Pollution Impacts Based on Economic Loss Models in Urbanization Process  

E-print Network

Estimating Water Quality Pollution Impacts Based on Economic Loss Models in Urbanization Process Abstract: The study investigates water quality pollution impacts on urbanization by analyzing temporal the greatest contributors of surface water quality pollution from 1996 to 2003. High values existed

Yu, Qian

152

Functional Zoning and Urban Development Tendencies of Bucharest City/Romania  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Any form of urban development policy for environmental management should be based on the differentiation of the structure of a territory that can be found in the shape of functional zoning. Identifying the patterns of morphological structure of the urban space can provide essential clues concerning the proper measures to take into consideration during the activity of urban planning. In this sense, the Bucharest municipality study case provides the example of a dynamic urban space with a complex and distinctive evolutionary structure. The aim of the study is to set out the main events that shaped the Bucharest city space and the patterns resulted from their impact at the functional level of the Romanian capital. In order to identify the development tendencies of the Bucharest municipality, a series of aspects concerning urban morphology should be highlighted that reveal the impact of the socio-economical policies at the structural level of the territory. In this sense, three images of the urban space stand out, representative for the period when they materialized: the Post-Byzantine (XV-XVIII), the Fanariot (XVIII) and the Modern periods (XIX-XX). The corresponding cartographic documents analyzed are: the Franz Purcel Plan (dated 1789), the Romanian Guide Print Plan and, respectively, the AGC Busman Print Plan. The analysis reveals three distinctive morphological types: radial-concentric in the 17th century, polynuclear in the 18th century, leading to the mixed character in the Modern period. The latest trait of the urban territory is based on the concentric character of the street network (three circles were identified at the level of the capital city that point out the evolution of the urban space: Dacia bv-Mircea Vulcanescu, Stefan cel Mare bv-Iancu de Hunedoara and the last circle outlined by the ring road) and the presence of multiple nuclei that accumulate the commercial, administrative and business functions of the city.

Armas, Iuliana; Dumitrascu, Silvia

2010-05-01

153

Tourism & Urban Development: Building Local Economies & Sense of Place  

E-print Network

Tourism & Urban Development: Building Local Economies & Sense of Place - Greenwoods Corner - Simon, tourism must sustain and enhance local quality of life ­ "Communities will work for tourism if tourism

154

Investing (in) equity : how can urban development internalize social cost?  

E-print Network

This thesis recognizes the social costs created by privately driven urban development while also acknowledging cities' fiscal dependence on local property taxes. This study is based on the premise that equitable spatial ...

Xypolia, Aspasia, 1976-

2011-01-01

155

Impact of urbanization level on urban air quality: a case of fine particles (PM(2.5)) in Chinese cities.  

PubMed

We examined and compared PM2.5 concentrations in urban and the surrounding regions, and further investigated the impact of urbanization on urban PM2.5 concentrations at the Chinese prefectures. Annual PM2.5 concentrations in most prefectures were greater than 10 ?g/m(3), the air quality guideline of the World Health Organization. Those prefectures were mainly distributed along the east coast and southeast of Sichuan province; The urban PM2.5 concentrations ( [Formula: see text] ) in 85 cities were greater than (>10 ?g/m(3)) those in the surrounding area. Those cities were mainly located in the Beijing-Sichuan and Shanghai-Guangxi belts. In addition, [Formula: see text] was less than (<0 ?g/m(3)) that in surrounding areas in only 41 prefectures, which were located in western China or nearby mega cities; Significant positive correlations were found between [Formula: see text] and urban population (R(2) = 0.99, P < 0.05), and between [Formula: see text] and urban second industry fraction (R(2) = 0.71, P < 0.05), suggesting that urbanization had considerable impact on PM2.5 concentrations. PMID:25113968

Han, Lijian; Zhou, Weiqi; Li, Weifeng; Li, Li

2014-11-01

156

Sustainable Urbanism : an examination of environmentally responsible neighborhood developments in Europe and lessons for sustainable urban planning  

E-print Network

The emergence of the sustainable development concept at the end of the 1980s triggered the intensification of the environmental sustainability discourse in urban design and planning. The vision of sustainable urbanism ...

Kasioumi, Eirini

2010-01-01

157

A study of human impact on an urban forest remnant: Redwood Bush, Tawa, near Wellington, New Zealand  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact of recent human activity on a 9.3 ha stand of mature lowland kohekohe (Dysoxylum spectabile}-tawa (Beilschmiedia tawa) dicotylous forest was studied, with particular attention to damage resulting from recreational use. Urban development that created new forest margins was found to initiate further receding of the margins and subsequently the growth of a protective lateral canopy. This marginal adjustment

R. G. Bagnall

1979-01-01

158

Forecasting the combined effects of urbanization and climate change on stream ecosystems: from impacts to management options  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary 1. Streams collect runoff, heat, and sediment from their watersheds, making them highly vulnerable to anthropogenic disturbances such as urbanization and climate change. Forecasting the effects of these disturbances using process-based models is critical to identifying the form and magnitude of likely impacts. Here, we integrate a new biotic model with four previously developed physical models (downscaled climate projections,

Kären C. Nelson; Margaret A. Palmer; James E. Pizzuto; Glenn E. Moglen; Paul L. Angermeier; Robert H. Hilderbrand; Michael Dettinger; Katharine Hayhoe

2009-01-01

159

Health Impacts from Urban Air Pollution in China: The Burden to the Economy and the Benefits of Policy  

E-print Network

Health Impacts from Urban Air Pollution in China: The Burden to the Economy and the Benefits and Policy Program #12;2 #12;Health Impacts from Urban Air Pollution in China: The Burden to the Economy, elevated levels of urban air pollution result in significant adverse health impacts for its large

160

Impacts of urban transportation mode split on CO{sub 2} emissions in Jinan, China.  

SciTech Connect

As the world's largest developing country, China currently is undergoing rapid urbanization and motorization, which will result in far-reaching impacts on energy and the environment. According to estimates, energy use and carbon emissions in the transportation sector will comprise roughly 30% of total emissions by 2030. Since the late 1990s, transportation-related issues such as energy, consumption, and carbon emissions have become a policy focus in China. To date, most research and policies have centered on vehicle technologies that promote vehicle efficiency and reduced emissions. Limited research exists on the control of greenhouse gases through mode shifts in urban transportation - in particular, through the promotion of public transit. The purpose of this study is to establish a methodology to analyze carbon emissions from the urban transportation sector at the Chinese city level. By using Jinan, the capital of China's Shandong Province, as an example, we have developed an analytical model to simulate energy consumption and carbon emissions based on the number of trips, the transportation mode split, and the trip distance. This model has enabled us to assess the impacts of the transportation mode split on energy consumption and carbon emissions. Furthermore, this paper reviews a set of methods for data collection, estimation, and processing for situations where statistical data are scarce in China. This paper also describes the simulation of three transportation system development scenarios. The results of this study illustrate that if no policy intervention is implemented for the transportation mode split (the business-as-usual (BAU) case), then emissions from Chinese urban transportation systems will quadruple by 2030. However, a dense, mixed land-use pattern, as well as transportation policies that encourage public transportation, would result in the elimination of 1.93 million tons of carbon emissions - approximately 50% of the BAU scenario emissions.

He, D.; Meng, F.; Wang, M.; He, K. (Energy Systems); (Energy Foundation); (Tsinghua Univ.)

2011-04-01

161

Status of NASA Satellite, Field Observations, and Numerical Modeling Addressing the Impact of Urbanization on Short and Long Term Precipitation Variability  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Howard (1833a) made the first documented observation of a temperature difference between an urban area and its rural environment. Manley (1958) termed this contrast the "urban heat island (UHI)". The UHI has now become a widely acknowledged, observed, and researched phenomenon because of its broad implications. It is estimated that by the year 2025, 60% of the world's population will live in cities (UNFP, 1999). In the United States, the current urban growth rate is approximately 12.5%, with 80% currently living in urban areas. As cities continue to grow, urban sprawl creates unique problems related to land use, transportation, agriculture, housing, pollution, and development for policymakers. Urban expansion and its associated urban heat islands also have measurable impacts on weather and climate processes.

Shepherd, J. Marshall; Manyin, Michael; Burian, Steve; Garza, Carlos

2004-01-01

162

Strategic decisions for sustainable urban development in the Third World.  

PubMed

The debate about sustainable development in general and sustainable urban development in particular is mired in confusion. The conflicts between the rich countries of the North and the poor countries of the South contribute to that confusion, especially since governments on each side have reasons to avoid clarification. Until the mid-1960s, the North believed that if the South adopted a capitalist system which encouraged economic growth, demographic transition would occur. This has not occurred, and poverty coupled with rapid population growth has placed a heavy toll on the environment. In addition, the Northern path to a stable population through affluence has also taken an environmental toll which has shown that neither poverty nor affluence is sustainable. Part of our problem is due to the assumption that the planetary ecosystem is open and static, when it is actually closed and dynamic. Cities are important in the search for sustainability because they are the site where the human impacts on the environment are most evident and the opportunities for impact reduction are most concentrated and because city governments have shown more initiative than national governments in working for improvements. Examples exist of urban governments which promote practices that are better for the environment and also reduce user costs and create employment. The fact that improvement is patchy is due to negative global trends including world recession; capital flows from South to North, which must be reversed; environmental deterioration, which must be dealt with as a global responsibility; and the arms race. Procrastination on the part of the North to ameliorate the situation will lead to population collapse. The best way to avoid collapse is to act as if all members of our species are important and to understand the limits of our ecosystems. The development of ecological cities in the North will offer alternative models for the South. An ecological city provides services with environmentally benign technology, exists in symbiosis with the surrounding countryside, puts itself back into a natural carbon cycle, and develops natural cycles for its air, its waste, and its water. We must maintain a healthy ecological niche for our human settlements or we will fall into the abyss of environmental destruction. PMID:12345818

White, R R

1994-05-01

163

Cities of Consumption: The Impact of Corporate Practices on the Health of Urban Populations  

PubMed Central

The increasing concentration of the world’s population in cities and the growing accumulation of political and economic power by corporations create new threats to health and opportunities for improving global health. By considering the intersection of these two fundamental social determinants of well-being, we elucidate some of the mechanisms by which they influence the health of urban populations. After reviewing the changing historical impact of corporations on cities, we focus on the growth of consumption as a leading cause of mortality and morbidity and describe how the food, tobacco, automobile, and other industries promote unhealthy behaviors and lifestyles in urban settings. Cities are also sites for developing alternatives to unhealthy corporate practices, and we assess strategies used to modify practices that harm health. PMID:18437582

Galea, Sandro

2008-01-01

164

Development of Financial Intermediation and the Dynamics of Urban–Rural Disparity in China, 1978–1998  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chen Y. P., Liu M. and Zhang Q. Development of financial intermediation and the dynamics of urban–rural disparity in China, 1978–1998, Regional Studies. This paper focuses on the impacts of financial intermediation development on the urban–rural income disparity (URID) in China. Using a twenty-year province-level panel data set from 1978 to 1998, it is found that the change of URID

Yiu Por Chen; Mingxing Liu; Qi Zhang

2010-01-01

165

Gulf of Mexico Integrated Science - Tampa Bay Study: Examining the Impact of Urbanization on Seafloor Habitats  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Seafloor habitats, such as seagrass beds, provide essential habitat for fish and marine mammals. For many years, the study of seagrass vitality has been a priority for scientists and resource managers working in Tampa Bay. Seafloor habitats are extremely sensitive to changes in water quality. Like a canary in a coal mine, seagrass can serve as an ecological indicator of estuary health. Between the 1940s and the 1970s, seagrass gradually died in Tampa Bay. This loss has been attributed to a rise in urbanization and an increase in nutrient loading into the bay. Better treatment of industrial wastewater and runoff beginning in the 1980s resulted in the continuous recovery of seagrass beds. However, in the mid-1990s, the recovery began to level off in areas where good water quality was expected to support continued seagrass recovery, demonstrating that nutrient loading may be only one factor impacting seagrass health. Researchers now are trying to determine what might be affecting the recovery of seagrass in these areas. Currently, little is understood about the effects that other aspects of urbanization and natural change, such as groundwater and sediment quality, might have on seagrass vitality. This segment of the Tampa Bay integrated science study is intended to identify, quantify, and develop models that illustrate the impact that urbanization may have on seafloor habitat distribution, health, and restoration.

Yates, Kimberly

2005-01-01

166

Inequitable access to urban reforestation: the impact of urban political economy on housing tenure and urban forests  

Microsoft Academic Search

There has been substantial attention given to the benefits provided by urban forests, but little emphasis placed on the distribution of urban trees and the means by which trees are redistributed through urban reforestation efforts. This paper examines the 2002 program Greening Milwaukee, the city’s largest public\\/private tree planting program. The vast majority of trees planted for this program are

Harold A. Perkins; Nik Heynen; Joe Wilson

2004-01-01

167

Conservation in metropolitan regions: assessing trends and threats of urban development and climate change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two global challenges to successful conservation are urban expansion and climate change. Rapid urban growth threatens biodiversity and associated ecosystem services, while climate change may make currently protected areas unsuitable for species that exist within them. We examined three measures of landscape change for 8800 km2 of the San Francisco Bay metropolitan region over 80 years past and future: urban growth, protected area establishment, and natural vegetation type extents. The Bay Area is a good test bed for conservation assessment of the impacts of temporal and spatial of urban growth and land cover change. The region is geographically rather small, with over 40% of its lands already dedicated to protected park and open space lands, they are well-documented, and, the area has had extensive population growth in the past and is projected to continue to grow. The ten-county region within which our study area is a subset has grown from 1.78 million people in 1930, to 6.97 million in 2000 and is estimated to grow to 10.94 million by 2050. With such an influx of people into a small geographic area, it is imperative to both examine the past urban expansion and estimate how the future population will be accommodated into the landscape. We quantify these trends to assess conservation 'success' through time. We used historical and current landcover maps to assess trend, and a GIS-based urban modeling (UPlan) to assess future urban growth impacts in the region, under three policy scenarios- business as usual, smart growth, and urban redevelopment. Impacts are measured by the amount of open space targeted by conservation planners in the region that will be urbanized under each urban growth policy. Impacts are also measured by estimates of the energy consumption projected for each of the scenarios on household and business unit level. The 'business as usual' and 'smart growth' scenarios differed little in their impacts to targeted conservation lands, because so little open space remains to accommodate the expected population growth. Redevelopment conserved more naturally vegetated open space. The redevelopment scenario also permits the lowest increase in energy demand because buildings taken out in the process are reconfigured to higher levels of energy efficiency. However, redevelopment requires substantial increases in residential densities to confine the spatial footprint of the expected future urban growth. These three urban growth scenario footprints differ in their impact to natural vegetation and open space. To incorporate the influence of climate change on remaining natural ecosystems in this urbanizing landscape, we projected the stability of existing, mapped, vegetation types in the region under future climates by examining where projected ranges of the dominant plant species comprising each California Wildlife Habitat Relationship type will all remain together, and where they will begin to dis-associate due to biogeographic response to changing climate. This permits identification of stable and unstable zones of vegetation. The combination of climate stable, high conservation priority and likelihood of urban development provides a way to prioritize conservation land acquisitions.

Thorne, J. H.; Santos, M. J.; Bjorkman, J.

2011-12-01

168

Hamburg Urban Soil Climate Observatory (HUSCO): A concept to assess the impact of moisture and energy fluxes of urban soils on local climate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil as a storage and transmitter for water and thermal energy is able to influence and modify the local climate. The aim of this research project is a more precise understanding of the interactions between pedosphere and atmosphere in urban environments. HUSCO focuses on the impact of the modified soil hydrology by different typical urban structural units. The local effect of groundwater and soil properties on meteorological variables in the urban environment will be assessed by integrated flux measurements over urban districts with different groundwater table depth and urban land-uses. The results should open up opportunities to make more tangible predictions about the impacts of climate change in urban areas and to develop adaptation strategies to climate change for urban planning. Long-term measurements will start in early summer 2010 in the city of Hamburg, Germany. To quantify the climate-controlling processes, like fluxes of energy and water, two stationary and one temporary and mobile Eddy covariance system will be used, and various soil measurement stations will be mounted to analyze seasonal variations in soil water balance, ground water table and soil thermal properties. To detect the resulting climate effects, namely the heterogeneity of temperature and humidity in urban areas, coupled "Meteo-stations" will be set up to analyze core atmospheric parameters. In addition, data of the weather mast of Hamburg will be used to evaluate the greater meteorological conditions. The measurement sites were selected with regard to the local groundwater table, the type of housing estate, and size and vegetation of the green space. Two measurement sites - i.e. two urban districts - with different groundwater table depths were chosen: a low groundwater table depth of < 2.5 m and a high groundwater table depth of > 5 m. Each site features two measurement stations, one located in a housing estate and one in a green space. Another two stations will be located inside a sealed courtyard, and in a perimeter block development district. The two Eddy covariance stations will be mounted at heights of about 30 - 40 m located in the housing estates, with a supplementary Meteo-station and soil measurement stations. Temporarily, a mobile Eddy covariance station will be set up inside the green spaces to determine the local occurring fluxes. Furthermore, data of existing observational networks throughout Hamburg will be integrated. We will present objectives of the project, the design of experiments and the selection of investigation sites as well as first data of the mounted measurement stations and the analyzed data of an existing observational network. Acknowledgment: The project is founded by DFG as a part of the cluster of excellence "Integrated Climate System Analysis and Prediction (CliSAP)", KlimaCampus Hamburg

Sandoval, S.; Ament, F.; Kutzbach, L.; Eschenbach, A.

2010-09-01

169

Modelling regional climate change and urban planning scenarios and their impacts on the urban environment in two cities with WRF-ACASA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The number of urban metabolism studies has increased in recent years, due to the important impact that energy, water and carbon exchange over urban areas have on climate change. Urban modeling is therefore crucial in the future design and management of cities. This study presents the ACASA model coupled to the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF-ARW) mesoscale model to simulate urban fluxes at a horizontal resolution of 200 meters for urban areas of roughly 100 km^2. As part of the European Project "BRIDGE", these regional simulations were used in combination with remotely sensed data to provide constraints on the land surface types and the exchange of carbon and energy fluxes from urban centers. Surface-atmosphere exchanges of mass and energy were simulated using the Advanced Canopy Atmosphere Soil Algorithm (ACASA). ACASA is a multi-layer high-order closure model, recently modified to work over natural, agricultural as well as urban environments. In particular, improvements were made to account for the anthropogenic contribution to heat and carbon production. For two cities four climate change and four urban planning scenarios were simulated: The climate change scenarios include a base scenario (Sc0: 2008 Commit in IPCC), a medium emission scenario (Sc1: IPCC A2), a worst case emission scenario (Sce2: IPCC A1F1) and finally a best case emission scenario (Sce3: IPCC B1). The urban planning scenarios include different development scenarios such as smart growth. The two cities are a high latitude city, Helsinki (Finland) and an historic city, Florence (Italy). Helsinki is characterized by recent, rapid urbanization that requires a substantial amount of energy for heating, while Florence is representative of cities in lower latitudes, with substantial cultural heritage and a comparatively constant architectural footprint over time. In general, simulated fluxes matched the point observations well and showed consistent improvement in the energy partitioning over urban regions. We present comparisons of observed (EC) tower flux observations from the Florence (Ximeniano) site for 1-9 April, 2008 with results from two sets of high-resolution simulations: the first using dynamically-downscaled input/boundary conditions (Model-0) and the second using fully nested WRF-ACASA (Model-1). In each simulation the model physics are the same; only the WRF domain configuration differs. Preliminary results (Figure 1) indicate a degree of parity (and a slight statistical improvement), in the performances of Model-1 vs. that of Model-0 with respect to observed. Figure 1 (below) shows air temperature values from observed and both model estimates. Additional results indicate that care must be taken to configure the WRF domain, as performance appears to be sensitive to model configuration.

Falk, M.; Pyles, R. D.; Marras, S.; Spano, D.; Paw U, K. T.

2011-12-01

170

Urban Sustainable Development, Lower Income Communities, and Transorganizational Public Administration  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article will provide an analysis of the implementation of sustainable development policies in lower-income urban communities. Arguably, sustainable development policies can potentially improve the overall environmental and economic quality of life for people living within such communities. This, however, presents a challenge for public policy and administration on how best to manage and administer sustainable development policies within this

David L. Blumenthal; Edward J. Martin

2007-01-01

171

Effects of Global Change on U.S. Urban Areas: Vulnerabilities, Impacts, and Adaptation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This slide presentation reviews some of the effects that global change has on urban areas in the United States and how the growth of urban areas will affect the environment. It presents the elements of our Synthesis and Assessment Report (SAP) report that relate to what vulnerabilities and impacts will occur, what adaptation responses may take place, and what possible effects on settlement patterns and characteristics will potentially arise, on human settlements in the U.S. as a result of climate change and climate variability. We will also present some recommendations about what should be done to further research on how climate change and variability will impact human settlements in the U.S., as well as how to engage government officials, policy and decision makers, and the general public in understanding the implications of climate change and variability on the local and regional levels. Additionally, we wish to explore how technology such as remote sensing data coupled with modeling, can be employed as synthesis tools for deriving insight across a spectrum of impacts (e.g. public health, urban planning for mitigation strategies) on how cities can cope and adapt to climate change and variability. This latter point parallels the concepts and ideas presented in the U.S. National Academy of Sciences, Decadal Survey report on "Earth Science Applications from Space: National Imperatives for the Next Decade and Beyond" wherein the analysis of the impacts of climate change and variability, human health, and land use change are listed as key areas for development of future Earth observing remote sensing systems.

Quattrochi, Dale A.; Wilbanks, Thomas J.; Kirshen, Paul; Romero-Lankao, Patricia; Rosenzweig, Cynthia; Ruth, Mattias; Solecki, William; Tarr, Joel

2008-01-01

172

Urban Creek and Lake Water Quality Issues as Impacted by Urban Stormwater Runoff1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urban creeks and lakes can be important habitats for a variety of aquatic life, as well as an aesthetic resource to communities. A key component of this resource is the quality of water in these waterbodies. This paper is devoted to a review of water quality problems in urban creeks and lakes associated with stormwater runoff and other urban sources

G. Fred Lee; Anne Jones-Lee

173

Impact of temperature on oxidant photochemistry in urban, polluted rural and remote environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact of temperature on formation of O3 and odd nitrogen photochemistry is investigated using urban-, regional-, and global-scale simulations. Urban and polluted rural environments are explored with a regional simulation derived from a specific episode in the midwestern United States. The simulations predict that O3 increases with temperature in both urban and polluted rural environments. The O3-temperature relation is

Sanford Sillman; Perry J. Samson

1995-01-01

174

Impacts of Urbanization on Groundwater Quality and Recharge in a Semi-arid Alluvial Basin  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The management of groundwater resources is paramount in semi-arid regions experiencing urban development. In the southwestern United States, enhancing recharge of urban storm runoff has been identified as a strategy for augmenting groundwater resources. An understanding of how urbanization may impac...

175

Hamburg Urban Soil Climate Observatory (HUSCO): A concept to assess the impact of moisture and energy fluxes of urban soils on local climate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this research project is a more precise understanding of the interactions between pedosphere and atmosphere in urban environments. Soil as a storage and transmitter for water and thermal energy is able to influence and modify the local climate. This effect is to be quantified for three different typical urban structural units, namely green spaces, dense and sparse terraced housing estates, in combination with different soil properties and water table depths. Focus lies on the modified soil hydrology of different housing densities. The impact of soil properties and groundwater table on local climate in urban areas will be assessed. The results should open up opportunities to make more tangible predictions about the impacts of climate change in urban areas and to develop adaptation strategies to climate change for urban planning. Long-term measurements will start in spring 2010 in the city of Hamburg, Germany. To quantify the climate-controlling processes as fluxes of energy and water, two Eddy covariance systems including soil heat flux measurements are used and various soil measurement stations are mounted to analyze seasonal variations in soil water balance, ground water table and soil thermal properties. To detect the resulting climate effects, namely the heterogeneity of temperature and humidity in urban areas, coupled "Meteo-stations" are set up to analyze core atmospheric parameters. Furthermore, data of existing observational networks throughout Hamburg will be integrated. We will present objectives of the project, the design of experiments and the selection of investigation sites as well as very first data. Acknowledgment: The project is founded by DFG as a part of the cluster of excellence "Integrated Climate System Analysis and Prediction (CliSAP)", KlimaCampus, Hamburg

Sandoval, Sarah; Ament, Felix; Eschenbach, Annette

2010-05-01

176

Impact of anthropogenic activities on urban stream water quality: a case study in Guangzhou, China.  

PubMed

Anthropogenic activities are increasingly impacting the quality of urban surface water, particularly in regions undergoing intensive urbanization, such as Guangzhou of South China with a large urban stream network. To examine such impacts, we conducted field sampling on December 24, 2010, May 24, 2011, and August 28, 2011, representative of the low-, normal-, and high-flow periods, respectively. The first sampling was timed immediately after the closing of the 16th Asian Games (November 12-27, 2010) and the 10th Asian Para Games (December 12-19, 2010) held in Guangzhou. Assessments based on a pollution index method showed that the urban streams under investigation were extremely polluted, with direct discharge of untreated domestic sewage identified as the main pollution contributor. In addition, stream water quality around urban villages with high population densities was worse than that within business districts away from the urban villages. Pollution control measures implemented in preparation for the Asian Games were effective for urban streams within the business districts, but less effective for those adjacent to the urban villages. However, short-term efforts may not be able to achieve sustainable urban water quality improvements. In the case of Guangzhou, minimizing or even eliminating direct point-source inputs to the urban streams is perhaps the best option. PMID:25009093

Liu, Jin-Song; Guo, Ling-Chuan; Luo, Xian-Lin; Chen, Fan-Rong; Zeng, Eddy Y

2014-12-01

177

Impact of Sequestration on the Nation's Urban Public Schools. Research Brief  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The nation's urban public school districts have been bracing for the fiscal impact that would result from a sequestration of federal funds, a financial provision in the Budget Control Act of 2011. The result of this across-the-board cut would be felt most severely by programs serving poor urban students, students with disabilities, and English…

Council of the Great City Schools, 2012

2012-01-01

178

Non-Point-Source Impacts on Stream Nutrient Concentrations Along a Forest to Urban Gradient  

E-print Network

Non-Point-Source Impacts on Stream Nutrient Concentrations Along a Forest to Urban Gradient MICHAEL-point-source pollutants on stream water quality. These catchments are dominated by either urban (22­87%) or forest (6) and 71% higher turbidity than the most forested streams. Nitrate (NO3), ammonium (NH4), and total

Arhonditsis, George B.

179

Impact of Onsite Wastewater Treatment Systems on Nitrogen and Baseflow in Urban Watersheds of Metropolitan Atlanta  

E-print Network

Impact of Onsite Wastewater Treatment Systems on Nitrogen and Baseflow in Urban Watersheds-flow in urbanizing watersheds of Metropolitan Atlanta, Georgia. Synoptic samples were collected and stream discharge was measured under base-flow conditions in 24 watersheds (12 with low and 12 with high OWTS density) 3 times

Arnold, Jonathan

180

A Review of Quantitative Methods for Evaluating Impacts of Climate Change on Urban Water Infrastructure  

EPA Science Inventory

It is widely accepted that global climate change will impact the regional and local climate and alter some aspects of the hydrologic cycle, which in turn can affect the performance of the urban water supply, wastewater and storm water infrastructur4e. How the urban water infrastr...

181

Urban runoff impacts on receiving aquatic ecosystems assessed using periphyton community  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urban runoff is a major cause of stream degradation. For appropriate management action, there is a need to establish whether or not the runoff is degrading or potentially will degrade the receiving water. This work explored the use of local periphyton communities for assessing the ecological impacts of runoff of two urban catchments. Periphyton communities were colonized on glass substrate

Tan Chew Khun; Carolyn Oldham; Louis Evans

2012-01-01

182

Roads to Development: Experimental Evidence from Urban Road Pavement  

E-print Network

Roads to Development: Experimental Evidence from Urban Road Pavement Marco Gonzalez-Navarro UC peripheries in many developing country cities lack basic local public goods like pavement, water, sewerage pavement provision in Mexico. Our findings show that homes in streets that were paved increased their value

Silver, Whendee

183

Developing a Sustained Interest in Science among Urban Minority Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study draws upon qualitative case study to investigate the connections between the "funds of knowledge" that urban, high-poverty students bring to science learning and the development of a sustained interest in science. We found that youth developed a sustained interest in science when: (1) their science experiences connected with how they…

Basu, Sreyashi Jhumki; Barton, Angela Calabrese

2007-01-01

184

Fresno in Transition: Urban Impacts of Rural Migration. Working Paper No. 26.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines the social and economic impacts of Mexican immigration on Fresno (California). Since the early 1980s, immigration to California has been dominated by illegal immigrants from rural Mexico seeking agricultural jobs in rural California. This rural migration impacts urban centers in agricultural regions; these impacts lag the…

Mason, Bert; Alvarado, Andrew; Palacio, Robert

185

ISDA 2010, Montpellier 28-30 Juin 2010 1 URBAN AND PERI URBAN HORTICULTURE AND  

E-print Network

to distinguish between urban and rural lifestyles. Another consequence is the ISDA 2010, Montpellier 28-30 Juin 2010 1 URBAN AND PERI URBAN HORTICULTURE AND THE CAPABILITY the capability approach to analyse the impact of urban and peri urban horticulture on development in Africa

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

186

Impacts of Climate Policy on Urban Air Pollution: Implications for Policy Design for Integrating Air-quality Co-benefits  

E-print Network

Impacts of Climate Policy on Urban Air Pollution: Implications for Policy Design for Integrating, Technology and Policy Program #12;#12;3 Impacts of Climate Policy on Urban Air Pollution: Implications climate change and urban air pollution and imply that opportunities exist to simultaneously deal

187

Impacts of Urbanization and Biofuels Production on The Price of Land in the Corn Belt: A Farm-Level Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study uses hedonic techniques to estimate the impact of urban influence, increased bio-fuels production, and environmental factors on land prices in the Corn Belt. We hypothesize that urban influence and ethanol production increase land prices on Corn Belt farms. Although not all states in the Corn Belt are entirely subject to urban influence and ethanol production impacts, some states

Richard Nehring; Kenneth Erickson; Vince Breneman; Alexandre Vialou; David Nulph

188

DREDGING IMPACT ON AN URBANIZED FLORIDA BAYOU: EFFECTS ON BENTHOS AND ALGAL-PERIPHYTON.  

EPA Science Inventory

Environmental effects of dredging events have been uncommonly reported for shallow, residential estuaries characteristic of the Gulf of Mexico region. The objective of this study was to determine the impact of hydraulic dredging on an urbanized estuary. Physicochemical quality, ...

189

Effects of Global Change on U.S. Urban Areas: Vulnerabilities, Impacts, and Adaptation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Human settlements, both large and small, are where the vast majority of people on the Earth live. Expansion of cities both in population and areal extent, is a relentless process that will accelerate in the 21st century. As a consequence of urban growth both in the United States and around the globe, it is important to develop an understanding of how urbanization will affect the local and regional environment. Of equal importance, however, is the assessment of how cities will be impacted by the looming prospects of global climate change and climate variability. The potential impacts of climate change and variability has recently been annunciated by the IPCC's "Climate Change 2007" report. Moreover, the U.S. Climate Change Science Program (CCSP) is preparing a series of "Synthesis and Assessment Products" (SAPs) reports to support informed discussion and decision making regarding climate change and variability by policy matters, resource managers, stakeholders, the media, and the general public. We are authors on a SAP describing the effects of global climate change on human settlements. This paper will present the elements of our SAP report that relate to what vulnerabilities and impacts will occur, what adaptation responses may take place, and what possible effects on settlement patterns and characteristics will potentially arise, on human settlements in the U.S. as a result of climate change and climate variability. We will also present some recommendations about what should be done to further research on how climate change and variability will impact human settlements in the U.S., as well as how to engage government officials, policy and decision makers, and the general public in understanding the implications of climate change and variability on the local and regional levels. Additionally, we wish to explore how technology such as remote sensing data coupled with modeling, can be employed as synthesis tools for deriving insight across a spectrum of impacts (e.g. public health, urban planning for mitigation strategies) on how cities can cope and adapt to climate change and variability. This latter point parallels the concepts and ideas presented in the U.S. National Academy of Sciences, Decadal Survey report on "Earth Science Applications from Space: National Imperatives for the Next Decade and Beyond" wherein the analysis of the impacts of climate change and variability, human health, and land use change are listed as key areas for development of future Earth observing remote sensing systems.

Quattrochi, Dale A.; Wilbanks, Thomas J.; Kirshen, Paul; Romero-Lnkao, Patricia; Rosenzweig, Cynthia; Ruth, Matthias; Solecki, William; Tarr, Joel

2007-01-01

190

IMPACTS OF URBAN COYOTES ON PEOPLE AND PETS IN NEW YORK STATE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract: Coyotes ,(Canis latrans) are currently common ,in most ,of New ,York State with an apparent increase of coyotes,in urban areas. Coyotes can potentially cause a variety of effects and impacts. Urban ,coyotes can impact the general public by causing ,safety concerns for children and pets and by causing,feelings of grief for attacked and missing pets. Politicians and government,agencies can

Louis T. Berchielli

191

Assessment of patches attributes along the Urban Development Gradient  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The world is increasingly urban. If current trends maintain, by 2050 the global urban population is estimated to be 6.3 billion, nearly doubling the world population in 2010. Consequently, more than 60% of the area projected to be urban in 2030 has yet to be built, replacing the open and agriculture lands with construction and infrastructure. The open green patches (OGP), within the urban matrix, are essential for healthy and wellness of cities by supplying the city's ecological services (Mausback and Seybold, 1998). Regarding future trends, there is a need and obligation to insure the functional and sustainability of the city's OPG. Urban vegetation composition and diversity in the OGP had long been considered as an indication for ecologically functioning systems. Furthermore, urban soil is also essential for the sustainability and function of the urban habitat and ecological services, such as maintaining groundwater restraining urban floods etc. (Lehmann and Stahr 2007). There is no single set of rules to classify a functional urban green patch worth preserving. The aim of this study is to examine the effects of patch properties (including geometry, age, type and location along the urban gradient, connectivity, and urban matrix density) on the presence, abundance and characteristics of vegetation and soil conditions of remnant patches The inspired purpose is to eventually find an assessment for urban open green patches OGP quality by linking, patches attributes, plants indexes and soil quality indexes The research is conducted in the city of Haifa, which is located on the northern part of Mount Carmel in the north-western part of Israel . Mean annual rainfall, 550-800 mm, varies with latitude and the mean temperature is 18.80c. Modern Haifa is a relatively young city which maintains remnant vegetation patches within its municipal boundary. 32 OGP were selected in nine categories (size: small, medium and large, distance from city edge: far, average, near), in which vegetation was surveyed. . All vascular plant species were recorded and identified. The mineral soils (A horizon, depth 10-15 cm) were collected to obtain a constant sample size after removing surface litter and organic matter. The samples were analyzed for mineral and structure properties. Preliminary results of the plant survey and analysis indicated that the patches' vegetation is highly diverse. Within the large patches, regardless of their location along the urban development gradient, higher sub-habitat diversity and plants diversity were observed. The diversity is high for local and exotic species alike. In the medium and small size patches, also regardless of their location, there is a diversity of plant composition that may be connected to different disturbances or matrix related effect not yet considered in the study. Preliminary results of the soil survey and analysis indicated that more than 75% of the soil samples taken from the OGP, regardless of their location in the urban development gradient, exhibited a considerable changes in soil profile, compared to "natural" soils and significant alternations in the physical properties were also observed. The substance that was found in the remnant OGP in Haifa is different from soil, however, links between the urban-soils altered properties and the vegetation composition in those patches, and there relationships are not fully understood.

Kopel, Daniella; Wittenberg, lea; Malkinson, Dan

2014-05-01

192

The Third Hans Cloos Lecture. Urban landslides: socioeconomic impacts and overview of mitigative strategies  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a result of population pressures, hillsides in the world’s urban areas are being developed at an accelerating rate. This\\u000a development increases the risk for urban landslides triggered by rainfall or earthquake activity. To counter this risk, four\\u000a approaches have been employed by landslide managers and urban planners: (1) restricting development in landslide-prone areas;\\u000a (2) implementing and enforcing excavation, grading,

Robert L. Schuster; Lynn M. Highland

2007-01-01

193

Mass balance-based regression modeling of PAHs accumulation in urban soils, role of urban development.  

PubMed

We investigated the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) contents in 68 soils samples collected at housing developments that represent different length of development periods across Beijing. Based on the data, we derived a mass balanced mathematical model to simulate the dynamics of PAH accumulations in urban soils as affected by the urban developments. The key parameters were estimated by fitting the modified mass balance model to the data of PAH concentrations vs. building age of the sampling green area. The total PAH concentrations would increase from the baseline of 267 ng g(-1) to 3631 ng g(-1) during the period of 1978-2048. It showed that the dynamic changes in the rates of accumulations of light and heavy PAH species were related to the shifting of sources of fuels, combustion efficiencies, and amounts of energy consumed during the course of development. PMID:25489746

Peng, Chi; Wang, Meie; Chen, Weiping; Chang, Andrew C

2014-12-01

194

Urban impacts on mean and trend of surface incident solar radiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

aerosols over urban areas may have important effects on surface incident solar radiation (Rs). Studies have claimed that Rs decreased significantly more in urban areas than in rural areas from 1964 to 1989. However, these estimates have substantial biases because they ignored the spatial inhomogeneity of Rs measurements. To address this issue, we selected urban-rural station pairs collocated within 2° × 2° and found 105 such pairs based on the Global Energy Balance Archive (GEBA). On average, the impact of urban aerosols on mean and trend of Rs is 0.2(0.7, median) ± 11.2 W m-2 and 0.1(-0.7, median) ± 6.6 W m-2 per decade from 1961 to 1990, respectively. Hence, the averaged urban impacts on the mean and trend of Rs over Europe, China and Japan from 1961 to 1990 are small although they may be significant at specific sites.

Wang, Kaicun; Ma, Qian; Wang, XiaoYan; Wild, Martin

2014-07-01

195

Health impacts from urban air pollution in China : the burden to the economy and the benefits of policy  

E-print Network

In China, elevated levels of urban air pollution result in significant adverse health impacts for its large and rapidly growing urban population. An expanded version of the Emissions Prediction and Policy Analysis (EPPA), ...

Matus, Kira J. (Kira Jen)

2005-01-01

196

Impact of urbanization on the groundwater regime in a fast growing city in central India.  

PubMed

This paper describes the impact of urbanization on the groundwater regime in a fast growing city, Solapur, in central India, giving special emphasis on the management of the present and ultimate demand of water in 2,020 AD. The objective is to apprise the city planners and administrators of the effects of urbanization on the groundwater regime in a fast growing medium-sized city in a developing country where the infrastructure developments are not in conformity with the rapid growth in population. Solapur city with an area of 178.57 km2 receives a recharge of about 24 million m3 of groundwater from various sources annually. Reduction in recharge, as conventionally assumed due to the impact of urbanization, could not, however, be well established. Instead, there was a rise in recharge as water use in the city grew from time to time and more and more water was supplied to satisfy the human needs. Compared to mid-1970s, groundwater levels have increased within the main city area due to increased recharge and decreased groundwater abstraction. However, outside the main city area, there is a general decline in groundwater levels due to increased groundwater utilization for irrigation purposes. Groundwater quality deterioration has been highly localized. Water quality has deteriorated during the last 10 years, especially in dugwells, mainly due to misuse and disuse of these structures and poor circulation of groundwater. However, in case of borewells, comparison of the present water quality with that in mid-1970s and early 1980s does not show any perceptible change. Deeper groundwater tapped by borewells can still be used for drinking purposes with caution. PMID:18205022

Naik, Pradeep K; Tambe, Jivesh A; Dehury, Biranchi N; Tiwari, Arun N

2008-11-01

197

75 FR 36245 - Notice of Funding Availability for the Department of Housing and Urban Development's Community...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...health and the environment, promote equitable development, and help address...housing and urban development programs. This...respect to the environment has been made for...Housing and Urban Development, 451 Seventh...

2010-06-24

198

High Spatial Resolution Thermal Infrared Remote Sensing Data for Analysis of the Atlanta, Georgia, Urban Heat Island Effect and Its Impacts on the Environment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The twenty-first century is the first "urban century" according to the United Nations Development Program. The focus of cities reflects awareness of the growing percentage of the world's population that lives in urban areas. In environmental terms, cities are the original producers of many of the global problems related to waste disposal, air and water pollution, and associated environmental and ecological challenges. Expansion of cities, both in population and areal extent, is a relentless process. In 2000, approximately 3 billion people representing about 40% of the global population, resided in urban areas. Urban population will continue to rise substantially over the next several decades according to UN estimates, and most of this growth will Occur in developing countries. The UN estimates that by 2025, 60% of the world's population will live in urban areas. As a consequence, the number of"megacities" (those cities with populations of 10 million inhabitants or more) will increase by 100 by 2025. Thus, there is a critical need to understand urban areas and what their impacts are on environmental, ecological and hydrologic resources, as well as on the local, regional, and even global climate. One of the more egregious side effects of urbanization is the increase in surface and air temperatures that lead to deterioration in air quality. In the United States, under the more stringent air quality guidelines established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in 1997, nearly 300 counties in 34 states will not meet these new air quality standards for ground level ozone. Mitigation of the urban heat island (UHI) effect is actively being evaluated as a possible way to reduce ground ozone levels in cities and assist states in improving air quality. Foremost in the analysis of how the UHI affects air quality and other environmental factors is the use of remote sensing technology and data to characterize urban land covers in sufficient detail to quantifiably measure the impact of increased urban heating on air quality. The urban landscape impacts surface thermal energy exchanges that determine development of the UHI. This paper will illustrate how we are using high spatial remote sensing data collected over the Atlanta, Georgia metropolitan area in conjunction with other geographic information, to perform a detailed urban land cover classification and to determine the contribution of these land covers to the urban heat island effect. Also, the spatial arrangement of the land covers and the impact on urban heating from these selected patterns of development are evaluated. Additionally, this paper will show how these data are being used as inputs to improve air quality modeling for Atlanta, including potential benefits from UHI mitigation.

Quattrochi, Dale A.

2007-01-01

199

Assessing the impact of urbanization on storm runoff in a peri-urban catchment using historical change in impervious cover  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper investigates changes in storm runoff resulting from the transformation of previously rural landscapes into peri-urban areas. Two adjacent catchments (?5 km2) located within the town of Swindon in the United Kingdom were monitored during 2011 and 2012 providing continuous records of rainfall, runoff and actual evaporation. One catchment is highly urbanized and the other is a recently developed peri-urban area containing two distinct areas of drainage: one with mixed natural and storm drainage pathways, the other entirely storm drainage. Comparison of observed storm hydrographs showed that the degree of area serviced by storm drainage was a stronger determinant of storm runoff response than either impervious area or development type and that little distinction in hydrological response exists between urban and peri-urban developments of similar impervious cover when no significant hydraulic alteration is present. Historical levels of urbanization and impervious cover were mapped from the 1960s to the 2010s based on digitized historical topographic maps and were combined with a hydrological model to enable backcasting of the present day storm runoff response to that of the catchments in their earlier states. Results from the peri-urban catchment showed an increase in impervious cover from 11% in the 1960s to 44% in 2010s, and introduction of a large-scale storm drainage system in the early 2000s, was accompanied by a 50% reduction in the Muskingum routing parameter k, reducing the characteristic flood duration by over 50% while increasing peak flow by over 400%. Comparisons with changes in storm runoff response in the more urban area suggest that the relative increase in peak flows and reduction in flood duration and response time of a catchment is greatest at low levels of urbanization and that the introduction of storm water conveyance systems significantly increases the flashiness of storm runoff above that attributed to impervious area alone. This study demonstrates that careful consideration is required when using impervious cover data within hydrological models and when designing flood mitigation measures, particularly in peri-urban areas where a widespread loss in pervious surfaces and alteration of drainage pathways can significantly alter the storm runoff response. Recommendations include utilizing more refined urban land use typologies that can better represent physical alteration of hydrological pathways.

Miller, James D.; Kim, Hyeonjun; Kjeldsen, Thomas R.; Packman, John; Grebby, Stephen; Dearden, Rachel

2014-07-01

200

UrbanSolutionsCenter Breeding and Development of Ornamental Plants  

E-print Network

UrbanSolutionsCenter Breeding and Development of Ornamental Plants Background Ornamental plants and increases in human activity, ornamental plants sometimes lose their natural resistance to abiotic and biotic stresses. Although ornamental plants have adaptation mechanisms via natural selection, artificial selection

201

The Center for Urban Entrepreneurship & Economic Development (CUEED) together with students and faculty works to create wealth in urban communities  

E-print Network

& Economic Development Rutgers Business School ­ Business, Science, and Technology continued > Instructor La jobs. Graduateswillhavetheskillstolaunchnewbusinesses,ortake on business development and otherThe Center for Urban Entrepreneurship & Economic Development (CUEED) together with students

Lin, Xiaodong

202

Potentials, problems, and policy implications for urban agriculture in developing countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urban agriculture has, forcenturies, served as a vital input in thelivelihood strategies of urban households inthe developing countries. As a response to theeconomic crises exacerbated by the structuraladjustment programs and increasing migration,urban agriculture has expanded rapidly withinthe last 20 years. An examination of thegeneral trends in urban agriculture reveals anumber of issues policy-makers in developingcountries should address to provide services

Erik Bryld

2003-01-01

203

Urban Heat Island Adaptation Strategies are not created equal: Assessment of Impacts and Tradeoffs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sustainable urban expansion requires an extension of contemporary approaches that focus nearly exclusively on reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. Researchers have proposed biophysical approaches to urban heat island mitigation (e.g., via deployment of cool or green roofs) but little is known how these technologies vary with place and season and what impacts are beyond those of near surface temperature. Using a suite of continuous, multi-year and multi-member continental scale numerical simulations for the United States, we examine hydroclimatic impacts for a variety of U.S. urban expansion (to the year 2100) and urban adaptation futures and compare those to contemporary urban extent. Adaptation approaches include widespread adoption of cool roofs, green roofs, and a hypothetical hybrid approach integrating properties of both cool and green roofs (i.e., reflective green roofs). Widespread adoption of adaptation strategies exhibits hydroclimatic impacts that are regionally and seasonally dependent. For some regions and seasons, urban-induced warming of 3°C can be completely offset by the adaptation approaches examined. For other regions and seasons, widespread adoption of some adaptation strategies can result in significant reduction in precipitation. Finally, implications of large-scale urbanization for seasonal energy demand will be examined.

Georgescu, Matei

2014-05-01

204

Methodologies for Analyzing Impact of Urbanization on Irrigation Districts  

E-print Network

(Fig. 1). These counties contain 28 irrigation districts with a total service area of 759,200 acres, and a canal system 3,174 miles long. Based on water rights, the districts vary greatly in size. The smallest active district has 1,120 ac-ft of Class... by urban areas. During the ten year period (1996-2006), about 800 more acres of storage facilities (reservoirs and resacas1) became a part of urban areas (28% increase), and an additional 360 miles of canals flowed through urban areas (from 23 to 27...

Bonaiti, G.; Fipps, G.

205

Forecasting the combined effects of urbanization and climate change on stream ecosystems: From impacts to management options  

USGS Publications Warehouse

1. Streams collect runoff, heat, and sediment from their watersheds, making them highly vulnerable to anthropogenic disturbances such as urbanization and climate change. Forecasting the effects of these disturbances using process-based models is critical to identifying the form and magnitude of likely impacts. Here, we integrate a new biotic model with four previously developed physical models (downscaled climate projections, stream hydrology, geomorphology, and water temperature) to predict how stream fish growth and reproduction will most probably respond to shifts in climate and urbanization over the next several decades. 2. The biotic submodel couples dynamics in fish populations and habitat suitability to predict fish assemblage composition, based on readily available biotic information (preferences for habitat, temperature, and food, and characteristics of spawning) and day-to-day variability in stream conditions. 3. We illustrate the model using Piedmont headwater streams in the Chesapeake Bay watershed of the USA, projecting ten scenarios: Baseline (low urbanization; no on-going construction; and present-day climate); one Urbanization scenario (higher impervious surface, lower forest cover, significant construction activity); four future climate change scenarios [Hadley CM3 and Parallel Climate Models under medium-high (A2) and medium-low (B2) emissions scenarios]; and the same four climate change scenarios plus Urbanization. 4. Urbanization alone depressed growth or reproduction of 8 of 39 species, while climate change alone depressed 22 to 29 species. Almost every recreationally important species (i.e. trouts, basses, sunfishes) and six of the ten currently most common species were predicted to be significantly stressed. The combined effect of climate change and urbanization on adult growth was sometimes large compared to the effect of either stressor alone. Thus, the model predicts considerable change in fish assemblage composition, including loss of diversity. 5. Synthesis and applications. The interaction of climate change and urban growth may entail significant reconfiguring of headwater streams, including a loss of ecosystem structure and services, which will be more costly than climate change alone. On local scales, stakeholders cannot control climate drivers but they can mitigate stream impacts via careful land use. Therefore, to conserve stream ecosystems, we recommend that proactive measures be taken to insure against species loss or severe population declines. Delays will inevitably exacerbate the impacts of both climate change and urbanization on headwater systems. ?? 2008 The Authors.

Nelson, K.C.; Palmer, M.A.; Pizzuto, J.E.; Moglen, G.E.; Angermeier, P.L.; Hilderbrand, R.H.; Dettinger, M.; Hayhoe, K.

2009-01-01

206

Forecasting the combined effects of urbanization and climate change on stream ecosystems: from impacts to management options  

PubMed Central

Streams collect runoff, heat, and sediment from their watersheds, making them highly vulnerable to anthropogenic disturbances such as urbanization and climate change. Forecasting the effects of these disturbances using process-based models is critical to identifying the form and magnitude of likely impacts. Here, we integrate a new biotic model with four previously developed physical models (downscaled climate projections, stream hydrology, geomorphology, and water temperature) to predict how stream fish growth and reproduction will most probably respond to shifts in climate and urbanization over the next several decades. The biotic submodel couples dynamics in fish populations and habitat suitability to predict fish assemblage composition, based on readily available biotic information (preferences for habitat, temperature, and food, and characteristics of spawning) and day-to-day variability in stream conditions. We illustrate the model using Piedmont headwater streams in the Chesapeake Bay watershed of the USA, projecting ten scenarios: Baseline (low urbanization; no on-going construction; and present-day climate); one Urbanization scenario (higher impervious surface, lower forest cover, significant construction activity); four future climate change scenarios [Hadley CM3 and Parallel Climate Models under medium-high (A2) and medium-low (B2) emissions scenarios]; and the same four climate change scenarios plus Urbanization. Urbanization alone depressed growth or reproduction of 8 of 39 species, while climate change alone depressed 22 to 29 species. Almost every recreationally important species (i.e. trouts, basses, sunfishes) and six of the ten currently most common species were predicted to be significantly stressed. The combined effect of climate change and urbanization on adult growth was sometimes large compared to the effect of either stressor alone. Thus, the model predicts considerable change in fish assemblage composition, including loss of diversity. Synthesis and applications. The interaction of climate change and urban growth may entail significant reconfiguring of headwater streams, including a loss of ecosystem structure and services, which will be more costly than climate change alone. On local scales, stakeholders cannot control climate drivers but they can mitigate stream impacts via careful land use. Therefore, to conserve stream ecosystems, we recommend that proactive measures be taken to insure against species loss or severe population declines. Delays will inevitably exacerbate the impacts of both climate change and urbanization on headwater systems. PMID:19536343

Nelson, Kären C; Palmer, Margaret A; Pizzuto, James E; Moglen, Glenn E; Angermeier, Paul L; Hilderbrand, Robert H; Dettinger, Michael; Hayhoe, Katharine

2009-01-01

207

Forecasting the combined effects of urbanization and climate change on stream ecosystems: from impacts to management options.  

PubMed

Streams collect runoff, heat, and sediment from their watersheds, making them highly vulnerable to anthropogenic disturbances such as urbanization and climate change. Forecasting the effects of these disturbances using process-based models is critical to identifying the form and magnitude of likely impacts. Here, we integrate a new biotic model with four previously developed physical models (downscaled climate projections, stream hydrology, geomorphology, and water temperature) to predict how stream fish growth and reproduction will most probably respond to shifts in climate and urbanization over the next several decades.The biotic submodel couples dynamics in fish populations and habitat suitability to predict fish assemblage composition, based on readily available biotic information (preferences for habitat, temperature, and food, and characteristics of spawning) and day-to-day variability in stream conditions.WE ILLUSTRATE THE MODEL USING PIEDMONT HEADWATER STREAMS IN THE CHESAPEAKE BAY WATERSHED OF THE USA, PROJECTING TEN SCENARIOS: Baseline (low urbanization; no on-going construction; and present-day climate); one Urbanization scenario (higher impervious surface, lower forest cover, significant construction activity); four future climate change scenarios [Hadley CM3 and Parallel Climate Models under medium-high (A2) and medium-low (B2) emissions scenarios]; and the same four climate change scenarios plus Urbanization.Urbanization alone depressed growth or reproduction of 8 of 39 species, while climate change alone depressed 22 to 29 species. Almost every recreationally important species (i.e. trouts, basses, sunfishes) and six of the ten currently most common species were predicted to be significantly stressed. The combined effect of climate change and urbanization on adult growth was sometimes large compared to the effect of either stressor alone. Thus, the model predicts considerable change in fish assemblage composition, including loss of diversity.Synthesis and applications. The interaction of climate change and urban growth may entail significant reconfiguring of headwater streams, including a loss of ecosystem structure and services, which will be more costly than climate change alone. On local scales, stakeholders cannot control climate drivers but they can mitigate stream impacts via careful land use. Therefore, to conserve stream ecosystems, we recommend that proactive measures be taken to insure against species loss or severe population declines. Delays will inevitably exacerbate the impacts of both climate change and urbanization on headwater systems. PMID:19536343

Nelson, Kären C; Palmer, Margaret A; Pizzuto, James E; Moglen, Glenn E; Angermeier, Paul L; Hilderbrand, Robert H; Dettinger, Michael; Hayhoe, Katharine

2009-02-01

208

An environmental pressure index proposal for urban development planning based on the analytic network process  

SciTech Connect

This paper introduces a new approach to prioritize urban planning projects according to their environmental pressure in an efficient and reliable way. It is based on the combination of three procedures: (i) the use of environmental pressure indicators, (ii) the aggregation of the indicators in an Environmental Pressure Index by means of the Analytic Network Process method (ANP) and (iii) the interpretation of the information obtained from the experts during the decision-making process. The method has been applied to a proposal for urban development of La Carlota airport in Caracas (Venezuela). There are three options which are currently under evaluation. They include a Health Club, a Residential Area and a Theme Park. After a selection process the experts chose the following environmental pressure indicators as ANP criteria for the project life cycle: used land area, population density, energy consumption, water consumption and waste generation. By using goal-oriented questionnaires designed by the authors, the experts determined the importance of the criteria, the relationships among criteria, and the relationships between the criteria and the urban development alternatives. The resulting data showed that water consumption is the most important environmental pressure factor, and the Theme Park project is by far the urban development alternative which exerts the least environmental pressure on the area. The participating experts coincided in appreciating the technique proposed in this paper is useful and, for ranking ordering these alternatives, an improvement from traditional techniques such as environmental impact studies, life-cycle analysis, etc.

Gomez-Navarro, Tomas, E-mail: tgomez@dpi.upv.e [Departamento de Proyectos de Ingenieria, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Camino de Vera s/n. 46022, Valencia (Spain); Garcia-Melon, Monica, E-mail: mgarciam@dpi.upv.e [Departamento de Proyectos de Ingenieria, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Camino de Vera s/n. 46022, Valencia (Spain); Acuna-Dutra, Silvia, E-mail: sacuna@unimet.edu.v [Departamento de Estudios Ambientales, Universidad Metropolitana, Autopista Guarenas, Sector La Urbina, Distribuidor Metropolitano, Caracas (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Diaz-Martin, Diego, E-mail: ddiaz@unimet.edu.v [Departamento de Estudios Ambientales, Universidad Metropolitana, Autopista Guarenas, Sector La Urbina, Distribuidor Metropolitano, Caracas (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of)

2009-09-15

209

Predicting Influences of Urban Development on Thermal Habitat in a Warm Water Stream  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Watershed and aquatic ecosystem management requires methods to predict and understand thermal impacts on stream habitat from urbanization. This study evaluates thermal effects of projected urbanization using a modeling framework and considers the biological implications to the fish community. The Stream Network Temperature Model (SNTEMP) was used in combination with the Hydrologic Simulation Program Fortran (HSPF) to assess changes in stream thermal habitat under altered streamflow, shade, and channel width associated with low, medium, and high density urban developments in the Back Creek watershed (Roanoke County, Virginia). Flow alteration by the high density development scenario alone caused minimal heating of mean daily summer base flow (mean +0.1°C). However, when flow changes were modeled concurrently with reduced shade and increased channel width, mean daily temperature increased 1°C. Maximum daily temperatures exceeding the state standard (31°C) increased from 1.1 to 7.6 percent of the time using summer 2000 climatic conditions. Model results suggest that additional urban development will alter stream temperature, potentially limiting thermal habitat and shifting the fish community structure from intolerant to tolerant fish species in Back Creek. More research is needed on the sublethal or chronic effects of increased stream temperature regimes on fish, particularly for those species already living in habitats near their upper limits.

Krause, Colin W.; Lockard, Brendan; Newcomb, Tammy J.; Kibler, David; Lohani, Vinod; Orth, Donald J.

2004-12-01

210

Impact of urbanization on the water quality, fish habitat, and fish community of a Lake Ontario marsh, Frenchman's Bay.  

E-print Network

1 Impact of urbanization on the water quality, fish habitat, and fish community of a Lake Ontario: Urban impacts on wetland fish habitat *Corresponding author seilhets@mcmaster.ca; 905-525-9140 x27461 by stressors2 that are unique to these systems, including recreational impacts (boating, angling), altered3

McMaster University

211

The Arrival of Immigrants: The Impacts of Immigration and Migration Policies on China's Urban Labor Market  

Microsoft Academic Search

In China, the uneven regional development and surplus rural labor forces have led to the largest wave of rural-to-urban migration in the world history. The dilemma—whether the presence of rural immigrant labors threatens the jobs opportunities of urban labors—increasingly confronts governments in China. In recent years, especially from 1994 to 2000, due to economic slowdown and large-scale lay-offs of urban-registered

Lulu Xue

212

Land-use suitability analysis for urban development in Beijing.  

PubMed

Land-use suitability analyses are of considerable use in the planning of mega-cities. An Urban Development Land-use Suitability Mapping (UDLSM) approach has been constructed, based on opportunity and constraint criteria. Two Multi-criteria Evaluation (MCE) methods, the Ideal Point Method (IPM) and Ordered Weighted Averaging (OWA), were used to generate the opportunity map. The protection map was obtained by means of constraint criteria, utilizing the Boolean union operator. A suitability map was then generated by overlaying the opportunity and protection maps. By applying the UDLSM approach to Beijing, its urban development land-use suitability was mapped, and a sensitivity analysis undertaken to examine the robustness of the proposed approach. Indirect validation was achieved by mutual comparisons of suitability maps resulting from the two MCE methods, where the overall agreement of 91% and kappa coefficient of 0.78 indicated that both methods provide very similar spatial land-use suitability distributions. The suitability level decreases from central Beijing to its periphery, and the area classed as suitable amounts to 28% of the total area. Leading attributes of each opportunity factor for suitability were revealed, with 2256 km(2), i.e. 70%, of existing development land being overlaid by suitable areas in Beijing. Conflicting parcels of land were identified by overlaying the resultant map with two previous development blueprints for Beijing. The paper includes several recommendations aimed at improving the long-term urban development plans for Beijing. PMID:25036557

Liu, Renzhi; Zhang, Ke; Zhang, Zhijiao; Borthwick, Alistair G L

2014-12-01

213

Floodplain Management in Urban Developing Areas. Part II. GIS-Based Flood Analysis and Urban Growth Modelling  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Part I of this article the very dynamic nature of floodplain management was discussed and the need for modelling the urban growth processes and formulating scenarios of urban development was emphasised. In this second part, the use of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) for addressing those problems is presented. GIS have been recognised as a powerful means to integrate and

Francisco Nunes Correia; Maria Da graça saraiva; Fernando Nunes Da Silva; Isabel Ramos

1999-01-01

214

Growing Better Cities: Urban Agriculture for Sustainable Development  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Throughout the history of cities, many persons grew some of their own food in local garden plots, and in some cases, they were able to supplement their household income with the fruits (and vegetables) of their labor. As the United Nations has recently predicted that 60% of the world's total population will live in cities by the year 2030, more and more concerned parties have become interested in encouraging urban agriculture, particularly in the developing world. In this provocative work, Luc J.A. Mougeot of the International Development Centre (based in Canada), reviews the work of his own institution in this area of human endeavor, and also offers some concrete recommendations for policymakers hoping to maximize the potential of urban agriculture. The report is divided into five chapters, and contains some helpful sections which include, "Managing municipal wastewater" "Easing ecological problems", and "Growing gardens with greywater".

Mougeot, Luc J.

2006-01-01

215

[Changes in urban development: is the globalization era one of urban deconcentration?].  

PubMed

Urbanization patterns in Mexico during the past five decades clearly reflect trends in the country's capitalist development. Accelerated industrialization with protectionism; redistributive policies with unlimited expansion of public expenditures; industrial conversion attended by economic crisis and structural adjustment during the "lost decade" of the 1980s; and indiscriminate opening, currency instability, and anti-inflation measures in the stage of globalization represent four successive phases. This work argues that the commercial opening and application of a neoliberal model are likely to renew tendencies toward concentration of population and economic activity in a few metropolitan areas. There are indications that manufacturing is again tending to concentrate in the older industrial cities, especially Mexico City. The 1995 census suggests that, beginning in 1988, the metropolitan areas again began to attract population growth, after a cycle of outflow from the center city to the metropolitan periphery in the 1970s and 1980s. The trend toward deconcentration, thus, may not represent a linear and long-term tendency. Instead, fluctuations over time are intimately related to macroeconomic forces and regulatory mechanisms that influence the urban system. No consensus has been reached concerning the theoretical explanations of effects on regional or urban systems when international restrictions on commerce are eliminated. The neoclassical perspective predicts a homogenizing effect, assuming that key conditions are met, while a competing theory predicts that increasing competition will inevitably be met by increases in the scale of production. Incentives to focus production in a small number of places would lead to economic and demographic concentration in the urban centers or regions enjoying better infrastructure, more qualified labor forces, and more extensive markets for labor and consumption. A renewed cycle of locus in Mexico's largest metropolitan zones may currently be underway. PMID:12158086

Rivera, S

1997-01-01

216

Special Issue "Impact of Natural Hazards on Urban Areas and Infrastructure" in the Bulletin of Earthquake Engineering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This special issue includes selected papers on the topic of earthquake impact from the sessions held in 2004 in Nice, France and in 2005 in Vienna, Austria at the first and respectivelly the second European Geosciences Union General Assembly. Since its start in 1999, in the Hague, Netherlands, the hazard of earthquakes has been the most popular of the session. The respective calls in 2004 was for: Nature's forces including earthquakes, floods, landslides, high winds and volcanic eruptions can inflict losses to urban settlements and man-made structures such as infrastructure. In Europe, recent years have seen such significant losses from earthquakes in south and south-eastern Europe, floods in central Europe, and wind storms in western Europe. Meanwhile, significant progress has been made in understanding disasters. Several scientific fields contribute to a holistic approach in the evaluation of capacities, vulnerabilities and hazards, the main factors on mitigating urban disasters due to natural hazards. An important part of the session is devoted to assessment of earthquake shaking and loss scenarios, including both physical damage and human causalities. Early warning and rapid damage evaluation are of utmost importance for addressing the safety of many essential facilities, for emergency management of events and for disaster response. In case of earthquake occurrence strong motion networks, data processing and interpretation lead to preliminary estimation (scenarios) of geographical distribution of damages. Factual information on inflicted damage, like those obtained from shaking maps or aerial imagery permit a confrontation with simulation maps of damage in order to define a more accurate picture of the overall losses. Most recent developments towards quantitative and qualitative simulation of natural hazard impacts on urban areas, which provide decision-making support for urban disaster management, and success stories of and lessons learned from disaster mitigation will be presented. The session includes contributions showing methodological and modelling approaches from scientists in geophysical/seismological, hydrological, remote sensing, civil engineering, insurance, and urbanism, amongst other fields, as well as presentations from practitioners working on specific case studies, regarding analysis of recent events and their impact on cities as well as re-evaluation of past events from the point of view of long-time recovery. In 2005 it was called for: Most strategies for both preparedness and emergency management in case of disaster mitigation are related to urban planning. While natural, engineering and social sciences contribute to the evaluation of the impact of earthquakes and their secondary events (including tsunamis, earthquake triggered landslides, or fire), floods, landslides, high winds, and volcanic eruptions on urban areas, there are the instruments of urban planning which are to be employed for both visualisation as well as development and implementation of strategy concepts for pre- and postdisaster intervention. The evolution of natural systems towards extreme conditions is taken into consideration so far at it concerns the damaging impact on urban areas and infrastructure and the impact on the natural environment of interventions to reduce such damaging impact.

Bostenaru Dan, M.

2009-04-01

217

Analysis of the impact of low impact development on runoff from a new district in Korea.  

PubMed

An analysis of the impact of a low impact development (LID) on runoff was performed using a Storm Water Management Model 5 (SWMM5)-LID model. The SWMM5 package has been developed to facilitate the analysis of the hydrologic impacts of LID facilities. Continuous simulation of urban stormwater runoff from the district which included the LID design was conducted. In order to examine the impact of runoff in the LID district the first, second and third highest ranked flood events over the past 38 years were analyzed. The assessment estimated that a LID system under historical storm conditions would reduce peak runoff by approximately 55-66% and runoff volume by approximately 25-121% in comparison with that before the LID design. The impact on runoff was also simulated under 50, 80 and 100 year return period conditions. Under these conditions, the runoff reductions within the district were estimated to be about 6-16% (peak runoff) and 33-37% (runoff volume) in comparison with conditions prior to the LID. It is concluded from these results that LID is worthy of consideration for urban flood control in future development and as part of sewer and stormwater management planning. PMID:24056429

Lee, Jung-min; Hyun, Kyoung-hak; Choi, Jong-soo

2013-01-01

218

IMPACTS OF URBANIZATION OF THE GREATER CAIRO AREA ON THE GROUNDWATER IN THE UNDERLYING AQUIFER  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cairo, like many capital cities in developing countries, is expanding in urbanization because of its growing population. The consumption of water is increasing with time and with urbanization. The demand is supplied partly from the Nile and partly from the aquifer underlying the Greater Cairo area. Only a small part of the township is served by an old municipal sewage

Mamdouh M. A. Shahin

219

Impacts of Mixing Processes in Nocturnal Atmospheric Boundary Layer on Urban Ozone Concentrations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A number of open questions remain regarding the role of low-level jets (LLJs) and nocturnal mixing processes in the buildup of tropospheric ozone. The prevalence of southerly winds and LLJs in the U.S. Southern Great Plains during summer makes this region an ideal site for investigating the structure of the nocturnal boundary layer and its impacts on urban air quality. Ozone and nitrogen oxide concentrations measured at regulatory monitoring sites in the Oklahoma City (OKC) area and simulations with the Weather Research and Forecasting with Chemistry (WRF/Chem) model were analyzed to show how the nocturnal LLJ moderates boundary-layer mixing processes and air quality. Datasets collected during the Joint Urban 2003 campaign, which took place in July 2003 in OKC, provided detailed information about nocturnal boundary-layer structure and dynamics. In general, time series show the expected behavior that urban concentrations decrease at night due to nitrogen oxide titration reactions, but elevated concentrations and secondary peaks are also seen quite frequently after sunset. LLJs developed on most nights during the study period and were associated with strong vertical wind shear, which affected the boundary-layer stability and structure. Near-surface concentrations are higher during less stable nights when active mixing persists throughout the night. The WRF/Chem model results agree well with the observations and further demonstrate the role of LLJs in moderating nocturnal mixing processes and air quality. The highest nocturnal concentrations are linked to a strong LLJ that promotes both nocturnal long-range transport and persistent downward mixing of from the residual layer to the surface.

Klein, Petra M.; Hu, Xiao-Ming; Xue, Ming

2014-01-01

220

Rural, Suburban, and Urban Differences in Factors That Impact Physician Adherence to Clinical Preventive Service Guidelines  

PubMed Central

Purpose Rural-urban disparities in provision of preventive services exist, but there is sparse research on how rural, suburban, or urban differences impact physician adherence to clinical preventive service guidelines. We aimed to identify factors that may cause differences in adherence to preventive service guidelines among rural, suburban, and urban primary care physicians. Methods This qualitative study involved in-depth semi-structured interviews with 29 purposively sampled primary care physicians (10 rural, 10 suburban, 9 urban) in Missouri. Physicians were asked to describe barriers and facilitators to clinical preventive service guideline adherence. Using techniques from grounded theory analysis, 2 coders first independently conducted content analysis then reconciled differences in coding to ensure agreement on intended meaning of transcripts. Findings Patient epidemiologic differences, distance to health care services, and care coordination were reported as prominent factors that produced differences in preventive service guideline adherence among rural, suburban, and urban physicians. Epidemiologic differences impacted all physicians, but rural physicians highlighted the importance of occupational risk factors in their patients. Greater distance to health care services reduced visit frequency and was a prominent barrier for rural physicians. Care coordination among health care providers was problematic for suburban and urban physicians. Patient resistance to medical care and inadequate access to resources and specialists were identified as barriers by some rural physicians. Conclusions The rural, suburban, or urban context impacts whether a physician will adhere to clinical preventive service guidelines. Efforts to increase guideline adherence should consider the barriers and facilitators unique to rural, suburban, or urban areas. PMID:24383480

Khoong, Elaine C.; Gibbert, Wesley S.; Garbutt, Jane M.; Sumner, Walton; Brownson, Ross C.

2013-01-01

221

Mitigation of Climate Change Impacts on Urban Drainage Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is in the interest of society to provide protection for the population and to protect the valuable infrastructure against urban flooding in a timely and cost efficient way. Climate changes may change the precipitation pattern significantly. It is foreseen that in some places around The World, the extreme rainfall events will increase both in number and in intensity. DHI

Ole Mark; Henrik Andersen

222

Hemeroby, urbanity and ruderality: bioindicators of disturbance and human impact  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary 1. Species vary according to whether they benefit from or are harmed by disturbance and intensive human activity. This variation can be quantified by indices of disturbance and unnaturalness. 2. An urban flora was characterized by comparing quadrat data from cities with several large data sets from the countryside. Existing scales of species response to disturbance and unnaturalness, ruderality

M. O. HILL; D. B. ROY; Ken Thompson

2002-01-01

223

Urban and peri-urban agricultural production in Beijing Municipality and its impact on water quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

For Beijing Municipality the quantity of available water resources and the quality of the available water have become matters of concern. This is caused by the rapid urbanization and the strong intensification of the agricultural sector. In this literature review for Beijing Municipality the following main topics are covered: (1) water use and water resources; (2) major trends in the

Diepen van C. A; Wijk van M. S; X. Cheung; R. P. Roetter; A. W. Jongbloed; Keulen van H; R. Roeter

2003-01-01

224

[The process of economic development and urbanization: a framework for the development of a simple model].  

PubMed

The first part of this paper presents a model-framework for explaining the urbanization and its relationship to the national development process which is relevant in the context of Indonesia and many other developing countries. Unlike most of the framework upon which an urbanization model is usually developed, the one presented here takes into consideration not only the urban and nonurban dimension but also the explicit separation of economic sectors (i.e., modern and traditional). The 2nd part of the paper deals with an alternative-model on urbanization in which the human attitudes of the prospective migrants are not treated as constant. In a sense, therefore, there is a stochastic element involved in the model. Such an approach is thought to be of great value ultimately for the human beings who made the decision about whether or not to migrate. Although a link between the framework (part 1) and the model (part 2) has been made, a more comprehensive and explicit model remains to be developed in the future. The main purpose of this paper is to invite an awareness that: a) any reasonable model on urbanization must relate a spatial phenomenon such as urbanization and overall economic development process by treating explicitly the separation of modern and traditional sectors; and b) such a model dealing with social phenomena and human decisions must therefore take human attitudes into account. (author's modified) PMID:12280275

Azis, I J

1985-06-01

225

A Multi-scale Method of Mapping Urban Influence  

EPA Science Inventory

Urban development can impact environmental quality and ecosystem services well beyond urban extent. Many methods to map urban areas have been developed and used in the past, but most have simply tried to map existing extent of urban development, and all have been single-scale t...

226

A Numerical Study of the Urban Heat Island in the Coastal Tropical City of San Juan, Puerto Rico: Model Validation and Impacts of LCLU Changes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Urban sprawls in tropical locations are rapidly accelerating and it is more evident in islands where a large percentage of the population resides along the coasts. This paper focuses on the analysis of the impacts of land use and land cover for urbanization in the tropical coastal city of San Juan, in the tropical island of Puerto Rico. A mesoscale numerical model, the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS), is used to study specific characteristics and patterns of the urban heat island in the San Juan Metropolitan Area (SJMA), the most noticeable urban core of the Caribbean. The research present in this paper makes use of the observations obtained during the airborne San Juan Atlas Mission in two ways. First, surface and rawinsonde data are used to validate the atmospheric model yielding satisfactory results. Second, airborne remote sensing information is used to update the model's surface characteristics to obtain a detailed configuration of the SJMA in order to perform the LCLU changes impact analysis. This analysis showed that the presence of San Juan has an impact reflected in higher air temperatures over the area occupied by the city, with positive values of up to 2.5 C, for the simulations that have specified urban LCLU indexes in the bottom boundary. One interesting result of the impact analysis was the finding of a precipitation disturbance shown as a difference in total accumulated rainfall between simulation with the city and with a potential natural vegetation induced by the presence of the urban area. Model results indicate that the urban-induced cloud formation and precipitation development occur mainly downwind of the city, including the accumulated precipitation. This spatial pattern can be explained by the presence of a-larger urbanized area in the southwest sector of the city, and of the approaching northeasterly trade winds.

Comarazamy, Daniel E.; Gonzalez, Jorge E.; Luvall, Jeff; Rickman, Douglas L.

2007-01-01

227

Dynamic modeling of Tampa Bay urban development using parallel computing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urban land use and land cover has changed significantly in the environs of Tampa Bay, Florida, over the past 50 years. Extensive urbanization has created substantial change to the region's landscape and ecosystems. This paper uses a dynamic urban-growth model, SLEUTH, which applies six geospatial data themes (slope, land use, exclusion, urban extent, transportation, hillside), to study the process of

George Xian; Mike Crane; Dan Steinwand

2005-01-01

228

Development of the multi-scale model for urban climate analysis and evaluation of urban greening effects on energy consumption  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is necessary to reduce Greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions drastically to stabilize climate change, and Japan is also required to assess its long-term global warming policy. In achieving the low carbon society and sustainable cities, the numerical evaluation of environmental impacts of the application of different technologies and policies was preliminarily examined by utilizing integrative urban environmental model. This research

H. Hamano; T. Nakayama; T. Fujita; H. Hori; H. Tagami

2009-01-01

229

Quantification of urban metabolism through coupling with the life cycle assessment framework: concept development and case study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cities now consume resources and produce waste in amounts that are incommensurate with the populations they contain. Quantifying and benchmarking the environmental impacts of cities is essential if urbanization of the world’s growing population is to occur sustainably. Urban metabolism (UM) is a promising assessment form in that it provides the annual sum material and energy inputs, and the resultant emissions of the emergent infrastructural needs of a city’s sociotechnical subsystems. By fusing UM and life cycle assessment (UM-LCA) this study advances the ability to quantify environmental impacts of cities by modeling pressures embedded in the flows upstream (entering) and downstream (leaving) of the actual urban systems studied, and by introducing an advanced suite of indicators. Applied to five global cities, the developed UM-LCA model provided enhanced quantification of mass and energy flows through cities over earlier UM methods. The hybrid model approach also enabled the dominant sources of a city’s different environmental footprints to be identified, making UM-LCA a novel and potentially powerful tool for policy makers in developing and monitoring urban development policies. Combining outputs with socioeconomic data hinted at how these forces influenced the footprints of the case cities, with wealthier ones more associated with personal consumption related impacts and poorer ones more affected by local burdens from archaic infrastructure.

Goldstein, Benjamin; Birkved, Morten; Quitzau, Maj-Britt; Hauschild, Michael

2013-09-01

230

Development of a comprehensive air quality modeling framework for a coastal urban airshed in south Texas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tropospheric ozone is one of the major air pollution problems affecting urban areas of United States as well as other countries in the world. Analysis of surface observed ozone levels in south and central Texas revealed several days exceeding 8-hour average ozone National Ambient of Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) over the past decade. Two major high ozone episodes were identified during September of 1999 and 2002. A photochemical modeling framework for the high ozone episodes in 1999 and 2002 were developed for the Corpus Christi urban airshed. The photochemical model was evaluated as per U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) recommended statistical methods and the models performed within the limits set by EPA. An emission impact assessment of various sources within the urban airshed was conducted using the modeling framework. It was noted that by nudging MM5 with surface observed meteorological parameters and sea-surface temperature, the coastal meteorological predictions improved. Consequently, refined meteorology helped the photochemical model to better predict peak ozone levels in urban airsheds along the coastal margins of Texas including in Corpus Christi. The emissions assessment analysis revealed that Austin and San Antonio areas were significantly affected by on-road mobile emissions from light-duty gasoline and heavy-duty diesel vehicles. The urban areas of San Antonio, Austin, and Victoria areas were estimated to be NOx sensitive. Victoria was heavily influenced by point sources in the region while Corpus Christi was influenced by both point and non-road mobile sources and was identified to be sensitive to VOC emissions. A rise in atmospheric temperature due to climate change potentially increase ozone exceedances and the peak ozone levels within the study region and this will be a major concern for air quality planners. This study noted that any future increase in ambient temperature would result in a significant increase in the urban and regional ozone levels within the modeling domain and it would also enhance the transported levels of ozone across the region. Overall, the photochemical modeling framework helped in evaluating the impact of various parameters affecting ozone air quality; and, it has the potential to be a tool for policy-makers to develop effective emissions control strategies under various regulatory and climate conditions.

Farooqui, Mohmmed Zuber

231

Air Pollution, Economic Development of Communities, and Health Status Among the Elderly in Urban China  

PubMed Central

In Western societies, the impact of air pollution on residents' health is higher in less wealthy communities. However, it is not clear whether such an interaction effect applies to developing countries. The authors examine how the level of community development modifies the impact of air pollution on health outcomes of the Chinese elderly using data from the third wave of the Chinese Longitudinal Health Longevity Survey in 2002, which includes 7,358 elderly residents aged 65 or more years from 735 districts in 171 cities. The results show that, compared with a 1-point increase in the air pollution index in urban areas with a low gross domestic product, a similar increase in the air pollution index in areas with a high gross domestic product is associated with more difficulties in activities of daily living (odds ratio =?1.41, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.09, 1.83), instrumental activities of daily living (linear coefficient =?0.98, 95% CI: 0.58, 1.37), and cognitive function (linear coefficient =?2.67, 95% CI: 1.97, 3.36), as well as a higher level of self-rated poor health (odds ratio =?2.20, 95% CI: 1.68, 2.86). Contrary to what has been found in the West, Chinese elderly who live in more developed urban areas are more susceptible to the effect of air pollution than are their counterparts living in less developed areas. PMID:18936437

Gu, Danan

2008-01-01

232

BERNAL et al Local development in peri-urban and rural areas  

E-print Network

BERNAL et al Local development in peri-urban and rural areas based on co-management for small water in peripheral urban and rural lands, mostly found in slum areas. According to the Rural Sanitary Inventory and sanitary of the Colombian peri-urban and rural population, and its also the way to empower communities

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

233

Land use change scenarios and associated groundwater impacts in a protected peri-urban area  

Microsoft Academic Search

Land use changes in peri-urban areas are usually associated with significant impacts on groundwater resources due to alteration\\u000a of the recharge regime as well as through the establishment of pollution sources. Quantifying the aforementioned impacts and\\u000a assessing the vulnerability of the groundwater resources is an important step for the better management and protection of\\u000a the aquifers. In the present study,

Elias Dimitriou; Elias Moussoulis

234

Gender Differences in the Longitudinal Impact of Exposure to Violence on Mental Health in Urban Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is evidence of gender differences in psychopathology during adolescence, but little research has investigated gender differences in trauma-related symptoms. Exposure to violence is a commonly experienced potentially traumatic event among urban adolescents, and the few studies examining gender differences in its mental health impact have…

Zona, Kate; Milan, Stephanie

2011-01-01

235

Impact of Urbanization on the Proteome of Birch Pollen and Its Chemotactic Activity on Human Granulocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Epidemiologic studies reveal a dramatic increase in allergies in the last decades. Air pollution is considered to be one of the factors responsible for this augmentation. The aim of this study was to analyze the impact of urbanization on birch pollen. The birch pollen proteome was investigated in order to identify differences in protein abundance between pollen from rural

M. Bryce; O. Drews; M. F. Schenk; A. Menzel; N. Estrella; I. Weichenmeier; M. J. M. Smulders; J. Buters; J. Ring; A. Görg; H. Behrendt; C. Traidl-Hoffmann

2010-01-01

236

Variable Speed Limits: Safety and Operational Impacts of a Candidate Control Strategy for an Urban Freeway  

E-print Network

Variable Speed Limits: Safety and Operational Impacts of a Candidate Control Strategy for an Urban Freeway P. Allaby, B. Hellinga, and M. Bullock Abstract-- Variable Speed Limit Sign (VSLS) systems enable transportation managers to dynamically change the posted speed limit in response to prevailing traffic and

Hellinga, Bruce

237

IMPACT OF THE URBAN POLLUTION ON THE INDOOR ENVIRONMENT -EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON A MECHANICAL  

E-print Network

IMPACT OF THE URBAN POLLUTION ON THE INDOOR ENVIRONMENT - EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON A MECHANICAL Bâtiment (CSTB), Nantes, France ABSTRACT This study aims to assess the transfer of outdoor air pollution) compared to outdoors. INDEX TERMS Pollution transfer, Outdoor pollution, Chemical reactivity, Ventilation

Boyer, Edmond

238

Three decades of urbanization: Estimating the impact of land-cover change on stream salamander populations  

E-print Network

: Desmognathus fuscus Eurycea cirrigera Land cover change North Carolina Northern dusky salamander Southern two% while northern dusky salamanders (Desmognathus fuscus) have decreased from 21% to 30% over the lastThree decades of urbanization: Estimating the impact of land-cover change on stream salamander

Dorcas, Michael E.

239

Monitoring impact of urban settlements on nearby protected areas from space  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present a satellite based approach to monitor impacts of urban settlements on nearby protected areas worldwide. The footprint of human occupation is uniquely visible from space in the form of artificial night lighting, ranging from the burning of the rainforest to massive offshore fisheries to the omnipresent lights of cities and towns and related connecting road

Christoph Aubrecht; Malanding Jaiteh; Alexander de Sherbinin; Travis Longcore; Chris Elvidge

2010-01-01

240

Revolution at the Margins: The Impact of Competition on Urban School Systems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book examines the impact of school vouchers and charter schools on three urban school districts, exploring the causes of behaviors observed and explaining how the structure of competition will likely shape the future of public education. The book draws on case studies from three districts at the center of the school choice debate: Milwaukee,…

Hess, Frederick M.

241

Assessing and Managing Water Quality Impacts of Urban Stormwater Runoff 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Considerable controversy exists on the real, significant water quality\\/beneficial use impacts of urban area and highway stormwater runoff-associated constituents. While this runoff contains a variety of potentially toxic constituents, such as hea vy metals and certain organics, at concentrations that could be adverse to aquatic life in the receiving waters for the runoff, a number of studies, including those of

G. Fred Lee; Anne Jones-Lee

2000-01-01

242

Impact of Chlorine Emissions from Sea-Salt Aerosol on Coastal Urban  

E-print Network

Impact of Chlorine Emissions from Sea-Salt Aerosol on Coastal Urban Ozone E L A D I O M . K N I P P observed coastal chlorine levels and their corresponding effect on ozone formation is explored. Current sea-spray generation functions, a comprehensive gas-phase chlorine chemistry mechanism, and several heterogeneous

Dabdub, Donald

243

Impact of Low-Level Jets on the Nocturnal Urban Heat Island Intensity in Oklahoma City  

E-print Network

Impact of Low-Level Jets on the Nocturnal Urban Heat Island Intensity in Oklahoma City XIAO-MING HU Center for Analysis and Prediction of Storms, University of Oklahoma, Norman, Oklahoma PETRA M. KLEIN AND MING XUE Center for Analysis and Prediction of Storms and School of Meteorology, University of Oklahoma

Xue, Ming

244

The impact of urban planning on land use and land cover in Pudong of Shanghai, China.  

PubMed

Functional zones in cities constitute the most conspicuous components of newly developed urban area, and have been a hot spot for domestic and foreign investors in China, which not only show the expanse of urban space accompanied by the shifts both in landscape (from rural to urban) and land use (from less extensive to extensive), but also display the transformation of regional ecological functions. By using the theories and methods of landscape ecology, the structure of landscape and landscape ecological planning can be analyzed and evaluated for studying the urban functional zones' layout. In 1990, the Central Government of China declared to develop and open up Pudong New Area so as to promote economic development in Shanghai. Benefited from the advantages of Shanghai's location and economy, the government of Pudong New Area has successively built up 7 different functional zones over the past decade according to their functions and strategic goals. Based on the multi-spectral satellite imageries taken in 1990, 1997 and 2000, a landscape ecology analysis was carried out for Pudong New Area of Shanghai, supported by GIS technology. Green space (including croplands) and built-up area are the major factors considered in developing urban landscape. This paper was mainly concerned with the different spatial patterns and dynamic of green space, built-up areas and new buildings in different functional zones, influenced by different functional layouts and development strategies. The rapid urbanization in Pudong New Area resulted in a more homogeneous landscape. Agricultural landscape and suburban landscape were gradually replaced by urban landscape as the degree of urbanization increased. As consequence of urbanization in Pudong, not only built-up patches, but also newly-built patches and green patches merged into one large patch, which should be attributed to the construction policy of extensive green space as the urban development process in Pudong New Area. The shape of green area of 7 functional zones became more and more regular because of the horticultural needs in Shanghai urban planning. Some suggestions were finally made for the study of future urban planning and layout. PMID:12765263

Zhao, Bin; Nakagoshi, Nobukazu; Chen, Jia-kuan; Kong, Ling-yi

2003-03-01

245

An analysis of freeway impact on urban neighborhoods  

E-print Network

and to the graduate students in sociology for their helpful conversations and encouragement, In addi tion, I want to express my appreciation to Dr. Ni 1 liam Adkins who allowed me to utilize the maps and data taken from the larger study, which was sponsored... OF CONlENTS Page ABSTPACT . ACKNONLEDGEMENTS LIST OF TABLES LIST OF FIGURES LIST OF YiAPS CHAPTER I INTRODUCTICIN Definition of Concepts i'le i ghborhood . Urban Ne1ghborhood Socioeconomic Level Fr eeway . Iirpact Geog raohi c Mobi 1 i ty...

Guseman, Patricia Knight

1971-01-01

246

Shopping the City: Real Estate Finance and Urban Retail Development  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Beginning in the early 1990s, the urban cores of many American cities experienced a building renaissance, with the construction of new commercial buildings and tourist-themed facilities continuing apace for over a decade. Despite this development, inner city retail development has generally stagnated over the past few years, with the exception of a few cities. In this 32-page report released in July 2003, Kenneth T. Rosen, Grace J. Kim, and Avani A. Patel examines "the major changes in the real estate finance marketplace, the implications of those changes on development decisions, and public policy actions that could facilitate projects in these markets." In the paper, the authors note that despite the strong economy of the 1990s, most corporations dealing in institutional real estate projects have elected to work on projects in smaller suburban markets, and in a select few cities that have robust downtown areas. Overall, this paper is a compelling look at the nature of the retail markets in urban areas, and what type of public policy interventions might encourage increased investment in these areas.

Kim, Grace J.; Patel, Avani A.; Rosen, Kenneth T.

2003-01-01

247

Making an Impact: The Importance of Urban Schools in Improving Diversity in Geoscience  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Urban areas are considered to be demographically homogenous with significant proportions of the population consisting of African American and Hispanic students. This demographic is particularly true for New Orleans, LA. However, it is uncommon for urban schools, especially at the high school level, to offer geoscience-based courses. Reform-based classes in geoscience at urban schools can have a dramatic impact on increasing diversity at the professional level. McDonogh 35 Senior High School and Warren Easton Senior High School are urban schools within the Orleans Parish school district that have student populations of more than 95 percent African American. These schools offer courses in Geology and Environmental Science, respectively, that prepare students in geoscience-based curricula. Through collaboration with the University of New Orleans, many of these students have participated in the summer field program and gone on to major in geology or geophysics. In fact, the majority of minority students enrolled at UNO came from these two high schools. These graduates have gone on to exemplary careers in geoscience industry, especially the petroleum industry, and in professional societies. Two graduates from these high schools have recently received Ph.D. in geoscience and two had been elected president of the National Association of Black Geologists and Geophysicists. Clearly, urban schools play an important role in increasing diversity in geoscience. However, collaboration between urban schools and universities is a key element in increasing the participation of underrepresented minorities in geoscience.

Walker, A.; LaFleur, L.; Hall, F. R.; Serpa, L.

2001-05-01

248

Mitigation of urban heat islands: meteorology, energy, and airquality impacts  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents results from energy, meteorological andphotochemical (air quality) modeling for the Los Angeles Basin, one ofthe largest and smoggiest urban regions in the U.S. and the world. Oursimulations suggest that by mitigating urban heat islands, savings of 5to 10 percent peak utility load may be possible. In addition, heat islandmitigation can reduce smog formation by 10-20 percent. in summer, whichis as effective as controlling emissions from all mobile sources in theregion. For a typical late-August episode, our simulations suggest thatimplementing cool cities in the Los Angeles Basin would have a net effectof reducing ozone concentrations. Peak concentrations at 3 pm decrease byup to 7 percent (from 220 down to 205 ppb) while the total ozone mass inthe mixed layer decreases by up to 640 metric tons (a decrease of 4.7percent). Largest reductions in concentrations at 3 pm are on the orderof 50 ppb whereas the largest increases are on the order of 20 ppb. Withrespect to the National Ambient Air Quality Standard, domain widepopulation weighted exceedance exposure to ozone decreases by up to 20percent during peak afternoon hours and by up to 10 percent during thedaytime.

Taha, Haider; Meier, Alan; Gao, Weijun; Ojima, Toshio

1999-09-30

249

Upstream urbanization exacerbates urban heat island effects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Urban Heat Island (UHI) effects adversely impact weather, air quality, and climate. Previous studies have attributed UHI effects to localized, surface processes. Based on an observational and modeling study of an extreme UHI (heat wave) episode in the Baltimore metropolitan region, we find that upstream urbanization exacerbates UHI effects and that meteorological consequences of extra-urban development can cascade well downwind. Under southwesterly wind, Baltimore, MD, experienced higher peak surface temperatures and higher pollution concentrations than did the larger urban area of Washington, DC. Ultra-high resolution numerical simulations with National Land Cover Data (NLCD) of 2001 show a nonlocal, dynamical contribution to UHI effects; when the upstream urban area is replaced by natural vegetation (in the model) the UHI effects could be reduced by more than 25%. These findings suggest that judicious land-use and urban planning, especially in rapidly developing countries, could help alleviate UHI consequences including heat stress and smog.

Zhang, Da-Lin; Shou, Yi-Xuan; Dickerson, Russell R.

2009-12-01

250

Spatial Analysis of Residential Development and Urban-Rural Zoning in Baltimore County, Maryland  

E-print Network

understand residential growth. The objective of this research is to determine what factors influence individual landowner's decision to convert an undeveloped property to residential use. The impacts of rural conservation (RC) zoning and urban growth...

Griffin, Alexander C.

2011-10-21

251

Towards understanding the impacts of congestion pricing on urban trucking  

E-print Network

Understanding policy impacts on freight is essential for planners who have overlooked this transport group in the past and must evaluate new congestion alleviation policies with respect to regional economic and social ...

Waliszewski, Janine M

2005-01-01

252

An Auxiliary Method To Reduce Potential Adverse Impacts Of Projected Land Developments: Subwatershed Prioritization  

EPA Science Inventory

An index based method is developed that ranks the subwatersheds of a watershed based on their relative impacts on watershed response to anticipated land developments, and then applied to an urbanizing watershed in Eastern Pennsylvania. Simulations with a semi-distributed hydrolo...

253

Human population, urban settlement patterns and their impact on Plasmodium falciparum malaria endemicity  

PubMed Central

Background The efficient allocation of financial resources for malaria control and the optimal distribution of appropriate interventions require accurate information on the geographic distribution of malaria risk and of the human populations it affects. Low population densities in rural areas and high population densities in urban areas can influence malaria transmission substantially. Here, the Malaria Atlas Project (MAP) global database of Plasmodium falciparum parasite rate (PfPR) surveys, medical intelligence and contemporary population surfaces are utilized to explore these relationships and other issues involved in combining malaria risk maps with those of human population distribution in order to define populations at risk more accurately. Methods First, an existing population surface was examined to determine if it was sufficiently detailed to be used reliably as a mask to identify areas of very low and very high population density as malaria free regions. Second, the potential of international travel and health guidelines (ITHGs) for identifying malaria free cities was examined. Third, the differences in PfPR values between surveys conducted in author-defined rural and urban areas were examined. Fourth, the ability of various global urban extent maps to reliably discriminate these author-based classifications of urban and rural in the PfPR database was investigated. Finally, the urban map that most accurately replicated the author-based classifications was analysed to examine the effects of urban classifications on PfPR values across the entire MAP database. Results Masks of zero population density excluded many non-zero PfPR surveys, indicating that the population surface was not detailed enough to define areas of zero transmission resulting from low population densities. In contrast, the ITHGs enabled the identification and mapping of 53 malaria free urban areas within endemic countries. Comparison of PfPR survey results showed significant differences between author-defined 'urban' and 'rural' designations in Africa, but not for the remainder of the malaria endemic world. The Global Rural Urban Mapping Project (GRUMP) urban extent mask proved most accurate for mapping these author-defined rural and urban locations, and further sub-divisions of urban extents into urban and peri-urban classes enabled the effects of high population densities on malaria transmission to be mapped and quantified. Conclusion The availability of detailed, contemporary census and urban extent data for the construction of coherent and accurate global spatial population databases is often poor. These known sources of uncertainty in population surfaces and urban maps have the potential to be incorporated into future malaria burden estimates. Currently, insufficient spatial information exists globally to identify areas accurately where population density is low enough to impact upon transmission. Medical intelligence does however exist to reliably identify malaria free cities. Moreover, in Africa, urban areas that have a significant effect on malaria transmission can be mapped. PMID:18954430

Tatem, Andrew J; Guerra, Carlos A; Kabaria, Caroline W; Noor, Abdisalan M; Hay, Simon I

2008-01-01

254

Perception of principals in the southern, urban U.S. and eastern, urban China regarding the selection, preparation, and professional development of elementary principals  

E-print Network

of this study is to explore the similarities and differences in the selection process, preparation programs and the professional development practices as perceived by elementary school principals in urban public schools in the southern U.S and urban public...

Lin, Jie

2005-11-01

255

Development and demonstration of autonomous behaviors for urban environment exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Under the Urban Environment Exploration project, the Space and Naval Warfare Systems Center Pacic (SSC- PAC) is maturing technologies and sensor payloads that enable man-portable robots to operate autonomously within the challenging conditions of urban environments. Previously, SSC-PAC has demonstrated robotic capabilities to navigate and localize without GPS and map the ground oors of various building sizes.1 SSC-PAC has since extended those capabilities to localize and map multiple multi-story buildings within a specied area. To facilitate these capabilities, SSC-PAC developed technologies that enable the robot to detect stairs/stairwells, maintain localization across multiple environments (e.g. in a 3D world, on stairs, with/without GPS), visualize data in 3D, plan paths between any two points within the specied area, and avoid 3D obstacles. These technologies have been developed as independent behaviors under the Autonomous Capabilities Suite, a behavior architecture, and demonstrated at a MOUT site at Camp Pendleton. This paper describes the perceptions and behaviors used to produce these capabilities, as well as an example demonstration scenario.

Ahuja, Gaurav; Fellars, Donald; Kogut, Gregory; Pacis Rius, Estrellina; Schoolov, Misha; Xydes, Alexander

2012-06-01

256

Urban wastewater development in Central and Eastern Europe.  

PubMed

In the early nineties the region of Central and Eastern Europe (CEE, more than 1 million km² and 100 million inhabitants) went through fundamental political, economic and social changes which eventually led to the European integration process. This positively influenced urban water and wastewater management , which had an unbalanced structure and rather low level of development. The paper outlines first the 1990 situation (water supply, sewerage and wastewater treatment (WWT)) and the infrastructure development of the last two decades, on the basis of a comprehensive data collection for six countries (Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Romania and Slovakia). Austria serves as a reference basis. Alterations of some of the drivers such as GDP (Gross Domestic Product), water tariff, investment funding and legislation are studied in detail. Then, the paper focuses on WWT by analyzing data of 20 large plants. Influent and effluent quality is evaluated. Technology indicators are estimated and assessed. They include plant removal rates and violation ratios assuming the application of the Urban Wastewater Directive, primary clarifier removal rates, actual anoxic volume and sludge age in comparison with the recommendations of the ATV guideline, criteria of secondary settling tanks and energy consumption. Finally, nutrient removal rates and upgrading options are outlined. PMID:22797238

Somlyódy, László; Patziger, Miklós

2012-01-01

257

PM10 concentration levels at an urban and background site in Cyprus: the impact of urban sources and dust storms.  

PubMed

Air quality in Cyprus is influenced by both local and transported pollution, including desert dust storms. We examined PM10 concentration data collected in Nicosia (urban representative) from April 1, 1993, through December 11, 2008, and in Ayia Marina (rural background representative) from January 1, 1999, through December 31, 2008. Measurements were conducted using a Tapered Element Oscillating Micro-balance (TEOM). PM10 concentrations, meteorological records, and satellite data were used to identify dust storm days. We investigated long-term trends using a Generalized Additive Model (GAM) after controlling for day of week, month, temperature, wind speed, and relative humidity. In Nicosia, annual PM10 concentrations ranged from 50.4 to 63.8 ?g/m3 and exceeded the EU annual standard limit enacted in 2005 of 40 ?g/m3 every year A large, statistically significant impact of urban sources (defined as the difference between urban and background levels) was seen in Nicosia over the period 2000-2008, and was highest during traffic hours, weekdays, cold months, and low wind conditions. Our estimate of the mean (standard error) contribution of urban sources to the daily ambient PM10 was 24.0 (0.4) ?g/m3. The study of yearly trends showed that PM10 levels in Nicosia decreased from 59.4 ?g/m3 in 1993 to 49.0 ?g/m3 in 2008, probably in part as a result of traffic emission control policies in Cyprus. In Ayia Marina, annual concentrations ranged from 27.3 to 35.6 ?g/m3, and no obvious time trends were observed. The levels measured at the Cyprus background site are comparable to background concentrations reported in other Eastern Mediterranean countries. Average daily PM10 concentrations during desert dust storms were around 100 ?g/m3 since 2000 and much higher in earlier years. Despite the large impact ofdust storms and their increasing frequency over time, dust storms were responsible for a small fraction of the exceedances of the daily PM10 limit. Implications: This paper examines PM10 concentrations in Nicosia, Cyprus, from 1993 to 2008. The decrease in PM10 levels in Nicosia suggests that the implementation of traffic emission control policies in Cyprus has been effective. However, particle levels still exceeded the European Uion annual standard, and dust storms were responsible for a small fraction of the daily PM10 limit exceedances. Other natural particles that are not assessed in this study, such as resuspended soil and sea salt, may be responsible in part for the hig particle levels. PMID:25562931

Achilleos, Souzana; Evans, John S; Yiallouros, Panayiotis K; Kleanthous, Savvas; Schwartz, Joel; Koutrakis, Petros

2014-12-01

258

Impact of Urban Disaster on a University Trauma Center  

PubMed Central

On the eve of the 1984 Summer Olympics, a deranged man drove his car at high speed onto a pedestriancrowded sidewalk in a suburb of Los Angeles. The UCLA Medical Center, located two blocks from the scene, received 17 of 51 casualties. One patient arrived in full cardiac arrest and could not be resuscitated. Six had minor injuries or temporary hysteria and did not require admission to hospital. The mean injury severity score of the 10 patients who were admitted was 13.6 (range 3 to 48). Three patients required immediate surgical procedures, and two had delayed orthopedic operations. Specialty consultations were needed in orthopedics, neurosurgery, plastic surgery, otolaryngology, pediatric surgery, and pediatric intensive care. There were no subsequent deaths, although two patients had substantial residual neurologic disability. This episode of unexpected urban violence underscores the need for dedicated trauma services in university centers. Functions of such services include disaster planning, deploying surgical personnel, managing injured patients, and analyzing outcomes. PMID:3348038

Hiatt, Jonathan R.; Larmon, Baxter

1988-01-01

259

Blogging the Field: An Emergent Continuum for Urban Teacher Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Preparing teachers to work in urban settings poses unique challenges, as urban communities are complex and require systemic understanding of students and their families, culture, and community. Pre-service teachers often harbor misconceptions about what it means to work in urban settings and many bring to their teacher education program minimal…

Domine, Vanessa

2012-01-01

260

Health impacts of ultraviolet radiation in urban ecosystems: a review  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper explores the literature on ultraviolet irradiance (UV) in urban ecosystems with respect to the likely effects on human health. The focus was the question of whether the health effects of UV radiation should be included in planning of landscape elements such as trees and shading structures. In examining the literature, special attention was given to seeking information on the question of whether it is important that shade be provided for elementary school play areas, and if so, how should it be accomplished? Before such practical questions could be dealt with, it became obvious that answers to several pertinent secondary questions had to be sought. Foremost of these was, what are the negative and positive health effects of UV exposure? Recent epidemiological findings of apparent benefits of sunlight because of vitamin-D photosynthesis and resulting anti-cancer effects make this highly relevant. Another basic question is that of trends in ozone depletion, which leads to interesting questions of long-term trends, short-term extremes, and urban influences on UV irradiance. A host of these and other pertinent questions, such as, "What is the relationship between climate of a location and dress," i.e., "How much exposure will people receive during time spent outdoors?" require much more study. Judging from current knowledge of typical spectra of solar radiation in tree shade and the difference between the action spectra for vitamin D synthesis and erythema in human skin, exposure to solar radiation in tree shade for a short period of time can be somewhat more beneficial for vitamin D synthesis and regulation than detrimental in producing sunburn.

Heisler, Gordon M.

2005-08-01

261

Urbanization in Kenya: Urbanization Trends and Prospects; Rural Development and Urban Growth. An International Urbanization Survey Report to the Ford Foundation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two articles on the urbanization of Kenya are presented in this survey. The first one, "Urbanization Trends and Prospects," by Luigi Laurenti, states that urbanization has only recently been recognized as a problem of some importance in Kenya, and this recognition is far from comprehensive. Consequently, public policy--and especially planning for…

Laurenti, Luigi; Gerhart, John

262

The city design and the new Urban Revolution : conceptualizing catalytic, sustainable development in Mexico's second tier  

E-print Network

What is the present role of technical change - particularly change in integrated Information-Communication Technology (ICT) - in facilitating sustainable urbanism in the developing world? Technological advancements are ...

Albericci, Allison N. (Allison Nicole)

2012-01-01

263

Seismic events and their impacts on water infrastructure in a large urban conglomeration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objective of this work is to show a few examples of water-related hazards in urban zones subjected to seismic hazards. We present the case of Mexico City, an urban conglomeration with more than 20 million inhabitants, with soil subsidence due to excessive groundwater pumping and prone to a historical earthquake incidence (in magnitude and cost-damages). Past significant seismic events and their impacts on the water supply and sewage network are analyzed. Likewise, potential material and economic losses that the urban water network could face in case of an extreme earthquake are shown. Finally, cost-effective solutions are proposed in order to reduce water-related risks over the short and medium term following a seismic event of substantial magnitude.

Francisca Naranjo, Maria

2013-04-01

264

Development and application of a new grey dynamic hierarchy analysis system (GDHAS) for evaluating urban ecological security.  

PubMed

Selecting indicators based on the characteristics and development trends of a given study area is essential for building a framework for assessing urban ecological security. However, few studies have focused on how to select the representative indicators systematically, and quantitative research is lacking. We developed an innovative quantitative modeling approach called the grey dynamic hierarchy analytic system (GDHAS) for both the procedures of indicator selection and quantitative assessment of urban ecological security. Next, a systematic methodology based on the GDHAS is developed to assess urban ecological security comprehensively and dynamically. This assessment includes indicator selection, driving force-pressure-state-impact-response (DPSIR) framework building, and quantitative evaluation. We applied this systematic methodology to assess the urban ecological security of Tianjin, which is a typical coastal super megalopolis and the industry base in China. This case study highlights the key features of our approach. First, 39 representative indicators are selected for the evaluation index system from 62 alternative ones available through the GDHAS. Second, the DPSIR framework is established based on the indicators selected, and the quantitative assessment of the eco-security of Tianjin is conducted. The results illustrate the following: urban ecological security of Tianjin in 2008 was in alert level but not very stable; the driving force and pressure subsystems were in good condition, but the eco-security levels of the remainder of the subsystems were relatively low; the pressure subsystem was the key to urban ecological security; and 10 indicators are defined as the key indicators for five subsystems. These results can be used as the basis for urban eco-environmental management. PMID:23698700

Shao, Chaofeng; Tian, Xiaogang; Guan, Yang; Ju, Meiting; Xie, Qiang

2013-05-01

265

[Solid urban waste: socio-environmental impacts and prospects for sustainable management with social inclusion].  

PubMed

Strategies to reconcile development with the protection of ecosystems will yet again be discussed at the forthcoming Rio +20 Summit. The management of solid urban waste is an issue which has barely been touched upon in such discussions. Given the institutionalization of the National Solid Waste Policy, this paper seeks to contribute to this debate and to single out alternatives to tackle this issue with an emphasis on social inclusion. For this purpose, specialized scientific literature was consulted as well as information on solid waste management. It is clearly seen that inadequate management of solid waste has immediate impacts on the environment and health, and contributes to climate change. Considering the limitations of the current options for waste disposal, it is essential to minimize the quantities produced by reducing, reusing and recycling. In this context, the role of independent waste gatherers who have been conducting work of great environmental importance is highlighted. Given the vulnerabilities of this population, it is necessary to devise public policies to ensure that waste gathering is a more respected and less risky activity that guarantees an income, so as to move towards more healthy, equitable and sustainable development. PMID:22699641

Gouveia, Nelson

2012-06-01

266

Evaluating the impact of urban morphology configurations on the accuracy of urban canopy model temperature simulations with MODIS  

E-print Network

comparison of MODIS and model urban LST  Specifying urban fraction in each pixel improves simulated temperature  Irrigating urban vegetated areas reduces model biases and improves precision Correspondence to: A. J. Monaghan, monaghan@ucar.edu Citation... the differences of the averaged day and night radiative temperature maps. The urban heat island is evident in both HRLDAS Trad andMODIS LST. It is noteworthy that the urban-to-rural temperature difference is larger during the daytime than the nighttime...

Monaghan, Andrew J.; Hu, Leiqiu; Brunsell, Nathaniel A.; Barlage, Michael; Wilhelmi, Olga V.

2014-06-09

267

Impact of a Brief Literacy Intervention on Urban Preschoolers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the impact of a literacy intervention comprised of four parent workshops about reading to children on preschoolers' receptive vocabulary. Findings indicated that children of parents attending the workshops had a significant 7- point increase in their Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test scores at a 7-month follow-up. Parent…

Sharif, Iman; Ozuah, Philip O.; Dinkevich, Eugene I.; Mulvihill, Michael

2003-01-01

268

Impacts of urban growth on forest cover in Istanbul (1987-2007).  

PubMed

This article reports findings of a study that examined the impacts of urban growth on forest cover in Istanbul between 1987 and 2007. Four Landsat images from 1987, 1990, 2000, and 2007 were classified with maximum likelihood supervised classification method by using ERDAS IMAGINE 9.1. Forest and urban areas were given highest importance in the classification, while other land-use characteristics, like agriculture and bare soil, were grouped into a third class as others. The study revealed that rapid increase in population and accompanying unplanned urban growth in Istanbul resulted in significant changes in land use after 1987. Urban areas have expanded 87.9% from 1987 to 2007, while forest areas declined 5.4% in the same period. One of the most significant results of the study was that total forest areas in Istanbul have increased 0.3% between 2000 and 2007. This suggests that progress has been made in Istanbul not only in having sustainable urban growth, but also in preserving, restoring, and even expanding forest areas, especially after the year 2000. PMID:19484369

Karaburun, Ahmet; Demirci, Ali; Suen, I-Shian

2010-07-01

269

Numerical study on the impacts of heterogeneous reactions on ozone formation in the Beijing urban area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The air quality model CMAQ-MADRID (Community Multiscale Air Quality-Model of Aerosol Dynamics, Reaction, Ionization and Dissolution) was employed to simulate summer O3 formation in Beijing China, in order to explore the impacts of four heterogeneous reactions on O3 formation in an urban area. The results showed that the impacts were obvious and exhibited the characteristics of a typical response of a VOC-limited regime in the urban area. For the four heterogeneous reactions considered, the NO2 and HO2 heterogeneous reactions have the most severe impacts on O3 formation. During the O3 formation period, the NO2 heterogeneous reaction increased new radical creation by 30%, raising the atmospheric activity as more NO?NO2 conversion occurred, thus causing the O3 to rise. The increase of O3 peak concentration reached a maximum value of 67 ppb in the urban area. In the morning hours, high NO titration reduced the effect of the photolysis of HONO, which was produced heterogeneously at night in the surface layer. The NO2 heterogeneous reaction in the daytime is likely one of the major reasons causing the O3 increase in the Beijing urban area. The HO2 heterogeneous reaction accelerated radical termination, resulting in a decrease of the radical concentration by 44% at the most. O3 peak concentration decreased by a maximum amount of 24 ppb in the urban area. The simulation results were improved when the heterogeneous reactions were included, with the O3 and HONO model results close to the observations.

Xu, Jun; Zhang, Yuanhang; Wang, Wei

2006-12-01

270

Impacts of flooding and climate change on urban transportation: A systemwide performance assessment of the Boston Metro Area  

Microsoft Academic Search

Global climate change is likely to affect urban infrastructure through sea level rise and increased frequency of extreme events. This paper assesses the potential impact of climate change on the system-wide performance of transportation networks using the Boston Metro Area as a case study. The methodology integrates projected changes in land use, demographic and climatic conditions into the urban transportation

Pablo Suarez; William Anderson; Vijay Mahal; T. R. Lakshmanan

2005-01-01

271

Assessing the Impact of Urban Runoff in Recreational Beaches in South Carolina and Florida Using Culturable and QPCR Fecal Indicator  

EPA Science Inventory

Urban/suburban runoff carries a variety of pollutants that often includes bacterial pathogens and indicators of fecal contamination. The objective of this study was to assess the microbial water quality of recreational beaches impacted solely by urban runoff through the use of cu...

272

A remote sensing?GIS evaluation of urban expansion and its impact on surface temperature in the Zhujiang Delta, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Zhujiang Delta of South China has experienced a rapid urban expansion over the past two decades due to accelerated economic growth. This paper reports an investigation into the application of the integration of remote sensing and geographic information systems (GIS) for detecting urban growth and assessing its impact on surface temperature in the region. Remote sensing techniques were used

Q. Weng

2001-01-01

273

USE OF PHYSICAL, CHEMICAL, AND BIOLOGICAL INDICES TO ASSESS IMPACTS OF CONTAMINANTS AND PHYSICAL HABITAT ALTERATION IN URBAN STREAMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human activities in urban areas can lead to both chemical pollution and physical alteration of stream habitats. The evaluation of ecological impacts on urban streams can be problematic where both types of degradation occur. Effects of contaminants, for example, may be masked if stream channelization, loss of riparian vegetation, or other physical stressors exert comparable or larger influences. In the

CATRIONA E. ROGERS; D ANIEL J. BRABANDER; T. B ARBOUR; HAROLD F. H EMOND

2002-01-01

274

Accidental release of chlorine and its impact on urban areas  

SciTech Connect

Among the possible scenarios of accidental releases of chlorine from high pressure cylinders, this paper considers a typical one for the analysis. The calculated transient mass flow rate of chlorine released from a one-tonne cylinder showed that such an accident takes about 10 minutes to evacuate the cylinder. However, the toxic effect in the surrounding atmosphere continues for a longer period (about 20 minutes). The size and location of the toxic cloud at ground level were predicted as functions of time using an EPA-based dispersion model. The results showed a growth of the toxic cloud for some time beyond which it started to decay. For the typical scenario considered in this study, the most dangerous situation generated a toxic cloud with dimensions of 4000 m and 600 m in the downwind and crosswind directions, respectively. A study of the effects of some meteorological parameters on the size and location of the toxic cloud at ground level was also conducted. In general, it was observed that enhancing atmospheric mixing produced larger toxic zones during the early stages of the release and caused an opposite effect during the later ones. This dynamic data was linked to a GIS environment and the time variant was represented using an animation technique for Al-Ain City, United Arab Emirates. Data base information related to physical urban characteristics and population was immediately obtained for the affected areas.

El-Sheikh, H.A.; Badr, O.A.; El Kadi, H.M.; Hamoda, M.F. [United Arab Emirates Univ., Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates). Faculty of Engineering

1995-12-31

275

A simplified approach to evaluating and assessing waste impacts in urban African communities  

SciTech Connect

The region of Africa has been experiencing a fast growing urbanization. This paper is therefore being prepared to provide a simplified approach to be used by city planners, environmental planners, local municipal managers, nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) and local African Community Action Groups, to use in assessing the waste impact of this immense urbanization within their communities and jurisdiction. The prescription for the African urban communities for the years ahead is that the inhabitants of urban communities and villages have to undertake the simplest evaluation and assessment to safeguard its environmental protection. A simplified approach to such schemes in assessing and evaluating ecological and human health impacts associated with environmental pollution in Africa is presented in this document. This approach utilizes historical information and visible indicators of pollution in lieu of conducting an extensive and detailed risk assessment studies. The primary sources of hazardous waste, increasingly so as economies grow, are: small to medium-sized industries and commercial enterprises; households; large manufacturing sectors such as mining, chemical, textiles, rubber, plastics, petroleum, food processing, paper, printing and construction; and agricultural activities.

Sam, P.A. [African Environmental Research and Consulting Group, Merriam, KS (United States)

1995-12-31

276

Impact of urban cover fraction on SMOS and SMAP surface soil moisture retrieval  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

L-band (~1.4 GHz) microwave radiometry has been widely acknowledged as the most promising technique for surface (top ~5cm) soil moisture observation at regional and global scales, due to its all weather capability, direct relationship to soil moisture, and reduced sensitivity to surface roughness and vegetation. Radiometer observations of microwave emission from the soil surface are used to estimate soil moisture through a radiative transfer model using ancillary information including land cover and soil properties etc. This technique has been applied to the ESA's (European Space Agency) Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) satellite, the first soil moisture dedicated space mission, launched on 2nd Nov. 2009. Similarly, radiometer techniques will be employed by NASA's (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) Soil Moisture Active and Passive (SMAP) mission, in both the passive and active-passive products. However, passive microwave soil moisture retrieval suffers from land surface heterogeneity at coarse scales; with the radiometer footprints of both missions being ~40 km, which is the best spatial resolution currently achievable using current satellite antenna technology. In order to achieve the ~0.04 m3/m3 target volumetric soil moisture accuracies at such scales, microwave contributions of non-soil targets (such as urban areas) within the sensors' field-of-view needs to be considered in the retrieval algorithm error budget and implementation, since the impact could potentially be significant if ignored. Currently there is a lack of knowledge on the microwave behaviour of non-soil targets, with little assessment of their microwave emissions and impact on satellite scale footprints. Therefore, the objectives of this study are to 1) investigate the relationship between urban induced brightness temperature uncertainties and urban fraction, 2) extract urban fraction thresholds for negligible brightness temperature impact by urban areas based on the SMOS and SMAP error budgets, and 3) use these thresholds to identify SMOS and SMAP pixels with likely non-negligible urban impacts world-wide. In this work, airborne datasets from three field campaigns in the Murrumbidgee catchment, in southeast of Australia, were used: i) the NAFE'06 (National Airborne Field Experiment in 2006), ii) the AACES-1 (Australian Airborne Cal/val Experiment for SMOS), and iii) the AACES-2. During these campaigns, brightness temperature observations were made at 1-km resolution across 20 independent SMOS/SMAP sized footprints of which a number contain urban areas of different size. The NSW (New South Wales, Australia) Land use map with 50 m resolution was used to distinguish brightness temperature observations of the urban area and surrounding natural land surface, from which urban fraction thresholds for SMOS and SMAP were derived. These thresholds were then applied globally based on an urban fraction map calculated using the MODIS Urban Land Cover 500-m product.

Ye, N.; Walker, J. P.; Rudiger, C.; Ryu, D.; Gurney, R.

2011-12-01

277

Development and application of the urban environment geological survey data inspection and acceptance system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To guarantee the quality of the urban geographical inspection data construction and the effectiveness of the data of the urban environment, in accordance with the urban environment geographical assessment regulations, based on the analysis of the urban environment data inspection and checking requirements, the quality inspection factors that are in accordance with the urban environment geographical database are worked out, and the urban environment database checking and accepting system is being analyzed and function being designed in this thesis, and finally the urban environment database checking and accepting system software is developed with the explorative instruments of Delphi and VC. With computer-aided inspection and manual sampling checking, all the aspects of the database have strict quality control and evaluation.

Cai, Zizhao; Zhang, Yongbo; Zhang, Lizhong; Lang, Guoling; Wang, Qian; Zhou, Xiaoyuan; Huo, Zhibin; Wang, Wei; Shi, Lei

2011-10-01

278

The Impact of Hip-Hop Instruction on Students in Urban Settings Tayana Dowdell and Jomo Mutegi  

E-print Network

The Impact of Hip-Hop Instruction on Students in Urban Settings Tayana Dowdell and Jomo Mutegi, we seek to explore the impact of Hip-Hop pedagogy on students learning. Specifically, we will explore the impact of hip-hop instruction on three aspects of student learning: engagement, concept mastery

Zhou, Yaoqi

279

Infrastructure and automobile shifts: positioning transit to reduce life-cycle environmental impacts for urban sustainability goals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Public transportation systems are often part of strategies to reduce urban environmental impacts from passenger transportation, yet comprehensive energy and environmental life-cycle measures, including upfront infrastructure effects and indirect and supply chain processes, are rarely considered. Using the new bus rapid transit and light rail lines in Los Angeles, near-term and long-term life-cycle impact assessments are developed, including consideration of reduced automobile travel. Energy consumption and emissions of greenhouse gases and criteria pollutants are assessed, as well the potential for smog and respiratory impacts. Results show that life-cycle infrastructure, vehicle, and energy production components significantly increase the footprint of each mode (by 48-100% for energy and greenhouse gases, and up to 6200% for environmental impacts), and emerging technologies and renewable electricity standards will significantly reduce impacts. Life-cycle results are identified as either local (in Los Angeles) or remote, and show how the decision to build and operate a transit system in a city produces environmental impacts far outside of geopolitical boundaries. Ensuring shifts of between 20-30% of transit riders from automobiles will result in passenger transportation greenhouse gas reductions for the city, and the larger the shift, the quicker the payback, which should be considered for time-specific environmental goals.

Chester, Mikhail; Pincetl, Stephanie; Elizabeth, Zoe; Eisenstein, William; Matute, Juan

2013-03-01

280

Developing the urban blue: Comparative health responses to blue and green urban open spaces in Germany.  

PubMed

Recently, new perspectives upon healthy urban open spaces propose that open spaces can be regarded as urban green or blue spaces. However, there has so far been very little research into blue environments and their benefits for mental well-being. Our article focuses on the effects of water in cities, "urban blue" (as compared to "urban green"), on human health and well-being. To assess the mental well-being of visitors, we conducted qualitative semi-standardised interviews (n=113), asking which differences in well-being occur when visiting urban green and blue spaces in high-density areas of the inner city in Dusseldorf and Cologne, Germany. Although we found many similarities, some health-enhancing effects for users turned out to be prominent for urban blue in the four conceptual therapeutic landscape dimensions: experienced, symbolic, social and activity space. These effects include enhanced contemplation, emotional bonding, participation, and physical activity. The results suggest that urban blue as a health-promoting factor needs more detailed and accurate determination and examination of its general and local health-enhancing effects. PMID:25475835

Völker, Sebastian; Kistemann, Thomas

2014-12-01

281

Impact of street intersections on air quality in an urban environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact of the street intersections on flow and gaseous pollutants from vehicles exhausts within urban canyons was numerically investigated using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model. Three-dimensional flow and dispersion of gaseous pollutants were modeled using standard ??? turbulence model, which was numerically solved based on Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes equations by the commercial CFD code FLUENT. The concentration fields in

Mohamed F. Yassin; R. Kellnerová; Z. Ja?our

2008-01-01

282

Environmental-impacts of Urban Road Transportation in South-western States of Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study of the impacts of urban road transportation on the environmental resources, air and the health of residents of some heavily trafficked locations-eight in Lagos metropolis, four in Ibadan and four in Ado-Ekiti were carried out. Also, two locations in Lagos, one in Ibadan and one in Ado-Ekiti were used as control. Air quality indicators namely carbon-monoxide (CO), sulphur

B. A. Osuntogun; C. A. Koku

2007-01-01

283

A Neural Network Model to Develop Urban Acupuncture  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The urban world of the 21st century is composed of numerous nodes, streams and webs, which create a new landscape of globalization\\u000a and impose different logic of space and time perception. Therefore, the urban infrastructure is updated and its networks are\\u000a continuously multiplied. A method known as urban acupuncture on the one hand tests the local effects of every project,

Leandro Tortosa; José-Francisco Vicent; Antonio Zamora; José L. Oliver

2010-01-01

284

The respiratory health impact of a large urban fire.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES. In July 1988, a fire destroyed a huge supermarket warehouse in Richmond, Calif, sending smoke into residential neighborhoods for nearly a week. There was no organized public health response. To evaluate the respiratory health impact on the general population, a survey of emergency room visits and hospital admissions to the two acute-care hospitals serving the population downwind was conducted. METHODS. Medical records of 489 patients meeting specified diagnostic criteria during the week of the fire and several reference periods were abstracted. Ratios of proportions for respiratory diagnoses (i.e., emergency room visits for a given diagnosis/total emergency room visits) were calculated, comparing the fire week with the reference periods, and 1988 mortality data for the area were reviewed. RESULTS. Ratios of proportions for emergency room visits for asthma and all lower respiratory conditions increased significantly during the fire. Respiratory-related hospitalizations also increased. However, there was no observable increase in respiratory mortality. CONCLUSIONS. This fire was found to have had a moderate impact on the respiratory health of local residents. Public health intervention is indicated to prevent respiratory morbidity when extended exposure to structural fire smoke is predictable. PMID:8129061

Lipsett, M; Waller, K; Shusterman, D; Thollaug, S; Brunner, W

1994-01-01

285

Does financial development increase energy consumption? The role of industrialization and urbanization in Tunisia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper assesses the relationship among energy consumption, financial development, economic growth, industrialization and urbanization in Tunisia from 1971 to 2008. The autoregressive distributed lag bounds testing approach to cointegration and Granger causality tests is employed for the analysis. The result confirms the existence of long-run relationship among energy consumption, economic growth, financial development, industrialization and urbanization in Tunisia. Long-run

Muhammad Shahbaz; Hooi Hooi Lean

2011-01-01

286

Urban Development under Ambiguous Property Rights: A Case of China's Transition Economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Property rights play a key role in maintaining sustainable growth and in achieving efficient development. China's economic reforms have stimulated urban physical development through the commodification and marketization of land-use rights and building construction. Property rights over urban land have been decentralized, but the gradualist reform of state assets has not assigned and delineated property rights clearly between the principal

Jieming Zhu

2002-01-01

287

Rail + Property Development: A model of sustainable transit finance and urbanism  

E-print Network

Rail + Property Development: A model of sustainable transit finance and urbanism Robert Cervero and Jin Murakami WORKING PAPER May 2008 #12; #12;#12; Rail + Property Development A Model of Sustainable Transit Finance and Urbanism Robert Cervero and Jin Murakami #12; #12

California at Berkeley, University of

288

Impact of urbanization on the concentrations and distribution of organic contaminants in boreal lake sediments.  

PubMed

The main goal of this study was to evaluate the impacts of a middle-sized Finnish urban area on the quality of sediments in an adjacent boreal lake. We investigated the sources and distribution of organic pollutants (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)) in the sediments from urban stormwater traps and from Lake Vesijärvi. Grab surface sediment samples were taken from Lake Vesijärvi at various distances (25-2,000 m) from four major stormwater drainage outlets and at 15 urban stormwater traps in areas with different degrees of urbanization. These samples were analysed for 16 PAHs and 28 PCBs with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The concentrations of pollutants in the lake sediments were elevated in the vicinity of the urban shore (?PAH 3-16, ?PCB up to 0.02-0.3 mg/kg dw) and decreased as a function of distance (?PAH 0.1-2.5, ?PCB 0.01-0.3 mg/kg dw at a distance of more than 500 m from the shore), whereas contamination levels in suburban areas were notably lower (?PAH 0.1-3, ?PCB < LOQ-0.03 mg/kg dw; did not decline with distance). Possible sources and pathways of contamination were also investigated. The majority of stormwater trap sediments contained predominantly asphalt-derived PAHs due to pulverized pavement. PAHs in lake sediments were of pyrogenic origin, including the combustion of gasoline, diesel and coal. Suggested pathways of lake contamination are urban runoff discharge, boat traffic and atmospheric deposition. PMID:22527470

Honkonen, Olga; Rantalainen, Anna-Lea

2013-02-01

289

Impact of utilizing 3D digital urban models on the design content of urban design plans in US cities  

E-print Network

Some experts suggest that urban design plans in US cities may lack adequate coverage of the essential design aspects, particularly three-dimensional design aspects of the physical environment. Digital urban models and information technology tools...

Al-Douri, Firas A. Salman

2006-10-30

290

Modeling integrated urban water systems in developing countries: case study of Port Vila, Vanuatu.  

PubMed

Developing countries struggle to provide adequate urban water services, failing to match infrastructure with urban expansion. Despite requiring an improved understanding of alternative infrastructure performance when considering future investments, integrated modeling of urban water systems is infrequent in developing contexts. This paper presents an integrated modeling methodology that can assist strategic planning processes, using Port Vila, Vanuatu, as a case study. 49 future model scenarios designed for the year 2050, developed through extensive stakeholder participation, were modeled with UVQ (Urban Volume and Quality). The results were contrasted with a 2015 model based on current infrastructure, climate, and water demand patterns. Analysis demonstrated that alternative water servicing approaches can reduce Port Vila's water demand by 35 %, stormwater generation by 38 %, and nutrient release by 80 % in comparison to providing no infrastructural development. This paper demonstrates that traditional centralized infrastructure will not solve the wastewater and stormwater challenges facing rapidly growing urban cities in developing countries. PMID:24973053

Poustie, Michael S; Deletic, Ana

2014-12-01

291

Health impact assessment of traffic-related air pollution at the urban project scale: influence of variability and uncertainty.  

PubMed

This paper develops and then demonstrates a new approach for quantifying health impacts of traffic-related particulate matter air pollution at the urban project scale that includes variability and uncertainty in the analysis. We focus on primary particulate matter having a diameter less than 2.5 ?m (PM2.5). The new approach accounts for variability in vehicle emissions due to temperature, road grade, and traffic behavior variability; seasonal variability in concentration-response coefficients; demographic variability at a fine spatial scale; uncertainty in air quality model accuracy; and uncertainty in concentration-response coefficients. We demonstrate the approach for a case study roadway corridor with a population of 16,000, where a new extension of the University of North Carolina (UNC) at Chapel Hill campus is slated for construction. The results indicate that at this case study site, health impact estimates increased by factors of 4-9, depending on the health impact considered, compared to using a conventional health impact assessment approach that overlooks these variability and uncertainty sources. In addition, we demonstrate how the method can be used to assess health disparities. For example, in the case study corridor, our method demonstrates the existence of statistically significant racial disparities in exposure to traffic-related PM2.5 under present-day traffic conditions: the correlation between percent black and annual attributable deaths in each census block is 0.37 (t(114)=4.2, p<0.0001). Overall, our results show that the proposed new campus will cause only a small incremental increase in health risks (annual risk 6×10(-10); lifetime risk 4×10(-8)), compared to if the campus is not built. Nonetheless, the approach we illustrate could be useful for improving the quality of information to support decision-making for other urban development projects. PMID:25437759

Chart-Asa, Chidsanuphong; Gibson, Jacqueline MacDonald

2015-02-15

292

Assessing the relative and cumulative impacts of future urbanisation and climate change on storm runoff in a peri-urban catchment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Urbanisation brings with it a range of impacts upon the urban water cycle, particularly during storm events where a loss of pervious surfaces (and increase in impervious surfaces) coupled with increased artificial drainage result in decreased infiltration and more rapid runoff - leading to an increased likelihood and magnitude of flooding. Such impacts are especially pronounced in peri-urban catchments where the rapid progression from rural to urban significantly alters storm runoff response, and could be further affected by climate change. This study provides a comparative analysis between the impacts of urbanisation (and associated change in impervious cover) and climate change within a rapidly developing peri-urban catchment in the south of England over a 50 year period. A new methodology for mapping long-term change in historical urban land-use from topographic maps was applied to derive decadal changes in impervious cover. Catchment monitoring was undertaken to provide observed flow and rainfall for indicative hydrological response and hydrological model calibration. The successive impacts of decadal increases in urbanisation on storm runoff were assessed using a hydrological model suited to representing the impacts of change in impervious cover and by applying design summer and winter storm events at both 5 year and 100 year return periods. Both the comparative and cumulative impacts of climate change upon generation of storm runoff were assessed by comparing scenarios of: i) no increase in urbanisation with climate change, and ii) urbanisation with climate change, with the baseline scenario of iii) urbanisation without climate change. Predicted future changes in monthly precipitation and potential evaporation were derived from a downscaled ensemble of climate change scenarios (2070-2099) from the UK Climate Projections (UKCP09) Regional Climate Model (RCM) under A1B emissions scenario. Results are discussed in relation to projections of future growth and climate change for developing peri-urban areas within localised catchments and for the regional Thames basin. The uncertainties in the applied modelling strategy are discussed in relation to the limitations of climate change data and the associated perturbation of design storm events in urban areas.

Miller, James; Kim, Hyeonjun; Kjeldsen, Thomas; Grebby, Stephen

2014-05-01

293

Impacts of Roadway Emissions on Urban Fine Particle Exposures: the Nairobi Area Traffic Contribution to Air Pollution (NATCAP) Study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Air quality is a serious and worsening problem in the rapidly growing cities of sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), due to rapid urbanization, growing vehicle fleets, changing life styles, limited road infrastructure and land use planning, and high per-vehicle emissions. However, the absence of ambient monitoring data, and particularly urban roadside concentrations of particulate matter in SSA cities, severely limits our ability to assess the real extent of air quality problems. Emitted fine particles by on-road vehicles may be particularly important in SSA cities because large concentrations of poorly maintained vehicles operate in close proximity to commercial and other activities of low-income urban residents. This scenario provokes major air quality concerns and its investigation should be of priority interest to policy makers, city planners and managers, and the affected population. As part of collaboration between Columbia University and the University of Nairobi, a PM2.5 air monitoring study was carried out over two weeks in July 2009. The objectives of the study were 1) to assess average daytime PM2.5 concentrations on a range of Nairobi streets that represent important hot-spots in terms of the joint distribution of traffic, commercial, and resident pedestrian activities, 2) to relate those concentrations to motor vehicle counts, 3) to compare urban street concentrations to urban and rural background levels, and 4) to assess vertical and horizontal dispersion of PM2.5 near roadways. Portable, battery-operated PM2.5 samplers were carried by field teams at each of the five sites (three urban, one commuter highway, and one rural site), each of which operated from 7 AM to 7 PM during 10 weekdays in July 2009. Urban background monitoring took place on a rooftop at the University of Nairobi. Preliminary findings suggest highly elevated PM2.5 concentrations at the urban sites where the greatest pedestrian traffic was observed. These findings underscore the need for air quality and transportation planning and management directed at mitigating roadway pollution. Reducing PM emissions from motor vehicles would have direct health benefits for residents of Nairobi and other SSA cities. However, further studies are required to depict the seasonal variations, include gaseous pollution aspect, and strengthen the knowledge on air quality in the region as well as improving the data base for health impact assessment. Acknowledgement This study was initiated and funded by Columbia University's Earth Institute's Center for Sustainable Urban Development (CSUD). CSUD is a Volvo Research and Educational Foundations Center of Excellence for Future Urban Transport. International Science Programs (ISP), Uppsala University, Sweden is recognized for its research support to Institute of Nuclear Science & Technology. Additional technical support for air monitoring and analysis was provided by the Exposure Assessment Facility Core of the Center for Environmental Health in Northern Manhattan (NIEHS P30 ES09089).

Gatari, Michael; Ngo, Nicole; Ndiba, Peter; Kinney, Patrick

2010-05-01

294

Dynamic modeling of Tampa Bay urban development using parallel computing  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Urban land use and land cover has changed significantly in the environs of Tampa Bay, Florida, over the past 50 years. Extensive urbanization has created substantial change to the region's landscape and ecosystems. This paper uses a dynamic urban-growth model, SLEUTH, which applies six geospatial data themes (slope, land use, exclusion, urban extent, transportation, hillside), to study the process of urbanization and associated land use and land cover change in the Tampa Bay area. To reduce processing time and complete the modeling process within an acceptable period, the model is recoded and ported to a Beowulf cluster. The parallel-processing computer system accomplishes the massive amount of computation the modeling simulation requires. SLEUTH calibration process for the Tampa Bay urban growth simulation spends only 10 h CPU time. The model predicts future land use/cover change trends for Tampa Bay from 1992 to 2025. Urban extent is predicted to double in the Tampa Bay watershed between 1992 and 2025. Results show an upward trend of urbanization at the expense of a decline of 58% and 80% in agriculture and forested lands, respectively. ?? 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Xian, G.; Crane, M.; Steinwand, D.

2005-01-01

295

Impact of anthropogenic heat release on regional climate in three vast urban agglomerations in China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We simulated the impact of anthropogenic heat release (AHR) on the regional climate in three vast city agglomerations in China using the Weather Research and Forecasting model with nested high-resolution modeling. Based on energy consumption and high-quality land use data, we designed two scenarios to represent no-AHR and current-AHR conditions. By comparing the results of the two numerical experiments, changes of surface air temperature and precipitation due to AHR were quantified and analyzed. We concluded that AHR increases the temperature in these urbanized areas by about 0.5°C—1°C, and this increase is more pronounced in winter than in other seasons. The inclusion of AHR enhances the convergence of water vapor over urbanized areas. Together with the warming of the lower troposphere and the enhancement of ascending motions caused by AHR, the average convective available potential energy in urbanized areas is increased. Rainfall amounts in summer over urbanized areas are likely to increase and regional precipitation patterns to be altered to some extent.

Feng, Jinming; Wang, Jun; Yan, Zhongwei

2014-03-01

296

Climate change impacts on urban wildfire and flooding policy in Idaho: a comparative policy network perspective  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Numerous frameworks and models exist for understanding the dynamics of the public policy process. A policy network approach considers how and why stakeholders and interests pay attention to and engage in policy problems, such as flood control or developing resilient and fire resistant landscapes. Variables considered in this approach include what the relationships are between these stakeholders, how they influence the process and outcomes, communication patterns within and between policy networks, and how networks change as a result of new information, science, or public interest and involvement with the problem. This approach is useful in understanding the creation of natural hazards policy as new information or situations, such as projected climate change impacts, influence and disrupt the policy process and networks. Two significant natural hazard policy networks exist in the semi-arid Treasure Valley region of Southwest Idaho, which includes the capitol city of Boise and the surrounding metropolitan area. Boise is situated along the Boise River and adjacent to steep foothills; this physiographic setting makes Boise vulnerable to both wildfires at the wildland-urban interface (WUI) and flooding. Both of these natural hazards have devastated the community in the past and floods and fires are projected to occur with more frequency in the future as a result of projected climate change impacts in the region. While both hazards are fairly well defined problems, there are stark differences lending themselves to comparisons across their respective networks. The WUI wildfire network is large and well developed, includes stakeholders from all levels of government, the private sector and property owner organizations, has well defined objectives, and conducts promotional and educational activities as part of its interaction with the public in order to increase awareness and garner support for its policies. The flood control policy network, however, is less defined, dominated by a few historically strong interests and is constrained (and supported) by the complex legal and management foundations of Western water rights, as well as federal and state regulatory practices for flood control and water provision. Overlap between these networks does occur as many of the stakeholders are the same, adding another dimension to the comparative approach presented here. It is the physical and natural sciences that bind these two networks, however, and create opportunities for convergence as hydrological inputs (snowmelt and rain) and summer drought simultaneously inform and impact efforts to increase resilience and reduce vulnerability and risk from both fire and flood. For example, early spring snowmelt can both increase risks of flooding and contribute to later severe fire conditions, and fires greatly increase the risk of catastrophic floods and debris flows in burned basins. Contributing to both of these potential hazards are changes in the climate in the region. This paper will present findings from a comparative study of these two policy networks and discuss the implications from how climate change is defined, understood, accepted, and integrated in both networks and the policy processes associated with these urban hazards.

Lindquist, E.; Pierce, J. L.

2013-12-01

297

ENERGY – CLIMATE CHANGE PACKAGE IMPACT ON ROMANIAN URBAN AREAS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Europe recognized the tight link between energy and climate change and took - through a coherent legislative package - the role of a global leadership to tackle climate change, to face up to the challenge of secure, sustainable and competitive energy, and to make the European economy a model for world sustainable development in the 21st century. EU targets to

Virgil MUSATESCU; Mihaela COMANESCU

2009-01-01

298

Enabling and inhibiting urban development : a case study of Lahore Improvement Trust as a late colonial institution  

E-print Network

This thesis examines the Lahore Improvement Trust in relation to the urban development of the city of Lahore in mid-twentieth century. LIT was responsible for most major urban development in the city from 1936 up until ...

Malik, Hala Bashir

2014-01-01

299

Impact of urban pollution emitted in Warsaw on aerosol properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the analyses of the long-term observations of aerosol optical thickness (AOT) and concentrations of particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter <10 ?m (PM10) in the Warsaw extended area. The AOT was observed between 2005 and 2011 in Warsaw and in Belsk (about 45 km away from Warsaw) with hand-held Microtops (Warsaw) and CIMEL (Belsk) sun photometers. The PM10 concentrations were measured at three Warsaw stations as well as in Belsk. The ground-based observations, and the satellite data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) provided information about the influence of Warsaw emissions on the AOT. The estimated effect is about 0.02 (at 500 nm) based on the sun photometers' comparisons and 0.03 (at 550 nm) based on the MODIS results. Relatively small impact of Warsaw emissions on the AOT (about 10-15%) is consistent with the PM10 data. The mean PM10 differences, estimated during the same time as sun photometer measurements, for Warsaw Ursynow (a residential area) and Belsk was only 5.7 ?g m-3 (13%), and for Warsaw Targowek (a mixed shopping and residential area) and Belsk was about 9.8 ?g m-3 (20%). For the station located in the central Warsaw, near to the street with the heavy traffic, the difference in the long-term mean of the PM10 was significantly larger and reached 22.1 ?g m-3 (36%). Finally, an extreme smoke event observed on 4 April 2009, when favorable weather conditions led to the differences in the AOT between Warsaw and Belsk in a range of 0.11-0.2 (at 500 nm) has been described.

Zawadzka, O.; Markowicz, K. M.; Pietruczuk, A.; Zielinski, T.; Jaroslawski, J.

2013-04-01

300

Enviro-HIRLAM in Studies of Urban and Aerosol Impacts on Metropolitan Areas: Science-Education Approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To attract more perspective young scientists (and especially, MSc and PhD students) for advanced research and development of complex and modern modelling systems, a specific approach is required. It should allow within a short period of time to evaluate personal background levels, skills, capabilities, etc. To learn more about new potential science-oriented developers of the models, it is often not enough to look into the personal resume. Thus, a special event such as Young Scientist Summer School (YSSS) can be organized, where young researchers could have an opportunity to attend not only relevant lectures, but also participate in practical exercises allowing to solidify lecture materials. Here, the practical exercises are presented as independent small-scale (having duration of up to a week) research projects or studies oriented on specific topics of YSSS. Developed approach was tested and realized during 2008 and 2011 YSSS events held and organized in Zelenogorsk, Russia (by NetFAM et al.; http://netfam.fmi.fi/YSSS08) and Odessa, Ukraine (by MUSCATEN et al.; http://atmos.physic.ut.ee/~muscaten/YSSS/1info.html), respectively. It has been refined for the new YSSS (Jul 2014) to be organized by the COST Action EuMetChem. The main focus of all these YSSSs was/is on the integrated modelling of meteorological and chemical transport processes and impact of chemical weather on numerical weather prediction and climate modelling. During previous YSSSs some of such projects - "URBAN: The Influence of Metropolitan Areas on Meteorology", "AEROSOL: The Impact of Aerosols Effects on Meteorology", and "COASTAL: The Coastal & Cities Effects on Meteorology" - were focused on evaluation of influence of metropolitan areas on formation of meteorological and chemical fields above urban areas (such as Paris, France; Copenhagen, Denmark, and Bilbao, Spain) and surroundings. The Environment - HIgh Resolution Limited Area Model (Enviro-HIRLAM) was used and modifications were made taking into account urban (anthropogenic heat flux, roughness, buildings and their characteristics), chemical species/ aerosol (feedback mechanisms) effects with further analysis of temporal and spatial variability of diurnal cycle for meteorological variables of key importance. Main items of listed above YSSS small-scale research projects include the following: • Introduction with background discussions (with brainstorming to outline research and technical tasks planned including main goal, specific objectives, etc.) in groups; • Analysis of meteorological situations (selecting specific cases/ dates using surface maps, diagrams of vertical sounding, and surface meteorological measurements); • Learning practical technical steps (in order to make necessary changes in the model and implementing urban and aerosol effects, compiling executables, making test runs); • Performing model runs/simulations at different options (dates, control vs. modified urban and aerosol runs, forecast lengths, spatial and temporal resolutions, etc.); • Visualization/ plotting of results obtained (in a form of graphs, tables, animations); • Evaluation of possible impact on urban areas (estimating differences between the control and modified runs through temporal and spatial variability of simulated meteorological (air temperature, wind speed, relative humidity, sensible and latent heat fluxes, etc.) and chemical pollutants (concentration and deposition) fields/ patterns; • Team's oral presentation of the project about results and findings and following guidelines (including aim and specific objectives, methodology and approaches, results and discussions with examples, conclusions, acknowledgements, references). Outline and detailed description of the developed approach, key items of the research projects and their schedules, preparatory steps including team of students' familiarization with general information on planned exercises and literature list (composed of required, recommended, and additional readings), requirements for successful completi

Mahura, Alexander; Nuterman, Roman; Mazeikis, Adomas; Gonzalez-Aparicio, Iratxe; Ivanov, Sergey; Palamarchuk, Julia

2014-05-01

301

Evidence of the impact of urban plumes on remote sites in the Eastern Mediterranean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) is a well-known tracer of anthropogenically related impacts in photochemical smog formation and is usually found in heavily polluted urban air worldwide. Over the last decades its abundance in urban air has also been confirmed for Greek urban sites such as Athens or Thessaloniki. Due to the strong temperature dependence of PAN decomposition, PAN has also been identified as a long distance tracer of human activities. This behaviour is clearly discernible at low temperatures either under corresponding meteorological conditions or at higher altitudes. Information about the medium-range impact of PAN in the Eastern Mediterranean is still scarce. This study analyses PAN time series obtained simultaneously at two sites on the island of Crete located at two different altitudes (coastal site, mountain site at 1020 m a.s.l.; distance between the sites about 20 km) during the photochemical activity and solar ultraviolet radiation (PAUR-II) campaign in May/June 1999. Within the range of 270 km no metropolitan area is located, and the surrounding water surfaces represent an area almost free of stationary emission sources. The results from the PAUR-II campaign both show uniform diurnal variations of PAN at both sites indicating regional formation, as well as completely different patterns indicating that medium-range transport is effective. The metropolitan areas of Athens and Istanbul are likely emission sources.

Rappenglück, B.; Melas, D.; Fabian, P.

302

Evaluation of impacts of trees on PM2.5 dispersion in urban streets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reducing airborne particulate matter (PM), especially PM2.5 (PM with aerodynamic diameters of 2.5 ?m or less), in urban street canyons is critical to the health of central city population. Tree-planting in urban street canyons is a double-edged sword, providing landscape benefits while inevitably resulting in PM2.5 concentrating at street level, thus showing negative environmental effects. Thereby, it is necessary to quantify the impact of trees on PM2.5 dispersion and obtain the optimum structure of street trees for minimizing the PM2.5 concentration in street canyons. However, most of the previous findings in this field were derived from wind tunnel or numerical simulation rather than on-site measuring data. In this study, a seasonal investigation was performed in six typical street canyons in the residential area of central Shanghai, which has been suffering from haze pollution while having large numbers of green streets. We monitored and measured PM2.5 concentrations at five heights, structural parameters of street trees and weather. For tree-free street canyons, declining PM2.5 concentrations were found with increasing height. However, in presence of trees the reduction rate of PM2.5 concentrations was less pronounced, and for some cases, the concentrations even increased at the top of street canyons, indicating tree canopies are trapping PM2.5. To quantify the decrease of PM2.5 reduction rate, we developed the attenuation coefficient of PM2.5 (PMAC). The wind speed was significantly lower in street canyons with trees than in tree-free ones. A mixed-effects model indicated that canopy density (CD), leaf area index (LAI), rate of change of wind speed were the most significant predictors influencing PMAC. Further regression analysis showed that in order to balance both environmental and landscape benefits of green streets, the optimum range of CD and LAI was 50%-60% and 1.5-2.0 respectively. We concluded by suggesting an optimized tree-planting pattern and discussing strategies for a better green streets planning and pruning.

Jin, Sijia; Guo, Jiankang; Wheeler, Stephen; Kan, Liyan; Che, Shengquan

2014-12-01

303

24 CFR 1000.42 - Are the requirements of section 3 of the Housing and Urban Development Act of 1968 applicable?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01...section 3 of the Housing and Urban Development Act of 1968 applicable? 1000...Section 1000.42 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO...

2012-04-01

304

24 CFR 1000.42 - Are the requirements of section 3 of the Housing and Urban Development Act of 1968 applicable?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01...section 3 of the Housing and Urban Development Act of 1968 applicable? 1000...Section 1000.42 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO...

2014-04-01

305

24 CFR 1000.42 - Are the requirements of section 3 of the Housing and Urban Development Act of 1968 applicable?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01...section 3 of the Housing and Urban Development Act of 1968 applicable? 1000...Section 1000.42 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO...

2011-04-01

306

24 CFR 1000.42 - Are the requirements of section 3 of the Housing and Urban Development Act of 1968 applicable?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01...section 3 of the Housing and Urban Development Act of 1968 applicable? 1000...Section 1000.42 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to...

2010-04-01

307

24 CFR 1000.42 - Are the requirements of section 3 of the Housing and Urban Development Act of 1968 applicable?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01...section 3 of the Housing and Urban Development Act of 1968 applicable? 1000...Section 1000.42 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO...

2013-04-01

308

Impact of land-use on water pollution in a rapidly urbanizing catchment in China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many catchments in developing countries are undergoing fast urbanization which is usually characterized by population increase, economic growth as well as drastic changes of land-use from natural/rural to urban area. During the urbanization process, some catchments experience water quality deterioration due to rapid increase of pollution loads. Nonpoint source pollution resulting from storm water runoff has been recognized as one of the major causes of pollutants in many cities in developing countries. The composition of land-use for a rapidly urbanizing catchment is usually heterogeneous, and this may result in significant spatial variations of storm runoff pollution and increase the difficulties of water quality management in the catchment. The Shiyan Reservoir catchment, a typical rapidly urbanizing area in China, is chosen as the study area, and temporary monitoring sites were set at the outlets of its 6 sub-catchments to synchronously measured rainfall, runoff and water quality during 4 storm events. Three indicators, event pollutant loads per unit area (EPL), event mean concentration (EMC) and pollutant loads transported by the first 50% of runoff volume (FF50), were used to describe the runoff pollution for different pollutants (such as COD, BOD, NH3-N, TN, TP and SS) in each sub-catchment during the storm events; and the correlations between runoff pollution spatial variations and land-use patterns were tested by Spearman's rank correlation analysis. The results indicated that similar spatial variation trends were found for different pollutants (EPL or EMC) in light storm events, which strongly correlate with the proportion of residential land-use; however, they have different trends in heavy storm events, which correlate with the different proportional combination of residential, industrial, agricultural and bare land-use. It is also shown that it is necessary to consider some pervious land-use types in runoff pollution monitoring or management for a rapidly urbanizing area, particularly in heavy storm.

Khu, Soon-Thiam; Qin, Huapeng

2010-05-01

309

DEVELOPMENT OF IMPACT ORIENTED CLIMATE SCENARIOS  

EPA Science Inventory

Appropriate scenarios of future climate must be developed prior to any assessment of the impacts of climate change. he information needed by impact assessors was examined in consultation with those having experience in scenario use. ost assessors require regional scenarios with a...

310

Evaluating the Impact of Human Resource Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These four papers are from a symposium on evaluating the impact of human resource development (HRD). "Pre-Job Training and the Earnings of High-Tech Employees in Taiwan" (Tung-Chun Huang) reports on a study that concludes that public training programs have no impact on participants' earnings in later jobs, but participation in private training…

1999

311

Impact of traffic volume and composition on the air quality and pedestrian exposure in urban street canyon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vehicle emissions are identified as a major source of air pollution in metropolitan areas. Emission control programs in many cities have been implemented as part of larger scale transport policy interventions to control traffic pollutants and reduce public health risks. These interventions include provision of traffic-free and low emission zones and congestion charging. Various studies have investigated the impact of urban street configurations, such as street canyon in urban centers, on pollutants dispersion and roadside air quality. However, there are few investigations in the literature to study the impact of change of fleet composition and street canyon effects on the on-road pollutants concentrations and associated roadside pedestrian exposure to the pollutants. This study presents an experimental investigation on the traffic related gas and particle pollutants in and near major streets in one of the most developed business districts in Hong Kong, known as Central. Both street canyon and open roadway configurations were included in the study design. Mobile measurement techniques were deployed to monitor both on-road and roadside pollutants concentrations at different times of the day and on different days of a week. Multiple traffic counting points were also established to concurrently collect data on traffic volume and fleet composition on individual streets. Street canyon effects were evident with elevated on-road pollutants concentrations. Diesel vehicles were found to be associated with observed pollutant levels. Roadside black carbon concentrations were found to correlate with their on-road levels but with reduced concentrations. However, ultrafine particles showed very high concentrations in roadside environment with almost unity of roadside/on-road ratios possibly due to the accumulation of primary emissions and secondary PM formation. The results from the study provide useful information for the effective urban transport design and bus route reorganization to minimize the impact of traffic emissions on the urban air quality and public health. Observations on the elevated ultrafine particle concentrations in roadside pedestrian levels also demonstrate the urgent need to improve roadside air quality to reduce pedestrians' health risks especially inside street canyon.

Rakowska, Agata; Wong, Ka Chun; Townsend, Thomas; Chan, Ka Lok; Westerdahl, Dane; Ng, Simon; Mo?nik, Griša; Drinovec, Luka; Ning, Zhi

2014-12-01

312

Anthropology, Development and ICTs: Slums, Youth and the Mobile Internet in Urban India  

E-print Network

Anthropology, Development and ICTs: Slums, Youth and the Mobile Internet in Urban India Nimmi an anthropological study of everyday mobile internet adoption among teenagers in a low- income urban setting. We-instrumental and entertainment- driven needs. The key here is for ICTD discourse to situate insights from anthropological studies

Rajamani, Sriram K.

313

Overview of the General Atomics Low Speed Urban Maglev Technology Development Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

The overall objective of this program is to develop magnetic levitation technology that is a cost effective, reliable, and environmentally friendly option for urban mass transportation in the United States. Maglev is a revolutionary approach in which trains are supported by magnetic forces without any wheels contacting the rail surfaces. The Urban Maglev Program is sponsored by the Federal Transit

Sam Gurol; Bob Baldi; General Atomics; Richard F. Post

2002-01-01

314

US Urban Teachers' Perspectives of Culturally Competent Professional Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Health disparities related to food choices, nutrition behaviours and smoking habits in urban communities in the United States signal the importance of health education (HE) in schools, yet educators in urban communities face unique cultural challenges often unaddressed in professional development (PD). The purpose of this study was to use a…

Flory, Sara B.; McCaughtry, Nate; Martin, Jeffrey J.; Murphy, Anne; Blum, Barbara; Wisdom, Kimberlydawn

2014-01-01

315

DEVELOPMENT OF AN ALGAL BIOSENSOR FOR TOXICITY ASSESSMENT OF URBAN WET WEATHER  

E-print Network

1 DEVELOPMENT OF AN ALGAL BIOSENSOR FOR TOXICITY ASSESSMENT OF URBAN WET WEATHER EFFLUENTS Y. Ferro with a conductometric biosensor. Differences of results between both toxicity evaluation methods are linked. Keywords biosensors; environmental monitoring; storm water INTRODUCTION Urban wet weather effluents (UWWE

Boyer, Edmond

316

Urbanization in developing countries: Current trends, future projections, and key challenges for sustainability  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper is to provide a broad overview of the recent patterns and trends of urban growth in developing countries. Over the last 20 years many urban areas have experienced dramatic growth, as a result of rapid population growth and as the world's economy has been transformed by a combination of rapid technological and political change. Around

Barney Cohen

2006-01-01

317

`Perfect ventilation, good sewerage and effective water closets': Urban factors in the development  

E-print Network

... Discourses of public health in C19 Urban sanitation in Dublin, nineteenth century Public health and hospital sanitation ``Perfect ventilation, good sewerage and effective water closets': Urban factors in the development of modern nursing Public health and hospital sanitation Hospital sanitation and the Board

318

Modeling Urban Storm-Water Quality Treatment: Model Development and Application to a Surface Sand Filter  

E-print Network

Modeling Urban Storm-Water Quality Treatment: Model Development and Application to a Surface Sand management; Urban areas; Hydraulic models; Sand, filter; Parameters; Estimation; Water treatment. Author Houle4 Abstract: A mathematical and statistical model for simulating contaminant removal from a surface

319

The Young and the City: Crowdsourcing Urban Awareness in a Developing Country  

E-print Network

the actual inhabitants of the city under study, and more specifically youth (16-18 year-olds) about issues responsible for major challenges in attaining sustain- able development and poverty reduction, as well of view is important, as this is closely related to the degree of their urban awareness. Urban awareness

320

Modeling low impact development potential with hydrological response units.  

PubMed

Evaluations of benefits of implementing low impact development (LID) stormwater management techniques can extend up to a watershed scale. This presents a challenge for representing them in watershed models, since they are typically orders of magnitude smaller in size. This paper presents an approach that is focused on trying to evaluate the benefits of implementing LIDs on a lot level. The methodology uses the concept of urban hydrological response Unit and results in developing and applying performance curves that are a function of lot properties to estimate the potential benefit of large-scale LID implementation. Lot properties are determined using a municipal geographic information system database and processed to determine groups of lots with similar properties. A representative lot from each group is modeled over a typical rainfall year using USEPA Stormwater Management Model to develop performance functions that relate the lot properties and the change in annual runoff volume and corresponding phosphorus loading with different LIDs implemented. The results of applying performance functions on all urban areas provide the potential locations, benefit and cost of implementation of all LID techniques, guiding future decisions for LID implementation by watershed area municipalities. PMID:24334886

Eric, Marija; Fan, Celia; Joksimovic, Darko; Li, James Y

2013-01-01

321

Simulating the impact of urban sprawl on air quality and population exposure in the German Ruhr area. Part I: Reproducing the base state  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Compact city forms are associated with minimal consumption of land and energy, hence, they are often promoted as being the more sustainable thus preferred mode of urban development. In this context, numerical simulations were performed to evaluate the effect of urban sprawl on air quality and associated human exposure. Working on a highly urbanised area in the German Ruhrgebiet, models dealing with satellite data processing, traffic flows, pollutant emission and atmospheric dispersion were applied in an integrated fashion, under conditions representative of the urbanised area as it is today. A fair agreement was obtained between simulated and observed meteorological variables, as well as between simulated and observed concentrations of ozone and particulate matter. Simulated atmospheric pollution fields were found to closely reflect urbanisation patterns. In a companion paper [De Ridder, K., Lefebre, F., Adriaensen, S., Arnold, U., Beckroege, W., Bronner, C., Damsgaard, O., Dostal, I., Dufek, J., Hirsch, J., IntPanis, L., Kotek, Z., Ramadier, T., Thierry, A., Vermoote, S., Wania, A., Weber, C., 2008. Simulating the impact of urban sprawl on air quality and population exposure in the German Ruhr area. Part II: Development and evaluation of an urban growth scenario], the results of this base case simulation will be compared with those of a scenario simulation, designed to mimic urban sprawl, so as to allow the evaluation of the latter on air quality and associated human exposure.

De Ridder, Koen; Lefebre, Filip; Adriaensen, Stefan; Arnold, Ute; Beckroege, Wolfgang; Bronner, Christine; Damsgaard, Ole; Dostal, Ivo; Dufek, Jiri; Hirsch, Jacky; IntPanis, Luc; Kotek, Zdenek; Ramadier, Thierry; Thierry, Annette; Vermoote, Stijn; Wania, Annett; Weber, Christiane

322

Restoring the hydrologic response to pre-developed conditions in an urbanized headwater catchment: Reality or utopia?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The conversion of forested areas to impervious surfaces, lawns and pastures alters the natural hydrology of an area by increasing the flashiness of stormwater generated runoff, resulting in increased streamflow peaks and volumes. Currently, most of the stormwater from developed areas in the Puget Sound region remains uncontrolled. The lack of adequate stormwater facilities along with increasing urbanization and population growth illustrates the importance of understanding urban watershed behavior and best management practices (BMPs) that improve changes in hydrology. In this study, we developed a lumped urban ecohydrology model that represents vegetation dynamics, connects pervious and impervious surfaces and implements various BMP scenarios. The model is implemented in an urban headwater subcatchment located in the Newaukum Creek Basin. We evaluate the hydrologic impact of controlling runoff at the source and disconnecting impervious surfaces from the storm drain using rain barrels and bioretention cells. BMP scenarios consider the basin's land use/land coverage, the response of different impervious surface types, the potential for BMP placement, the size and drainage area for BMPs, and the mitigation needs to meet in-stream flow goals.

Wright, O.; Istanbulluoglu, E.

2012-12-01

323

Effects of urban development on the flood-flow characteristics of the Walnut Creek Basin, Des Moines Metropolitan area, Iowa  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Model studies were made to determine the probable impact of urban development on the magnitude and frequency of flooding in the lower reach of the Walnut Creek basin, Des Moines metropolitan area, Iowa. Stream-modeling techniques, which include complete defintion of unit hydrographs and precipitation loss-rate criteria, were utilized to evaluate the effects of urban development as measured by percentages of impervious area over the basin. A mathematical model, called HEC-1, was calibrated by using concurrent rainfall-runoff data collected at three gaging stations in the basin. The model parameters were regionalized to allow future users to estimate the model parameters for ungaged areas within the basin. Long-term rainfall data recorded at two nearby stations were employed as basic input to the calibrated model to generate annual peak discharges corresponding to selected degrees of urbanization. Results are presented in tables and graphs, which compare the preurban and urban floodflow characteristics of the lower reach of the Walnut Creek basin. (Woodard-USGS)

Lara, Oscar G.

1978-01-01

324

76 FR 73989 - Redelegation of Authority Under Section 3 of the Housing and Urban Development Act of 1968  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT [Docket No. FR-5544-D-09] Redelegation...Under Section 3 of the Housing and Urban Development Act of 1968 AGENCY: Office of the Assistant...under Section 3 of the Housing and Urban Development Act of 1968 and HUD's...

2011-11-29

325

The African-American Urban Milieu and Economic Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Economic disparity between urban white America and urban black America is becoming more pronounced, whether in central cities, suburbs, or edge cities. African-American employment prospects have declined in central cities, increased slightly in suburbs, and increased substantially for the few African Americans living and working in edge cities. William Julius Wilson cites the decline in stable, higher-paying, blue-collar employment in

Lenneal J. Henderson

1994-01-01

326

Monitoring impact of urban settlements on nearby protected areas from space  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we present a satellite based approach to monitor impacts of urban settlements on nearby protected areas worldwide. The footprint of human occupation is uniquely visible from space in the form of artificial night lighting, ranging from the burning of the rainforest to massive offshore fisheries to the omnipresent lights of cities and towns and related connecting road networks. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Geophysical Data Center (NOAA-NGDC) processes and archives data acquired by the U.S. Air Force Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) Operational Linescan System (OLS) which was initially designed to monitor the global distribution of clouds using visible and thermal infrared spectral bands. At night the visible band signal is intensified with a photomultiplier tube enabling the detection of moonlit clouds. The boost in gain provides this sensor with the unique capability of observing lights present at the earth's surface at night. Considering nighttime lights as a proxy for anthropogenic activities also influencing neighboring regions enables a globally consistent human impact analysis. The assessment of impacts on threatened ecosystems and related loss of biodiversity is essential in the context of the global (climate) change debate whereas monitoring and protecting the diversity of life on Earth is one of the 'global issues' affecting society. UNEP's World Conservation Monitoring Centre (WCMC) provides information on spatial distribution and delineation of protected areas. The information for this World Database on Protected Areas (WDPA) has been compiled since 1981 and is made available to the global community through UNEP's Protected Areas Programme. The WDPA is a joint project of UNEP and the IUCN World Commission on Protected Areas (WCPA) being prepared in collaboration with governments and NGOs. A set of spatial indicators describing lighting impact and approximated human influence was developed based on joint analysis of the two data sets. Increasing research activities on assessing ecological consequences of artificial night lighting in recent years have attracted the attention of both scientist and journalists. The term light pollution is widely used referring to any adverse effect of artificial light including sky glow, glare, light trespass, light clutter, decreased visibility at night, and energy waste (definition according to the International Dark-Sky Association). First results of the analysis indicate that regions in Europe and Asia Minor, the Caribbean, South and East Asia as well as in the Eastern part of the United States are most affected. Introducing aggregated data on biomes reveals that temperate broadleaf and mixed forests suffer the biggest impact in terms of light pollution in protected areas. The presented impact assessment underscores the need for accurate and consistent spatial data on a global scale and can help to indicate which protected areas are most threatened by human activities. It is an important step towards public communication and raising general awareness on the topic of light pollution and its ecological consequences.

Aubrecht, Christoph; Jaiteh, Malanding; de Sherbinin, Alexander; Longcore, Travis; Elvidge, Chris

2010-05-01

327

Assessment of Urban Infrastructure Impact on New York City Neighborhoods Thermal Variations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New York City (NYC) is a highly urbanized city with most of the population living in tall buildings. Despite technological improvements and stricter regulations, cities still show increasing signs of environmental stress such as traffic congestion, noise and air quality degradation. Rethinking the current models of city planning could enable to limit these detrimental effects of urbanization. In addition, the built environment creates a new climatic regime which needs a better understanding. Building density, height and emission has a major impact on local temperature and other air quality indicators. Studies have shown that during extreme weather conditions and heat waves the mortality rate in urban areas increases. Cities are comprised of a wide variety of urban settings and various neighborhoods have different physical responses to meteorological events, so it is expected that the temperature and heat stress across a given city to fluctuate sharply. Therefore, this research has focused on neighborhood-scale field campaigns to downscale temperature and air quality predictions from city to neighborhood scale in NYC. In order to assess the temperature variability within the city at street level, during the hottest part of the day, this project used eight mobile units bearing temperature and relative humidity sensors, as well as ten weather stations mounted on light poles in various NYC neighborhoods. This study also looks at fine scale structures in the urban heat island of Manhattan at street level through an infrared camera with the spectral range of 7.5-13 ?m in order to relate heat and emissions from building surfaces to land surface characteristics such as building density, vegetation coverage, proximity to water, and albedo. LandSat TM5 images were used (with 30 m resolution) for land surface classification. During the summer and early fall of 2011, 2012 and 2013 extensive field campaigns were performed, the results of which show some persistent patterns that could be related to surface characteristics. This work is a collaboration between the health component of the Consortium for Climate Risk in the Urban Northeast (CCRUN), funded by NOAA Regional Integrated Science Assessment (RISA), and New York University Center for Urban Science and Progress (CUSP).

Nazari, R.; Ghandehari, M.; Karimi, M.; Vant-hull, B.; Khanbilvardi, R.

2013-12-01

328

Research on Assessment Methods for Urban Public Transport Development in China  

PubMed Central

In recent years, with the rapid increase in urban population, the urban travel demands in Chinese cities have been increasing dramatically. As a result, developing comprehensive urban transport systems becomes an inevitable choice to meet the growing urban travel demands. In urban transport systems, public transport plays the leading role to promote sustainable urban development. This paper aims to establish an assessment index system for the development level of urban public transport consisting of a target layer, a criterion layer, and an index layer. Review on existing literature shows that methods used in evaluating urban public transport structure are dominantly qualitative. To overcome this shortcoming, fuzzy mathematics method is used for describing qualitative issues quantitatively, and AHP (analytic hierarchy process) is used to quantify expert's subjective judgment. The assessment model is established based on the fuzzy AHP. The weight of each index is determined through the AHP and the degree of membership of each index through the fuzzy assessment method to obtain the fuzzy synthetic assessment matrix. Finally, a case study is conducted to verify the rationality and practicability of the assessment system and the proposed assessment method.

Zou, Linghong; Guo, Hongwei

2014-01-01

329

Developments in Impact Assessment in North America  

EPA Science Inventory

Beginning with a background of recent global developments in this area, this presentation will focus on how global research has impacted North America and how North America is providing additional developments to address the issues of the global economy. Recent developments inc...

330

Realities of weather extremes on daily life in urban India - How quantified impacts infer sensible adaptation options  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Emerging and developing economies are currently undergoing one of the profoundest socio-spatial transitions in their history, with strong urbanization and weather extremes bringing about changes in the economy, forms of living and living conditions, but also increasing risks and altered social divides. The impacts of heat waves and strong rain events are therefore differently perceived among urban residents. Addressing the social differences of climate change impacts1 and expanding targeted adaptation options have emerged as urgent policy priorities, particularly for developing and emerging economies2. This paper discusses the perceived impacts of weather-related extreme events on different social groups in New Delhi and Hyderabad, India. Using network statistics and scenario analysis on Fuzzy Cognitive Maps (FCMs) as part of a vulnerability analysis, the investigation provides quantitative and qualitative measures to compare impacts and adaptation strategies for different social groups. Impacts of rain events are stronger than those of heat in both cities and affect the lower income classes particularly. Interestingly, the scenario analysis (comparing altered networks in which the alteration represents a possible adaptation measure) shows that investments in the water infrastructure would be most meaningful and more effective than investments in, e.g., the traffic infrastructure, despite the stronger burden from traffic disruptions and the resulting concentration of planning and policy on traffic ease and investments. The method of Fuzzy Cognitive Mapping offers a link between perception and modeling, and the possibility to aggregate and analyze the views of a large number of stakeholders. Our research has shown that planners and politicians often know about many of the problems, but are often overwhelmed by the problems in their respective cities and look for a prioritization of adaptation options. FCM provides this need and identifies priority adaptation options when resources are scarce. 1 Parry ML, Canziani OF, Palutikof JP, van der Linden PJ, Hanson CE (eds) (2007) Contribution of Working Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge New York. 2 TERI (2007) Adaptation to Climate Change in the context of Sustainable Development. Background Paper to the conference ''Climate Change and Sustainable Development: An international workshop to strengthen research and understanding'', 7-8 April 2006, The Energy and Resources Institute, New Delhi.

Reckien, D.

2012-12-01

331

Urban Fluxes Monitoring and Development of Planning Strategies to Reduce Ghg Emissions in AN European City  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cities and human settlements in general are a primary source of emissions that contribute to human-induced climate change. To investigate the impact of an urbanized area on urban metabolism components, an eddy covariance (EC) tower will be set up in a city (Sassari) located in the center of the Mediterranean basin (Sardinia, Italy). The EC tower, as well as a meteorological station and radiometers, will be set up to monitor energy, water, and carbon fluxes in the city center. A GHG emissions inventory will be also compiled to identify the main emission sources. In addition, a modeling framework will be used to study the impact of different urban planning strategies on carbon emission rates. The modeling framework consists of four models to analyze fluxes both at local and municipality scale: (i) a land surface model ACASA (Advanced Canopy-Atmosphere-Soil Algorithm, ACASA) to simulate the urban metabolism components at local scale; (ii) a Cellular Automata model to simulate the urban land-use dynamics in the near future (20-30 years); (iii) a transportation model to estimate the variation of the transportation network load, and (iv) the coupled model WRF-ACASA will be finally used to simulate the urban metabolism components at municipality scale. The participation of local stakeholders will allow the definition of future planning strategies with the aim to identify low carbon emissions strategies. The projects activities, methodologies applied, as well as the preliminary results will be reported here.

Marras, S.; Sirca, C.; Bellucco, V.; Falk, M.; Pyles, R. D.; Snyder, R. L.; Paw U, K.; Duce, P.; Blecic, I.; Trunfio, G. A.; Cecchini, A.; Spano, D.

2013-12-01

332

Economic development and urbanisation.  

PubMed

Trends in urbanization in developing countries are analyzed, with a focus on the causes of rapid urbanization and particularly on the role of the division of labor. The impact of urbanization on the process of economic development is described. The role of government and of urban planning policies is also considered. PMID:12281551

Harris, N

1988-01-01

333

The impact of participatory research on urban teens: an experimental evaluation.  

PubMed

Although there is much practice of community-based participatory research in economically-developing countries and increasingly in North America, there has been little systematic assessment of empowerment effects. Youth-led participatory research holds particular promise for fostering positive development and civic participation among economically disadvantaged urban youth. The present investigation uses a clustered-randomized, within-school experimental design to test the effects of youth-led participatory research on the psychological empowerment of 401 students attending urban public schools. We find that attending a participatory research elective class during the school day was associated with increases in sociopolitical skills, motivation to influence their schools and communities, and participatory behavior. We found no significant effects for perceived control at school. The implications for participatory research and related youth development interventions are discussed. PMID:22875686

Ozer, Emily J; Douglas, Laura

2013-03-01

334

The City as a national growth machine : city-building and the role of urban development in South Korea's political and economic transitions  

E-print Network

This dissertation bridges the fields of international development and urban studies to examine South Korea's city building and urban development processes, arguing that the interaction between urban and industrial policies ...

Joo, Yu Min

2011-01-01

335

SUSTAIN ? A Framework for Placement of Best Management Practices in Urban Watersheds to Protect Water Quality  

EPA Science Inventory

SUSTAIN (System for Urban Stormwater Treatment and Analysis INtegration) is a decision support system to facilitate selection and placement of best management practices (BMPs) and low impact development (LID) techniques at strategic locations in urban watersheds. It was develope...

336

Impact of maritime air mass trajectories on the Western European coast urban aerosol.  

PubMed

Lisbon is the largest urban area in the Western European coast. Due to this geographical position the Atlantic Ocean serves as an important source of particles and plays an important role in many atmospheric processes. The main objectives of this study were to (1) perform a chemical characterization of particulate matter (PM2.5) sampled in Lisbon, (2) identify the main sources of particles, (3) determine PM contribution to this urban area, and (4) assess the impact of maritime air mass trajectories on concentration and composition of respirable PM sampled in Lisbon. During 2007, PM2.5 was collected on a daily basis in the center of Lisbon with a Partisol sampler. The exposed Teflon filters were measured by gravimetry and cut into two parts: one for analysis by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and the other by ion chromatography (IC). Principal component analysis (PCA) and multilinear regression analysis (MLRA) were used to identify possible sources of PM2.5 and determine mass contribution. Five main groups of sources were identified: secondary aerosols, traffic, calcium, soil, and sea. Four-day backtracking trajectories ending in Lisbon at the starting sampling time were calculated using the HYSPLIT model. Results showed that maritime transport scenarios were frequent. These episodes were characterized by a significant decrease of anthropogenic aerosol concentrations and exerted a significant role on air quality in this urban area. PMID:23514067

Almeida, S M; Silva, A I; Freitas, M C; Dzung, H M; Caseiro, A; Pio, C A

2013-01-01

337

Road traffic impact on urban water quality: a step towards integrated traffic, air and stormwater modelling.  

PubMed

Methods for simulating air pollution due to road traffic and the associated effects on stormwater runoff quality in an urban environment are examined with particular emphasis on the integration of the various simulation models into a consistent modelling chain. To that end, the models for traffic, pollutant emissions, atmospheric dispersion and deposition, and stormwater contamination are reviewed. The present study focuses on the implementation of a modelling chain for an actual urban case study, which is the contamination of water runoff by cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn) in the Grigny urban catchment near Paris, France. First, traffic emissions are calculated with traffic inputs using the COPERT4 methodology. Next, the atmospheric dispersion of pollutants is simulated with the Polyphemus line source model and pollutant deposition fluxes in different subcatchment areas are calculated. Finally, the SWMM water quantity and quality model is used to estimate the concentrations of pollutants in stormwater runoff. The simulation results are compared to mass flow rates and concentrations of Cd, Pb and Zn measured at the catchment outlet. The contribution of local traffic to stormwater contamination is estimated to be significant for Pb and, to a lesser extent, for Zn and Cd; however, Pb is most likely overestimated due to outdated emissions factors. The results demonstrate the importance of treating distributed traffic emissions from major roadways explicitly since the impact of these sources on concentrations in the catchment outlet is underestimated when those traffic emissions are spatially averaged over the catchment area. PMID:24288064

Fallah Shorshani, Masoud; Bonhomme, Céline; Petrucci, Guido; André, Michel; Seigneur, Christian

2014-04-01

338

Modelling the impact of soakaway retrofits on combined sewage overflows in a 3 km2 urban catchment in Copenhagen, Denmark  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SummaryStormwater infiltration measures such as soakaways are expected to be part of future urban drainage systems. However, few studies exist on the effect of extensive stormwater infiltration through soakaways on the overall urban water system, including sewers and groundwater, at city catchment scale. In particular such estimates have not been made in real urban settings with multiple physical and structural constraints. This paper presents a methodology for conducting such an analysis, and provides quantitative estimates of the effects on the urban water flows. Using an interdisciplinary, three-step approach that employed GIS analyses and physically distributed, dynamic pipe flow modelling in an iterative manner, this study estimates the impact of infiltration on combined sewage overflows (CSOs) in a 3 km2 urban catchment in Copenhagen. The first step was the creation of a baseline scenario. The second step led to a potential infiltration scenario where 65% of the total impervious area was connected to soakaways, and resulted in an estimated reduction in annual sewage overflow volume of 68%. This scenario was then further developed in the third step by adding groundwater constraints, which formed a more realistic scenario where only 8% of the impervious area was connected to soakaways and the reduction in CSO volume was 24%. The potential and realistic scenarios were modelled both with hydraulic coupling between soakaway and sewer, and as fully disconnected. Results show that infiltration is constrained mainly by the quality of the stormwater runoff from roads and limited land availability in the potential infiltration scenario, and by low-permeable soils and a problematically high groundwater level in the realistic infiltration scenario. The hydraulically coupled model gives higher CSO volume than the fully disconnected model for the potential infiltration scenario, whereas no difference is seen between these two models in the realistic infiltration scenario. The effect of infiltration on combined sewer overflows is thus expected to be limited in the case study area. General conclusions are that groundwater constraints are important to consider when evaluating the potential of infiltration-based stormwater management, and that it is important to include the hydraulic coupling between soakaways and sewers in models if soakaways are expected to give overflow to the sewers.

Roldin, Maria; Fryd, Ole; Jeppesen, Jan; Mark, Ole; Binning, Philip J.; Mikkelsen, Peter Steen; Jensen, Marina Bergen

2012-07-01

339

Professional development strategies for teaching urban biology teachers to use concept maps effectively  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many teachers are not adequately prepared to help urban students who have trouble understanding conceptual ideas in biology because these students have little connection to the natural world. This study explored potential professional development strategies to help urban biology teachers use concept maps effectively with various topics in the biology curriculum. A grounded theory approach was used to develop a substantive professional development model for urban biology teachers. Qualitative data were collected through 16 semi-structured interviews of professional developers experienced in working with concept maps in the urban context. An anonymous online survey was used to collect quantitative data from 56 professional developers and teachers to support the qualitative data. The participants were from New York City, recruited through the NY Biology-Chemistry Professional Development Mentor Network and the NY Biology Teachers' Association. According to the participants, map construction, classroom applications, lesson planning, action research, follow-up workshops, and the creation of learning communities are the most effective professional development strategies. The interviewees also proposed English language learning strategies such as picture maps, native word maps, and content reading materials with underlined words. This study contributes to social change by providing a professional development model to use in planning workshops for urban teachers. Urban teachers improve their own conceptual understanding of biology while learning how to implement concept mapping strategies in the classroom. Students whose teachers are better prepared to teach biology in a conceptual manner have the potential of growing into more scientifically literate citizens.

McGregor Petgrave, Dahlia M.

340

Quantifying multi-temporal urban development characteristics in Las Vegas from Landsat and ASTER data  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Urban development has expanded rapidly in Las Vegas, Nevada of the United States, over the last fifty years. A major environmental change associated with this urbanization trend is the transformation of the landscape from natural cover types to increasingly anthropogenic impervious surface. This research utilizes remote sensing data from both the Landsat and Terra-Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) instruments in conjunction with digital orthophotography to estimate urban extent and its temporal changes by determining sub-pixel impervious surfaces. Percent impervious surface area has shown encouraging agreement with urban land extent and development density. Results indicate that total urban land-use increases approximately 110 percent from 1984 to 2002. Most of the increases are associated with medium-to high-density urban development. Places having significant increases in impervious surfaces are in the northwestern and southeastern parts of Las Vegas. Most high-density urban development, however, appears in central Las Vegas. Impervious surface conditions for 2002 measured from Landsat and ASTER satellite data are compared in terms of their accuracy. ?? 2008 American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing.

Xian, G.; Crane, M.; McMahon, C.

2008-01-01

341

New urbanism on a grand scale : the challenges for large-scale, multi-phase master planned developments  

E-print Network

New Urbanism has been described as an urban design movement promoting the master planning and development of communities that have walkable, human-scale neighborhoods while integrating the necessary elements of modern life ...

Olchowicz, Edward J

2011-01-01

342

Developing an Ecosystem Services online Decision Support Tool to Assess the Impacts of Climate Change and Urban Growth in the Santa Cruz Watershed; Where We Live, Work, and Play  

EPA Science Inventory

Processes through which ecosystems provide goods or benefit people can be referred to as "ecosystems services?, which may be quantified to clarify decision-making, with techniques including cost-benefit analysis. We are developing an online decision support tool, the Santa Cruz W...

343

75 FR 38514 - Notice of Funding Availability for the Department of Housing and Urban Development's Community...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Department of Housing and Urban Development's Community Challenge Planning Grants and the Department of Transportation's TIGER II Planning Grants Correction In notice document 2010-15353 beginning on page 36246 in the issue of Thursday, June 24,...

2010-07-02

344

Tenements : dwellings for the urban poor. Comparative study illustrating 28 cases in developing countries  

E-print Network

Tenements are significant systems that provide habitation to the poor in most of the urban areas of the developing countries. Yet, tenements are practically ignored if not prohibited by the public sector and consequently ...

Aliman, Isam Mohammad

1981-01-01

345

Development of Criteria for Evaluating Urban River Settings for Tourism-Rereation Use  

E-print Network

for the recommended guidelines in this report came from three primary sources. First, the River Walk Study provided insight into one very successful park/business development. Second, research studies by Hanna (1974) and Parenzin (1973) described urban park...

Gunn, C. A.; Hanna, J. W.; Parenzin, A. J.; Blumberg, F. M.

346

Cumulative impacts of urban runoff and municipal wastewater effluents on wild freshwater mussels (Lasmigona costata).  

PubMed

Aquatic biota living in urban watersheds, are chronically exposed to a complex mixture of contaminants from various sources, including municipal wastewater effluents and road runoff. This study examined the general condition, immune function and contaminant load of wild freshwater mussels collected from a large urbanized river over three consecutive field seasons. Four study sites along the Grand River (ON) were selected to represent an incremental contaminant exposure, such that mussels collected from the final downstream site were exposed to the cumulative inputs from 11 municipal wastewater treatment plants and road runoff from four cities. Wild mussels collected downstream of the urban area had significantly lower (p<0.05) condition factor and did not live as long (significantly reduced mean age) as the mussels collected upstream of the cities. There appears to be a trend of increasing proportions of gravid females at the downstream sites, but whether this trend indicates feminization of the mussel population or is simply an artifact of sampling effort is unclear. An examination of hemocyte phagocytosis revealed a pattern of increasing immune activity at the downstream sites, but only in one of the years sampled. The significant and cumulative increase in Cu, Pb, Zn, Al, Cr, and Ni in the gills of downstream mussels indicates that metals are bioavailable in this ecosystem and that tissue concentrations increase with multiple urban inputs. While the complex nature of the exposure prevents identification of the cause(s) of the observed effects, some contaminants such as ammonia and chloride reach levels known to be toxic to freshwater mussels at the downstream sites. These results indicate that chronic exposure to multiple contaminants negatively impacts mussel health and longevity and corroborates previous assumptions that waterborne contaminants contributed to the decline of the freshwater mussel populations in this watershed. PMID:22705870

Gillis, Patricia L

2012-08-01

347

The Impact of Educational Interventions on Organizational Culture at an Urban Federal Agency. Ph.D. Thesis - Old Dominion Univ.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This study on the impact of educational interventions on organizational culture is an evaluation of a major educational initiative undertaken by an urban federal agency, namely the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Langley Research Center (NASA-LaRC). The design of this educational evaluation captures the essence of NASA-LaRC's efforts to continue its distinguished and international stature in the aeronautical research community following the Challenger tragedy. More specifically, this study is an evaluation of the educational initiative designed to ameliorate organizational culture via educational interventions, with emphasis on communications, rewards and recognition, and career development. After completing a review of the related literature, chronicling the educational initiative, interviewing senior managers and employees, and critically examining thousands of free responses on employee perceptions of organizational culture, it is found that previous definitions of organizational culture are more accurately classified as manifestations of organizational culture. This research has endeared to redefine 'organizational culture' by offering a more accurate and diagnostic perspective.

Mckenzie, Janet Myrick

1994-01-01

348

Remote Sensing of Urban Land Cover/Land Use Change, Surface Thermal Responses, and Potential Meteorological and Climate Change Impacts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

City growth influences the development of the urban heat island (UHI), but the effect that local meteorology has on the UHI is less well known. This paper presents some preliminary findings from a study that uses multitemporal Landsat TM and ASTER data to evaluate land cover/land use change (LULCC) over the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MFSC) and its Huntsville, AL metropolitan area. Landsat NLCD data for 1992 and 2001 have been used to evaluate LULCC for MSFC and the surrounding urban area. Land surface temperature (LST) and emissivity derived from NLCD data have also been analyzed to assess changes in these parameters in relation to LULCC. Additionally, LULCC, LST, and emissivity have been identified from ASTER data from 2001 and 2011 to provide a comparison with the 2001 NLCD and as a measure of current conditions within the study area. As anticipated, the multi-temporal NLCD and ASTER data show that significant changes have occurred in land covers, LST, and emissivity within and around MSFC. The patterns and arrangement of these changes, however, is significant because the juxtaposition of urban land covers within and outside of MSFC provides insight on what impacts at a local to regional scale, the inter-linkage of these changes potentially have on meteorology. To further analyze these interactions between LULCC, LST, and emissivity with the lower atmosphere, a network of eleven weather stations has been established across the MSFC property. These weather stations provide data at a 10 minute interval, and these data are uplinked for use by MSFC facilities operations and the National Weather Service. The weather data are also integrated within a larger network of meteorological stations across north Alabama. Given that the MSFC weather stations will operate for an extended period of time, they can be used to evaluate how the building of new structures, and changes in roadways, and green spaces as identified in the MSFC master plan for the future, will potentially affect land cover LSTs across the Center. Moreover, the weather stations will also provide baseline data for developing a better understanding of how localized weather factors, such as extreme rainfall and heat events, affect micrometeorology. These data can also be used to model the interrelationships between LSTs and meteorology on a longer term basis to help evaluate how changes in these parameters can be quantified from satellite data collected in the future. In turn, the overall integration of multi-temporal meteorological information with LULCC, and LST data for MSFC proper and the surrounding Huntsville urbanized area can provide a perspective on how urban land surface types affect the meteorology in the boundary layer and ultimately, the UHI. Additionally, data such as this can be used as a foundation for modeling how climate change will potentially impact local and regional meteorology and conversely, how urban LULCC can or will influence changes on climate over the north Alabama area.

Quattrochi, D. A.; Jedlovec, G.; Meyer, P. J.

2011-12-01

349

Rural-urban migration, informal sector and development policies: a theoretical analysis.  

PubMed

"A theoretical model of rural-urban migration has been developed with special reference to the informal sector. The wage rate and employment in the informal sector are determined endogenously. The paper shows the simultaneous existence of open unemployment and informal sector in the urban area in migration equilibrium. The effects of alternative subsidy policies on unemployment and welfare of the workers are studied." The model is intended primarily for use in analyzing trends and policies in developing countries. PMID:12344755

Gupta, M R

1993-06-01

350

Can stormwater harvesting restore pre-development flows in urban catchments in South East Queensland?  

PubMed

Increases in the impervious area due to urbanisation have been shown to have negative impacts on the physical and ecological condition of streams, primarily through increased volume and frequency of runoff. The harvesting and detention of runoff has a potential to decrease this impact. This paper describes the effects of urbanisation on catchment flow and of stormwater harvesting on reducing those adverse impacts on a stream in South East Queensland (SEQ), Australia. A largely undeveloped catchment located southeast of Brisbane city was calibrated and validated using the Stormwater Management Model (SWMM). This model was used to investigate the effect of a range of future increases in urbanisation (represented by impervious area) on stream hydrology as well as the potential of stormwater harvesting to return the catchments to predevelopment flow conditions. Stormwater harvesting was modelled according to flow frequency measures specified in current SEQ development guidelines. These guidelines stipulate the capture of the first 10 mm of runoff from impervious areas of 0-40% and the first 15 mm from impervious areas of 40% or greater for urban developments. We found that increases in the impervious area resulted in increases in the mean, frequency and duration of high flows, and an increase in the mean rate of rise and fall for storm events in the catchment. However, the predevelopment (non-urbanised) flow distribution was very flashy in comparison with all urbanised scenarios; i.e. it had the quickest response to rainfall indicated by a high rate of rise to and fall from peak flow volume, followed by a return to zero flow conditions. Capturing the runoff according to the development guidelines resulted in a reduction in flow towards the flow distribution of a lower impervious area, however this was insufficient to meet predevelopment conditions. This suggests a stronger influence of impervious areas in this catchment on the volume of runoff than flow frequency measures are able to ameliorate. PMID:23168648

Ashbolt, S; Aryal, S; Petrone, K; McIntosh, B S; Maheepala, S; Chowdhury, R; Gardner, T

2013-01-01

351

[The metropolitan character of urbanization in Mexico, 1900-1988].  

PubMed

The author analyzes trends in urbanization in Mexico during the twentieth century, with a focus on the impact of rapid industrialization since 1982. Sections are included on the interrelations among economic development, industrialization, and urbanization; stages, levels, and measures of urbanization; the development of the city system in Mexico; and stages in the growth of Mexico City. (SUMMARY IN ENG) PMID:12283213

Garza, G

1990-01-01

352

Addressing the Complexities of Literacy and Urban Teaching in the USA: Strategic Professional Development as Intervention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Teaching quality impacts classroom instruction. Teaching is difficult, demanding and draining work; teaching in urban environs exacerbates the difficulties, the demands and the complexities of teaching. Through the eyes of an assistant superintendent, charged with implementing a new vision for literacy teaching and learning, this manuscript…

Sulentic Dowell, Margaret-Mary

2012-01-01

353

Sustainable urban development? Low-cost housing challenges in South Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low-cost housing provision has been a major focus of government in post-apartheid urban South Africa. While successes can be noted, there is growing concern regarding the social and environmental sustainability of housing programs and the impacts upon both the surrounding environment and human health. Utilizing key informant interviews, survey research, Census data and documentary review, this essay identifies the major

Allison Goebel

2007-01-01

354

Developing Fire Behavior Fuel Models for the Wildland-Urban Interface in Anchorage, Alaska  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fire behavior modeling systems are playing an increasingly important role in identifying areas of the wildland- urban interface (WUI) that could support intense and fast-moving wildfires. The modeling systems also can be used to prioritize areas for fuels reduction treatments. We used forest inventory data to create custom fire behavior fuel models for the Anchorage, Alaska, WUI—an area strongly impacted

Daniel Cheyette; T. Scott Rupp; Sue Rodman

2008-01-01

355

Analysis of urbanization and climate change impacts on the urban thermal environment based on MODIS satellite data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cities are exposed more and more to climate change from greenhouse gas induced radiative forcing, and localized effects from urbanization such as the urban heat island. Urban land covers as the biophysical state of the earth's surface and immediate subsurface are sources and sinks for most of the material and energy movements and interactions between the geosphere and biosphere. Climate change is considered to be the biggest environmental threat in the future in the South- Eastern part of Europe. The aim of this paper is to investigate the influences of urban growth on urban thermal environment as well as the relationships of thermal characteristics to other biophysical parameters in Bucharest metropolitan area of Romania based on time series MODIS Terra/Aqua and IKONOS data acquired during 2000-2014 periods. Land Surface Temperature (LST) is a key variable for studying urban land surface processes and surface atmosphere interactions, being a crucial component in the study of the surface energy and water budgets. Urbanization created an evolved inverse relationship between impervious and vegetation coverage, and brought about new LST patterns because of LST's correlations with both impervious and vegetation coverage. City thermal environment risk management strategies for mitigating and adapting to climate change must propose efficient plans to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and cool the city through changes in the built environment, land use, and transportation.

Zoran, Maria A.; Savastru, Roxana S.; Savastru, Dan M.; Tautan, Marina N.; Baschir, Laurentiu A.

2014-10-01

356

Children Researching Their Urban Environment: Developing a Methodology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Listening to children: environmental perspectives and the school curriculum" (L2C) was a UK research council project based in schools in a socially and economically deprived urban area in England. It focused on 10/12 year old children's experience of their local community and environment, and how they made sense of this in relation both to their…

Hacking, Elisabeth Barratt; Barratt, Robert

2009-01-01

357

Literacy Development of Students in Urban Schools: Research and Policy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Educators can use this collection of diverse, thought-provoking perspectives from the best minds in the field to help make the best decisions possible for urban schools. The book's 26 chapters concisely synthesize research on a number of topics and link it to literacy instruction issues-including implications for local, state, and national…

Flood, James, Ed.; Anders, Patricia L., Ed.

2005-01-01

358

Developing an Ecosystem Services Online Decision Support Tool to Assess the Impacts of Climate Change and Urban Growth in the Santa Cruz Watershed: Where We Live, Work, and Play  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Using respective strengths of the biological, physical, and social sciences, we are developing an online decision support tool, the Santa Cruz Watershed Ecosystem Portfolio Model (SCWEPM), to help promote the use of information relevant to water allocation and land management in a binational watershed along the U.S.-Mexico border. The SCWEPM will include an ES valuation system within a suite of linked regional driver-response models and will use a multicriteria scenario-evaluation framework that builds on GIS analysis and spatially-explicit models that characterize important ecological, economic, and societal endpoints and consequences that are sensitive to climate patterns, regional water budgets, and regional LULC change in the SCW.

Norman, Laura; Tallent-Halsell, Nita; Labiosa, William; Weber, Matt; McCoy, Amy; Hirschboeck, Katie; Callegary, James; van Riper, Charles, III; Gray, Floyd

2010-01-01

359

Effects of urban development on stream ecosystems in nine metropolitan study areas across the United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Urban development is an important agent of environmental change in the United States. The urban footprint on the American landscape has expanded during a century and a half of almost continuous development. Eighty percent of Americans now live in metropolitan areas, and the advantages and challenges of living in these developed areas—convenience, congestion, employment, pollution—are part of the day-to-day realities of most Americans. Nowhere are the environmental changes associated with urban development more evident than in urban streams. Contaminants, habitat destruction, and increasing streamflow flashiness resulting from urban development have been associated with the disruption of biological communities, particularly the loss of sensitive aquatic species. Every stream is connected downstream to larger water bodies, including rivers, reservoirs, and ultimately coastal waters. Inputs of chemical contaminants or sediments at any point along the stream can cause degradation downstream with adverse effects on biological communities and on economically valuable resources, such as fisheries and tourism. In response to general concerns about the degradation of urban streams, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted a national-scale, scientific investigation of the effects of urban development on stream ecosystems. Nine metropolitan study areas of the United States were selected—Portland, Oregon; Salt Lake City, Utah; Birmingham, Alabama; Atlanta, Georgia; Raleigh, North Carolina; Boston, Massachusetts; Denver, Colorado; Dallas, Texas; and Milwaukee, Wisconsin. The studies were conducted in Salt Lake City, Birmingham, and Boston in 1999–2000; in Atlanta, Raleigh, and Denver in 2002–2003; and in Portland, Dallas, and Milwaukee in 2003–2004. The comprehensive investigation of all nine studies focused on three broad questions of interest to decision makers: 1. What are the primary effects of urban development on stream ecosystems? 2. How do the effects of urban development on stream ecosystems vary regionally across the country? 3. Which urban-related stressors are most closely linked to biological community degradation, and how can multiple stressors be managed to protect stream health as a watershed becomes increasingly urbanized?

Coles, James F.; McMahon, Gerard; Bell, Amanda H.; Brown, Larry R.; Fitzpatrick, Faith A.; Scudder-Eikenberry, Barbara C.; Woodside, Michael D.; Cuffney, Thomas F.; Bryant, Wade L.; Cappiella, Karen; Fraley-McNeal, Lisa; Stack, William P.

2012-01-01

360

Promoting Urban Teachers' Understanding of Technology, Content, and Pedagogy in the Context of Case Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the potential of a professional development program centered on case development to help urban teachers: (a) integrate technology with content and pedagogy and (b) cultivate habits of reflection required to learn from practice. Qualitative analysis revealed that case development helped teachers develop an understanding of…

Mouza, Chrystalla

2011-01-01

361

This study is funded by the National Science Foundation (NSF) through grant EF1049251: "Assessing Decadal Climate Change Impacts on Urban Populations in the Southwestern United States."  

E-print Network

Decadal Climate Change Impacts on Urban Populations in the Southwestern United States." Data watered, inducing changes in their phenology and productivity. To our knowledge, the impact of irrigation on urban ecohydrology has yet to be addressed in a quantitative fashion, partially due to a general lack

Hall, Sharon J.

362

Status of NASA Satellite, Field Observations, and Numerical Modeling Addressing the Impact of Urbanization on Short and Long Term Precipitation Variability  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

There is renewed interest in the impacts of urbanization on global change as witnessed by special sessions at the Fall AGU and Annual AMS meeting. A comprehensive satellite, modeling, and field campaign program is underway to assess the impact of urbanization on precipitation.

Shepherd, J. Marshall; Manyin, Michael; Burian, Steve; Garza, Carlos

2003-01-01

363

Evaluating the impact of HIA on urban reconstruction decision-making. Who manages whose risks?  

SciTech Connect

Practitioners and academic researchers increasingly look to evaluation of health impact assessment (HIA) to improve its practice, its efficiency and its legitimacy. Evaluation is also used to account to policy-makers, who express doubts that the benefits of HIA justify its costs. Until recently evaluation of HIA focused on instrument design and procedures but now the focus needs to shift to analysis of the interaction of HIA and decision-making. Multiple case studies have been applied to identify the conditions in which HIA produces the desired benefits. These studies used analytical concepts derived from the literature on evaluation, knowledge utilization, science of sociology and knowledge management. This paper describes a case study in which the strategic motives of the decision-makers affected the impact of an HIA. This HIA comprised of a quantitative environmental model 'City and Environment' that was used to assess environmental health impacts of an urban reconstruction plan in a Dutch city. The evaluation of the HIA shows that the decision to follow the recommendations of the HIA was part of a damage control strategy. The more HIA goals deviate from the policy problem and the less HIA is embedded in institutional procedures, then the more HIA impact will be subject to strategic decision-making behaviour. Appropriate cognitive and social strategies are needed to avoid 'negative learning' in those the HIA seeks to influence.

Bekker, Marleen P.M. [Institute of Health Policy and Management, Erasmus Medical Centre, Rotterdam (Netherlands)]. E-mail: m.bekker@erasmusmc.nl; Putters, Kim [Department of Law, Administration and Informatisation, University of Tilburg (Netherlands); Grinten, Tom E.D. van der [Institute of Health Policy and Management, Erasmus Medical Centre, Rotterdam (Netherlands)

2005-10-15

364

Assessment of Climate Change Impact: Use of a Groundwater and Surface Water Model in a Highly-Urbanized Catchment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is currently great interest in quantifying the impact of anticipated climate change on groundwater volumes and flow dynamics. Several studies have assessed the impact of future climatic conditions on groundwater but only a few have investigated the concurrent potential impact of future urbanization. The main objective of our research project is to assess the impact of future climatic conditions and urban development on groundwater resources by focusing on the highly-urbanized catchment of the Saint-Charles River, in Quebec City, Canada. The methodology proposed to reach this objective is divided in two steps. The first step is to develop and calibrate a numerical model that simulates the surface water and groundwater flow dynamics for the catchment, using the physically-based, fully integrated, variably-saturated 3-D surface-subsurface simulator HydroGeoSphere (HGS). In addition, this model includes functions for simulating snow accumulation (during winter), snow melting (during spring) and freezing/thawing dynamic of pore water near the surface, which have been applied to the catchment. The second step is to identify climate projections from general circulation models (GCMs) and downscale their input to the catchment scale, as well as to propose urbanisation scenarios. Using the calibrated model as a starting point, the output of the GCMs and urbanisation scenarios will then be used as boundary conditions in the numerical model for predictive simulations and to assess their effect on groundwater flow dynamics. This presentation mainly reports on the first step of the project, which is the development of the calibrated model. The geology of the catchment is complex because of successions of quaternary deposits, with highly-variable hydrogeological properties and a complex spatial distribution that lie on fractured bedrock. A 3D Quaternary geological model is available but due to its complex geometry, the integration of this model into the 3-D hydrogeological model was complicated and required developing a specific methodology. A complex 2-D mesh of the catchment area with refinement near lakes, rivers and high-slope relief is first developed and a 3-D mesh is then constructed using vertical duplication of the 2-D mesh with refinement near the surface. Physical properties from the geological model are then interpolated into the 3D hydrogeological model. The model calibration was challenging because of a large number of calibration parameters (22) and boundary conditions (3) and long computational times. The model represents the subsurface with 144'000 finite elements and 78'096 nodes, and the surface with 6'296 elements and 3'254 nodes and the computational time (with a 3.40 GHz Intel Core desktop machine equipped with 4 Gb RAM) reaches 10 days for a 30 year simulation. The presentation will focus on the model development and calibration to highlight the associated challenges for a catchment-scale surface-subsurface model. The novel application of the snow accumulation and snow melt functions of the model will also be addressed. Predictive scenarios for climate change and preliminary results will also be discussed.

Cochand, F.; Therrien, R.

2013-12-01

365

Impact of coupling a microscale computational fluid dynamics model with a mesoscale model on urban scale contaminant transport and dispersion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Results are presented from a study designed to evaluate the impact upon urban area transport and dispersion (T&D) modeling accuracy by coupling a microscale computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model with a mesoscale numerical weather prediction (NWP) model. The CFD model taking part in the evaluation was the CFD-Urban model while the NWP model was the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. The following two different approaches of supplying initial and boundary conditions to drive CFD-Urban were evaluated by comparing the resulting tracer gas transport fields to field data: (i) using observation obtained from a single sounding site during the URBAN 2000 field experiment and (ii) using WRF output in quasi-steady mode. The WRF and the CFD-Urban model results were evaluated against data obtained from the Intensive Observation Period (IOP) 10 during the URBAN 2000 field experiment. It was found that the CFD-Urban T&D prediction was significantly improved when using wind fields produced by downscaling WRF output as initial and boundary conditions. One key reason for such success is that the turning of lower boundary layer wind and pressure gradient are well represented in the time-varying three-dimensional WRF fields.

Tewari, Mukul; Kusaka, Hiroyuki; Chen, Fei; Coirier, William J.; Kim, Sura; Wyszogrodzki, Andrzej A.; Warner, Thomas T.

2010-06-01

366

IMPACT: a multi-level family and school intervention targeting obesity in urban youth.  

PubMed

IMPACT (Ideas Moving Parents and Adolescents to Change Together) is a 3-group randomized, multi-level trial comparing the efficacy of two distinct behavioral interventions and a control condition on body mass index (BMI) in middle school urban youth who are overweight/obese. Interventions include: (1) SystemCHANGE (SC), a promising new behavior change approach that focuses on system redesign of the family environment and daily routines; (2) HealthyCHANGE (HC), a cognitive-behavioral and Motivational Interviewing (MI)-consistent approach to behavior change that focuses on increasing intrinsic motivation, self-monitoring, goal setting, and problem solving; and (3) diet and physical education counseling (attention control). In addition, about half of the participants are enrolled in a K-8 public school that offers an innovative community-sponsored fitness program, augmented by study-supported navigators. In addition to the primary interventions effects, the study assesses the moderating effect of the school environment on BMI, blood pressure, cardiovascular risk factors, and quality of life. The sample consists of 360 children entering 6th grade from a large urban school district in the Midwest, identified through an existing BMI screening program. The intervention period is 36 months, and measures are obtained at baseline, 12, 24, and 36 months. Using intent-to-treat analyses across the 36-month intervention window, we hypothesize that both SC and HC will have a greater impact on BMI and other health outcomes compared to health education alone, and that the enriched school environment will enhance these effects. This manuscript describes IMPACT's study design and methods. PMID:24008055

Moore, Shirley M; Borawski, Elaine A; Cuttler, Leona; Ievers-Landis, Carolyn E; Love, Thomas E

2013-11-01

367

Assessment of the Impacts of Climate Change on Stream Discharge and Water Quality in an Arid, Urbanized Watershed  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hydrologic and water quality models can provide a general framework to conceptualize and investigate the relationships between climate and water resources. Under a hot and dry climate, highly urbanized watersheds are more vulnerable to changes in climate, such as excess heat and drought. In this study, a comprehensive watershed model, Hydrological Simulation Program FORTRAN (HSPF), is used to assess the impacts of future climate change on the stream discharge and water quality in Las Vegas Wash in Nevada, the only surface water body that drains from the Las Vegas Valley (an area with rapid population growth and urbanization) to Lake Mead. In this presentation, the process of model building, calibration and validation, the generation of climate change scenarios, and the assessment of future climate change effects on stream hydrology and quality are demonstrated. The hydrologic and water quality model is developed based on the data from current national databases and existing major land use categories of the watershed. The model is calibrated for stream discharge, nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus) and sediment yield. The climate change scenarios are derived from the outputs of the Global Climate Models (GCM) and Regional Climate Models (RCM) simulations, and from the recent assessment reports from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). The Climate Assessment Tool from US EPA's BASINS is used to assess the effects of likely future climate scenarios on the water quantity and quality in Las Vegas Wash. Also the presentation discusses the consequences of these hydrologic changes, including the deficit supplies of clean water during peak seasons of water demand, increased eutrophication potentials, wetland deterioration, and impacts on wild life habitats.

Ranatunga, T.; Tong, S.; Yang, J.

2011-12-01

368

Community-Initiated Urban Development: An Ecological Intervention  

PubMed Central

Neglected urban environments have been linked to social isolation, depression, and other health problems. In Portland, OR in 2003, an intervention was implemented and evaluated in three neighborhoods with the objective of promoting community participation in urban renewal and engaging residents in the construction of attractive urban places. Municipal officials approved and permitted community-designed street murals, public benches, planter boxes, information kiosks with bulletin boards, trellises for hanging gardens, all positioned in the public right-of-way. Residents within a two-block radius of the three sites were systematically sampled and interviewed before (N = 325) and after (N = 349) the intervention, of which, 265 individuals completed both surveys of the panel study. After the intervention, multivariate results revealed improvements in mental health (p = 0.03), increased sense of community (p < 0.01), and an overall expansion of social capital (p = 0.04). Through community empowerment, participation, and collective action, the strategy successfully engaged residents in restoring neighborhoods, with direct benefits to community well-being. PMID:17123178

March, Tanya L.; Bontempo, Brian D.

2006-01-01

369

Opportunities and Alternatives for Enhancing Urban Forests in Compact Cities in Developing Countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

That cities need to be greened is almost a foregone conclusion, if not de rigueur, for any plans for urban development or redevelopment. A green city is an ideal with a universal appeal that traverses temporal,\\u000a spatial, and cultural divides (Hestmark, 2000). For many people, the greening of urbanized areas conjures up a deep innate\\u000a desire to connect with the

C. Y. Jim

370

Department of Housing and Urban Development-Independent Agencies Appropriations Act, 1985  

SciTech Connect

The text of an act making apropriations for the Department of Housing and Urban Development and sundry independent agencies, boards, commissions, corporations, and offices for the fiscal year ending September 30, 1985 is given. Money is appropriated for rent supplements, housing counseling Solar Energy and Energy Conservation Bank, urban homesteadng, American Battle Monuments, Commission, the Consumer Product Safety Commission, the Environmental Protection Agency, and other agencies and programs.

Not Available

1984-01-01

371

Developing a public information and engagement portal of urban waterways with real-time monitoring and modeling.  

PubMed

Waterways can contribute to the beauty and livelihood of urban areas, but maintaining their hydro-ecosystem health is challenging because they are often recipients of contaminated water from stormwater runoff and other discharges. Public awareness of local waterways' health and community impacts to these waterways is usually poor due to of lack of easily available information. To improve community awareness of water quality in urban waterways in New Zealand, a web portal was developed featuring a real-time waterways monitoring system, a public forum, historical data, interactive maps, contaminant modelling scenarios, mitigation recommendations, and a prototype contamination alert system. The monitoring system featured in the web portal is unique in the use of wireless mesh network technology, direct integration with online modelling, and a clear target of public engagement. The modelling aims to show the origin of contaminants within the local catchment and to help the community prioritize mitigation efforts to improve water quality in local waterways. The contamination alert system aims to keep managers and community members better informed and to provide a more timely response opportunity to avert any unplanned or accidental contamination of the waterways. Preliminary feedback has been positive and is being supported by local and regional authorities. The system was developed in a cost-effective manner providing a community focussed solution for quantifying and mitigating key contaminants in urban catchments and is applicable and transferable to other cities with similar stormwater challenges. PMID:21252427

Cochrane, T A; Wicke, D; O'Sullivan, A

2011-01-01

372

Implementation and Performance of Low Impact Development  

EPA Science Inventory

This workshop will provide participants with a basic understanding of LID approaches and techniques and how these techniques help achieve stormwater management goals and protect water quality and stream health. The workshop will cover impacts of land development on hydrology and...

373

High Spatial Resolution Thermal Remote Sensing of the Urban Heat Island Effect: Assessment of Risks to Human Health and Development of Mitigation Strategies for Sustainable Cities  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The growth of cities, both in population and in areal extent, appears as an inexorable process. Urbanization continues at a rapid rate, and it is estimated that by the year 2025, 80% of the world's population will live in cities. One of the more egregious side effects of urbanization is the deterioration in air quality as a result of increased vehicular traffic, industrialization and related activities. In the United States alone, under the more stringent air quality guidelines established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in 1997, nearly 300 counties in 34 states will not meet the new air quality standards for ground level ozone. The mitigation of one the physical/environmental characteristics of urbanization known as the urban heat island (UHI) effect, is now being looked at more closely as a possible way to bring down ground level ozone levels in cities and assist states in improving air quality. The UHI results from the replacement of "natural" land covers (e.g., trees, grass) with urban land surface types, such as pavement and buildings. Heat stored in these surfaces is released into the air and results in a "dome" of elevated air temperatures that presides over cities. The effect of this dome of elevated air temperatures is known as the UHI, which is most prevalent about 2-3 hours after sunset on days with intense solar radiation and calm winds. Given the local and regional impacts of the UHI, there are significant potential affects on human health, particularly as related to heat stress and ozone on body temperature regulation and on the cardiovascular and respiratory systems. In this study we are using airborne and satellite remote sensing data to analyze how differences in the urban landscape influence or drive the development of the UHI over four U.S. cities. Additionally, we are assessing what the potential impact is on risks to human health, and developing mitigation strategies to make urban areas more environmentally sustainable.

Quattrochi, Dale A.; Luvall, Jeffrey C.; Rickman, Douglas L.; Estes, Maurice G., Jr.; Laymon, Charles A.; Crosson, William; Howell, Burgess F.; Gillani, Noor V.; Arnold, James E. (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

374

Remote Sensing of the Urban Heat Island Effect: Assessment of Risks to Human Health and Development of Mitigation Strategies for Sustainable Cities  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The growth of cities, both in population and in areal extent, appears as an inexorable process. Urbanization continues at a rapid rate, and it is estimated that by the year 2025, 80% of the world's population will live in cities. One of the more egregious side effects of urbanization is the deterioration in air quality as a result of increased vehicular traffic, industrialization and related activities. In the United States alone, under the more stringent air quality guidelines established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in 1997, nearly 300 counties in 34 states will not meet the new air quality standards for ground level ozone. The mitigation of one the physical/environmental characteristics of urbanization known as the urban heat island (UHI) effect, is now being looked at more closely as a possible way to bring down ground level ozone levels in cities and assist states in improving air quality. The UHI results from the replacement of "natural" land covers (e.g., trees, grass) with urban land surface types, such as pavement and buildings. Heat stored in these surfaces is released into the air and results in a "dome" of elevated air temperatures that presides over cities. The effect of this dome of elevated air temperatures is known as the UHI, which is most prevalent about 2-3 hours after sunset on days with intense solar radiation and calm winds. Given the local and regional impacts of the UHI, there are significant potential affects on human health, particularly as related to heat stress and ozone on body temperature regulation and on the cardiovascular and respiratory systems. In this study we are using airborne and satellite remote sensing data to analyze how differences in the urban landscape influence or drive the development of the UHI over four U.S. cities. Additionally, we are assessing what the potential impact is on risks to human health, and developing mitigation strategies to make urban areas more environmentally sustainable.

Quattrochi, Dale A.; Luvall, Jeffrey C.; Rickman, Douglas L.; Estes, Maurice G., Jr.; Laymon, Charles A.; Crosson, William; Howell, Burgess F.; Gillani, Noor V.; Arnold, James E. (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

375

Special Issue "Natural Hazards' Impact on Urban Areas and Infrastructure" in Natural Hazards  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 2006 and 2007, at the 3rd and 4th General Assembly of the European Geosciences Union respectivelly, the session on "Natural Hazards' Impact on Urban Areas and Infrastructure" was convened by Maria Bostenaru Dan, then at the Istituto Universitario di Studi Superiori di Pavia, ROSE School, Italy, who conducts research on earthquake management and Heidi Kreibich from the GFZ Potsdam, Germany, who conducts research on flood hazards, in 2007 being co-convened also by Agostino Goretti from the Civil Protection in Rome, Italy. The session initially started from an idea of Friedemann Wenzel from the Universität Karlsruhe (TH), Germany, the former speaker of the SFB 461 "Strong earthquakes", the university where also Maria Bostenaru graduated and worked and which runs together with the GFZ Potsdam the CEDIM, the Center for Disaster Management and Risk Reduction Technology. Selected papers from these two sessions as well as invited papers from other specialists were gathered for a special issue to be published in the journal "Natural Hazards" under the guest editorship of Heidi Kreibich and Maria Bostenaru Dan. Unlike the former special issue, this one contains a well balanced mixture of many hazards: climate change, floods, mountain hazards like avalanches, volcanoes, earthquakes. Aim of the issue was to enlarge the co-operation prospects between geosciences and other professions in field of natural hazards. Earthquake engineering and engineering seismology are seen more frequently co-operating, but in field of natural hazards there is a need to co-operate with urban planners, and, looking to the future, also in the field of integrated conservation, which implies co-operation between architecture and urban planning for the preservation of our environment. Integrated conservation is stipulated since the 1970s, which are the years when the participatism, and so the involvment of social sciences started.

Bostenaru Dan, M.

2009-04-01

376

Estimating Water Quality Pollution Impacts Based on Economic Loss Models in Urbanization Process  

E-print Network

Abstract: The study investigates water quality pollution impacts on urbanization by analyzing temporal and spatial characteristics of different water quality parameters, and simulating economic loss of water quality pollution in Xi’an, China from 1996 to 2003. Results show that organic pollutants were the greatest contributors of surface water quality pollution from 1996 to 2003. High values existed in petroleum concentration, chemical oxygen demand index ?KMnO4?, biochemical oxygen demand index, and phenol concentration, followed by nitrogen concentration ?TN and NH3-N?. From spatial analysis in different buffers from central urban area ?inner buffers: 1–5 km; central buffers: 5–10 km; outer buffers: ?10 km?, socioeconomic activities such as business activities, car transportation, industry factories, agriculture practices, and households were likely to lead to different behaviors of water quality parameters in nature. Results also reveal that both surface and ground water quality improved gradually after enforcement of control measures within the 7 years from 1996 to 2003. It shows the total economic loss, including cost of water use and supply, agriculture economic loss, ecosystem conservation costs, and economic loss of human health, reached $1.12?10 9 from 1996 to 2003, which increased $1.79?10 7 from $1.26?10 8 in 1996 to $1.46?10 8 in 2003. However, economic loss of water quality pollution increased while water quality pollution alleviated in the past years. This can be explained by more intensive social activities in broader regions, more populations were moved from rural area into urban area, and more costs were input in water quality pollution treatment.

unknown authors

377

Quantification and Mitigation of Long-Term Impacts of Urbanization and Climate Change in the Tropical Coastal City of San Juan, Puerto Rico  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Urbanization, along with other cases of land cover and land use changes, has significant climate impacts in tropical regions with the added complexity of occurring within the context of global warming. The individual and combined effects of these two factors on the surface energy balance of a tropical city are investigated by use of an integrated atmospheric modeling approach, taking the San Juan Metropolitan Area (SJMA), Puerto Rico as the test case. To achieve this goal, an ensemble of climate and weather simulations is performed, with the climate scenarios combining urban development and sprawl with regional climate change over the past 50 years, and the short-term simulations designed to test the sensitivity to different urban vegetation configurations as mitigating alternatives. As indicator of change, we use the thermal response number (TRN), which is a measure of the sensible heating to the thermal storage of a surface or region, and the Bowen ratio, which is defined as the ratio of sensible to latent heat fluxes. The TRN of the area occupied by the SJMA has decreased as a consequence of replacing the low land coastal plain vegetation with man made materials, indicating that it takes less energy to raise the surface temperature of the urban area, whereas the TRN of forested regions has remained virtually unchanged. The global warming signal also has effects on the thermal response of the SJMA, where dryer current conditions generate lower TRN values. Differences due to global warming are more evident in the Bowen ratio pattern, mostly associated with the drier present conditions observed and its effects on sensible and latent heat fluxes. In terms of testing different mitigation strategies, the short-term simulations show that the urban area is more efficient in partitioning surface energy balance terms when green roofs are specified, as opposed to including vegetation inside the urban core.

Comarazamy, Daniel; Gonzalez, Jorge E.; Luvall, Jeffrey C.

2014-01-01

378

Fuzzy comprehensive evaluation of urban transportation sustainable development in Wenzhou city  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a new outlook of development, sustainable development has been accepted by countries worldwide. It is resulted from a long-term reflection and exploration of human history. Based on the connotation of urban transportation sustainable development (UTSD), the study first designed an evaluation index system. Then, it adopted the method of fuzzy comprehensive evaluation and made a quantitative analysis on the

Dongdong Qiu; Anping Pan; Qing Xu; Xi Zhuo

2010-01-01

379

Impact of street intersections on air quality in an urban environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The impact of the street intersections on flow and gaseous pollutants from vehicles exhausts within urban canyons was numerically investigated using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model. Three-dimensional flow and dispersion of gaseous pollutants were modeled using standard ?- ? turbulence model, which was numerically solved based on Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations by the commercial CFD code FLUENT. The concentration fields in the urban canyons were examined in three street configurations cases: (i) a regular-shaped intersection, (ii) T-shaped intersection and (iii) skew-shaped crossing intersection. Vehicle emissions were simulated as double line sources along the street. The numerical model was validated against wind tunnel results in order to optimize the turbulence model. Numerical predictions agreed reasonably with wind tunnel results. The results obtained indicate that the mean horizontal velocity was observed very small in the center near the lower region of street canyon. The lowest turbulent kinetic energy was found at the separation and reattachment points associated with the corner of the down part of the upwind and downwind buildings in the street canyon. The pollutant concentration at the upwind side in the regular-shaped street intersection was higher than that in the T-shaped and skew-shaped street intersections. Moreover, the results approve that the street intersections are important factor to predict the flow patterns and pollutant dispersion in street canyon.

Yassin, Mohamed F.; Kellnerová, R.; Ja?our, Z.

380

Impact of an urban multi-metal contamination gradient: Metal bioaccumulation and tolerance of river biofilms collected in different seasons.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate the repeatability and seasonal variability of the biological response of river biofilms chronically exposed to a multi-metal pressure in an urban contamination gradient. Biofilms were grown on immersed plastic membranes at three sites on the Seine river upstream (site 1) and downstream (sites 2 and 3) from Paris (France). They were collected in four different seasons (autumn, spring, summer and winter). Biofilm tolerance to Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn was measured using a PICT (Pollution-Induced Community Tolerance) approach with a previously developed short-term toxicity test based on ?-glucosidase (heterotrophic) activity. Metal concentrations in the river and also in the biofilm samples (total and non-exchangeable bioaccumulated metals) were also monitored. Biofilm-accumulated metal concentrations reflected the increase of the multi-metal exposure along the urban gradient. These concentrations were strongly correlated with dissolved and particulate organic carbon and with the total metal fraction in the river water, which recalls the significant influence of the environmental parameters on metal uptake processes in river biofilms. Overall, natural biofilms allow monitoring water quality by integrating the variations of a diffuse metal contamination overtime. Tolerance levels globally increased from site 1 to site 3 reflecting the metal pollution gradient measured in the river water collected at the three sites. Cu tolerance tended to increase during warm seasons but no clear seasonal tendency could be found for Ni, Pb and Zn. Furthermore, principal component analysis clearly discriminated samples collected upstream (site 1) from samples collected downstream (sites 2 and 3) along the first principal component which was correlated to the metal gradient. Samples collected in winter were also separated from the others along the second principal component correlated to parameters like water temperature and Total Suspended Solids concentration. This study shows that chronic in situ exposure to environmental metal concentrations has a significant impact on natural biofilms. Biofilm tolerance to metals and biofilm metal bioaccumulation both reflect metal exposure levels although they remain low when compared to Environmental Quality Standards from the European Water Framework Directive. Yet temperature appears as an important environmental variable shaping community structure and response to toxic exposure which shows that the sampling date is an important parameter to consider when using natural river biofilms to assess the impacts of urban pressure. PMID:25576823

Faburé, Juliette; Dufour, Marine; Autret, Armelle; Uher, Emmanuelle; Fechner, Lise C

2015-02-01

381

Analysis of energy pricing in urban energy service systems considering a multiobjective problem of environmental and economic impact  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction of an integrated energy service system in an urban area is assumed. An energy supply plant is installed in the area to provide integrated energy service. It supplies electricity, gas, cooling, and heating to consumers. To consider CO2 emission constraint in the area, analyses of energy pricing, economic impact on energy consumers, and operation of the system under the

Hirohisa Aki; Tsutomu Oyama; Kiichiro Tsuji

2003-01-01

382

The Impact of a Literacy Intervention Program on Student Achievement and Behavior at Two Urban High Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study is to determine the impact of a literacy intervention program on student achievement and behavior at two urban high schools. Two groups were identified and the sample was a convenience sample for this study. One group of students is not enrolled in the intervention program, while the other group of students is enrolled in…

Martinez, Steven

2012-01-01

383

China Refrigerator Information Label: Specification Development and Potential Impact  

SciTech Connect

In the last five years, China's refrigerator market has grown rapidly, and now urban markets are showing signs of saturation, with ownership rates in urban households reaching 92%. Rural markets continue to grow from a much lower base. As a result of this growth, the Chinese government in 2006 decided to revise the refrigerator standards and its associated efficiency grades for the mandatory energy information label. In the Chinese standards process, the efficiency grades for the information label are tied to the minimum standards. Work on the minimum standards revision began in 2006 and continued through the first half of 2007, when the draft standard was completed under the direction of the China National Institute of Standardization (CNIS). Development of the information label grades required consideration of stakeholder input, continuity with the previous grade classification, ease of implementation, and potential impacts on the market. In this process, CLASP, with the support of METI/IEEJ, collaborated with CNIS to develop the efficiency grades, providing technical input to the process, comment and advice on particular technical issues, and evaluation of the results. After three months of effort and three drafts of the final grade specifications, this work was completed. In addition, in order to effectively evaluate the impact of the label on China's market, CLASP further provided assistance to CNIS to collect data on both the efficiency distribution and product volume distribution of refrigerators on the market. The new information label thresholds to be implemented in 2008 maintain the approach first adopted in 2005 of establishing efficiency levels relative to the minimum standard, but increased the related required efficiency levels by 20% over those established in 2003 and implemented in 2005. The focus of improvement was on the standard refrigerator/freezer (class 5), which constitutes the bulk of the Chinese market. Indeed, the new requirements to achieve grade 1 on the label are now virtually as stringent as those for US Energy Star-qualified or EU A-grade refrigerators. When the energy information label went into effect in March 2005, refrigerator manufacturers were required to display their declared level of efficiency on the label and report it to the China Energy Label Center (CELC), a newly established unit of CNIS responsible for label program management. Because of the visible nature of the label, it was found, through a METI/IEEJ-supported study, that MEPS non-compliance dropped from 4% to zero after the label became mandatory, and that the percentage of higher-grade refrigerators increased. This suggests that the label itself does have potential for shifting the market to higher-efficiency models (Lin 2007). One challenge, however, of assessing this potential impact is the lack of a comprehensive baseline of market efficiency and a program to evaluate the market impact on a yearly basis. As a result, the impact evaluation in this study draws upon the market transformation experience of the related EU energy information label, for which quantitative assessments of its market impact exist. By assuming a parallel process unfolding in China, it is possible to look at the potential impact of the label to 2020. The results of the analysis demonstrates that a robust market transformation program in China focused on the energy information label could save substantial amounts of electricity by 2020, totaling 16.4 TWh annually by that year, compared to a case in which the efficiency distribution of refrigerators was frozen at the 2007 level. Remarkably, the impact of a successful market transformation program with the label would essentially flatten the consumption of electricity for refrigerator use throughout most of the next decade, despite the expectations of continued growth in total stock by nearly 190 million units. At the end of this period, total consumption begins to rise again, as the least efficient of the units have been mostly removed from the market. Such a level of savings would reduce CO{sub

Fridley, David; Fridley, David; Zheng, Nina; Zhou, Nan; Aden, Nathaniel; Lin, Jiang; Jianhong, Cheng; Sakamoto, Tomoyuki

2008-02-01

384

Impact of bioethanol fuel implementation in transport based on modelled acetaldehyde concentration in the urban environment.  

PubMed

This study shows the results obtained from emission and air dispersion modelling of acetaldehyde in the city of Oslo and associated with the circulation of bioethanol vehicles. Two scenarios of bioethanol implementation, both realistic and hypothetical, have been considered under winter conditions; 1) realistic baseline scenario, which corresponds to the current situation in Oslo where one bus line is running with bioethanol (E95; 95% ethanol-5% petrol) among petrol and diesel vehicles; and 2) a hypothetical scenario characterized by a full implementation of high-blend bioethanol (i.e. E85) as fuel for transportation, and thus an entire bioethanol fleet. The results indicate that a full implementation of bioethanol will have a certain impact on urban air quality due to direct emissions of acetaldehyde. Acetaldehyde emissions are estimated to increase by 233% and concentration levels increase up to 650% with regard to the baseline. PMID:25064718

Sundvor, Ingrid; López-Aparicio, Susana

2014-10-15

385

Impact of reclaimed water irrigation on soil health in urban green areas.  

PubMed

Rapid increase of reclaimed water irrigation in urban green areas requires investigating its impact on soil health conditions. In this research, field study was conducted in 7 parks in Beijing with different histories of reclaimed water irrigation. Twenty soil attributes were analyzed to evaluate the effects of reclaimed water irrigation on the soil health conditions. Results showed that soil nutrient conditions were ameliorated by reclaimed water irrigation, as indicated by the increase of soil organic matter content (SOM), total nitrogen (TN), and available phosphorus (AP). No soil salinization but a slight soil alkalization was observed under reclaimed water irrigation. Accumulation of heavy metals in soil was insignificant. It was also observed that reclaimed water irrigation could significantly improve the soil microorganism activities. Overall, the soil health conditions were improved with reclaimed water irrigation, and the improvement increased when the reclaimed water irrigation period became longer. PMID:25150469

Chen, Weiping; Lu, Sidan; Pan, Neng; Wang, Yanchun; Wu, Laosheng

2015-01-01

386

Impact of an informal learning science camp on urban, low socioeconomic status middle school students and participating teacher-leaders  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Studies suggest that students have difficulty connecting science to their own lives (Lee & Fradd, 1998; Aikenhead, 1996). This difficulty results in a decline in students' attitudes toward science, leading to low science achievement. These factors result in fewer students interested in careers related to science, specifically for urban, minority students. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact that a ten day informal learning immersion science camp had on the participants, both urban, low-socioeconomic status middle school students and teacher-leaders. The students were incoming seventh grade students involved in a community-based scholar program designed to recruit and support socioeconomically disadvantaged, academically talented students. The teacher-leaders were professional educators working toward an advanced degree. This ten day camp included seven visits to different sites and complementary classroom-based activities. The purpose of the camp was to immerse the students in informal learning environments that affect their daily lives. Students and teacher-leaders visited facilities that provide public utility services (i.e. power plant, sewage treatment facility, and water company), zoo, large commercial cave system, planetarium, university based electrooptics and nanotechnology center, and forest and arboretum. These site visits were supported by activities that were provided by teacher-leaders. A model used as a framework for studying learning in the context of this ten day camp as Falk and Dierking's (2000) Contextual Model for Learning. This model described three basic intersecting elements that contributed to learning within the given context. The three contexts (personal, sociocultural, and physical) intersect affecting the learning that takes place. A mixed methodology design was employed to determine the impact of the camp on students' content knowledge and attitudes toward science. Qualitative data were collected to determine the impact of the camp on teacher-leaders' content knowledge and pedagogy. A variety of data sources were used including data collected before, during, and immediately following the camp as well as data collected several months after the conclusion of the camp. Results of the study indicated that both students and teacher-leaders were positively impacted by their experience at the camp. Data from the content assessments, interviews, and student journals indicate that students' content knowledge was enhanced and expanded through the learning of factual knowledge as well as understanding of the importance of broad scientific processes. Through their new experiences, students developed an awareness of the natural world and a foundation for future learning. Students also developed an awareness of science as it applies to their own lives. Data from students' letters to themselves, student interviews, and parent focus groups indicated that students' attitudes toward science were positively impacted through development of an increased resource appreciation, positive social experiences, and experiential sharing with others. Teacher-leader experiences with the camp also had positive results. Teacher-leaders entered the camp with a variety of unique personal contexts, and in spite of this variability each reported that this was a value-added experience for their teaching. These personal contexts helped to enhance the sociocultural context which provided a rich environment to support teacher-leader learning. Among the pedagogical impacts, teacher-leaders expressed enhanced teaching capacity through acquisition of: new classroom activities; new connections among science content; new stories and experiences to share with future classes; and new contexts for situating the understanding of science principles. Along with the positive impacts, teacher-leaders also identified and articulated several barriers to implementing site visits in their own classrooms. This camp is unique in that it is an immersion experience within informal learning contexts where seven sites were visited with

Votaw, Nikki L.

387

Developing a web-based cellular automata model for urban growth simulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cellular automata as an emerging technology have been adapted increasingly by geographers and planners to simulate the spatial and temporal processes of urban growth. While the literature reports many applications of cellular automata models for urban studies, in practice, the operation of the models as well as the configuration and calibration of relevant parameters used in the models were only known to the model builders. This is largely due to the constraint that most cellular automata models were developed based on desktop computer programs, either by incorporating the model within a desktop GIS environment, or developing the model independent of a desktop GIS. Consequently, there is little input from the user to test or visualise the actual operation or evaluate the applicability of the model under different conditions. This paper presents a methodology to implement a fuzzy constrained cellular automata model of urban growth within a web-based GIS environment, using the actual urban growth of Metropolitan Sydney, Australia from 1976 to 2006 as a case study. With the web-based cellular automata model, users can visualise and test the operation of the model; they can also modify or calibrate the model's parameters to evaluate its simulation accuracies, or even feed the model with various 'what-if' conditions to generate alterative outcomes. Such a web-based modelling platform provides a useful and effective channel for government authority and stakeholders to evaluate different urban growth scenarios. It also provides an interactive environment that can foster public participation in urban planning and management.

Liu, Yan; He, Jin

2009-10-01

388

Urban ecology in a developing world: why advanced socioecological theory needs Africa  

PubMed Central

Socioecological theory, developed through the study of urban environments, has recently led to a proliferation of research focusing on comparative analyses of cities. This research emphasis has been concentrated in the more developed countries of the Northern Hemisphere (often referred to as the “Global North”), yet urbanization is now occurring mostly in the developing world, with the fastest rates of growth in sub-Saharan Africa. Countries like South Africa are experiencing a variety of land-cover changes that may challenge current assumptions about the differences between urban and rural environments and about the connectivity of these dynamic socioecological systems. Furthermore, questions concerning ecosystem services, landscape preferences, and conservation – when analyzed through rural livelihood frameworks – may provide insights into the social and ecological resilience of human settlements. Increasing research on urban development processes occurring in Africa, and on patterns of kinship and migration in the less developed countries of the “Global South”, will advance a more comprehensive worldview of how future urbanization will influence the progress of sustainable societies. PMID:24891843

Bunn, David N; Pickett, Steward TA; Twine, Wayne

2014-01-01

389

Urbanization Increases Aedes albopictus Larval Habitats and Accelerates Mosquito Development and Survivorship  

PubMed Central

Introduction Aedes albopictus is a very invasive and aggressive insect vector that causes outbreaks of dengue fever, chikungunya disease, and yellow fever in many countries. Vector ecology and disease epidemiology are strongly affected by environmental changes. Urbanization is a worldwide trend and is one of the most ecologically modifying phenomena. The purpose of this study is to determine how environmental changes due to urbanization affect the ecology of Aedes albopictus. Methods Aquatic habitats and Aedes albopictus larval population surveys were conducted from May to November 2013 in three areas representing rural, suburban, and urban settings in Guangzhou, China. Ae. albopictus adults were collected monthly using BG-Sentinel traps. Ae. albopictus larva and adult life-table experiments were conducted with 20 replicates in each of the three study areas. Results The urban area had the highest and the rural area had the lowest number of aquatic habitats that tested positive for Ae. albopictus larvae. Densities in the larval stages varied among the areas, but the urban area had almost two-fold higher densities in pupae and three-fold higher in adult populations compared with the suburban and rural areas. Larvae developed faster and the adult emergence rate was higher in the urban area than in suburban and rural areas. The survival time of adult mosquitoes was also longer in the urban area than it was in suburban and rural areas. Study regions, surface area, water depth, water clearance, surface type, and canopy coverage were important factors associated with the presence of Ae. albopictus larvae. Conclusions Urbanization substantially increased the density, larval development rate, and adult survival time of Ae. albopictus, which in turn potentially increased the vector capacity, and therefore, disease transmissibility. Mosquito ecology and its correlation with dengue virus transmission should be compared in different environmental settings. PMID:25393814

Li, Yiji; Kamara, Fatmata; Zhou, Guofa; Puthiyakunnon, Santhosh; Li, Chunyuan; Liu, Yanxia; Zhou, Yanhe; Yao, Lijie; Yan, Guiyun; Chen, Xiao-Guang

2014-01-01

390

Planning for sustainability in China's urban development: status and challenges for Dongtan eco-city project.  

PubMed

With the rapid urbanization in China, the country faces significant challenges in sustainable urban development and actively explores novel ways to expand urban areas while conserving natural resources. Radical changes in city planning are being made to switch to sustainable development, with new cities being designed to be ecologically friendly guided by principles like carbon neutrality and self-sufficiency. This paper introduces the development of the Dongtan eco-city project on Chongming Island, Shanghai and describes how it addresses issues including energy, water, waste, transportation, ecosystem, and social and economic development in its design. The lessons and challenges of eco-city development based on the Dongtan experience are also discussed. If the vision of a zero-carbon emissions sustainable city is successfully realized, Dongtan will serve as a model for developing similar cities across China and the rest of the developing world. Currently, the development of this project is behind schedule and whether the eco-city plan will materialize or not is in question. Even though the project remains mostly on the drawing boards, the planning and preliminary development of Dongtan eco-city have generated significant enthusiasm for green buildings and influenced plans for other sustainable urban development projects in China. PMID:20082005

Cheng, Hefa; Hu, Yuanan

2010-01-01

391

An approach to evaluate the intra-urban thermal variability in summer using an urban indicator.  

PubMed

Urban planners and managers need tools to evaluate the performance of the present state and future development of cities in terms of comfort and quality of life. In this paper, an approach to analyse the intra-urban summer thermal variability, using an urban planning indicator, is presented. The proportion of buildings and concrete surfaces in a specific buffer area are calculated. Besides, the relationship between urban and temperature indicators is investigated and used to produce thermal maps of the city. This approach is applied to the analysis of intra-urban variability in Florence (Italy), of two thermal indices (heat index and cooling degree days) used to evaluate impacts on thermal comfort and energy consumption for indoor cooling. Our results suggest that urban planning indicators can describe intra-urban thermal variability in a way that can easily be used by urban planners for evaluating the effects of future urbanization scenarios on human health. PMID:24845237

Massetti, Luciano; Petralli, Martina; Brandani, Giada; Orlandini, Simone

2014-09-01

392

Is urban development an urban river killer? A case study of Yongding Diversion Channel in Beijing, China.  

PubMed

The high population and concrete environment alter urban areas by changing temperature, rainfall runoff, and water resource utilization activities. This study was conducted to investigate the water quality features of the Yongding Diversion Channel in Beijing, China, and its relationship with rainfall and urban development. Monthly water quality data were obtained from April to October of 2004 at monitoring sites of Sanjiadian, Gaojing, Luodaozhuang, and Yuyuangtan. The monthly water quality grades from 2007 to 2011 were also investigated and compared with those of other rivers. Dissolved oxygen and pH showed greater decreases after one or two moderate rainfall events than several light rainfall events. The potassium permanganate index (CODMn), ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N) and total phosphorus (TP) increased more after several light rainfall events than after one or two moderate or heavy rainfall events. Pollutant concentrations (CODMn, NH3-N, TP) in downstream regions showed greater changes than those in upstream areas after heavy rainfall events. Intense human activities around the channel greatly influenced the water quality of the channel in rainy season because of runoff pollution; however, heavy rainfall had a strong dilution effect on the pollutant concentrations in rivers. Overall, urban development has obviously deteriorated the water quality of the Yongding Diversion Channel as indicated by an increase in the water quality index from 3.22 in 2008 to 4.55 in 2010. The Pearson correlation between monthly rainfall and water quality indices from 2007 to 2011 ranged from 0.1286 to 0.6968, generally becoming weaker as rainfall and rainfall runoff became more random and extreme. PMID:25079830

Wang, Xi; Li, Junqi; Li, Yingxia; Shen, Zhenyao; Wang, Xuan; Yang, Zhifeng; Lou, Inchio

2014-06-01

393

Impact of Urbanization on Heavy Convective Precipitation under Strong Large-Scale Forcing: A Case Study over the Milwaukee-Lake Michigan Region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, observational and numerical modeling studies based on the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model are used to investigate the impact of urbanization on heavy rainfall over the Milwaukee-Lake Michigan region. We examine urban modification of rainfall for a storm system with continental-scale moisture transport, strong large-scale forcing, and extreme rainfall over a large area of the upper Midwest of the US. WRF simulations were carried out to examine the sensitivity of the rainfall distribution in and around the urban area to different urban land surface model representations and urban land-use scenarios. Simulation results suggest that the urbanization plays an important role in precipitation distribution, even in settings characterized by strong large-scale forcing. For the Milwaukee-Lake Michigan region, the thermodynamic perturbations produced by urbanization on temperature and surface pressure fields enhance the intrusion of the Lake Breeze and facilitate the formation of a convergence zone, which create favorable conditions for deep convection over the city. Analyses of model and observed vertical profiles of reflectivity using contoured frequency by altitude displays (CFADs), suggest that cloud dynamics over the city do not change significantly with urbanization. Simulation results also suggest that the large scale rainfall pattern is not sensitive to different urban representations in the model. Both urban representations (Noah land surface model with urban land categories and the Urban Canopy Model) adequately capture the dominant features of this storm over the urban region.

Yang, Long; Smith, James; Baeck, Mary Lynn; Bou-Zeid, Elie; Jessup, Stephen; Tian, Fuqiang; Hu, Heping

2013-04-01

394

Urban climate, weather and sustainability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As concentrated areas of human activities, urban areas and urbanization are key drivers of global environmental change and pose a challenge to the achievement of sustainability. One of the key goals of sustainable development is to separate increases in non-renewable resource use (particularly fossil fuels) from economic growth. This is to be accomplished by modifying individual practices, encouraging technological innovation and redesigning systems of production and consumption. Settlements represent a scale at which significant advances on each of these can be made and where there is an existing management structure. However, urban areas currently consume a disproportionate share of the Earth's resources and urbanization has modified local climate and weather significantly, usually to the detriment of urban dwellers. There is now a lengthy history of urban climate study that links existing settlement form to climatic consequences yet, there is little evidence that climate information is incorporated into urban designs or that the climatic impact of different plans is considered. Consequently, opportunities for planning sustainable urban forms that are suitable to local climates and promote energy conservation and healthy atmospheres are not taken and much effort is later expended in `fixing' problems that emerge. This paper will outline the links between urban climate and sustainability, identify gaps in our urban climate knowledge and discuss the opportunities and barriers to the application of this knowledge to urban design and planning.

Mills, Gerald

395

Hydrologic trends associated with urban development for selected streams in the Puget Sound basin, western Washington  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Annual streamflow statistics from 10 selected streams in the Puget Sound Basin in western Washington were analyzed to identify possible hydrologic trends associated with urban development and to evaluate the effect of record length on errors in trend analysis. The analysis used three common streamflow statistics (annual mean discharge, annual maximum discharge, and 7-day low flow) and introduced an alternative statistic (fraction of year annual mean discharge was exceeded) for assessing the hydrologic effects of urban development. Although trends were identified in each of the four statistics analyzed, trends were not consistent in any of the four statistics for all selected streams. Instead, trends in two statistics ? (1) fraction of year annual mean discharge was exceeded, and (2) annual (instantaneous) maximum discharge ? were evident in streams with the highest levels of urban development over the period of record but not in streams with the lowest levels of urban development. Trends were not consistent for either annual mean discharge or 7-day low flow in urban streams. Trends were sensitive to the period of analysis for all four statistics, but particularly for the 7-day low flow, which showed increasing and decreasing trends for 10 subsets of the period of record in some streams.

Konrad, C.P.; Booth, D.B.

2002-01-01

396

Urban trees and light-colored surfaces as a climate change strategy: Results from the US and potential in developing countries  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses the impact of two strategies in an urban environment for effecting substantial energy savings. They are the use of light colored materials on roofing and other flat surfaces, and the planting of additional trees. The lighter colored roofing materials will reflect more solar heat, resulting in lowered air conditioning costs. The additional trees will provide more shading, thereby increasing comfort, and will act as an aid in dropping the ambient temperature by means of evapotranspiration through the leaf systems. Both of these effects will reduce the direct energy inputs leading to air conditioning loads in an urban setting, and indirectly they will have an impact on urban smog though the lowered ambient temperature. The authors also discuss the applications of these ideas in developing countries, where often building energy costs can consume half of developed electrical capacity, and which tend to be in warmer climates. The density of many major urban areas in developing countries make the use of trees much harder to implement.

Akbari, H.; Sathaye, J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)

1996-12-31

397

A Meta-Analysis of Hedonic Studies to Assess the Property Value Effects of Low Impact Development  

EPA Science Inventory

Stormwater runoff from urban areas is a significant source of water pollution in the United States. Many states are promoting low impact development (LID) practices, which provide a variety of direct and ancillary ecosystem services. We describe a meta-analysis designed to evalua...

398

Developing Soil Models for Dynamic Impact Simulations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes fundamental soils characterization work performed at NASA Langley Research Center in support of the Subsonic Rotary Wing (SRW) Aeronautics Program and the Orion Landing System (LS) Advanced Development Program (ADP). LS-DYNA(Registered TradeMark)1 soil impact model development and test-analysis correlation results are presented for: (1) a 38-ft/s vertical drop test of a composite fuselage section, outfitted with four blocks of deployable energy absorbers (DEA), onto sand, and (2) a series of impact tests of a 1/2-scale geometric boilerplate Orion capsule onto soil. In addition, the paper will discuss LS-DYNA contact analysis at the soil/structure interface, methods used to estimate frictional forces, and the sensitivity of the model to density, moisture, and compaction.

Fasanella, Edwin L.; Lyle, Karen H.; Jackson, Karen E.

2009-01-01

399

Present and Future Impacts of Tropical Cyclones on Urban Flooding in the Eastern United States  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The climatology of flooding in urbanized watersheds in the eastern United States is largely the result of tropical cyclones and organized thunderstorm systems. Extreme rainfall from tropical storms drives the upper tail of flood risk in watersheds larger than about 25 km2. In this study, we couple a flood hazard assessment framework known as Stochastic Storm Transposition (SST) with a ten-year record of high-resolution (15-minute, 1 km2) radar rainfall fields developed using the Hydro-NEXRAD system to look at the frequency of intense rainfall from tropical storms and organized thunderstorms in Charlotte, North Carolina. Using the physics-based Gridded Surface Subsurface Hydrologic Analysis (GSSHA) modeling system, we have developed a detailed representation of the highly urbanized Little Sugar Creek watershed, including detailed land surface, subsurface, and drainage network properties. We use GSSHA to examine the frequency and intensity of extreme flooding resulting from tropical storms and organized thunderstorms at different spatial scales. In addition, we combine this flood hazard assessment framework with downscaled projections of future hurricane-season rainfall from the Zetac regional climate model to examine how projected changes in flood risk due to tropical storm rainfall may change in Charlotte and along the east coast of the United States throughout the 21st century. We demonstrate that the frequency of landfalling tropical storms in the eastern United States is not projected to change significantly from present conditions, but that the intensity of rainfall from these storms will increase by the late 21st century, with important implications for flooding in urban areas. Significant challenges remain, however, with the simulation of rainfall from landfalling tropical storms in climate models. Annual frequency of modeled tropical storm tracks passing within 500 km of a given point during the control period (1980-2006) and the CMIP5 late 21st century climate scenario.

Wright, D. B.; Smith, J. A.; Knutson, T. R.; Baeck, M. L.

2013-12-01

400

A tool for urban soundscape evaluation applying Support Vector Machines for developing a soundscape classification model.  

PubMed

To ensure appropriate soundscape management in urban environments, the urban-planning authorities need a range of tools that enable such a task to be performed. An essential step during the management of urban areas from a sound standpoint should be the evaluation of the soundscape in such an area. In this sense, it has been widely acknowledged that a subjective and acoustical categorization of a soundscape is the first step to evaluate it, providing a basis for designing or adapting it to match people's expectations as well. In this sense, this work proposes a model for automatic classification of urban soundscapes. This model is intended for the automatic classification of urban soundscapes based on underlying acoustical and perceptual criteria. Thus, this classification model is proposed to be used as a tool for a comprehensive urban soundscape evaluation. Because of the great complexity associated with the problem, two machine learning techniques, Support Vector Machines (SVM) and Support Vector Machines trained with Sequential Minimal Optimization (SMO), are implemented in developing model classification. The results indicate that the SMO model outperforms the SVM model in the specific task of soundscape classification. With the implementation of the SMO algorithm, the classification model achieves an outstanding performance (91.3% of instances correctly classified). PMID:24007752

Torija, Antonio J; Ruiz, Diego P; Ramos-Ridao, Angel F

2014-06-01

401

The Interrelationship of Urban Economic and Cultural Development: the Case of Greek Museums  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the paper is the pinpointing of the role and importance of museums in the cultural and economic development of cities. The starting point is a critical analysis of the international, mainly European, experience, which, especially in the last decade, demonstrates the weight of the cultural factor in urban development focusing on the economic dimension. In the course

Alex Deffner; Theodoros Metaxas

2003-01-01

402

Land Resource Sustainability for Urban Development: Spatial Decision Support System Prototype  

Microsoft Academic Search

Land resource sustainability for urban development characterizes the problem of decision-making with multiplicity and uncertainty. A decision support system prototype aids in the assessment of incremental land development plan proposals put forth within the long-term community priority of a sustainable growth. Facilitating this assessment is the analytic hierarchy process (AHP), a multicriteria evaluation and decision support system. The decision support

Reza Banai

2005-01-01

403

Local economic development and urban poverty alleviation: the experience of post-apartheid South Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urban poverty is a policy issue of growing significance in post-apartheid South Africa. In terms of the new Constitution the developmental role of local governments is given considerable attention. Against a background analysis of the best practice of local anti-poverty strategies in the developing world, this paper reviews the experience of eight case studies of local economic development (LED) initiatives.

C. M Rogerson

1999-01-01

404

The impact of institutionalization on child development.  

PubMed

During the past 10 years researchers studying children adopted from Romanian orphanages have had the opportunity to revisit developmental questions regarding the impact of early deprivation on child development. In the present paper the effects of deprivation are examined by reviewing both the early and more recent literature on studies of children who spent the first few years of life in institutions. Special attention is given to the Canadian study of Romanian adoptees in which the author has been involved. Findings across time and studies are consistent in showing the negative impact of institutionalization on all aspects of children's development (intellectual, physical, behavioral, and social emotional). Results of studies show, however, that institutionalization, although a risk factor for less optimal development, does not doom a child to psychopathology. However, the impact of institutionalization is greater when coupled with risk factors in the postinstitutional environment. Methodological and conceptual difficulties in research with institutionalized samples of children are discussed and future directions for research are considered. PMID:14984130

MacLean, Kim

2003-01-01

405

Comparative impacts of stormwater runoff on water quality of an urban, a suburban, and a rural stream  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water quality data at 12 sites within an urban, a suburban, and a rural stream were collected contemporaneously during four\\u000a wet and eight dry periods. The urban stream yielded the highest biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), orthophosphate, total suspended\\u000a sediment (TSS), and surfactant concentrations, while the most rural stream yielded the highest total organic carbon concentrations.\\u000a Percent watershed development and percent

Michael A. Mallin; Virginia L. Johnson; Scott H. Ensign

2009-01-01

406

The impact of rapid population growth, expanding urbanisation, and other factors on development in sub-Saharan Africa: the contrasting responses of Tanzania and Kenya.  

PubMed

This article analyzes the impact of the twin factors of rapid population growth and expanding urbanization on social and economic development in sub-Saharan Africa and compares policies that have been developed in Tanzania and Kenya in response to these factors. The principal consequences of overpopulation and overurbanization have been economic stagnation and physical and cultural malaise in urban population centers. Between 1960-80, per capita incomes in 19 countries of sub-Saharan Africa grew by less than 1%/year and 15 countries recorded a negative rate of growth in per capita income during the 1970s. Urban populations have increased at at overall rate of 6%/year as sub-Saharan Africans have migrated to cities in search of employment. Few national governments in the region have formulated longterm strategies to deal effectively with this double-faceted development constraint or have integrated new urban populations into the national economy. tanzania's development strategy is focused on the goals of socialism, rural development, and self-reliance. Urban development has remained a residual item in Tanzania's national development process, despite the fact that the urban population increased from 5.7% of the total population in 1967 to 12.7% in 1978 and is projected to comprise 24.7% by the year 2000. In contrast, Kenya, whose proportion of urban population increased from 9% to 15% between 1962 and 1979, has pursued an urban-focused development strategy. The strong urban-rural linkages of the economy have focused migration to the secondary towns. The national development plan includes urban spatial, employment, and investment policies. Although this plan constitutes a good basis for future planning, the magnitude of the urban problem is beyond the capabilities of the central government and requires the development of local capabilities. PMID:12341833

Huth, M J

1984-01-01

407

Local institutional development and organizational change for advancing sustainable urban water futures.  

PubMed

This paper presents the local institutional and organizational development insights from a five-year ongoing interdisciplinary research project focused on advancing the implementation of sustainable urban water management. While it is broadly acknowledged that the inertia associated with administrative systems is possibly the most significant obstacle to advancing sustainable urban water management, contemporary research still largely prioritizes investigations at the technological level. This research is explicitly concerned with critically informing the design of methodologies for mobilizing and overcoming the administrative inertia of traditional urban water management practice. The results of fourteen in-depth case studies of local government organizations across Metropolitan Sydney primarily reveal that (i) the political institutionalization of environmental concern and (ii) the commitment to local leadership and organizational learning are key corporate attributes for enabling sustainable management. A typology of five organizational development phases has been proposed as both a heuristic and capacity benchmarking tool for urban water strategists, policy makers, and decision makers that are focused on improving the level of local implementation of sustainable urban water management activity. While this investigation has focused on local government, these findings do provide guideposts for assessing the development needs of future capacity building programs across a range of different institutional contexts. PMID:18027015

Brown, Rebekah R

2008-02-01

408

IMPROVED URBAN-RURAL LINKAGES AS AN EU RURAL DEVELOPMENT PO LIC Y MEASURE  

E-print Network

In EU discourses, urban-rural linkages are usually constructed from an urban perspective, with rural areas conceptualised as residuals between dynamic urban growth nodes. References to urban-rural linkages, where in evidence, have generally been confined to the domain of Spatial planning and Cohesion policy. However, the Commission’s recent communication, ‘The CAP towards 2020 ’ (European Commission 2010), proposes improving the links between rural and urban areas as a means of contributing to the balanced territorial development of rural areas. This instrument from Spatial planning and Cohesion policy with the wider aims of regional and societal development becomes dedicated to providing benefits to rural areas. The more territorial aspects of the CAP to date have been addressed in its ‘second pillar ’ and have focused on: improving the competitiveness of the agricultural and forestry sector; improving the environment and the countryside; improving the quality of life in rural areas and encouraging diversification of the rural economy; and building local capacity for employment and diversification (European Council 2006). CA P towards 2020 suggests that there is still much support for a rural development policy that continues to contribute to:

Hilary Talbot; Paul Courtney; Intro Duction

409

A cost-benefit analysis of rural-urban migration decisions in less developed countries  

E-print Network

for the degree. of NASTER OI' SCIENCE December I. S73 Ksjor Subject: Econo'. :ics A COST-BENEFIT ANALYSIS OF RURAL-URBAN MIGRATION DECISIONS IN LESS DEVELOPED COUNTRIES A Thesis By JUAN GERARDO ASTE-SALAZAR Approved as to style and content by: a g...M& (Ch irman o ittee) (Head o epartment) (Member) ember) December 1973 ABSTRACT A Cost-Benefit Analysis of Rural-Urban Migration Decisions in Less Developed Countries. (December 1973) Juan Gerardo Aste-Salazar, B. S. , Universidad del Pack...

Aste-Salazar, Juan Gerardo

2012-06-07

410

Underground Infrastructure Impacts Due to a Surface Burst Nuclear Device in an Urban Canyon Environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Investigation of the effects of a nuclear device exploded in a urban environment such as the Chicago studied for this particular report have shown the importance on the effects from the urban canyons so typical of today's urban environment as compared to nuclear test event effects observed at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and the Pacific Testing Area on which

Randall J. Bos; Thomas N. Dey; Scott R. Runnels

2012-01-01

411

The Impact of Mentoring Programs on Teachers in Urban Middle Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Retaining teachers is a pressing issue facing many urban middle schools in the southern US. Urban middle schools continually face increased teacher turnover rates in spite of state mandated induction and mentoring programs. Drawing from Maslow's hierarchy of needs theory, the purpose of the qualitative case study was to examine urban middle…

Wider, Beyonka Shantel

2012-01-01

412

Assessment of noise impact on the urban environment: a study on noise-prediction models. Environmental health series  

Microsoft Academic Search

The report identifies, compares, and evaluates the major methods developed in Europe and North America to predict noise levels resulting from urban-development projects. Hopefully, it will guide countries that have not yet developed their own noise-prediction models