Sample records for urban development impacts

  1. Impact of Technological Developments on Urban Form and Travel Behaviour

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ajay Kumar

    1990-01-01

    KUMAR A. (1990) Impact of technological developments on urban form and travel behaviour, Reg. Studies24, 137–148. The growth and diffusion of new information technologies in cities are transforming the structural and spatial relationships between the residence and the workplace with a significant impact on commuting behaviour. This paper uses the Nationwide Personal Transportation Survey data for the years 1977 and

  2. An extensible, modular architecture for simulating urban development, transportation, and environmental impacts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Noth; Alan Borning; Paul Waddell

    2003-01-01

    Abstract UrbanSim simulates the development of urban areas, including land use, trans- portation, and environmental impacts, over periods of twenty or more years. Its purpose is to aid urban planners, residents, and elected ocials in evaluating the long-term results of alternate plans, particularly as they relate to such issues as housing, business and economic development, sprawl, open space, trac conges-

  3. Climate variability effects on urban recharge beneath low impact development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newcomer, M. E.; Gurdak, J. J.

    2012-12-01

    Groundwater resources in urban and coastal environments are highly vulnerable to human pressures and climate variability and change, and many communities face water shortages and need to find alternative water supplies. Therefore, understanding how low impact development (LID) site planning and integrated/best management practices (BMPs) affect recharge rates and volumes is important because of the increasing use of LID and BMP to reduce stormwater runoff and improve surface-water quality. Often considered a secondary management benefit, many BMPs may also enhance recharge to local aquifers; however these hypothesized benefits have not been thoroughly tested or quantified. In this study, we quantify stormwater capture and recharge enhancement beneath a BMP infiltration trench of the LID research network at San Francisco State University, San Francisco, California. Stormwater capture and retention was analyzed using the SCS TR-55 curve number method and in-situ infiltration rates to assess LID storage. Recharge was quantified using vadose zone monitoring equipment, a detailed water budget analysis, and a Hydrus-2D model. Additionally, the effects of historical and predicted future precipitation on recharge rates were examined using precipitation from the Geophysical Fluid Dynamic Laboratory (GFDL) A1F1 climate scenario. Observed recharge rates beneath the infiltration trench range from 1,600 to 3,700 mm/year and are an order of magnitude greater than recharge beneath an irrigated grass lawn and a natural setting. The Hydrus-2D model results indicate increased recharge under the GFDL A1F1 scenario compared with historical and GFDL modeled 20th century rates because of the higher frequency of large precipitation events that induce runoff into the infiltration trench. However, under a simulated A1F1 El Nińo year, recharge calculated by a water budget does not increase compared with current El Nińo recharge rates. In comparison, simulated recharge rates were considerably lower beneath the grass lawn for historical and future precipitation years. This work highlights the potential management strategy of using LID to capture excess runoff during El Nińo years that can be recharged and stored as groundwater. An additional benefit of LID in coastal aquifer systems is the ability to capture and redirect precipitation from runoff to recharge that may help mitigate the negative effects from groundwater pumping and sea-water intrusion.

  4. Phosphorous Attenuation in Urban Best Management (BMP) and Low Impact Development (LID) Practices

    EPA Science Inventory

    While all living organisms require phosphorous (P) to live and grow, adding too much P to the environment can cause unintended and undesirable effects, such as eutrophication of surface waters and harmful algal blooms. Urban best management (BMP) and low impact development (LI...

  5. Accounting for uncertainty in evaluating water quality impacts of urban development plan

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou Jiquan, E-mail: zhoujiquan@tsinghua.org.c [Environmental Science and Engineering Department of Tsinghua University (China); Liu Yi; Chen Jining [The Environmental Science and Engineering Department of Tsinghua University (China)

    2010-07-15

    The implementation of urban development plans causes land use change, which can have significant environmental impacts. In light of this, environmental concerns should be considered sufficiently at an early stage of the planning process. However, uncertainties existing in urban development plans hamper the application of strategic environmental assessment, which is applied to evaluate the environmental impacts of policies, plans and programs. This study develops an integrated assessment method based on accounting uncertainty of environmental impacts. And the proposed method consists of four main steps: (1) designing scenarios of economic scale and industrial structure, (2) sampling for possible land use layouts, (3) evaluating each sample's environmental impact, and (4) identifying environmentally sensitive industries. In doing so, uncertainties of environmental impacts can be accounted. Then environmental risk, overall environmental pressure and potential extreme environmental impact of urban development plans can be analyzed, and environmentally sensitive factors can be identified, especially under considerations of uncertainties. It can help decision-makers enhance environmental consideration and take measures in the early stage of decision-making.

  6. The effects of low impact development on urban flooding under different rainfall characteristics.

    PubMed

    Qin, Hua-peng; Li, Zhuo-xi; Fu, Guangtao

    2013-11-15

    Low impact development (LID) is generally regarded as a more sustainable solution for urban stormwater management than conventional urban drainage systems. However, its effects on urban flooding at a scale of urban drainage systems have not been fully understood particularly when different rainfall characteristics are considered. In this paper, using an urbanizing catchment in China as a case study, the effects of three LID techniques (swale, permeable pavement and green roof) on urban flooding are analyzed and compared with the conventional drainage system design. A range of storm events with different rainfall amounts, durations and locations of peak intensity are considered for holistic assessment of the LID techniques. The effects are measured by the total flood volume reduction during a storm event compared to the conventional drainage system design. The results obtained indicate that all three LID scenarios are more effective in flood reduction during heavier and shorter storm events. Their performance, however, varies significantly according to the location of peak intensity. That is, swales perform best during a storm event with an early peak, permeable pavements perform best with a middle peak, and green roofs perform best with a late peak, respectively. The trends of flood reduction can be explained using a newly proposed water balance method, i.e., by comparing the effective storage depth of the LID designs with the accumulative rainfall amounts at the beginning and end of flooding in the conventional drainage system. This paper provides an insight into the performance of LID designs under different rainfall characteristics, which is essential for effective urban flood management. PMID:24029461

  7. Urban Health in Developing Countries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Siddharth Agarwal; Aradhana Srivastava; Sanjeev Kumar

    \\u000a The world is becoming more urbanized. This trend is now particularly pronounced in the developing world, where the urban population\\u000a is expected to double in the next 30 years. The impact of urbanization on the health of citizens in developing countries has\\u000a received increasing attention recently. Urban residents in developing countries, especially the poor, are exposed to the health\\u000a hazards

  8. THE IMPACT OF FINANCING AND SECURITISATION ON REAL ESTATE MARKETS AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT IN SINGAPORE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ONG SEOW ENG; SIM LOO LEE

    The real estate market can be characterised into the space market for usage, the asset market for investment, and the development industry providing the real estate stock. Urban development and growth is spatially and intrinsically linked to the development industry. However, little theoretical and empirical work exists to link changes in the space and asset markets to urban development. In

  9. Impacts of urban development on runoff event characteristics and unit hydrographs across warm and cold seasons in high latitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sillanpää, Nora; Koivusalo, Harri

    2015-02-01

    The impacts of urbanization on catchment hydrology are widely studied by comparing how different urban catchments respond to storm events, but rarely by realizing long-term observations of hydrological changes during the construction process at urbanizing small catchments. In this study, the changes occurring in runoff generation were monitored in a developing catchment under construction and in two urban control catchments. As the imperviousness of the developing catchment increased from 1.5% to 37%, significant increases were observed in event runoff depths and peak flows during rainfall-runoff events. At the same time, the only statistically significant changes that were observed for the cold period runoff events were the shorter duration and smaller runoff depths. The effect of urbanization on event runoff dynamics was studied in terms of changes in the instantaneous unit hydrographs (IUH). Negative trends were detected in the gamma parameters of IUHs, which became more consistent across events and produced a sharper shape of the hydrograph as the construction works progressed. Because urban development caused the greatest relative changes in runoff during frequently occurring minor rainfall events, the study results underlined the importance of small storms in urban runoff management for maintaining the predevelopment water balance. During infrequent major rainfall events and the cold period snowmelt events the impacts of urbanization were less pronounced. The impact of urbanization on runoff was best detected based on peak flow rates, volumetric runoff coefficients, or mean runoff intensities. Control catchments were essential to distinguish the hydrological impact caused by catchment characteristics from those caused by changes in the meteorological conditions or season.

  10. Urban traffic-related determinants of health questionnaire (UTDHQ): an instrument developed for health impact assessments

    PubMed Central

    Nadrian, Haidar; Nedjat, Saharnaz; Taghdisi, Mohammad Hossein; Shojaeizadeh, Davoud

    2014-01-01

    Background: Traffic and transport is a substantial part of a range of economic, social and environmental factors distinguished to have impact on human health. This paper is a report on a preliminary section of a Health Impact Assessment (HIA) on urban traffic and transport initiatives, being conducted in Sanandaj, Iran. In this preliminary study, the psychometric properties of Urban Traffic related Determinants of Health Questionnaire (UTDHQ) were investigated. Methods: Multistage cluster sampling was employed to recruit 476 key informants in Sanandaj from April to June 2013 to participate in the study. The development of UTDHQ began with a comprehensive review of the literature. Then face, content and construct validity as well as reliability were determined. Results: Exploratory Factor Analysis showed optimal reduced solution including 40 items and 8 factors. Three of the factors identified were Physical Environment, Social Environment, Public Services Delivery and Accessibility. UTDHQ demonstrated an appropriate validity, reliability, functionality and simplicity. Conclusion: Despite the need for further studies on UTDHQ, this study showed that it can be a practical and useful tool for conducting HIAs in order to inform decision makers and stakeholders about the health influences of their decisions and measures. PMID:25664285

  11. Urban Development in Costa Rica: The Direct and Indirect Impacts on Local and Regional Avian Assemblages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norris, Jeff L.

    2012-01-01

    Urban development, the pinnacle of human land use, has drastic effects on native ecosystems and the species they contain. For the first time in recorded history there are more people living in cities than in the rural areas surrounding them. Furthermore, the global rate of urbanization continues increasing; raising serious concerns for…

  12. Urban Heat Island Effect and its Impact on Boundary Layer Development and Land-Sea Circulation over Northern Taiwan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Lin; F. Chen; J. Huang; Y. Liou; W. Chen

    2007-01-01

    The impact of the urban heat island (UHI) effect on environmental phenomena and regional climate has been receiving wide attention in recent decades. Taiwan, especially Taipei (located in northern Taiwan), is experiencing a significant urban heat island effect due to its high population density and the uniqueness of the geographic structure. In order to evaluate the impacts of urbanization and

  13. Exploring the Impact of a Wilderness-Based Positive Youth Development Program for Urban Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norton, Christine Lynn; Watt, Toni Terling

    2014-01-01

    Young people today face a multitude of challenges, especially when growing up in an urban environment. Risk factors such as poverty, exposure to gangs, drugs, and community and family violence threaten healthy development. The positive youth development (PYD) approach attempts to combat these personal and environmental challenges by providing…

  14. The Impact of Urban Development in the Arid Zone and its Management.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gat, J. R.

    2002-05-01

    From the experience in humid and semi-arid settings, the immediate impact of urbanization on the hydrological system is the interference with the natural direct infiltration pathways, resulting in a decrease of groundwater recharge as well as the possibility of surface flooding. In contrast, in the arid environment the limited rain amounts and number of rain events makes the contribution of rain of marginal importance in the city's water balance. The major impact of urbanization in the arid zone is the continuous excess of discharge of treated or untreated sewage or water spills, originating from the import of water to the city's water supply. Their effect can be advantageous if properly channeled. On the other hand, the polluting potential of these water excesses as well as the possibility of mobilizing stored salinity in the downstream locations is of concern, if the natural drainage network and its remediation capacity becomes overloaded. Further, since the arid zone hydrological cycle depends naturally on a discontinuous and episodal groundwater recharge pattern, the new situation requires the re-assessment of the eco-hydrological patterns in the downstream location.

  15. Urban heat island effect and its impact on boundary layer development and land–sea circulation over northern Taiwan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chuan-Yao Lin; Fei Chen; J. C. Huang; W.-C. Chen; Y.-A. Liou; W.-N. Chen; Shaw-C. Liu

    2008-01-01

    The impact of the urban heat island (UHI) effect on environmental and regional climate has been receiving wide attention in recent decades. Taiwan, especially Taipei (located in northern Taiwan), is experiencing a significant UHI effect due to its high population density and the uniqueness of the geographic structure. In order to evaluate the impacts of urbanization and UHI effect over

  16. China's urban planning: toward development without urbanization.

    PubMed

    Koshizawa, A

    1978-03-01

    The questions of what is urbanization like in contemporary China and have urban problems arisen are the issue. Focus in this discussion is on the movement from consumer cities to producer cities, the rise of urban problems (development of inland industrial cities, high speed urbanization, the influx of rural population to the cities, housing problems, summary of urban planning, food supply), revision of urban policies, urban people's communities, designing revolution, and urban policy in the 1970s. Since 1970 China has stressed environmental preservation and comprehensive utilization of natural resources. Urban remodeling was identified as necessary for radical solution of pollution problems. It has been 25 years since China carried out its urban planning for modern cities and during that time urban policy has changed frequently, which means that there were always changes in rural policy. The following problems are identified concerning the future of China's city planning: 1) the concretization of past theory and practice of urban planning; 2) the question of how to proceed with the redevelopment of the old town areas of big cities; 3) how to reconstruct Tangshan City, which was completely destroyed by a great earthquake in 1976; 4) how to recover and remodel Hong Kong and Macao which are developed as capitalist cities; and 5) to what degree should existing cities be allowed to develop. Currently, China is aspiring to high speed economic development. Whether economic growth can be achieved without further urbanization is the problem confronting China. PMID:12277977

  17. Sustainable urban development and geophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Lanbo; Chan, L. S.

    2007-09-01

    The new millennium has seen a fresh wave of world economic development especially in the Asian-Pacific region. This has contributed to further rapid urban expansion, creating shortages of energy and resources, degradation of the environment, and changes to climatic patterns. Large-scale, new urbanization is mostly seen in developing countries but urban sprawl is also a major social problem for developed nations. Urbanization has been accelerating at a tremendous rate. According to data collected by the United Nations [1], 50 years ago less than 30% of the world population lived in cities. Now, more than 50% are living in urban settings which occupy only about 1% of the Earth's surface. During the period from 1950 to 1995, the number of cities with a population higher than one million increased from 83 to 325. By 2025 it is estimated that more than 60% of 8.3 billion people (the projected world population [1]) will be city dwellers. Urbanization and urban sprawl can affect our living quality both positively and negatively. In recent years geophysics has found significant and new applications in highly urbanized settings. Such applications are conducive to the understanding of the changes and impacts on the physical environment and play a role in developing sustainable urban infrastructure systems. We would like to refer to this field of study as 'urban geophysics'. Urban geophysics is not simply the application of geophysical exploration in the cities. Urbanization has brought about major changes to the geophysical fields of cities, including those associated with electricity, magnetism, electromagnetism and heat. An example is the increased use of electromagnetic waves in wireless communication, transportation, office automation, and computer equipment. How such an increased intensity of electromagnetic radiation affects the behaviour of charged particles in the atmosphere, the equilibrium of ecological systems, or human health, are new research frontiers to be investigated [2]. The first objective of urban geophysics is to study systematically the geophysical fields in cities, searching for principles and processes governing the intensity and patterns of variation of the geophysical properties, as well as the potential consequences on the biosphere. Secondly, geophysics has already been found to be a useful tool for subsurface detection and investigation, hazard mitigation, and assessment of environmental contamination. Geophysicists have documented numerous cases of successful applications of geophysical techniques to solve problems related to hazard mitigation, safeguarding of lifeline infrastructure and urban gateways (air- and sea-ports, railway and highway terminals), archaeological and heritage surveys, homeland security, urban noise control, water supplies, sanitation and solid waste management etc. In contrast to conventional geophysical exploration, the undertaking of geophysical surveys in an urban setting faces many new challenges and difficulties. First of all, the ambient cultural noise in cities caused by traffic, electromagnetic radiation and electrical currents often produce undesirably strong interference with geophysical measurements. Secondly, subsurface surveys in an urban area are often targeted at the uppermost several metres of the ground, which are the most heterogeneous layers with many man-made objects. Thirdly, unlike conventional geophysical exploration which requires resolution in the order of metres, many urban geophysical surveys demand a resolution and precision in the order of centimetres or even millimetres. Finally restricted site access and limited time for conducting geophysical surveys, regulatory constraints, requirements for traffic management and special logistical arrangements impose additional difficulties. All of these factors point to the need for developing innovative research methods and geophysical instruments suitable for use in urban settings. This special issue on 'Sustainable urban development and geophysics' in Journal of Geophysics and Engineering is a response to th

  18. Urbanization and Water Quantity: Impacts and Mitigation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. W. Potter

    2005-01-01

    Urban and suburban development adversely impacts both surface and ground water resources by profoundly altering the hydrologic cycle. Conventional storm water management practices rely on storage to reduce runoff peaks and trap pollutants, but do not address impacts due to changes in the partitioning of water. The introduction of impervious surfaces increases the amount of storm runoff and decreases the

  19. A Review of the Urban Development and Transport Impacts on Public Health with Particular Reference to Australia: Trans-Disciplinary Research Teams and Some Research Gaps

    PubMed Central

    Black, Deborah; Black, John

    2009-01-01

    Urbanization and transport have a direct effect on public health. A transdisciplinary approach is proposed and illustrated to tackle the general problem of these environmental stressors and public health. Processes driving urban development and environmental stressors are identified. Urbanization, transport and public health literature is reviewed and environmental stressors are classified into their impacts and which group is affected, the geographical scale and potential inventions. Climate change and health impacts are identified as a research theme. From an Australian perspective, further areas for research are identified. PMID:19543407

  20. MOST Urban Issues: Urban Development and Governance

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    UNESCO's Management of Social Transformations Programme (MOST) hosts this Website dedicated to urban issues in global development. Included here is a substantial array of academic and professional publications, including working papers and project reports; Internet sites; and MOST programme descriptions and conference information relating to issues of transforming the development of urban areas in ways that maximize democracy, economic equality, and quality of life. Current postings include a report on MOST's recently completed project Industrial Decentralization and Urban Development in India with consideration of SouthEast and East Asian States, and related working papers. Most of the publications offered on the Website are in .pdf format.

  1. The changing status of women in India : Impact of urbanization and development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. N. Ghosh; K. C. Roy

    1997-01-01

    Argues that legal and constitutional rights in themselves do not change social attitudes. In the longer term these attitudes are conditioned by economic pressures, which would ultimately lead to improvement in the status of women. In the Indian context, developmental planning and urbanization did not have a specific focus on the role of women in economic change. As a result,

  2. Climate change risks to United States infrastructure: impacts on coastal development, roads, bridges, and urban drainage

    EPA Science Inventory

    Changes in temperature, precipitation, sea level, and coastal storms will likely increase the vulnerability of infrastructure across the United States. Using four models of vulnerability, impacts, and adaptation of infrastructure, its deployment, and its role in protecting econom...

  3. Development of a Quantitative Methodology to Assess the Impacts of Urban Transport Interventions and Related Noise on Well-Being

    PubMed Central

    Braubach, Matthias; Tobollik, Myriam; Mudu, Pierpaolo; Hiscock, Rosemary; Chapizanis, Dimitris; Sarigiannis, Denis A.; Keuken, Menno; Perez, Laura; Martuzzi, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Well-being impact assessments of urban interventions are a difficult challenge, as there is no agreed methodology and scarce evidence on the relationship between environmental conditions and well-being. The European Union (EU) project “Urban Reduction of Greenhouse Gas Emissions in China and Europe” (URGENCHE) explored a methodological approach to assess traffic noise-related well-being impacts of transport interventions in three European cities (Basel, Rotterdam and Thessaloniki) linking modeled traffic noise reduction effects with survey data indicating noise-well-being associations. Local noise models showed a reduction of high traffic noise levels in all cities as a result of different urban interventions. Survey data indicated that perception of high noise levels was associated with lower probability of well-being. Connecting the local noise exposure profiles with the noise-well-being associations suggests that the urban transport interventions may have a marginal but positive effect on population well-being. This paper also provides insight into the methodological challenges of well-being assessments and highlights the range of limitations arising from the current lack of reliable evidence on environmental conditions and well-being. Due to these limitations, the results should be interpreted with caution. PMID:26016437

  4. Development of a quantitative methodology to assess the impacts of urban transport interventions and related noise on well-being.

    PubMed

    Braubach, Matthias; Tobollik, Myriam; Mudu, Pierpaolo; Hiscock, Rosemary; Chapizanis, Dimitris; Sarigiannis, Denis A; Keuken, Menno; Perez, Laura; Martuzzi, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Well-being impact assessments of urban interventions are a difficult challenge, as there is no agreed methodology and scarce evidence on the relationship between environmental conditions and well-being. The European Union (EU) project "Urban Reduction of Greenhouse Gas Emissions in China and Europe" (URGENCHE) explored a methodological approach to assess traffic noise-related well-being impacts of transport interventions in three European cities (Basel, Rotterdam and Thessaloniki) linking modeled traffic noise reduction effects with survey data indicating noise-well-being associations. Local noise models showed a reduction of high traffic noise levels in all cities as a result of different urban interventions. Survey data indicated that perception of high noise levels was associated with lower probability of well-being. Connecting the local noise exposure profiles with the noise-well-being associations suggests that the urban transport interventions may have a marginal but positive effect on population well-being. This paper also provides insight into the methodological challenges of well-being assessments and highlights the range of limitations arising from the current lack of reliable evidence on environmental conditions and well-being. Due to these limitations, the results should be interpreted with caution. PMID:26016437

  5. Violent Loss and Urban Children: Understanding the Impact on Grieving and Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zenere, Frank

    2009-01-01

    Youth attitudes, perspectives, and behaviors regarding violence and loss are shaped by a variety of community, familial, and cultural influences. Their life stories are testimonials to the impact of cumulative grief experiences, each of which are powerful reminders of the fragility of life in their world. Erroneously, some believe that youth…

  6. Simulating the impact of urban sprawl on air quality and population exposure in the German Ruhr area. Part II: Development and evaluation of an urban growth scenario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Ridder, Koen; Lefebre, Filip; Adriaensen, Stefan; Arnold, Ute; Beckroege, Wolfgang; Bronner, Christine; Damsgaard, Ole; Dostal, Ivo; Dufek, Jiri; Hirsch, Jacky; IntPanis, Luc; Kotek, Zdenek; Ramadier, Thierry; Thierry, Annette; Vermoote, Stijn; Wania, Annett; Weber, Christiane

    The impact of uncontrolled urban growth ('sprawl') on air pollution and associated population exposure is investigated. This is done for the Ruhr area in Germany, by means of a coupled modelling system dealing with land use changes, traffic, meteorology, and atmospheric dispersion and chemistry. In a companion paper [De Ridder, K., Lefebre F., Adriaensen S., Arnold U., Beckroege W., Bronner C., Damsgaard O., Dostal I., Dufek J., Hirsch J., Int Panis L., Kotek Z., Ramadier T., Thierry A., Vermoote S., Wania A., Weber C., 2008. Simulating the impact of urban sprawl on air quality and population exposure in the German Ruhr area. Part I: reproducing the base state.], a description was given of the coupling of these models and of the validation of simulation results. In the present paper, a land use change scenario was implemented to mimic urban sprawl, relocating 12% of the urban population in the study domain to the green periphery. The resulting updated land use, population and employment density patterns were then used as input for traffic simulations, yielding an increase of total traffic volume by almost 17%. As a consequence, the domain-average simulated pollutant concentrations of ozone and particulate matter increased, though by a smaller amount, of approximately 4%. In a final step, population exposure to air pollution was calculated, both for the base case and the scenario simulations. A very slight domain-average exposure increase was found, of the order of a half percent. A compensating mechanism was identified, explaining this small figure. However, when stratifying the population into groups of individuals that were relocated to the urban periphery and those that were not, much larger exposure changes following urban sprawl emerged. Indeed, it was found that the relatively small proportion of relocated individuals benefited of a decrease of exposure to particulate matter by almost 13%, mainly because of their moving out of the most polluted areas; and that this came at the expense of an increase of exposure of 1.2% by the individuals not having moved.

  7. The impacts of sports facilities development on the urban growth of Kuala Lumpur federal territory, malaysia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maassoumeh Barghchi; Dasimah Bt Omar; Mohd Salleh Aman

    2010-01-01

    Sports and sports facilities development have improved rapidly over the past years in Malaysia. However, such improvements are inadequate compared to the overall development of sports at international level. In recent years sport is getting more and more influential and it will continue to grow in importance, even for developing countries. Recent developments have witnessed the use of sports facilities

  8. The Impact of Social Segregation on Human Mobility in Developing and Urbanized Regions

    E-print Network

    Amini, Alexander; Kang, Chaogui; Sobolevsky, Stanislav; Ratti, Carlo

    2014-01-01

    This study leverages mobile phone data to analyze human mobility patterns in developing countries, especially in comparison to more industrialized countries. Developing regions, such as the Ivory Coast, are marked by a number of factors that may influence mobility, such as less infrastructural coverage and maturity, less economic resources and stability, and in some cases, more cultural and language-based diversity. By comparing mobile phone data collected from the Ivory Coast to similar data collected in Portugal, we are able to highlight both qualitative and quantitative differences in mobility patterns - such as differences in likelihood to travel, as well as in the time required to travel - that are relevant to consideration on policy, infrastructure, and economic development. Our study illustrates how cultural and linguistic diversity in developing regions (such as Ivory Coast) can present challenges to mobility models that perform well and were conceptualized in less culturally diverse regions. Finally,...

  9. Developing Ecological Indicators for Nutrients and Urban Impacts to Streams in Coastal Watersheds

    EPA Science Inventory

    Increased nutrient loads associated with human activities are among leading causes of impairment to streams and receiving waterbodies. For streams draining to the environmentally and economically important Narragansett Bay estuary, we developed indicators based on (1) nitrogen an...

  10. Impact of Urban Surfaces on Precipitation Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shepherd, J. M.

    2004-01-01

    The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) was established in 1988 by two United Nations organizations, the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) and the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) to assess the "risk of human-induced climate change". Such reports are used by decision-makers around the world to assess how our climate is changing. Its reports are widely respected and cited and have been highly influential in forming national and international responses to climate change. The Fourth Assessment report includes a section on the effects of surface processes on climate. This sub-chapter provides an overview of recent developments related to the impact of cities on rainfall. It highlights the possible mechanisms that buildings, urban heat islands, urban aerosols or pollution, and other human factors in cities that can affect rainfall.

  11. Education, Urban Development and Local Initiatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France). Centre for Educational Research and Innovation.

    Innovative practices in education and local development in Western Europe, Australia, and the United States are described and analyzed in this report. Part One reviews urban problems, their impact on education, and the need for a new approach. Part Two explores how schools and institutes of adult education can provide information about the local…

  12. The Conundrum of Impacts of Climate Change on Urbanization and the Urban Heat Island Effect

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quattrochi, Dale A.

    2011-01-01

    The twenty-first century is the first urban century according to the United Nations Development Program. The focus on cities reflects awareness of the growing percentage of the world's population that lives in urban areas. In 2000, approximately 3 billion people representing about 40% of the global population resided in urban areas. The United Nations estimates that by 2025, 60% of the world s population will live in urban areas. As a consequence, the number of megacities (those cities with populations of 10 million inhabitants or more) will increase by 100 by 2025. Thus, there is a critical need to understand the spatial growth of urban areas and what the impacts are on the environment. Moreover, there is a critical need to assess how under global climate change, cities will affect the local, regional, and even global climate. As urban areas increase in size, it is anticipated there will be a concomitant growth of the Urban Heat Island effect (UHI), and the attributes that are related to its spatial and temporal dynamics. Therefore, how climate change, including the dynamics of the UHI, will affect the urban environment, must be explored to help mitigate potential impacts on the environment (e.g., air quality, heat stress, vectorborne disease) and on human health and well being, to develop adaptation schemes to cope with these impacts.

  13. Urbanization and Water Quantity: Impacts and Mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potter, K. W.

    2005-05-01

    Urban and suburban development adversely impacts both surface and ground water resources by profoundly altering the hydrologic cycle. Conventional storm water management practices rely on storage to reduce runoff peaks and trap pollutants, but do not address impacts due to changes in the partitioning of water. The introduction of impervious surfaces increases the amount of storm runoff and decreases the amount of ground water recharge. Ground water pumping reduces the amount of ground water. Increased storm runoff causes channel enlargement and increased flood peaks, even when mitigation storage is employed. Reduced ground water results in decreased ground water discharges to aquatic systems. Enhancing the infiltration of storm runoff appears to be a feasible way to address the hydrologic alterations that usually accompany urban and suburban development. Practices that focus infiltration, such as rain gardens and bioretention facilities, appear to be particularly effective. Modeling indicates that a properly designed bioretention facility can preserve natural runoff amounts and increase ground water recharge amounts well above natural levels, perhaps even compensating for ground water pumping. Remaining research issues involve subsoil characterization, vegetation selection, ground water contamination, regulatory strategies, and long-term performance.

  14. Urbanization Impacts on Mammals across Urban-Forest Edges and a Predictive Model of Edge Effects

    PubMed Central

    Villaseńor, Nélida R.; Driscoll, Don A.; Escobar, Martín A. H.; Gibbons, Philip; Lindenmayer, David B.

    2014-01-01

    With accelerating rates of urbanization worldwide, a better understanding of ecological processes at the wildland-urban interface is critical to conserve biodiversity. We explored the effects of high and low-density housing developments on forest-dwelling mammals. Based on habitat characteristics, we expected a gradual decline in species abundance across forest-urban edges and an increased decline rate in higher contrast edges. We surveyed arboreal mammals in sites of high and low housing density along 600 m transects that spanned urban areas and areas turn on adjacent native forest. We also surveyed forest controls to test whether edge effects extended beyond our edge transects. We fitted models describing richness, total abundance and individual species abundance. Low-density housing developments provided suitable habitat for most arboreal mammals. In contrast, high-density housing developments had lower species richness, total abundance and individual species abundance, but supported the highest abundances of an urban adapter (Trichosurus vulpecula). We did not find the predicted gradual decline in species abundance. Of four species analysed, three exhibited no response to the proximity of urban boundaries, but spilled over into adjacent urban habitat to differing extents. One species (Petaurus australis) had an extended negative response to urban boundaries, suggesting that urban development has impacts beyond 300 m into adjacent forest. Our empirical work demonstrates that high-density housing developments have negative effects on both community and species level responses, except for one urban adapter. We developed a new predictive model of edge effects based on our results and the literature. To predict animal responses across edges, our framework integrates for first time: (1) habitat quality/preference, (2) species response with the proximity to the adjacent habitat, and (3) spillover extent/sensitivity to adjacent habitat boundaries. This framework will allow scientists, managers and planners better understand and predict both species responses across edges and impacts of development in mosaic landscapes. PMID:24810286

  15. Urbanization impacts on mammals across urban-forest edges and a predictive model of edge effects.

    PubMed

    Villaseńor, Nélida R; Driscoll, Don A; Escobar, Martín A H; Gibbons, Philip; Lindenmayer, David B

    2014-01-01

    With accelerating rates of urbanization worldwide, a better understanding of ecological processes at the wildland-urban interface is critical to conserve biodiversity. We explored the effects of high and low-density housing developments on forest-dwelling mammals. Based on habitat characteristics, we expected a gradual decline in species abundance across forest-urban edges and an increased decline rate in higher contrast edges. We surveyed arboreal mammals in sites of high and low housing density along 600 m transects that spanned urban areas and areas turn on adjacent native forest. We also surveyed forest controls to test whether edge effects extended beyond our edge transects. We fitted models describing richness, total abundance and individual species abundance. Low-density housing developments provided suitable habitat for most arboreal mammals. In contrast, high-density housing developments had lower species richness, total abundance and individual species abundance, but supported the highest abundances of an urban adapter (Trichosurus vulpecula). We did not find the predicted gradual decline in species abundance. Of four species analysed, three exhibited no response to the proximity of urban boundaries, but spilled over into adjacent urban habitat to differing extents. One species (Petaurus australis) had an extended negative response to urban boundaries, suggesting that urban development has impacts beyond 300 m into adjacent forest. Our empirical work demonstrates that high-density housing developments have negative effects on both community and species level responses, except for one urban adapter. We developed a new predictive model of edge effects based on our results and the literature. To predict animal responses across edges, our framework integrates for first time: (1) habitat quality/preference, (2) species response with the proximity to the adjacent habitat, and (3) spillover extent/sensitivity to adjacent habitat boundaries. This framework will allow scientists, managers and planners better understand and predict both species responses across edges and impacts of development in mosaic landscapes. PMID:24810286

  16. The Impact of Professional Development on Elementary Teachers' Strategies for Teaching Science with Diverse Student Groups in Urban Elementary Schools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamson, Karen; Santau, Alexandra; Lee, Okhee

    2013-04-01

    This study examined elementary teachers' instructional strategies for promoting scientific understanding and inquiry and supporting English language development with diverse student groups including English language learners. The study was part of a 5-year research and development project consisting of reform-based science curriculum units and teacher workshops aimed at providing effective science instruction to promote students' science and literacy achievement in urban elementary schools. Data consisted of 213 post-observation interviews with third, fourth, and fifth grade teachers. The teachers reported using instructional strategies to promote scientific understanding, but generally did not employ more sophisticated inquiry-based strategies. They also reported using instructional strategies to support English language development. There were significant differences among grade levels and by years of teacher participation.

  17. How Government Cares for Urban Economic Growth: the Impact of Different Fiscal Grant Schedules in the German Federal States on the Development of Urban Areas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martin T. W. Rosenfeld; Gerhard Heimpold; Birger Nerre

    2006-01-01

    In recent years, in the public discussion on (regional) economic policy, the importance of urban districts or cities for regional and for national economic growth has been strongly emphasized. It is an usual assumption that agglomeration economies may be found inside urban areas. For making best use of agglomeration economies, there have been proposals for changing the traditional scheme of

  18. An Urban Professional Development School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Proctor, Thomas J.; Wagstaff, Mark E.; Ochoa, Bianca

    1998-01-01

    Addresses various Professional Development School (PDS) functions (teacher preparation, staff development, research, and student learning), describing the development of one urban PDS. Highlights issues raised by an exploratory study of a cohort of interns at the PDS and by a collaborative effort of the school and a field-based teacher-education…

  19. The impact of rural-urban migration on child survival

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martin Brockerhoff

    Abstract Large rural-urban child mortality differentials in many developing countries suggest that rural families can improve their children’s survival chances by leaving the countryside and settling in towns and cities. This study uses data from Demographic and Health Surveys in 17 countries to assess the impact of maternal rural-urban migration on the survival chances of children under age two in

  20. IMPACTS OF URBANIZATION ON WATERSHED HYDROLOGIC FUNCTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Although urbanization has a major impact on watershed hydrology, there have not been studies to quantify basic hydrological relationships that are altered by the addition of impervious surfaces. The USDA-ARS and USEPA-ORD-NRMRL have initiated a pilot program to study the impacts...

  1. Survey of key issues: environmental impacts of urban transportation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    LaBelle

    1985-01-01

    Urban transportation systems daily carry over three-fourths the citizens in developed nations and a smaller share of those in lesser developed nations. Because transportation networks follow population density, environmental impacts of these systems have been, and will continue to be, major concerns worldwide. Air quality concerns are generally of more importance, followed by noise and water quality issues. Waste disposal

  2. Early childhood development in deprived urban settlements.

    PubMed

    Nair, M K C; Radhakrishnan, S Rekha

    2004-03-01

    Poverty, the root cause of the existence of slums or settlement colonies in urban areas has a great impact on almost all aspects of life of the urban poor, especially the all-round development of children. Examples from countries, across the globe provide evidence of improved early child development, made possible through integrated slum improvement programs, are few in numbers. The observed 2.5% prevalence of developmental delay in the less than 2 year olds of deprived urban settlements, the presence of risk factors for developmental delay like low birth weight, birth asphyxia, coupled with poor environment of home and alternate child care services, highlights the need for simple cost effective community model for promoting early child development. This review on early child development focuses on the developmental status of children in the deprived urban settlements, who are yet to be on the priority list of Governments and international agencies working for the welfare of children, the contributory nature-nurture factors and replicable working models like infant stimulation, early detection of developmental delay in infancy itself, developmental screening of toddlers, skill assessment for preschool children, school readiness programs, identification of mental sub-normality and primary education enhancement program for primary school children. Further, the review probes feasible intervention strategies through community owned early child care and development facilities, utilizing existing programs like ICDS, Urban Basic Services and by initiating services like Development Friendly Well Baby Clinics, Community Extension services, Child Development Referral Units at district hospitals and involving trained manpower like anganwadi/creche workers, public health nurses and developmental therapists. With the decentralization process the local self-government at municipalities and city corporations are financially equipped to be the prime movers to initiate, monitor and promote early child development programs, to emerge as a part and parcel of community owned sustainable development process. PMID:15064509

  3. Assessing social impacts in urban waterfront regeneration

    SciTech Connect

    Sairinen, Rauno [Centre for Urban and Regional Studies, Helsinki University of Technology, P.O. Box 9300, 02015 TKK (Finland)]. E-mail: Rauno.Sairinen@tkk.fi; Kumpulainen, Satu [Centre for Urban and Regional Studies, Helsinki University of Technology, P.O. Box 9300, 02015 TKK (Finland)]. E-mail: satu.kumpulainen@saunalahti.fi

    2006-01-15

    The target of this article is to identify the social impacts of urban waterfront regeneration. For this purpose, four different dimensions of social impacts in urban waterfront planning are presented: resources and identity, social status, access and activities and waterfront experience. The four social dimensions refer to the different ways of experiencing and using the edges of the sea, lake or river to make an understanding of their qualities to the community. The contents of this typology are illustrated by analysing some basic features of three different newly built waterfront areas in Helsinki. The article is based on post-evaluation.

  4. A review of models for low impact urban stormwater drainage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. H. Elliott; S. A. Trowsdale

    2007-01-01

    Low-impact development urban stormwater drainage systems (LID) are an increasingly popular method to reduce the adverse hydrologic and water quality effects of urbanisation. In this review, ten existing stormwater models are compared in relation to attributes relevant to modelling LID. The models are all based on conventional methods for runoff generation and routing, but half of the models add a

  5. Peace Corps: Urban Development Programming Guidelines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peace Corps, Washington, DC. Information Collection and Exchange Div.

    This guide, for Peace Corp workers and administrators, is designed to assist those in the field to identify urban development project opportunities and to suggest ways to develop urban development project plans. Following a brief statement by Jorge Hardoy and an illustration of the expected growing urban population, section I, a summary, describes…

  6. Investigating the climatic impact of urban planning strategies through the use of regional climate modelling: a case study for Melbourne, Australia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew M. Coutts; Jason Beringer; Nigel J. Tapper

    2008-01-01

    Urban planning is a useful method for improving local climate and human health in cities through purposefully modifying urban land surface characteristics. This can reduce the potential risks of elevated city temperatures due to the urban heat island (UHI). Unfortunately, simple tools are not readily available for urban planners to assess the climatological impacts of various urban development scenarios. Urban

  7. URBAN LEADERSHIP DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM SUPPLEMENTAL PROGRAM APPLICATION

    E-print Network

    Walker, Lawrence R.

    URBAN LEADERSHIP DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM SUPPLEMENTAL PROGRAM APPLICATION as part of your Graduate College application to the Urban Leadership Program/Supervisor: #12;Part 3: LEADERSHIP EXPERIENCES: Identify any educational leadership experiences

  8. Parametric Urban Regulation Models for Predicting Development Performances 

    E-print Network

    Kim, Jong Bum

    2014-12-23

    This research developed and evaluated the Parametric Urban Regulation Model (PURM) to represent urban regulations in parametric Building Information Modeling (BIM) and assess the development performances of urban regulations prior to the urban...

  9. Parametric Urban Regulation Models for Predicting Development Performances

    E-print Network

    Kim, Jong Bum

    2014-12-23

    This research developed and evaluated the Parametric Urban Regulation Model (PURM) to represent urban regulations in parametric Building Information Modeling (BIM) and assess the development performances of urban regulations prior to the urban...

  10. A population-level approach to promoting healthy child development and school success in low-income, urban neighborhoods: impact on parenting and child conduct problems.

    PubMed

    Dawson-McClure, Spring; Calzada, Esther; Huang, Keng-Yen; Kamboukos, Dimitra; Rhule, Dana; Kolawole, Bukky; Petkova, Eva; Brotman, Laurie Miller

    2015-02-01

    Minority children living in disadvantaged neighborhoods are at high risk for school dropout, delinquency, and poor health, largely due to the negative impact of poverty and stress on parenting and child development. This study evaluated a population-level, family-centered, school-based intervention designed to promote learning, behavior, and health by strengthening parenting, classroom quality, and child self-regulation during early childhood. Ten schools in urban districts serving primarily low-income Black students were randomly assigned to intervention or a "pre-kindergarten education as usual" control condition. Intervention included a family program (a 13-week behavioral parenting intervention and concurrent group for children) and professional development for early childhood teachers. The majority (88 %) of the pre-kindergarten population (N?=?1,050; age 4) enrolled in the trial, and nearly 60 % of parents in intervention schools participated in the family program. This study evaluated intervention impact on parenting (knowledge, positive behavior support, behavior management, involvement in early learning) and child conduct problems over a 2-year period (end of kindergarten). Intent-to-treat analyses found intervention effects on parenting knowledge, positive behavior support, and teacher-rated parent involvement. For the highest-risk families, intervention also resulted in increased parent-rated involvement in early learning and decreased harsh and inconsistent behavior management. Among boys at high risk for problems based on baseline behavioral dysregulation (age 4, 23 % of sample), intervention led to lower rates of conduct problems at age 6. Family-centered intervention at the transition to school has potential to improve population health and break the cycle of disadvantage for low-income, minority families. PMID:24590412

  11. Research on Dynamic Mechanism of Urban Community Economic Development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jianli Zhang

    2011-01-01

    The urban community economy is a basic component of the urban economy. The development of community economy is useful to achieve the urban construction, orderly management, consummated serve, and civilized and harmonious society. The development of urban community economy needs motivation. This study aimed to analyze the urban community economy system, establish the dynamic model of urban community economic development,

  12. Impact of agriculture and urban development on the community structure of wetland birds in East Central Minnesota

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christa R von Behren

    2007-01-01

    Wetlands are one of the fastest disappearing habitats in America. Many wetlands are also being altered due to the effects of various types of land use. Because wetlands provide important habitat for many types of birds, these species can be affected by changes in wetlands due to land use. The impacts of several wetland features, including wetland size, proximity to

  13. Global forecasts of urban expansion to 2030 and direct impacts on biodiversity and carbon pools.

    PubMed

    Seto, Karen C; Güneralp, Burak; Hutyra, Lucy R

    2012-10-01

    Urban land-cover change threatens biodiversity and affects ecosystem productivity through loss of habitat, biomass, and carbon storage. However, despite projections that world urban populations will increase to nearly 5 billion by 2030, little is known about future locations, magnitudes, and rates of urban expansion. Here we develop spatially explicit probabilistic forecasts of global urban land-cover change and explore the direct impacts on biodiversity hotspots and tropical carbon biomass. If current trends in population density continue and all areas with high probabilities of urban expansion undergo change, then by 2030, urban land cover will increase by 1.2 million km(2), nearly tripling the global urban land area circa 2000. This increase would result in considerable loss of habitats in key biodiversity hotspots, with the highest rates of forecasted urban growth to take place in regions that were relatively undisturbed by urban development in 2000: the Eastern Afromontane, the Guinean Forests of West Africa, and the Western Ghats and Sri Lanka hotspots. Within the pan-tropics, loss in vegetation biomass from areas with high probability of urban expansion is estimated to be 1.38 PgC (0.05 PgC yr(-1)), equal to ?5% of emissions from tropical deforestation and land-use change. Although urbanization is often considered a local issue, the aggregate global impacts of projected urban expansion will require significant policy changes to affect future growth trajectories to minimize global biodiversity and vegetation carbon losses. PMID:22988086

  14. in development and the urban environment

    E-print Network

    Thecase fortrees in development and the urban environment #12;Foreword Trees are important about the important role trees play in our urban as well as the rural environment. It has long been their local and ­ hopefully ­ green environment. The development of the space in which we live and work

  15. Soybean Development: The Impact of a Decade of Agricultural Change on Urban and Economic Growth in Mato Grosso, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Richards, Peter; Pellegrina, Heitor; VanWey, Leah; Spera, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    In this research we consider the impact of export-driven, soybean agriculture in Mato Grosso on regional economic growth. Here we argue that the soybean sector has served as a motor to the state’s economy by increasing the demand for services, housing, and goods, and by providing a source of investment capital to the non-agricultural sector. Specifically, we show that each square kilometer of soybean production supports 2.5 formal sector jobs outside of agriculture, and the equivalent of approximately 150,000US in annual, non-agricultural GDP. We also show that annual gains in non-agricultural employment and GDP are closely tied to soybean profitability, and thus vary from year to year. However, while this article highlights the potential of the agricultural sector as a driver of regional economic growth, it also acknowledges that this growth has been sustained by profits determined by externally set prices and the rate of exchange, and that future growth trajectories will be susceptible to potential currency of market shocks. We also show that while Mato Grosso’s economic growth has come at a significant cost to the environment, value added by the agriculture sector, directly and indirectly, has surpassed the value of the CO2-e emitted through land clearings. PMID:25919305

  16. Survey of key issues: environmental impacts of urban transportation

    SciTech Connect

    LaBelle, S.

    1985-03-01

    Urban transportation systems daily carry over three-fourths the citizens in developed nations and a smaller share of those in lesser developed nations. Because transportation networks follow population density, environmental impacts of these systems have been, and will continue to be, major concerns worldwide. Air quality concerns are generally of more importance, followed by noise and water quality issues. Waste disposal is of lesser concern from transportation systems but still at issue. At the basis of the concerns for environmental impacts are public health and safety issues. This survey found that (1) substantial progress has been made in developed nations regarding air pollution from automobiles; (2) noise standards are in place for aircraft and highway vehicles in most developed nations; (3) water quality issues vary in severity by location; (4) traffic safety impacts have been decreasing in many nations due to increased seat belt usage and improved highway design. Issues for the future focus on acid rain, vehicle safety, and keeping the environmental gains achieved until now. Lesser developed nations will face substantial environmental concerns as they expand their transport networks to keep pace with expected growth in urban population. The opportunity exists today for those nations to lower air emissions, in particular, but will require careful balancing of mobility and health concerns. 41 refs.

  17. The Impact of Urban Freight Transport: A Definition of Sustainability from an Actor's Perspective

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sönke Behrends; Maria Lindholm; Johan Woxenius

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a definition of sustainable urban freight transport (SUFT), based on the existing theories and concepts, and develops an indicator set that describes SUFT. The definition of SUFT makes a categorisation of actions possible which enables actors to select effective strategies towards SUFT. The indicator set consists of two levels: impact indicators – which describe how the urban

  18. Impacts of Exurban Development on Water Quality

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kathleen A. Lohse; Adina M. Merenlender

    \\u000a This chapter details the impacts of exurban development on water quantity and quality in the United States. The chapter begins\\u000a by reviewing studies that document the consequences of urbanization on water quality, with emphasis on exurban development.\\u000a We show how watersheds are contaminated by a range of organic and inorganic compounds as land use along the rural-to-urban\\u000a gradient intensifies. These

  19. Planning, Sustainability and Airport-Led Urban Development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert Freestone

    2009-01-01

    Airports are no longer places where planes just take off and land but have evolved into major business enterprises with spatial impacts and functional implications that extend deep into metropolitan areas. They are vital hubs in the global space of flows. Airport-led urban development, notwithstanding its employment and income generating capabilities and potentials, comes with costs and risks: economic, environmental,

  20. Globalisation and climate change in Asia: the urban health impact.

    PubMed

    Munslow, Barry; O'Dempsey, Tim

    2010-01-01

    Asia's economic development successes will create new policy areas to address, as the advances made through globalisation create greater climate change challenges, particularly the impact on urban health. Poverty eradication and higher standards of living both increase demand on resources. Globalisation increases inequalities and those who are currently the losers will carry the greatest burden of the costs in the form of the negative effects of climate change and the humanitarian crises that will ensue. Of four major climate change challenges affecting the environment and health, two—urban air pollution and waste management—can be mitigated by policy change and technological innovation if sufficient resources are allocated. Because of the urban bias in the development process, these challenges will probably register on policy makers' agenda. The second two major challenges—floods and drought—are less amenable to policy and technological solutions: many humanitarian emergency challenges lie ahead. This article describes the widely varying impact of both globalisation and climate change across Asia. The greatest losers are those who flee one marginal location, the arid inland areas, only to settle in another marginal location in the flood prone coastal slums. Effective preparation is required, and an effective response when subsequent humanitarian crises occur. PMID:21506298

  1. Multiple effects of urbanization on the biodiversity of developing countries: The case of a fast-growing metropolitan area (Concepción, Chile)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aníbal Pauchard; Mauricio Aguayo; Eduardo Peńa; Roberto Urrutia

    2006-01-01

    Urbanization is increasingly homogenizing the biota of less developed countries. Even though urban sprawl is a worldwide problem, most studies on the effects of urbanization, and the conceptual models have focused on developed countries. South America has not escaped urbanization, and here we discuss the potential impacts of urban sprawl with respect to three ecosystems in the metropolitan area of

  2. Department of Urban and Rural Development Division of Rural Development

    E-print Network

    Rice Center ­ NARS (National Agricultural Research Systems) Gender in Rice Research for DevelopmentDepartment of Urban and Rural Development Division of Rural Development Curriculum Vitae Johanna 2013.11 ­ present Postdoctoral Fellow. Division of Rural Development, Dept. of Urban and Rural

  3. Urban water infrastructure optimization to reduce environmental impacts and costs.

    PubMed

    Lim, Seong-Rin; Suh, Sangwon; Kim, Jung-Hoon; Park, Hung Suck

    2010-01-01

    Urban water planning and policy have been focusing on environmentally benign and economically viable water management. The objective of this study is to develop a mathematical model to integrate and optimize urban water infrastructures for supply-side planning and policy: freshwater resources and treated wastewater are allocated to various water demand categories in order to reduce contaminants in the influents supplied for drinking water, and to reduce consumption of the water resources imported from the regions beyond a city boundary. A case study is performed to validate the proposed model. An optimal urban water system of a metropolitan city is calculated on the basis of the model and compared to the existing water system. The integration and optimization decrease (i) average concentrations of the influents supplied for drinking water, which can improve human health and hygiene; (ii) total consumption of water resources, as well as electricity, reducing overall environmental impacts; (iii) life cycle cost; and (iv) water resource dependency on other regions, improving regional water security. This model contributes to sustainable urban water planning and policy. PMID:19939551

  4. Modelling the Impacts of Different Policy Scenarios on Urban Growth in Lanzhou with Remote Sensing and Cellular Automata

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xu Xibao; Zhang Feng; Zhang Jianming

    2006-01-01

    Integration of remote sensing and CA has been the frontier edge of the urban research. This paper presents an application of remote sensing and cellular automata in modelling the impacts of different policy scenarios on urban growth in Lanzhou, China. SLEUTH urban growth model, was introduced and coupled with remote sensing loosely. SLEUTH was an extended cellular automata model, developed

  5. Impacts of Urbanization in the Coastal Tropical City of San Juan, Puerto Rico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Comarazamy, Daniel E.; Gonzalez, Jorge E.; Luvall, Jeffrey C.; Rickman, Douglass

    2007-01-01

    Urban sprawl in tropical locations is rapidly accelerating and it is more evident in islands where a large percentage of the population resides along the coasts. This paper focuses on the analysis of the impacts of land use and land cover for urbanization in the tropical coastal city of San Juan, in the Caribbean island of Puerto Rico. A mesoscale numerical model, the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS), is used to study the impacts of land use for urbanization in the environment including specific characteristics of the urban heat island in the San Juan Metropolitan Area (SJMA), one of the most noticeable urban cores of the Caribbean. The research also makes use of the observations obtained during the airborne San Juan Atlas Mission. Surface and raw insonde data from the mission are used to validate the atmospheric model yielding satisfactory results. Airborne high resolution remote sensing data are used to update the model's surface characteristics in order to obtain a more accurate and detailed configuration of the SJMA and perform a climate impact analysis based on land cover/land use (LCLU) changes. The impact analysis showed that the presence of the urban landscape of San Juan has an impact reflected in higher air temperatures over the area occupied by the city, with positive values of up to 2.5 degrees C, for the simulations that have specified urban LCLU indexes in the model's bottom boundary. One interesting result of the impact analysis was the finding of a precipitation disturbance shown as a difference in total accumulated rainfall between the present urban landscape and with a potential natural vegetation, apparently induced by the presence of the urban area. Results indicate that the urban-enhanced cloud formation and precipitation development occur mainly downwind of the city, including the accumulated precipitation. This spatial pattern can be explained by the presence of a larger urbanized area in the southwest sector of the city, and of the approaching northeasterly trade winds.

  6. Student Development in Urban Commuter Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Creamer, Don G.

    A conceptual view of student development and the milieu of an urban commuter college are discussed. Student development is defined as the application of human development theory, principles, and concepts in an educational setting to identify the forms of development in students to which the institution is willing and able to commit its resources.…

  7. Urban tourism in the developing world: The case of Johannesburg

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christian Rogerson

    2002-01-01

    Urban tourism has attracted a growing literature in the context of cities in the developed world. In this article, the role of urban tourism is explored in the developing world setting of Johannesburg. As in the case of the developed world, in Johannesburg the promotion of urban tourism is linked to economic regeneration and urban economic development. Johannesburg's tourism economy

  8. The hydrological and economic impacts of changing water allocation in political regions within the peri-urban South Creek catchment in Western Sydney I: Model development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davidson, Brian; Malano, Hector; Nawarathna, Bandara; Maheshwari, Basant

    2013-08-01

    In this paper an integrated model of the hydrological and economic impacts of deploying water within the political divisions in the South Creek catchment of the ‘peri-urban’ region of Western Sydney is presented. This model enables an assessment of the hydrological and economic merits of different water allocation-substitution strategies, both over the whole catchment and in each political region and jurisdiction within it, to be undertaken. Not only are the differences in the water allocated to each region and use revealed, but also the net present values associated with each use within each region. In addition, it is possible to determine measures of equity in water distribution using this approach. It was found that over a period from 2008 to 2031 the South Creek catchment in total would on average use approximately 50,600 ML of potable water a year, the vast majority of this is used in the two urban regions of Penrith and Blacktown. Agricultural water use was also greatest in these two regions. Over this period the allocation system was estimated to have a small net present value of approximately A301 million and the Benefit-Cost ratio was estimated to be 1.06. The urban regions of Penrith and Blacktown and the rural region of Hawkesbury were estimated to have returned a net positive benefit of A76 million, A246 million and A39 million (respectively), while water to Liverpool and Camden was delivered at a loss of A7 million and A52 million over the period assessed. It was found that across the catchment a fair degree of both physical and economic equity occurred between regions, with the exception of Liverpool, which was over endowed with water and paid a high cost for it.

  9. Modeling Low Impact Development Alternatives with SWIMM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency?s Office of Water (OW) is actively promoting the use of Low Impact Development (LID) practices to help protect and restore water quality in urban and developing areas. Such practices support the concepts of green infrastructure and sustain...

  10. Impact of urbanization and land-use change on climate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eugenia Kalnay; Ming Cai

    2003-01-01

    The most important anthropogenic influences on climate are the emission of greenhouse gases and changes in land use, such as urbanization and agriculture. But it has been difficult to separate these two influences because both tend to increase the daily mean surface temperature. The impact of urbanization has been estimated by comparing observations in cities with those in surrounding rural

  11. EVALUATION OF SECONDARY ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS OF URBAN RUNOFF POLLUTION CONTROL

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report presents a generalized evaluation of the impacts associated with different urban stormwater runoff (UR) treatment techniques. The report addresses the definition of the problem, estimates the volume and characteristics of the UR and the sludges expected, evaluates six...

  12. Balanced urbanization, regional integration and development planning in Asia.

    PubMed

    Rondinelli, D A

    1980-01-01

    The author examines some of the problems caused by urbanization and economic development in Asia. The effects of rapid urbanization on disparities in the development of urban and rural areas are analyzed. The need for formulating development policies that provide for balanced urbanization, regional integration, and growth equity is considered PMID:12311728

  13. Health Impact Assessment of Urban Waterway Decisions

    PubMed Central

    Korfmacher, Katrina Smith; Aviles, Katia; Cummings, B.J.; Daniell, William; Erdmann, Jared; Garrison, Valerie

    2014-01-01

    Health impact assessments (HIA) promote the consideration of health in a wide range of public decisions. Although each HIA is different, common pathways, evidence bases, and strategies for community engagement tend to emerge in certain sectors, such as urban redevelopment, natural resource extraction, or transportation planning. To date, a limited number of HIAs have been conducted on decisions affecting water resources and waterfronts. This review presents four recent HIAs of water-related decisions in the United States and Puerto Rico. Although the four cases are topically and geographically diverse, several common themes emerged from the consideration of health in water-related decisions. Water resource decisions are characterized by multiple competing uses, inter-institutional and inter-jurisdictional complexity, scientific uncertainty, long time scales for environmental change, diverse cultural and historical human values, and tradeoffs between private use and public access. These four case studies reveal challenges and opportunities of examining waterfront decisions through a “health lens”. This review analyzes these cases, common themes, and lessons learned for the future practice of HIA in the waterfront zone and beyond. PMID:25547399

  14. Urban mobility in the developing world

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ralph Gakenheimer

    1999-01-01

    Mobility and accessibility are declining rapidly in most of the developing world. The issues that affect levels of mobility and possibilities for its improvement are varied. They include the rapid pace of motorization, conditions of local demand that far exceed the capacity of facilities, the incompatibility of urban structure with increased motorization, a stronger transport–land use relationship than in developed

  15. Analysing the impact of urban areas patterns on the mean annual flow of 43 urbanized catchments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salavati, B.; Oudin, L.; Furusho, C.; Ribstein, P.

    2015-06-01

    It is often argued that urban areas play a significant role in catchment hydrology, but previous studies reported disparate results of urbanization impacts on stream flow. This might stem either from the difficulty to quantify the historical flow changes attributed to urbanization only (and not climate variability) or from the inability to decipher what type of urban planning is more critical for flows. In this study, we applied a hydrological model on 43 urban catchments in the United States to quantify the flow changes attributable to urbanization. Then, we tried to relate these flow changes to the changes of urban/impervious areas of the catchments. We argue that these spatial changes of urban areas can be more precisely characterized by landscape metrics, which enable analysing the patterns of historical urban growth. Landscape metrics combine the richness (the number) and evenness (the spatial distribution) of patch types represented on the landscape. Urbanization patterns within the framework of patch analysis have been widely studied but, to our knowledge, previous research works had not linked them to catchments hydrological behaviours. Our results showed that the catchments with larger impervious areas and larger mean patch areas are likely to have larger increase of runoff yield.

  16. Urban Economic Indicators for Green Development in Cities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Caroline Rodenburg; Tuzin Baycan-Levent; Eveline van Leeuwen; Peter Nijkamp

    2001-01-01

    This paper is part of the European Union project on the Development of Urban Green Spaces to Improve the Quality of Life in Cities and Urban Regions (URGE).† The paper aims to describe urban economic indicators for the evaluation of existing urban green structures and green spaces by using a taxonomy of indicators and to develop an economic framework for

  17. MONITORING THE URBAN DEVELOPMENT AREAS BY USING PHOTOGRAMMETRIC TECHNIQUES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Uzun; O. Demir; F. Karsli; M. Atasoy

    The Urban areas have been growing up and developing like living creatures. Development can be regularly or spontaneously. In Turkey, municipalities responsible for planned development of urban as the most of countries are in the world. In urban, which will be categorized in the shape of old and development areas, development plans have been using to direct the development. Planning

  18. Influences of different land use spatial control schemes on farmland conversion and urban development.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Min; Tan, Shukui; Zhang, Lu

    2015-01-01

    Land use planning is always officially implemented as an effective tool to control urban development and protect farmland. However, its impact on land use change remains untested in China. Using a case study of Hang-Jia-Hu region, the main objective of this paper was to investigate the influence of different land use spatial control schemes on farmland conversion and urban development. Comparisons of farmland conversion and urban development patterns between the urban planning area and the non-urban planning area were characterized by using remote sensing, geographical information systems, and landscape metrics. Results indicated that farmland conversion in the non-urban planning area was more intensive than that in the urban planning area, and that farmland patterns was more fragmented in the non-urban planning area. Built-up land patterns in the non-urban planning area showed a trend of aggregation, while those in the urban planning area had a dual trend of fragmentation and aggregation. Existing built-up areas had less influence on built-up land sprawl in the non-urban planning area than that in the urban planning area. Built-up land sprawl in the form of continuous development in the urban planning area led to farmland conversion; and in the non-urban planning area, built-up land sprawl in the form of leapfrogging development resulted in farmland areal declines and fragmentation. We argued that it is a basic requirement to integrate land use plans in urban and non-urban planning areas for land use planning and management. PMID:25915897

  19. Modeling the impact of urbanization on the local and regional climate in Yangtze River Delta, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ning; Gao, Zhiqiu; Wang, Xuemei; Chen, Yan

    2010-11-01

    The Yangtze River Delta Economic Belt is one of the most active and developed areas in China and has experienced quick urbanization with fast economic development. The weather research and forecasting model (WRF), with a single-layer urban canopy parameterization scheme, is used to simulate the influence of urbanization on climate at local and regional scales in this area. The months January and July, over a 5-year period (2003-2007), were selected to represent the winter and summer climate. Two simulation scenarios were designed to investigate the impacts of urbanization: (1) no urban areas and (2) urban land cover determined by MODIS satellite observations in 2005. Simulated near-surface temperature, wind speed and specific humidity agree well with the corresponding measurements. By comparing the simulations of the two scenarios, differences in near-surface temperature, wind speed and precipitation were quantified. The conversion of rural land (mostly irrigation cropland) to urban land cover results in significant changes to near-surface temperature, humidity, wind speed and precipitation. The mean near-surface temperature in urbanized areas increases on average by 0.45 ± 0.43°C in winter and 1.9 ± 0.55°C in summer; the diurnal temperature range in urbanized areas decreases on average by 0.13 ± 0.73°C in winter and 0.55 ± 0.84°C in summer. Precipitation increases about 15% over urban or leeward areas in summer and changes slightly in winter. The urbanization impact in summer is stronger and covers a larger area than that in winter due to the regional east-Asian monsoon climate characterized by warm, wet summers and cool, dry winters.

  20. Climatic impact of urbanization in Eastern China: modeling the combined urban heat island and aerosol effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Y.; Yang, B.; Zhao, C.; Leung, L. R.; Yan, H.; Fan, J.

    2014-12-01

    In this study we investigate the climatic impact of urbanization, including both Urban Heat Island (UHI) and aerosol effects, over the Yangtze-Delta metropolitan clusters region of Eastern China, based on a series of simulations with prescribed land use/land cover and emissions of aerosols and their precursors for the 2000s and 1970s , respectively. We conduct simulations for each land use/land cover and emission scenario from 2006-2010 using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, with online chemistry/aerosol and urban canopy models, at a 3-km grid spacing. Overall the model can reasonably capture the spatial pattern of temperature and precipitation as well as the phase of precipitation diurnal cycle in summer. Simulations results show a very clear UHI effect, i.e. expanded urban surface decreases surface latent heat flux, increases sensible heat flux and PBL height, and reduces surface wind over urban areas, with a more significant change in summer. Aerosol has much less obvious impact on local surface heat flux and temperature, but shows more remote impacts downwind due to dispersion and transport of pollutants and aerosol-cloud interaction. Aerosol also has a larger impact on precipitation amount and areal coverage than UHI. While UHI increases precipitation over urban regions during daytime especially when the southeasterly monsoonal flow prevails, aerosol remarkably suppresses precipitation, especially for light to moderate rain events, and increases the frequency of dry days in the entire model region.

  1. Impact of radio advertisements on buying behaviour of urban commuters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rajagopal

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – This study aims to analyze the impact of radio advertisements on urban commuters towards buying behaviour in retail stores and attempts to determine the role of radio advertising on dissemination of information on the sales promotions. The impact of radio advertisements on the store choice and buying preferences are analyzed based on empirical investigation. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – This study

  2. Evaluating nutrient impacts in urban watersheds: challenges and research opportunities.

    PubMed

    Carey, Richard O; Hochmuth, George J; Martinez, Christopher J; Boyer, Treavor H; Dukes, Michael D; Toor, Gurpal S; Cisar, John L

    2013-02-01

    This literature review focuses on the prevalence of nitrogen and phosphorus in urban environments and the complex relationships between land use and water quality. Extensive research in urban watersheds has broadened our knowledge about point and non-point pollutant sources, but the fate of nutrients is not completely understood. For example, it is not known how long-term nutrient cycling processes in turfgrass landscapes influence nitrogen retention rates or the relative atmospheric contribution to urban nitrogen exports. The effect of prolonged reclaimed water irrigation is also unknown. Stable isotopes have been used to trace pollutants, but distinguishing sources (e.g., fertilizers, wastewater, etc.) can be difficult. Identifying pollutant sources may aid our understanding of harmful algal blooms because the extent of the relationship between urban nutrient sources and algal blooms is unclear. Further research on the delivery and fate of nutrients within urban watersheds is needed to address manageable water quality impacts. PMID:23202644

  3. Land Pooling: The Public Private Participatory Urban Development in Nepal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. P. OLI

    2003-01-01

    1. SUMMARY Kathmandu was one of the beautiful cities of the world till 1960s. The urban population of Kathmandu grown 5.5 percent annually. The urban area is sprawl all over the valley and loss of prime agricultural land, lack of housing and urban infrastructures, and environmental pollution are serious problems. In the past, urban development was carried on government land

  4. Satellite monitoring of urbanization and environmental impacts-A comparison of Stockholm and Shanghai

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haas, Jan; Furberg, Dorothy; Ban, Yifang

    2015-06-01

    This study investigates urbanization and its potential environmental consequences in Shanghai and Stockholm metropolitan areas over two decades. Changes in land use/land cover are estimated from support vector machine classifications of Landsat mosaics with grey-level co-occurrence matrix features. Landscape metrics are used to investigate changes in landscape composition and configuration and to draw preliminary conclusions about environmental impacts. Speed and magnitude of urbanization is calculated by urbanization indices and the resulting impacts on the environment are quantified by ecosystem services. Growth of urban areas and urban green spaces occurred at the expense of cropland in both regions. Alongside a decrease in natural land cover, urban areas increased by approximately 120% in Shanghai, nearly ten times as much as in Stockholm, where the most significant land cover change was a 12% urban expansion that mostly replaced agricultural areas. From the landscape metrics results, it appears that fragmentation in both study regions occurred mainly due to the growth of high density built-up areas in previously more natural/agricultural environments, while the expansion of low density built-up areas was for the most part in conjunction with pre-existing patches. Urban growth resulted in ecosystem service value losses of approximately 445 million US dollars in Shanghai, mostly due to the decrease in natural coastal wetlands while in Stockholm the value of ecosystem services changed very little. Total urban growth in Shanghai was 1768 km2 and 100 km2 in Stockholm. The developed methodology is considered a straight-forward low-cost globally applicable approach to quantitatively and qualitatively evaluate urban growth patterns that could help to address spatial, economic and ecological questions in urban and regional planning.

  5. OVERVIEW OF URBAN DRAINAGE IMPACTS ON AQUATIC HABITAT

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JIRI MARSALEK

    Urban drainage impacts on aquatic habitat are discussed under five major headings affecting the biological community performance:\\u000a food (energy) sources, water quality, habitat structure, flow regime, and biotic interactions. Among these factors, perhaps\\u000a the best understood one is stormwater quality. On the other hand, the changes in the (physical) aquatic habitat structure\\u000a resulting from urbanization and stormwater discharges are the

  6. Urbanization: priority to development of towns.

    PubMed

    1997-02-01

    This news brief discusses the development of new towns and socioeconomic development in rural areas in China. The Ministry of Construction is currently engaged in piloting the promotion of rural urbanization in 500 selected towns in all provinces. Suburban towns in Beijing, Tianjin, and Tangshan were selected as demonstration areas. 1200 towns will be formulating their own plans based on local conditions. The Ministry of Construction aims to establish new towns by the year 2000 and to create favorable conditions for the movement of over 30 million surplus laborers. The Chinese government also plans to modernize 20% of its towns. Guidelines will strictly control the growth of large cities, reasonably developing medium-sized cities, small cities, and vigorously developing towns. China has about 55,000 towns and 3.7 million villages. The National Program for Town and Village Development is responsible for the transfer of surplus labor to the new towns. It is estimated that the urban town population will reach over 200 million. The aim is to establish over 10,000 economically developed towns, of which each of 2000 should have a population of over 10,000. The development will require 2.79 billion sq. m of space for housing. 42% of the new housing will have access to running water, and 55% should have access to paved roads. 16% of urban acreage will be devoted to green cover, which amounts to about 2.85 sq. m per person in public areas. PMID:12320702

  7. Developing a framework to assess the water quality and quantity impacts of climate change, shifting land use, and urbanization in a Midwestern agricultural landscape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loheide, S. P.; Booth, E. G.; Kucharik, C. J.; Carpenter, S. R.; Gries, C.; Katt-Reinders, E.; Rissman, A. R.; Turner, M. G.

    2011-12-01

    Dynamic hydrological processes play a critical role in the structure and functioning of agricultural watersheds undergoing urbanization. Developing a predictive understanding of the complex interaction between agricultural productivity, ecosystem health, water quality, urban development, and public policy requires an interdisciplinary effort that investigates the important biophysical and social processes of the system. Our research group has initiated such a framework that includes a coordinated program of integrated scenarios, model experiments to assess the effects of changing drivers on a broad set of ecosystem services, evaluations of governance and leverage points, outreach and public engagement, and information management. Our geographic focus is the Yahara River watershed in south-central Wisconsin, which is an exemplar of water-related issues in the Upper Midwest. This research addresses three specific questions. 1) How do different patterns of land use, land cover, land management, and water resources engineering practices affect the resilience and sensitivity of ecosystem services under a changing climate? 2) How can regional governance systems for water and land use be made more resilient and adaptive to meet diverse human needs? 3) In what ways are regional human-environment systems resilient and in what ways are they vulnerable to potential changes in climate and water resources? A comprehensive program of model experiments and biophysical measurements will be utilized to evaluate changes in five freshwater ecosystem services (flood regulation, groundwater recharge, surface water quality, groundwater quality, and lake recreation) and five related ecosystem services (food crop yields, bioenergy crop yields, carbon storage in soil, albedo, and terrestrial recreation). Novel additions to existing biophysical models will allow us to simulate all components of the hydrological cycle as well as agricultural productivity, nitrogen and phosphorus transport, and lake water quality. The integrated model will be validated using a comprehensive observational database that includes soil moisture, evapotranspiration, stomatal conductance, streamflow, stream and lake water quality, and crop yields and productivity. Integrated scenarios will be developed to synthesize decision-maker perspectives, alternative approaches to resource governance, plausible trends in demographic and economic drivers, and model projections under alternate climate and land use regimes to understand future conditions of the watershed and its ecosystem services. The quantitative data and integrated scenarios will then be linked to evaluate governance of water and land use.

  8. Impacts of Urbanization in the Coastal Tropical City of San Juan, Puerto Rico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Comarazamy, Daniel E.; Gonzalez, Jorge E.; Luvall, Jeffrey C.; Rickman, Douglas L.; Mulero, Pedro J.

    2007-01-01

    Urban sprawl in tropical locations is rapidly accelerating and it is more evident in islands where a large percentage of the population resides along the coasts. This paper focuses on the analysis of the impacts of land use and land cover for urbanization in the tropical coastal city of San Juan, in the Caribbean island of Puerto Rico. A mesoscale numerical model, the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS), is used to study the impacts of land use for urbanization in the environment including specific characteristics of the urban heat island in the San Juan Metropolitan Area (SJMA), one of the most noticeable urban cores of the Caribbean. The research also makes use of the observations obtained during the airborne San Juan Atlas Mission. Surface and rawinsonde data from the mission are used to validate the atmospheric model yielding satisfactory results. Airborne high resolution remote sensing data are used to update the model's surface characteristics in order to obtain a more accurate and detailed configuration of the SJMA and perform a climate impact analysis based on land cover/land use (LCLU) changes. The impact analysis showed that the presence of the urban landscape of San Juan has an impact reflected in higher air temperatures over the area occupied by the city, with positive values of up to 2.5 C, for the simulations that have specified urban LCLU indexes in the model's bottom boundary. One interesting result of the impact analysis was the finding of a precipitation disturbance shown as a difference in total accumulated rainfall between the present urban landscape and with a potential natural vegetation, apparently induced by the presence of the urban area. Results indicate that the urban enhanced cloud formation and precipitation development occur mainly downwind of the city, including the accumulated precipitation. This spatial pattern can be explained by the presence of a larger urbanized area in the southwest sector of the city, and of the approaching northeasterly trade winds. No significant impacts were found in the sea breeze patterns of the city.

  9. Analysing the impact of urban pressures on agricultural land

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aksoy, Ece; Schröder, Christoph; Fons, Jaume; Gregor, Mirko; Louwagie, Geertrui

    2015-04-01

    Land, and here in particular soil, is a finite and essentially non-renewable resource. EU-wide, land take, i.e. the increase of settlement area over time, consumes more than 1000 km2 annually of which half is actually sealed and, hence, lost under impermeable surfaces. Land take and in particular soil sealing has already been identified as one of the major soil threats in the 2006 EC Communication 'Towards a Thematic Strategy on Soil Protection' (Soil Thematic Strategy), and has been confirmed as such in the report on the implementation of this strategy. The aim of this study is to relate the potential of land for a particle use in a given region with the actual land use. This allows evaluating whether land (in particular the soil dimension) is used according to its (theoretical) potential. To this aim, the impact of a number of land cover flows related to urban development on soils with a good, average and poor production potential were assessed and mapped. Thus, the amount and quality (potentials and/or suitability for agricultural production) of agricultural land lost between the years 2000 and 2006 was identified. In addition, areas with high productivity potential around urban areas indicating areas of potential future land use conflicts for Europe were identified.

  10. UN-Habitat: Sustainable Urban Development Network

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The United Nations Human Settlements Programme, or UN-HABITAT, is the organizationââ?¬â?˘s agency for human settlements. The groupââ?¬â?˘s main objective is to ââ?¬Ĺ?promote socially and environmentally sustainable towns and cities with the goal of providing adequate shelter for all.ââ?¬Âť More specifically, the Sustainable Urban Development Network, or SUD-NET, works to reduce poverty and encourage the creation and development of ââ?¬Ĺ?livable, productive and inclusive cities.ââ?¬Âť Those interested in globalization and urban development worldwide will find much of interest here, including the groupââ?¬â?˘s key activities, thematic focus areas, partnerships, and reports. ââ?¬Ĺ?Cities and Climate Change Initiative,ââ?¬Âť a 2009 report, is currently featured on the website, and is available for download as a PDF.

  11. South Sudan urban development strategy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vittorio Emmanuel Pareto

    2008-01-01

    Southern Sudan - the ten southern provinces of Sudan - has attained autonomy and may soon achieve total independence from Sudan. Yet decades of civil war not only prevented development but destroyed the infrastructure left over from the colonial period. While Southern Sudan is fortunate to have oil resources that can finance building up the new nation, the task is

  12. Evaluation of the impact of the surrounding urban morphology on building energy consumption

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, Nyuk Hien; Chen, Yixing; Hajadi, Norwin; Sathyanarayanan, Haripriya; Manickavasagam, Yamini Vidya [Department of Building, National University of Singapore (Singapore); Jusuf, Steve Kardinal [Center for Sustainable Asian Cities, National University of Singapore (Singapore); Syafii, Nedyomukti Imam [Institute of High Performance Computing (Singapore)

    2011-01-15

    Empirical models of minimum (T{sub min}), average (T{sub avg}) and maximum (T{sub max}) air temperature for Singapore estate have been developed and validated based on a long-tem field measurement. There are three major urban elements, which influence the urban temperature at the local scale. Essentially, they are buildings, greenery and pavement. Other related parameters identified for the study, such as green plot ratio (GnPR), sky view factor (SVF), surrounding building density, the wall surface area, pavement area, albedo are also evaluated to give a better understanding on the likely impact of the modified urban morphology on energy consumption. The objective of this research is to assess and to compare how the air temperature variation of urban condition can affect the building energy consumption in tropical climate of Singapore. In order to achieve this goal, a series of numerical calculation and building simulation are utilized. A total of 32 cases, considering different urban morphologies, are identified and evaluated to give better a understanding on the implication of urban forms, with the reference to the effect of varying density, height and greenery density. The results show that GnPR, which related to the present of greenery, have the most significant impact on the energy consumption by reducing the temperature by up to 2 C. The results also strongly indicate an energy saving of 4.5% if the urban elements are addressed effectively. (author)

  13. Environmental impact classification of urban land cover from satellite remote sensing data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zoran, L. F. V.; Golovanov, C.; Zoran, M. A.

    2005-10-01

    A sustainable development of urban areas demands adequate information both spatially and punctually. The study focuses on the assessment of the potentialities of satellite remote sensing data to study environmental impact classification of urban land cover by fuzzy logic. The evaluation of urban landscapes is based upon different sub-functions which refer to landscape features such as soil, land-use, buildings, groundwater, biotope types. Mixed pixels result when the sensor's instantaneous field-of-view includes more than one land cover class on the ground. For mixed pixels, fuzzy classifiers can be used, which assign a pixel to several land cover classes in proportion to the area of the pixel that each class covers. These fraction values can be assigned to sub-pixels, based on the assumption of spatial dependence and the application of linear optimization techniques. A newly proposed sub-pixel mapping algorithm was first applied to a set of multispectral and multitemporal satellite data for Bucharest and Constantza urban areas in Romania. This paper describes how fuzzy logic can be applied to analysis of environmental impacts for urban land cover. Based on classified Landsat MSS, TM, SPOT, ASTER, SAR and MODIS data was performed a land cover classification and subsequent environmental quality analysis. Spectral signatures of different terrain features were used to separate and classify surface units of urban and sub-urban area. A complete set of criteria to evaluate and examine the urban environmental quality, including the air pollution condition indicators, water pollution indicators, solid waste treated indicators, noise pollution indicators, urban green space have been widely used to assess the urban environmental quality.

  14. Evolution of urban robotic system developments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hagen Schempfa; E. Mutschler; Brian Chemela; S. Nayar; Colin Piepgrasa; William Crowleya; Scott Boehmkea

    1999-01-01

    Urban settings represent a challenging environment for teleoperated and autonomous robot systems. We present several different improved and novel robotic locomotion and exploration\\/inspection systems designed for the arenas of military reconnaissance and even entertainment\\/toys. The designs presented in this paper focus in on all- and flat-floor teleoperated\\/autonomous-capability robotic platforms developed at CMU over the past year. The Pandora and Minidora

  15. Climate and change: simulating flooding impacts on urban transport network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pregnolato, Maria; Ford, Alistair; Dawson, Richard

    2015-04-01

    National-scale climate projections indicate that in the future there will be hotter and drier summers, warmer and wetter winters, together with rising sea levels. The frequency of extreme weather events is expected to increase, causing severe damage to the built environment and disruption of infrastructures (Dawson, 2007), whilst population growth and changed demographics are placing new demands on urban infrastructure. It is therefore essential to ensure infrastructure networks are robust to these changes. This research addresses these challenges by focussing on the development of probabilistic tools for managing risk by modelling urban transport networks within the context of extreme weather events. This paper presents a methodology to investigate the impacts of extreme weather events on urban environment, in particular infrastructure networks, through a combination of climate simulations and spatial representations. By overlaying spatial data on hazard thresholds from a flood model and a flood safety function, mitigated by potential adaptation strategies, different levels of disruption to commuting journeys on road networks are evaluated. The method follows the Catastrophe Modelling approach and it consists of a spatial model, combining deterministic loss models and probabilistic risk assessment techniques. It can be applied to present conditions as well as future uncertain scenarios, allowing the examination of the impacts alongside socio-economic and climate changes. The hazard is determined by simulating free surface water flooding, with the software CityCAT (Glenis et al., 2013). The outputs are overlapped to the spatial locations of a simple network model in GIS, which uses journey-to-work (JTW) observations, supplemented with speed and capacity information. To calculate the disruptive effect of flooding on transport networks, a function relating water depth to safe driving car speed has been developed by combining data from experimental reports (Morris et al., 2011) safety literature (Great Britain Department for Transport, 1999), analysis of videos of cars driving through floodwater, and expert judgement. A preliminary analysis has been run in the Tyne & Wear (in North-East England) region to demonstrate how the analysis can be used to assess the disruptions for commuter journeys due to flooding and will be demonstrated in this paper. The research will also investigate the effectiveness of adaptation strategies for extreme rainfall events, such as permeable surfaces and roof storages for buildings. Multiple scenarios (from the every-day-rainfall to the extreme weather phenomena) will be modelled, with different rainfall rates, rainfall durations and return periods. The comparison between the scenarios in which no interventions are adopted and those improved by one of the adaptation option will be compared to determine the cost-effectiveness of the solution considered. Integrating spatial analysis of transport use with an urban flood model and flood safety function enables the investigation of the impacts of extreme weather on infrastructure networks. Further work will develop the analysis in a number of ways (i) testing a range of flood events with different severity and frequency, (ii) exploration of the influence of climate and socio-economic change (iii) analysis of multiple hazard events and (iv) consideration of cascading disruption across different infrastructure networks.

  16. Sensitivity of Urbanization Impact over China by Using WRF/Chem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, M.; Carmichael, G.

    2012-12-01

    Urbanization in China is an inevitable process coming along with economic development and population boost, which brings two impacts on air quality modeling. One is land-cover change and the other one is the additional stream of anthropogenic heat. In this study, we employed Weather Research Forecasting -Chemistry (WRF-Chem) to evaluate the sensitivity of meteorology and ozone concentrations in response to urbanization, by two cases, Jing-Jin-Ji (JJJ, indicating Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei) and Yangtze River Delta (YRD) areas. The first impact was achieved by updating the default land-cover data in WRF/Chem. Preliminary results showed an increase in 2-m temperature and PBL heights, and a decrease in wind-speed and dew points. For ozone concentrations, after updating land-cover data there was a corresponding rise in the surface level. The maximum increase was as much as 20 ppb for JJJ and 14 ppb for YRD area. The second impact was evaluated by adding anthropogenic heat stream into simulations. This heat stream was developed by considering both urban expansion and peak value at city centers. Test results showed a comparative 2-m temperature increase when compared to the first impact. While for PBL heights and dew points, the difference is negligible. Ozone concentrations within surface layer were also enhanced. The maximum increase was 7 ppb for JJJ area. Taking urbanization into consideration is a significant improvement for air quality modeling over China. After including both 1st and 2nd impact into WRF/Chem, the mean error was reduced by 35.6% for urban locations. One of our ongoing studies is focusing on further improvement of updating more recent land-cover data and anthropogenic heat. Ozone difference after including 1st impact Temporal plots for PKU(urban location)

  17. The Development of Urban Economics in the Twentieth Century

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alan Evans

    2003-01-01

    E VANS A. W. (2003) The development of urban economics in the twentieth century, Reg. Studies 37 , 521-529. This paper was written to mark 25 years of the ESRC Urban and Regional Economics Workshop which began in 1976. The intellectual development of urban economics is traced from its early roots in the writings of Smith and Marshall through to

  18. Urban, Regional and Global Impacts of Biomass Burning Emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artaxo, P.; Ferreira De Brito, J.; Barbosa, H. M.; Rizzo, L. V.; Setzer, A.; Cirino, G.

    2013-05-01

    Biomass burning is a major regional and global driver for atmospheric composition. Its effects in regional and global climate are very significant, but still difficult to assess. Even in large urban areas in Latin America such as Mexico City, Sao Paulo and Santiago, and in developed areas such as Paris and Californian cities it is possible to observe significant biomass burning effects air quality. The wood burning components as well as inner city and vicinities burning if agricultural residues impact heavily the concentration of organic aerosol, carbon monoxide and ozone in urban areas. Regionally, regions such as Amazonia and Central America show large plumes of smoke that extend their impact over continental areas, with changes in the radiation balance, air quality and climate. The deforestation rate in Amazonia have dropped strongly from 27,000 Km2 in 2004 to 6,200 Km2 in 2011, a very significant reduction, but this reduction was not observed in Africa and Southeast Asia. Health effects of biomass burning emissions are very significant, and observed in several key regions. Remote sensing techniques for fire detection have progressed significantly and long time series (10-15 years) are now feasible. The black carbon associated with biomass burning has important impacts in formation and development of clouds in Amazonia and other regions. The organic component of biomass burning emissions scatter light and increase diffuse radiation that alters carbon uptake in large regions of Amazonia and certainly other forested areas. Increase of up to 30% in carbon uptake associated with biomass burning emissions was observed in Amazonia, as part of the LBA Experiment. New analytical methods that quantify the absorption angstrom exponent of biomass burning and fossil fuel black carbon (BC) can differentiate BC from different burning sources. In addition, the hygroscopic properties of particles with a core shell of BC coated with organic compounds can be measured and shows very significant cloud nucleation properties of these complex particles that can change cloud formation and development mechanisms. Recent papers on the radiative forcing of black carbon estimate that BC can have a very high positive forcing of +0.5 watts/m2, and at the same time the organic compounds associated with BC emissions can bring the total radiative forcing to zero. This would imply that policies to reduce BC emissions as a strategy to quickly reduce global warming could not be that much effective. BC continues to be a critically important global driver of climate change, but its effects are still quite unknown.

  19. Innovative Practices in Large Urban Development Projects: Conflicting Frames in the Quest for “New Urbanity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Enrico Gualini; Stan Majoor

    2007-01-01

    Large urban development projects are at the forefront of scholarly attention. This article aims at complementing critical analyses of urban projects from a political-economic perspective with an analysis centred on planning agency and practice. The focus is on the role of innovative planning concepts in the governance process. The question raised is: how can discourse on the urban quality of

  20. Stadium development and urban renewal : a look at Washington, DC

    E-print Network

    Rizzo, James W. (James Watson)

    2008-01-01

    This thesis investigates the factors, related to urban stadium development, that act as a catalyst for subsequent local urban renewal. Over the recent decades there has been substantial debate related to stadium or arena ...

  1. 10th Urban Environment Symposium, 9-11 June 2010, Gothenburg, Sweden Environmental impact assessment of urban mobility plan

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    assessment of urban mobility plan: a methodology including socio-economic consequences Patrice Mestayer1 impacts of urban mobility plans (UMP, in French PDU), taking into account their social and economic in cities increasingly incorporate environmental components. Urban mobility plans are, in France, an essen

  2. Advantages of High Resolution Modeling to Investigate Urbanization Impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirsch, B.; Lopez, S. R.; Condon, L. E.; Maxwell, R. M.

    2012-12-01

    Urban infrastructures have impervious surfaces that directly affect the hydrology of the system. Impervious surfaces affect drainage networks, alter aqueous flow paths, change feedbacks to the atmosphere and promote contaminant transport. Through the usage of a fully integrated physical hydrology model, this study aims to investigate the impacts of green infrastructure within an urban environment. The model used for analysis is ParFlow, a fully coupled physical hydrologic model that simulates surface and subsurface water interactions, coupled with the common land model (CLM) to simulate land surface processes. Analysis includes investigating stormwater routing, infiltration, pollutant transport and water quality during infiltration and storage on a test domain. This work will also investigate, from an economic perspective, the costs of urbanization upon water resources and under what conditions green infrastructure projects may produce positive benefit-cost ratios, as well as how such infrastructure may impact optimal water resource management strategies.

  3. IMPACT OF URBANIZATION ON THE HYDROLOGY OF THE POCONO CREEK WATERSHED: A MODEL STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Pocono Creek watershed located in Monroe County, PA, is threatened by high population growth and urbanization. Of concern specifically is the potential impact of future developments in the watershed on the reduction of base flow and the consequent risk of degradation of wild ...

  4. Parametric sensitivity analysis of noise impact of multihighways in urban areas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mutasem El-Fadel; Shady Shazbak; M. Hadi Baaj; Elie Saliby

    2002-01-01

    Traffic noise along highways varies with the projected growth in future traffic use, particularly near developing urban areas, and the conditions of the tire–road surfacing interface. When traffic demand increases and those interface conditions deteriorate, highway noise impacts become significant and mitigation strategies required. This paper presents a leading application of the US Federal Highway Administration (FHWA)—a newly released Traffic

  5. Urban forest biomass estimates: is it important to use allometric relationships developed specifically for urban trees?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. R. McHale; I. C. Burke; M. A. Lefsky; P. J. Peper; E. G. McPherson

    2009-01-01

    Many studies have analyzed the benefits, costs, and carbon storage capacity associated with urban trees. These studies have\\u000a been limited by a lack of research on urban tree biomass, such that estimates of carbon storage in urban systems have relied\\u000a upon allometric relationships developed in traditional forests. As urbanization increases globally, it is becoming important\\u000a to more accurately evaluate carbon

  6. Approaching Integrated Assessment of Climate Change Impacts on Urban Settlements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Geraldine Li

    2007-01-01

    The interrelationships and interdependencies between humans and their environment are inherently complex and dynamic. Urban settlements are of particular complexity and interest because of their concentrated geographies, form and structure, material flows and cultural and population dynamics. The risk of climate change impacts imposes another level of complexity on such human- environment systems and being able to better understand such

  7. ADAS safety impacts on rural and urban highways

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. J. R. Louwerse; S. P. Hoogendoorn

    2004-01-01

    Compared to the motorway network, rural and urban roads are very unsafe. Advanced Driver Assistance Systems can be used to increase traffic safety, thereby improving the conditions for effective deployment of the underlying network for integrated traffic management. In this study, we have identified ADA systems that are expected to have a high impact on traffic safety by coupling characteristics

  8. EVALUATION OF URBANIZATION IMPACTS ON HYDROLOGY - LABORATORY AND FIELD APPROACHES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Although urbanization has a major impact on watershed hydrology, there have not been many studies to quantify how basic hydrological relationships are altered by the addition of impervious surface under controlled conditions. In addition, few studies have been conducted to quanti...

  9. Impact of anthropogenic heat on urban climate in Tokyo

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Toshiaki Ichinose; Kazuhiro Shimodozono; Keisuke Hanaki

    1999-01-01

    This study quantifies the contribution through energy consumption, to the heat island phenomena and discussed how reductions in energy consumption could mitigate impacts on the urban thermal environment. Very detailed maps of anthropogenic heat in Tokyo were drawn with data from energy statistics and a very detailed digital geographic land use data set including the number of stories of building

  10. Impact of Urbanization on Stormwater Runoff from a Small Urban Catchment: Gda?sk Ma?omiejska Basin Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olechnowicz, Borys; Weinerowska-Bords, Katarzyna

    2014-12-01

    This paper deals with the impact of different forms of urbanization on the basin outflow. The influence of changes in land cover/use, drainage system development, reservoirs, and alternative ways of stormwater management (green roofs, permeable pavements) on basin runoff was presented in the case of a small urban basin in Gdansk (Poland). Seven variants of area development (in the period of 2000-2012) - three historical and four hypothetical - were analyzed. In each case, runoff calculations for three rainfall scenarios were carried out by means of the Hydrologic Modeling System designed by Hydrologic Engineering Center of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (HEC-HMS). The Soil Conservation Service (SCS) Curve Number (CN) method was used for calculations of effective rainfall, the kinematic wave model for those of overland flow, and the Muskingum-Cunge model for those of channel routing. The calculations indicated that urban development had resulted in increased peak discharge and runoff volume and in decreased peak time. On the other hand, a significant reduction in peak values was observed for a relatively small decrease in the normal storage level (NSL) in reservoirs or when green roofs on commercial centers were present. The study confirmed a significant increase in runoff as a result of urbanization and a considerable runoff reduction by simple alternative ways of stormwater management.

  11. Impact of Urbanization on Precipitation Distribution and Intensity over Lake Victoria Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gudoshava, M.; Semazzi, F. H. M.

    2014-12-01

    In this study, sensitivity simulations on the impact of rapid urbanization over Lake Victoria Basin in East Africa were done using a Regional Climate Model (RegCM4.4-rc29) with the Hostetler lake model activated. The simulations were done for the rainy seasons that is the long rains (March-April-May) and short rains (October-November-December). Africa is projected to have a surge in urbanization with an approximate rate of 590% in 2030 over their 2000 levels. The Northern part of Lake Victoria Basin and some parts of Rwanda and Burundi are amongst the regions with high urbanization projections. Simulations were done with the land cover for 2000 and the projected 2030 urbanization levels. The results showed that increasing the urban fraction over the northern part of the basin modified the physical parameters such as albedo, moisture and surface energy fluxes, aerodynamic roughness and surface emissivity, thereby altering the precipitation distribution, intensity and frequency in the region. The change in the physical parameters gave a response of an average increase in temperature of approximately 2oC over the urbanized region. A strong convergence zone was formed over the urbanized region and thereby accelerating the lake-breeze front towards the urbanized region center. Precipitation in the urbanized region and regions immediate to the area increased by approximately 4mm/day, while drying up the southern (non-urbanized) side of the basin. The drying up of the southern side of the basin could be a result of divergent flow and subsidence that suppresses vertical development of storms.

  12. DEVELOPING COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS CONDITIONS FOR URBAN NATURAL VENTILAITON STUDY

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jianqiang Li; Ian C. Ward

    Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is a promising method to study the urban built environment. However, the pecularities of the urban wind environment are difficult to simulate with a CFD package. The aim of this work is to develop CFD model capable of simulating the urban boundary layer which can then be used to investigate the effects of built form on

  13. Urban geological mapping: Geotechnical data analysis for rational development planning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Moufida El May; Mahmoud Dlala; Ismail Chenini

    2010-01-01

    Urban geology provides information on urban geologic environments as a scientific basis for planners and engineers for rational land use planning and urban development. Such mapping can be classified in terms of purpose, content and scale. In this study, procedure for preparation of engineering geological mapping in Tunis City (Tunisia) is given, as a case study. The main restricting factors

  14. Social Justice, Integrated Development Planning and Post apartheid Urban Reconstruction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gustav Visser

    2001-01-01

    The paper focuses on the intersection between South African urban reconstruction and the development of social justice debates in urban geography. Drawing on the distributive choices displayed in post apartheid urban planning strategies the paper sketches the general contours of a contemporary understanding of social justice. It is argued that the structuralist and post-structuralist debates that dominate geographical social justice

  15. Impact of Urbanization on Storm Response of White Rock Creek, Dallas, Texas.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, H.; Groening-Vicars, J.

    2005-12-01

    This study documents hydrological changes resulting from urbanization of the upper sub-basin of White Rock Creek watershed in Collin and Dallas counties, Texas. The 66.4 square mile watershed was transformed from 87% rural in 1961 to 95% urban in 2002, following construction of the Dallas suburbs of Richardson, Addison, Plano and Frisco. The objective of the study was to investigate changes in the storm response of White Rock Creek in terms of peak storm flow, storm flow volume and lag time. The approach employed to compare pre- and post-urbanization hydrology was to develop average unit hydrographs for each time period and use them to generate the creek's storm flow response to a set of six hypothetical precipitation events. The results suggest that substantial hydrological changes have occurred. The average infiltration capacity of the watershed was reduced by about 60%, so that storm flow was generated at lower precipitation intensities in the post-urbanization period. Storm flow peak discharge and volume were more than doubled for a hypothetical 10-year precipitation event. Average lag time was about 45 minutes faster in the post-urbanization period. It was concluded that urbanization has significantly impacted the storm response of the creek and increased the potential for flooding. It is anticipated that similar hydrological changes will occur in other rapidly urbanizing watersheds in the Dallas-Fort Worth Metropolitan region.

  16. Assessing climate impacts of planning policies—An estimation for the urban region of Leipzig (Germany)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nina Schwarz; Annette Bauer; Dagmar Haase

    2011-01-01

    Local climate regulation by urban green areas is an important urban ecosystem service, as it reduces the extent of the urban heat island and therefore enhances quality of life. Local and regional planning policies can control land use changes in an urban region, which in turn alter local climate regulation. Thus, this paper describes a method for estimating the impacts

  17. Simulations of annual degree day impacts of urban vegetative augmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sailor, David J.

    One approach for reducing summertime energy consumption in cities is through implementation of urban vegetation planting programs. While the direct effect of such programs is to cool individual buildings and air conditioning condenser units, there is also an indirect regional cooling associated with increasing vegetative cover. This paper models the regional cooling impacts of urban vegetation augmentation through a series of meteorological simulations. Numerical experiments were conducted for a hypothetical city located at various latitudes (25-45°N) and subjected to several background climate conditions. Simulations were conducted for one day from each month of the year to determine seasonal variability of the impacts of vegetation on urban climates. To provide a simple and useful index of the climatic impact of urban vegetation, cooling and heating degree days were calculated for each simulation. Comparison of baseline degree days for six modeled cities at various latitudes across the United States with the corresponding historical climate data indicate that the modeling approach was successful in reproducing the general temperature profile characteristics of each city. Simulation results indicate that the regional climate can be significantly cooled through the planting of urban vegetation. For regions of low-to-moderate ambient humidity, increasing the vegetative fraction of the core of a hypothetical city by less than 0.065 resulted in an estimated 3-5% decrease in summertime cooling loads. It is believed that this effect could be doubled by application of a more ambitious program. This energy saving is due to the indirect regional cooling effects of vegetation, and does not include the direct energy savings associated with shading of individual buildings. The wintertime energy costs associated with vegetative augmentation were found to be smaller than the summertime savings, and may be negligible in the case of deciduous vegetation.

  18. Restructuring for growth in urban China: Transitional institutions, urban development, and spatial transformation

    E-print Network

    Wei, Yehua Dennis

    , including globalization, tourism, industrial development, and urban development, in the context of shifting & Wei, 2009; Ma, 2002; Wei, 2010; Wu & Phelps, 2011). CBDs and development zones have become frontiers

  19. Evaluation of the environmental impact of the urban energy lifecycle based on lifecycle assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chen; Su, Meirong; Yang, Zhifeng; Liu, Gengyuan

    2014-03-01

    Energy resources have environmental impact through their entire lifecycle. The evaluation of the environmental impacts of the energy lifecycle can contribute to decision making regarding energy management. In this paper, the lifecycle assessment (LCA) method is introduced to calculate the environmental impact loads of different types of energy resources (including coal, oil, natural gas, and electricity) used in urban regions. The scope of LCA includes the production, transportation, and consumption processes. The pollutant emission inventory is listed, and the environmental impact loads are acquired through the calculation of environmental impact potentials, normalization, and weighted assessment. The evaluation method is applied to Beijing, China, revealing that photochemical oxidant formation and acidification are the primary impact factors in the lifecycle of all energy resources and that the total environmental impact load increased steadily from 132.69 million person equivalents (PE) in 1996 to 208.97 million PE in 2010. Among the energy types, coal contributes most to the environmental impact, while the impacts caused by oil, natural gas, and electricity have been growing. The evaluation of the environmental impact of the urban energy lifecycle is useful for regulating energy structures and reducing pollution, which could help achieve sustainable energetic and environmental development.

  20. Impact of Urban Growth on Surface Climate: A Case Study in Oran, Algeria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bounoua, Lahouari; Safia, Abdelmounaine; Masek, Jeffrey; Peters-Lidars, Christaq; Imhoff, Marc L.

    2008-01-01

    We develop a land use map discriminating urban surfaces from other cover types over a semiarid region in North Africa and use it in a land surface model to assess the impact of urbanized land on surface energy, water and carbon balances. Unlike in temperate climates where urbanization creates a marked heat island effect, this effect is not strongly marked in semiarid regions. During summer, the urban class results in an additional warming of 1.45 C during daytime and 0.81 C at night compared to that simulated for needleleaf trees under similar climate conditions. Seasonal temperatures show urban areas warmer than their surrounding during summer and slightly cooler in winter. The hydrological cycle is practically "shut down" during summer and characterized by relatively large amount of runoff in winter. We estimate the annual amount of carbon uptake to 1.94 million metric tons with only 11.9% assimilated during the rainy season. However, if urbanization expands to reach 50% of the total area excluding forests, the annual total carbon uptake will decline by 35% and the July mean temperature would increase only 0.10 C, compared to current situation. In contrast, if urbanization expands to 50% of the total land excluding forests and croplands but all short vegetation is replaced by native broadleaf deciduous trees, the annual carbon uptake would increase 39% and the July mean temperature would decrease by 0.9 C, compared to current configuration. These results provide guidelines for urban planners and land use managers and indicate possibilities for mitigating the urban heat.

  1. Urban Aerosol Impacts on Downwind Convective Storms SUSAN C. VAN DEN HEEVER AND WILLIAM R. COTTON

    E-print Network

    Collett Jr., Jeffrey L.

    Urban Aerosol Impacts on Downwind Convective Storms SUSAN C. VAN DEN HEEVER AND WILLIAM R. COTTON March 2006, in final form 27 September 2006) ABSTRACT The impacts of urban-enhanced aerosol land use processes and aerosol microphysics are both incorporated. The results indicate that urban

  2. Tourism & Urban Development: Building Local Economies & Sense of Place

    E-print Network

    Tourism & Urban Development: Building Local Economies & Sense of Place - Greenwoods Corner - Simon, tourism must sustain and enhance local quality of life ­ "Communities will work for tourism if tourism

  3. Impact of Urbanization and Climate Change on Aquifer Thermal Regimes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luminda Niroshana Gunawardhana; So Kazama; Saeki Kawagoe

    We evaluated the past impacts of urbanization and climate change on groundwater—in particular, aquifer temperature—in the\\u000a Sendai plain, Japan, and further compared with the probable changes due to changing climate in the future. A series of simulations\\u000a were performed and matched with the observed temperature-depth profiles as a preliminary step for parameter calibration. The\\u000a magnitude of ground surface warming estimated

  4. Evaluation of the impact of planning alternative strategies on urban metabolism with the ACASA model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marras, S.; Casula, M.; Pyles, R. D.; Paw U, K. T.; Spano, D.

    2011-12-01

    A crucial point in urban sustainable development is to evaluate the impact that future planning alternatives has on the main factors affecting the citizens liveableness, as the development of the urban heat island or the carbon emissions level. Recent advances in bio-physical sciences have led to new methods and models to estimate energy, water, and carbon fluxes. Also, several studies have addressed urban metabolism issues, but few have integrated the development of numerical tools and methodologies for the analysis of fluxes between a city and its environment with its validation and application in terms of future development alternatives. Over the past several years and most recently within the European Project "BRIDGE", CMCC tested the ACASA (Advanced-Canopy-Atmosphere-Soil Algorithm) land-surface model over agricultural ecosystems (grapes), wild vegetation (forests and Mediterranean maquis), and urban (Florence) or mixed urban/vegetated land (Helsinki). Preliminary results show success in adapting the model to mixed urban systems in each of the main fluxes of interest. The model was improved to adapt it for urban environment, and key parameterizations of leaf-facet scale interactions permit separate accounting of both biogenic and anthropogenic flux sources and sinks, and allow for easy scenario building for simulations designed to test changes in land use or urban planning. In this way, sustainable planning strategies are proposed based on quantitative assessments of energy, water, and carbon fluxes. In this research, three planning alternatives accounting for an increase in urbanization intensity were tested by ACASA in Helsinki (Finland) for the year 2008. Helsinki is located at a high latitude and is characterized by a rapid urbanization that requires a substantial amount of energy for heating. The model behavior for the baseline and alternatives scenarios (i.e., urban classes with low, mid, and high residential intensity) during the entire year was investigated and the model results were compared with in situ Eddy Covariance energy and mass flux measurements. Model sensitivity to land use change and increased population density values was tested individually first. Then, the impact of the three urban classes was evaluated by analyzing energy and mass fluxes produced by combining soil type classes, varying from silty-clay-loam to sand and bedrock, to increased population density values, respectively. Preliminary results are shown and statistical analysis was performed in order to evaluate the model performance for each scenario. From this first analysis, it appeared that ACASA model was able to adequately reproduce the increase in urban heat island and carbon emissions related to rapid urbanization. Also, the model could be used to simulate urban fluxes at both local and regional scale (when coupled to the mesoscale model WRF) and help local administration in planning future sustainable development strategies.

  5. IMPACT OF OPERATION MURAMBATSVINA (RESTORE ORDER) ON FLEA MARKETS IN MUTARE: IMPLICATIONS FOR ACHIEVING MDG 1 AND SUSTAINABLE URBAN LIVELIHOODS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Sigauke

    This study set out to assess the socio-economic impacts of 'Operation Murambatsvina' (Restore Order) on flea market operators in Mutare, and examine the implications of these impacts on achieving the first Millennium Development Goal and sustainable livelihoods among the urban poor. A questionnaire survey and interviews were used as complementary primary data collection methods. The main findings were that females

  6. Urban Sodicity in a Humid Subtropical Climate: Impact on Biogeochemical Cycling 

    E-print Network

    Steele, Meredith Kate

    2012-10-19

    the impact of sodium on carbon and nutrient leaching from the two main contributors; soil and leaf litter, and calculate the sodium exports in a humid subtropical urban river basin. The first chapter reviews the current literature on urbanization...

  7. RIVER QUALITY MODEL FOR URBAN STORMWATER IMPACTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A simplified continuous receiving water quality model has been developed as a planning guide to permit preliminary screening of areawide wastewater management strategies. The model simulates the hypothetical response of the stream or tidal river system to the separate and combine...

  8. A case study predicting environmental impacts of urban transport planning in China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chong; Shao, Li-guo; Xu, Ling; Shang, Jin-cheng

    2009-10-01

    Predicting environmental impacts is essential when performing an environmental assessment on urban transport planning. System dynamics (SD) is usually used to solve complex nonlinear problems. In this study, we utilized system dynamics (SD) to evaluate the environmental impacts associated with urban transport planning in Jilin City, China with respect to the local economy, society, transport, the environment and resources. To accomplish this, we generated simulation models comprising interrelated subsystems designed to utilize changes in the economy, society, road construction, changes in the number of vehicles, the capacity of the road network capacity, nitrogen oxides emission, traffic noise, land used for road construction and fuel consumption associated with traffic to estimate dynamic trends in the environmental impacts associated with Jilin's transport planning. Two simulation scenarios were then analyzed comparatively. The results of this study indicated that implementation of Jilin transport planning would improve the current urban traffic conditions and boost the local economy and development while benefiting the environment in Jilin City. In addition, comparative analysis of the two scenarios provided additional information that can be used to aid in scientific decision-making regarding which aspects of the transport planning to implement in Jilin City. This study demonstrates that our application of the SD method, which is referred to as the Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA), is feasible for use in urban transport planning. PMID:18850296

  9. Regional assessment of urban impacts on landcover and open space finds a smart urban growth policy performs little better than business as usual.

    PubMed

    Thorne, James H; Santos, Maria J; Bjorkman, Jacquelyn H

    2013-01-01

    Assessment of landscape change is critical for attainment of regional sustainability goals. Urban growth assessments are needed because over half the global population now lives in cities, which impact biodiversity, ecosystem structure and ecological processes. Open space protection is needed to preserve these attributes, and provide the resources humans need. The San Francisco Bay Area, California, is challenged to accommodate a population increase of 3.07 million while maintaining the region's ecosystems and biodiversity. Our analysis of 9275 km˛ in the Bay Area links historic trends for three measures: urban growth, protected open space, and landcover types over the last 70 years to future 2050 projections of urban growth and open space. Protected open space totaled 348 km˛ (3.7% of the area) in 1940, and expanded to 2221 km˛ (20.2%) currently. An additional 1038 km˛ of protected open space is targeted (35.1%). Urban area historically increased from 396.5 km˛ to 2239 km˛ (24.1% of the area). Urban growth during this time mostly occurred at the expense of agricultural landscapes (62.9%) rather than natural vegetation. Smart Growth development has been advanced as a preferred alternative in many planning circles, but we found that it conserved only marginally more open space than Business-as-usual when using an urban growth model to portray policies for future urban growth. Scenarios to 2050 suggest urban development on non-urban lands of 1091, 956, or 179 km˛, under Business-as-usual, Smart Growth and Infill policy growth scenarios, respectively. The Smart Growth policy converts 88% of natural lands and agriculture used by Business-as-usual, while Infill used only 40% of those lands. Given the historic rate of urban growth, 0.25%/year, and limited space available, the Infill scenario is recommended. While the data may differ, the use of an historic and future framework to track these three variables can be easily applied to other metropolitan areas. PMID:23755204

  10. Guidelines for urban development in Louisiana's coastal wetlands

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anthony J. Mumphrey Jr; Jane Schleichardt Brooks

    1978-01-01

    Coastal Louisiana is currently experiencing extensive urban growth as its natural resources are exploited. Such growth is projected to continue for the foreseeable future. This article examines problems encountered in developing wetland areas for community use. The urban development process in the coastal zone is examined using a problem?identification methodology. This methodology consists of examining each of the stages of

  11. Department of Urban and Rural Development Division of Environmental Communication

    E-print Network

    1 (1) Department of Urban and Rural Development Division of Environmental Communication Stina Powell List of publications Stina Powell Department of Urban and Rural Development P.O. Box 7012, SE-750.slu.se/urd/ec Publications 2013, Powell, S. Ah-King, M. A case study of integrating gender perspectives in teaching

  12. Land Subsidence and Urban Development in Jakarta (Indonesia)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hasanuddin Z. ABIDIN; Heri ANDREAS; Irwan GUMILAR; Mohammad GAMAL

    SUMMARY Jakarta is the capital city of Indonesia with a population of about 9 people, inhabiting an area of about 660 square-km. In the last three decades, urban development of Jakarta has grown very rapidly in the sectors of industry, trade, transportation, real estate and many others. This exponentially increase urban development introduce several environmental problems. Land subsidence is one

  13. The Commitment of Urban Schools to Human Development Goals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Franklin Ross

    This paper is concerned with the commitment of urban schools to human development goals. The urban school systems examined here are represented by localities with populations above 100,000 in each of the states on the eastern seaboard from Virginia to Florida. The vehicle for examining the relationship of school systems to human development goals…

  14. Urban Units as an Analysis Tool for Mega-Urban Development. The Case of Guangzhou, China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ramona Strohschön; Klaus Baier; Rafig Azzam

    In China urbanization developed quite late in international comparison due to the household registration system which made migration into cities difficult until the state opened politically and economically in 1978. Since then the study area Guangzhou, located in the Pearl River Delta, belongs to one of the most dynamic and rapid growing regions in China. Migration, industrialization and urbanization led

  15. A Sensitivity Model (SM) approach to analyze urban development in Taiwan based on sustainability indicators

    SciTech Connect

    Huang Shuli [Graduate Institute of Urban Planning, National Taipei University, Taipei, 104 Taiwan (China)], E-mail: shuli@mail.ntpu.edu.tw; Yeh Chiatsung [Graduate Institute of Urban Planning, National Taipei University, Taipei, 104 Taiwan (China)], E-mail: alexyeh@url.com.tw; Budd, William W. [Division of Governmental Studies and Services, Washington State University, PO Box 644870, Troy Hall 310, Pullman, WA 99164-4870 (United States)], E-mail: budd@wsu.edu; Chen Liling [Department of Private Participation in Infrastructures, CECI Engineering Consultants, Inc. Taipei, 106 Taiwan (China)], E-mail: lily@ceci.com.tw

    2009-02-15

    Sustainability indicators have been widely developed to monitor and assess sustainable development. They are expected to guide political decision-making based on their capability to represent states and trends of development. However, using indicators to assess the sustainability of urban strategies and policies has limitations - as they neither reflect the systemic interactions among them, nor provide normative indications in what direction they should be developed. This paper uses a semi-quantitative systematic model tool (Sensitivity Model Tools, SM) to analyze the role of urban development in Taiwan's sustainability. The results indicate that the natural environment in urban area is one of the most critical components and the urban economic production plays a highly active role in affecting Taiwan's sustainable development. The semi-quantitative simulation model integrates sustainability indicators and urban development policy to provide decision-makers with information about the impacts of their decisions on urban development. The system approach incorporated by this paper can be seen as a necessary, but not sufficient, condition for a sustainability assessment. The participatory process of expert participants for providing judgments on the relations between indicator variables is also discussed.

  16. Built cultural heritage and sustainable urban development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christopher Tweed; Margaret Sutherland

    2007-01-01

    Current debates about urban sustainability tend to focus on technical issues, such as carbon emissions, energy consumption and waste management, or on the economic aspects of urban regeneration and growth. Increasingly, however, governments recognise the contribution that built cultural heritage makes to the social well-being of different groups living within increasingly cosmopolitan towns and cities. Heritage is seen as a

  17. 75 FR 38514 - Notice of Funding Availability for the Department of Housing and Urban Development's Community...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-02

    ...DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION...Availability for the Department of Housing and Urban Development's Community Challenge Planning...should read ``Department of Housing and Urban Development''. [FR Doc. C1...

  18. The Integrated WRF/Urban Modeling System: Development, Evaluation, and Applications to Urban Environmental Problems

    EPA Science Inventory

    To bridge the gaps between traditional mesoscale modelling and microscale modelling, the National Center for Atmospheric Research, in collaboration with other agencies and research groups, has developed an integrated urban modelling system coupled to the weather research and fore...

  19. Continued Effort and Success: An Urban Professional School Development Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corrigan, Diane G.; Weber, Edward J.; Francis, Kiffany

    2013-01-01

    The PDS partnership between the Cleveland State University Master of Urban Secondary Teaching (MUST) program and the Cleveland School of Science and Medicine (CSSM) has an established history of preparing educators to teach in urban schools. Recently awarded the NAPDS Award for Exemplary Professional Development School Achievement, this…

  20. Impact of Low-Level Jets on the Nocturnal Urban Heat Island Intensity in Oklahoma City

    E-print Network

    Xue, Ming

    modifications is the so-called urban heat island (UHI) effect, in which near-surface temperaturesImpact of Low-Level Jets on the Nocturnal Urban Heat Island Intensity in Oklahoma City XIAO-MING HU that urban heat islands (UHIs) frequently formed at night and the observed UHI intensity was variable (18­48C

  1. The impact study of urban heat island effect caused by surface land use changes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tien-Yin Chou; Lung-Shih Yang; Chih-Hung Liu; Yuanling Chang

    2009-01-01

    Urban heat island (UHI) effect can be characterized by increasing surface and atmospheric temperature and decreasing rainfall amount in urban area. This research detected the impact of urban land use changes to UHI effect in Taichung city at Taiwan by temporal ASTER and MODIS satellite images and measured data from ground thermometer stations. From spatially analyzed data output, the results

  2. Three decades of urbanization: Estimating the impact of land-cover change on stream salamander populations

    E-print Network

    Dorcas, Michael E.

    Three decades of urbanization: Estimating the impact of land-cover change on stream salamander: Desmognathus fuscus Eurycea cirrigera Land cover change North Carolina Northern dusky salamander Southern two-lined salamander Urban sprawl A B S T R A C T Urbanization has become the dominant form of landscape disturbance

  3. On the impact of urban climate on the energy consumption of buildings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M Santamouris; N Papanikolaou; I Livada; I Koronakis; C Georgakis; A Argiriou; D. N Assimakopoulos

    2001-01-01

    Climatic measurements from almost 30 urban and suburban stations as well as specific measurements performed in 10 urban canyons in Athens, Greece, have been used to assess the impact of the urban climate on the energy consumption of buildings. It is found that for the city of Athens, where the mean heat island intensity exceeds 10°C, the cooling load of

  4. Interpersonal Relationships and the Development of Behavior Problems in Adolescents in Urban Schools: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montague, Marjorie; Cavendish, Wendy; Enders, Craig; Dietz, Samantha

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the trajectories of behavioral problems for a sample of predominately minority adolescents (n = 212, 91% African-American and/or Hispanic, 45% boys, 55% girls) in a large, urban school district and to determine the impact of parental and peer relationships, gender, and risk status on their development

  5. Dogs in the Hall: A Case Study of Affective Skill Development in an Urban Veterinary Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Michael; Tummons, John; Ball, Anna; Bird, William

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this bounded single case study was to explore how an urban high school veterinary program impacted students' affective skill development. The program was unique because students were required to participate in internships with local animal care businesses and care for animals within the school veterinary laboratory. The…

  6. Workshop Report On Sustainable Urban Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Langhoff, Stephanie; Martin, Gary; Barone, Larry; Wagener, Wolfgang

    2010-01-01

    The key workshop goal was to explore and document how NASA technologies, such as remote sensing, climate modeling, and high-end computing and visualization along with NASA assets such as Earth Observing Satellites (EOS) and Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) can contribute to creating and managing a sustainable urban environment. The focus was on the greater Bay Area, but many aspects of the workshop were applicable to urban management at the local, regional and global scales. A secondary goal was to help NASA better understand the problems facing urban managers and to make city leaders in the Bay Area more aware of NASA's capabilities. By bringing members of these two groups together we hope to see the beginnings of new collaborations between NASA and those faced with instituting sustainable urban management in Bay Area cities.

  7. The impact of meteorological parameters on urban air quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramsey, Nicole R.; Klein, Petra M.; Moore, Berrien

    2014-04-01

    Previous studies have shown that global climate change will have a significant impact on both regional and urban air quality. As air temperatures continue to rise and mid-latitude cyclone frequencies decrease, the overall air quality is expected to degrade. Climate models are currently predicting an increased frequency of record setting heat and drought for Oklahoma during the summer months. A statistical analysis was thus performed on ozone and meteorological data to evaluate the potential effect of increasing surface temperatures and stagnation patterns on urban air quality in the Oklahoma City Metropolitan area. Compared to the climatological normal, the years 2011 and 2012 were exceptionally warm and dry, and were therefore used as case study years for determining the impact of hot, dry conditions on air quality. These results were then compared to cooler, wetter summers to show how urban air quality is affected by a change in meteorological parameters. It was found that an increase in summertime heat and a decrease in summertime precipitation will lead to a substantial increase in both the minimum and maximum ozone concentrations as well as an increase in the total number of exceedance days. During the hotter, drier years, the number of days with ozone concentrations above the legal regulatory limit increased nearly threefold. The length of time in which humans and crops are exposed to these unsafe levels was also doubled. Furthermore, a significant increase was noted in the overnight minimum ozone concentrations. This in turn can lead to significant, adverse affects on both health and agriculture statewide.

  8. Impact on Professional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nolan, Jim, Jr.; Grove, Doris; Leftwich, Horatio; Mark, Kelly; Peters, Brian

    2011-01-01

    The focus of this chapter is on the evidence to date that documents the impact of PDS engagement on four specific groups of participants: veteran P-12 teachers, university faculty, P-12 school principals, and parents and community members. In reviewing the literature concerning the impact of PDS engagement on these four groups, the authors'…

  9. ECOLOGICAL SUSTAINABILITY IN RAPIDLY URBANIZING WATERSHEDS: EVALUATING STRATEGIES DESIGNED TO MITIGATE IMPACTS ON STREAM ECOSYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Urbanization has profound impacts on the hydrology and ecology of streams via alteration in water temperatures, peak and base flows, and nutrient, sediment, and contaminant inputs. Storm water management (SWM) is commonly used to reduce these impacts; however, comprehensive w...

  10. The impact of urban land expansion on soil quality in rapidly urbanizing regions in China: Kunshan as a case study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jian Zhang; Lijie Pu; Buzhuo Peng; Zhonggui Gao

    2011-01-01

    At a stage of rapid economic development and urbanization in China, most cities are faced with serious problems caused by\\u000a environment deterioration such as pollution, space press, afforestation degradation, and disordering. Kunshan City, one of\\u000a the most economically vigorous regions in China, has suffered a more prominent conflict between urbanization and environmental\\u000a safety. In this paper, urban land expansion in

  11. 11:776:402 Weeds: Impact & Management in Urban Landscapes (WIMUL) (3 credits)

    E-print Network

    Chen, Kuang-Yu

    11:776:402 Weeds: Impact & Management in Urban Landscapes (WIMUL) (3 credits) Normally OfferedCompanion Description: This is a senior level course which, in three modules, examines the impact of weeds in urban.); industrial sites; rights of way (rails & roads); etc. Module 1 of WIMUL covers the basic principles of weed

  12. Functional Zoning and Urban Development Tendencies of Bucharest City/Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armas, Iuliana; Dumitrascu, Silvia

    2010-05-01

    Any form of urban development policy for environmental management should be based on the differentiation of the structure of a territory that can be found in the shape of functional zoning. Identifying the patterns of morphological structure of the urban space can provide essential clues concerning the proper measures to take into consideration during the activity of urban planning. In this sense, the Bucharest municipality study case provides the example of a dynamic urban space with a complex and distinctive evolutionary structure. The aim of the study is to set out the main events that shaped the Bucharest city space and the patterns resulted from their impact at the functional level of the Romanian capital. In order to identify the development tendencies of the Bucharest municipality, a series of aspects concerning urban morphology should be highlighted that reveal the impact of the socio-economical policies at the structural level of the territory. In this sense, three images of the urban space stand out, representative for the period when they materialized: the Post-Byzantine (XV-XVIII), the Fanariot (XVIII) and the Modern periods (XIX-XX). The corresponding cartographic documents analyzed are: the Franz Purcel Plan (dated 1789), the Romanian Guide Print Plan and, respectively, the AGC Busman Print Plan. The analysis reveals three distinctive morphological types: radial-concentric in the 17th century, polynuclear in the 18th century, leading to the mixed character in the Modern period. The latest trait of the urban territory is based on the concentric character of the street network (three circles were identified at the level of the capital city that point out the evolution of the urban space: Dacia bv-Mircea Vulcanescu, Stefan cel Mare bv-Iancu de Hunedoara and the last circle outlined by the ring road) and the presence of multiple nuclei that accumulate the commercial, administrative and business functions of the city.

  13. Transformative Professional Development: A Model for Urban Science Education Reform

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carla C. Johnson; Sherry Marx

    2009-01-01

    This study presents a model of Transformative Professional Development (TPD) for use in sustained, collaborative, professional\\u000a development of teachers in urban middle school science. TPD focuses on urban science teacher change and is responsive to school\\u000a climate, teacher needs, and teacher beliefs with the intention of promoting change in practice. In this study, TPD was used\\u000a to meet the needs

  14. Upstream urbanization exacerbates urban heat island effects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Da-Lin Zhang; Yi-Xuan Shou; Russell R. Dickerson

    2009-01-01

    Urban Heat Island (UHI) effects adversely impact weather, air quality, and climate. Previous studies have attributed UHI effects to localized, surface processes. Based on an observational and modeling study of an extreme UHI (heat wave) episode in the Baltimore metropolitan region, we find that upstream urbanization exacerbates UHI effects and that meteorological consequences of extra-urban development can cascade well downwind.

  15. The impact of urban renewal and gentrification on urban fabric: three cases in Turkey

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Nil Uzun

    2003-01-01

    Since the 1980s, the urban restructuration process has had important effects on cities. One of these is the transformation of urban residential space, which includes processes such as urban renewal and gentrification. The aim of this paper is to briefly examine three urban residential transformation processes in Turkey. Two of these are examples of gentrification of two different neighbourhoods in

  16. Impact of urbanization level on urban air quality: a case of fine particles (PM(2.5)) in Chinese cities.

    PubMed

    Han, Lijian; Zhou, Weiqi; Li, Weifeng; Li, Li

    2014-11-01

    We examined and compared PM2.5 concentrations in urban and the surrounding regions, and further investigated the impact of urbanization on urban PM2.5 concentrations at the Chinese prefectures. Annual PM2.5 concentrations in most prefectures were greater than 10 ?g/m(3), the air quality guideline of the World Health Organization. Those prefectures were mainly distributed along the east coast and southeast of Sichuan province; The urban PM2.5 concentrations ( [Formula: see text] ) in 85 cities were greater than (>10 ?g/m(3)) those in the surrounding area. Those cities were mainly located in the Beijing-Sichuan and Shanghai-Guangxi belts. In addition, [Formula: see text] was less than (<0 ?g/m(3)) that in surrounding areas in only 41 prefectures, which were located in western China or nearby mega cities; Significant positive correlations were found between [Formula: see text] and urban population (R(2) = 0.99, P < 0.05), and between [Formula: see text] and urban second industry fraction (R(2) = 0.71, P < 0.05), suggesting that urbanization had considerable impact on PM2.5 concentrations. PMID:25113968

  17. Assessment tools for urban catchments: developing biological indicators based on benthic macroinvertebrates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Purcell, A.H.; Bressler, D.W.; Paul, M.J.; Barbour, M.T.; Rankin, E.T.; Carter, J.L.; Resh, V.H.

    2009-01-01

    Biological indicators, particularly benthic macroinvertebrates, are widely used and effective measures of the impact of urbanization on stream ecosystems. A multimetric biological index of urbanization was developed using a large benthic macroinvertebrate dataset (n = 1,835) from the Baltimore, Maryland, metropolitan area and then validated with datasets from Cleveland, Ohio (n = 79); San Jose, California (n = 85); and a different subset of the Baltimore data (n = 85). The biological metrics used to develop the multimetric index were selected using several criteria and were required to represent ecological attributes of macroinvertebrate assemblages including taxonomic composition and richness (number of taxa in the insect orders of Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera), functional feeding group (number of taxa designated as filterers), and habit (percent of individuals which cling to the substrate). Quantile regression was used to select metrics and characterize the relationship between the final biological index and an urban gradient (composed of population density, road density, and urban land use). Although more complex biological indices exist, this simplified multimetric index showed a consistent relationship between biological indicators and urban conditions (as measured by quantile regression) in three climatic regions of the United States and can serve as an assessment tool for environmental managers to prioritize urban stream sites for restoration and protection.

  18. The Association of Urbanicity with Cognitive Development at Five Years of Age in Preterm Children

    PubMed Central

    Gouin, Marion; Flamant, Cyril; Gascoin, Géraldine; Rouger, Valérie; Florin, Agnčs; Guimard, Philippe; Rozé, Jean-Christophe; Hanf, Matthieu

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine the association of urbanicity, defined as living in an urban area, with cognitive development at five years of age in preterm children who were free of any disabilities or neurodevelopmental delays. Design Prospective population-based cohort. Setting French regional Loire Infant Follow-up Team (LIFT) network. Participants Included in the study were 1738 surviving infants born between March 2003 and December 2008 before 35 weeks of gestational age. At two years of age, the children were free of any disabilities and neurodevelopmental delays and were living in the Pays de la Loire region from their birth to five years of age. Main Outcome Measures The cognitive development at five years of age was evaluated with the Global School Adaptation score (GSA). The urbanicity of the residence for each child was classified into three groups: urban, quasi-rural, and rural area. Results Quantile regression approaches were used to identify a significant association between urbanicity and the GSA score at five years of age (adjusting for child and family characteristics). We found that the negative impact of urbanicity on the GSA score was more important for the lower quantile of the GSA scores. Conclusions Urbanicity was significantly associated with cognitive neurodevelopment at five years of age in preterm children born before 35 weeks of gestation. Complementary results additionally suggest that this relation could be mediated at the residence level by a high socioeconomic deprivation level. If these results are confirmed, more personalized follow-ups could be developed for preterm children. Further studies are needed to finely identify the contextual characteristics of urbanicity that underlie this association. PMID:26161862

  19. Inequitable access to urban reforestation: the impact of urban political economy on housing tenure and urban forests

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Harold A. Perkins; Nik Heynen; Joe Wilson

    2004-01-01

    There has been substantial attention given to the benefits provided by urban forests, but little emphasis placed on the distribution of urban trees and the means by which trees are redistributed through urban reforestation efforts. This paper examines the 2002 program Greening Milwaukee, the city’s largest public\\/private tree planting program. The vast majority of trees planted for this program are

  20. Hamburg Urban Soil Climate Observatory (HUSCO): A concept to assess the impact of moisture and energy fluxes of urban soils on local climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandoval, S.; Ament, F.; Kutzbach, L.; Eschenbach, A.

    2010-09-01

    Soil as a storage and transmitter for water and thermal energy is able to influence and modify the local climate. The aim of this research project is a more precise understanding of the interactions between pedosphere and atmosphere in urban environments. HUSCO focuses on the impact of the modified soil hydrology by different typical urban structural units. The local effect of groundwater and soil properties on meteorological variables in the urban environment will be assessed by integrated flux measurements over urban districts with different groundwater table depth and urban land-uses. The results should open up opportunities to make more tangible predictions about the impacts of climate change in urban areas and to develop adaptation strategies to climate change for urban planning. Long-term measurements will start in early summer 2010 in the city of Hamburg, Germany. To quantify the climate-controlling processes, like fluxes of energy and water, two stationary and one temporary and mobile Eddy covariance system will be used, and various soil measurement stations will be mounted to analyze seasonal variations in soil water balance, ground water table and soil thermal properties. To detect the resulting climate effects, namely the heterogeneity of temperature and humidity in urban areas, coupled "Meteo-stations" will be set up to analyze core atmospheric parameters. In addition, data of the weather mast of Hamburg will be used to evaluate the greater meteorological conditions. The measurement sites were selected with regard to the local groundwater table, the type of housing estate, and size and vegetation of the green space. Two measurement sites - i.e. two urban districts - with different groundwater table depths were chosen: a low groundwater table depth of < 2.5 m and a high groundwater table depth of > 5 m. Each site features two measurement stations, one located in a housing estate and one in a green space. Another two stations will be located inside a sealed courtyard, and in a perimeter block development district. The two Eddy covariance stations will be mounted at heights of about 30 - 40 m located in the housing estates, with a supplementary Meteo-station and soil measurement stations. Temporarily, a mobile Eddy covariance station will be set up inside the green spaces to determine the local occurring fluxes. Furthermore, data of existing observational networks throughout Hamburg will be integrated. We will present objectives of the project, the design of experiments and the selection of investigation sites as well as first data of the mounted measurement stations and the analyzed data of an existing observational network. Acknowledgment: The project is founded by DFG as a part of the cluster of excellence "Integrated Climate System Analysis and Prediction (CliSAP)", KlimaCampus Hamburg

  1. Modelling the catchment-scale environmental impacts of wastewater treatment in an urban sewage system for CO? emission assessment.

    PubMed

    Mouri, Goro; Oki, Taikan

    2010-01-01

    Water shortages and water pollution are a global problem. Increases in population can have further acute effects on water cycles and on the availability of water resources. Thus, wastewater management plays an important role in mitigating negative impacts on natural ecosystems and human environments and is an important area of research. In this study, we modelled catchment-scale hydrology, including water balances, rainfall, contamination, and urban wastewater treatment. The entire water resource system of a basin, including a forest catchment and an urban city area, was evaluated synthetically from a spatial distribution perspective with respect to water quantity and quality; the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) technique was applied to optimize wastewater treatment management with the aim of improving water quality and reducing CO? emissions. A numerical model was developed to predict the water cycle and contamination in the catchment and city; the effect of a wastewater treatment system on the urban region was evaluated; pollution loads were evaluated quantitatively; and the effects of excluding rainwater from the treatment system during flooding and of urban rainwater control on water quality were examined. Analysis indicated that controlling the amount of rainwater inflow to a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) in an urban area with a combined sewer system has a large impact on reducing CO? emissions because of the load reduction on the urban sewage system. PMID:20729603

  2. Modelling regional climate change and urban planning scenarios and their impacts on the urban environment in two cities with WRF-ACASA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falk, M.; Pyles, R. D.; Marras, S.; Spano, D.; Paw U, K. T.

    2011-12-01

    The number of urban metabolism studies has increased in recent years, due to the important impact that energy, water and carbon exchange over urban areas have on climate change. Urban modeling is therefore crucial in the future design and management of cities. This study presents the ACASA model coupled to the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF-ARW) mesoscale model to simulate urban fluxes at a horizontal resolution of 200 meters for urban areas of roughly 100 km^2. As part of the European Project "BRIDGE", these regional simulations were used in combination with remotely sensed data to provide constraints on the land surface types and the exchange of carbon and energy fluxes from urban centers. Surface-atmosphere exchanges of mass and energy were simulated using the Advanced Canopy Atmosphere Soil Algorithm (ACASA). ACASA is a multi-layer high-order closure model, recently modified to work over natural, agricultural as well as urban environments. In particular, improvements were made to account for the anthropogenic contribution to heat and carbon production. For two cities four climate change and four urban planning scenarios were simulated: The climate change scenarios include a base scenario (Sc0: 2008 Commit in IPCC), a medium emission scenario (Sc1: IPCC A2), a worst case emission scenario (Sce2: IPCC A1F1) and finally a best case emission scenario (Sce3: IPCC B1). The urban planning scenarios include different development scenarios such as smart growth. The two cities are a high latitude city, Helsinki (Finland) and an historic city, Florence (Italy). Helsinki is characterized by recent, rapid urbanization that requires a substantial amount of energy for heating, while Florence is representative of cities in lower latitudes, with substantial cultural heritage and a comparatively constant architectural footprint over time. In general, simulated fluxes matched the point observations well and showed consistent improvement in the energy partitioning over urban regions. We present comparisons of observed (EC) tower flux observations from the Florence (Ximeniano) site for 1-9 April, 2008 with results from two sets of high-resolution simulations: the first using dynamically-downscaled input/boundary conditions (Model-0) and the second using fully nested WRF-ACASA (Model-1). In each simulation the model physics are the same; only the WRF domain configuration differs. Preliminary results (Figure 1) indicate a degree of parity (and a slight statistical improvement), in the performances of Model-1 vs. that of Model-0 with respect to observed. Figure 1 (below) shows air temperature values from observed and both model estimates. Additional results indicate that care must be taken to configure the WRF domain, as performance appears to be sensitive to model configuration.

  3. The impact of urban geometry on cognitive maps

    E-print Network

    Mohsenin, Mahsan (SeyedehMahsan)

    2011-01-01

    This thesis investigates the relationship between urban geometry and cognitive maps. It is focused on the question of how human cognition of the built environment is affected by urban geometry. Building on the foundations ...

  4. Methodologies for Analyzing Impact of Urbanization on Irrigation Districts 

    E-print Network

    Bonaiti, G.; Fipps, G.

    2011-01-01

    The region of Texas along the Mexican border has been experiencing rapid urban growth. This has caused fragmentation of many irrigation districts who are struggling to address the resulting challenges. In this paper, we analyze the growth of urban...

  5. Effects of Global Change on U.S. Urban Areas: Vulnerabilities, Impacts, and Adaptation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quattrochi, Dale A.; Wilbanks, Thomas J.; Kirshen, Paul; Romero-Lankao, Patricia; Rosenzweig, Cynthia; Ruth, Mattias; Solecki, William; Tarr, Joel

    2008-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews some of the effects that global change has on urban areas in the United States and how the growth of urban areas will affect the environment. It presents the elements of our Synthesis and Assessment Report (SAP) report that relate to what vulnerabilities and impacts will occur, what adaptation responses may take place, and what possible effects on settlement patterns and characteristics will potentially arise, on human settlements in the U.S. as a result of climate change and climate variability. We will also present some recommendations about what should be done to further research on how climate change and variability will impact human settlements in the U.S., as well as how to engage government officials, policy and decision makers, and the general public in understanding the implications of climate change and variability on the local and regional levels. Additionally, we wish to explore how technology such as remote sensing data coupled with modeling, can be employed as synthesis tools for deriving insight across a spectrum of impacts (e.g. public health, urban planning for mitigation strategies) on how cities can cope and adapt to climate change and variability. This latter point parallels the concepts and ideas presented in the U.S. National Academy of Sciences, Decadal Survey report on "Earth Science Applications from Space: National Imperatives for the Next Decade and Beyond" wherein the analysis of the impacts of climate change and variability, human health, and land use change are listed as key areas for development of future Earth observing remote sensing systems.

  6. Stream ecosystems change with urban development

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bell, Amanda H.; James, F. Coles; McMahon, Gerard

    2012-01-01

    The healthy condition of the physical living space in a natural stream—defined by unaltered hydrology (streamflow), high diversity of habitat features, and natural water chemistry—supports diverse biological communities with aquatic species that are sensitive to disturbances. In a highly degraded urban stream, the poor condition of the physical living space—streambank and tree root damage from altered hydrology, low diversity of habitat, and inputs of chemical contaminants—contributes to biological communities with low diversity and high tolerance to disturbance.

  7. Estimating the effects of urban residential development on water quality using microdata.

    PubMed

    Atasoy, Mary; Palmquist, Raymond B; Phaneuf, Daniel J

    2006-06-01

    In this study, we examine the impact on water quality of urbanization using disaggregate data from Wake County, North Carolina. We use a unique panel data set tracing the conversion of individual residentially zoned land parcels to relate the density of residential development and the change in residential land use to three measures of water quality. Using a spatial econometrics model, we relate spatially and temporally referenced monitoring station readings to our measures of residential land use while controlling for other factors affecting water quality. We find that both the density of residential land use and the rate of land conversion have a negative impact on water quality. The impacts of these non-point sources are found to be larger in magnitude than those from urban point sources. PMID:16303238

  8. Results of the round table "Impact of natural and man-made hazards on urban areas"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bostenaru-Dan, Maria; Olga Gociman, Cristina; Hostiuc, Constantin; Mihaila, Marina; Gheorghe (Popovici), Diana Alexandra; Anghelache, Mirela Adriana; Dutu, Andreea; Tascu-Stavre, Miroslav

    2015-04-01

    On Thursday the 6th of November a round table was organised at the Centre of Architectural and Urban Studies of the "Ion Mincu" University of Architecture and Urban Planning on the topic of this session. It included a review of the previous editions, and an outlook to the edition this year. We shared publications, and a publication is in work from the round table itself. The series of round tables at the Centre of Architectural and Urban Studies is an innitiative of Constantin Hostiuc, the secretary general of the centre. This round table was organised by Maria Bostenaru Dan, and moderated by Cristina Olga Gociman, who currently runs a project on a related topic. From the various ways to approach the effects of hazards, up to the disatrous ones, on urban areas, we consider the most suitable the approach to the impact. From the point of view of natural sciences and of the engineering ones this was approached a number of times, and newly social sciences are included as well. The role of planning and design for a better prevention, and even post-disaster intervention is ignored many times though. The goal of the round table was to bring together multidisciplinary approaches (architecture, urban planning, seismology, geography, structural engineering, ecology, communication sciences, art history) on a problem set from this point of view. Discussed topics were: 1. Assessment and mapping methods of the impact of natural hazards on urban areas (preventive, postdisaster) 2. Visualisation and communication techniques of the assessed impact, including GIS, internet, 3D 3. Strategies for the reduction of the impact of natural hazards on urban areas 4. Suitable methods of urban design for the mitigation of the effects of disasters in multihazard case 5. Partnership models among the involved actors in the decision process for disaster mitigaton 6. Urban planning instruments for risc management strategies (ex. master plan) 7. Lessons learned from the relationship between hazard, vulnerability and impact in recent events 8. Investigation o urban morphology for better estimation of urban vulnerability (interaction between neighbouring buildings, the influence of the position of a building in the historical centre, ...) 9. Investigation of urban morphology to assess postdisaster accesibility of strategical buildings, the role of the urban pattern for emergency vehicles 11. Quantifying models of vulnerability through questionnaires based on point numbers - the role of statistics 12. Interactions between the urban systems which can increase/decrease vulnerability 13. The approach difference in the impact on protected urban areas as compared on common urban areas. 14. Keeping the memory in reconstruction/reshape efforts after disasters, the role of heritage habitat.

  9. Impact of temperature on oxidant photochemistry in urban, polluted rural and remote environments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sanford Sillman; Perry J. Samson

    1995-01-01

    The impact of temperature on formation of O3 and odd nitrogen photochemistry is investigated using urban-, regional-, and global-scale simulations. Urban and polluted rural environments are explored with a regional simulation derived from a specific episode in the midwestern United States. The simulations predict that O3 increases with temperature in both urban and polluted rural environments. The O3-temperature relation is

  10. Effects of train impacts on urban turnouts: Modelling and validation through measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruni, S.; Anastasopoulos, I.; Alfi, S.; Van Leuven, A.; Gazetas, G.

    2009-07-01

    Train-track interaction at turnouts is a main issue in the design and maintenance of railway systems. Due to the particular geometry of wheel-rail contact and to the sudden variation of track flexibility, severe impact loads may occur during train passage over the turnout. In this paper, two different modelling approaches to reproduce train-turnout interaction are proposed and compared. A first technique, developed by Politecnico di Milano, is based on a detailed multi-body model of the trainset and of wheel-rail contact, whereas for the turnout structure a simplified finite element model is used. The second modelling technique, developed by the National Technical University of Athens, relies on a detailed finite element model of the turnout, while a simplified model is used to compute impact loading due to wheel passage. In this paper the two methods are validated trough comparison with line measurements performed on turnout systems from three different urban railway networks.

  11. Data and Information Management: Essential Basis for Sustainable Urban Management and Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geerders, P.; Kokke, E.

    2011-08-01

    Management of the urban environment and urban development require well organized data and information as a basis for decision making, planning and policy development. Such data and information needs to be up-to-date, reliable and complete, and moreover be available at the time of need. The latter is especially relevant in the case of disasters such as fires, flooding, earthquakes and volcanic eruptions. Current and future impacts of the on-going climate changes increase the need for geo-referenced data and information on environment, biodiversity and public health, in support of preparation, protection, mitigation and reconstruction. It is important that urban authorities devote more attention and resources to data and information management in order to be able to cope with the present and future challenges of ever growing cities with increasing impacts on their surroundings, and moreover to deal with the impacts of environment and biodiversity on the cities, their population and economies. SOD, Woerden has a long and successful track record of certified training and education in the field of data and information management for authorities, including urban government. The courses provided by SOD cover a wide range of subjects from metadata and digitizing, to enterprise content management and geo-information management. While focused on the Netherlands, SOD also has initiated similar training opportunities in Belgium and Surinam, and efforts are under way in other countries. P. Geerders Consultancy has considerable experience as a consultant and trainer in the field of methods and technologies for the provision of information in support of decision-making, planning and policy development related to integrated management and sustainable development of natural resources. Besides in various countries of Europe, he has worked in Latin America and the Caribbean region. Since several years, P. Geerders works as a freelance teacher with SOD. The paper presents a vision on training and education of urban authorities in information handling and management.

  12. Environmental impacts of urban growth from an integrated dynamic perspective: A case study of Shenzhen, South China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Burak Güneralp; Karen C. Seto

    2008-01-01

    China is home to one-fifth of the world's population and that population is increasingly urban. The landscape is also urbanizing. Although there are studies that focus on specific elements of urban growth, there is very little empirical work that incorporates feedbacks and linkages to assess the interactions between the dynamics of urban growth and their environmental impacts. In this study,

  13. Impact of Increasing Urban Density on Local Climate: Spatial and Temporal Variations in the Surface Energy Balance in Melbourne, Australia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew M. Coutts; Jason Beringer; Nigel J. Tapper

    2007-01-01

    Variations in urban surface characteristics are known to alter the local climate through modification of land surface processes that influence the surface energy balance and boundary layer and lead to distinct urban climates. In Melbourne, Australia, urban densities are planned to increase under a new strategic urban plan. Using the eddy covariance technique, this study aimed to determine the impact

  14. Impact of anthropogenic activities on urban stream water quality: a case study in Guangzhou, China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jin-Song; Guo, Ling-Chuan; Luo, Xian-Lin; Chen, Fan-Rong; Zeng, Eddy Y

    2014-12-01

    Anthropogenic activities are increasingly impacting the quality of urban surface water, particularly in regions undergoing intensive urbanization, such as Guangzhou of South China with a large urban stream network. To examine such impacts, we conducted field sampling on December 24, 2010, May 24, 2011, and August 28, 2011, representative of the low-, normal-, and high-flow periods, respectively. The first sampling was timed immediately after the closing of the 16th Asian Games (November 12-27, 2010) and the 10th Asian Para Games (December 12-19, 2010) held in Guangzhou. Assessments based on a pollution index method showed that the urban streams under investigation were extremely polluted, with direct discharge of untreated domestic sewage identified as the main pollution contributor. In addition, stream water quality around urban villages with high population densities was worse than that within business districts away from the urban villages. Pollution control measures implemented in preparation for the Asian Games were effective for urban streams within the business districts, but less effective for those adjacent to the urban villages. However, short-term efforts may not be able to achieve sustainable urban water quality improvements. In the case of Guangzhou, minimizing or even eliminating direct point-source inputs to the urban streams is perhaps the best option. PMID:25009093

  15. Spontaneous development of urban woody vegetation on differing soils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Reinhard Bornkamm

    2007-01-01

    The general aim of the study was to follow the development of spontaneous woody vegetation on man-made urban habitats in Berlin, Germany. In spring 1968, the vegetation was removed completely in five groups of plots, which had been filled with five different transferred soil material in 1928. The spontaneous vegetation was monitored annually from 1968 to 2006. Especially, the development

  16. Developing a Sustained Interest in Science among Urban Minority Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basu, Sreyashi Jhumki; Barton, Angela Calabrese

    2007-01-01

    This study draws upon qualitative case study to investigate the connections between the "funds of knowledge" that urban, high-poverty students bring to science learning and the development of a sustained interest in science. We found that youth developed a sustained interest in science when: (1) their science experiences connected with how they…

  17. Mesoscale and microscale evaluation of surface pavement impacts on the urban heat island effects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. S. Golden; K. E. Kaloush

    2006-01-01

    The global phenomenon of rapid urbanization is forcing the transition of native vegetation to man-made engineered surfaces resulting in the urban heat island (UHI) effect. The UHI can adversely impact the sustainability of regions by increasing the dependence of mechanical cooling which results in increased greenhouse gas emissions, consumption of water in the thermoelectric process and increased costs of living

  18. Watershed-Scale Impacts of Forest Buffers on Water Quality and Runoff in Urbanizing Environment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michelle Matteo; Timothy Randhir; David Bloniarz

    2006-01-01

    Forestry practices that are applied to buffer regions can be used as a strategy to improve water quality and flow regime in urbanizing watersheds. This study evaluates watershed-wide impacts of buffering urban forestry practices. Watershed simulation modeling is used to study the effectiveness of best management practices BMPs scenarios representing riparian and street buffers on water quality, quantity, and open

  19. Impact assessment of urban wet-weather sewer discharges on the Vernavola river (Northern Italy)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Todeschini; S. Papiri; R. Sconfietti

    2011-01-01

    The research concerned the ecological impact assessment of urban wet-weather sewer discharges on the Vernavola river (Pavia, Northern Italy) focusing both on the sewer system and on the receiving natural environment. The complexity of the urban drainage system (combined sewer networks, pumping stations, stormwater storage tanks, etc.) was characterised through in situ inspections, measurements and numerical modelling. Various dry- and

  20. The Impact of Urbanization on Global Surface Temperature Trends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hausfather, Z.; Mosher, S.; Menne, M. J.; Williams, C. N.; Stokes, N.; Jones, D.

    2011-12-01

    Rapid urbanization over the past half century has contributed to a warming bias in some Global Historical Climatological Network (GHCN) temperature records. The extent to which this urban warming bias contributes to global temperature trends remains largely unquantified both in raw and homogenized datasets, and no clear consensus exists on the need for specific urbanization corrections in global temperature reconstructions. In order to determine the magnitude of urbanization bias in the dataset, and to quantify the extent to which the newly adopted GHCN homogenization procedures correct for it, we examine minimum, maximum, and mean temperature trends from stations classified using numerous proxies for urbanity including MODIS, urban boundaries (GRUMP), satellite nightlights, and impermeable surface area, each created from publicly available high-resolution GIS datasets. These urbanity proxies are used to segment stations into separate urban and rural sets, and temperature differences between the two are calculated using both spatial gridding and station pairing approaches. The analysis is performed on raw and homogenized monthly data derived from the Global Historical Climatology Network (GHCN) Daily dataset that includes approximately 24,000 temperature measurement stations during the period from 1960 to present. Homogenized data that have been further adjusted using NASA GISS's Satellite Nightlight urban correction are also evaluated. The magnitude of the urbanization bias in the raw data and the degree to which this bias is mitigated with homogenization is discussed.

  1. Impacts of Urbanization and Biofuels Production on The Price of Land in the Corn Belt: A Farm-Level Analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard Nehring; Kenneth Erickson; Vince Breneman; Alexandre Vialou; David Nulph

    This study uses hedonic techniques to estimate the impact of urban influence, increased bio-fuels production, and environmental factors on land prices in the Corn Belt. We hypothesize that urban influence and ethanol production increase land prices on Corn Belt farms. Although not all states in the Corn Belt are entirely subject to urban influence and ethanol production impacts, some states

  2. Urban Sodicity in a Humid Subtropical Climate: Impact on Biogeochemical Cycling

    E-print Network

    Steele, Meredith Kate

    2012-10-19

    in watersheds. Chapter II quantifies the carbon and nutrient in intact soil core leachates and in water extractable solution from urban soils collected from 33 towns and cities across the state of Texas. Chapter III investigates the impact of sodicity...

  3. Coupling urban event-based and catchment continuous modelling for combined sewer overflow river impact assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrés-Doménech, I.; Múnera, J. C.; Francés, F.; Marco, J. B.

    2010-10-01

    Since Water Framework Directive (WFD) was passed in year 2000, the conservation of water bodies in the EU must be understood in a completely different way. Regarding to combined sewer overflows (CSOs) from urban drainage networks, the WFD implies that we cannot accept CSOs because of their intrinsic features, but they must be assessed for their impact on the receiving water bodies in agreement with specific environmental aims. Consequently, both, urban system and the receiving water body must be jointly analysed to evaluate the environmental impact generated on the latter. In this context, a coupled scheme is presented in this paper to assess the CSOs impact on a river system in Torrelavega (Spain). First, a urban model is developed to statistically characterise the CSOs frequency, volume and duration. The main feature of this first model is the fact of being event-based: the system is modelled with some built synthetic storms which cover adequately the probability range of the main rainfall descriptors, i.e., rainfall event volume and peak intensity. Thus, CSOs are characterised in terms of their occurrence probability. Secondly, a continuous and distributed basin model is built to assess river response at different points in the river network. This model was calibrated initially on a daily scale and downscaled later to hourly scale. The main objective of this second element of the scheme is to provide the most likely state of the receiving river when a CSO occurs. By combining results of both models, CSO and river flows are homogeneously characterised from a statistical point of view. Finally, results from both models were coupled to estimate the final concentration of some analysed pollutants (biochemical oxygen demand, BOD, and total ammonium, NH4+), within the river just after the spills.

  4. Coupling urban event-based and catchment continuous modelling for combined sewer overflow river impact assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrés-Doménech, I.; Múnera, J. C.; Francés, F.; Marco, J. B.

    2010-05-01

    Since the Water Framework Directive (WFD) was passed in year 2000, the protection of water bodies in the EU must be understood in a completely different way. Regarding to combined sewer overflows (CSOs) from urban drainage networks, the WFD implies that CSOs cannot be accepted because of their intrinsic features, but must be assessed for their impact on the receiving water bodies in agreement with specific environmental aims. Consequently, both, the urban system and the receiving one must be jointly analysed to evaluate their impact. In this context, a coupled scheme is presented in this paper to assess the CSOs impact in a river system in Torrelavega (Spain). First, an urban model is developed to characterise statistically the CSOs frequency, volume and duration. The main feature of this first model is the fact of being event-based: the system is modelled with some built synthetic storms which cover adequately the probability range of the main rainfall descriptors, i.e., rainfall event volume and peak intensity. Thus, CSOs are characterised in terms of their occurrence probability. Secondly, a continuous and distributed basin model is built to assess the river response at different points in the river network. This model was calibrated initially on a daily scale and downscaled later to the hourly scale. The main objective of this second element of the scheme is to provide the most likely state of the receiving river when a CSO occurs. By combining results of both models, CSO and river flows are homogeneously characterised from a statistical point of view. Finally, results from both models were coupled to estimate the final concentration of some analysed pollutants (the biochemical oxygen demand, BOD, and the total ammonium, NH4+), in the river just after the spills.

  5. Effects of Global Change on U.S. Urban Areas: Vulnerabilities, Impacts, and Adaptation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quattrochi, Dale A.; Wilbanks, Thomas J.; Kirshen, Paul; Romero-Lnkao, Patricia; Rosenzweig, Cynthia; Ruth, Matthias; Solecki, William; Tarr, Joel

    2007-01-01

    Human settlements, both large and small, are where the vast majority of people on the Earth live. Expansion of cities both in population and areal extent, is a relentless process that will accelerate in the 21st century. As a consequence of urban growth both in the United States and around the globe, it is important to develop an understanding of how urbanization will affect the local and regional environment. Of equal importance, however, is the assessment of how cities will be impacted by the looming prospects of global climate change and climate variability. The potential impacts of climate change and variability has recently been annunciated by the IPCC's "Climate Change 2007" report. Moreover, the U.S. Climate Change Science Program (CCSP) is preparing a series of "Synthesis and Assessment Products" (SAPs) reports to support informed discussion and decision making regarding climate change and variability by policy matters, resource managers, stakeholders, the media, and the general public. We are authors on a SAP describing the effects of global climate change on human settlements. This paper will present the elements of our SAP report that relate to what vulnerabilities and impacts will occur, what adaptation responses may take place, and what possible effects on settlement patterns and characteristics will potentially arise, on human settlements in the U.S. as a result of climate change and climate variability. We will also present some recommendations about what should be done to further research on how climate change and variability will impact human settlements in the U.S., as well as how to engage government officials, policy and decision makers, and the general public in understanding the implications of climate change and variability on the local and regional levels. Additionally, we wish to explore how technology such as remote sensing data coupled with modeling, can be employed as synthesis tools for deriving insight across a spectrum of impacts (e.g. public health, urban planning for mitigation strategies) on how cities can cope and adapt to climate change and variability. This latter point parallels the concepts and ideas presented in the U.S. National Academy of Sciences, Decadal Survey report on "Earth Science Applications from Space: National Imperatives for the Next Decade and Beyond" wherein the analysis of the impacts of climate change and variability, human health, and land use change are listed as key areas for development of future Earth observing remote sensing systems.

  6. U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development: Periodicals

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2006-01-01

    The U.S Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) publishes periodicals aimed towards urban development professionals, policy makers, and scholars. This website brings all of these periodicals together in one place, and visitors can look through current and past issues of "Cityscape", and the quarterly report, "U.S. Housing Market Conditions". For those interested in a more general-interest publication, "Cityscape" is a good bet, as it contains pieces on housing vouchers, ethnically diverse urban neighborhoods, and the legacy of the Fair Housing Act. Finally, the "U.S. Housing Market Conditions" reports consist of statistical data and written reports on the quarterly status of economic and housing market trends for 10 geographical regions.

  7. Mass balance-based regression modeling of PAHs accumulation in urban soils, role of urban development.

    PubMed

    Peng, Chi; Wang, Meie; Chen, Weiping; Chang, Andrew C

    2015-02-01

    We investigated the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) contents in 68 soils samples collected at housing developments that represent different length of development periods across Beijing. Based on the data, we derived a mass balanced mathematical model to simulate the dynamics of PAH accumulations in urban soils as affected by the urban developments. The key parameters were estimated by fitting the modified mass balance model to the data of PAH concentrations vs. building age of the sampling green area. The total PAH concentrations would increase from the baseline of 267 ng g(-1) to 3631 ng g(-1) during the period of 1978-2048. It showed that the dynamic changes in the rates of accumulations of light and heavy PAH species were related to the shifting of sources of fuels, combustion efficiencies, and amounts of energy consumed during the course of development. PMID:25489746

  8. Impact of Urbanization on the Hydrology of Ganga Basin (India)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anil Kumar Misra

    2011-01-01

    Large scale emigrations from rural areas to urban areas and population growth have been uninterrupted and accelerating phenomena\\u000a in parts of Ganga basin, where urbanization is increasing at an unprecedented rate. Urban agglomeration is causing radical\\u000a changes in groundwater recharge and modifying the existing mechanisms. Majority of the cities are sited on unconfined or semi\\u000a confined aquifers depend upon river

  9. A case study predicting environmental impacts of urban transport planning in China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chong Chen; Li-guo Shao; Ling Xu; Jin-cheng Shang

    2009-01-01

    Predicting environmental impacts is essential when performing an environmental assessment on urban transport planning. System\\u000a dynamics (SD) is usually used to solve complex nonlinear problems. In this study, we utilized system dynamics (SD) to evaluate\\u000a the environmental impacts associated with urban transport planning in Jilin City, China with respect to the local economy,\\u000a society, transport, the environment and resources. To

  10. [Impacts of rail transit in Shanghai on its urban land use change].

    PubMed

    Li, Cheng; Li, Jun-Xiang; Li, Rong; Xu, Ming-Ce; Qin, Hai

    2008-07-01

    By using the land use data interpreted with 1:50,000 color-infrared aerial photos of Shanghai collected in 1989 and 2005, and based on Geographic Information System (GIS) techniques, the impacts of urban rail transit (URT) development in Shanghai on its urban land use change was quantitatively analyzed, and a preliminary prediction of the land use change from 2010 to 2025 was made with Markov probability models. The results showed that the URT accelerated the land use change, particularly from an agricultural dominated natural landscape in 1989 to a high-value man-made urban landscape primarily composed of residence and public facilities. URT increased the land use rate in the study area. From 1989 to 2005, public facility land, green space, agriculture land, land for other uses (primarily used for construction), and water area changed greatly, with the greatest change rate of the land for other uses and the lowest one of water area. From 2010 to 2025, the areas and proportions of agriculture land and water area would keep on decreasing, while those of man-made landscapes including residence and public facilities would increase continuously. From the viewpoints of increasing land use rate and its gain, the present land use structure along Shanghai URT should be further regulated to improve the intensive and sustainable use of land resources. PMID:18839916

  11. Urban impacts on mean and trend of surface incident solar radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Kaicun; Ma, Qian; Wang, XiaoYan; Wild, Martin

    2014-07-01

    Anthropogenic aerosols over urban areas may have important effects on surface incident solar radiation (Rs). Studies have claimed that Rs decreased significantly more in urban areas than in rural areas from 1964 to 1989. However, these estimates have substantial biases because they ignored the spatial inhomogeneity of Rs measurements. To address this issue, we selected urban-rural station pairs collocated within 2° × 2° and found 105 such pairs based on the Global Energy Balance Archive (GEBA). On average, the impact of urban aerosols on mean and trend of Rs is 0.2(0.7, median) ± 11.2 W m-2 and 0.1(-0.7, median) ± 6.6 W m-2 per decade from 1961 to 1990, respectively. Hence, the averaged urban impacts on the mean and trend of Rs over Europe, China and Japan from 1961 to 1990 are small although they may be significant at specific sites.

  12. Urban development in Germany — perspectives for the future

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C.-C. Wiegandt; Bundesamt für Bauwesen

    2000-01-01

    The essay portrays urban development in Germany at the end of the 20th century in the transition from Industrial Modernity to the New Modernity. The city of the Industrial Modernity is described as a traditionally ‘closed’ and ‘mixed’ city. It corresponds to the classical European model of the compact city with a clearly defined centre and a surrounding area which

  13. Tourism & Urban Development: Building Local Economies & Sense of Place

    E-print Network

    need jobs and strong communities ­ Visitors have a role How do you attract and manage visitorsTourism & Urban Development: Building Local Economies & Sense of Place - Mt Eden Village - Simon.nz/Our-Ships-And-Services/Kaitaki/iSITE.aspx) #12;Better still, give visitors the information they need before, during and after travel and `connect

  14. Tourism & Urban Development: Building Local Economies & Sense of Place

    E-print Network

    jobs and strong communities ­ Visitors have a role How do you attract and manage visitorsTourism & Urban Development: Building Local Economies & Sense of Place - Eden Valley - Simon Milne.nz/Our-Ships-And-Services/Kaitaki/iSITE.aspx) #12;Better still, give visitors the information they need before, during and after travel and `connect

  15. Tourism & Urban Development: Building Local Economies & Sense of Place

    E-print Network

    We need jobs and strong communities ­ Visitors have a role How do you attract and manage visitorsTourism & Urban Development: Building Local Economies & Sense of Place - Sandringham - Simon Milne.nz/Our-Ships-And-Services/Kaitaki/iSITE.aspx) #12;Better still, give visitors the information they need before, during and after travel and `connect

  16. Professional Sports Facilities, Franchises and Urban Economic Development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dennis Coates; Brad R. Humphreys

    2003-01-01

    Local political and community leaders and the owners of professional sports teams frequently claim that professional sports facilities and franchises are important engines of economic development in urban areas. These structures and teams allegedly contribute millions of dollars of net new spending annually and create hundreds of new jobs, and provide justification for hundreds of millions of dollars of public

  17. DEVELOPMENT OF AN IMPROVED URBAN AIRSHED MODELING SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    A research and development effort to improve certain physical processes simulated in the Urban Airshed Model (UAM) processor and model programs, and to update the computer software is described. he UAM is an Eulerian photochemical grid model designed to simulate the relevant phys...

  18. Residential development choices and consequences: Urban land cover change, perceptions and value of alternative subdivision designs, and the benefits of protected ecosystem services

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Troy A. Bowman

    2011-01-01

    Municipal officials are often faced with difficult decisions about land uses in and around city boundaries. Urban expansion often causes negative environmental impacts, but there are designs for development which can mitigate some of these effects at the site scale. This dissertation examines urban land cover change in four Iowa cities, examines familiarity with and value for conservation subdivision (CSD)

  19. Effects of Global Change on U.S. Urban Areas: Vulnerabilities, Impacts, and Adaptation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quattrochi, D. A.; Wilbanks, T. J.; Kirshen, P. H.; Romero-Lankao, P.; Rosenzweig, C. E.; Ruth, M.; Solecki, W.; Tarr, J. A.

    2007-05-01

    Human settlements, both large and small, are where the vast majority of people on the Earth live. Expansion of cities both in population and areal extent, is a relentless process that will accelerate in the 21st century. As a consequence of urban growth both in the United States and around the globe, it is important to develop an understanding of how urbanization will affect the local and regional environment. Of equal importance, however, is the assessment of how cities will be impacted by the looming prospects of global climate change and climate variability. The potential impacts of climate change and variability has recently been enunciated by the IPCC's "Climate Change 2007" report. Moreover, the U.S. Climate Change Science Program (CCSP) is preparing a series of "Synthesis and Assessment Products" (SAP) reports to support informed discussion and decision making regarding climate change and variability by policy makers, resource managers, stakeholders, the media, and the general public. We are working on a chapter of SAP 4.6 ("Analysis of the Effects of Global Chance on Human Health and Welfare and Human Systems") wherein we wish to describe the effects of global climate change on human settlements. This paper will present the thoughts and ideas that are being formulated for our SAP report that relate to what vulnerabilities and impacts will occur, what adaptation responses may take place, and what possible effects on settlement patterns and characteristics will potentially arise, on human settlements in the U.S. as a result of climate change and climate variability. We wish to present these ideas and concepts as a "work in progress" that are subject to several rounds of review, and we invite comments from listeners at this session on the rationale and veracity of our thoughts. Additionally, we wish to explore how technology such as remote sensing data coupled with modeling, can be employed as synthesis tools for deriving insight across a spectrum of impacts (e.g. public health, urban planning for mitigation strategies) on how cities can cope and adapt to climate change and variability. This latter point parallels the concepts and ideas presented in the U.S. National Academy of Sciences, Decadal Survey report on "Earth Science Applications from Space: National Imperatives for the Next Decade and Beyond" wherein the analysis of the impacts of climate change and variability, human health, and land use change are listed as key areas for development of future Earth observing remote sensing systems.

  20. Development at the wildland–urban interface and the mitigation of forest-fire risk

    PubMed Central

    Spyratos, Vassilis; Bourgeron, Patrick S.; Ghil, Michael

    2007-01-01

    This work addresses the impacts of development at the wildland–urban interface on forest fires that spread to human habitats. Catastrophic fires in the western United States and elsewhere make these impacts a matter of urgency for decision makers, scientists, and the general public. Using a simple fire-spread model, along with housing and vegetation data, we show that fire size probability distributions can be strongly modified by the density and flammability of houses. We highlight a sharp transition zone in the parameter space of vegetation flammability and house density. Many actual fire landscapes in the United States appear to have spreading properties close to this transition. Thus, the density and flammability of buildings should be taken into account when assessing fire risk at the wildland–urban interface. Moreover, our results highlight ways for regulation at this interface to help mitigate fire risk. PMID:17717082

  1. Impacts of urbanization on groundwater quality and recharge in a semi-arid alluvial basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlson, Mark A.; Lohse, Kathleen A.; McIntosh, Jennifer C.; McLain, Jean E. T.

    2011-10-01

    SummaryThe management of groundwater resources is paramount in semi-arid regions experiencing urban development. In the southwestern United States, enhancing recharge of urban storm runoff has been identified as a strategy for augmenting groundwater resources. An understanding of how urbanization may impact the timing of groundwater recharge and its quality is a prerequisite for mitigating water scarcity and identifying vulnerability to contamination. We sampled groundwater wells along the Rillito Creek in southern Arizona that had been previously analyzed for tritium in the late 1980s to early 1990s and analyzed samples for tritium ( 3H) and helium-3 ( 3H/ 3He) to evaluate changes in 3H and age date groundwaters. Groundwater samples were also analyzed for chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and basic water quality metrics. Substantial changes in 3H values from waters sampled in the early 1990s compared to 2009 were identified after accounting for radioactive decay and indicate areas of rapid recharge. 3H- 3He groundwater ages ranged from 22 years before 2009 to modern recharge. CFC-11, -12 and -113 concentrations were anomalously high across the basin, and non-point source pollution in runoff and/or leaky infrastructure was identified as the most plausible source of this contamination. CFCs were strongly and positively correlated to nitrate ( r2 = 0.77) and a mobile trace metal, nickel ( r2 = 0.71), suggesting that solutes were derived from a similar source. Findings from this study suggest new waters from urban non-point sources are contributing to groundwater recharge and adversely affecting water quality. Reducing delivery of contaminants to areas of focused recharge will be critical to protect future groundwater resources.

  2. Assessing climate impacts of planning policies-An estimation for the urban region of Leipzig (Germany)

    SciTech Connect

    Schwarz, Nina, E-mail: nina.schwarz@ufz.de; Bauer, Annette, E-mail: annette.bauer@ufz.de; Haase, Dagmar, E-mail: dagmar.haase@ufz.d

    2011-03-15

    Local climate regulation by urban green areas is an important urban ecosystem service, as it reduces the extent of the urban heat island and therefore enhances quality of life. Local and regional planning policies can control land use changes in an urban region, which in turn alter local climate regulation. Thus, this paper describes a method for estimating the impacts of current land uses as well as local and regional planning policies on local climate regulation, using evapotranspiration and land surface emissivity as indicators. This method can be used by practitioners to evaluate their policies. An application of this method is demonstrated for the case study Leipzig (Germany). Results for six selected planning policies in Leipzig indicate their distinct impacts on climate regulation and especially the role of their spatial extent. The proposed method was found to easily produce a qualitative assessment of impacts of planning policies on climate regulation.

  3. Biology Experience Impacts Career Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Mary Jane; Holmes, William R.

    2003-01-01

    Evaluates a collaborative program in which high achieving biology students participate in genetics research under the guidance and supervision of a geneticist. Reviews the impact of their participation on college and career choices as well as understanding of science methodology, genetics, agricultural science, and product development. (SOE)

  4. Assessing the role of urban developments on storm runoff response through multi-scale catchment experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkinson, Mark; Owen, Gareth; Geris, Josie; Soulsby, Chris; Quinn, Paul

    2015-04-01

    Many communities across the world face the increasing challenge of balancing water quantity and quality issues with accommodating new growth and urban development. Urbanisation is typically associated with detrimental changes in water quality, sediment delivery, and effects on water storage and flow pathways (e.g. increases in flooding). In particular for mixed rural and urban catchments where the spatio-temporal variability of hydrological responses is high, there remains a key research challenge in evaluating the timing and magnitude of storage and flow pathways at multiple scales. This is of crucial importance for appropriate catchment management, for example to aid the design of Green Infrastructure (GI) to mitigate the risk of flooding, among other multiple benefits. The aim of this work was to (i) explore spatio-temporal storm runoff generation characteristics in multi-scale catchment experiments that contain rural and urban land use zones, and (ii) assess the (preliminary) impact of Sustainable Drainage (SuDs) as GI on high flow and flood characteristics. Our key research catchment, the Ouseburn in Northern England (55km2), has rural headwaters (15%) and an urban zone (45%) concentrated in the lower catchment area. There is an intermediate and increasingly expanding peri-urban zone (currently 40%), which is defined here as areas where rural and urban features coexist, alongside GIs. Such a structure is typical for most catchments with urban developments. We monitored spatial precipitation and multiscale nested (five gauges) runoff response, in addition to the storage dynamics in GIs for a period of 6 years (2007-2013). For a range of events, we examined the multiscale nested runoff characteristics (lag time and magnitude) of the rural and urban flow components, assessed how these integrated with changing land use and increasing scale, and discussed the implications for flood management in the catchment. The analyses indicated three distinctly different patterns in the timing and magnitude of the contributions of the different land use zones and their nested integrated runoff response at increasing scales. These can be clearly linked to variations in antecedent conditions and precipitation patterns. For low antecedent flow conditions, the main flood peak is dominated by urban origins (faster responding and larger in relative magnitude); for high antecedent flow conditions, rural (and peri-urban) sources are most dominant. A third type of response involves mixed events, where both rural and urban contributions interact and reinforce the peak flow response. Our analyses showed that the effectiveness of the GIs varied substantially between the different events, suggesting that their design could be improved by introducing variable drainage rates and strategic placements to allow for interactions with the stream network. However, more information is needed on the spatio-temporal variability in water sources, flow pathways and residence times. This is of particular importance to also assess other multiple benefits of GIs, including the impacts on water quality. These challenges are currently addressed in two new case study catchment in the North East of Scotland (10km2) which are undergoing major land use change from rural to urban. Here, integrated tracer and hydrometric data are being collected to characterise the integrated impacts of urbanisation and GIs on flow pathways (nature and length) and associated water quality.

  5. The impacts of urbanization on endangered florida key deer

    E-print Network

    Harveson, Patricia Moody

    2006-04-12

    for resources between man and wildlife continues, it is important to understand the effects of urbanization on species. Endangered Key deer (Odocoileus virginianus clavium) are endemic to the Florida Keys archipelago stretching southwest off the southern tip...

  6. Impacts of Information Technologies on Urban Economies and Politics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    SASKIA SASSEN

    2001-01-01

    Economic globalization and telecommunications have contributed to produce a spatiality for the urban which pivots on de-territorialized cross-border networks and territorial locations with massive concentrations of resources. This is not a completely new feature. Over the centuries cities have been at the intersection of processes with supra-urban and even intercontinental scalings. What is different today is the intensity, complexity and

  7. Beijing Urban Spatial Distribution and Resulting Impacts on Heat Islands

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Z. Ouyang; R. B. Xiao; E. W. Schienke; W. F. LI; X. Wang; H. Miao; H. Zheng

    The physical characteristics of the ground surface are regarded as the main factors in the urban heat island phenomena. Over\\u000a two seasons, this study spatially and quantitatively examines the influence of urban surface features on land surface temperature\\u000a in Beijing, China through the use of remote sensing (RS) combined with geographic information systems (GIS). Primary data\\u000a sources include: Landsat Thematic

  8. The impact of projected increases in urbanization on ecosystem services.

    PubMed

    Eigenbrod, F; Bell, V A; Davies, H N; Heinemeyer, A; Armsworth, P R; Gaston, K J

    2011-11-01

    Alteration in land use is likely to be a major driver of changes in the distribution of ecosystem services before 2050. In Europe, urbanization will probably be the main cause of land-use change. This increase in urbanization will result in spatial shifts in both supplies of ecosystem services and the beneficiaries of those services; the net outcome of such shifts remains to be determined. Here, we model changes in urban land cover in Britain based on large (16%) projected increases in the human population by 2031, and the consequences for three different services--flood mitigation, agricultural production and carbon storage. We show that under a scenario of densification of urban areas, the combined effect of increasing population and loss of permeable surfaces is likely to result in 1.7 million people living within 1 km of rivers with at least 10 per cent increases in projected peak flows, but that increasing suburban 'sprawl' will have little effect on flood mitigation services. Conversely, losses of stored carbon and agricultural production are over three times as high under the sprawl as under the 'densification' urban growth scenarios. Our results illustrate the challenges of meeting, but also of predicting, future demands and patterns of ecosystem services in the face of increasing urbanization. PMID:21389035

  9. Geochemistry of urban sediments from small urban areas and potential impact on surface waters: a case study in Northern Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reis, Anabela; Oliveira, Ana Isabel; Pinto, Joăo; Parker, Andrew

    2015-04-01

    Urban sediments are an important source of contaminants in urban catchments with impact on river ecosystems. Surface runoff from impermeable surfaces transfers sediments and associated contaminants to water bodies affecting the quality of both water and sediment compartments. This study aims to evaluate the metal contents in urban sediments (road deposited sediments) in a small sized urban area, located in a rural mountainous region with no significant industrial units, or mining activities in the vicinity, and subsequently have an insight on the potential contribution to the metal loads transported by fluvial sediments in the streams from the surrounding drainage network. The area under investigation locates in the northeast Portugal, in the Trás-os-Montes region (NE Portugal). Vila Real is a rural city, with 52781 inhabitants, and in the urban area there are dispersed parks with forest and gardens; locally and in the surroundings of the city there are agricultural terrains. The industry is concentrated, in general, in the industry park. Major pollutant activities can be considered the agriculture (pollution by sediments, metals and use of fertilizers) and urban activities such as atmospheric deposition, vehicular traffic, residential activities, soil erosion and industrial activities. According to the aim of the study, road deposited sediment samples were collected in urban and periurban areas as well as in public playgrounds and in the industrial area. The samples were decomposed with aqua regia, and the concentrations of As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn and V were obtained by ICP-AES. The total concentrations of As, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn and V, in road-deposited sediments, indicate relative enrichments in samples collected in the main streets and roads, showing spatial variability. The association of Cu, Pb and Zn is observed in samples collected in the streets with high traffic density and industrial activity; in general, higher relative contents of Fe and Mn are also found in these samples. Associations between V, Cr, Ni, Fe and Mn are found in samples collected near garden areas and in green parks. Studies performed on river bottom sediments from the fluvial network in the catchment area shows a significant relative enrichment in the contents of metals, in the most mobile geochemical fractions, in samples collected in the reaches downstream the urban area of Vila Real, suggesting an important contribute from urban generated sediments and associated metals through runoff.

  10. Health impacts of large releases of radionuclides. The fate and impact of radiocontaminants in urban areas.

    PubMed

    Roed, J; Andersson, K G; Lange, C

    1997-01-01

    The Chernobyl accident made it clear that the contaminants released after a severe nuclear accident may spread over large areas, and thereby form a significant external radiation hazard in areas of high population density. Since then, the weathering effects on the deposited radiocontaminants (essentially radiocaesium) have been followed on different types of surface in urban, suburban and industrial areas in order to enable an estimation of the long-term impact of such events. Analytical expressions have been derived for the typical behaviour of radiocaesium on the different surfaces, and dose measurements and calculations for different urban environments have pinpointed which surfaces generally contribute most to the dose and consequently are most important to clean. At this point, after nearly a decade, the dose rate from horizontal pavements has decreased by at least a factor of 10, whereas the dose rate from an area of soil or a roof has generally only been halved. The contamination on walls is the most persistent: it has only decreased by 10-20%. PMID:9339313

  11. Untangling the effects of urban development on subsurface storage in Baltimore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhaskar, Aditi S.; Welty, Claire; Maxwell, Reed M.; Miller, Andrew J.

    2015-02-01

    The impact of urban development on surface flow has been studied extensively over the last half century, but effects on groundwater systems are still poorly understood. Previous studies of the influence of urban development on subsurface storage have not revealed any consistent pattern, with results showing increases, decreases, and negligible change in groundwater levels. In this paper, we investigated the effects of four key features that impact subsurface storage in urban landscapes. These include reduced vegetative cover, impervious surface cover, infiltration and inflow (I&I) of groundwater and storm water into wastewater pipes, and other anthropogenic recharge and discharge fluxes including water supply pipe leakage and well and reservoir withdrawals. We applied the integrated groundwater-surface water-land surface model ParFlow.CLM to the Baltimore metropolitan area. We compared the base case (all four features) to simulations in which an individual urban feature was removed. For the Baltimore region, the effect of infiltration of groundwater into wastewater pipes had the greatest effect on subsurface storage (I&I decreased subsurface storage 11.1% relative to precipitation minus evapotranspiration after 1 year), followed by the impact of water supply pipe leakage and lawn irrigation (combined anthropogenic discharges and recharges led to a 7.4% decrease) and reduced vegetation (1.9% increase). Impervious surface cover led to a small increase in subsurface storage (0.56% increase) associated with decreased groundwater discharge as base flow. The change in subsurface storage due to infiltration of groundwater into wastewater pipes was largest despite the smaller spatial extent of surface flux modifications, compared to other features.

  12. Impact of Urbanization on Water Quantity and Quality: The Need for an Integrative Watershed Modeling Approach

    EPA Science Inventory

    Economic development through natural resource extraction is the primary driver of land use change. Land use change generally occurs as a result of urban development (residential, commercial, and industrial), agriculture (pasture and crop production), forestry (wood for constructi...

  13. Analysis of the impact of low impact development on runoff from a new district in Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jung-min; Hyun, Kyoung-hak; Choi, Jong-soo

    2013-01-01

    An analysis of the impact of a low impact development (LID) on runoff was performed using a Storm Water Management Model 5 (SWMM5)-LID model. The SWMM5 package has been developed to facilitate the analysis of the hydrologic impacts of LID facilities. Continuous simulation of urban stormwater runoff from the district which included the LID design was conducted. In order to examine the impact of runoff in the LID district the first, second and third highest ranked flood events over the past 38 years were analyzed. The assessment estimated that a LID system under historical storm conditions would reduce peak runoff by approximately 55-66% and runoff volume by approximately 25-121% in comparison with that before the LID design. The impact on runoff was also simulated under 50, 80 and 100 year return period conditions. Under these conditions, the runoff reductions within the district were estimated to be about 6-16% (peak runoff) and 33-37% (runoff volume) in comparison with conditions prior to the LID. It is concluded from these results that LID is worthy of consideration for urban flood control in future development and as part of sewer and stormwater management planning. PMID:24056429

  14. Comparison of Integrated Urban-Rural Development between Chongqing and Chengdu

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hong-xing Lan; Ying-ying Lu

    2011-01-01

    On the basis of review of integrated urban and rural development process in Chengdu and Chongqing, we summed up experience of reform and compared the practice in these two regions. Results show that both regions have opened free flow of rural and urban factors, made detailed and scientific planning of integrated urban and rural development, and carried out exploration in

  15. Urban drought: a potential environmental hotspot in the western region development of China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Qian Ye; Michael H. Glantz; Lianchun Song; Guowu Sun; Xiaoling Pan

    2003-01-01

    A large-scale economic development program in western China has begun since 1999. Fast urbanization is expected with urban population increasing dramatically. Western China is mostly in arid and semi-arid climate zone and water resources are very limited. It suggests that an early warning system specifically designed to deal with urban droughts should be developed. Thresholds on identifying the water related

  16. Managing Stormwater Runoff From Urban Areas in Consideration of Predicted Climate Change Impacts in the Mid-Atlantic Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, M.

    2014-12-01

    Mean annual temperature and precipitation in the Mid-Atlantic, USA, increased over the last century, and global climate models applied to this region generally project that these trends will continue throughout the year 2100. Higher temperatures and associated evapotranspiration may decrease total annual baseflow, even as stormflow events increase in magnitude and intensity, leading to more frequent and larger nutrient and sediment fluxes to receiving waters. Development will create more impervious surfaces, thereby increasing the ratio of stormflow to baseflow volumes. The possibility of increasing riverine flow associated with climate change this century necessitates an evaluation of various best management practices (BMPs) in urban areas to develop and utilize BMPs that optimize reductions in nutrient and sediment fluxes, as well as determine the extent to which these BMPs should be implemented. The headwaters of the Patuxent watershed are located in a highly developed urban corridor between Washington DC and Baltimore thus making it an ideal setting to explore potential climate change impacts in urban areas. Scenarios generated from a system of linked watershed and estuarine models were used to determine climate and land use change effects on Patuxent River runoff and estuarine water quality. The uncertainties of climate predictions and their implications regarding proactive mitigation approaches to manage pollutant fluxes from urban areas are discussed.

  17. Urban Security Initiative: Earthquake impacts on the urban ``system of systems``

    SciTech Connect

    Maheshwari, S.; Jones, E.; Rasmussen, S.

    1999-06-01

    This paper is a discussion of how to address the problems of disasters in a large city, a project titled Urban Security Initiative undertaken by the Los Alamos National Laboratory. The paper first discusses the need to address the problems of disasters in large cities and ten provides a framework that is suitable to address this problem. The paper then provides an overview of the module of the project that deals with assessment of earthquake damage on urban infrastructure in large cities and an internet-based approach for consensus building leading to better coordination in the post-disaster period. Finally, the paper discusses the future direction of the project.

  18. Urban development policy in India with special reference to Himachal Pradesh.

    PubMed

    Kant, S

    1993-01-01

    This paper addresses the following questions: 1) What have been the government policies, programs, and perceptions dominating the urban development scenario in India? 2) What has been the outcome of these policies and programs of urban development? 3) What should be the strategy of future urban development with reference to the Indian hill state of Himachal Pradesh? The paper critically evaluates the Indian ethos pertaining to the urbanization process, urban development policies pursued in the Five Year Plans, the current thinking on urbanization, and the main issues in urban development. It has been observed that not only is the urbanization level in Himachal Pradesh quite low, but also that the urban development here suffers from a number of serious problems. Acute shortage of building space, limited capacity to mobilize resources from their own sources, overcrowding, and slum dwelling are some such problems. Unfortunately, urbanization has not been visualized as generative of economic growth and employment opportunities both at the state and national government levels. Therefore, the major thrust of Plan policies has been to arrest rural-urban migration. However, recently there has been a desire to manage urban affairs through a new policy seeking production efficiency and cost effectiveness. PMID:12179078

  19. [The location of employment in developing countries. Models of urbanization and comparative analyses of the Canadian and Mexican urban systems].

    PubMed

    Lemelin, A; Polese, M

    1993-01-01

    The rapid urban growth and increasing number of megacities in Latin America and other developing countries are fundamentally different phenomena than those observed at the time that location theory was developed. To examine whether existing location theory applies to developing countries, an econometric analysis of the relationship between urbanization, city size, and development was first conducted. The relationship between urbanization and development was expressed in the form of a series of regression analyses applied to World Bank data for 96 developing and developed countries. After logarithmic transformation, a simple equation associating total and total urban population of the country and per capita gross national product was able to explain 93% of the variance in total urban population. This result demonstrates that it is not possible to regard urbanization as abnormal. As to the size of particular cities, deviations from the "normal" trajectory of urbanization apparently originate in particular institutional features of some countries. Manifestations of overurbanization in Latin America demonstrate that urbanization is a necessary, but not sufficient, condition of development. A comparative study of spatial location of employment in different economic sectors in Canada and Mexico was next conducted. For this analysis, cities of over 25,000 population in Canada and Mexico were classified into 32 economic activity sectors, which were regrouped into 18 for the analysis. Two matrixes of ten city types and 18 and 32 employment groups were constructed for each country, with the corresponding number of employees noted. The employment information was transformed into quotients of location, with a quotient above 100 signifying concentration of employment. The results did not suggest that factors of localization of employment are different in developing countries. Models of localization of economic activities adopt analogous characteristics imposed by geography and technological conditions. In Canada as in Mexico, economies of scale and distance are the principle variable explaining models of localization. PMID:12288661

  20. Conceptual framework for describing selected urban and community impacts of federal energy policies

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, F.A,; Marcus, A.A.; Keller, D.

    1980-06-01

    A conceptual framework is presented for describing selected urban and community impacts of Federal energy policies. The framework depends on a simple causal model. The outputs of the model are impacts, changes in the state of the world of particular interest to policymakers. At any given time, a set of determinants account for the state of the world with respect to an impact category. Application of the model to a particular impact category requires: establishing a definition and measure for the impact category and identifying the determinants of these impacts. Analysis of the impact of a particular policy requires the following: identifying the policy and its effects (as estimated by others), isolating any effects that themselves constitute an urban and community impact, identifying any effects that change the value of determinants, and describing the impact with reference to the new values of determinants. This report provides a framework for these steps. Three impacts addressed are: neighborhood stability, housing availability, and quality and availability of public services. In each chapter, a definition and measure for the impact are specified; its principal determinants are identified; how the causal model can be used to estimate impacts by applying it to three illustrative Federal policies (domestic oil price decontrol, building energy performance standards, and increased Federal aid for mass transit) is demonstrated. (MCW)

  1. A Comparison of Natural and Urban Characteristics and the Development of Urban Intensity Indices Across Six Geographic Settings

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Falcone, James; Stewart, Jana; Sobieszczyk, Steven; Dupree, Jean; McMahon, Gerard; Buell, Gary

    2007-01-01

    As part of the U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Assessment Program, the effects of urbanization on stream ecosystems have been intensively investigated in six metropolitan areas in the United States. Approximately 30 watersheds in each area, ranging in size from 4 to 560 square kilometers (median is 50 square kilometers), and spanning a development gradient from very low to very high urbanization, were examined near Atlanta, Georgia; Raleigh, North Carolina; Denver, Colorado; Dallas-Fort Worth, Texas; Portland, Oregon; and Milwaukee-Green Bay, Wisconsin. These six studies are a continuation of three previous studies in Boston, Massachusetts; Birmingham, Alabama; and Salt Lake City, Utah. In each study, geographic information system data for approximately 300 variables were assembled to (a) characterize the environmental settings of the areas and (b) establish a consistent multimetric urban intensity index based on locally important land-cover, infrastructure, and socioeconomic variables. This paper describes the key features of urbanization and the urban intensity index for the study watersheds within each area, how they differ across study areas, and the relation between the environmental setting and the characteristics of urbanization. A number of features of urbanization were identified that correlated very strongly to population density in every study area. Of these, road density had the least variability across diverse geographic settings and most closely matched the multimetric nature of the urban intensity index. A common urban intensity index was derived that ranks watersheds across all six study areas. Differences in local natural settings and urban geography were challenging in (a) identifying consistent urban gradients in individual study areas and (b) creating a common urban intensity index that matched the site scores of the local urban intensity index in all areas. It is intended that the descriptions of the similarities and differences in urbanization and environmental settings across these study areas will provide a foundation for understanding and interpreting the effects of urbanization on stream ecosystems in the studies being conducted as part of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program.

  2. INFRASTRUCTURE ECOLOGY: AN EVOLVING PARADIGM FOR SUSTAINABLE URBAN DEVELOPMENT

    E-print Network

    Das, Suman

    ;Chinese Infrastructure: We need to help china in their efforts to urbanize. The climate, global material and energy flows depend on it. · The scale and magnitude of urban infrastructure growth in China is massive into the entire urbanization process. · Considering the enormity of urban growth in China over the next 20 years

  3. China's Good Earth: From Urbanization to Rural Development under Hu Jintao 's Administration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jessica Wade

    2007-01-01

    This paper analyzes the recent efforts of the Chinese government to facilitate rural development. It reviews the Chinese Communist Party (CCP)’s previous emphasis on urban-based growth, the history behind the shift towards rural development, and the attempts by President Hu Jintao to move from extensive urban development towards sustainable rural development. It asserts, first, that much of China’s urban-based development

  4. A Numerical Study of the Urban Heat Island in the Coastal Tropical City of San Juan, Puerto Rico: Model Validation and Impacts of LCLU Changes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Comarazamy, Daniel E.; Gonzalez, Jorge E.; Luvall, Jeff; Rickman, Douglas L.

    2007-01-01

    Urban sprawls in tropical locations are rapidly accelerating and it is more evident in islands where a large percentage of the population resides along the coasts. This paper focuses on the analysis of the impacts of land use and land cover for urbanization in the tropical coastal city of San Juan, in the tropical island of Puerto Rico. A mesoscale numerical model, the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS), is used to study specific characteristics and patterns of the urban heat island in the San Juan Metropolitan Area (SJMA), the most noticeable urban core of the Caribbean. The research present in this paper makes use of the observations obtained during the airborne San Juan Atlas Mission in two ways. First, surface and rawinsonde data are used to validate the atmospheric model yielding satisfactory results. Second, airborne remote sensing information is used to update the model's surface characteristics to obtain a detailed configuration of the SJMA in order to perform the LCLU changes impact analysis. This analysis showed that the presence of San Juan has an impact reflected in higher air temperatures over the area occupied by the city, with positive values of up to 2.5 C, for the simulations that have specified urban LCLU indexes in the bottom boundary. One interesting result of the impact analysis was the finding of a precipitation disturbance shown as a difference in total accumulated rainfall between simulation with the city and with a potential natural vegetation induced by the presence of the urban area. Model results indicate that the urban-induced cloud formation and precipitation development occur mainly downwind of the city, including the accumulated precipitation. This spatial pattern can be explained by the presence of a-larger urbanized area in the southwest sector of the city, and of the approaching northeasterly trade winds.

  5. The Arts and Urban Development: Critical Comment and Discussion. Monograph Series in Public and International Affairs No. 12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendon, William S., Ed.

    This is a collection of essays on the arts and urban development. Included are the following articles: (1) "The Arts and Urban Development" by James L. Shanahan; (2) "Cultural Policy and Intra-Urban Development" by Richard Raymond and Michael Sesnowitz; (3) "The Vague World of the Arts and Urban Development," by Bruce Seaman; (4) "Business…

  6. Quantification of urban metabolism through coupling with the life cycle assessment framework: concept development and case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldstein, Benjamin; Birkved, Morten; Quitzau, Maj-Britt; Hauschild, Michael

    2013-09-01

    Cities now consume resources and produce waste in amounts that are incommensurate with the populations they contain. Quantifying and benchmarking the environmental impacts of cities is essential if urbanization of the world’s growing population is to occur sustainably. Urban metabolism (UM) is a promising assessment form in that it provides the annual sum material and energy inputs, and the resultant emissions of the emergent infrastructural needs of a city’s sociotechnical subsystems. By fusing UM and life cycle assessment (UM-LCA) this study advances the ability to quantify environmental impacts of cities by modeling pressures embedded in the flows upstream (entering) and downstream (leaving) of the actual urban systems studied, and by introducing an advanced suite of indicators. Applied to five global cities, the developed UM-LCA model provided enhanced quantification of mass and energy flows through cities over earlier UM methods. The hybrid model approach also enabled the dominant sources of a city’s different environmental footprints to be identified, making UM-LCA a novel and potentially powerful tool for policy makers in developing and monitoring urban development policies. Combining outputs with socioeconomic data hinted at how these forces influenced the footprints of the case cities, with wealthier ones more associated with personal consumption related impacts and poorer ones more affected by local burdens from archaic infrastructure.

  7. Development of the multi-scale model for urban climate analysis and evaluation of urban greening effects on energy consumption

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Hamano; T. Nakayama; T. Fujita; H. Hori; H. Tagami

    2009-01-01

    It is necessary to reduce Greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions drastically to stabilize climate change, and Japan is also required to assess its long-term global warming policy. In achieving the low carbon society and sustainable cities, the numerical evaluation of environmental impacts of the application of different technologies and policies was preliminarily examined by utilizing integrative urban environmental model. This research

  8. Towards a Mechanistic Understanding of Urbanization’s Impacts on Fish

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Abs Frank Bergen

    Eight censuses of the breeding bird community in a 10 ha urban park in Dortmund, Germany, conducted over a time span of 43\\u000a years, revealed an increase in species number as well as in breeding density (territories\\/10 ha). We found a high species\\u000a turnover rate of 42 % favouring generalist species and perhaps woodland species. Indicator species according to Flade

  9. Urban forest biomass estimates: is it important to use allometric relationships developed specifically

    E-print Network

    Lefsky, Michael

    Urban forest biomass estimates: is it important to use allometric relationships developed specifically for urban trees? M. R. McHale & I. C. Burke & M. A. Lefsky & P. J. Peper & E. G. Mc analyzed the benefits, costs, and carbon storage capacity associated with urban trees. These studies have

  10. Developing Anthropogenic Heating Profiles for Urban Areas Across the United States

    E-print Network

    Hall, Sharon J.

    produce an urban heat island (UHI) effect, which is manifest as warmer temperatures compared, Lodz, Poland. [3] Bornstein, R.D., 1968: Observations of the Urban Heat Island Effect in New York CityDeveloping Anthropogenic Heating Profiles for Urban Areas Across the United States Jeff Milne1,2, M

  11. The deployment of urban logistics solutions from research, development and pilot results

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    The deployment of urban logistics solutions from research, development and pilot results Lessons logistics solutions is one of the main pending questions in the field of urban goods transport research demonstration project, this paper presents the main issues related to the deployment of urban logistics

  12. Assessment of urban air pollution and it's probable health impact.

    PubMed

    Barman, S C; Kumar, N; Singh, R; Kisku, G C; Khan, A H; Kidwai, M M; Murthy, R C; Negi, M P S; Pandey, P; Verma, A K; Jain, G; Bhargava, S K

    2010-11-01

    The present study deals with the quantitative effect of vehicular emission on ambient air quality during May 2006 in urban area of Lucknow city. In this study SPM, RSPM, SO2, NOx and 7 trace metals associated with RSPM were estimated at 10 representative locations in urban area and one village area for control. Beside this, air quality index (AQI), health effects of different metals and mortality were assessed. The 24 hr average concentration of SPM, RSPM, SO2 and NOx was found to be 382.3, 171.5, 24.3 and 33.8 microg m(-3) respectively in urban area and these concentrations were found to be significantly (p < 0.01) higher by 94.8, 134.8, 107.4 and 129.6% than control site respectively The 24 hr mean of SPM and RSPM at each location of urban area were found to be higher than prescribed limit of National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) except SPM for industrial area. The 24 hr mean concentration of metals associated with RSPM was found to be higher than the control site by 52.3, 271.8, 408.9, 75.81, 62.7, 487.54 and 189.5% for Fe, Cu, Pb, Zn, Ni, Mn and Cr respectively. The inter correlation of metals Pb with Mn, Fe and Cr; Zn with Ni and Cr; Ni with Cr; Mn with Fe and Cu with Cr showed significant positive relation either at p < 0.05 or p < 0.01 level. Metals Pb, Mn and Cr (p < 0.01) and Cu (p < 0.05) showed significant positive correlation with RSPM. These results indicate that ambient air quality in the urban area is affected adversely due to emission and accumulation of SPM, RSPM, SO2, NOx and trace metals. These pollutants may pose detrimental effect on human health, as exposure of these are associated with cardiovascular and respiratory diseases, neurological impairments, increased risk of preterm birth and even mortality and morbidity. PMID:21506475

  13. The impact of urban planning on land use and land cover in Pudong of Shanghai, China.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Bin; Nakagoshi, Nobukazu; Chen, Jia-kuan; Kong, Ling-yi

    2003-03-01

    Functional zones in cities constitute the most conspicuous components of newly developed urban area, and have been a hot spot for domestic and foreign investors in China, which not only show the expanse of urban space accompanied by the shifts both in landscape (from rural to urban) and land use (from less extensive to extensive), but also display the transformation of regional ecological functions. By using the theories and methods of landscape ecology, the structure of landscape and landscape ecological planning can be analyzed and evaluated for studying the urban functional zones' layout. In 1990, the Central Government of China declared to develop and open up Pudong New Area so as to promote economic development in Shanghai. Benefited from the advantages of Shanghai's location and economy, the government of Pudong New Area has successively built up 7 different functional zones over the past decade according to their functions and strategic goals. Based on the multi-spectral satellite imageries taken in 1990, 1997 and 2000, a landscape ecology analysis was carried out for Pudong New Area of Shanghai, supported by GIS technology. Green space (including croplands) and built-up area are the major factors considered in developing urban landscape. This paper was mainly concerned with the different spatial patterns and dynamic of green space, built-up areas and new buildings in different functional zones, influenced by different functional layouts and development strategies. The rapid urbanization in Pudong New Area resulted in a more homogeneous landscape. Agricultural landscape and suburban landscape were gradually replaced by urban landscape as the degree of urbanization increased. As consequence of urbanization in Pudong, not only built-up patches, but also newly-built patches and green patches merged into one large patch, which should be attributed to the construction policy of extensive green space as the urban development process in Pudong New Area. The shape of green area of 7 functional zones became more and more regular because of the horticultural needs in Shanghai urban planning. Some suggestions were finally made for the study of future urban planning and layout. PMID:12765263

  14. Monitoring impact of urban settlements on nearby protected areas from space

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christoph Aubrecht; Malanding Jaiteh; Alexander de Sherbinin; Travis Longcore; Chris Elvidge

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we present a satellite based approach to monitor impacts of urban settlements on nearby protected areas worldwide. The footprint of human occupation is uniquely visible from space in the form of artificial night lighting, ranging from the burning of the rainforest to massive offshore fisheries to the omnipresent lights of cities and towns and related connecting road

  15. Ecological Impacts of Contaminants in an Urban Watershed DOE FRAP 1998-25

    E-print Network

    Ecological Impacts of Contaminants in an Urban Watershed DOE FRAP 1998-25 Prepared for: Environment of metals on a "pristine" stream community. The Brunette watershed has concentrations of heavy metals largely absent from the Brunette River watershed were also those species most sensitive to heavy metal

  16. Preparation for Teaching in Urban Schools: Perceptions of the Impact of Traditional Preparation Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Timmons, Crystal

    2010-01-01

    During 2 decades of debate about teacher preparation education practitioners and policymakers have called for a more skilled professional teaching force (Darling-Hammond, 2010). Of particular concern has been poverty's impact on education--specifically in struggling urban schools--prompting legislation such as the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB),…

  17. Teacher perceptions of factors impacting on student achievement in effective and less effective urban elementary schools

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cynthia Mitchell-Lee

    2001-01-01

    This study investigated teacher perceptions of factors impacting on student achievement in 18 effective and less effective elementary schools by surveying staff in randomly selected schools located in a large, urban district. Nine schools each were assigned to the effective or less effective groups based on a comparison of their average state assessment scores for a three-year period. A total

  18. Impact of age-paced parenting newsletters on urban families with at-risk children

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wendy Tineo

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of age-paced parenting newsletters on families with children at-risk for developmental delay. The families were recruited at two urban pediatric clinics when the children were between 3 and 18 months of age. Sixty families were randomly assigned to the intervention group (n = 30) and the control group ( n

  19. Impact of an Urban Effluent on Antibiotic Resistance of Riverine Enterobacteriaceae and Aeromonas spp

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MARISOL GONI-URRIZA; MICHELE CAPDEPUY; CORINNE ARPIN; NATHALIE RAYMOND; PIERRE CAUMETTE; CLAUDINE QUENTIN

    2000-01-01

    In order to evaluate the impact of an urban effluent on antibiotic resistance of freshwater bacterial populations, water samples were collected from the Arga river (Spain), upstream and downstream from the wastewater discharge of the city of Pamplona. Strains of Enterobacteriaceae (representative of the human and animal commensal flora) (110 isolates) and Aeromonas (typically waterborne bacteria) (118 isolates) were selected

  20. Revolution at the Margins: The Impact of Competition on Urban School Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hess, Frederick M.

    This book examines the impact of school vouchers and charter schools on three urban school districts, exploring the causes of behaviors observed and explaining how the structure of competition will likely shape the future of public education. The book draws on case studies from three districts at the center of the school choice debate: Milwaukee,…

  1. Impact of Onsite Wastewater Treatment Systems on Nitrogen and Baseflow in Urban Watersheds of Metropolitan Atlanta

    E-print Network

    Arnold, Jonathan

    Impact of Onsite Wastewater Treatment Systems on Nitrogen and Baseflow in Urban Watersheds 2401, Miller Plant Sciences Building Onsite wastewater treatment systems (OWTS) are widely used Septic Wastewater-Treatment Systems on Base Flow in Selected Watersheds in Gwinnett County, Georgia

  2. Gender Differences in the Longitudinal Impact of Exposure to Violence on Mental Health in Urban Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zona, Kate; Milan, Stephanie

    2011-01-01

    There is evidence of gender differences in psychopathology during adolescence, but little research has investigated gender differences in trauma-related symptoms. Exposure to violence is a commonly experienced potentially traumatic event among urban adolescents, and the few studies examining gender differences in its mental health impact have…

  3. Urban Water Management vs. Climate Change: Impacts on Cold Region Waste Water Inflows

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Annette Semadeni-Davies

    2004-01-01

    Failure to account for non-climatic changes to water systems, such as design and operation, within climate change impact assessments\\u000a leads to misconceptions because these activities buffer the human built enviroment from bio-physical impacts. Urban drainage\\u000a in cold regions, which is dominated by snowmelt, is especially vulnerable to climate change and is investigated in this paper\\u000a within the context of future

  4. Effects of urban development on floods in northern Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, Daniel G.

    1970-01-01

    Graphical and mathematical relations are presented to estimate the flood-peak magnitudes having recurrence intervals ranging up to 100 years for drainage basins with various degrees of urban or suburban development. Five independent variables are required for use of the relations. They are the size, length, and slope of the basin, which may be measured from maps, and the percentage of impervious surface and type of drainage system, which may be evaluated by a basin inspection but in actual practice will usually be estimated for future developed conditions. Based upon analysis of flood information for 81 sites, 59 of which are in the Washington, D.C., metropolitan area, the relations should be useful for design of drainage systems and for definition of good limits. The relations presented are applicable only to the Washington, D.C., area, but the method of analysis is general and may be used for any .area where the major floods result from rainfall. Urban and suburban development are shown .to affect floodflows to a significant degree. Improvements of the drainage system may reduce the lag time to one-eighth that of the natural channels. This lag-time reduction, combined with an increased storm runoff resulting from impervious surfaces, increases the flood peaks by a factor that ranges from two to nearly eight. The flood-peak increase depends upon the drainage-basin characteristics and the flood recurrence interval.

  5. Shopping the City: Real Estate Finance and Urban Retail Development

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Kim, Grace J.

    2003-01-01

    Beginning in the early 1990s, the urban cores of many American cities experienced a building renaissance, with the construction of new commercial buildings and tourist-themed facilities continuing apace for over a decade. Despite this development, inner city retail development has generally stagnated over the past few years, with the exception of a few cities. In this 32-page report released in July 2003, Kenneth T. Rosen, Grace J. Kim, and Avani A. Patel examines "the major changes in the real estate finance marketplace, the implications of those changes on development decisions, and public policy actions that could facilitate projects in these markets." In the paper, the authors note that despite the strong economy of the 1990s, most corporations dealing in institutional real estate projects have elected to work on projects in smaller suburban markets, and in a select few cities that have robust downtown areas. Overall, this paper is a compelling look at the nature of the retail markets in urban areas, and what type of public policy interventions might encourage increased investment in these areas.

  6. Environmental management of a highly impacted, urbanized tropical estuary: rehabilitation and restoration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thorhaug, A.

    1980-03-01

    The principles of the dynamics and interrelationships within the dominant subtropical and tropical Caribbean seagrass community have been studied previously before, during, and after impact. From these and scores of observations of damage and recovery patterns in Thalassia ecosystems, a sense of management recovery strategy has emerged. Artificial restoring of Thalassia testudinum seeds into areas cut off from stock (fruit, seeds) appeared feasible on a large scale after the Turkey Point (Biscayne Bay, Miami, Florida) restoration and test sampling throughout North Biscayne Bay. Two large-scale seeding attempts were made; after 11 months they compared favorably with Turkey Point specimens with regard to growth parameters, despite the turbidity and other persistent pollution. Thus, the possible areas in which Thalassia seed restoration can be used has increased to include estuaries of multiple impact still in various stages of recovery after physical and sewage pollution. This technique should be especially useful to “developing” nations where important nearshore fisheries nurseries based on Thalassia ecosystems have been heavily damaged and now lie barren. Man's impact on the estuary where seed restoration was attempted includes the following activities: 50% of the bay bottom directly dredged or filled (leaving much unconsolidated sediment); 50 million gallons of domestic waste dumped directly into a low flushing part of the bay for 20 years; seven major causeways transecting the bay, restricting circulation and flushing; two artificial inlets made into navigational channels; freshwater sheet flow drastically changed due to channelization by flood-control canals; urban runoff from a million people entering the bay. Most of the impacts have now abated; however, their long-term effects remain.

  7. Development of a geospatial model to quantify, describe and map urban growth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Emily Hoffhine Wilson; James D. Hurd; Daniel L. Civco; Michael P. Prisloe; Chester Arnold

    2003-01-01

    In the United States, there is widespread concern about understanding and curbing urban sprawl, which has been cited for its negative impacts on natural resources, economic health, and community character. There is not, however, a universally accepted definition of urban sprawl. It has been described using quantitative measures, qualitative terms, attitudinal explanations, and landscape patterns. To help local, regional and

  8. An Auxiliary Method To Reduce Potential Adverse Impacts Of Projected Land Developments: Subwatershed Prioritization

    EPA Science Inventory

    An index based method is developed that ranks the subwatersheds of a watershed based on their relative impacts on watershed response to anticipated land developments, and then applied to an urbanizing watershed in Eastern Pennsylvania. Simulations with a semi-distributed hydrolo...

  9. Direct impact of urbanization on the subsurface temperature field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dedecek, Petr; Kukkonen, Ilmo; Cermak, Vladimir; Safanda, Jan; Kresl, Milan

    2015-04-01

    This poster presents results of 3D modeling of the subsurface temperature field affected by the urbanization of originally forested area on the campus of Geological survey of Finland (GTK) in Otaniemi (Espoo). The stepwise urbanization of the area between the years 1956 and 2004 demonstrated by sequence of aerial photos allowed to define time change of boundary conditions on the surface. The repeated temperature logs from the unique borehole situated directly in the basement of GTK together with long-term air surface temperature series from nearby meteorological station were used to decompose the observed transient component of the subsurface temperature into the part affected by construction of new buildings and other anthropogenic structures in surroundings of the borehole and into the part affected by the ground surface temperature warming due to the surface air temperature rise. The effect of the built surface anthropogenic structures is detectable down to the depth of 150 m and the share of the anthropogenic signal on the non-stationary component of the observed subsurface temperature amounts to 90% at the depth of 50 m. and 80% at the depth of 100 m. Warming rate observed at the depth of 50 m between the years 1990 - 2004 (0.07 °C/year) is four times higher than modeled response to climatic warming on the Earth surface.

  10. Urban lake sediment chemistry: Lake design, runoff, and watershed impact

    SciTech Connect

    Amalfi, F.A.

    1988-01-01

    Sediments of twenty-two urban lakes and stormwater discharge into five of the impoundments were analyzed for the presence of selected metallic priority pollutants, total petroleum hydrocarbons, and volatile and extractable organic compounds. The concentration (mg/kg dry weight) ranges of metals in lake sediments were: arsenic 7-29, cadmium < 0.5-0.5, chromium 14-55, lead <1-138, selenium <0.01-1.1, silver 0.2-2.1, copper 25-2760, nickel 5-40, and zinc 33.9-239. Concentrations of total petroleum hydrocarbons ranged from 30 to 4400 mg/kg (wet weight). Organic priority pollutants detected in the urban lake impoundments included tetrachlorethylene, 1,1,2-trichloroethane, trichlorofluoromethane, phthalate esters, chloroform, and dichlorobromomethane. Stormwater runoff contained measurable quantities of arsenic, chromium, lead, selenium, copper, nickel, zinc, and petroleum hydrocarbons; whereas organic priority pollutants were not detected. Stormwater runoff pollutant loads indicated that runoff provides a significant contribution of metals and petroleum hydrocarbons to lake sediments.

  11. Development and demonstration of autonomous behaviors for urban environment exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahuja, Gaurav; Fellars, Donald; Kogut, Gregory; Pacis Rius, Estrellina; Schoolov, Misha; Xydes, Alexander

    2012-06-01

    Under the Urban Environment Exploration project, the Space and Naval Warfare Systems Center Pacic (SSC- PAC) is maturing technologies and sensor payloads that enable man-portable robots to operate autonomously within the challenging conditions of urban environments. Previously, SSC-PAC has demonstrated robotic capabilities to navigate and localize without GPS and map the ground oors of various building sizes.1 SSC-PAC has since extended those capabilities to localize and map multiple multi-story buildings within a specied area. To facilitate these capabilities, SSC-PAC developed technologies that enable the robot to detect stairs/stairwells, maintain localization across multiple environments (e.g. in a 3D world, on stairs, with/without GPS), visualize data in 3D, plan paths between any two points within the specied area, and avoid 3D obstacles. These technologies have been developed as independent behaviors under the Autonomous Capabilities Suite, a behavior architecture, and demonstrated at a MOUT site at Camp Pendleton. This paper describes the perceptions and behaviors used to produce these capabilities, as well as an example demonstration scenario.

  12. Urban wastewater development in Central and Eastern Europe.

    PubMed

    Somlyódy, László; Patziger, Miklós

    2012-01-01

    In the early nineties the region of Central and Eastern Europe (CEE, more than 1 million km˛ and 100 million inhabitants) went through fundamental political, economic and social changes which eventually led to the European integration process. This positively influenced urban water and wastewater management , which had an unbalanced structure and rather low level of development. The paper outlines first the 1990 situation (water supply, sewerage and wastewater treatment (WWT)) and the infrastructure development of the last two decades, on the basis of a comprehensive data collection for six countries (Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Romania and Slovakia). Austria serves as a reference basis. Alterations of some of the drivers such as GDP (Gross Domestic Product), water tariff, investment funding and legislation are studied in detail. Then, the paper focuses on WWT by analyzing data of 20 large plants. Influent and effluent quality is evaluated. Technology indicators are estimated and assessed. They include plant removal rates and violation ratios assuming the application of the Urban Wastewater Directive, primary clarifier removal rates, actual anoxic volume and sludge age in comparison with the recommendations of the ATV guideline, criteria of secondary settling tanks and energy consumption. Finally, nutrient removal rates and upgrading options are outlined. PMID:22797238

  13. Towards understanding the impacts of congestion pricing on urban trucking

    E-print Network

    Waliszewski, Janine M

    2005-01-01

    Understanding policy impacts on freight is essential for planners who have overlooked this transport group in the past and must evaluate new congestion alleviation policies with respect to regional economic and social ...

  14. Human population, urban settlement patterns and their impact on Plasmodium falciparum malaria endemicity

    PubMed Central

    Tatem, Andrew J; Guerra, Carlos A; Kabaria, Caroline W; Noor, Abdisalan M; Hay, Simon I

    2008-01-01

    Background The efficient allocation of financial resources for malaria control and the optimal distribution of appropriate interventions require accurate information on the geographic distribution of malaria risk and of the human populations it affects. Low population densities in rural areas and high population densities in urban areas can influence malaria transmission substantially. Here, the Malaria Atlas Project (MAP) global database of Plasmodium falciparum parasite rate (PfPR) surveys, medical intelligence and contemporary population surfaces are utilized to explore these relationships and other issues involved in combining malaria risk maps with those of human population distribution in order to define populations at risk more accurately. Methods First, an existing population surface was examined to determine if it was sufficiently detailed to be used reliably as a mask to identify areas of very low and very high population density as malaria free regions. Second, the potential of international travel and health guidelines (ITHGs) for identifying malaria free cities was examined. Third, the differences in PfPR values between surveys conducted in author-defined rural and urban areas were examined. Fourth, the ability of various global urban extent maps to reliably discriminate these author-based classifications of urban and rural in the PfPR database was investigated. Finally, the urban map that most accurately replicated the author-based classifications was analysed to examine the effects of urban classifications on PfPR values across the entire MAP database. Results Masks of zero population density excluded many non-zero PfPR surveys, indicating that the population surface was not detailed enough to define areas of zero transmission resulting from low population densities. In contrast, the ITHGs enabled the identification and mapping of 53 malaria free urban areas within endemic countries. Comparison of PfPR survey results showed significant differences between author-defined 'urban' and 'rural' designations in Africa, but not for the remainder of the malaria endemic world. The Global Rural Urban Mapping Project (GRUMP) urban extent mask proved most accurate for mapping these author-defined rural and urban locations, and further sub-divisions of urban extents into urban and peri-urban classes enabled the effects of high population densities on malaria transmission to be mapped and quantified. Conclusion The availability of detailed, contemporary census and urban extent data for the construction of coherent and accurate global spatial population databases is often poor. These known sources of uncertainty in population surfaces and urban maps have the potential to be incorporated into future malaria burden estimates. Currently, insufficient spatial information exists globally to identify areas accurately where population density is low enough to impact upon transmission. Medical intelligence does however exist to reliably identify malaria free cities. Moreover, in Africa, urban areas that have a significant effect on malaria transmission can be mapped. PMID:18954430

  15. The city design and the new Urban Revolution : conceptualizing catalytic, sustainable development in Mexico's second tier

    E-print Network

    Albericci, Allison N. (Allison Nicole)

    2012-01-01

    What is the present role of technical change - particularly change in integrated Information-Communication Technology (ICT) - in facilitating sustainable urbanism in the developing world? Technological advancements are ...

  16. PM10 concentration levels at an urban and background site in Cyprus: the impact of urban sources and dust storms.

    PubMed

    Achilleos, Souzana; Evans, John S; Yiallouros, Panayiotis K; Kleanthous, Savvas; Schwartz, Joel; Koutrakis, Petros

    2014-12-01

    Air quality in Cyprus is influenced by both local and transported pollution, including desert dust storms. We examined PM10 concentration data collected in Nicosia (urban representative) from April 1, 1993, through December 11, 2008, and in Ayia Marina (rural background representative) from January 1, 1999, through December 31, 2008. Measurements were conducted using a Tapered Element Oscillating Micro-balance (TEOM). PM10 concentrations, meteorological records, and satellite data were used to identify dust storm days. We investigated long-term trends using a Generalized Additive Model (GAM) after controlling for day of week, month, temperature, wind speed, and relative humidity. In Nicosia, annual PM10 concentrations ranged from 50.4 to 63.8 ?g/m3 and exceeded the EU annual standard limit enacted in 2005 of 40 ?g/m3 every year A large, statistically significant impact of urban sources (defined as the difference between urban and background levels) was seen in Nicosia over the period 2000-2008, and was highest during traffic hours, weekdays, cold months, and low wind conditions. Our estimate of the mean (standard error) contribution of urban sources to the daily ambient PM10 was 24.0 (0.4) ?g/m3. The study of yearly trends showed that PM10 levels in Nicosia decreased from 59.4 ?g/m3 in 1993 to 49.0 ?g/m3 in 2008, probably in part as a result of traffic emission control policies in Cyprus. In Ayia Marina, annual concentrations ranged from 27.3 to 35.6 ?g/m3, and no obvious time trends were observed. The levels measured at the Cyprus background site are comparable to background concentrations reported in other Eastern Mediterranean countries. Average daily PM10 concentrations during desert dust storms were around 100 ?g/m3 since 2000 and much higher in earlier years. Despite the large impact ofdust storms and their increasing frequency over time, dust storms were responsible for a small fraction of the exceedances of the daily PM10 limit. Implications: This paper examines PM10 concentrations in Nicosia, Cyprus, from 1993 to 2008. The decrease in PM10 levels in Nicosia suggests that the implementation of traffic emission control policies in Cyprus has been effective. However, particle levels still exceeded the European Uion annual standard, and dust storms were responsible for a small fraction of the daily PM10 limit exceedances. Other natural particles that are not assessed in this study, such as resuspended soil and sea salt, may be responsible in part for the hig particle levels. PMID:25562931

  17. Impact of Urban Disaster on a University Trauma Center

    PubMed Central

    Hiatt, Jonathan R.; Larmon, Baxter

    1988-01-01

    On the eve of the 1984 Summer Olympics, a deranged man drove his car at high speed onto a pedestriancrowded sidewalk in a suburb of Los Angeles. The UCLA Medical Center, located two blocks from the scene, received 17 of 51 casualties. One patient arrived in full cardiac arrest and could not be resuscitated. Six had minor injuries or temporary hysteria and did not require admission to hospital. The mean injury severity score of the 10 patients who were admitted was 13.6 (range 3 to 48). Three patients required immediate surgical procedures, and two had delayed orthopedic operations. Specialty consultations were needed in orthopedics, neurosurgery, plastic surgery, otolaryngology, pediatric surgery, and pediatric intensive care. There were no subsequent deaths, although two patients had substantial residual neurologic disability. This episode of unexpected urban violence underscores the need for dedicated trauma services in university centers. Functions of such services include disaster planning, deploying surgical personnel, managing injured patients, and analyzing outcomes. PMID:3348038

  18. Eye exercises of acupoints: their impact on refractive error and visual symptoms in Chinese urban children

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Traditional Chinese eye exercises of acupoints involve acupoint self-massage. These have been advocated as a compulsory measure to reduce ocular fatigue, as well as to retard the development of myopia, among Chinese school children. This study evaluated the impact of these eye exercises among Chinese urban children. Methods 409 children (195 males, 47.7%), aged 11.1?±?3.2 (range 6–17) years, from the Beijing Myopia Progression Study (BMPS) were recruited. All had completed the eye exercise questionnaire, the convergence insufficiency symptom survey (CISS), and a cycloplegic autorefraction. Among these, 395 (96.6%) performed the eye exercises of acupoints. Multiple logistic regressions for myopia and multiple linear regressions for the CISS score (after adjusting for age, gender, average parental refractive error, and time spent doing near work and outdoor activity) for the different items of the eye exercises questionnaire were performed. Results Only the univariate odds ratio (95% confidence interval) for “seriousness of attitude” towards performing the eye exercises of acupoints (0.51, 0.33-0.78) showed a protective effect towards myopia. However, none of the odds ratios were significant after adjusting for the confounding factors. The univariate and multiple ? coefficients for the CISS score were -2.47 (p?=?0.002) and -1.65 (p?=?0.039), -3.57 (p?=?0.002) and -2.35 (p?=?0.042), and -2.40 (p?=?0.003) and -2.29 (p?=?0.004), for attitude, speed of exercise, and acquaintance with acupoints, respectively, which were all significant. Conclusions The traditional Chinese eye exercises of acupoints appeared to have a modest effect on relieving near vision symptoms among Chinese urban children aged 6 to 17 years. However, no remarkable effect on reducing myopia was observed. PMID:24195652

  19. Health impacts of ultraviolet radiation in urban ecosystems: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heisler, Gordon M.

    2005-08-01

    This paper explores the literature on ultraviolet irradiance (UV) in urban ecosystems with respect to the likely effects on human health. The focus was the question of whether the health effects of UV radiation should be included in planning of landscape elements such as trees and shading structures. In examining the literature, special attention was given to seeking information on the question of whether it is important that shade be provided for elementary school play areas, and if so, how should it be accomplished? Before such practical questions could be dealt with, it became obvious that answers to several pertinent secondary questions had to be sought. Foremost of these was, what are the negative and positive health effects of UV exposure? Recent epidemiological findings of apparent benefits of sunlight because of vitamin-D photosynthesis and resulting anti-cancer effects make this highly relevant. Another basic question is that of trends in ozone depletion, which leads to interesting questions of long-term trends, short-term extremes, and urban influences on UV irradiance. A host of these and other pertinent questions, such as, "What is the relationship between climate of a location and dress," i.e., "How much exposure will people receive during time spent outdoors?" require much more study. Judging from current knowledge of typical spectra of solar radiation in tree shade and the difference between the action spectra for vitamin D synthesis and erythema in human skin, exposure to solar radiation in tree shade for a short period of time can be somewhat more beneficial for vitamin D synthesis and regulation than detrimental in producing sunburn.

  20. Development and Application of a New Grey Dynamic Hierarchy Analysis System (GDHAS) for Evaluating Urban Ecological Security

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Chaofeng; Tian, Xiaogang; Guan, Yang; Ju, Meiting; Xie, Qiang

    2013-01-01

    Selecting indicators based on the characteristics and development trends of a given study area is essential for building a framework for assessing urban ecological security. However, few studies have focused on how to select the representative indicators systematically, and quantitative research is lacking. We developed an innovative quantitative modeling approach called the grey dynamic hierarchy analytic system (GDHAS) for both the procedures of indicator selection and quantitative assessment of urban ecological security. Next, a systematic methodology based on the GDHAS is developed to assess urban ecological security comprehensively and dynamically. This assessment includes indicator selection, driving force-pressure-state-impact-response (DPSIR) framework building, and quantitative evaluation. We applied this systematic methodology to assess the urban ecological security of Tianjin, which is a typical coastal super megalopolis and the industry base in China. This case study highlights the key features of our approach. First, 39 representative indicators are selected for the evaluation index system from 62 alternative ones available through the GDHAS. Second, the DPSIR framework is established based on the indicators selected, and the quantitative assessment of the eco-security of Tianjin is conducted. The results illustrate the following: urban ecological security of Tianjin in 2008 was in alert level but not very stable; the driving force and pressure subsystems were in good condition, but the eco-security levels of the remainder of the subsystems were relatively low; the pressure subsystem was the key to urban ecological security; and 10 indicators are defined as the key indicators for five subsystems. These results can be used as the basis for urban eco-environmental management. PMID:23698700

  1. The Research on the Organization Mode of Urban Rapid Logistics Transport System's Cooperative Development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aiyuan Duan; Jungang Yang; Min Deng

    2008-01-01

    As the quick increase of urban economy, which is brought about by the development of market economy, China's urban logistics are facing new and higher - requirement challenges. At present, the people pay more and more attention on logistics transport, and the cooperative development which is a new, more reasonable concept of development has been universally recognized around the world.

  2. Constructing premium network spaces: reflections on infrastructure networks and contemporary urban development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephen Graham

    2000-01-01

    This article argues that standardized, public or private infrastructure monopolies are receding as hegemonic forms of urban infrastructure development. We are starting to witness the uneven overlaying of new, customized, high-performance urban infrastructures onto the apparently immanent, universal and (usually) public monopoly networks laid down in developed cities between the 1930s and 1960s. This article seeks to develop a broad

  3. The Cultural Environment Approach of Urban Development: the Case Study of the City of Veria, Greece

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yannis Psycharis; Alex Deffner; Ioanna Iordanidou

    2006-01-01

    The culture of any city undoubtedly promotes its development. The formulation and implementation of cultural policies, a key issue for urban economic development, relate to a variety of economic sectors. Cultural elements that can contribute to urban development could be either a direct promotion of its cultural identity, or their residents’ contribution to the achievement of high quality of life,

  4. [Solid urban waste: socio-environmental impacts and prospects for sustainable management with social inclusion].

    PubMed

    Gouveia, Nelson

    2012-06-01

    Strategies to reconcile development with the protection of ecosystems will yet again be discussed at the forthcoming Rio +20 Summit. The management of solid urban waste is an issue which has barely been touched upon in such discussions. Given the institutionalization of the National Solid Waste Policy, this paper seeks to contribute to this debate and to single out alternatives to tackle this issue with an emphasis on social inclusion. For this purpose, specialized scientific literature was consulted as well as information on solid waste management. It is clearly seen that inadequate management of solid waste has immediate impacts on the environment and health, and contributes to climate change. Considering the limitations of the current options for waste disposal, it is essential to minimize the quantities produced by reducing, reusing and recycling. In this context, the role of independent waste gatherers who have been conducting work of great environmental importance is highlighted. Given the vulnerabilities of this population, it is necessary to devise public policies to ensure that waste gathering is a more respected and less risky activity that guarantees an income, so as to move towards more healthy, equitable and sustainable development. PMID:22699641

  5. Feasibility assessment tool for urban anaerobic digestion in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Lohri, Christian Riuji; Rodi?, Ljiljana; Zurbrügg, Christian

    2013-09-15

    This paper describes a method developed to support feasibility assessments of urban anaerobic digestion (AD). The method not only uses technical assessment criteria but takes a broader sustainability perspective and integrates technical-operational, environmental, financial-economic, socio-cultural, institutional, policy and legal criteria into the assessment tool developed. Use of the tool can support decision-makers with selecting the most suitable set-up for the given context. The tool consists of a comprehensive set of questions, structured along four distinct yet interrelated dimensions of sustainability factors, which all influence the success of any urban AD project. Each dimension answers a specific question: I) WHY? What are the driving forces and motivations behind the initiation of the AD project? II) WHO? Who are the stakeholders and what are their roles, power, interests and means of intervention? III) WHAT? What are the physical components of the proposed AD chain and the respective mass and resource flows? IV) HOW? What are the key features of the enabling or disabling environment (sustainability aspects) affecting the proposed AD system? Disruptive conditions within these four dimensions are detected. Multi Criteria Decision Analysis is used to guide the process of translating the answers from six sustainability categories into scores, combining them with the relative importance (weights) attributed by the stakeholders. Risk assessment further evaluates the probability that certain aspects develop differently than originally planned and assesses the data reliability (uncertainty factors). The use of the tool is demonstrated with its application in a case study for Bahir Dar in Ethiopia. PMID:23722149

  6. Urban drought: a potential environmental hotspot in the western region development of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Qian; Glantz, Michael H.; Song, Lianchun; Sun, Guowu; Pan, Xiaoling

    2003-07-01

    A large-scale economic development program in western China has begun since 1999. Fast urbanization is expected with urban population increasing dramatically. Western China is mostly in arid and semi-arid climate zone and water resources are very limited. It suggests that an early warning system specifically designed to deal with urban droughts should be developed. Thresholds on identifying the water related hotspots must be determined based on different regions and economic sectors.

  7. Impact of a Brief Literacy Intervention on Urban Preschoolers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharif, Iman; Ozuah, Philip O.; Dinkevich, Eugene I.; Mulvihill, Michael

    2003-01-01

    This study examined the impact of a literacy intervention comprised of four parent workshops about reading to children on preschoolers' receptive vocabulary. Findings indicated that children of parents attending the workshops had a significant 7- point increase in their Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test scores at a 7-month follow-up. Parent…

  8. The Impact of Urban Emissions on Chemistry and Climate over Central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huszar, P.; Halenka, T.; Belda, M.

    2014-12-01

    The impact of city emissions of short lived gases and aerosols on the tropospheric chemistry and climate is examined over Central Europe. A coupled modelling system consisting of the regional climate model RegCM4 and the chemistry transport model CAMx is implemented over a 10 km x 10 km resolution domain. For each period of 2001-2010, 2026-2035 and 2046-2055 a pair of experiments is performed: one with urban emissions removed and one with urban emissions scaled by the factor. The chemistry-climate impact is evaluated as the difference between the corresponding experiments divided by this factor. This choice was important to obtain statistically significant results. The linearity is examined to justify this approach. The radiative feedbacks of tropospheric ozone, primary (black and organic carbon) and secondary inorganic aerosols (sulfates and nitrates) are taken into account including the 1st and 2nd indirect aerosol effect. Due to city emissions, we found significant ozone titration especially over the western and northern part of the domain. City emissions contribute to ozone production over southern Europe. An increase of sulfate, nitrate aerosols and black/organic is significant as well and is modelled not only over urbanized areas but all over the computational domain. Evaluating the radiative impacts, we found that the total urban impact on 2 m temperature over central Europe is characterized by cooling up to -0.015 K as a 2001-2010 average. The radiative impact of the individual constituents (ozone, sulfate-, nitrate aerosols etc.) is examined as well.

  9. Accidental release of chlorine and its impact on urban areas

    SciTech Connect

    El-Sheikh, H.A.; Badr, O.A.; El Kadi, H.M.; Hamoda, M.F. [United Arab Emirates Univ., Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates). Faculty of Engineering

    1995-12-31

    Among the possible scenarios of accidental releases of chlorine from high pressure cylinders, this paper considers a typical one for the analysis. The calculated transient mass flow rate of chlorine released from a one-tonne cylinder showed that such an accident takes about 10 minutes to evacuate the cylinder. However, the toxic effect in the surrounding atmosphere continues for a longer period (about 20 minutes). The size and location of the toxic cloud at ground level were predicted as functions of time using an EPA-based dispersion model. The results showed a growth of the toxic cloud for some time beyond which it started to decay. For the typical scenario considered in this study, the most dangerous situation generated a toxic cloud with dimensions of 4000 m and 600 m in the downwind and crosswind directions, respectively. A study of the effects of some meteorological parameters on the size and location of the toxic cloud at ground level was also conducted. In general, it was observed that enhancing atmospheric mixing produced larger toxic zones during the early stages of the release and caused an opposite effect during the later ones. This dynamic data was linked to a GIS environment and the time variant was represented using an animation technique for Al-Ain City, United Arab Emirates. Data base information related to physical urban characteristics and population was immediately obtained for the affected areas.

  10. THE IMPACT OF URBAN STORM WATER RUNOFF AND DOMESTIC WASTE EFFLUENT ON WATER QUALITY OF LAKE TANA AND LOCAL

    E-print Network

    Walter, M.Todd

    THE IMPACT OF URBAN STORM WATER RUNOFF AND DOMESTIC WASTE EFFLUENT ON WATER QUALITY OF LAKE TANA, three shallow wells were installed. Urban storm water runoffs at six storm drains, which empty to Lake and NURP) and it shows that the Bahir Dar storm water runoff pollutant load is in excess of the North

  11. Potential Impact of Rainfall on the Air-Surface Exchange of Total Gaseous Mercury from Two Common Urban Ground Surfaces

    EPA Science Inventory

    The impact of rainfall on total gaseous mercury (TGM) flux from pavement and street dirt surfaces was investigated in an effort to determine the influence of wet weather events on mercury transport in urban watersheds. Street dirt and pavement are common urban ground surfaces tha...

  12. Assessing the Impact of Urban Runoff in Recreational Beaches in South Carolina and Florida Using Culturable and QPCR Fecal Indicator

    EPA Science Inventory

    Urban/suburban runoff carries a variety of pollutants that often includes bacterial pathogens and indicators of fecal contamination. The objective of this study was to assess the microbial water quality of recreational beaches impacted solely by urban runoff through the use of cu...

  13. The Impact of Hip-Hop Instruction on Students in Urban Settings Tayana Dowdell and Jomo Mutegi

    E-print Network

    Zhou, Yaoqi

    The Impact of Hip-Hop Instruction on Students in Urban Settings Tayana Dowdell and Jomo Mutegi student populations. Hip-Hop pedagogy is offered as an instructional approach that has the potential to reach diverse populations of students in urban settings. However, despite the argument that hip-hop

  14. Impacts of flooding and climate change on urban transportation: A systemwide performance assessment of the Boston Metro Area

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pablo Suarez; William Anderson; Vijay Mahal; T. R. Lakshmanan

    2005-01-01

    Global climate change is likely to affect urban infrastructure through sea level rise and increased frequency of extreme events. This paper assesses the potential impact of climate change on the system-wide performance of transportation networks using the Boston Metro Area as a case study. The methodology integrates projected changes in land use, demographic and climatic conditions into the urban transportation

  15. A simplified approach to evaluating and assessing waste impacts in urban African communities

    SciTech Connect

    Sam, P.A. [African Environmental Research and Consulting Group, Merriam, KS (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The region of Africa has been experiencing a fast growing urbanization. This paper is therefore being prepared to provide a simplified approach to be used by city planners, environmental planners, local municipal managers, nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) and local African Community Action Groups, to use in assessing the waste impact of this immense urbanization within their communities and jurisdiction. The prescription for the African urban communities for the years ahead is that the inhabitants of urban communities and villages have to undertake the simplest evaluation and assessment to safeguard its environmental protection. A simplified approach to such schemes in assessing and evaluating ecological and human health impacts associated with environmental pollution in Africa is presented in this document. This approach utilizes historical information and visible indicators of pollution in lieu of conducting an extensive and detailed risk assessment studies. The primary sources of hazardous waste, increasingly so as economies grow, are: small to medium-sized industries and commercial enterprises; households; large manufacturing sectors such as mining, chemical, textiles, rubber, plastics, petroleum, food processing, paper, printing and construction; and agricultural activities.

  16. Impact of urban cover fraction on SMOS and SMAP surface soil moisture retrieval

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, N.; Walker, J. P.; Rudiger, C.; Ryu, D.; Gurney, R.

    2011-12-01

    L-band (~1.4 GHz) microwave radiometry has been widely acknowledged as the most promising technique for surface (top ~5cm) soil moisture observation at regional and global scales, due to its all weather capability, direct relationship to soil moisture, and reduced sensitivity to surface roughness and vegetation. Radiometer observations of microwave emission from the soil surface are used to estimate soil moisture through a radiative transfer model using ancillary information including land cover and soil properties etc. This technique has been applied to the ESA's (European Space Agency) Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) satellite, the first soil moisture dedicated space mission, launched on 2nd Nov. 2009. Similarly, radiometer techniques will be employed by NASA's (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) Soil Moisture Active and Passive (SMAP) mission, in both the passive and active-passive products. However, passive microwave soil moisture retrieval suffers from land surface heterogeneity at coarse scales; with the radiometer footprints of both missions being ~40 km, which is the best spatial resolution currently achievable using current satellite antenna technology. In order to achieve the ~0.04 m3/m3 target volumetric soil moisture accuracies at such scales, microwave contributions of non-soil targets (such as urban areas) within the sensors' field-of-view needs to be considered in the retrieval algorithm error budget and implementation, since the impact could potentially be significant if ignored. Currently there is a lack of knowledge on the microwave behaviour of non-soil targets, with little assessment of their microwave emissions and impact on satellite scale footprints. Therefore, the objectives of this study are to 1) investigate the relationship between urban induced brightness temperature uncertainties and urban fraction, 2) extract urban fraction thresholds for negligible brightness temperature impact by urban areas based on the SMOS and SMAP error budgets, and 3) use these thresholds to identify SMOS and SMAP pixels with likely non-negligible urban impacts world-wide. In this work, airborne datasets from three field campaigns in the Murrumbidgee catchment, in southeast of Australia, were used: i) the NAFE'06 (National Airborne Field Experiment in 2006), ii) the AACES-1 (Australian Airborne Cal/val Experiment for SMOS), and iii) the AACES-2. During these campaigns, brightness temperature observations were made at 1-km resolution across 20 independent SMOS/SMAP sized footprints of which a number contain urban areas of different size. The NSW (New South Wales, Australia) Land use map with 50 m resolution was used to distinguish brightness temperature observations of the urban area and surrounding natural land surface, from which urban fraction thresholds for SMOS and SMAP were derived. These thresholds were then applied globally based on an urban fraction map calculated using the MODIS Urban Land Cover 500-m product.

  17. Urban History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharpless, John B.; Warner, Sam Bass, Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Reviews the development of urban history since the 1870s and describes the present variety of urban history studies. Current studies seem to focus on either macromodels and urban systems or on internal networks and densities. (Author/AV)

  18. Development of a spherical aerial vehicle for urban search

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Kang; Sun, Hanxu; Jia, Qingxuan; Zhang, Yanheng

    2014-06-01

    With the ability to provide close surveillance in narrow space or urban areas, spherical aerial vehicles have been of great interest to many scholars and researchers. The spherical aerial vehicle offers substantial design advantages over the conventional small aerial vehicles. As a kind of small aerial vehicles, spherical aerial vehicle is presented in this paper. Firstly, the unique structure of spherical aerial vehicle is presented in detail. And then as the key component of the spherical aerial vehicle, the meshed spherical shell is analyzed. The shell is made of carbon fiber and is used to protect the inner devices, so the deformation of the shell is analyzed and simulated. Then the experimental results verify the above analysis and the composite carbon fiber material makes the mesh spherical shell small deformation. Considering the whole vehicle has a shell outside, the lift affect of the meshed spherical shell is analyzed. The simulation and experiment results are basically consistent with theoretical analysis, and the impact of the meshed shell has small resistance for the airflow through the sphere.

  19. Gender, development and urban social change: Women's community action in global cities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amy Lind

    1997-01-01

    This article addresses the gender dimensions of women's community action in global cities. It focuses on two types of women's organizations (food provision and anti-violence) and draws out their implications for community and national development frameworks in the context of economic restructuring and urban poverty. The article undertakes three tasks: First, it rethinks frameworks of development and urban social change

  20. Management of urban development: Example of the transformation of two Dutch former port areas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Van Hoek; G. Wigmans

    2011-01-01

    The more traditional approach of developing cities through government lead town planning has been gradually shifting to a more entrepreneurial approach of strategic management of both public and private initiatives in the urban environment. This approach combines aspects of governance, urban planning, economic development, financial management, social planning and marketing and leads to a more integrated strategic decision making process

  1. Developing Urban Community Garden Projects1 Austen Moore, Amy Harder, and Norma Samuel2

    E-print Network

    Jawitz, James W.

    WC139 Developing Urban Community Garden Projects1 Austen Moore, Amy Harder, and Norma Samuel2 1 student, and Amy Harder, associate professor, Agricultural Education and Communication Department; Norma garden sites, build partnerships, engage community members, and develop a project overview. Urban

  2. Bringing sexual and reproductive health in the urban contexts to the forefront of the development agenda: the case for prioritizing the urban poor.

    PubMed

    Mberu, Blessing; Mumah, Joyce; Kabiru, Caroline; Brinton, Jessica

    2014-09-01

    Estimates suggest that over 90 % of population increase in the least developed countries over the next four decades will occur in urban areas. These increases will be driven both by natural population growth and rural-urban migration. Moreover, despite its status as the world's least urbanized region, the urban population in the sub-Saharan Africa region is projected to increase from under 40 % currently to over 60 % by 2050. Currently, approximately 70 % of all urban residents in the region live in slums or slum-like conditions. Sexual and reproductive health (SRH) risks for the urban poor are severe and include high rates of unwanted pregnancies, sexually transmitted infections, and poor maternal and child health outcomes. However, the links between poverty, urbanization, and reproductive health priorities are still not a major focus in the broader development agenda. Building on theoretical and empirical data, we show that SRH in urban contexts is critical to the development of healthy productive urban populations and, ultimately, the improvement of quality of life. We posit that a strategic focus on the sexual and reproductive health of urban residents will enable developing country governments achieve international goals and national targets by reducing health risks among a large and rapidly growing segment of the population. To that end, we identify key research, policy and program recommendations and strategies required for bringing sexual and reproductive health in urban contexts to the forefront of the development agenda. PMID:24352624

  3. Impact of Biomass Combustion on Urban Fine Particulate Matter in Central and Northern Europe

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sanna K. Saarikoski; Markus K. Sillanpää; Karri M. Saarnio; Risto E. Hillamo; Arto S. Pennanen; Raimo O. Salonen

    2008-01-01

    The impact of biomass combustion on atmospheric particulate matter was investigated at Central and Northern European urban\\u000a background sites (Duisburg, Prague, Amsterdam, Helsinki) in 2002–2003. In Helsinki, additional 4-week sampling campaigns were\\u000a carried out during the four seasons in 2003–2004. During campaigns fine particles (PM2.5) and size-segregated samples were collected with a virtual impactor and a ten-stage Berner low-pressure impactor,

  4. Predicted health impacts of urban air quality management

    PubMed Central

    Mindell, J; Joffe, M

    2004-01-01

    Study objective: The 1995 UK Environment Act required local authorities to review air quality and, where UK National Air Quality Strategy objectives (except ozone) are likely to be exceeded in 2005, to declare local air quality management areas and prepare action plans. This study modelled the impacts on health of reductions from current levels of PM10 to these objectives. Design: The framework for conducting quantified health impact assessment assessed causality, then, if appropriate, examined the shape and magnitude of the exposure-response relations. The study modelled declines in pollution to achieve the objectives, then modelled the numbers of deaths and admissions affected if air pollution declined from existing levels to meet the objectives, using routine data. Setting: Westminster, central London. Main results: Attaining the 2004 PM10 24 hour objective in Westminster results in 1–21 lives no longer shortened in one year (annual deaths 1363). Reducing exceedences from 35 to seven almost doubles the estimates. The 2009 objective for the annual mean requires a substantial reduction in PM10, which would delay 8–20 deaths. About 20 respiratory and 14–20 circulatory admissions would be affected and around 5% of emergency hospital attendances for asthma by attaining the lower annual mean target. The effects of long term exposure to particulates may be an order of magnitude higher: models predict about 24 deaths are delayed by reaching the 2004 annual target (40 µg/m3[gravimetric]) and a hundred deaths by reducing annual mean PM10 to 20 µg/m3[gravimetric]. Conclusions: Modelling can be used to estimate the potential health impacts of air quality management programmes. PMID:14729886

  5. Low Impact DeveLopment f a c t s h e e t

    E-print Network

    Tullos, Desiree

    Low Impact DeveLopment f a c t s h e e t oregon sea Grant corvallis, oregon oResU-G-11-007 GGreen. 2007), minimizing the effects of urban heat islands, reducing noise, and improving air quality. Green element of the hydrologic cycle and contrib- utes to regulation of the regional climate. There are two

  6. Modeling integrated urban water systems in developing countries: case study of Port Vila, Vanuatu.

    PubMed

    Poustie, Michael S; Deletic, Ana

    2014-12-01

    Developing countries struggle to provide adequate urban water services, failing to match infrastructure with urban expansion. Despite requiring an improved understanding of alternative infrastructure performance when considering future investments, integrated modeling of urban water systems is infrequent in developing contexts. This paper presents an integrated modeling methodology that can assist strategic planning processes, using Port Vila, Vanuatu, as a case study. 49 future model scenarios designed for the year 2050, developed through extensive stakeholder participation, were modeled with UVQ (Urban Volume and Quality). The results were contrasted with a 2015 model based on current infrastructure, climate, and water demand patterns. Analysis demonstrated that alternative water servicing approaches can reduce Port Vila's water demand by 35 %, stormwater generation by 38 %, and nutrient release by 80 % in comparison to providing no infrastructural development. This paper demonstrates that traditional centralized infrastructure will not solve the wastewater and stormwater challenges facing rapidly growing urban cities in developing countries. PMID:24973053

  7. Development of Gridded Fields of Urban Canopy Parameters for Advanced Urban Meteorological and Air Quality Models

    EPA Science Inventory

    Urban dispersion and air quality simulation models applied at various horizontal scales require different levels of fidelity for specifying the characteristics of the underlying surfaces. As the modeling scales approach the neighborhood level (~1 km horizontal grid spacing), the...

  8. A transdisciplinary approach to oppressive cityscapes and the role of greenery as key factors in sustainable urban development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Asgarzadeh; T. Koga; N. Yoshizawa; J. Munakata; K. Hirate

    2009-01-01

    Through the recent process of urban development, characterized by urban expansion and redevelopment, industrialized countries have witnessed a surge in the number, scale and complexity of urban structures. However, it has become difficult to keep urban space adaptable to environmental realities and our cities don't completely meet the demands of society. These demands include the sustainable upgrading of social infrastructure

  9. Increasing Green Infrastructure in Compact Developments: Strategies for Providing Ecologically Beneficial Greenery in Modern Urban Built Environments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel C. Staley

    Urban forest canopies are generally declining in areal extent across the United States. At the same time urban areal extent per capita is increasing, and human population is urbanizing. Eighty percent of North Americans are now living in urbanized areas. Municipalities are reacting to concerns about such trends by permitting an increasing number of compact developments that may conflict with

  10. The respiratory health impact of a large urban fire.

    PubMed Central

    Lipsett, M; Waller, K; Shusterman, D; Thollaug, S; Brunner, W

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. In July 1988, a fire destroyed a huge supermarket warehouse in Richmond, Calif, sending smoke into residential neighborhoods for nearly a week. There was no organized public health response. To evaluate the respiratory health impact on the general population, a survey of emergency room visits and hospital admissions to the two acute-care hospitals serving the population downwind was conducted. METHODS. Medical records of 489 patients meeting specified diagnostic criteria during the week of the fire and several reference periods were abstracted. Ratios of proportions for respiratory diagnoses (i.e., emergency room visits for a given diagnosis/total emergency room visits) were calculated, comparing the fire week with the reference periods, and 1988 mortality data for the area were reviewed. RESULTS. Ratios of proportions for emergency room visits for asthma and all lower respiratory conditions increased significantly during the fire. Respiratory-related hospitalizations also increased. However, there was no observable increase in respiratory mortality. CONCLUSIONS. This fire was found to have had a moderate impact on the respiratory health of local residents. Public health intervention is indicated to prevent respiratory morbidity when extended exposure to structural fire smoke is predictable. PMID:8129061

  11. Impact of utilizing 3D digital urban models on the design content of urban design plans in US cities 

    E-print Network

    Al-Douri, Firas A. Salman

    2006-10-30

    Some experts suggest that urban design plans in US cities may lack adequate coverage of the essential design aspects, particularly three-dimensional design aspects of the physical environment. Digital urban models and ...

  12. Dynamic modeling of Tampa Bay urban development using parallel computing

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Xian, G.; Crane, M.; Steinwand, D.

    2005-01-01

    Urban land use and land cover has changed significantly in the environs of Tampa Bay, Florida, over the past 50 years. Extensive urbanization has created substantial change to the region's landscape and ecosystems. This paper uses a dynamic urban-growth model, SLEUTH, which applies six geospatial data themes (slope, land use, exclusion, urban extent, transportation, hillside), to study the process of urbanization and associated land use and land cover change in the Tampa Bay area. To reduce processing time and complete the modeling process within an acceptable period, the model is recoded and ported to a Beowulf cluster. The parallel-processing computer system accomplishes the massive amount of computation the modeling simulation requires. SLEUTH calibration process for the Tampa Bay urban growth simulation spends only 10 h CPU time. The model predicts future land use/cover change trends for Tampa Bay from 1992 to 2025. Urban extent is predicted to double in the Tampa Bay watershed between 1992 and 2025. Results show an upward trend of urbanization at the expense of a decline of 58% and 80% in agriculture and forested lands, respectively. ?? 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Diagnosis of aged prescribed burning plumes impacting an urban area.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sangil; Kim, Hyeon K; Yan, Bo; Cobb, Charles E; Hennigan, Chris; Nichols, Sara; Chamber, Michael; Edgerton, Eric S; Jansen, John J; Hu, Yongtao; Zheng, Mei; Weber, Rodney J; Russell, Armistead G

    2008-03-01

    An unanticipated wind shift led to the advection of plumes from two prescribed burning sites that impacted Atlanta, GA, producing a heavy smoke event late in the afternoon on February 28, 2007. Observed PM2.5 concentrations increased to over 140 microg/m3 and O3 concentrations up to 30 ppb in a couple of hours, despite the late hour in February when photochemistry is less vigorous. A detailed investigation of PM2.5 chemical composition and source apportionment analysis showed that the increase in PM2.5 mass was driven mainly by organic carbon (OC). However, both results from source apportionment and an observed nonlinear relationship between OC and PM2.5 potassium (K) indicate that the increased OC was not due solely to primary emissions. Most of the OC was water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) and was dominated by hydrophobic compounds. The data are consistent with large enhancements in isoprenoid (isoprene and monoterpenes) and other volatile organic compounds emitted from prescribed burning that led to both significant O3 and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) production. Formation of oligomers from oxidation products of isoprenoid compounds or condensation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) with multiple functional groups emitted during prescribed burning appears to be a major component of the secondary organic contributor of the SOA. The results from this study imply that enhanced emissions due to the fire itself and elevated temperature in the burning region should be considered in air quality models (e.g., receptor and emission-based models) to assess impacts of prescribed burning emissions on ambient air quality. PMID:18441785

  14. WRF\\/CHEM modeling of impacts of weather conditions modified by urban expansion on secondary organic aerosol formation over Pearl River Delta

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xuemei Wang; Zhiyong Wu; Guixiong Liang

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, the online Weather Research and Forecasting and Chemistry (WRF\\/CHEM) model, coupled with urban canopy (UCM) and biogenic-emission models, is used to explore impacts of urban expansion on secondary organic aerosols (SOA) formation. Two scenarios of urban maps are used in WRF\\/CHEM to represent early 1990s (pre-urbanization) and current urban distribution in the Pearl River Delta (PRD). Month-long

  15. Assessing the relative and cumulative impacts of future urbanisation and climate change on storm runoff in a peri-urban catchment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, James; Kim, Hyeonjun; Kjeldsen, Thomas; Grebby, Stephen

    2014-05-01

    Urbanisation brings with it a range of impacts upon the urban water cycle, particularly during storm events where a loss of pervious surfaces (and increase in impervious surfaces) coupled with increased artificial drainage result in decreased infiltration and more rapid runoff - leading to an increased likelihood and magnitude of flooding. Such impacts are especially pronounced in peri-urban catchments where the rapid progression from rural to urban significantly alters storm runoff response, and could be further affected by climate change. This study provides a comparative analysis between the impacts of urbanisation (and associated change in impervious cover) and climate change within a rapidly developing peri-urban catchment in the south of England over a 50 year period. A new methodology for mapping long-term change in historical urban land-use from topographic maps was applied to derive decadal changes in impervious cover. Catchment monitoring was undertaken to provide observed flow and rainfall for indicative hydrological response and hydrological model calibration. The successive impacts of decadal increases in urbanisation on storm runoff were assessed using a hydrological model suited to representing the impacts of change in impervious cover and by applying design summer and winter storm events at both 5 year and 100 year return periods. Both the comparative and cumulative impacts of climate change upon generation of storm runoff were assessed by comparing scenarios of: i) no increase in urbanisation with climate change, and ii) urbanisation with climate change, with the baseline scenario of iii) urbanisation without climate change. Predicted future changes in monthly precipitation and potential evaporation were derived from a downscaled ensemble of climate change scenarios (2070-2099) from the UK Climate Projections (UKCP09) Regional Climate Model (RCM) under A1B emissions scenario. Results are discussed in relation to projections of future growth and climate change for developing peri-urban areas within localised catchments and for the regional Thames basin. The uncertainties in the applied modelling strategy are discussed in relation to the limitations of climate change data and the associated perturbation of design storm events in urban areas.

  16. Physical activity and the rejuvenation of Connswater (PARC study): protocol for a natural experiment investigating the impact of urban regeneration on public health

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background There is a dearth of evidence regarding the impact of urban regeneration projects on public health, particularly the nature and degree to which urban regeneration impacts upon health-related behaviour change. Natural experiment methodology enables comprehensive large-scale evaluations of such interventions. The Connswater Community Greenway in Belfast is a major urban regeneration project involving the development of a 9 km linear park, including the provision of new cycle paths and walkways. In addition to the environmental improvements, this complex intervention involves a number of programmes to promote physical activity in the regenerated area. The project affords a unique opportunity to investigate the public health impact of urban regeneration. Methods/Design The evaluation framework was informed by the socio-ecological model and guided by the RE-AIM Framework. Key components include: (1) a quasi-experimental before-and-after survey of the Greenway population (repeated cross-sectional design), in tandem with data from a parallel Northern Ireland-wide survey for comparison; (2) an assessment of changes in the local built environment and of walkability using geographic information systems; (3) semi-structured interviews with a purposive sample of survey respondents, and a range of community stakeholders, before and after the regeneration project; and (4) a cost-effectiveness analysis. The primary outcome is change in proportion of individuals identified as being regularly physically active, according to the current UK recommendations. The RE-AIM Framework will be used to make an overall assessment of the impact of the Greenway on the physical activity behaviour of local residents. Discussion The Connswater Community Greenway provides a significant opportunity to achieve long-term, population level behaviour change. We argue that urban regeneration may be conceptualised meaningfully as a complex intervention comprising multiple components with the potential, individually and interactively, to affect the behaviour of a diverse population. The development and implementation of our comprehensive evaluation framework reflects this complexity and illuminates an approach to the empirical, rigorous evaluation of urban regeneration. More specifically, this study will add to the much needed evidence-base about the impact of urban regeneration on public health as well as having important implications for the development of natural experiment methodology. PMID:24103381

  17. An impact assessment of sustainable technologies for the Chinese urban residential sector at provincial level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xing, Rui; Hanaoka, Tatsuya; Kanamori, Yuko; Dai, Hancheng; Masui, Toshihiko

    2015-06-01

    Recently, energy use in the urban residential sector of China has drastically increased due to higher incomes and urbanization. The fossil fuels dominant energy supply has since worsened the air quality, especially in urban areas. In this study we estimate the future energy service demands in Chinese urban residential areas, and then use an AIM/Enduse model to evaluate the emission reduction potential of CO2, SO2, NOx and PM. Considering the climate diversity and its impact on household energy service demands, our analysis is down-scaled to the provincial-level. The results show that in most of the regions, penetration of efficient technologies will bring CO2 emission reductions of over 20% compared to the baseline by the year 2030. Deployment of energy efficient technologies also co-benefits GHG emission reduction. However, efficient technology selection appears to differ across provinces due to climatic variation and economic disparity. For instance, geothermal heating technology is effective for the cold Northern areas while biomass technology contributes to emission reduction the most in the warm Southern areas.

  18. The impact of new developments on river water quality from an integrated system modelling perspective.

    PubMed

    Fu, Guangtao; Butler, David; Khu, Soon-Thiam

    2009-02-01

    New housing areas are a ubiquitous feature of modern life in the developing and developed world alike built in response to rising social, demographic and economic pressures. Inevitably, these new developments will have an impact on the environment around them. Empirical evidence confirms the close relationship between urbanisation and ambient water quality. However, what is lacking so far is a detailed and more generalised analysis of environmental impact at a relatively small scale. The aim of this paper is to quantify the impact of new developments on river water quality within an integrated system modelling perspective. To conduct the impact analyses, an existing integrated urban wastewater model was used to predict water flow and quality in the sewer system, treatment plant and receiving water body. The impact on combined sewer overflow (CSO) discharges, treatment plant effluent, and within the river at various reaches is analysed by 'locating' a new development on a semi-hypothetical urban catchment. River water quality is used as feedback to constrain the scale of the new development within different thresholds in compliance with water quality standards. Further, the regional sensitivity analysis (RSA) method is applied to reveal the parameters with the greatest impact on water quality. These analyses will help to inform town planners and water specialists who advise them, how to minimise the impact of such developments given the specific context. PMID:19036407

  19. Climate change impacts on urban wildfire and flooding policy in Idaho: a comparative policy network perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindquist, E.; Pierce, J. L.

    2013-12-01

    Numerous frameworks and models exist for understanding the dynamics of the public policy process. A policy network approach considers how and why stakeholders and interests pay attention to and engage in policy problems, such as flood control or developing resilient and fire resistant landscapes. Variables considered in this approach include what the relationships are between these stakeholders, how they influence the process and outcomes, communication patterns within and between policy networks, and how networks change as a result of new information, science, or public interest and involvement with the problem. This approach is useful in understanding the creation of natural hazards policy as new information or situations, such as projected climate change impacts, influence and disrupt the policy process and networks. Two significant natural hazard policy networks exist in the semi-arid Treasure Valley region of Southwest Idaho, which includes the capitol city of Boise and the surrounding metropolitan area. Boise is situated along the Boise River and adjacent to steep foothills; this physiographic setting makes Boise vulnerable to both wildfires at the wildland-urban interface (WUI) and flooding. Both of these natural hazards have devastated the community in the past and floods and fires are projected to occur with more frequency in the future as a result of projected climate change impacts in the region. While both hazards are fairly well defined problems, there are stark differences lending themselves to comparisons across their respective networks. The WUI wildfire network is large and well developed, includes stakeholders from all levels of government, the private sector and property owner organizations, has well defined objectives, and conducts promotional and educational activities as part of its interaction with the public in order to increase awareness and garner support for its policies. The flood control policy network, however, is less defined, dominated by a few historically strong interests and is constrained (and supported) by the complex legal and management foundations of Western water rights, as well as federal and state regulatory practices for flood control and water provision. Overlap between these networks does occur as many of the stakeholders are the same, adding another dimension to the comparative approach presented here. It is the physical and natural sciences that bind these two networks, however, and create opportunities for convergence as hydrological inputs (snowmelt and rain) and summer drought simultaneously inform and impact efforts to increase resilience and reduce vulnerability and risk from both fire and flood. For example, early spring snowmelt can both increase risks of flooding and contribute to later severe fire conditions, and fires greatly increase the risk of catastrophic floods and debris flows in burned basins. Contributing to both of these potential hazards are changes in the climate in the region. This paper will present findings from a comparative study of these two policy networks and discuss the implications from how climate change is defined, understood, accepted, and integrated in both networks and the policy processes associated with these urban hazards.

  20. Linking infrastructure and urban economy: simulation of water-disruption impacts in earthquakes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephanie E Chang; Walter D Svekla; Masanobu Shinozuka

    2002-01-01

    In this paper a simulation approach to modeling the linkages between physical infrastructure systems and the urban economy is developed. A simulation approach based on probabilistically specifying the key model relationships is effective for situations that involve substantial uncertainty, and is particularly suited to assessing risk from natural hazards. In this paper, a model of economic losses from earthquakes is

  1. The potential impact of automated data collection systems on urban public transport planning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nigel H. M. Wilson; Jinhua Zhao; Adam Rahbee

    Automated data collection systems are becoming increasingly common in urban public transport systems, both in the US and throughout the developed world. These systems, which include Automatic Vehicle Location (AVL), Automatic Passenger Counting (APC), and Automatic Fare Collection (AFC), are often designed to support specific and fairly narrow functions within the transport agency. However, it is clear that the data

  2. Housing Reform and its Impacts on the Urban Poor in China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ya Ping Wang

    2000-01-01

    Housing provision in Chinese cities has experienced many changes since 1979 when the country embarked on major economic reform. During the late 1980s and the 1990s many publicly owned houses were sold to their existing tenants or other public sector employees. Large numbers of new houses were built by commercial property developers for the emerging urban housing market. As a

  3. URBAN GROUNDWATER PROTECTION AND MANAGEMENT: LESSONS FROM 2 DEVELOPING CITY CASE STUDIES IN BANGLADESH AND KYRGHYZSTAN

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B L MORRIS

    The inexorable expansion of the world's urban population and the realisation that water resources are finite have forced many developing cities in emergent economies to consider how sustainability can be introduced into their plans for infrastructural improvement. Groundwater-dependent cities should feel this need keenest. Yet the pace of urban aquifer management remains slow. Simple but context- sensitive aquifer protection policies

  4. Urban sprawl and natural areas encroachment: linking land cover change and economic development in the Florida

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert Walker Everglades

    This paper presents a model treating agricultural and urban land uses simultaneously. In particular, it takes the urban model stemming from Alonso and weds it to the seminal agricultural model developed by von Thunen. In so doing, it extends the Muth framework, which explains the encroachment of agricultural lands by linking two industries with two different forms of land use.

  5. US Urban Teachers' Perspectives of Culturally Competent Professional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flory, Sara B.; McCaughtry, Nate; Martin, Jeffrey J.; Murphy, Anne; Blum, Barbara; Wisdom, Kimberlydawn

    2014-01-01

    Health disparities related to food choices, nutrition behaviours and smoking habits in urban communities in the United States signal the importance of health education (HE) in schools, yet educators in urban communities face unique cultural challenges often unaddressed in professional development (PD). The purpose of this study was to use a…

  6. Opening the Black Box: Influential Elements of an Effective Urban Professional Development School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taymans, Juliana; Tindle, Kathleen; Freund, Maxine; Ortiz, Deanna; Harris, Lindsay

    2012-01-01

    The George Washington University's Urban Initiative Professional Development School (UI-PDS) partnership used interviews, surveys, focus groups, and observations to research its effectiveness in preparing urban educators. The research conducted with UI-PDS preservice teachers and first year graduates, indicates they were well equipped to meet the…

  7. THE NATURE OF AUCKLAND LOWLAND STREAM INVERTEBRATES, AND ASSESSING THE EFFECTS OF URBAN DEVELOPMENT

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephen Moore

    Biological monitoring has been used to assess the state of urban stream health for many years in New Zealand. However, the ability to assess the effects of urban development and stormwater discharges on stream communities may be limited by natural background habitat factors that limit the life-supporting capacity of a stream. Auckland lowland stream macroinvertebrate (and fish) communities are dominated

  8. Army Low Impact Development Technical User Guide

    E-print Network

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    Army Low Impact Development Technical User Guide 4 January 2013 Office of the Assistant Chief of Staff for Installation Management #12; #12; Army Low Impact for Installation Management Prepared by: U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Baltimore District U.S. Army

  9. 41 CFR Appendix to Part 102 - 83-Memorandum of Understanding Between the Department Of Housing And Urban Development And the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...Understanding Between the Department Of Housing And Urban Development And the General Services Administration...Understanding Between the Department Of Housing And Urban Development And the General Services Administration...the Act in the Secretary of Housing and Urban Development. Section 808(d)...

  10. 41 CFR Appendix to Part 102 - 83-Memorandum of Understanding Between the Department Of Housing And Urban Development And the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...Understanding Between the Department Of Housing And Urban Development And the General Services Administration...Understanding Between the Department Of Housing And Urban Development And the General Services Administration...the Act in the Secretary of Housing and Urban Development. Section 808(d)...

  11. 76 FR 73989 - Redelegation of Authority Under Section 3 of the Housing and Urban Development Act of 1968

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-29

    ...DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT [Docket No. FR-5544-D-09...Authority Under Section 3 of the Housing and Urban Development Act of 1968 AGENCY: Office...authority under Section 3 of the Housing and Urban Development Act of 1968 and HUD's...

  12. 41 CFR Appendix to Part 102 - 83-Memorandum of Understanding Between the Department Of Housing And Urban Development And the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Understanding Between the Department Of Housing And Urban Development And the General Services Administration...Understanding Between the Department Of Housing And Urban Development And the General Services Administration...the Act in the Secretary of Housing and Urban Development. Section 808(d)...

  13. Effects of urban development on the flood-flow characteristics of the Walnut Creek Basin, Des Moines Metropolitan area, Iowa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lara, Oscar G.

    1978-01-01

    Model studies were made to determine the probable impact of urban development on the magnitude and frequency of flooding in the lower reach of the Walnut Creek basin, Des Moines metropolitan area, Iowa. Stream-modeling techniques, which include complete defintion of unit hydrographs and precipitation loss-rate criteria, were utilized to evaluate the effects of urban development as measured by percentages of impervious area over the basin. A mathematical model, called HEC-1, was calibrated by using concurrent rainfall-runoff data collected at three gaging stations in the basin. The model parameters were regionalized to allow future users to estimate the model parameters for ungaged areas within the basin. Long-term rainfall data recorded at two nearby stations were employed as basic input to the calibrated model to generate annual peak discharges corresponding to selected degrees of urbanization. Results are presented in tables and graphs, which compare the preurban and urban floodflow characteristics of the lower reach of the Walnut Creek basin. (Woodard-USGS)

  14. Large scale, urban decontamination; developments, historical examples and lessons learned

    SciTech Connect

    Demmer, R.L. [Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2007-07-01

    Recent terrorist threats and actions have lead to a renewed interest in the technical field of large scale, urban environment decontamination. One of the driving forces for this interest is the prospect for the cleanup and removal of radioactive dispersal device (RDD or 'dirty bomb') residues. In response, the United States Government has spent many millions of dollars investigating RDD contamination and novel decontamination methodologies. The efficiency of RDD cleanup response will be improved with these new developments and a better understanding of the 'old reliable' methodologies. While an RDD is primarily an economic and psychological weapon, the need to cleanup and return valuable or culturally significant resources to the public is nonetheless valid. Several private companies, universities and National Laboratories are currently developing novel RDD cleanup technologies. Because of its longstanding association with radioactive facilities, the U. S. Department of Energy National Laboratories are at the forefront in developing and testing new RDD decontamination methods. However, such cleanup technologies are likely to be fairly task specific; while many different contamination mechanisms, substrate and environmental conditions will make actual application more complicated. Some major efforts have also been made to model potential contamination, to evaluate both old and new decontamination techniques and to assess their readiness for use. There are a number of significant lessons that can be gained from a look at previous large scale cleanup projects. Too often we are quick to apply a costly 'package and dispose' method when sound technological cleaning approaches are available. Understanding historical perspectives, advanced planning and constant technology improvement are essential to successful decontamination. (authors)

  15. Using Social-Emotional and Character Development to Improve Academic Outcomes: A Matched-Pair, Cluster-Randomized Controlled Trial in Low-Income, Urban Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bavarian, Niloofar; Lewis, Kendra M.; DuBois, David L.; Acock, Alan; Vuchinich, Samuel; Silverthorn, Naida; Snyder, Frank J.; Day, Joseph; Ji, Peter; Flay, Brian R.

    2013-01-01

    Background: School-based social-emotional and character development (SECD) programs can influence not only SECD but also academic-related outcomes. This study evaluated the impact of one SECD program, Positive Action (PA), on educational outcomes among low-income, urban youth. Methods: The longitudinal study used a matched-pair, cluster-randomized…

  16. Interactive Computers: The Development of an Urban Leisure Information Service.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayward, Jeff; Fairey, Kenyon

    1984-01-01

    This article describes the Leisure Match Project, which allows the public to solicit information about recreation activities by using a microcomputer. Guidelines for planning and implementation of this urban recreation information service are discussed. (DF)

  17. Planning by contract? : negotiated regulation in urban development

    E-print Network

    Marantz, Nicholas J

    2014-01-01

    At the turn of the twenty-first century, a new term entered the lexicon of urban redevelopment: the community benefits agreement (CBA). Although the term has been applied to a variety of arrangements, it frequently refers ...

  18. Developments in Impact Assessment in North America

    EPA Science Inventory

    Beginning with a background of recent global developments in this area, this presentation will focus on how global research has impacted North America and how North America is providing additional developments to address the issues of the global economy. Recent developments inc...

  19. Research on Assessment Methods for Urban Public Transport Development in China

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Linghong; Guo, Hongwei

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, with the rapid increase in urban population, the urban travel demands in Chinese cities have been increasing dramatically. As a result, developing comprehensive urban transport systems becomes an inevitable choice to meet the growing urban travel demands. In urban transport systems, public transport plays the leading role to promote sustainable urban development. This paper aims to establish an assessment index system for the development level of urban public transport consisting of a target layer, a criterion layer, and an index layer. Review on existing literature shows that methods used in evaluating urban public transport structure are dominantly qualitative. To overcome this shortcoming, fuzzy mathematics method is used for describing qualitative issues quantitatively, and AHP (analytic hierarchy process) is used to quantify expert's subjective judgment. The assessment model is established based on the fuzzy AHP. The weight of each index is determined through the AHP and the degree of membership of each index through the fuzzy assessment method to obtain the fuzzy synthetic assessment matrix. Finally, a case study is conducted to verify the rationality and practicability of the assessment system and the proposed assessment method. PMID:25530756

  20. Developing a Master Plan for Restoring/Stabilizing an Urban Watercourse: Highland Creek

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pushkar, M. T.; Hindley, B.; Phillips, R. T.; Snodgrass, B.

    2009-05-01

    Highland Creek is a fully urbanized watershed (104 km2 ) in Toronto, Ontario. Through the process of urbanization and placement of sanitary, storm and transportation infrastructure within the channel corridor, the length of channel within the drainage network has been reduced. Of the remaining length (38 km), more than half the channel is protected by engineering counter measures along channel bank and/or bed, many of which are failing. In addition, through the processes of channel adjustment (i.e., primarily degradation and widening) in response to urban hydromodification, 17 % of the 143 subsurface sanitary sewer crossings are currently exposed and at risk of failure. Indeed, a major storm event in 2005 caused substantial channel movement, failure of a manhole and underlying sanitary sewer, leading to sewage discharge into Highland Creek. A consequence of all of these modifications has been the creation of numerous fish barriers, loss of all but the most tolerant fish species and degradation of both the physical and chemical habitat conditions. The City of Toronto has initiated a study to develop a Geomorphic Systems Master Plan to stabilize/restore Highland Creek with the primary intent of protecting infrastructure. The study is following the Nine Step Analysis Procedure of the Adaptive Management Methodology (Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources) which includes three stages of analyses (i.e., Watershed Issue Assessment, Planning and Environmental Assessment, and Design Process). The study is multi-disciplinary and has included a thorough inventory of existing channel conditions and characteristics (biologic, geomorphic); a comprehensive risk assessment that considers implications of historic channel change and existing conditions exposure/failure of infrastructure/counter measures; assessment of further anticipated channel responses (cross-section, profile, planform) to urban hydromodification have been undertaken. Analyses to assess the effectiveness of various stormwater management strategies in reducing impacts on the channel has been completed. The intent of all analyses is to develop a plan (spatial and temporal) for stabilizing the watercourse, reducing risk to infrastructure and private property, and enhancing fish habitat.

  1. Assessment of Urban Infrastructure Impact on New York City Neighborhoods Thermal Variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nazari, R.; Ghandehari, M.; Karimi, M.; Vant-hull, B.; Khanbilvardi, R.

    2013-12-01

    New York City (NYC) is a highly urbanized city with most of the population living in tall buildings. Despite technological improvements and stricter regulations, cities still show increasing signs of environmental stress such as traffic congestion, noise and air quality degradation. Rethinking the current models of city planning could enable to limit these detrimental effects of urbanization. In addition, the built environment creates a new climatic regime which needs a better understanding. Building density, height and emission has a major impact on local temperature and other air quality indicators. Studies have shown that during extreme weather conditions and heat waves the mortality rate in urban areas increases. Cities are comprised of a wide variety of urban settings and various neighborhoods have different physical responses to meteorological events, so it is expected that the temperature and heat stress across a given city to fluctuate sharply. Therefore, this research has focused on neighborhood-scale field campaigns to downscale temperature and air quality predictions from city to neighborhood scale in NYC. In order to assess the temperature variability within the city at street level, during the hottest part of the day, this project used eight mobile units bearing temperature and relative humidity sensors, as well as ten weather stations mounted on light poles in various NYC neighborhoods. This study also looks at fine scale structures in the urban heat island of Manhattan at street level through an infrared camera with the spectral range of 7.5-13 ?m in order to relate heat and emissions from building surfaces to land surface characteristics such as building density, vegetation coverage, proximity to water, and albedo. LandSat TM5 images were used (with 30 m resolution) for land surface classification. During the summer and early fall of 2011, 2012 and 2013 extensive field campaigns were performed, the results of which show some persistent patterns that could be related to surface characteristics. This work is a collaboration between the health component of the Consortium for Climate Risk in the Urban Northeast (CCRUN), funded by NOAA Regional Integrated Science Assessment (RISA), and New York University Center for Urban Science and Progress (CUSP).

  2. The impact of landslides on urban areas and infrastructure in Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trigila, Alessandro; Spizzichino, Daniele; Iadanza, Carla

    2010-05-01

    Landslide risk in Italy is particularly high since in addition to the geological, geomorphological, seismic and structural settings which render it susceptible to frequent and widespread landslide phenomena, the Italian territory is also densely populated and highly urbanized. In terms of landslide hazard, 485,004 landslides occurred between A.D. 1116 and 2006 within Italy, with a landslide area of 20,721 km2 equal to 6.9% of the national territory. 5,708 municipal districts are affected by landslides (70.5% of the total), of which 2,940 with extremely high levels of criticality due to landslides affecting urban centres. This data emerges from the IFFI Project (Italian Landslide Inventory) which, set up by ISPRA - Institute for Environmental Protection and Research/Geological Survey of Italy and the Regions and self-governing Provinces, identifies landslide phenomena across Italy in accordance with standardized methods of data collection, recording and mapping. With regard to exposure and vulnerability, urban areas in Italy account for 17,929 km2, equal to 5.9% of the national territory. In the past 50 years, urban areas in Italy underwent a dramatic increase, whose surface has more than doubled. Often building areas did not benefit from any form of proper land use planning and management or detailed landslide hazard assessment. Moreover unauthorized building has reached levels as high as 60% in regions of Southern Italy. This study assesses the incidence of landslide phenomena and their impacts within urban areas of Italian provincial capitals in terms of number of landslides, surface area and type of movement. The people exposed to landslide risk at national level and critical points along highways, railways and road network has been also estimated. Landslides have been classified in two main categories: rapid and slow movements. The rapid phenomena are strictly correlated to the people safety, while the slow ones concern mainly losses and usability of buildings and infrastructures. Consequently different strategies for planning and emergency management must be adopted. The assessment has been implemented within a GIS platform by overlapping landslide data derived by the IFFI Project with urban areas, populations census data and main Italian transportation network. More in detail analyses have been performed on some of these urban centres, in reference to which it has been possible to assess the extent of urban expansion from the post war period up until now and the corresponding increase in landslide risk. Related to population, the analysis allowed to estimate the number of people exposed to landslide risk in terms of safety of human life and socio-economic consequences. In order to reduce the impact of landslides within urban areas and along transport infrastructure, different measures should be adopted. In addition to engineering works and delocalization plans, the instrumental monitoring networks and emergency plans assume a fundamental role in landslide risk management. It is within this context that the IFFI Project, due to its highly detailed landslide maps and its complete coverage of the national territory, represents a useful tool for land use planning, emergency planning and mitigations measures.

  3. Adaptation of Land-Use Demands to the Impact of Climate Change on the Hydrological Processes of an Urbanized Watershed

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yu-Pin; Hong, Nien-Ming; Chiang, Li-Chi; Liu, Yen-Lan; Chu, Hone-Jay

    2012-01-01

    The adaptation of land-use patterns is an essential aspect of minimizing the inevitable impact of climate change at regional and local scales; for example, adapting watershed land-use patterns to mitigate the impact of climate change on a region’s hydrology. The objective of this study is to simulate and assess a region’s ability to adapt to hydrological changes by modifying land-use patterns in the Wu-Du watershed in northern Taiwan. A hydrological GWLF (Generalized Watershed Loading Functions) model is used to simulate three hydrological components, namely, runoff, groundwater and streamflow, based on various land-use scenarios under six global climate models. The land-use allocations are simulated by the CLUE-s model for the various development scenarios. The simulation results show that runoff and streamflow are strongly related to the precipitation levels predicted by different global climate models for the wet and dry seasons, but groundwater cycles are more related to land-use. The effects of climate change on groundwater and runoff can be mitigated by modifying current land-use patterns; and slowing the rate of urbanization would also reduce the impact of climate change on hydrological components. Thus, land-use adaptation on a local/regional scale provides an alternative way to reduce the impacts of global climate change on local hydrology. PMID:23202833

  4. Professional development strategies for teaching urban biology teachers to use concept maps effectively

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGregor Petgrave, Dahlia M.

    Many teachers are not adequately prepared to help urban students who have trouble understanding conceptual ideas in biology because these students have little connection to the natural world. This study explored potential professional development strategies to help urban biology teachers use concept maps effectively with various topics in the biology curriculum. A grounded theory approach was used to develop a substantive professional development model for urban biology teachers. Qualitative data were collected through 16 semi-structured interviews of professional developers experienced in working with concept maps in the urban context. An anonymous online survey was used to collect quantitative data from 56 professional developers and teachers to support the qualitative data. The participants were from New York City, recruited through the NY Biology-Chemistry Professional Development Mentor Network and the NY Biology Teachers' Association. According to the participants, map construction, classroom applications, lesson planning, action research, follow-up workshops, and the creation of learning communities are the most effective professional development strategies. The interviewees also proposed English language learning strategies such as picture maps, native word maps, and content reading materials with underlined words. This study contributes to social change by providing a professional development model to use in planning workshops for urban teachers. Urban teachers improve their own conceptual understanding of biology while learning how to implement concept mapping strategies in the classroom. Students whose teachers are better prepared to teach biology in a conceptual manner have the potential of growing into more scientifically literate citizens.

  5. QuikSCAT response to urban developments and seasonal cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paget, A. C.; Long, D. G.

    2013-12-01

    We explore azimuthal variations in the 25-km resolution QuikSCAT L1B Ku-band satellite radar data in urban areas. The normalized microwave radar backscatter (?0) increases from rural to urban regions suggesting that an anthropogenic influences from buildings and other infrastructure. A seasonal signal is also identified over all azimuthal angles in multiple global regions. Potential influencing factors of changes in the observed ?0 over land-use types from uninhabited to urban areas are explored including building and road orientation, precipitation, and vegetation. Buildings, roads, and curbs act as dihedral corner reflectors and enhance ?0 for azimuthal observation angles normal to the structure face. Azimuthal variations in the ?0 signal appear in urban areas with highly organized gridded street systems such as Beijing, China and Phoenix, Arizona; azimuthal variation is much less in cities with less organized streets such as Sao Paulo, Brazil. Changes in seasonal precipitation cannot be used to directly predict seasonal changes in ?0; however, changes in vegetation appear closely associated with a seasonal signal of ?0 in urban and rural areas.

  6. Developing TRUPACT system impact resistance

    SciTech Connect

    Glass, R.E.

    1984-01-01

    The Transportation Technology Center at Sandia National Laboratories has taken the lead in the development of the TRansUranic PACkage Transporter I (TRUPACT-I) for transporting contact-handled transuranic waste. TRUPACT-I is a Type B package designed for transport by truck and rail. One of the regulatory requirements of a Type B package is that it survive a drop onto a 15.2-cm-dia punch. This paper discusses the development of the puncture resistant panels used in TRUPACT-I. Concepts tested ranged from monolithic steel plates to laminated Kevlar fabric bonded to a steel backing plate. The TRUPACT-I wall design incorporated the laminated Kevlar and stainless steel puncture panel.

  7. Development of Criteria for Evaluating Urban River Settings for Tourism-Rereation Use 

    E-print Network

    Gunn, C. A.; Hanna, J. W.; Parenzin, A. J.; Blumberg, F. M.

    1974-01-01

    An earlier study, Cultural Benefits from Metropolitan River Recreation--San Antonio Prototype, (Gunn, et al., 1972), revealed that urban water resources can be successfully developed for tourism and recreation. The San Antonio River Walk is a unique...

  8. Development of Criteria for Evaluating Urban River Settings for Tourism-Rereation Use

    E-print Network

    Gunn, C. A.; Hanna, J. W.; Parenzin, A. J.; Blumberg, F. M.

    An earlier study, Cultural Benefits from Metropolitan River Recreation--San Antonio Prototype, (Gunn, et al., 1972), revealed that urban water resources can be successfully developed for tourism and recreation. The San Antonio River Walk is a unique...

  9. Remote sensing in Arizona. [for land use and urban development planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winikka, C. C.; Adams, R. E.

    1975-01-01

    Orthophotoquads prepared from high altitude photography and LANDSAT imagery were utilized for land use mapping and urban development planning. LANDSAT imagery of rough terrains were evaluated by photographic projection on a viewer screen for enlargement of details.

  10. RS based study on urban expansion and its impact on city heat island effect in Chuxiong City in Yunnan, China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yang Yunyuan; Shi Zhengtao; He Ping; Tong Shaoyu; Xu Chengdong

    2009-01-01

    Based on the building areas information extracted from the multi-temporal Landsat data, city boundaries (measured by GPS on November 2008), land surface temperature (retrieved from band 6 of Landsat TM5 images) and year-book data, this paper discusses the urban expansion characteristics and their impact on the city heat island effect in Chuxiong City over the past 30 years. The urban

  11. Road traffic impact on urban water quality: a step towards integrated traffic, air and stormwater modelling.

    PubMed

    Fallah Shorshani, Masoud; Bonhomme, Céline; Petrucci, Guido; André, Michel; Seigneur, Christian

    2014-04-01

    Methods for simulating air pollution due to road traffic and the associated effects on stormwater runoff quality in an urban environment are examined with particular emphasis on the integration of the various simulation models into a consistent modelling chain. To that end, the models for traffic, pollutant emissions, atmospheric dispersion and deposition, and stormwater contamination are reviewed. The present study focuses on the implementation of a modelling chain for an actual urban case study, which is the contamination of water runoff by cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn) in the Grigny urban catchment near Paris, France. First, traffic emissions are calculated with traffic inputs using the COPERT4 methodology. Next, the atmospheric dispersion of pollutants is simulated with the Polyphemus line source model and pollutant deposition fluxes in different subcatchment areas are calculated. Finally, the SWMM water quantity and quality model is used to estimate the concentrations of pollutants in stormwater runoff. The simulation results are compared to mass flow rates and concentrations of Cd, Pb and Zn measured at the catchment outlet. The contribution of local traffic to stormwater contamination is estimated to be significant for Pb and, to a lesser extent, for Zn and Cd; however, Pb is most likely overestimated due to outdated emissions factors. The results demonstrate the importance of treating distributed traffic emissions from major roadways explicitly since the impact of these sources on concentrations in the catchment outlet is underestimated when those traffic emissions are spatially averaged over the catchment area. PMID:24288064

  12. Urbanization and sustainable metropolitan development in China: Patterns, problems and prospects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roger C. K. Chan; Yao Shimou

    1999-01-01

    The path of urbanization in the People's Republic of China is largely shaped by the nation's industrial development strategies.\\u000a In the first three decades of socialist construction, and especially after the Sino-Soviet rift at the end of the 1950s, the\\u000a adoption of strategies of self-reliance had led to urban biased patterns of development. The introduction of economic reforms\\u000a and the

  13. Land subsidence of Jakarta (Indonesia) and its relation with urban development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hasanuddin Z. Abidin; Heri Andreas; Irwan Gumilar; Yoichi Fukuda; Yusuf E. Pohan; T. Deguchi

    Jakarta is the capital city of Indonesia with a population of about 9.6 million people, inhabiting an area of about 660 square-km.\\u000a In the last three decades, urban development of Jakarta has grown very rapidly in the sectors of industry, trade, transportation,\\u000a real estate, and many others. This exponentially increased urban development introduces several environmental problems. Land\\u000a subsidence is one

  14. The development of urbanism in the northern Horn of Africa in ancient and medieval times

    Microsoft Academic Search

    RODOLFO FATTOVICH

    The aim of this paper is to outline the development of urbanism in the northern Horn of Africa from prehistoric to medieval times (c. 4000 BC-AD 1500) based on the available archaeological and historical evidence. This development is investigated as a'historical process'in order to make evident the specific factors that affected the rise and collapse of urbanism in the region

  15. Remote Sensing of Urban Land Cover/Land Use Change, Surface Thermal Responses, and Potential Meteorological and Climate Change Impacts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quattrochi, Dale A.; Jedlovec, Gary; Meyer, Paul

    2011-01-01

    City growth influences the development of the urban heat island (UHI), but the effect that local meteorology has on the UHI is less well known. This paper presents some preliminary findings from a study that uses multitemporal Landsat TM and ASTER data to evaluate land cover/land use change (LULCC) over the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MFSC) and its Huntsville, AL metropolitan area. Landsat NLCD data for 1992 and 2001 have been used to evaluate LULCC for MSFC and the surrounding urban area. Land surface temperature (LST) and emissivity derived from NLCD data have also been analyzed to assess changes in these parameters in relation to LULCC. Additionally, LULCC, LST, and emissivity have been identified from ASTER data from 2001 and 2011 to provide a comparison with the 2001 NLCD and as a measure of current conditions within the study area. As anticipated, the multi-temporal NLCD and ASTER data show that significant changes have occurred in land covers, LST, and emissivity within and around MSFC. The patterns and arrangement of these changes, however, is significant because the juxtaposition of urban land covers within and outside of MSFC provides insight on what impacts at a local to regional scale, the inter-linkage of these changes potentially have on meteorology. To further analyze these interactions between LULCC, LST, and emissivity with the lower atmosphere, a network of eleven weather stations has been established across the MSFC property. These weather stations provide data at a 10 minute interval, and these data are uplinked for use by MSFC facilities operations and the National Weather Service. The weather data are also integrated within a larger network of meteorological stations across north Alabama. Given that the MSFC weather stations will operate for an extended period of time, they can be used to evaluate how the building of new structures, and changes in roadways, and green spaces as identified in the MSFC master plan for the future, will potentially affect land cover LSTs across the Center. Moreover, the weather stations will also provide baseline data for developing a better understanding of how localized weather factors, such as extreme rainfall and heat events, affect micrometeorology. These data can also be used to model the interrelationships between LSTs and meteorology on a longer term basis to help evaluate how changes in these parameters can be quantified from satellite data collected in the future. In turn, the overall integration of multi-temporal meteorological information with LULCC, and LST data for MSFC proper and the surrounding Huntsville urbanized area can provide a perspective on how urban land surface types affect the meteorology in the boundary layer and ultimately, the UHI. Additionally, data such as this can be used as a foundation for modeling how climate change will potentially impact local and regional meteorology and conversely, how urban LULCC can or will influence changes on climate over the north Alabama area.

  16. The role of urban?to?rural remittances in rural development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Henry Rempel; Richard A. Lobdell

    1978-01-01

    One of the effects of rural?to?urban migration is the return of money and resources by the migrants to their respective home areas. Recently, it has been argued by several authors that such remittances represent a significant means for removing supply constraints to improved productivity in agriculture. In this paper the authors examine critically the available evidence on the rural impact

  17. Literacy Development of Students in Urban Schools: Research and Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flood, James, Ed.; Anders, Patricia L., Ed.

    2005-01-01

    Educators can use this collection of diverse, thought-provoking perspectives from the best minds in the field to help make the best decisions possible for urban schools. The book's 26 chapters concisely synthesize research on a number of topics and link it to literacy instruction issues-including implications for local, state, and national…

  18. Report on Developing Effective Coalitions in Urban School Districts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National School Boards Association, Washington, DC.

    In this report, seven programs in selected urban school districts which have been successful in building effective coalitions are identified and described. The programs discussed include: (1) the Business Operations Assistance Program (BOAP) and (2) the Memphis Rotary/Memphis Public Schools Program, both in Memphis, Tennessee; (3) the Greater…

  19. Simultaneous Renewal in the Urban Professional Development School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Mae; Shaw, Stan F.

    2003-01-01

    Urban schools have the greatest need for renewal of existing staff and the infusion of new teachers. Unfortunately, they present a challenging environment in which to prepare teachers while fostering the renewal process in experienced teachers. Goodlad (1994) proposes that both the school and university embark upon this renewal process through…

  20. Development and Learning of Children and Youth in Urban America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Margaret C., Ed.; Reynolds, Maynard C., Ed.

    The chapters in this collection, distributed to conference participants as a springboard for conference discussions, consider sustainable models for school-family-community collaboration, partnerships in education, and other ways to improve learning for urban youth. The contributions are: (1) "The Empowerment Zone and Enterprise Community"…

  1. Large scale, urban decontamination; developments, historical examples and lessons learned

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rick L. Demmer

    2007-01-01

    Recent terrorist threats and actions have lead to a renewed interest in the technical field of large scale, urban environment decontamination. One of the driving forces for this interest is the prospect for the cleanup and removal of radioactive dispersal device (RDD or 'dirty bomb') residues. In response, the United States Government has spent many millions of dollars investigating RDD

  2. A Web Based Geographic Information Platform to Support Urban Adaptation to Climate Change

    SciTech Connect

    Nugent, Philip J [ORNL; Omitaomu, Olufemi A [ORNL; Parish, Esther S [ORNL; Mei, Rui [ORNL; Ernst, Kathleen M [ORNL; Absar, Mariya [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    The urban climate is changing rapidly. Therefore, climate change and its projected impacts on environmental conditions must be considered in assessing and comparing urban planning alternatives. In this paper, we present an integrated framework for urban climate adaptation tool (Urban-CAT) that will help cities to plan for, rather than react to, possible risks. Urban-CAT will be developed as a scenario planning tool that is locally relevant to existing urban decision-making processes.

  3. An Integrated Model of Subnational Regional and Urban Economic Development: Framework of Analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    AMEETA JAIN

    2009-01-01

    The mechanism of subnational regional and urban economic development has been studied extensively by economists, geographers, town planners and other academics. The existing widely varying theories of regional economic development are insufficient on their own in explaining how a region can develop and prosper. Each theory has evaluated a few facets of regional economic development. Research from these different perspectives

  4. Development of a GIS-based decision support system for urban air quality management in the city of Istanbul

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elbir, Tolga; Mangir, Nizamettin; Kara, Melik; Simsir, Sedef; Eren, Tuba; Ozdemir, Seda

    2010-02-01

    A decision support system has been developed for urban air quality management in the metropolitan area of Istanbul. The system is based on CALMET/CALPUFF dispersion modeling system, digital maps, and related databases to estimate the emissions and spatial distribution of air pollutants with the help of a GIS software. The system estimates ambient air pollution levels at high temporal and spatial resolutions and enables mapping of emissions and air quality levels. Mapping and scenario results can be compared with air quality limits. Impact assessment of air pollution abatement measures can also be carried out.

  5. Forecasting the combined effects of urbanization and climate change on stream ecosystems: from impacts to management options

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nelson, Kären C.; Palmer, Margaret A.; Pizzuto, James E.; Moglen, Glenn E.; Angermeier, Paul L.; Hilderbrand, Robert H.; Dettinger, Michael D.; Hayhoe, Katharine

    2009-01-01

    Synthesis and applications. The interaction of climate change and urban growth may entail significant reconfiguring of headwater streams, including a loss of ecosystem structure and services, which will be more costly than climate change alone. On local scales, stakeholders cannot control climate drivers but they can mitigate stream impacts via careful land use. Therefore, to conserve stream ecosystems, we recommend that proactive measures be taken to insure against species loss or severe population declines. Delays will inevitably exacerbate the impacts of both climate change and urbanization on headwater systems.

  6. A SWOT analysis of strategic urban development planning: The case of Dar es Salaam city in Tanzania

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Francos Halla

    2007-01-01

    Preparation and implementation of urban general and detailed planning schemes, according to respective legislation, preoccupies most practitioners of the profession of urban and regional development planning and management worldwide. For a century lasting from 1850s to 1940s the professional practice was guided by the urban design paradigm, which embodies architectural concepts and principles of municipal engineering. For the following half

  7. Urban Change and Urban Development Strategies in Central East Europe: A Selective Assessment of Events Since 1989

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James Wesley Scott; Manfred Kühn

    2012-01-01

    This introductory article to the present collection outlines a comparative research perspective that focuses on processes of post-socialist urban transformation and strategies of urban regeneration in different cities of Central Eastern Europe. In particular, urban regeneration will be discussed within the context of post-socialist urban governance and processes of institutional change. This paper consists of three sections. The first deals

  8. Department of Housing and Urban Development-Independent Agencies Appropriations Act, 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    The text of an act making apropriations for the Department of Housing and Urban Development and sundry independent agencies, boards, commissions, corporations, and offices for the fiscal year ending September 30, 1985 is given. Money is appropriated for rent supplements, housing counseling Solar Energy and Energy Conservation Bank, urban homesteadng, American Battle Monuments, Commission, the Consumer Product Safety Commission, the Environmental Protection Agency, and other agencies and programs.

  9. Effect of urban development on floods in the Piedmont Province of North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Putnam, Arthur L.

    1972-01-01

    Changes from rural to urban conditions significantly affect flood flows. Urban development may reduce the basin laf time to one-sixteenth that of comparable natural system. This reduction in basin lag time, along with the increased storm runoff resulting from impervious cover, increases the flood-peak discharge by a factor that ranges up to five. The increase in flood-peak discharge depends on the drainage-basin characteristics and the recurrence interval of the flood.

  10. Community-initiated urban development: an ecological intervention.

    PubMed

    Semenza, Jan C; March, Tanya L; Bontempo, Brian D

    2007-01-01

    Neglected urban environments have been linked to social isolation, depression, and other health problems. In Portland, OR in 2003, an intervention was implemented and evaluated in three neighborhoods with the objective of promoting community participation in urban renewal and engaging residents in the construction of attractive urban places. Municipal officials approved and permitted community-designed street murals, public benches, planter boxes, information kiosks with bulletin boards, trellises for hanging gardens, all positioned in the public right-of-way. Residents within a two-block radius of the three sites were systematically sampled and interviewed before (N = 325) and after (N = 349) the intervention, of which, 265 individuals completed both surveys of the panel study. After the intervention, multivariate results revealed improvements in mental health (p = 0.03), increased sense of community (p < 0.01), and an overall expansion of social capital (p = 0.04). Through community empowerment, participation, and collective action, the strategy successfully engaged residents in restoring neighborhoods, with direct benefits to community well-being. PMID:17123178

  11. Community-Initiated Urban Development: An Ecological Intervention

    PubMed Central

    March, Tanya L.; Bontempo, Brian D.

    2006-01-01

    Neglected urban environments have been linked to social isolation, depression, and other health problems. In Portland, OR in 2003, an intervention was implemented and evaluated in three neighborhoods with the objective of promoting community participation in urban renewal and engaging residents in the construction of attractive urban places. Municipal officials approved and permitted community-designed street murals, public benches, planter boxes, information kiosks with bulletin boards, trellises for hanging gardens, all positioned in the public right-of-way. Residents within a two-block radius of the three sites were systematically sampled and interviewed before (N = 325) and after (N = 349) the intervention, of which, 265 individuals completed both surveys of the panel study. After the intervention, multivariate results revealed improvements in mental health (p = 0.03), increased sense of community (p < 0.01), and an overall expansion of social capital (p = 0.04). Through community empowerment, participation, and collective action, the strategy successfully engaged residents in restoring neighborhoods, with direct benefits to community well-being. PMID:17123178

  12. Accessing resources for identity development by urban students and teachers: foregrounding context

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luehmann, April Lynn

    2009-03-01

    Many attempt to address the documented achievement gap between urban and suburban students by offering special programs to enrich urban students' academic experiences and proficiencies. Such was the case in the study described by DeGennaro and Brown in which urban students participated in an after-school technology course intended to address the "digital divide" by giving these youth supported experiences as technology users. However, also like the initial situation described in this study, instructional design that does not capitalize on what we know about urban education or informal learning contexts can actually further damage urban youths' identities as learners by positioning them as powerless and passive recipients instead of meaningful contributors to their own learning. The analysis presented in this forum is intended to further the conversation begun by DeGennaro and Brown by explicitly complexifying our consideration of context (activity structures and setting) so as to support the development of contexts that afford rich learning potential for both the urban students and their learning facilitators, positioned in the role of teachers. Carefully constructed contexts can afford participants as learners (urban students and teachers) opportunities to access rich identity resources (not typically available in traditional school contexts) including, but not limited to, the opportunity to exercise agency that allows participants to reorganize their learning context and enacted culture as needed.

  13. Climate change or urbanization? Impacts on a traditional coffee production system in East Africa over the last 80 years.

    PubMed

    Jaramillo, Juliana; Setamou, Mamoudou; Muchugu, Eric; Chabi-Olaye, Adenirin; Jaramillo, Alvaro; Mukabana, Joseph; Maina, Johnson; Gathara, Simon; Borgemeister, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Global environmental changes (GEC) such as climate change (CC) and climate variability have serious impacts in the tropics, particularly in Africa. These are compounded by changes in land use/land cover, which in turn are driven mainly by economic and population growth, and urbanization. These factors create a feedback loop, which affects ecosystems and particularly ecosystem services, for example plant-insect interactions, and by consequence agricultural productivity. We studied effects of GEC at a local level, using a traditional coffee production area in greater Nairobi, Kenya. We chose coffee, the most valuable agricultural commodity worldwide, as it generates income for 100 million people, mainly in the developing world. Using the coffee berry borer, the most serious biotic threat to global coffee production, we show how environmental changes and different production systems (shaded and sun-grown coffee) can affect the crop. We combined detailed entomological assessments with historic climate records (from 1929-2011), and spatial and demographic data, to assess GEC's impact on coffee at a local scale. Additionally, we tested the utility of an adaptation strategy that is simple and easy to implement. Our results show that while interactions between CC and migration/urbanization, with its resultant landscape modifications, create a feedback loop whereby agroecosystems such as coffee are adversely affected, bio-diverse shaded coffee proved far more resilient and productive than coffee grown in monoculture, and was significantly less harmed by its insect pest. Thus, a relatively simple strategy such as shading coffee can tremendously improve resilience of agro-ecosystems, providing small-scale farmers in Africa with an easily implemented tool to safeguard their livelihoods in a changing climate. PMID:23341884

  14. Climate Change or Urbanization? Impacts on a Traditional Coffee Production System in East Africa over the Last 80 Years

    PubMed Central

    Jaramillo, Juliana; Setamou, Mamoudou; Muchugu, Eric; Chabi-Olaye, Adenirin; Jaramillo, Alvaro; Mukabana, Joseph; Maina, Johnson; Gathara, Simon; Borgemeister, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Global environmental changes (GEC) such as climate change (CC) and climate variability have serious impacts in the tropics, particularly in Africa. These are compounded by changes in land use/land cover, which in turn are driven mainly by economic and population growth, and urbanization. These factors create a feedback loop, which affects ecosystems and particularly ecosystem services, for example plant-insect interactions, and by consequence agricultural productivity. We studied effects of GEC at a local level, using a traditional coffee production area in greater Nairobi, Kenya. We chose coffee, the most valuable agricultural commodity worldwide, as it generates income for 100 million people, mainly in the developing world. Using the coffee berry borer, the most serious biotic threat to global coffee production, we show how environmental changes and different production systems (shaded and sun-grown coffee) can affect the crop. We combined detailed entomological assessments with historic climate records (from 1929–2011), and spatial and demographic data, to assess GEC's impact on coffee at a local scale. Additionally, we tested the utility of an adaptation strategy that is simple and easy to implement. Our results show that while interactions between CC and migration/urbanization, with its resultant landscape modifications, create a feedback loop whereby agroecosystems such as coffee are adversely affected, bio-diverse shaded coffee proved far more resilient and productive than coffee grown in monoculture, and was significantly less harmed by its insect pest. Thus, a relatively simple strategy such as shading coffee can tremendously improve resilience of agro-ecosystems, providing small-scale farmers in Africa with an easily implemented tool to safeguard their livelihoods in a changing climate. PMID:23341884

  15. Analysis of urban land use pattern based on high resolution radar imagery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Esch; A. Roth; S. Dech

    2007-01-01

    The actual process of rapid urbanization is associated with various ecological, social and economic changes in both the urban area and the adjacent natural environment. To keep up with the effects and impacts of this development, effective urban and regional planning requires accurate and up-to-date information on the urban dynamics. Recent studies have proven the applicability of high resolution optical

  16. WATER, SANITATION AND HUMAN DEVELOPMENT IN URBAN FRINGE SETTLEMENTS IN NIGERIA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yekeen A. SANUSI

    2010-01-01

    The importance of water and sanitation facilities has been reflected in the measurement of human development and in their inclusion in Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). Water and sanitation facilities attain a unique situation at the urban fringe. This study is focused on the investigation of the supply of water and sanitation facilities in the fringe settlements along a development corridor

  17. Urban Development Through Planned Retail: Yale’s Commercial Real State Program

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dave Roth

    2011-01-01

    In the past fifteen years, urban universities have become increasingly active as commercial real estate developers. Universities have begun to acquire, renovate, or develop from the ground floor significant tracts of commercial property near their campuses. Often these investments are accompanied by management policies inspired by shopping center developers, with tenants carefully chosen, the details of operation such as opening

  18. Urban Development Through Planned Retail: Yale’s Commercial Real Estate Program

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Roth

    2011-01-01

    In the past fifteen years, urban universities have become increasingly active as commercial real estate developers. Universities have begun to acquire, renovate, or develop from the ground floor significant tracts of commercial property near their campuses. Often these investments are accompanied by management policies inspired by shopping center developers, with tenants carefully chosen, the details of operation such as opening

  19. THE IMPACT OF ECONOMIC REFORMS ON THE URBAN ECONOMY OF THE PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yichun Xie; Frank J. Costa

    1991-01-01

    The impact of recent economic reforms in China on Chinese cities has influenced both the rate and spatial pattern of their development. In this research, three groups of cities are analyzed: those in special economic zones, opened coastal cities, and inland provincial level capital cities. Eighteen variables were selected to determine the impact of the reforms. Major conclusions of the

  20. Quantification and Mitigation of Long-Term Impacts of Urbanization and Climate Change in the Tropical Coastal City of San Juan, Puerto Rico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Comarazamy, Daniel; Gonzalez, Jorge E.; Luvall, Jeffrey C.

    2014-01-01

    Urbanization, along with other cases of land cover and land use changes, has significant climate impacts in tropical regions with the added complexity of occurring within the context of global warming. The individual and combined effects of these two factors on the surface energy balance of a tropical city are investigated by use of an integrated atmospheric modeling approach, taking the San Juan Metropolitan Area (SJMA), Puerto Rico as the test case. To achieve this goal, an ensemble of climate and weather simulations is performed, with the climate scenarios combining urban development and sprawl with regional climate change over the past 50 years, and the short-term simulations designed to test the sensitivity to different urban vegetation configurations as mitigating alternatives. As indicator of change, we use the thermal response number (TRN), which is a measure of the sensible heating to the thermal storage of a surface or region, and the Bowen ratio, which is defined as the ratio of sensible to latent heat fluxes. The TRN of the area occupied by the SJMA has decreased as a consequence of replacing the low land coastal plain vegetation with man made materials, indicating that it takes less energy to raise the surface temperature of the urban area, whereas the TRN of forested regions has remained virtually unchanged. The global warming signal also has effects on the thermal response of the SJMA, where dryer current conditions generate lower TRN values. Differences due to global warming are more evident in the Bowen ratio pattern, mostly associated with the drier present conditions observed and its effects on sensible and latent heat fluxes. In terms of testing different mitigation strategies, the short-term simulations show that the urban area is more efficient in partitioning surface energy balance terms when green roofs are specified, as opposed to including vegetation inside the urban core.

  1. Estimation of leaded (Pb) gasoline's continuing material and health impacts on 90 US urbanized areas.

    PubMed

    Mielke, Howard W; Laidlaw, Mark A S; Gonzales, Chris R

    2011-01-01

    The subject of this paper is lead (Pb) additives in gasoline and their material and health impact from Pb dust inputs into 90 US urbanized areas (UAs). The mass of Pb additives for 90 UAs as a total of the US Pb additives in 1982 were estimated from vehicle travel, vehicle fuel economy (miles/gallon), ratio of leaded to unleaded fuel, and Pb/gallon. About 500 billion (10?) miles of travel in 90 UA's during 1982 account for ~18,000 metric tons (MT), or nearly 30% of the US Pb additives in 1982. Applying the 1982 proportions to the 90 UAs for 1950 through 1982 fuel sales by state accounts for ~1.4 million MT Pb of the US national total of 4.6 million MT during the same years. Fates of Pb additives in engine systems were used to calculate Pb aerosol inputs into the 90 UAs. The inputs range from 100's to more than 100,000 MT of Pb depending on a given UA's traffic flow patterns. Soils are the reservoir of urban Pb dust. The median background soil Pb for the US is 16.5mg/kg (range 10.3 to 30.1mg/kg), and less by an order of magnitude or more than soil Pb within larger UAs. Recognizing the US input of massive gasoline Pb additives into UAs assists with comprehending soil Pb differences between large and small UAs, inner and outer areas of UAs, health disparities, and school achievement issues within UAs. The findings underscore the need for controlling accumulated exterior urban Pb dust from gasoline additives along with paint sources that have accumulated in soil to meet the goal of primary childhood Pb exposure prevention. PMID:20825992

  2. Special Issue "Natural Hazards' Impact on Urban Areas and Infrastructure" in Natural Hazards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bostenaru Dan, M.

    2009-04-01

    In 2006 and 2007, at the 3rd and 4th General Assembly of the European Geosciences Union respectivelly, the session on "Natural Hazards' Impact on Urban Areas and Infrastructure" was convened by Maria Bostenaru Dan, then at the Istituto Universitario di Studi Superiori di Pavia, ROSE School, Italy, who conducts research on earthquake management and Heidi Kreibich from the GFZ Potsdam, Germany, who conducts research on flood hazards, in 2007 being co-convened also by Agostino Goretti from the Civil Protection in Rome, Italy. The session initially started from an idea of Friedemann Wenzel from the Universität Karlsruhe (TH), Germany, the former speaker of the SFB 461 "Strong earthquakes", the university where also Maria Bostenaru graduated and worked and which runs together with the GFZ Potsdam the CEDIM, the Center for Disaster Management and Risk Reduction Technology. Selected papers from these two sessions as well as invited papers from other specialists were gathered for a special issue to be published in the journal "Natural Hazards" under the guest editorship of Heidi Kreibich and Maria Bostenaru Dan. Unlike the former special issue, this one contains a well balanced mixture of many hazards: climate change, floods, mountain hazards like avalanches, volcanoes, earthquakes. Aim of the issue was to enlarge the co-operation prospects between geosciences and other professions in field of natural hazards. Earthquake engineering and engineering seismology are seen more frequently co-operating, but in field of natural hazards there is a need to co-operate with urban planners, and, looking to the future, also in the field of integrated conservation, which implies co-operation between architecture and urban planning for the preservation of our environment. Integrated conservation is stipulated since the 1970s, which are the years when the participatism, and so the involvment of social sciences started.

  3. Impact of urbanization on high-salinity estuaries in the southeastern United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    John Vernberg, F.; Vernberg, W. B.; Blood, E.; Fortner, A.; Fulton, M.; McKellar, H.; Michener, W.; Scott, G.; Siewicki, T.; El Figi, K.

    To assess the impact of urbanization on small high-salinity estuaries, studies were initiated which had a broad temporal and spatial base. These studies utilize a geographic information system and a global positioning system technology, as well as new data collection and analytical techniques to characterize the relationship between land-use patterns, nutrient loading, water quality, chemical contaminants, bacteriology, toxicology, hydrodynamics, and primary and secondary production. Thirty monitoring stations at both an urbanized estuary (Murrells Inlet, South Carolina, U.S.A.) and a nearby, similar-sized, relatively pristine estuary (North Inlet, SC) were established. Results indicate the following trends. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) levels in seawater and oyster tissue were higher in Murrells Inlet, and the specific PAHs found in higher concentrations in seawater are similar to the PAH composition in urban air. Copper concentrations were higher in Murrells Inlet with the highest concentrations found in oysters located near human habitation. Although total coliform levels in surface waters at both estuaries were not different, faecal coliform levels in Murrells Inlet were generally higher, particularly in oysters. Nitrate and phosphate concentrations were higher in water from Murrells Inlet but, in contrast, ammonium concentrations when significantly different were higher at North Inlet landward stations. The variability in dissolved oxygen was much greater in North Inlet and may be due to the greater marsh/creek drainage in North Inlet. Chlorophyll a values tended to be higher and more variable for North Inlet water samples but no significant differences were observed between the two estuaries during the peak of the growing season. Lower biomass was observed in Murrells Inlet when similar creeks from the two estuaries were sampled by seines.

  4. On correlation between urban development, land subsidence and flooding phenomena in Jakarta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abidin, H. Z.; Andreas, H.; Gumilar, I.; Wibowo, I. R. R.

    2015-06-01

    Jakarta is the capital city of Indonesia with a population of about 10.2 million people, inhabiting an area of about 660 square-km. It is located within a deltaic plain and passes by 13 natural and artificial rivers. In the last three decades, urban development of Jakarta has grown very rapidly in the sectors of industry, trade, transportation, real estate and many others, which has caused several negative environmental impacts. In turns Jakarta is then prone toward a few natural hazards mainly land subsidence and flooding. In general, based on geodetic measurement methods (e.g. Leveling, GPS surveys, and InSAR), conducted since 1982 up to 2014, it is obtained that land subsidence in Jakarta exhibits spatial and temporal variations, with the typical rates of about 3 to 10 cm year-1. In general, the impacts of land subsidence in Jakarta can be seen in the forms of cracking of permanent constructions and roads, changes in river canal and drain flow systems, wider expansion of coastal and/or inland flooding areas, and malfunction of drainage system. Several areas along the coast of Jakarta already have experienced tidal flooding during high tide periods. These coastal flooding usually occurs in the areas with relatively large subsidence rates. Subsidence in the areas along the rivers which are flowing throughout Jakarta will also worsen the impacts of riverine flooding. The changes in river canal and drain flow systems and malfunction of drainage system due to land subsidence will also aggravate the flooding. Land subsidence will have direct and indirect affects with the flooding in Jakarta, both in coastal or inland areas.

  5. China Refrigerator Information Label: Specification Development and Potential Impact

    SciTech Connect

    Fridley, David; Fridley, David; Zheng, Nina; Zhou, Nan; Aden, Nathaniel; Lin, Jiang; Jianhong, Cheng; Sakamoto, Tomoyuki

    2008-02-01

    In the last five years, China's refrigerator market has grown rapidly, and now urban markets are showing signs of saturation, with ownership rates in urban households reaching 92%. Rural markets continue to grow from a much lower base. As a result of this growth, the Chinese government in 2006 decided to revise the refrigerator standards and its associated efficiency grades for the mandatory energy information label. In the Chinese standards process, the efficiency grades for the information label are tied to the minimum standards. Work on the minimum standards revision began in 2006 and continued through the first half of 2007, when the draft standard was completed under the direction of the China National Institute of Standardization (CNIS). Development of the information label grades required consideration of stakeholder input, continuity with the previous grade classification, ease of implementation, and potential impacts on the market. In this process, CLASP, with the support of METI/IEEJ, collaborated with CNIS to develop the efficiency grades, providing technical input to the process, comment and advice on particular technical issues, and evaluation of the results. After three months of effort and three drafts of the final grade specifications, this work was completed. In addition, in order to effectively evaluate the impact of the label on China's market, CLASP further provided assistance to CNIS to collect data on both the efficiency distribution and product volume distribution of refrigerators on the market. The new information label thresholds to be implemented in 2008 maintain the approach first adopted in 2005 of establishing efficiency levels relative to the minimum standard, but increased the related required efficiency levels by 20% over those established in 2003 and implemented in 2005. The focus of improvement was on the standard refrigerator/freezer (class 5), which constitutes the bulk of the Chinese market. Indeed, the new requirements to achieve grade 1 on the label are now virtually as stringent as those for US Energy Star-qualified or EU A-grade refrigerators. When the energy information label went into effect in March 2005, refrigerator manufacturers were required to display their declared level of efficiency on the label and report it to the China Energy Label Center (CELC), a newly established unit of CNIS responsible for label program management. Because of the visible nature of the label, it was found, through a METI/IEEJ-supported study, that MEPS non-compliance dropped from 4% to zero after the label became mandatory, and that the percentage of higher-grade refrigerators increased. This suggests that the label itself does have potential for shifting the market to higher-efficiency models (Lin 2007). One challenge, however, of assessing this potential impact is the lack of a comprehensive baseline of market efficiency and a program to evaluate the market impact on a yearly basis. As a result, the impact evaluation in this study draws upon the market transformation experience of the related EU energy information label, for which quantitative assessments of its market impact exist. By assuming a parallel process unfolding in China, it is possible to look at the potential impact of the label to 2020. The results of the analysis demonstrates that a robust market transformation program in China focused on the energy information label could save substantial amounts of electricity by 2020, totaling 16.4 TWh annually by that year, compared to a case in which the efficiency distribution of refrigerators was frozen at the 2007 level. Remarkably, the impact of a successful market transformation program with the label would essentially flatten the consumption of electricity for refrigerator use throughout most of the next decade, despite the expectations of continued growth in total stock by nearly 190 million units. At the end of this period, total consumption begins to rise again, as the least efficient of the units have been mostly removed from the market. Such a level of savings would reduce CO{sub

  6. [Comparison of skeletal development between rural and urban school-age children].

    PubMed

    Liu, B; Wang, D; Wang, Z

    1994-06-01

    Skeletal development and other related indicators were measured in 1680 children aged 7-18 in urban areas of Harbin and rural areas of Hailun County in 1990-1992, and comparisons were made. The results showed that the skeletal age of urban children aged 7-17 was higher than that of rural children in both sexes, and this difference was significant in the early puberty stage. The difference in mean values of cortical thickness of the metacarpals between urban and rural children showed similar tendency. Sesamoid ossification in urban children occurred one year earlier than that in rural children in both sexes. In primary school-age children, skeletal age was highly correlated with body height and weight. The development of secondary sex characteristics in both sexes and the age at menarche in girls in urban areas were earlier than those in rural areas, and the onset of puberty occurred one year earlier in urban than that in rural children. PMID:7805158

  7. Urban ecology in a developing world: why advanced socioecological theory needs Africa.

    PubMed

    McHale, Melissa R; Bunn, David N; Pickett, Steward Ta; Twine, Wayne

    2013-12-01

    Socioecological theory, developed through the study of urban environments, has recently led to a proliferation of research focusing on comparative analyses of cities. This research emphasis has been concentrated in the more developed countries of the Northern Hemisphere (often referred to as the "Global North"), yet urbanization is now occurring mostly in the developing world, with the fastest rates of growth in sub-Saharan Africa. Countries like South Africa are experiencing a variety of land-cover changes that may challenge current assumptions about the differences between urban and rural environments and about the connectivity of these dynamic socioecological systems. Furthermore, questions concerning ecosystem services, landscape preferences, and conservation - when analyzed through rural livelihood frameworks - may provide insights into the social and ecological resilience of human settlements. Increasing research on urban development processes occurring in Africa, and on patterns of kinship and migration in the less developed countries of the "Global South", will advance a more comprehensive worldview of how future urbanization will influence the progress of sustainable societies. PMID:24891843

  8. Urban ecology in a developing world: why advanced socioecological theory needs Africa

    PubMed Central

    Bunn, David N; Pickett, Steward TA; Twine, Wayne

    2014-01-01

    Socioecological theory, developed through the study of urban environments, has recently led to a proliferation of research focusing on comparative analyses of cities. This research emphasis has been concentrated in the more developed countries of the Northern Hemisphere (often referred to as the “Global North”), yet urbanization is now occurring mostly in the developing world, with the fastest rates of growth in sub-Saharan Africa. Countries like South Africa are experiencing a variety of land-cover changes that may challenge current assumptions about the differences between urban and rural environments and about the connectivity of these dynamic socioecological systems. Furthermore, questions concerning ecosystem services, landscape preferences, and conservation – when analyzed through rural livelihood frameworks – may provide insights into the social and ecological resilience of human settlements. Increasing research on urban development processes occurring in Africa, and on patterns of kinship and migration in the less developed countries of the “Global South”, will advance a more comprehensive worldview of how future urbanization will influence the progress of sustainable societies. PMID:24891843

  9. Urbanization Increases Aedes albopictus Larval Habitats and Accelerates Mosquito Development and Survivorship

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yiji; Kamara, Fatmata; Zhou, Guofa; Puthiyakunnon, Santhosh; Li, Chunyuan; Liu, Yanxia; Zhou, Yanhe; Yao, Lijie; Yan, Guiyun; Chen, Xiao-Guang

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Aedes albopictus is a very invasive and aggressive insect vector that causes outbreaks of dengue fever, chikungunya disease, and yellow fever in many countries. Vector ecology and disease epidemiology are strongly affected by environmental changes. Urbanization is a worldwide trend and is one of the most ecologically modifying phenomena. The purpose of this study is to determine how environmental changes due to urbanization affect the ecology of Aedes albopictus. Methods Aquatic habitats and Aedes albopictus larval population surveys were conducted from May to November 2013 in three areas representing rural, suburban, and urban settings in Guangzhou, China. Ae. albopictus adults were collected monthly using BG-Sentinel traps. Ae. albopictus larva and adult life-table experiments were conducted with 20 replicates in each of the three study areas. Results The urban area had the highest and the rural area had the lowest number of aquatic habitats that tested positive for Ae. albopictus larvae. Densities in the larval stages varied among the areas, but the urban area had almost two-fold higher densities in pupae and three-fold higher in adult populations compared with the suburban and rural areas. Larvae developed faster and the adult emergence rate was higher in the urban area than in suburban and rural areas. The survival time of adult mosquitoes was also longer in the urban area than it was in suburban and rural areas. Study regions, surface area, water depth, water clearance, surface type, and canopy coverage were important factors associated with the presence of Ae. albopictus larvae. Conclusions Urbanization substantially increased the density, larval development rate, and adult survival time of Ae. albopictus, which in turn potentially increased the vector capacity, and therefore, disease transmissibility. Mosquito ecology and its correlation with dengue virus transmission should be compared in different environmental settings. PMID:25393814

  10. Coordinated urban-rural development and the transition of planning management — A case study of Chengdu, China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jiao Yongli

    2011-01-01

    The coordinated urban-rural development is to include rural development into the overall framework of regional development. It is contended that the evolving relation between human and natural environment and the complex adjustment of urban-rural benefits require transition of the existing Chinese planning management and policy system urgently, by an intensive case study in Chengdu. By examining the coordinated urban-rural planning

  11. Museums, Zoos, and Gardens: How Formal-Informal Partnerships Can Impact Urban Students' Performance. Working Paper #04-13

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinstein, Meryle; Whitesell, Emilyn Ruble; Schwartz, Amy Ellen

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we provide the first rigorous evidence of the impact of a partnership between public middle schools and informal science institutions (ISIs), such as museums and zoos, on student outcomes. This study focuses on Urban Advantage (UA), a program in New York City (NYC) that explicitly draws upon the expertise and resources of the city's…

  12. Investigations on the impacts of urban aerosol release and heat island effect on downwind precipitation in high latitudes

    E-print Network

    Moelders, Nicole

    Investigations on the impacts of urban aerosol release and heat island effect on downwind than 500%. In winter, the heat island effect led to an increase in temperature of 1 K (Magee et al Alaskan cities, and, hence, cannot simulate the associated heat island effect. Furthermore, they usually

  13. Impact of the Clean Water Act on the levels of toxic metals in urban estuaries: The Hudson River estuary revisited

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. A. Sanudo-Wilhelmy; Gary A. Gill

    1999-01-01

    To establish the impact of the Clean Water Act on the water quality of urban estuaries, dissolved trace metals and phosphate concentrations were determined in surface waters collected along the Hudson River estuary between 1995 and 1997 and compared with samples collected in the mid-1970s by Klinkhammer and Bender. The median concentrations along the estuary have apparently declined 36--56% for

  14. Problem Situations Experienced by Urban Middle School Students with High Incidence Disabilities That Impact Emotional and Behavioral Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Terri N.; Sutherland, Kevin S.; Lotze, Geri M.; Helms, Sarah W.; Wright, Stephen A.; Ulmer, Lisa J.

    2015-01-01

    A mixed methods approach was used to identify problem situations in peer and school contexts experienced by urban middle school students with high incidence disabilities that may impact their emotional and behavioral adjustment. A survey and semi-structured interview were conducted with a predominantly African American sample (95%) of 74…

  15. Impact of family abuse on running away, deviance, and street victimization among homeless rural and urban youth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lisa E. Thrane; Danny R. Hoyt; Les B. Whitbeck; Kevin A. Yoder

    2006-01-01

    ProblemVarious demographic and familial risk factors have been linked to runaway behavior. To date, there has not been a systematic investigation of the impact of size of community on runaway behavior. This study will compare runaways from smaller cities and rural areas to their urban counterparts.

  16. The Impact of a Literacy Intervention Program on Student Achievement and Behavior at Two Urban High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez, Steven

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the impact of a literacy intervention program on student achievement and behavior at two urban high schools. Two groups were identified and the sample was a convenience sample for this study. One group of students is not enrolled in the intervention program, while the other group of students is enrolled in…

  17. Impact of an informal learning science camp on urban, low socioeconomic status middle school students and participating teacher-leaders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Votaw, Nikki L.

    Studies suggest that students have difficulty connecting science to their own lives (Lee & Fradd, 1998; Aikenhead, 1996). This difficulty results in a decline in students' attitudes toward science, leading to low science achievement. These factors result in fewer students interested in careers related to science, specifically for urban, minority students. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact that a ten day informal learning immersion science camp had on the participants, both urban, low-socioeconomic status middle school students and teacher-leaders. The students were incoming seventh grade students involved in a community-based scholar program designed to recruit and support socioeconomically disadvantaged, academically talented students. The teacher-leaders were professional educators working toward an advanced degree. This ten day camp included seven visits to different sites and complementary classroom-based activities. The purpose of the camp was to immerse the students in informal learning environments that affect their daily lives. Students and teacher-leaders visited facilities that provide public utility services (i.e. power plant, sewage treatment facility, and water company), zoo, large commercial cave system, planetarium, university based electrooptics and nanotechnology center, and forest and arboretum. These site visits were supported by activities that were provided by teacher-leaders. A model used as a framework for studying learning in the context of this ten day camp as Falk and Dierking's (2000) Contextual Model for Learning. This model described three basic intersecting elements that contributed to learning within the given context. The three contexts (personal, sociocultural, and physical) intersect affecting the learning that takes place. A mixed methodology design was employed to determine the impact of the camp on students' content knowledge and attitudes toward science. Qualitative data were collected to determine the impact of the camp on teacher-leaders' content knowledge and pedagogy. A variety of data sources were used including data collected before, during, and immediately following the camp as well as data collected several months after the conclusion of the camp. Results of the study indicated that both students and teacher-leaders were positively impacted by their experience at the camp. Data from the content assessments, interviews, and student journals indicate that students' content knowledge was enhanced and expanded through the learning of factual knowledge as well as understanding of the importance of broad scientific processes. Through their new experiences, students developed an awareness of the natural world and a foundation for future learning. Students also developed an awareness of science as it applies to their own lives. Data from students' letters to themselves, student interviews, and parent focus groups indicated that students' attitudes toward science were positively impacted through development of an increased resource appreciation, positive social experiences, and experiential sharing with others. Teacher-leader experiences with the camp also had positive results. Teacher-leaders entered the camp with a variety of unique personal contexts, and in spite of this variability each reported that this was a value-added experience for their teaching. These personal contexts helped to enhance the sociocultural context which provided a rich environment to support teacher-leader learning. Among the pedagogical impacts, teacher-leaders expressed enhanced teaching capacity through acquisition of: new classroom activities; new connections among science content; new stories and experiences to share with future classes; and new contexts for situating the understanding of science principles. Along with the positive impacts, teacher-leaders also identified and articulated several barriers to implementing site visits in their own classrooms. This camp is unique in that it is an immersion experience within informal learning contexts where seven sites were visited with

  18. Impact: development of a radiological mummy database.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Andrew John; Wade, Andrew David

    2015-06-01

    The Internet Mummy Picture Archiving and Communication Technology (IMPACT) radiological and context database, is a large-scale, multi-institutional, collaborative research project devoted to the digital preservation and scientific study of mummified remains, and the mummification traditions that produced them, using non-destructive medical imaging technologies. Owing to the importance of non-destructive analyses to the study of mummified human remains, the IMPACT database, website, and wiki provide a basis for anthropological and palaeopathological investigations, grounded in the most current technological imaging and communication standards, accessible through any internet connection, and protected against rapidly changing media standards. Composed of paired online radiographic and contextual databases, the IMPACT project is intended to provide researchers with large-scale primary data samples for anthropological and palaeopathological investigations. IMPACT addresses the limitations of the case-study approach to mummified human remains and contributes to the development of standards of practice in imaging of mummified remains. Furthermore, IMPACT allows researchers a greater appreciation of, and engagement with, patterns of health and disease in ancient times as well as the variability present in the mummification traditions of ancient Egypt and other cultures that sought to preserve their dead for eternity. Anat Rec, 298:941-948, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25998630

  19. RAINFALL-RUNOFF MECHANICS FOR DEVELOPED URBAN BASINS, SOUTH FLORIDA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, Robert A.

    1984-01-01

    Rainfall-runoff data, collected by the US Geological Survey as part of an urban hydrology study in south Florida, were analyzed to find relations between depths of rainfall and basin runoff. Data were collected for about 300 runoff events on four different urban land-use basins - commercial, highway, single-family residential, and apartment. These data were collected from sewers that carried only stormwater runoff. In analyzing the rainfall-runoff data, three types of relations were found. A one-curve, linear relation occurred for the commercial basin that has 98 percent of the basin as hydraulically effective impervious area. A two-curve, intercepted relation occurred for the highway basin - a linear curve for the low and medium events observed and a second-degree curve for high events observed. A two-curve, disjointed relation occurred for the remaining two basins - the residential basin and the apartment basin. This relation also contained a linear curve for low and medium events and a second-degree curve for the high events. However, the two curves do not intersect, but are disjointed.

  20. The Role of Vegetation and Mulch in Mitigating the Impact of Raindrops on Soils in Urban Vegetated Green Infrastructure Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alizadehtazi, B.; Montalto, F. A.; Sjoblom, K.

    2014-12-01

    Raindrop impulses applied to soils can break up larger soil aggregates into smaller particles, dispersing them from their original position. The displaced particles can self-stratify, with finer particles at the top forming a crust. Occurrence of this phenomenon reduces the infiltration rate and increases runoff, contributing to downstream flooding, soil erosion, and non point source pollutant loads. Unprotected soil surfaces (e.g. without vegetation canopies, mulch, or other materials), are more susceptible to crust formation due to the higher kinetic energy associated with raindrop impact. By contrast, soil that is protected by vegetation canopies and mulch layers is less susceptible to crust formation, since these surfaces intercept raindrops, dissipating some of their kinetic energy prior to their impact with the soil. Within this context, this presentation presents preliminary laboratory work conducted using a rainfall simulator to determine the ability of new urban vegetation and mulch to minimize soil crust formation. Three different scenarios are compared: a) bare soil, b) soil with mulch cover, and c) soil protected by vegetation canopies. Soil moisture, surface penetration resistance, and physical measurements of the volume of infiltrate and runoff are made on all three surface treatments after simulated rainfall events. The results are used to develop recommendations regarding surface treatment in green infrastructure (GI) system designs, namely whether heavily vegetated GI facilities require mulching to maintain infiltration capacity.

  1. Factors affecting the presence of human-associated and fecal indicator real-time quantitative PCR genetic markers in urban-impacted recreational beaches.

    PubMed

    Molina, Marirosa; Hunter, Shayla; Cyterski, Mike; Peed, Lindsay A; Kelty, Catherine A; Sivaganesan, Mano; Mooney, Thomas; Prieto, Lourdes; Shanks, Orin C

    2014-11-01

    Urban runoff can carry a variety of pollutants into recreational beaches, often including bacterial pathogens and indicators of fecal contamination. To develop complete recreational criteria and risk assessments, it is necessary to understand conditions under which human contamination could be present at beaches solely impacted by urban runoff. Accurately estimating risk requires understanding sources, concentrations, and transport mechanisms of microbial contaminants in these environments. By applying microbial source tracking methods and empirical modeling, we assessed the presence and level of human contamination at urban runoff impacted recreational beaches. We also identified environmental parameters and pollution sources that can influence the concentration and transport of culturable and molecular fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) in systems impacted solely by urban runoff. Water samples and physico-chemical parameters were collected from shoreline locations from three South Carolina (SC) beaches (five locations per beach) and two Florida (FL) beaches (three locations per beach). Each SC beach was directly impacted by swashes or tidal creeks receiving stormwater runoff from the urbanized area and therefore were designated as swash drain associated (SDA) beaches, while FL beaches were designated as non-swash drain associated (NSDA). Sampling in swash drains (SD; three sites per SD) directly impacting each SC beach was also conducted. Results indicate that although culturable (enterococci) and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) (EC23S857, Entero1, and GenBac3) FIB concentrations were, on average, higher at SD locations, SDA beaches did not have consistently higher molecular FIB signals compared to NSDA beaches. Both human-associated markers (HF183 and HumM2) were concomitantly found only at SDA beaches. Bacteroidales species-specific qPCR markers (BsteriF1 and BuniF2) identified differences in the Bacteroidales community, depending on beach type. The marker for general Bacteroidales was most abundant at SD locations and exhibited a high correlation with both culturable and other molecular markers. Combining molecular information with predictive modeling allowed us to identify both alongshore movement of currents and SD outflow as significant influences on the concentration of molecular and culturable indicators in the bathing zone. Data also suggests that combining methodologies is a useful and cost effective approach to help understand transport dynamics of fecal contamination and identify potential sources of contamination at marine beaches. PMID:25061692

  2. The Effects of Privileging Moral or Performance Character Development in Urban Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seider, Scott; Novick, Sarah; Gomez, Jessica

    2013-01-01

    This study compared the effects of emphasizing moral character development or performance character development at three high-performing, high-poverty urban middle schools. Performance character consists of the qualities that allow individuals to regulate their thoughts and actions in ways that support achievement in a particular endeavor. Moral…

  3. The Interrelationship of Urban Economic and Cultural Development: the Case of Greek Museums

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alex Deffner; Theodoros Metaxas

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of the paper is the pinpointing of the role and importance of museums in the cultural and economic development of cities. The starting point is a critical analysis of the international, mainly European, experience, which, especially in the last decade, demonstrates the weight of the cultural factor in urban development focusing on the economic dimension. In the course

  4. Incorporating sustainable development concerns into an urban regeneration project: how politics can defeat procedures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yvonne Rydin; Nancy Holman; Vicky Hands; Florian Sommer

    2003-01-01

    It is often thought that new procedural arrangements can help embed sustainable development as a policy goal into policy practice. This is the hope of tools such as environmental assessment, sustainability audits and sustainability indicators. Using a case study of urban regeneration in the London Borough of Southwark, this paper critically examines these claims. It shows how sustainable development was

  5. Team Sports Achievement and Self-Esteem Development among Urban Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pedersen, Sara; Seidman, Edward

    2004-01-01

    In this study we investigate the contribution of achievement in team sports to adolescent girls' self-esteem development. Adolescent girls (N = 247) from racially and ethnically diverse backgrounds were surveyed as part of a larger study investigating the development of poor urban youth. Participants responded to items tapping global self-esteem,…

  6. Preparation and implementation of a general planning scheme in Tanzania: Kahama strategic urban development planning framework

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Francos Halla

    2002-01-01

    General planning schemes are prepared to guide urban development in most cities. Schemes based on master planning have been criticized for their blueprint output and exclusion of development stakeholders in the planning process. Responding to the criticism, some cities have in the last decade prepared schemes based on strategic planning. The output of strategic planning is a dynamic framework for

  7. BERNAL et al Local development in peri-urban and rural areas

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    BERNAL et al Local development in peri-urban and rural areas based on co-management for small water, and propose predefined variables to analyze some Colombian small communities located in rural areas in order to develop model based in actors and roles. It shows how the government can support this management

  8. The Urban Middle School Principal: The Use of Professional Development to Facilitate Academic Inclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walls, Stephanie D.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to ascertain to what extent the urban middle school principals prepare staff for an inclusive environment using professional development activities. Professional development is the primary resource for how teachers acquire new educational knowledge. Typically, principals choose topics based upon personal ideas or…

  9. On the development, optical properties and thermal performance of cool colored coatings for the urban environment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Synnefa; M. Santamouris; K. Apostolakis

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports the measured solar spectral properties and the thermal performance of 10 prototype cool colored coatings, developed at the National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, using near-infrared reflective color pigments in comparison to color-matched, conventionally pigmented coatings. These coatings are developed to be used in the urban environment to fight the heat island effect. The spectral reflectance and

  10. The potential impacts of sprawl on farmland in Northeast China—Evaluating a new strategy for rural development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fengming Xi; Hong S. He; Keith C. Clarke; Yuanman Hu; Xiaoqing Wu; Miao Liu; Tiemao Shi; Yong Geng; Chang Gao

    China's “building a new countryside” strategy for coordinating urban and rural development and gearing up national economic growth brings challenges to the country's farmland protection. The objective of this study is to evaluate potential impacts of implementing the strategy on farmland and to provide scientific guidelines and decision support for decision makers in northeast China. We analyzed three “building a

  11. Evaluating the impact of a facilitated learning community approach to professional development on teacher practice and student achievement

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yaron Doppelt; Christian D. Schunn; Eli M. Silk; Matthew M. Mehalik; Birdy Reynolds; Erin Ward

    2009-01-01

    The focus of this research was an evaluation of the impact of teacher professional development (PD) on student achievement during implementation of a reform curriculum. The PD consisted of five four?hour workshop sessions distributed over the time teachers were implementing the reform curriculum in their classrooms. The research was conducted in a mid?size, urban school district over the span of

  12. Characterizing the impact of urban emissions on regional aerosol particles; airborne measurements during the MEGAPOLI experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freney, E. J.; Sellegri, K.; Canonaco, F.; Colomb, A.; Borbon, A.; Michoud, V.; Doussin, J.-F.; Crumeyrolle, S.; Amarouch, N.; Pichon, J.-M.; Prévôt, A. S. H.; Beekmann, M.; Schwarzenböeck, A.

    2013-09-01

    The MEGAPOLI experiment took place in July 2009. The aim of this campaign was to study the aging and reactions of aerosol and gas-phase emissions in the city of Paris. Three ground-based measurement sites and several mobile platforms including instrument equipped vehicles and the ATR-42 aircraft were involved. We present here the variations in particle- and gas-phase species over the city of Paris using a combination of high-time resolution measurements aboard the ATR-42 aircraft. Particle chemical composition was measured using a compact time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (C-ToF-AMS) giving detailed information of the non-refractory submicron aerosol species. The mass concentration of BC, measured by a particle absorption soot photometer (PSAP), was used as a marker to identify the urban pollution plume boundaries. Aerosol mass concentrations and composition were affected by air-mass history, with air masses that spent longest time over land having highest fractions of organic aerosol and higher total mass concentrations. The Paris plume is mainly composed of organic aerosol (OA), black carbon and nitrate aerosol, as well as high concentrations of anthropogenic gas-phase species such as toluene, benzene, and NOx. Using BC and CO as tracers for air-mass dilution, we observe the ratio of ?OA / ?BC and ?OA / ?CO increase with increasing photochemical age (-log(NOx / NOy). Plotting the equivalent ratios for the Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) resolved species (LV-OOA, SV-OOA, and HOA) illustrate that the increase in OA is a result of secondary organic aerosol (SOA). Within Paris the changes in the ?OA / ?CO are similar to those observed during other studies in Mexico city, Mexico and in New England, USA. Using the measured VOCs species together with recent organic aerosol formation yields we predicted ~ 50% of the measured organics. These airborne measurements during the MEGAPOLI experiment show that urban emissions contribute to the formation of OA, and have an impact on aerosol composition on a regional scale. They provide a quantitative measure of this impact in terms of urban plume composition and evolution relative to background aerosol composition.

  13. Investigation of Long-Term Impacts of Urbanization and Global Warming in a Coastal Tropical Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Comarazamy, D. E.; Gonzalez, J.; Luvall, J. C.

    2010-12-01

    The goal of this project is to gain a better understanding of the climate impacts caused by the combined effects of land cover and land use (LCLU) changes and increasing global concentrations of green house gases (GHG) in tropical coastal areas, taking as the test case the densely populated northeast region of the Caribbean island of Puerto Rico. The research uses an integrated approach of high-resolution remote sensing information linked to the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS), which was employed to perform ensembles of climate simulations (combining 2-LCLU and 2-GHG concentration scenarios). Reconstructed agricultural maps are used to define past LCLU, and combined with reconstructed sea surface temperatures (SST) for the same period form the PAST climate scenario (1951-1956); while the PRESENT scenario (2000-2004) was additionally supported by the high resolution remote sensing data. The climate reconstruction approach is validated with available observed climate data from surface weather stations for both periods simulated. The selection of the past and present climate scenarios considers large-scale biases (i.e. ENSO/NAO) as reflected in the region of interest. Direct and cross comparison of the results is allowing quantifying single, combined, and competitive effects. Results indicate that urban sprawl dominates the pattern and magnitude of maximum temperature differences, while global GHG have dominant effects on minimum temperatures (following regional tendencies). To further investigate impacts of land use the Thermal Response Number (TRN) and Bowen ratio are analyzed. The TRN is a surface property defined as the ratio of the surface net radiation to the rate of change in surface temperature over shorts periods of time, it expresses how a particular surface partitions energy into non-radiative surface energy budget terms (i.e., latent heat flux, sensible heat flux, and soil heat flux or storage). Natural vegetated surfaces have a greater TRN than urban and barren surfaces because the net radiation processed by them is mostly used for latent heat and thermal storage heat rather than sensible heat (heating the air). Significant changes in TRN were observed in the metropolitan area of San Juan for the two analyzed periods reflecting a reduction of this variable in the present from the past consistent with increasing in thermal mass and intense urbanization. The Bowen ratio indicates that forestation of past agricultural high areas have an overwhelmingly mitigation effect on increasing temperatures observed in different LCLU scenarios, but when abandoned agricultural lands are located in plains, the resulting shrub/grass lands produce higher surface temperatures, it also helps to characterize the thermal storage of some surfaces that have similar B patterns by comparing how the TRN behaves in such areas.

  14. Coupling of a distributed hydrological model with an urban storm water model for impact analysis of forced infiltration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kidmose, Jacob; Troldborg, Lars; Refsgaard, Jens Christian; Bischoff, Nils

    2015-06-01

    Only few studies have attempted to couple a storm water runoff model with a distributed hydrological model even though infiltration or exfiltration processes between pipes and canals of urban runoff systems and groundwater are widely recognised. We present a fully coupled model that allows simulation of the complete urban freshwater cycle including: runoff from paved and impervious areas, flow through the runoff network, overland flow, infiltration through the unsaturated zone, evapotranspiration (at green areas), and groundwater flow in complex, urban geology. For example, at the investigated urban area at the City of Silkeborg, Western Denmark, the coupled model show that one fourth (24%) of water input to the storm water runoff systems arrives from groundwater sources. The study furthermore quantifies groundwater feedback mechanisms of forced infiltration to surface water systems by the fully coupled hydrological and urban runoff model. Three local area recharge scenarios with forced infiltration are compared with the present situation without forced infiltration. The forced infiltration impacts the local groundwater table with an average rise of up to 69 cm resulting in significant feedback from the groundwater to the runoff system via drains, overland flow and leakage of groundwater to the pipes and canals of the urban runoff network.

  15. FACTORS THAT IMPACT MULTIMEDIA TRAINING APPLICATION DEVELOPMENT

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elaine Winston

    2005-01-01

    The proliferation of internet and communication technology has led to the rapid development of multimedia training applications that are delivered over corporate networks. Organizations that link these e-training systems to bottom-line business drivers may realize a distinct competitive advantage. On the other hand, ineffective e-training may result in unjustifiable costs to an organization. Given the high impact of e-training, a

  16. Predicting urban forest growth and its impact on residential landscape water demand in a semiarid urban environment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John H. Lowry; R. Douglas Ramsey; Roger K. Kjelgren

    2011-01-01

    We present an innovative approach to estimating residential irrigation water demand for a large metropolitan area using GIS data, weather station data, and a water budget modeling approach commonly used by plant scientists and landscape management professionals. An important question addressed by our study is how a growing urban forest affects the overall irrigation water demand of a semiarid metropolitan

  17. Critical indicators for assessing the contribution of infrastructure projects to coordinated urban–rural development in China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Liyin Shen; Shijie Jiang; Hongping Yuan

    It is widely recognized that the coordinated development between urban and rural areas can not only narrow gaps in infrastructure between urban and rural areas, promote balanced development in rural areas in terms of society, economy and environment, but is also an effective way to address issues facing agriculture, rural areas and farmers. In line with this, development of infrastructure

  18. Sustainable urban planning and the brownfield development process in the United Kingdom: Lessons from the Thames Gateway

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mike Raco; Steven Henderson

    2006-01-01

    Over recent decades urban and regional development agendas in the United Kingdom have become dominated by the discourses of sustainable development, holistic regeneration and community capacity-building. It is in this context that brownfield development has emerged as a core feature in strategies to regenerate urban areas. Bringing brownfields back into use tends to be, a priori, presented as a ‘good

  19. Local institutional development and organizational change for advancing sustainable urban water futures.

    PubMed

    Brown, Rebekah R

    2008-02-01

    This paper presents the local institutional and organizational development insights from a five-year ongoing interdisciplinary research project focused on advancing the implementation of sustainable urban water management. While it is broadly acknowledged that the inertia associated with administrative systems is possibly the most significant obstacle to advancing sustainable urban water management, contemporary research still largely prioritizes investigations at the technological level. This research is explicitly concerned with critically informing the design of methodologies for mobilizing and overcoming the administrative inertia of traditional urban water management practice. The results of fourteen in-depth case studies of local government organizations across Metropolitan Sydney primarily reveal that (i) the political institutionalization of environmental concern and (ii) the commitment to local leadership and organizational learning are key corporate attributes for enabling sustainable management. A typology of five organizational development phases has been proposed as both a heuristic and capacity benchmarking tool for urban water strategists, policy makers, and decision makers that are focused on improving the level of local implementation of sustainable urban water management activity. While this investigation has focused on local government, these findings do provide guideposts for assessing the development needs of future capacity building programs across a range of different institutional contexts. PMID:18027015

  20. Local Institutional Development and Organizational Change for Advancing Sustainable Urban Water Futures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Rebekah R.

    2008-02-01

    This paper presents the local institutional and organizational development insights from a five-year ongoing interdisciplinary research project focused on advancing the implementation of sustainable urban water management. While it is broadly acknowledged that the inertia associated with administrative systems is possibly the most significant obstacle to advancing sustainable urban water management, contemporary research still largely prioritizes investigations at the technological level. This research is explicitly concerned with critically informing the design of methodologies for mobilizing and overcoming the administrative inertia of traditional urban water management practice. The results of fourteen in-depth case studies of local government organizations across Metropolitan Sydney primarily reveal that (i) the political institutionalization of environmental concern and (ii) the commitment to local leadership and organizational learning are key corporate attributes for enabling sustainable management. A typology of five organizational development phases has been proposed as both a heuristic and capacity benchmarking tool for urban water strategists, policy makers, and decision makers that are focused on improving the level of local implementation of sustainable urban water management activity. While this investigation has focused on local government, these findings do provide guideposts for assessing the development needs of future capacity building programs across a range of different institutional contexts.

  1. Interpersonal relationships and the development of behavior problems in adolescents in urban schools: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Montague, Marjorie; Cavendish, Wendy; Enders, Craig; Dietz, Samantha

    2010-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the trajectories of behavioral problems for a sample of predominately minority adolescents (n = 212, 91% African-American and/or Hispanic, 45% boys, 55% girls) in a large, urban school district and to determine the impact of parental and peer relationships, gender, and risk status on their development during middle and high school. Multi-level growth modeling was the primary statistical procedure used to track internalizing and externalizing behavioral problems across time. Results indicated that behavioral problems as rated by students' teachers declined significantly for both boys and girls, a finding that is in direct contrast to previous studies of adolescent behavior. The quality of parental relationships was a strong predictor of both types of behavior whereas the quality of peer relationships predicted only internalizing behavioral symptoms. These findings suggest that behavioral trajectories may be somewhat unique for this population underscoring the need for additional research in this area. The findings also have implications for intervening with children and youth who display behavioral problems during critical developmental periods. PMID:19657727

  2. Research on Urban Road Traffic Congestion Charging Based on Sustainable Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Sun

    Traffic congestion is a major problem which bothers our urban traffic sustainable development at present. Congestion charging is an effective measure to alleviate urban traffic congestion. The paper first probes into several key issues such as the goal, the pricing, the scope, the method and the redistribution of congestion charging from theoretical angle. Then it introduces congestion charging practice in Singapore and London and draws conclusion and suggestion that traffic congestion charging should take scientific plan, support of public, public transportation development as the premise.

  3. Environmental impact of submerged anaerobic MBR (SAnMBR) technology used to treat urban wastewater at different temperatures.

    PubMed

    Pretel, R; Robles, A; Ruano, M V; Seco, A; Ferrer, J

    2013-12-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the environmental impact of a submerged anaerobic MBR (SAnMBR) system in the treatment of urban wastewater at different temperatures: ambient temperature (20 and 33°C), and a controlled temperature (33°C). To this end, an overall energy balance (OEB) and life cycle assessment (LCA), both based on real process data, were carried out. Four factors were considered in this study: (1) energy consumption during wastewater treatment; (2) energy recovered from biogas capture; (3) potential recovery of nutrients from the final effluent; and (4) sludge disposal. The OEB and LCA showed SAnMBR to be a promising technology for treating urban wastewater at ambient temperature (OEB=0.19 kW h m(-3)). LCA results reinforce the importance of maximising the recovery of nutrients (environmental impact in eutrophication can be reduced up to 45%) and dissolved methane (positive environmental impact can be obtained) from SAnMBR effluent. PMID:24119499

  4. A simulation tool for predicting thermal impacts of stormwater runoff on trout streams

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. D. Janke; W. R. Herb; O. Mohseni; H. G. Stefan

    2007-01-01

    Our current work is focused on investigating the impact of urban development on the temperature of trout streams in urbanizing watersheds. The goal of the project is to characterize this impact, and to produce a robust simulation tool to quantify the impact. A preliminary version of the tool, MINUHET (MINnesota Urban Heat Export Tool), has been developed. MINUHET tracks heat

  5. Impacts of Vegetation and Urban planning on micro climate in Hashtgerd new Town

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sodoudi, S.; Langer, I.; Cubasch, U.

    2012-12-01

    One of the objectives of climatological part of project Young Cities 'Developing Energy-Efficient Urban Fabric in the Tehran-Karaj Region' is to simulate the micro climate (with 1m resolution) in 35ha of new town Hashtgerd, which is located 65 km far from mega city Tehran. The Project aims are developing, implementing and evaluating building and planning schemes and technologies which allow to plan and build sustainable, energy-efficient and climate sensible form mass housing settlements in arid and semi-arid regions ("energy-efficient fabric"). Climate sensitive form also means designing and planning for climate change and its related effects for Hashtgerd New Town. By configuration of buildings and open spaces according to solar radiation, wind and vegetation, climate sensitive urban form can create outdoor thermal comfort. To simulate the climate on small spatial scales, the micro climate model Envi-met has been used to simulate the micro climate in 35 ha. The Eulerian model ENVI-met is a micro-scale climate model which gives information about the influence of architecture and buildings as well as vegetation and green area on the micro climate up to 1 m resolution. Envi-met has been run with information from topography, downscaled climate data with neuro-fuzzy method, meteorological measurements, building height and different vegetation variants (low and high number of trees) Through the optimal Urban Design and Planning for the 35ha area the micro climate results shows, that with vegetation the micro climate in street canopies will be change: - 2 m temperature is decreased by about 2 K - relative humidity increase by about 10 % - soil temperature is decreased by about 3 K - wind speed is decreased by about 60% The style of buildings allows free movement of air, which is of high importance for fresh air supply. The increase of inbuilt areas in 35 ha reduces the heat island effect through cooling caused by vegetation and increase of air humidity which caused by trees evaporation. The downscaled climate scenarios considering new urban planning strategies in 35ha will be presented till 2100.

  6. Impacts of Vegetation and Urban planning on micro climate in Hashtgerd new Town

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sodoudi, Sahar; langer, Ines; Cubasch, Ulrich

    2013-04-01

    One of the objectives of climatological part of project Young Cities 'Developing Energy-Efficient Urban Fabric in the Tehran-Karaj Region' is to simulate the micro climate (with 1m resolution) in 35ha of new town Hashtgerd, which is located 65 km far from mega city Tehran. The Project aims are developing, implementing and evaluating building and planning schemes and technologies which allow to plan and build sustainable, energy-efficient and climate sensible form mass housing settlements in arid and semi-arid regions ("energy-efficient fabric"). Climate sensitive form also means designing and planning for climate change and its related effects for Hashtgerd New Town. By configuration of buildings and open spaces according to solar radiation, wind and vegetation, climate sensitive urban form can create outdoor thermal comfort. To simulate the climate on small spatial scales, the micro climate model Envi-met has been used to simulate the micro climate in 35 ha. The Eulerian model ENVI-met is a micro-scale climate model which gives information about the influence of architecture and buildings as well as vegetation and green area on the micro climate up to 1 m resolution. Envi-met has been run with information from topography, downscaled climate data with neuro-fuzzy method, meteorological measurements, building height and different vegetation variants (low and high number of trees) Through the optimal Urban Design and Planning for the 35ha area the microclimate results shows, that with vegetation the microclimate in street canopies will be change: • 2 m temperature is decreased by about 2 K • relative humidity increase by about 10 % • soil temperature is decreased by about 3 K • wind speed is decreased by about 60% The style of buildings allows free movement of air, which is of high importance for fresh air supply. The increase of inbuilt areas in 35 ha reduces the heat island effect through cooling caused by vegetation and increase of air humidity which caused by trees evaporation. The downscaled climate scenarios considering new urban planning strategies in 35ha will be presented till 2100.

  7. Impact of the 2009 Attica wild fires on the air quality in urban Athens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amiridis, V.; Zerefos, C.; Kazadzis, S.; Gerasopoulos, E.; Eleftheratos, K.; Vrekoussis, M.; Stohl, A.; Mamouri, R. E.; Kokkalis, P.; Papayannis, A.; Eleftheriadis, K.; Diapouli, E.; Keramitsoglou, I.; Kontoes, C.; Kotroni, V.; Lagouvardos, K.; Marinou, E.; Giannakaki, E.; Kostopoulou, E.; Giannakopoulos, C.; Richter, A.; Burrows, J. P.; Mihalopoulos, N.

    2012-01-01

    At the end of August 2009, wild fires ravaged the north-eastern fringes of Athens destroying invaluable forest wealth of the Greek capital. In this work, the impact of these fires on the air quality of Athens and surface radiation levels is examined. Satellite imagery, smoke dispersion modeling and meteorological data confirm the advection of smoke under cloud-free conditions over the city of Athens. Lidar measurements showed that the smoke plume dispersed in the free troposphere and lofted over the city reaching heights between 2 and 4 km. Ground-based sunphotometric measurements showed extreme aerosol optical depth, reaching nearly 6 in the UV wavelength range, accompanied by a reduction up to 70% of solar irradiance at ground. The intensive aerosol optical properties, namely the Ĺngström exponent, the lidar ratio, and the single scattering albedo, showed typical values for highly absorbing fresh smoke particles. In-situ air quality measurements revealed the impact of the smoke plume down to the surface with a slight delay on both the particulate and gaseous phase. Surface aerosols increase was encountered mainly in the fine mode with prominent elevation of OC and EC levels. Photochemical processes, studied via NO x titration of O 3, were also shown to be different compared to typical urban photochemistry.

  8. NATIONWIDE EVALUATION OF COMBINED SEWER OVERFLOWS AND URBAN STORMWATER DISCHARGES. VOLUME II. COST ASSESSMENT AND IMPACTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A nationwide assessment has been made of the quantity and quality of urban storm flow emanating from combined sewers, storm sewers, and unsewered portions of all 248 urbanized areas and other urban areas in the United States. Available control alternatives and their associated co...

  9. A multi-scale qualitative approach to assess the impact of urbanization on natural habitats and their connectivity

    SciTech Connect

    Scolozzi, Rocco, E-mail: rocco.scolozzi@fmach.it [Sustainable Agro-ecosystems and Bioresources Department, IASMA Research and Innovation Centre, Fondazione Edmund Mach, Via E. Mach 1, 38010 San Michele all& #x27; Adige, (Italy); Geneletti, Davide, E-mail: geneletti@ing.unitn.it [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Trento, Trento (Italy)

    2012-09-15

    Habitat loss and fragmentation are often concurrent to land conversion and urbanization. Simple application of GIS-based landscape pattern indicators may be not sufficient to support meaningful biodiversity impact assessment. A review of the literature reveals that habitat definition and habitat fragmentation are frequently inadequately considered in environmental assessment, notwithstanding the increasing number of tools and approaches reported in the landscape ecology literature. This paper presents an approach for assessing impacts on habitats on a local scale, where availability of species data is often limited, developed for an alpine valley in northern Italy. The perspective of the methodology is multiple scale and species-oriented, and provides both qualitative and quantitative definitions of impact significance. A qualitative decision model is used to assess ecological values in order to support land-use decisions at the local level. Building on recent studies in the same region, the methodology integrates various approaches, such as landscape graphs, object-oriented rule-based habitat assessment and expert knowledge. The results provide insights into future habitat loss and fragmentation caused by land-use changes, and aim at supporting decision-making in planning and suggesting possible ecological compensation. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Many environmental assessments inadequately consider habitat loss and fragmentation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Species-perspective for defining habitat quality and connectivity is claimed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Species-based tools are difficult to be applied with limited availability of data. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We propose a species-oriented and multiple scale-based qualitative approach. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Advantages include being species-oriented and providing value-based information.

  10. Exposure and health impacts of outdoor particulate matter in two urban and industrialized area of Tabriz, Iran

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Numerous studies have shown associations between air pollution and health effects on human. The aims of the present study were to provide quantitative data on variation of atmospheric particulate matter (PM) concentration and the impact of PM on the health of people living in Tabriz city. The approach proposed by the World Health Organization (WHO) was applied using the AirQ 2.2.3 software developed by the WHO European Centre for Environment and Health, Bilthoven Division. The concentration of particulate matter were measured at urban and industrial suburban sites in Tabriz, Iran, from September 2012 to June 2013. TSP and PM10 samples were collected using high volume samplers. PM2.5 and PM1 were measured by Haz-Dust EPAM-5000 particulate air monitors. The annual average concentrations of TSP, PM10, PM2.5, and PM1 in the urban site were 142.2?±?76.3, 85.3?±?43.9, 39?±?19.1, and 28.4?±?14.9 ?g/m3 (mean ± SD), respectively. Also in industrial suburban, the total average concentrations of TSP, PM10, PM2.5, and PM1 were measured as 178.7?±?52.7, 109.9?±?30.2, 40.0?±?10.9, and 31.4?±?9.1 ?g/m3, respectively. The PM10/TSP ratio for the whole study period ranged between 0.35-0.91 and 0.32-0.79 in the urban and suburban sites, respectively. Total mortalities associated with TSP, PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations were 327, 363, and 360, respectively. Furthermore, the cardiovascular mortalities for TSP and PM10 were 202 and 227 individual, respectively. According to the attributable respiratory mortalities of 99 and 67 associated respectively with TSP and PM10, it is clear that cardiovascular mortality resulted from PM might attributed to total mortality. The maximum 24-hour concentration of PM was observed during winter followed by autumn and the lowest one was during spring. PMID:24411011

  11. Effects of biologically-active chemical mixtures on fish in a wastewater-impacted urban stream

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barber, Larry B.; Brown, Gregory K.; Nettesheim, Todd G.; Murphy, Elizabeth W.; Bartell, Stephen E.; Schoenfuss, Heiko L.

    2011-01-01

    Stream flow in urban aquatic ecosystems often is maintained by water-reclamation plant (WRP) effluents that contain mixtures of natural and anthropogenic chemicals that persist through the treatment processes. In effluent-impactedstreams, aquatic organisms such as fish are continuously exposed to biologically-activechemicals throughout their life cycles. The North Shore Channel of the Chicago River (Chicago, Illinois) is part of an urban ecosystem in which > 80% of the annual flow consists of effluent from the North Side WRP. In this study, multiple samplings of the effluent and stream water were conducted and fish (largemouth bass and carp) were collected on 2 occasions from the North Shore Channel. Fish also were collected once from the Outer Chicago Harbor in Lake Michigan, a reference site not impacted by WRP discharges. Over 100 organic chemicals with differing behaviors and biological effects were measured, and 23 compounds were detected in all of the water samples analyzed. The most frequently detected and highest concentration (> 100 ?g/L) compounds were ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid and 4-nonylphenolmono-to-tetraethoxycarboxylic acids. Other biologically-activechemicals including bisphenol A, 4-nonylphenol, 4-nonylphenolmono-to-tetraethoxylates, 4-tert-octylphenol, and 4-tert-octylphenolmono-to-tetraethoxylates were detected at lower concentrations (cis-androsterone were detected at even lower concentrations (< 0.005 ?g/L). There were slight differences in concentrations between the North Side WRP effluent and the North Shore Channel, indicating minimal in-stream attenuation. Fish populations are continuously exposed to mixtures of biologically-activechemicals because of the relative persistency of the chemicals with respect to stream hydraulic residence time, and the lack of a fresh water source for dilution. The majority of male fish exhibited vitellogenin induction, a physiological response consistent with exposure to estrogenic compounds. Tissue-level signs of reproductive disruption, such as ovatestis, were not observed.

  12. Characterizing the impact of urban emissions on regional aerosol particles: airborne measurements during the MEGAPOLI experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freney, E. J.; Sellegri, K.; Canonaco, F.; Colomb, A.; Borbon, A.; Michoud, V.; Doussin, J.-F.; Crumeyrolle, S.; Amarouche, N.; Pichon, J.-M.; Bourianne, T.; Gomes, L.; Prevot, A. S. H.; Beekmann, M.; Schwarzenböeck, A.

    2014-02-01

    The MEGAPOLI (Megacities: Emissions, urban, regional and Global Atmospheric POLlution and climate effects, and Integrated tools for assessment and mitigation) experiment took place in July 2009. The aim of this campaign was to study the aging and reactions of aerosol and gas-phase emissions in the city of Paris. Three ground-based measurement sites and several mobile platforms including instrument equipped vehicles and the ATR-42 aircraft were involved. We present here the variations in particle- and gas-phase species over the city of Paris, using a combination of high-time resolution measurements aboard the ATR-42 aircraft. Particle chemical composition was measured using a compact time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (C-ToF-AMS), giving detailed information on the non-refractory submicron aerosol species. The mass concentration of black carbon (BC), measured by a particle absorption soot photometer (PSAP), was used as a marker to identify the urban pollution plume boundaries. Aerosol mass concentrations and composition were affected by air-mass history, with air masses that spent longest time over land having highest fractions of organic aerosol and higher total mass concentrations. The Paris plume is mainly composed of organic aerosol (OA), BC, and nitrate aerosol, as well as high concentrations of anthropogenic gas-phase species such as toluene, benzene, and NOx. Using BC and CO as tracers for air-mass dilution, we observe the ratio of ?OA / ?BC and ?OA / ?CO increase with increasing photochemical age (-log(NOx / NOy)). Plotting the equivalent ratios of different organic aerosol species (LV-OOA, SV-OOA, and HOA) illustrate that the increase in OA is a result of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation. Within Paris the changes in the ?OA / ?CO are similar to those observed during other studies in London, Mexico City, and in New England, USA. Using the measured SOA volatile organic compounds (VOCs) species together with organic aerosol formation yields, we were able to predict ~50% of the measured organics. These airborne measurements during the MEGAPOLI experiment show that urban emissions contribute to the formation of OA and have an impact on aerosol composition on a regional scale.

  13. Landscape characteristics impacts on water quality of urban lowland catchments: monitoring the Amsterdam city area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Liang; van der Vlugt, Corné; Rozemeijer, Joachim; Broers, Hans Peter; van Breukelen, Boris; Ouboter, Maarten; Stuyfzand, Pieter

    2015-04-01

    In Dutch lowland polder systems, groundwater quality significantly contributes to surface water quality. This process is influenced by landscape characteristics such as topography, geology, and land use types. In this study, 23 variables were selected for 144 polder catchments, including groundwater and surface water solute concentrations (TN, TP, NH4+, NO3-, HCO3-, SO42-, Ca2+, Cl-), seepage rate in mm per year, elevation, paved area percentage, surface water area percentage, and soil types (calcite, humus and lutum percentage). The spatial patters in groundwater and surface water quality can largely be explained by groundwater seepage rates in polders and partly by artificial redistribution of water via the regional surface water system. High correlations (R2 up to 0.66) between solutes in groundwater and surface water revealed their probable interaction. This was further supported by results from principal component analysis (PCA) and linear regression. The PCA distinguished four factors that were related to a fresh groundwater factor, seepage rate factor, brackish groundwater factor and clay soil factor. Nutrients (TP, TN, NH4+ and NO3-) and SO42- in surface water bodies are mainly determined by groundwater quality combined with seepage rate, which is negatively related to surface water area percentage and elevation of the catchment. This pattern is more obvious in deep urban lowland catchments. Relatively high NO3- loads more tend to appear in catchments with high humus, but low calcite percentage soil type on top, which was attributed to clay soil type that was expressed by calcite percentage in our regression. Different from nitrogen contained solutes, TP is more closely related to fresh groundwater quality than to seepage rate. Surface water Cl- concentration has a high relation with brackish groundwater. Due to the artificial regulation of flow direction, brackish inlet water from upstream highly influences the chloride load in surface water bodies downstream, especially in infiltrated urban catchments. We conclude that, apart from artificial regulation, groundwater has significant impacts on surface water quality in the polders. Especially in low-lying urban catchments surface water solute concentrations like TP, TN, NH4+, HCO3-, SO42-, and Ca2+ can be predicted by groundwater characteristics. These results suggest that groundwater quality plays a crucial role in understanding and improving surface water quality in regulated lowland catchments.

  14. Optimizing wind power generation while minimizing wildlife impacts in an urban area.

    PubMed

    Bohrer, Gil; Zhu, Kunpeng; Jones, Robert L; Curtis, Peter S

    2013-01-01

    The location of a wind turbine is critical to its power output, which is strongly affected by the local wind field. Turbine operators typically seek locations with the best wind at the lowest level above ground since turbine height affects installation costs. In many urban applications, such as small-scale turbines owned by local communities or organizations, turbine placement is challenging because of limited available space and because the turbine often must be added without removing existing infrastructure, including buildings and trees. The need to minimize turbine hazard to wildlife compounds the challenge. We used an exclusion zone approach for turbine-placement optimization that incorporates spatially detailed maps of wind distribution and wildlife densities with power output predictions for the Ohio State University campus. We processed public GIS records and airborne lidar point-cloud data to develop a 3D map of all campus buildings and trees. High resolution large-eddy simulations and long-term wind climatology were combined to provide land-surface-affected 3D wind fields and the corresponding wind-power generation potential. This power prediction map was then combined with bird survey data. Our assessment predicts that exclusion of areas where bird numbers are highest will have modest effects on the availability of locations for power generation. The exclusion zone approach allows the incorporation of wildlife hazard in wind turbine siting and power output considerations in complex urban environments even when the quantitative interaction between wildlife behavior and turbine activity is unknown. PMID:23409117

  15. Optimizing Wind Power Generation while Minimizing Wildlife Impacts in an Urban Area

    PubMed Central

    Bohrer, Gil; Zhu, Kunpeng; Jones, Robert L.; Curtis, Peter S.

    2013-01-01

    The location of a wind turbine is critical to its power output, which is strongly affected by the local wind field. Turbine operators typically seek locations with the best wind at the lowest level above ground since turbine height affects installation costs. In many urban applications, such as small-scale turbines owned by local communities or organizations, turbine placement is challenging because of limited available space and because the turbine often must be added without removing existing infrastructure, including buildings and trees. The need to minimize turbine hazard to wildlife compounds the challenge. We used an exclusion zone approach for turbine-placement optimization that incorporates spatially detailed maps of wind distribution and wildlife densities with power output predictions for the Ohio State University campus. We processed public GIS records and airborne lidar point-cloud data to develop a 3D map of all campus buildings and trees. High resolution large-eddy simulations and long-term wind climatology were combined to provide land-surface-affected 3D wind fields and the corresponding wind-power generation potential. This power prediction map was then combined with bird survey data. Our assessment predicts that exclusion of areas where bird numbers are highest will have modest effects on the availability of locations for power generation. The exclusion zone approach allows the incorporation of wildlife hazard in wind turbine siting and power output considerations in complex urban environments even when the quantitative interaction between wildlife behavior and turbine activity is unknown. PMID:23409117

  16. Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Low Impact Development Practices (LIDs) under Various Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, M.; Jaber, F. H.

    2014-12-01

    Stormwater problems from urban development have been occurring in recent years in the United States. Low Impact Development practices (LIDs) have been used as an alternative stormwater management approach in urban areas. The effects of LIDs on hydrology and water quality have been indicated to be positive through much of research, showing the decrease of surface runoff volumes and pollutant loadings. However, LIDs can cause different effectiveness under a variety of conditions. In this study, the effectiveness of LIDs was assessed under various urban planning (a compact high-density urban type (UHD), a conventional medium-density urban type (UMD), and a conservational medium-density urban type (UMC)) and under various LIDs conditions (types, locations, and percent allocations of LIDs) for surface runoff, nitrate, and total phosphorus to evaluate the effectiveness of LIDs for these conditions at a development scale. Rain gardens, rainwater harvesting systems, and permeable pavements were considered for simulations. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was used and model development was performed to simulate the LIDs considered. A manual optimization was used to identify the LIDs conditions that meet both targeted reduction amounts and minimal cost. The effectiveness of LIDs was evaluated for the three urban land uses and for the optimized LIDs conditions. The study demonstrated different effectiveness of LIDs under various conditions considered. Under the condition of the urban land uses, the largest reduction by LIDs occurred in the order of following land uses for all variables: in UMD land use > in UMC land use > in UHD land use. Among post-LIDs scenarios, the UHD land use represented low values for surface runoff and nitrate and the UMD land use for TP. For the LIDs optimization, the various combinations of type, location, and percent allocation for each variable changed the effectiveness of LIDs and/or caused the same effectiveness of LIDs. This study can ultimately suggest proper strategies on a watershed scale to effectively control stormwater and help regulator establish effective LID policies based on the results.

  17. Development of Issue-relevant State Level Analyses of Fragmentation and Urbanization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rachel Riemann; Tonya Lister; Andy Lister; Dacia Meneguzzo; Sarah Parks

    There has been considerable research concerning the extent and effect of urbanization and fragmentation and the importance of monitoring current and potential magnitudes of change is recognized. However, there are limited guidelines for interpreting fragmentation data or for their application for analysis and statewide planning efforts. In this study we take a first step toward developing a state-level analysis of

  18. National Urban Alliance Professional Development Model for Improving Achievement in the Context of Effective Schools Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Daniel U.; Cooper, Eric J.; Hilliard, Asa, III

    2000-01-01

    Describes implementation of the National Urban Alliance for Effective Education's (NUA's) Professional Development Model in several locations, which is designed to help improve students' comprehension, content performance, thinking skills, and literacy by improving teaching and educational quality. Discusses NUA activities and approaches in the…

  19. Sustainable future urban mobility: using 'area development negotiations' for scenario assessment and participatory strategic planning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Loukopoulos; Roland W Scholz

    2004-01-01

    An examination of how land-use planning can proceed while emphasising sustainability in transport objectives is presented in the authors' view. It is vital that citizen preferences are assessed, and the 'area development negotiation' method for obtaining such preferences is detailed within a case study framework. The method permits evaluations by various stakeholder groups of future urban mobility scenarios by means

  20. Equipped for Change: Development and Implementation of a Case Statement at an Urban Community College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krishnan, Sathasivam

    2010-01-01

    This action research study examined the process of creation and implementation of a case statement for an urban community college foundation. An instrumental case study methodology was used in examining this process. The study chronicled a successful participatory development process that allowed a number of stakeholders to effectively work on…

  1. A Critical Analysis of Faculty-Developed Urban K-12 Science Outreach Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miranda, Rommel J.; Hermann, Ronald S.

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the authors provide an overview and critically analyze three successful faculty-developed urban K-12 science outreach programs. They consider a successful outreach program as one that has been sustained for at least five years after initial funding, and has provided empirically-based research findings from the program.…

  2. Clinical Teacher Education: Reflections from an Urban Professional Development School Network. Readings in Educational Thought

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bohan, Chara Haeussler, Ed.; Many, Joyce E., Ed.

    2011-01-01

    Clinical Teacher Education focuses on how to build a school-university partnership network for clinical teacher education in urban school systems serving culturally and linguistically diverse populations. The labor intensive nature of professional development school work has resulted in research institutions being slow to fully adopt a clinical…

  3. Pubertal Development and Parent-Child Conflict in Low-Income, Urban, African American Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sagrestano, Lynda M.; McCormick, Sheila H.; Paikoff, Roberta L.; Holmbeck, Grayson N.

    1999-01-01

    Examined associations between pubertal development and parent-adolescent conflict in urban, low-income African-American adolescents. Found that parents reported more verbal aggression with sons during midpuberty than early or late puberty, more violent tactics with younger than older daughters, and more "hot" discussions with early- versus…

  4. Central Micro-Peripheries: Temporary Uses of Central Residual Spaces as Urban Development Catalysts (?)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Helka-Liisa Hentilä; Timo Lindborg

    2003-01-01

    New “urban wastelands” are continually developing in European cities as side effects of economic, technological and political changes. These abandoned industrial zones or former traffic nodes (railways, harbours) have typically been built in the late 19th or in the early 20th century to the fringe of the old city centres. The combination of low estate values with high potential land

  5. Interdisciplinary Model, Urban Studies: A Seminar on the Origins and Development of Cities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allain, Michael L.

    In an effort to put into action an increased interest in interdisciplinary teaching at the higher education level, a model for interdisciplinary instruction was designed and used for a seminar on ancient urbanization and city development. The model for the seminar used what Robin Fogarty has termed "webbed" likening this perspective to that of a…

  6. Youth Leadership Development: Perceptions and Preferences of Urban Students Enrolled in a Comprehensive Agriculture Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, James C., II; Kim, Eunyoung

    2009-01-01

    This descriptive study explores the perceptions of and preferences for leadership development by students enrolled in a comprehensive urban agriculture program. A total of 284 students from the Chicago High School for Agricultural Sciences participated in the study. The results of the study showed that the average respondent was involved in a…

  7. Development of a Latino Student and Parent Orientation Program at the Urban Community College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colon, Carmen Nereida

    2009-01-01

    This study investigates how Latino students and parents obtain information about college opportunities through the development of a Latino student and parent orientation program at the Urban Community College, while examining the espoused leadership theories of the researcher through the implementation of a second order change within an…

  8. A Continuum Approach for Developing School Leaders in an Urban District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Normore, Anthony

    2007-01-01

    This study examined a four-staged leadership development continuum for school leaders in a large urban school district in the southeastern United States. The program under examination included: LEAD Program; Interim Assistant Principal Program; Intern Principal Program, and; First Year Principal Support/Interim Principal Program. Qualitative…

  9. Educational Leadership on the Social Frontier: Developing Promise Neighborhoods in Urban and Tribal Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Peter; Wills, Nathan; Scanlan, Martin

    2013-01-01

    We examined how the federal Promise Neighborhoods program shapes leadership networks and objectives in diverse tribal and urban settings. The program calls for diverse stakeholders to provide families with resources such as parenting workshops, childcare, preschool, health clinics, and other social services that affect learning and development. We…

  10. HABITAT-USE PATTERNS OF FLORIDA KEY DEER: IMPLICATIONS OF URBAN DEVELOPMENT

    E-print Network

    Peterson, M. Nils

    HABITAT-USE PATTERNS OF FLORIDA KEY DEER: IMPLICATIONS OF URBAN DEVELOPMENT ROEL R. LOPEZ,1 Station, TX 77843, USA PHILIP A. FRANK, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, National Key Deer Refuge, Big Pine, USA, mandates an understanding of how habitat requirements for Florida Key deer (Odocoileus

  11. Comprehensive Reform for Urban High Schools: A Talent Development Approach. Sociology of Education Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Legters, Nettie E.; Balfanz, Robert; Jordan, Will J.; McPartland, James M.

    This book offers an alternative to current reform efforts, the talent development approach, detailing organizational, curricular, and instructional strategies that provide practitioners with a blueprint for whole school reform. The book presents the story of what happened in urban high schools when this approach was implemented. There are eight…

  12. Development of Image Sequences Based Traffic Incident Detection System for Urban Intersection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guangyi Shi; Yuexian Zou; Yiyan Wang; Hang Shi; Qiang Peng

    2009-01-01

    Traffic incident detection is one of the most important issues for intelligent transportation systems (ITS), especially in urban area which is full of signaled intersections. This paper presents the development of a novel traffic incident detection system based on image signal processing, feature extraction algorithms, and hidden Markov model (HMM) classifier. First, a traffic surveillance system was set up at

  13. UrbanSolutionsCenter Breeding and Development of St. Augustinegrass for Texas

    E-print Network

    UrbanSolutionsCenter Breeding and Development of St. Augustinegrass for Texas Background St resistance to diseases such as large patch and gray leaf spot, as well as tolerance to chinch bugs · Breeding Benefits The Centers turfgrass breeding program has been working closely with the Turfgrass Producers

  14. UrbanSolutionsCenter Breeding and Development of Zoysiagrasses for the Southern United States

    E-print Network

    UrbanSolutionsCenter Breeding and Development of Zoysiagrasses for the Southern United States that are superior to the parental checks. Program Benefits · The Center's turfgrass breeding and genetics program grown in 24 states and several countries where adapted. · Breeding efforts continue with the objective

  15. From Hopelessness to Hope: Social Justice Pedagogy in Urban Education and Youth Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cammarota, Julio

    2011-01-01

    This article reviews the social justice youth development (SJYD) model conceptualized to facilitate and enhance urban youth awareness of their personal potential, community responsibility, and broader humanity. The SJYD requires the healing of youth identities by involving them in social justice activities that counter oppressive conditions…

  16. DEVELOPMENT OF A DECISION SUPPORT FRAMEWORK FOR PLACEMENT OF BMPS IN URBAN-WATERSHEDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper will present an on-going development of an integrated decision support framework (IDSF) for cost-effective placement of best management practices (BMPs) for managing wet weather flows (WWF) in urban watersheds. This decision tool will facilitate the selection and plac...

  17. Zoning and urban development control. A strategic analysis of land and real estate markets regulation

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Zoning and urban development control. A strategic analysis of land and real estate markets involved on real estate and land markets contribute to create new flexible ways to use and apply the rules that this approach of housing markets enable us to better understand why and how local public authorities in France

  18. Sensing in the Urban Technological Deserts A Position Paper for Smart Cities in Least Developed Countries

    E-print Network

    Sensing in the Urban Technological Deserts A Position Paper for Smart Cities in Least Developed to ubiquitous computing. This paradigm has made the concept of smart cities a reality that is now in synchrony or users of existential services such as hospitals, the implementation of smart cities is equally important

  19. Adolescent Career Development in Urban-Residing Aboriginal Families in Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Sheila K.; Young, Richard A.; Stevens, Alison; Spence, Wayne; Deyell, Stewart; Easterbrook, Adam; Brokenleg, Martin

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand how urban-residing Aboriginal adolescent-parent dyads (n = 11) jointly constructed and acted on goals and strategies with their social supports (n = 17) to facilitate the adolescents' career development. A modified protocol following the qualitative action-project method was used. A discrete joint…

  20. Indicators of sustainable urban development: A review of urban regeneration projects in Karachi, Pakistan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amna Salman; Salman Qureshi

    The notion of sustainability is widely used from micro to macro scale studies but only few approaches deal with its measurement. Increased global interest in sustainability has triggered attention in indicators as a means of achieving a more sustainable world. Although the search for indicators has led to the development of criteria for good indicators, it has also been dominated

  1. Overview of the National Atmospheric Release Advisory Center's urban research and development activities

    SciTech Connect

    Lundquist, J K; Sugiyama, G A; Nasstrom, J

    2007-09-05

    This presentation describes the tools and services provided by the National Atmospheric Release Advisory Center (NARAC) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) for modeling the impacts of airborne hazardous materials. NARAC provides atmospheric plume modeling tools and services for chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear airborne hazards. NARAC can simulate downwind effects from a variety of scenarios, including fires, industrial and transportation accidents, radiation dispersal device explosions, hazardous material spills, sprayers, nuclear power plant accidents, and nuclear detonations. NARAC collaborates on radiological dispersion source terms and effects models with Sandia National Laboratories and the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. NARAC was designated the interim provider of capabilities for the Department of Homeland Security's Interagency Modeling and Atmospheric Assessment Center by the Homeland Security Council in April 2004. The NARAC suite of software tools include simple stand-alone, local-scale plume modeling tools for end-user's computers, and Web- and Internet-based software to access advanced modeling tools and expert analyses from the national center at LLNL. Initial automated, 3-D predictions of plume exposure limits and protective action guidelines for emergency responders and managers are available from the center in 5-10 minutes. These can be followed immediately by quality-assured, refined analyses by 24 x 7 on-duty or on-call NARAC staff. NARAC continues to refine calculations using updated on-scene information, including measurements, until all airborne releases have stopped and the hazardous threats are mapped and impacts assessed. Model predictions include the 3-D spatial and time-varying effects of weather, land use, and terrain, on scales from the local to regional to global. Real-time meteorological data and forecasts are provided by redundant communications links to the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), U.S. Navy, and U.S. Air Force, as well as an in-house mesoscale numerical weather prediction model. NARAC provides an easy-to-use Geographical Information System (GIS) for display of plume predictions with affected population counts and detailed maps, and the ability to export plume predictions to other standard GIS capabilities. Data collection and product distribution is provided through a variety of communication methods, including dial-up, satellite, and wired and wireless networks. Ongoing research and development activities will be highlighted. The NARAC scientific support team is developing urban parameterizations for use in a regional dispersion model (see companion paper by Delle Monache). Modifications to the numerical weather prediction model WRF to account for characteristics of urban dynamics are also in progress, as is boundary-layer turbulence model development for simulations with resolutions greater than 1km. The NARAC building-resolving computational fluid dynamics capability, FEM3MP, enjoys ongoing development activities such as the expansion of its ability to model releases of dense gases. Other research activities include sensor-data fusion, such as the reconstruction of unknown source terms from sparse and disparate observations.

  2. Overview of the National Atmospheric Release Advisory Center's Urban Research and Development Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundquist, J. K.; Sugiyama, G.; Nasstrom, J.

    2007-12-01

    This presentation describes the tools and services provided by the National Atmospheric Release Advisory Center (NARAC) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) for modeling the impacts of airborne hazardous materials. NARAC provides atmospheric plume modeling tools and services for chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear airborne hazards. NARAC can simulate downwind effects from a variety of scenarios, including fires, industrial and transportation accidents, radiation dispersal device explosions, hazardous material spills, sprayers, nuclear power plant accidents, and nuclear detonations. NARAC collaborates on radiological dispersion source terms and effects models with Sandia National Laboratories and the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. NARAC was designated the interim provider of capabilities for the Department of Homeland Security's Interagency Modeling and Atmospheric Assessment Center by the Homeland Security Council in April 2004. The NARAC suite of software tools include simple stand-alone, local-scale plume modeling tools for end-user's computers, and Web- and Internet-based software to access advanced modeling tools and expert analyses from the national center at LLNL. Initial automated, 3-D predictions of plume exposure limits and protective action guidelines for emergency responders and managers are available from the center in 5-10 minutes. These can be followed immediately by quality-assured, refined analyses by 24 x 7 on-duty or on-call NARAC staff. NARAC continues to refine calculations using updated on-scene information, including measurements, until all airborne releases have stopped and the hazardous threats are mapped and impacts assessed. Model predictions include the 3-D spatial and time-varying effects of weather, land use, and terrain, on scales from the local to regional to global. Real-time meteorological data and forecasts are provided by redundant communications links to the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), U.S. Navy, and U.S. Air Force, as well as an in-house mesoscale numerical weather prediction model. NARAC provides an easy-to-use Geographical Information System (GIS) for display of plume predictions with affected population counts and detailed maps, and the ability to export plume predictions to other standard GIS capabilities. Data collection and product distribution is provided through a variety of communication methods, including dial-up, satellite, and wired and wireless networks. Ongoing research and development activities will be highlighted. The NARAC scientific support team is developing urban parameterizations for use in a regional dispersion model (see companion paper by Delle Monache). Modifications to the numerical weather prediction model WRF to account for characteristics of urban dynamics are also in progress, as is boundary-layer turbulence model development for simulations with resolutions greater than 1km. The NARAC building-resolving computational fluid dynamics capability, FEM3MP, enjoys ongoing development activities such as the expansion of its ability to model releases of dense gases. Other research activities include sensor-data fusion, such as the reconstruction of unknown source terms from sparse and disparate observations. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by the University of California, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under contract No. W-7405-Eng-48. The Department of Homeland Security sponsored the production of this material under the Department of Energy contract for the management and operation of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. UCRL-PROC-234355

  3. Impact of human activity and natural processes on groundwater arsenic in an urbanized area (South China) using multivariate statistical techniques.

    PubMed

    Huang, Guanxing; Chen, Zongyu; Liu, Fan; Sun, Jichao; Wang, Jincui

    2014-11-01

    Anthropogenic factors resulted from the urbanization may affect the groundwater As in urbanized areas. Groundwater samples from the Guangzhou city (South China) were collected for As and other parameter analysis, in order to assess the impact of urbanization and natural processes on As distribution in aquifers. Nearly 25.5 % of groundwater samples were above the WHO drinking water standard for As, and the As concentrations in the granular aquifer (GA) were generally far higher than that in the fractured bedrock aquifer (FBA). Samples were classified into four clusters by using hierarchical cluster analysis. Cluster 1 is mainly located in the FBA and controlled by natural processes. Anthropogenic pollution resulted from the urbanization is responsible for high As concentrations identified in cluster 2. Clusters 3 and 4 are mainly located in the GA and controlled by both natural processes and anthropogenic factors. Three main mechanisms control the source and mobilization of groundwater As in the study area. Firstly, the interaction of water and calcareous rocks appears to be responsible for As release in the FBA. Secondly, reduction of Fe/Mn oxyhydroxides and decomposition of organic matter are probably responsible for high As concentrations in the GA. Thirdly, during the process of urbanization, the infiltration of wastewater/leachate with a high As content is likely to be the main source for groundwater As, while NO3 (-) contamination diminishes groundwater As. PMID:24996949

  4. JEDI: Jobs and Economic Development Impacts Model The Jobs and Economic Development Impact (JEDI) models are user-friendly

    E-print Network

    JEDI: Jobs and Economic Development Impacts Model The Jobs and Economic Development Impact (JEDI America program to model wind energy jobs and impacts, JEDI has been expanded to biofuels, concentrating from industry norms), JEDI estimates the number of jobs and economic impacts to a local area (usually

  5. A New Urban Planning Code’s Impact on Walking: The Residential Environments Project

    PubMed Central

    Knuiman, Matthew; Bull, Fiona; Timperio, Anna; Foster, Sarah; Divitini, Mark; Middleton, Nicholas; Giles-Corti, Billie

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We examined whether people moving into a housing development designed according to a state government livable neighborhoods subdivision code engage in more walking than do people who move to other types of developments. Methods. In a natural experiment of 1813 people building homes in 73 new housing developments in Perth, Western Australia, we surveyed participants before and then 12 and 36 months after moving. We measured self-reported walking using the Neighborhood Physical Activity Questionnaire and collected perceptions of the environment and self-selection factors. We calculated objective measures of the built environment using a Geographic Information System. Results. After relocation, participants in livable versus conventional developments had greater street connectivity, residential density, land use mix, and access to destinations and more positive perceptions of their neighborhood (all P?development (P?>?.05). Conclusions. Implementation of the Livable Neighborhoods Guidelines produced more supportive environments; however, the level of intervention was insufficient to encourage more walking. Evaluations of new urban planning policies need to incorporate longer term follow-up to allow time for new neighborhoods to develop. PMID:23678917

  6. Health impacts of heat in a changing climate: how can emerging science inform urban adaptation planning?

    PubMed Central

    Petkova, Elisaveta P.; Morita, Haruka

    2014-01-01

    Extreme heat is one of the most important global causes of weather-related mortality, and climate change is leading to more frequent and intense heat waves. Recent epidemiologic findings on heat-related health impacts have reinforced our understanding of mortality impacts of extreme heat and have shown a range of impacts on morbidity outcomes including cardiovascular, respiratory and mental health responses. Evidence is also emerging on temporal trends towards decreasing exposure-response, probably reflecting autonomous population adaptation. Many cities are actively engaged in the development of heat adaptation plans to reduce future health impacts. Epidemiologic research into the evolution of local heat-health responses over time can greatly aid adaptation planning for heat, prevention of adverse health outcomes among vulnerable populations, as well as evaluation of new interventions. Such research will be facilitated by the formation of research partnerships involving epidemiologists, climate scientists, and local stakeholders. PMID:25422797

  7. Urban sensing systems: opportunistic or participatory?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shane B. Eisenman; Mirco Musolesi; Emiliano Miluzzo; Andrew T. Campbell

    2008-01-01

    The development of sensing systems for urban deployments is still in its infancy. An interesting unresolved issue is the precise role assumed by people within such systems. This issue has significant implications as to where the complexity and the main challenges in building urban sensing systems will reside. This issue will also impact the scale and di- versity of applications

  8. Life cycle implications of urban green infrastructure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sabrina Spatari; Ziwen Yu; Franco A. Montalto

    2011-01-01

    Low Impact Development (LID) is part of a new paradigm in urban water management that aims to decentralize water storage and movement functions within urban watersheds. LID strategies can restore ecosystem functions and reduce runoff loadings to municipal water pollution control facilities (WPCF). This research examines the avoided energy and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of select LID strategies using life

  9. Urban impacts on the water quality of selected water bodies in the Three Gorges Reservoir, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reid, Lucas; Holbach, Andreas; Wei, Hu; Wang, Lijing; Chen, Hao; Zheng, Binghui; Norra, Stefan

    2013-04-01

    Urban systems belong to the major input sources for pollutants into aquatic systems. In China, the rising urbanisation and industrialisation causes a growing pressure on rivers, lakes and estuaries. With the recent impoundment of the Yangtze River by the Three Gorges Dam, the newly formed Three Gorges Reservoir is additionally experiencing drastic changes in the flow regime [1]. In the frame of the Sino-German "Yangtze-Project" [2] samples were taken from the water bodies in proximity to the Cities of Chongqing, Kaixian and Wushan during a field campaign in April 2011. Water samples were analysed for inorganic contents in suspended solids and the dissolved phase to assess the impact of these cities on the water quality of the reservoir. Results show that input from urban sources, together with the effects from the impoundment of the Yangtze River, deteriorates the quality of water and sediments in the Three Gorges Reservoir. Water in the Wushan Lake is trapped in by the Yangtze River flowing by, which leads to longer retention times of effluent water from the city. The chemical composition of the lake water is also measurable upstream in the Daninghe itself and might be due to the backwater effect. In the Xiaojiang River near Kaixian the low flow velocity from the backwater effect of the Yangtze, together with influences from the city have led to problems with algal blooms. High metal concentrations at Chongqing indicate a strong impact of this megacity on the water quality of the Three Gorges Reservoir and the sediments of the Yangtze River. Acknowledgements: Financial support by the Federal Ministry of Education and Research of Germany (BMBF), the Ministry of Science and Technology of the People's Republic of China (MOST) and the German Academic Exchange Service (DAAD). References: [1] Ministry of Environmental Protection of the People's Republic of China, 2010: Bulletin on the Ecological and Environmental Monitoring Results of the Three Gorges Project 2010 [2] Bergmann A, et al. (2011) The Yangtze-Hydro Project: a Chinese-German environmental program. ESPR. Doi: 10.1007/s11356-011-0645-7

  10. Effects of biologically-active chemical mixtures on fish in a wastewater-impacted urban stream

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barber, L.B.; Brown, G.K.; Nettesheim, T.G.; Murphy, E.W.; Bartell, S.E.; Schoenfuss, H.L.

    2011-01-01

    Stream flow in urban aquatic ecosystems often is maintained by water-reclamation plant (WRP) effluents that contain mixtures of natural and anthropogenic chemicals that persist through the treatment processes. In effluent-impacted streams, aquatic organisms such as fish are continuously exposed to biologically-active chemicals throughout their life cycles. The North Shore Channel of the Chicago River (Chicago, Illinois) is part of an urban ecosystem in which > 80% of the annual flow consists of effluent from the North Side WRP. In this study, multiple samplings of the effluent and stream water were conducted and fish (largemouth bass and carp) were collected on 2 occasions from the North Shore Channel. Fish also were collected once from the Outer Chicago Harbor in Lake Michigan, a reference site not impacted by WRP discharges. Over 100 organic chemicals with differing behaviors and biological effects were measured, and 23 compounds were detected in all of the water samples analyzed. The most frequently detected and highest concentration (> 100 ??g/L) compounds were ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid and 4-nonylphenolmono-to-tetraethoxycarboxylic acids. Other biologically-active chemicals including bisphenol A, 4-nonylphenol, 4-nonylphenolmono-to-tetraethoxylates, 4- tert-octylphenol, and 4- tert-octylphenolmono-to-tetraethoxylates were detected at lower concentrations (< 5 ??g/L). The biogenic steroidal hormones 17??-estradiol, estrone, testosterone, 4-androstene-3,17-dione, and cis-androsterone were detected at even lower concentrations (< 0.005 ??g/L). There were slight differences in concentrations between the North Side WRP effluent and the North Shore Channel, indicating minimal in-stream attenuation. Fish populations are continuously exposed to mixtures of biologically-active chemicals because of the relative persistency of the chemicals with respect to stream hydraulic residence time, and the lack of a fresh water source for dilution. The majority of male fish exhibited vitellogenin induction, a physiological response consistent with exposure to estrogenic compounds. Tissue-level signs of reproductive disruption, such as ovatestis, were not observed. ?? 2011.

  11. Forthcoming in The Developing Economies (March 2007) The Evolution of Gender Earnings Gaps and Discrimination in Urban China: 1988-1995*

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    and Discrimination in Urban China: 1988-1995* Sylvie Démurger HIEBS, the University of Hong Kong and GATE and Discrimination in Urban China: 1988-1995* Abstract: This paper analyzes the impact of market liberalization on gender earnings differentials and discrimination against women in urban China at the beginning of the 90s

  12. Evaluating the impact of urban morphology configurations on the accuracy of urban canopy model temperature simulations with MODIS

    E-print Network

    Monaghan, Andrew J.; Hu, Leiqiu; Brunsell, Nathaniel A.; Barlage, Michael; Wilhelmi, Olga V.

    2014-06-09

    Houston (red box) is included in the lower left corner. (b) Fraction of each grid box that is specified as any category of urban in NUDAPT. Dark blue areas denote water bodies. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 10.1002/2013JD021227 MONAGHAN ET.... Spatially explicit values used for experiments D1/D2. bModified from default values. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 10.1002/2013JD021227 MONAGHAN ET AL. ©2014. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved. 6378 (NUDAPT) [Ching et al., 2009...

  13. Urban greywater reuse at the D'LUX Development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Murray Goddard

    2006-01-01

    The Inkerman D'LUX Development (formerly Inkerman Oasis Development) comprises 236 new apartments in Inkerman Street, St Kilda (Melbourne). Occupancy of the first apartments occurred in mid-2003. The development includes a novel water recycling scheme based on supply of treated greywater to toilets and a below-ground garden irrigation system. Stormwater from the site is also treated and recycled for these purposes.

  14. The Impacts of Congestion on Time-definitive Urban Freight Distribution Networks CO2 Emission Levels: results from a case study in Portland,

    E-print Network

    1 The Impacts of Congestion on Time-definitive Urban Freight Distribution Networks CO2 Emission to limit the impacts associated with CO2 emissions are mounting rapidly. A key challenge for transportation and policy efforts to analyze and quantify the impacts of congestion and freight public policies on CO2

  15. Impact of Horticultural Therapy on Psychosocial Functioning among Urban Jail Inmates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Jay Stone; Remy, Linda L.

    1998-01-01

    Investigates the impact of a horticultural therapy program on 48 county jail inmates. Examines the changes in psychosocial functioning of the participants while in treatment and in post-release. Explores the clinical relevance of horticultural therapy in cultivating healthy self-development. (MKA)

  16. Conductivity as a tracer of agricultural and urban runoff to delineate water quality impacts in the northern Everglades

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matthew C. Harwell; Donatto D. Surratt; Dorianne M. Barone; Nicholas G. Aumen

    2008-01-01

    Agricultural and urban runoff pumped into the perimeter canals of the Arthur R. Marshall Loxahatchee National Wildlife Refuge\\u000a (Refuge), a 58,320-ha soft-water wetland, has elevated nutrients which impact the Refuge interior marsh. To best manage the\\u000a Refuge, linkages between inflows to the perimeter canals and environmental conditions within the marsh need to be understood.\\u000a Conductivity, which typically is high in

  17. Growth Centers, Rural Development and National Urban Policy: A Defense

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Harry W. Richardson

    1978-01-01

    Growth centers have fallen into disrepute as an instrument of spatial policy in developing countries. This paper suggests that they may still be valuable, if harmonized with local economic and social con ditions. The growth centers must be integrated with rural development policies by promoting agro-processing industries rather than capital-inten sive manufacturing, by functioning as an alternative destination for rural

  18. Urban forests as compensation measures for infrastructure development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Erik Skärbäck

    2007-01-01

    Sustainable development requires, among other things, that development projects not result in the degradation of natural resources for outdoor recreation. There has been a rapid increase in knowledge regarding the importance of the external environment to our health and well-being. Stress is reduced significantly when people are exposed to health-promoting nature and landscape values. Many people are actively choosing to

  19. Impact of Stylistic Features, Architectural and Urban Rules of the Algiers Architectural Heritage Dating Between 1830 and 1930 ON the Strength of its Buildings during the Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souami, M. A.

    2013-07-01

    In a other work, we have highlighted a theoretical point of view that there is an relation between the earthquake-resistant architectural design codes and, the urban and stylistic characteristics of buildings and urban forms of the Algiers architectural heritage dating between 1830 and 1930. Following this, we hypothesized that its various stylistic and urban characteristics have a direct impact on the resilience of buildings to earthquakes. The purpose of this article is to try through the computer simulation examples of some stylistic and urban characteristics to prove the validity or not of our hypothesis.

  20. Development of Sub-Daily Intensity Duration Frequency (IDF) Curves for Major Urban Areas in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, H.; Mishra, V.

    2014-12-01

    Extreme precipitation events disrupt urban transportation and cause enormous damage to infrastructure. Urban areas are fast responding catchments due to significant impervious surface. Stormwater designs based on daily rainfall data provide inadequate information. We, therefore, develop intensity-duration-frequency curves using sub-daily (1 hour to 12 hour) rainfall data for 57 major urban areas in India. While rain gage stations data from urban areas are most suitable, but stations are unevenly distributed and their data have gaps and inconsistencies. Therefore, we used hourly rainfall data from the Modern Era Retrospective-analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA), which provides a long term data (1979 onwards). Since reanalysis products have uncertainty associated with them we need to enhance their accuracy before their application. We compared daily rain gage station data obtained from Global Surface Summary of Day Data (GSOD) available for 65 stations for the period of 2000-2010 with gridded daily rainfall data provided by Indian Meteorological Department (IMD). 3-hourly data from NOAA/Climate Prediction Center morphing technique (CMORPH), Precipitation Estimation from Remotely Sensed Information using Artificial Neural Networks (PERSIANN), and the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Multisatellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA) were aggregated to daily for comparison with GSOD station data . TMPA is found to be best correlated with GSOD data. We used TMPA data to correct MERRA's hourly precipitation, which were applied to develop IDF curves. We compared results with IDF curves from empirical methods and found substantial disparities in the existing stormwater designs in India.

  1. Projected Regional Climate in 2025 Due to Urban Growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shepherd, J. Marshall; Manyin, Michael; Messen, Dmitry

    2005-01-01

    By 2025, 60 to 80 percent of the world s population will live in urban environments. Additionally, the following facts published by the United Nations further illustrates how cities will evolve in the future. Urban areas in the developing world are growing very rapidly. The urban growth rate will continue to be particularly rapid in the urban areas of less developed regions, averaging 2.4 per cent per year during 2000-2030, consistent with a doubling time of 29 years. The urbanization process will continue worldwide. The concentration of population in cities is expected to continue so that, by 2030, 84 percent of the inhabitants of more developed countries will be urban dwellers. Urbanization impacts the whole hierarchy of human settlements. In 2000,24.8 per cent of the world population lived in urban settlements with fewer than 500,000 inhabitants and by 2015 that proportion will likely rise to 27.1 per cent.

  2. Lessons in the Field: Context and the Professional Development of University Participants in an Urban School Placement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Janet C.; And Others

    The qualitative inquiry reported here describes the particular sociocultural aspects of an urban elementary school serving as the context for an award-winning reading/language arts early field experience, and takes a close look at how the sociocultural factors of this urban elementary school contribute to the professional development of the…

  3. Tempo-Spatial Patterns of Land Use Changes and Urban Development in Globalizing China: A Study of Beijing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yichun Xie; Chuanglin Fang; George C. S. Lin; Hongmian Gong; Biao Qiao

    2007-01-01

    This study examines the temporal and spatial changes in land use as a consequence of rapid urban development in the city of Beijing. Using a combination of techniques of remote sensing and GIS, the study identifies a substantial loss of plain dryland and a phenomenal expansion of urban construction land over the recent decade. Geographically, there is a clear shifting

  4. Development of urban area geospatial information products from high resolution satellite imagery using advanced image analysis techniques

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aaron K. Shackelford

    2004-01-01

    The latest generation of commercial satellite imaging sensors have a number of characteristics (e.g. high spatial resolution, multispectral bands, and quick revisit time), that make them ideal data sources for a variety of urban area applications. The goal of this doctoral research was to develop advanced automated and semi-automated image analysis and classification techniques for the extraction of urban area

  5. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development

    E-print Network

    : US Department of Health and Human Services; 2008. Use of trade names is for identification onlyU.S. Department of Health and Human Services U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development Inspection Manual U.S. Department of Health and Human Services U.S. Department of Housing and Urban

  6. 24 CFR 1000.42 - Are the requirements of section 3 of the Housing and Urban Development Act of 1968 applicable?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01...requirements of section 3 of the Housing and Urban Development Act of 1968 applicable? 1000.42 Section 1000.42 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO...

  7. 24 CFR 1000.42 - Are the requirements of section 3 of the Housing and Urban Development Act of 1968 applicable?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01...requirements of section 3 of the Housing and Urban Development Act of 1968 applicable? 1000.42 Section 1000.42 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to...

  8. 24 CFR 1000.42 - Are the requirements of section 3 of the Housing and Urban Development Act of 1968 applicable?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01...requirements of section 3 of the Housing and Urban Development Act of 1968 applicable? 1000.42 Section 1000.42 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO...

  9. 24 CFR 1000.42 - Are the requirements of section 3 of the Housing and Urban Development Act of 1968 applicable?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01...requirements of section 3 of the Housing and Urban Development Act of 1968 applicable? 1000.42 Section 1000.42 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO...

  10. 24 CFR 1000.42 - Are the requirements of section 3 of the Housing and Urban Development Act of 1968 applicable?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01...requirements of section 3 of the Housing and Urban Development Act of 1968 applicable? 1000.42 Section 1000.42 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO...

  11. Urban Development and Employment: The Prospects for Calcutta.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lubell, Harold

    The study, one of the World Employment Program projects, discusses the general state of the economy as it has affected employment in West Bengal and Calcutta. It also examines the body of existing information on migration, employment, and unemployment in Calcutta. A consideration of the economic effect of development of Calcutta's infrastructure…

  12. Developing a Hybrid Tutoring Model in an Urban Community College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arkin, Marian; Eisenberg, Nora; Peters, Ann

    This paper addresses the problem of how a community college writing center can maintain its personalized character as it moves toward online resources and approaches. The authors describe a writing resource developed by the Writing Center at LaGuardia Community College of the City University of New York (CUNY) by LaGuardia and CUNY faculty and…

  13. Knitting of nature into an urban fabric: A riverfront development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thant Myat

    2008-01-01

    The Tampa River Walk project is one of great importance for revitalization of the waterfront of downtown Tampa. This Riverfront development will be even more important when it becomes a vital example of how a riverfront can stretch and pull together downtown Tampa and its surrounding areas: Hyde Park, Harbour Island, and Historic Ybor. The purpose of this master's project

  14. Smart cities: implications of urban planning for human resource development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mohan Thite

    2011-01-01

    This paper looks at creative or smart city experiments around the world that are aimed at nurturing a creative economy through investment in quality of life which in turn attracts knowledge workers to live and work in smart cities. It highlights the need for and broad nature of human resource\\/talent development initiatives at the intermediate level, that is regional and

  15. Recognising and Developing Urban Teachers: Chartered London Teacher Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bubb, Sara; Porritt, Vivienne

    2008-01-01

    Chartered London Teacher (CLT) status is a unique scheme designed by London Challenge to recognise and reward teachers' achievements and provide a framework for professional development. As well as having the prestige of being a Chartered London Teacher for life, educators receive a one-time payment of 1,000 British pounds from the school budget…

  16. Historical Trauma Among Urban American Indians: Impact on Substance Abuse and Family Cohesion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shelly A. Wiechelt; Jan Gryczynski; Jeannette L. Johnson; Diana Caldwell

    2012-01-01

    Historical trauma theory suggests that many American Indians are still affected by the cultural losses and injustices endured by previous generations. The current study examines historical trauma in an urban American Indian sample using validated measures of historical loss and associated symptoms (N = 120). Urban American Indians reported high degrees of historical trauma compared to reservation samples in past research. Generalized

  17. Historical Trauma Among Urban American Indians: Impact on Substance Abuse and Family Cohesion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shelly A. Wiechelt; Jan Gryczynski; Jeannette L. Johnson; Diana Caldwell

    2011-01-01

    Historical trauma theory suggests that many American Indians are still affected by the cultural losses and injustices endured by previous generations. The current study examines historical trauma in an urban American Indian sample using validated measures of historical loss and associated symptoms (N = 120). Urban American Indians reported high degrees of historical trauma compared to reservation samples in past research. Generalized

  18. Water rights: a comparison of the impacts of urban and irrigation reforms in Australia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lin Crase; Brian Dollery

    2006-01-01

    Although there has been a policy thrust towards making all Australians more cognisant of the relative scarcity of water resources, the approach adopted for urban dwellers differs markedly from that applied to irrigators. These differences are examined from a property-rights perspective focussing primarily on the institutional hierarchies in the Victorian water sector. The analysis reveals significant attenuation of urban dwellers’

  19. Sediments, porewaters and diagenesis in an urban water body, Salford, UK: impacts of remediation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kevin G. Taylor; Nathan A. Boyd; Stephen Boult

    2003-01-01

    Contaminated sediments deposited within urban water bodies commonly exert a significant negative effect on overlying water quality. However, our understanding of the processes operating within such anthropogenic sediments is currently poor. This paper describes the nature of the sediment and early diagenetic reactions in a highly polluted major urban water body (the Salford Quays of the Manchester Ship Canal) that

  20. An optimization model for integrated urban planning: development and application to Algeria's Reghaďa and Heraoua municipalities.

    PubMed

    Zagonari, Fabio

    2011-05-01

    In this paper, I develop an optimization model for integrated urban planning for land use at the municipality level, in which decisions arise from an area-based weighted-GDP maximisation algorithm whose weights represent the sustainability and implementability of the land uses. The model favours the involvement of stakeholders in urban governance, but does not use complicated assessment procedures for non-economic indicators or relative weights to combine economic, social and environmental indicators; instead, the integration between economic activities and environmental status is represented objectively and non-linearly by referring to initial and sustainability conditions. The model accounts for both human and environmental dynamics by adopting a spatial structure that permits compromises between economic information (available at a macro level) and ecological information (available at a micro level). A single value is attached to each urban governance, with an elicitation of future decisions (including acceptance of the status quo) and the ability to provide an evaluation of past decisions: some environmental policies are considered. The model's predictions are based on reasonably reliable knowledge that can be easily collected, with reliability determined by calculating the confidence level. The resulting urban governance can then be presented and further analysed within a geographical information system. A case study of the model's application to Algeria's Reghaďa and Heraoua municipalities provides insights into optimal urban governance, with and without water quantity or quality policies, in terms of resource sustainability, sectoral development, and pollution sustainability. I also assess the previous master plan in terms of the land uses suggested by the model. PMID:21479922

  1. The impact of history and institutions on economic development

    E-print Network

    Lakshmi Iyer

    2003-01-01

    This thesis examines the impact of political and legal institutions on economic development. The thesis consists of three studies analyzing specific historical and current institutions. The first chapter examines the impact ...

  2. A cost-benefit analysis of rural-urban migration decisions in less developed countries

    E-print Network

    Aste-Salazar, Juan Gerardo

    1973-01-01

    'fico, Peru Directed by: Dr. Alan Rufus h'stars The objective of this thesis is the construction of a sinsple model which will contain all the major variables which explain rural to urban migration decisions in less developed countries. After... and thanks to Dr. . Alan Rufus Waters and Dr. Nicolas Sanchez for their valuable comment. s and criticisms, their helpful ideas and their editorial suggestions which have meant an unmeasurable help in the preparation of this thesis' I would also like...

  3. Problems of mapping natural hazard impact on technological systems and urban areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavrilova, S.; Petrova, E. G.

    2012-04-01

    Nowadays the GIS analysis plays a very important role in natural hazard management and can be widely used in different fields of researching natural hazard impacts on the technosphere and society. However all the data for GIS analysis should be georeferenced. The large-scale mapping can be done easily, but we always face the problem of precision when dealing with medium and small scales. We have to place on the map the exact location of each event using its precise geographic coordinates, if we are going to investigate space distribution of natural disasters and technological accidents triggered by them. We can map the real place of their occurrences using the large scale. However the small- and medium-scale mapping usually deals with "dots" or "points"; so it doesn't show the exact location where disaster happened, but only indicates a region of occurrence. In urban areas, where the population density as well as a concentration of industrial and infrastructure facilities is especially high, the number of accidents triggered by various natural hazards is bigger than in sparsely populated areas. Thereby, there will be high concentration of "dots" that mark these accidents and an overlapping is inevitable. This is a real mapping problem not only because of deformed visualization, but also for different possibilities of GIS analyses. It is also very important to show in the mapping area of natural disaster different kinds of linear objects (such as roads, railways, power lines, pipelines, etc.) as well as other social and economic objects, which can be affected by natural hazards. There are some ways of solving that kind of problems; for example, different types of natural events can be shown differently, depending on their severity, but in general the strict rules of georeferencing natural disasters in medium and small scales should be invented depending on the nature of phenomena, their influence on the area and needs of the maps' user.

  4. Impact of biomass burning on urban air quality estimated by organic tracers: Guangzhou and Beijing as cases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qiaoqiao; Shao, Min; Liu, Ying; William, Kuster; Paul, Goldan; Li, Xiaohua; Liu, Yuan; Lu, Sihua

    The impacts of biomass burning have not been adequately studied in China. In this work, chemical compositions of volatile organic compounds and particulate organic matters were measured in August 2005 in Beijing and in October 2004 in Guangzhou city. The performance of several possible tracers for biomass burning is compared by using acetonitrile as a reference compound. The correlations between the possible tracers and acetonitrile show that the use of K + as a tracer could result in bias because of the existence of other K + sources in urban areas, while chloromethane is not reliable due to its wide use as industrial chemical. The impact of biomass burning on air quality is estimated using acetonitrile and levoglucosan as tracers. The results show that the impact of biomass burning is ubiquitous in both suburban and urban Guangzhou, and the frequencies of air pollution episodes significantly influenced by biomass burning were 100% for Xinken and 58% for downtown Guangzhou city. Fortunately, the air quality in only 2 out of 22 days was partly impacted by biomass burning in August in Beijing, the month that 2008 Olympic games will take place. The quantitative contribution of biomass burning to ambient PM2.5 concentrations in Guangzhou city was also estimated by the ratio of levoglocusan to PM2.5 in both the ambient air and biomass burning plumes. The results show that biomass burning contributes 3.0-16.8% and 4.0-19.0% of PM2.5 concentrations in Xinken and Guangzhou downtown, respectively.

  5. Impact of urbanization on the air pollution “holiday effect” in Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Pei-Hua; Chou, Chia; Chou, Charles C.-K.

    2013-05-01

    The spatio-temporal characteristics of the “holiday effect”, defined as the difference in air pollutant concentrations between the holiday (Chinese New Year) and non-holiday periods during 1994-2008, and its association with the degree of urbanization in Taiwan are examined. Daily surface measurements of six major pollutants from 54 monitoring stations of the Taiwan Environmental Protection Administration are used. Holiday effects are found for almost all air pollutants in all divisions and individual stations. A widespread holiday effect with consistent signs suggests a high degree of urbanization over Taiwan. Holiday effects are stronger in the west than in the east, due to urban-rural differences, and have a distinct north-south difference in the west, due to different emission sources. In the spatial distribution, as the population (motor vehicle) number in the division increases, holiday effects of NOx, CO and NMHC are intensified. Holiday effects of pollutants can also be stronger when the associated dominant anthropogenic sources in the division have larger emissions. Both imply the association of a stronger holiday effect with a higher degree of urbanization in the division. In the temporal variation, on the other hand, holiday effects and pollutant concentrations tend to weaken and reduce in almost all the urban divisions for all six pollutants except O3. These weakening trends imply possible contributions of other effects, such as the mature state of urbanization for the urban division, the effective pollution-control measures and behavioral pattern changes.

  6. Numerical study of the impacts of urban expansion on Meiyu precipitation over Eastern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Xinye; Zhang, Yaocun

    2015-04-01

    The Yangtze River Delta (YRD) has experienced significant urban expansion in recent years, while the Meiyu belt of China has demonstrated a decadal northward shifting trend. Thus, it is of interest to assess how urban expansion affects Meiyu precipitation and hopefully to reveal the underlying physical mechanisms involved. In this study, the urban extents over the YRD in 2001 and 2010 are derived based on land use/land cover (LULC) category data and nighttime light image data. Two parallel groups of 10-summer (2001-2010) numerical simulations are carried out with the urban extents over the YRD in 2001 and 2010, respectively. The results show that the urban expansion in the YRD tends to result in increased (decreased) Meiyu precipitation over the Huaihe River (Yangtze River) basin with intensities of 0.2-1.2 mm day-1. Further analysis indicates that the spatiotemporal pattern of the Meiyu precipitation change induced by the urban expansion resembles the third empirical orthogonal function (EOF) mode of the observed Meiyu precipitation. Analyses of the possible underlying physical mechanisms reveal that urban expansion in the YRD leads to changes in the surface energy balance and warming (cooling) of tropospheric (stratospheric) air temperature over eastern China. Anomalous upward (downward) motion and moisture convergence (divergence) over the Huaihe River (Yangtze River) basin occur, corresponding to the increases (decreases) of the Meiyu precipitation over the Huaihe River (Yangtze River) basin.

  7. [Analysis on barriers of urban sustainable development based on DEMATEL: a case of Shenyang City].

    PubMed

    Li, Chun-Rong; Geng, Yong; Xue, Bing; Ren, Wan-Xia; Dong, Hui-Juan

    2012-10-01

    To scientifically identify the key barriers which the urban sustainable development is facing and to analyze the interrelationships among the barriers are of significance to promote urban sustainable development. Through literature review, site investigation and structural interview, 21 factors affecting the Shenyang City's sustainable development were recognized, and based on questionnaire survey and statistics analysis, 12 main factors were screened. Further, by employing decision-making and trial evaluation laboratory (DEMATEL) method, the interrelationships among these factors were analyzed. The key factors affecting the Shenyang's sustainable development included the lack of leaders' attention, the economy-oriented governmental performance evaluation system, the lower public awareness on sustainable development, and the lack of academic understanding on regional eco-carrying capacity and related key projects. It was suggested that the local government should pay more attention on sustainable development, increase propaganda activities, reform governmental performance evaluation system, establish a reward-punishment system for promoting sustainable development and an effective monitoring mechanism, and enhance the implementation of related regulations, the local enterprises should establish research and development funds to support the researches of key technologies and introduce key projects, and general publics should improve their awareness on sustainable development and actively participate in related activities. PMID:23359947

  8. Impact of Heat Waves on Urban Areas in the North Eastern United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramamurthy, P.; Li, D.; Bou-Zeid, E.

    2014-12-01

    We utilize high-resolution numerical simulations to understand the interaction between heat waves and urban heat islands in the North Eastern United States. Urban areas, due to their dense built-surface cover that efficiently stores and dissipate heat and reduced evapotranspiration, experience elevated near surface temperatures compared to surrounding rural areas. This difference between urban and nearby rural temperature is commonly known as the Urban Heat island Intensity (UHI), which amplifies the effects of heat waves in cities. In this work, the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model is significantly modified in two major ways to study two heat wave episodes in the North East during the Summer of 2006. First, the single layer urban canopy model in WRF is replaced by the Princeton Urban Canopy Model (PUCM), which includes representation for sub-facet scale heterogeneity. Second, the dominant land use approach used in the default land surface scheme is substituted with a tile-based approach to suitably capture the variability in the urban surface cover. Our preliminary results show that the magnitude of the UHI increased in New York City by more than 1°C during both the nighttime and daytime periods during the heat wave episodes. In Baltimore and Washington D. C, while the UHI increased during the nighttime period, the daytime UHI was mostly unchanged. This ongoing work will further focus on the role played by moisture availability, available energy, wind direction and magnitude and urban characteristics like population density and urban cover in modulating the UHI during these intense heat wave periods.

  9. Sustainable Urban Infrastructure Development and the Role of Water Technologies in the U.S.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Increased climate variability and rapid urbanization are fundamentally changing the urban watershed hydrology and consequently sustainability of water systems. However, our urban planning and engineering practices are based on decades-old hydrological theory and guidance based o...

  10. Satellite Monitoring of Urban Sprawl and Assessment of its Potential Environmental Impact in the Greater Toronto Area Between 1985 and 2005

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furberg, Dorothy; Ban, Yifang

    2012-12-01

    This research investigates urban sprawl in the Greater Toronto Area (GTA) between 1985 and 2005 and the nature of the resulting landscape fragmentation, particularly with regard to the Oak Ridges Moraine (ORM), an ecologically important area for the region. Six scenes of Landsat TM imagery were acquired in summer of 1985, 1995, and 2005. These images and their texture measures were classified into eight land cover classes with very satisfactory final overall accuracies (93-95 %). Analysis of the classifications indicated that urban areas grew by 20 % between 1985 and 1995 and by 15 % between 1995 and 2005. Landscape fragmentation due to spatio-temporal land cover changes was evaluated using urban compactness indicators and landscape metrics, and results from the latter were used to draw conclusions about probable environmental impact. The indicator results showed that urban proportions increased in nearly all areas outside of the metropolitan center, including on portions of the ORM. The landscape metrics reveal that low density urban areas increased significantly in the GTA between 1985 and 2005, mainly at the expense of agricultural land. The metric results indicate increased vulnerability and exposure to adverse effects for natural and semi-natural land cover through greater contrast and lowered connectivity. The degree of urban perimeter increased around most environmentally significant areas in the region. Changes like these negatively impact species and the regional water supply in the GTA. Further investigation into specific environmental impacts of urban expansion in the region and which areas on the ORM are most at risk is recommended.

  11. Housing for an Urban Renaissance: Implications for Social Equity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ELIZABETH BURTON

    2003-01-01

    Current UK housing policy favours high-density, mixed-use development on previously developed urban land. This ties in with a general policy to promote an 'urban renaissance', largely because of its claimed advantages for sustainability. However, there has been little testing to date of sustainability impacts in practice. This is particularly true for the social equity aspect of sustainability, despite its acknowledged

  12. The impact of weight, sex, and race/ethnicity on body dissatisfaction among urban children.

    PubMed

    Xanthopoulos, Melissa S; Borradaile, Kelley E; Hayes, Sharon; Sherman, Sandy; Vander Veur, Stephanie; Grundy, Karen M; Nachmani, Joan; Foster, Gary D

    2011-09-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine the relative contributions of weight status, race/ethnicity, sex, and age on body dissatisfaction in a large group of diverse children. Participants were 4th-6th graders (N=1212) in ten inner-city schools who participated in an obesity prevention study previously published. Children completed the body dissatisfaction subscale of the Eating Disorder Inventory-2 (EDI-2), and weight status was assessed by measured weights and heights. Multiple regression analyses were conducted. Relative weight status was the strongest predictor of body dissatisfaction, followed by race/ethnicity, and sex. Body dissatisfaction was greatest in obese, Asian, and female children. Overall, results indicated that children's body dissatisfaction varies based on relative weight status, as well as race/ethnicity and sex among urban children. Results highlight the strong need for additional research so that more definitive conclusions may be drawn regarding the development of body image among diverse groups of children. PMID:21664202

  13. Internet use (and non-use) among urban microenterprises in the developing world: an update from India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jonathan Donner

    2006-01-01

    This paper draws on interviews and observational visits with small businesses in urban India to explore the ways in which the internet is-and is not-used by small and informal businesses in the developing world. These \\

  14. Streamflow Flashiness in the Mid-Atlantic Region: A Historical Analysis of Flashiness and Population Density, Imperviousness and Urban Development

    EPA Science Inventory

    The relationship between stream flashiness and watershed-scale estimates of percent imperviousness, urban development, and population density were used in an historic landscape analysis at the individual watershed spatial scale. GIS technology was employed to spatially associate...

  15. Assessing the economic revitalization impact of urban design improvements: the Texas Main Street Program 

    E-print Network

    Ozdil, Taner Recep

    2007-09-17

    The relationship between urban design and economic activity is seldom studied through empirical studies with a large number of cases due, in part, to the implicit and intangible nature of design. This study was intended ...

  16. Estimating the construction-phase impacts of urban mass-transit projects. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Mahdi, S.I.

    1987-02-01

    This study attempts to forecast the impacts of the construction phase of new transit facilities in metropolitan areas. The purpose of the study is to identify and develop an approach, a model and an appropriate methodology to simulate and forecast economic impacts of UMTA-funded new mass-transit systems or any additions to mass-transit facilities in metropolitan areas. Using a forecasting and simulations model conjoined with a 490-sector input/output model, simulated forecasts were generated, predicting the effect of new facilities on the local economy of four UMTA-funded mass-transit systems located in Atlanta, Georgia; Boston, Massachusetts; San Francisco, California; and Washington, D.C.

  17. Impacts of land use on riparian forest along an urban – rural gradient in southern Manitoba

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. F. Moffatt; S. M. McLachlan; N. C. Kenkel

    2004-01-01

    Extensive landscape modification by humans has led to the fragmentation of riparian forests across North America. We compared\\u000a the vegetation of extant riparian forest along an urban-rural disturbance gradient. In 1999, twenty-five sites along Assiniboine\\u000a River in Manitoba, Canada were categorized according to land use: urban, suburban, high intensity rural, low intensity rural,\\u000a and relatively high quality reference forest. Differences

  18. Environmental impacts during geothermal development: Some examples from Central America

    SciTech Connect

    Goff, S.; Goff, F.

    1997-04-01

    The impacts of geothermal development projects are usually positive. However, without appropriate monitoring plans and mitigation actions firmly incorporated into the project planning process, there exists the potential for significant negative environmental impacts. The authors present five examples from Central America of environmental impacts associated with geothermal development activities. These brief case studies describe landslide hazards, waste brine disposal, hydrothermal explosions, and air quality issues. Improved Environmental Impact Assessments are needed to assist the developing nations of the region to judiciously address the environmental consequences associated with geothermal development.

  19. The Impacts of Congestion on Time-definitive Urban Freight Distribution1 Networks CO2 Emission Levels: results from a case study in Portland,2

    E-print Network

    Bertini, Robert L.

    1 The Impacts of Congestion on Time-definitive Urban Freight Distribution1 Networks CO2 Emission pressures to limit the impacts13 associated with CO2 emissions are mounting rapidly. A key challenge on CO2 emissions are hindered by the complexities of vehicle routing18 problems with time

  20. The impacts of congestion on time-definitive urban freight distribution networks CO2 emission levels: Results from a case study in Portland,

    E-print Network

    Bertini, Robert L.

    The impacts of congestion on time-definitive urban freight distribution networks CO2 emission Accepted 29 November 2010 Keywords: Vehicle routing Time-dependent travel time speed GHG or CO2 emissions pressures to limit the impacts associated with CO2 emissions are mounting rapidly. A key challenge