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1

Economic Development Impacts of Urban Rail Transport  

Microsoft Academic Search

New investments in urban rail transport, both in Europe and North America, have been widely discussed in the transport policy literature, especially in the context of the relative success of individual projects. Recent experience in developed countries has seen something of a revival of urban light rail infrastructure, mainly because of its lower cost relative to full underground metro rail.

Graham R. Crampton

2003-01-01

2

The Urban Impacts of Federal Policies: Vol.2, Economic Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report examines the relationship between federal programs and policies and urban economic development. It provides both a conceptual analysis of the relationships and a review of the theoretical and empirical literature relevant to assessing policy effects. It is one of several in a broad study that examined federal actions in relation to…

Vaughan, Roger J.

3

Health Impact Assessment for Urban and Land-use Planning and Policy Development: Lessons from Practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is increased interest in, and awareness of, the health impacts of urban and land-use planning. At the same time, health impact assessment (HIA) has emerged internationally as an approach to strengthening the possible positive impacts of a proposed development or plan and mitigating the possible negative health impacts. This article first provides an overview of HIA, focusing on the

Patrick Harris; Ben Harris-Roxas; Marilyn Wise; Liz Harris

2010-01-01

4

Climate variability effects on urban recharge beneath low impact development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Groundwater resources in urban and coastal environments are highly vulnerable to human pressures and climate variability and change, and many communities face water shortages and need to find alternative water supplies. Therefore, understanding how low impact development (LID) site planning and integrated/best management practices (BMPs) affect recharge rates and volumes is important because of the increasing use of LID and BMP to reduce stormwater runoff and improve surface-water quality. Often considered a secondary management benefit, many BMPs may also enhance recharge to local aquifers; however these hypothesized benefits have not been thoroughly tested or quantified. In this study, we quantify stormwater capture and recharge enhancement beneath a BMP infiltration trench of the LID research network at San Francisco State University, San Francisco, California. Stormwater capture and retention was analyzed using the SCS TR-55 curve number method and in-situ infiltration rates to assess LID storage. Recharge was quantified using vadose zone monitoring equipment, a detailed water budget analysis, and a Hydrus-2D model. Additionally, the effects of historical and predicted future precipitation on recharge rates were examined using precipitation from the Geophysical Fluid Dynamic Laboratory (GFDL) A1F1 climate scenario. Observed recharge rates beneath the infiltration trench range from 1,600 to 3,700 mm/year and are an order of magnitude greater than recharge beneath an irrigated grass lawn and a natural setting. The Hydrus-2D model results indicate increased recharge under the GFDL A1F1 scenario compared with historical and GFDL modeled 20th century rates because of the higher frequency of large precipitation events that induce runoff into the infiltration trench. However, under a simulated A1F1 El Niño year, recharge calculated by a water budget does not increase compared with current El Niño recharge rates. In comparison, simulated recharge rates were considerably lower beneath the grass lawn for historical and future precipitation years. This work highlights the potential management strategy of using LID to capture excess runoff during El Niño years that can be recharged and stored as groundwater. An additional benefit of LID in coastal aquifer systems is the ability to capture and redirect precipitation from runoff to recharge that may help mitigate the negative effects from groundwater pumping and sea-water intrusion.

Newcomer, M. E.; Gurdak, J. J.

2012-12-01

5

The urban economic development impacts of ethnic entrepreneurship : a case study of Dominican entrepreneurs in Lawrence, Massachusetts  

E-print Network

This thesis examines the process through which ethnic entrepreneurship impacts urban economic development. In many urban places across the United States, demographic change has led to the rise of ethnic communities and the ...

Cheigh, Brian Chaneung

2005-01-01

6

Phosphorous Attenuation in Urban Best Management (BMP) and Low Impact Development (LID) Practices  

EPA Science Inventory

While all living organisms require phosphorous (P) to live and grow, adding too much P to the environment can cause unintended and undesirable effects, such as eutrophication of surface waters and harmful algal blooms. Urban best management (BMP) and low impact development (LI...

7

Monitoring trends of urban development and environmental impact of Beijing, 1999-2006.  

PubMed

The high rates of environmental change and accelerated species loss in the urban development process should be quantified to rebalance the social and environmental dimensions of sustainability. In this study, an emergy-based environmental impact assessment model is designed according to the framework of the Eco-Indicator 99 for monitoring the negative effects on human well-being and ecosystem integrity in the urban development system of Beijing from 1999 to 2006. The environmental impact assessment model is based on the sustainability promotion perspective, and emphasizes the determinants of human health and ecosystem integrity in the urban development process. It is vital that the links among human health, ecosystem integrity and urban sustainability are therefore considered especially from the perspective of a supply-side environmental cost evaluation (including ecological service supply, ecological and economic losses and investment for treatment). Results suggest that: (1) out of all the pollutants, ecological services were mainly used to dilute sulfur dioxide and NH(3)-N; (2) nitrogen dioxide and greenhouse gases released by the urban system contribute heavily to both ecological and economic losses evaluated in emergy terms; and (3) emissions impact, mainly from airborne pollutants, with small contribution from waterborne emissions, generally increases from 1999 to 2006, undermining the sustainability of Beijing. The emergy synthesis proves to be very appropriate to account for large-scale and indirect costs generated by pollution as side effects of economic activity. Such knowledge is a necessary pre-requisite to perform a reliable cost-benefit evaluation of urban sustainability strategies, and provide guidance for policy decision making to maximize benefits and minimize negative impacts. PMID:21696806

Liu, Gengyuan; Yang, Zhifeng; Chen, Bin; Ulgiati, Sergio

2011-08-15

8

Rural to Urban Migration Is an Unforeseen Impact of Development Intervention in Ethiopia  

PubMed Central

Rural development initiatives across the developing world are designed to improve community well-being and livelihoods. However they may also have unforeseen consequences, in some cases placing further demands on stretched public services. In this paper we use data from a longitudinal study of five Ethiopian villages to investigate the impact of a recent rural development initiative, installing village-level water taps, on rural to urban migration of young adults. Our previous research has identified that tap stands dramatically reduced child mortality, but were also associated with increased fertility. We demonstrate that the installation of taps is associated with increased rural-urban migration of young adults (15–30 years) over a 15 year period (15.5% migrate out, n?=?1912 from 1280 rural households). Young adults with access to this rural development intervention had three times the relative risk of migrating to urban centres compared to those without the development. We also identify that family dynamics, specifically sibling competition for limited household resources (e.g. food, heritable land and marriage opportunities), are key to understanding the timing of out-migration. Birth of a younger sibling doubled the odds of out-migration and starting married life reduced it. Rural out-migration appears to be a response to increasing rural resource scarcity, principally competition for agricultural land. Strategies for livelihood diversification include education and off-farm casual wage-labour. However, jobs and services are limited in urban centres, few migrants send large cash remittances back to their families, and most return to their villages within one year without advanced qualifications. One benefit for returning migrants may be through enhanced social prestige and mate-acquisition on return to rural areas. These findings have wide implications for current understanding of the processes which initiate rural-to-urban migration and transitions to low fertility, as well as for the design and implementation of development intervention across the rural and urban developing world. PMID:23155400

Gibson, Mhairi A.; Gurmu, Eshetu

2012-01-01

9

Rural to urban migration is an unforeseen impact of development intervention in Ethiopia.  

PubMed

Rural development initiatives across the developing world are designed to improve community well-being and livelihoods. However they may also have unforeseen consequences, in some cases placing further demands on stretched public services. In this paper we use data from a longitudinal study of five Ethiopian villages to investigate the impact of a recent rural development initiative, installing village-level water taps, on rural to urban migration of young adults. Our previous research has identified that tap stands dramatically reduced child mortality, but were also associated with increased fertility. We demonstrate that the installation of taps is associated with increased rural-urban migration of young adults (15-30 years) over a 15 year period (15.5% migrate out, n?=?1912 from 1280 rural households). Young adults with access to this rural development intervention had three times the relative risk of migrating to urban centres compared to those without the development. We also identify that family dynamics, specifically sibling competition for limited household resources (e.g. food, heritable land and marriage opportunities), are key to understanding the timing of out-migration. Birth of a younger sibling doubled the odds of out-migration and starting married life reduced it. Rural out-migration appears to be a response to increasing rural resource scarcity, principally competition for agricultural land. Strategies for livelihood diversification include education and off-farm casual wage-labour. However, jobs and services are limited in urban centres, few migrants send large cash remittances back to their families, and most return to their villages within one year without advanced qualifications. One benefit for returning migrants may be through enhanced social prestige and mate-acquisition on return to rural areas. These findings have wide implications for current understanding of the processes which initiate rural-to-urban migration and transitions to low fertility, as well as for the design and implementation of development intervention across the rural and urban developing world. PMID:23155400

Gibson, Mhairi A; Gurmu, Eshetu

2012-01-01

10

An analysis of urban development and its environmental impact on the Tampa Bay watershed  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Urbanization has transformed natural landscapes into anthropogenic impervious surfaces. Urban land use has become a major driving force for land cover and land use change in the Tampa Bay watershed of west-central Florida. This study investigates urban land use change and its impact on the watershed. The spatial and temporal changes, as well as the development density of urban land use are determined by analyzing the impervious surface distribution using Landsat satellite imagery. Population distribution and density are extracted from the 2000 census data. Non-point source pollution parameters used for measuring water quality are analyzed for the sub-drainage basins of Hillsborough County. The relationships between 2002 urban land use, population distribution and their environmental influences are explored using regression analysis against various non-point source pollutant loadings in these sub-drainage basins. The results suggest that strong associations existed between most pollutant loadings and the extent of impervious surface within each sub-drainage basin in 2002. Population density also exhibits apparent correlations with loading rates of several pollutants. Spatial variations of selected non-point source pollutant loadings are also assessed. ?? 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Xian, G.; Crane, M.; Su, J.

2007-01-01

11

The effects of low impact development on urban flooding under different rainfall characteristics.  

PubMed

Low impact development (LID) is generally regarded as a more sustainable solution for urban stormwater management than conventional urban drainage systems. However, its effects on urban flooding at a scale of urban drainage systems have not been fully understood particularly when different rainfall characteristics are considered. In this paper, using an urbanizing catchment in China as a case study, the effects of three LID techniques (swale, permeable pavement and green roof) on urban flooding are analyzed and compared with the conventional drainage system design. A range of storm events with different rainfall amounts, durations and locations of peak intensity are considered for holistic assessment of the LID techniques. The effects are measured by the total flood volume reduction during a storm event compared to the conventional drainage system design. The results obtained indicate that all three LID scenarios are more effective in flood reduction during heavier and shorter storm events. Their performance, however, varies significantly according to the location of peak intensity. That is, swales perform best during a storm event with an early peak, permeable pavements perform best with a middle peak, and green roofs perform best with a late peak, respectively. The trends of flood reduction can be explained using a newly proposed water balance method, i.e., by comparing the effective storage depth of the LID designs with the accumulative rainfall amounts at the beginning and end of flooding in the conventional drainage system. This paper provides an insight into the performance of LID designs under different rainfall characteristics, which is essential for effective urban flood management. PMID:24029461

Qin, Hua-peng; Li, Zhuo-xi; Fu, Guangtao

2013-11-15

12

Urban impacts on precipitation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Weather and climate changes caused by human activities (e.g., greenhouse gas emissions, deforestation, and urbanization) have received much attention because of their impacts on human lives as well as scientific interests. The detection, understanding, and future projection of weather and climate changes due to urbanization are important subjects in the discipline of urban meteorology and climatology. This article reviews urban impacts on precipitation. Observational studies of changes in convective phenomena over and around cities are reviewed, with focus on precipitation enhancement downwind of cities. The proposed causative factors (urban heat island, large surface roughness, and higher aerosol concentration) and mechanisms of urban-induced and/or urban-modified precipitation are then reviewed and discussed, with focus on downwind precipitation enhancement. A universal mechanism of urban-induced precipitation is made through a thorough literature review and is as follows. The urban heat island produces updrafts on the leeward or downwind side of cities, and the urban heat island-induced updrafts initiate moist convection under favorable thermodynamic conditions, thus leading to surface precipitation. Surface precipitation is likely to further increase under higher aerosol concentrations if the air humidity is high and deep and strong convection occurs. It is not likely that larger urban surface roughness plays a major role in urbaninduced precipitation. Larger urban surface roughness can, however, disrupt or bifurcate precipitating convective systems formed outside cities while passing over the cities. Such urban-modified precipitating systems can either increase or decrease precipitation over and/or downwind of cities. Much effort is needed for in-depth or new understanding of urban precipitation anomalies, which includes local and regional modeling studies using advanced numerical models and analysis studies of long-term radar data.

Han, Ji-Young; Baik, Jong-Jin; Lee, Hyunho

2014-01-01

13

Urban Health in Developing Countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The world is becoming more urbanized. This trend is now particularly pronounced in the developing world, where the urban population\\u000a is expected to double in the next 30 years. The impact of urbanization on the health of citizens in developing countries has\\u000a received increasing attention recently. Urban residents in developing countries, especially the poor, are exposed to the health\\u000a hazards

Siddharth Agarwal; Aradhana Srivastava; Sanjeev Kumar

14

A Pilot System for Environmental Impact Assessment of Pollution Caused by Urban Development and Urban Air Pollution Forecast  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the framework of the LIFE -Environment Program, The National Institute of Meteorology and Hydrology (NIMH) carries out a demonstrative project concerning with the urban impact of air pollution. The project Life ASSURE has focused on impacts of long term estimation procedures of pollution levels in the atmosphere, and in the surface and underground hydrologic environment in the context of

Ion Sandu; Constantin Ionescu; Marian Ursache

15

Ozone Air Quality Impacts of Shale Gas Development in South Texas Urban Areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent technological advances, mainly horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing, and continued drilling in shale, have increased domestic production of oil and gas in the United State (U.S.). However, shale gas developments could also affect the environment and human health, particularly in areas where oil and gas developments are new activities. This study is focused on the impacts of shale gas developing activities on summertime ozone air quality in South Texas urban areas since many of them are already ozone nonattainment areas. We use an integrated approach to investigate the ozone air quality impact of the shale gas development in South Texas urban areas. They are: (1) satellite measurement of precursors, (2) observations of ground-level ozone concentrations, and (3) air mass trajectory modeling. Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) is an important precursor to ozone formation, and summertime average tropospheric nitrogen dioxide (NO2) column densities measured by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Ozone Monitoring Instrument increased in the South Texas shale area (i.e., the Eagle Ford Shale area) in 2011 and 2012 as compared to 2008-2010. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's ground-level observations showed summertime average and peak ozone (i.e., the 4th highest daily maximum 8-hour average ozone) concentrations slightly increased from 2010 to 2012 in Austin and San Antonio. However, the frequencies of peak ozone concentrations above the 75ppb ozone standard have been significantly increasing since 2011 in Austin and San Antonio. It is expected to increase the possibilities of violating the ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) for South Texas urban areas in the future. The results of trajectory modeling showed air masses transported from the southeastern Texas could reach Austin and San Antonio and confirmed that emissions from the Eagle Ford Shale area could affect ozone air quality in South Texas urban areas in 2011 and 2012. Overall, emissions associated with shale gas activities in South Texas have been affecting ozone air quality in neighboring urban areas. Developing effective control strategies for reducing emissions from shale gas activities and improving ozone air quality is an important issue in Texas and other states in the U.S..Changes in percentage of summertime 4th highest ozone daily maximum as comparing to previous year

Chang, C.; Liao, K.

2013-12-01

16

An Examination of the Impacts of Urbanization on Green Space Access and Water Resources: A Developed and Developing World Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

This dissertation addresses the impact of urbanization and land use change on the availability and accessibility of two urban amenities that are often inequitably distributed: green space and water features. Diverse methodologies were utilized in order to gain a better understanding of the role of these amenities in improving urban quality of life and integrated water management. Using an interdisciplinary

Heather E. Wright Wendel

2011-01-01

17

Regional climate variability and patterns of urban development - Impacts on the urban water cycle and nutrient export (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The goal of this work is to evaluate the interactions between urban development patterns and the hydrologic cycle and its associated nutrient cycles, within the context of regional and local climate variability. More specifically, our objective is to create a modeling system capable of simulating the feedback relationships that control urban water sustainability. Core elements include spatial modeling of urban development patterns and individual land use and location processes at parcel and neighborhood scales and for different policy scenarios; three-dimensional modeling of coupled surface water-groundwater and land surface-atmospheric systems at multiple scales (including consideration of the engineered water system), where development patterns are incorporated as input; and field work and modeling aimed at quantifying flow paths and fluxes of water and nitrogen in this system. The project team is evaluating linkages among (1) how human locational choices, water-based ecosystem services, and regulatory policies affect the supply of land and patterns of development over time; (2) how the changing composition and variability of urbanizing surfaces affect local and regional climate; and (3) how patterns of development (including the engineered water system) and climate variability affect fluxes, flow paths and storage of water and nitrogen in urban areas. The Baltimore Ecosystem Study LTER (http://beslter.org) serves as a platform for place-based research to carry out this work.

Welty, C.; Bou-Zeid, E.; Doheny, E.; Gold, A.; Groffman, P. M.; Grove, M.; Kaushal, S.; Klaiber, A.; Irwin, E.; Miller, A. J.; Newburn, D.; Smith, J. A.; Towe, C.

2013-12-01

18

Watershed Watch Undergraduate Research Projects: Monitoring Environmental Impacts on Tree Growth - Urban Development and Hurricanes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Watershed Watch (NSF 0525433) is designed to engage early undergraduate students from two-year and four-year colleges in student-driven full inquiry-based instruction in the biogeosciences. Program goals for Watershed Watch are to test if inquiry-rich student-driven projects sufficiently engage undeclared students (or noncommittal STEM majors) to declare a STEM major (or remain with their STEM major). The program is a partnership between two four-year campuses - the University of New Hampshire (UNH), and Elizabeth City State University (ECSU, in North Carolina); and two two-year campuses - Great Bay Community College (GBCC, in New Hampshire) and the College of the Albemarle (COA, in North Carolina). Two Watershed Watch students from the 2009 Summer Research Institute (SRI), held on the ECSU campus, August 3-14, 2009 investigated the use of wood cores collected from loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) and bald cypress (Taxodium distichum). One student team studied the possible impacts of urban development on tree growth, focusing on the use of dendrochronology to assess the effect of environmental factors on the trees. Tree cores and foliar samples were collected at the ECSU Outdoor Classroom and compared with the same species from the Great Dismal Swamp (GDS) in Virginia. The main targets of this experiment were one aquatic tree, the bald cypress, and a land based tree, the loblolly pine. This allowed us to compare an urbanized area (ECSU) with a more natural setting (GDS) to evaluate factors impacting tree growth. This experiment suggests that there may be potentially harmful impacts of an urban environment with the data that at ECSU. The growth rings of the ECSU campus tree cores are noticeably narrow, especially in the loblolly pine from the ECSU outdoor classroom, and multiple fluctuations in more recent tree rings of the bald cypress in the ECSU campus. Growth ring compression, beginning approximately in 1956 in 100-year old loblolly pines, corresponds in timing with the nearby construction of two student dormitories within 100 feet of the trees. The other student team studied cores for evidence of possible impacts from four recent hurricanes (Isabel, category 5, 2003; Floyd, category 4, 1999; Bonnie, category 3, 1998; and Fran, Category 3, 1996) on trees from the Alligator River (near Cape Hatteras, NC) and from the ECSU campus (well inland). Cores were evaluated for the presence or absence of false growth rings that could be the result of saltwater impoundment associated with storm surges. False growth rings were seen in the cores of loblolly pine from the Alligator River site, but only for the years 2003 and 1999. No false growth rings were seen in the cores of loblolly pine from the ECSU campus. Both hurricanes Isabel and Floyd were stronger storms and had higher storm surges (8-10 ft) than either Bonnie or Fran (storm surges of 3-5 feet). The team hypothesized that the false growth rings were related to the impacts of the two stronger storms.

Rock, B. N.; Hale, S.

2009-12-01

19

Quito's Urban Watersheds: Applications of Low Impact Development and Sustainable Watershed Management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quito, Ecuador sits high in an Interandean valley (elevation ~2,830 meters) at the foot of Pichincha volcano. Above the city, mountain streams descend from high-altitude Andean páramo grasslands down steep slopes through quebradas (ravines) to the Machángara River. Quito's rapid urban growth, while indicative of the city's economic vitality, has led to the city's expansion along the valley floor, settlements along precarious hillslopes and ravines, disappearance of wetlands, and loss of páramo. The upper reaches of the watersheds are being rapidly settled by migrants whose land-use practices result in contamination of waters. In the densely-settled downstream reaches, urban encroachment has resulted in filling and narrowing of quebradas with garbage and other poor-quality fill. These practices have dramatically altered natural drainage patterns, reduced the flood conveyance capacity of the channels (increasing the flood risk to surrounding communities), and further deteriorated water quality. The city's stormwater, wastewater, and surface waters suffer from untreated pollutant loads, aging pipes, and sewer overflows. In response to environmental degradation of the quebradas, awareness is increasing, at both local community and municipal levels, of the importance of stream corridors for water quality, wildlife, and recreation for nearby residents. Citizen groups have organized volunteer river cleanups, and municipal agencies have committed to implementing ';green infrastructure' solutions to make Quito a healthier habitat for humans and other species. City leaders are evaluating innovative low impact development (LID) methods to help decontaminate surface waters, mitigate urban flooding, and promote sustainable water systems. Quito's municipal water agency, EPMAPS, invited faculty and students from Quito and Berkeley to collaborate with agency staff and citizen groups to analyze opportunities and to develop plans and designs for sustainable infrastructure. To facilitate the evaluation of LID potential in Quito, we conducted field observations and measurements, completed archival research, analyzed available geographic and hydrologic data, and developed plans and designs for the Quebrada Ortega from its steep headwater reaches down through the densely-populated valley floor. We identified opportunities and constraints for LID, along with strategies from international LID precedent cities that can be applied in the context of Quito's unique physical and climatic characteristics, urban planning practices, and institutional structures. Using remote sensing techniques to determine permeable versus impermeable surface areas, we calculated that basins of at least 1% of the Ortega subwatershed's surface area would be needed to mitigate peak flows from most design storm scenarios. Rainwater harvesting can provide approximately 30% of average daily water needs based on current Quito consumption rates for the subwatershed's residents. By implementing LID strategies while also addressing other water management priorities, Quito provides a unique case study of a city that could bypass prohibitively expensive models used in industrialized countries (e.g., end-of-pipe treatments), and serve as a model for other Latin American cities seeking to resolve similar water management problems.

Marzion, R.; Serra-Llobet, A.; Ward Simons, C.; Kondolf, G. M.

2013-12-01

20

Urban Heat Island Effect and its Impact on Boundary Layer Development and Land-Sea Circulation over Northern Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact of the urban heat island (UHI) effect on environmental phenomena and regional climate has been receiving wide attention in recent decades. Taiwan, especially Taipei (located in northern Taiwan), is experiencing a significant urban heat island effect due to its high population density and the uniqueness of the geographic structure. In order to evaluate the impacts of urbanization and

C. Lin; F. Chen; J. Huang; Y. Liou; W. Chen

2007-01-01

21

A Suite of GIS-Based Tools for Siting Low Impact Development in an Urban Watershed  

EPA Science Inventory

Low impact development (LID) -- a comprehensive land use planning and design approach with the goal of mitigating development impacts on hydrologic/nutrient cycles and ecosystems -- is increasingly being touted as an effective approach to lessen overland runoff and pollutant load...

22

A Review of the Urban Development and Transport Impacts on Public Health with Particular Reference to Australia: Trans-Disciplinary Research Teams and Some Research Gaps  

PubMed Central

Urbanization and transport have a direct effect on public health. A transdisciplinary approach is proposed and illustrated to tackle the general problem of these environmental stressors and public health. Processes driving urban development and environmental stressors are identified. Urbanization, transport and public health literature is reviewed and environmental stressors are classified into their impacts and which group is affected, the geographical scale and potential inventions. Climate change and health impacts are identified as a research theme. From an Australian perspective, further areas for research are identified. PMID:19543407

Black, Deborah; Black, John

2009-01-01

23

Urban Aerosol Impacts on Downwind Convective Storms  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impacts of urban-enhanced aerosol concentrations on convective storm development and precipita- tion over and downwind of St. Louis, Missouri, are investigated. This is achieved through the use of a cloud-resolving mesoscale model, in which sophisticated land use processes and aerosol microphysics are both incorporated. The results indicate that urban-forced convergence downwind of the city, rather than the presence of

Susan C. van den Heever; William R. Cotton

2007-01-01

24

The Impact of Urban Development on the Water Quality in the Las Vegas Watershed  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Las Vegas, one of the fastest growing cities in the nation, must have its water strictly monitored for quality as well as degree of pollution. Samples at various sites were collected to analyze the current pollution status of our water bodies (in both residential and urban settings) in the Las Vegas watershed. These gathered samples (sediment and water) were collected and analyzed for measuring total phosphorus, total organic carbon, trace metal contents, i.e., selenium, arsenic, mercury and lead, as well as pathogens, i.e., E-coli and total coliform counts. The concentrations of various pollutions will be compared among different sites as well as natural local sites (due to the natural occurrence of a few trace metals and normal levels of other measurements) and analyzed for spatial distribution for source identification and for elucidating the cause and consequence. Preliminary analyses of the results indicate that nonpoint source pollutions (golf courses, construction sites, etc.) have larger impacts than point source pollutions such as wastewater treatment effluents. This study will help understand and evaluate the degradation of the water quality caused by the increase of human actions in recent years in Las Vegas.

Yu, A.; Simmons, C.; Acharya, K.

2009-12-01

25

Casinos in context : the impacts of stand-alone casino development on urban neighborhoods  

E-print Network

As the stigma of gambling fades and governments seek more sources of revenue the urban casino is becoming more common. Many of these are legalized to operate with limited competition in their state, standing alone in their ...

Schray, Luke J. (Luke Joseph)

2007-01-01

26

MOST Urban Issues: Urban Development and Governance  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

UNESCO's Management of Social Transformations Programme (MOST) hosts this Website dedicated to urban issues in global development. Included here is a substantial array of academic and professional publications, including working papers and project reports; Internet sites; and MOST programme descriptions and conference information relating to issues of transforming the development of urban areas in ways that maximize democracy, economic equality, and quality of life. Current postings include a report on MOST's recently completed project Industrial Decentralization and Urban Development in India with consideration of SouthEast and East Asian States, and related working papers. Most of the publications offered on the Website are in .pdf format.

27

ECOSYSTEM IMPACTS OF URBANIZATION ASSESSMENT METHODOLOGY  

EPA Science Inventory

A methodology is developed to use space-time analysis and ecosystem modeling to assess the secondary impacts of wastewater treatment facilities (i.e., urbanization) on the ecosystem. The existing state of the ecosystem is described with emphasis on the dynamic, periodic, trend, a...

28

Parasitic diseases and urban development.  

PubMed Central

The distribution and epidemiology of parasitic diseases in both urban and periurban areas of endemic countries have been changing as development progresses. The following different scenarios involving Chagas disease, lymphatic filariasis, leishmaniasis and schistosomiasis are discussed: (1) infected persons entering nonendemic urban areas without vectors; (2) infected persons entering nonendemic urban areas with vectors; (3) infected persons entering endemic urban areas; (4) non-infected persons entering endemic urban areas; (5) urbanization or domestication of natural zoonotic foci; and (6) vectors entering nonendemic urban areas. Cultural and social habits from the rural areas, such as type of house construction and domestic water usage, are adopted by migrants to urban areas and increase the risk of disease transmission which adversely affects employment in urban populations. As the urban health services must deal with the rise in parasitic diseases, appropriate control strategies for the urban setting must be developed and implemented. PMID:2127380

Mott, K. E.; Desjeux, P.; Moncayo, A.; Ranque, P.; de Raadt, P.

1990-01-01

29

Fair wages, Urban Unemployment and Welfare in a Developing Economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper studies the impact of pay fairness on factor income and social welfare in a developing economy with both modern urban and traditional rural sectors. When urban workers become aware of income fairness, they use the expected urban wage and weighted average returns to capitalists as their reference pay. This perception of fairness raises the urban wage and enlarges

Hamid Beladi; Chi-chur Chao; Daniel Hollas

2011-01-01

30

The Impacts of Terrorism on Urban Form  

Microsoft Academic Search

DURING THE PAST DECADE, terrorist attacks in New York, Washington, London, and other major cities have been popularly regarded as having profound impacts on the security and confidence of urban residents. The loss of life and damage to structures that transforms the urban landscape may similarly transform the structure of the urban economy. For example, many of the companies that

Stephen Brock. Blomberg; Stephen. Sheppard

2007-01-01

31

Intermittency model for urban development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The evolution of a stochastic reaction-diffusion model whose dynamics leads to the development of a strongly inhomogeneous, spatiotemporally intermittent density field is analytically and numerically studied. The processes underlying the model can be identified with those that govern urban development. The results for the reaction-diffusion model are thus compared with data obtained from real human demography. Statistical properties of urban

Susanna C. Manrubia; Damián H. Zanette

1998-01-01

32

Sustainable groundwater management under impacts of urban growth in a developing country - a case study in the city of Shijadran, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urban groundwater is an important and valuable resource for Shijadran City, China. With the impact of rapid urban growth Shijadran is at risk of severe aquifer depletion, regional water table decline and supply facilities refurbishment. This paper presents a multi-plan management of urban groundwater with two optimisation scenarios in order to alleviate and improve the environmental, social and economic situations

Yuesuo Yang; X. LIn; L. Zhou; R. M. Kalin

1999-01-01

33

Impact of Urban Surfaces on Precipitation Processes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) was established in 1988 by two United Nations organizations, the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) and the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) to assess the "risk of human-induced climate change". Such reports are used by decision-makers around the world to assess how our climate is changing. Its reports are widely respected and cited and have been highly influential in forming national and international responses to climate change. The Fourth Assessment report includes a section on the effects of surface processes on climate. This sub-chapter provides an overview of recent developments related to the impact of cities on rainfall. It highlights the possible mechanisms that buildings, urban heat islands, urban aerosols or pollution, and other human factors in cities that can affect rainfall.

Shepherd, J. M.

2004-01-01

34

URBAN POVERTY IN DEVELOPED COUNTRIES  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we investigate the urban\\/rural dimension of poverty in developed countries. We provide original estimates for Italy, we gather published statistics for France and the United States, and we produce novel cross-country estimates from the LIS database. We show that the size of urban poverty depends on where the boundaries of metropolitan districts are drawn and we observe

Andrea Brandolini; Piero Cipollone

35

Heat waves in urban heat islands: interactions, impacts, and mitigation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Urbanization rates and the intensity of anthropogenic global warming are both on the rise. By the middle of this century, climate change impacts on humans will be largely manifested in urban regions and will result from a combination of global to regional impacts related to greenhouse gas emissions, as well as regional to local impacts related to land-cover changes associated with urbanization. Alarmingly, our understanding of how these two distinct impacts will interact remains very poor. One example, which is the focus of this study, is the interaction of urban heat islands and heat waves. Urban heat islands (UHIs) are spatial anomalies consisting of higher temperatures over built terrain; while their intensity varies with many factors, it consistently increases with city size. UHIs will hence intensify in the future as cities expand. Heat waves are temporal anomalies in the regional temperatures that affect both urban and rural areas; there is high certainty that the frequency and intensity of such waves will increase as a result global warming. However, whether urban and rural temperatures respond in the same way to heat waves remains a critical unanswered question. In this study, a combination of observational and modeling analyses of a heat wave event over the Baltimore-Washington urban corridor reveals synergistic interactions between urban heat islands and heat waves. Not only do heat waves increase the regional temperatures, but they also intensify the difference between urban and rural temperatures. That is, their impact is stronger in cities and the urban heat stress during such waves is larger than the sum of the background urban heat island effect and the heat wave effect. We also develop a simple analytical model of this interaction that suggests that this exacerbated impact in urban areas is primarily to the lack of surface moisture, with low wind speeds also playing a smaller role. Finally, the effectiveness of cool and green roofs as UHI mitigation strategies during intense heat waves are evaluated at city scales. These strategies are shown to reduce urban surface temperatures in the Baltimore-Washington corridor by about 5 K and urban air temperatures by about 1 K. These reductions are most significant in the dense urban cores of the two cities, but they are not sufficient to fully offset the UHI effect.

Bou-Zeid, E.; Li, D.

2013-12-01

36

The Conundrum of Impacts of Climate Change on Urbanization and the Urban Heat Island Effect  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The twenty-first century is the first urban century according to the United Nations Development Program. The focus on cities reflects awareness of the growing percentage of the world's population that lives in urban areas. In 2000, approximately 3 billion people representing about 40% of the global population resided in urban areas. The United Nations estimates that by 2025, 60% of the world s population will live in urban areas. As a consequence, the number of megacities (those cities with populations of 10 million inhabitants or more) will increase by 100 by 2025. Thus, there is a critical need to understand the spatial growth of urban areas and what the impacts are on the environment. Moreover, there is a critical need to assess how under global climate change, cities will affect the local, regional, and even global climate. As urban areas increase in size, it is anticipated there will be a concomitant growth of the Urban Heat Island effect (UHI), and the attributes that are related to its spatial and temporal dynamics. Therefore, how climate change, including the dynamics of the UHI, will affect the urban environment, must be explored to help mitigate potential impacts on the environment (e.g., air quality, heat stress, vectorborne disease) and on human health and well being, to develop adaptation schemes to cope with these impacts.

Quattrochi, Dale A.

2011-01-01

37

Coupling a Single-Layer Urban Canopy Model with a Simple Atmospheric Model: Impact on Urban Heat Island Simulation for an Idealized Case  

Microsoft Academic Search

We incorporated a single-layer urban canopy model into a simple two-dimensional atmospheric model in order to describe the fundamental impact of the urban canopy model on an idealized urban heat island simulation. We found that the heat island circulation developed less strongly than when using the atmospheric model with the standard slab urban model. Additionally, the coupling with urban canopy

Hiroyuki KUSAKA; Fujio KIMURA

2004-01-01

38

The Impact of Professional Development on Elementary Teachers' Strategies for Teaching Science with Diverse Student Groups in Urban Elementary Schools  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study examined elementary teachers' instructional strategies for promoting scientific understanding and inquiry and supporting English language development with diverse student groups including English language learners. The study was part of a 5-year research and development project consisting of reform-based science curriculum units and teacher workshops aimed at providing effective science instruction to promote students' science and literacy achievement in urban elementary schools. Data consisted of 213 post-observation interviews with third, fourth, and fifth grade teachers. The teachers reported using instructional strategies to promote scientific understanding, but generally did not employ more sophisticated inquiry-based strategies. They also reported using instructional strategies to support English language development. There were significant differences among grade levels and by years of teacher participation.

Adamson, Karen; Santau, Alexandra; Lee, Okhee

2013-04-01

39

Urban management in developing countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews current thinking about urban management in developing countries. It does so in the context of recent contributions to a debate on the nature of urban management (Stren, 1993, Cities10 120–138; Mattingly, 1994, Cities11(3) 201–205; Werna, 1995, Cities12(5) 353–359). The paper therefore considers various definitions of the process. This is seen to focus on both the strategic and

Ronald McGill

1998-01-01

40

Impacts of urbanization on the carbon cycle (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Urban areas are expanding rapidly in population and land area. The impact of urban areas on carbon budgets is especially profound. Cities consume nearly 80% of total global energy use and produce approximately 70% of CO2 emissions. Expansion of urban areas in the coming decades is expected to outpace urban population growth, making urban land use change and associated impacts on regional C dynamics a critical element of the global C cycle. Despite the rapid urban expansion, the trajectories of carbon losses and gains following urban development remain poorly quantified, particularly at the urban-rural interface. This is the zone where land use change and C stocks are most dynamic, but least well quantified. While a growing body of research has allowed us to better quantify biomass in forested areas and within the boundaries of major cities, comparatively little work has addressed C stocks and dynamics in the 'middle ground' where the majority of land use change is occurring. Existing spatially-explicit regional and continental scale biomass estimates exclude urban developed areas or presume that they contain little or no biomass. Data on urban C fluxes to and from the atmosphere are likewise very sparse. Our existing network of surface CO2 observation sites intentionally avoids cities. We describe a multidisciplinary study across the greater Boston metropolitan region to characterize the sources and sinks of CO2 across urban-to-rural gradients including the development of new emissions inventories, assessment of land cover change, and process-level studies of variations in ecosystem productivity.

Hutyra, L.; Raciti, S. M.; Dunn, A. L.; Gately, C.; Sue Wing, I.; Woodcock, C.; Olofsson, P.; Friedl, M. A.

2013-12-01

41

States and urban strategies. State urban policy in Pennsylvania: economic development and community conservation strategies  

SciTech Connect

This case study discusses the nature and impact of Pennsylvania's urban strategy to provide a possible model for other States. The study gives a description of Pennsylvania's political, economic, and demographic characteristics and the current issues and problems facing the State and its communities. The origins of the urban strategy and its development are then outlined, including the principal organizations and actors involved. The study explains the content of the State urban strategy, describes the actions and programs proposed, and assesses the impact of the strategy. Although about three-fourths of Pennsylvania's residents are urban, the State has no formal urban policy. The State has a history of involvement in urban problems, its role has been fragmented and its approach has been more functional than comprehensive. Governor Richard Thornburgh's administration has called for major new planning which focuses on economic development and community conservation. Although administration officials do not identify the plan as an urban policy or strategy, the Governor argues that his plan has strong urban as well as rural components. The extent to which the Commonwealth has made, and continues to make, progress toward a State urban policy is assessed. An assessment is also made of the policies and programs affecting urban areas which were formulated by the previous State administration. The research emphasizes the underlying social, economic, demographic, and political dynamics affecting the State's approach to an urban policy.

Christian, C.M.; Williams, C.L.

1980-09-01

42

Impacts of housing development on nutrients flow along canals in a peri-urban area of Bangkok, Thailand.  

PubMed

Change of nutrients load and flow according to land-use change induced by housing development was investigated in Bang Yai, Nonthaburi, Thailand, which located in the peri-urban area of Bangkok. Each house in the newly developed residential community was regulated to be equipped with a septic tank to collect night soil. However, greywater and leachate from the septic tank was collected by a community sewage system and discharged into the canals with insufficient treatment, while the canals still function as infrastructure for irrigation and transportation. In the study area, built-up area became 1.4 times and agricultural fields decreased by 13% from 2003 until 2007. Total nutrients load to the canals was increased by 25% as nitrogen and 14% as phosphorus according to the increase of built-up area. Net nutrients load from agricultural fields was largely set off when we evaluated nutrients inflow from the canals to the agricultural field through irrigation. Consequently, nutrients load from domestic wastewater accounted most of net nutrients load into the canal. PMID:20182088

Honda, R; Hara, Y; Sekiyama, M; Hiramatsu, A

2010-01-01

43

Urban Problems and Community Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The essays in this collection promote a conception of community development that entails building practical capacities to improve the quality of life among residents of targeted neighborhoods. The causes, consequences, and potential solutions of urban problems that lie both inside and outside neighborhood borders are emphasized. The chapters are:…

Ferguson, Ronald F., Ed.; Dickens, William T., Ed.

44

Impact of the rural health development programme in the Islamic Republic of Iran on rural-urban disparities in health indicators.  

PubMed

By 1979, 50 years of uneven development and modernization by governments prior to the Islamic Revolution had left rural parts of the Islamic Republic of Iran with extremely low economic and health status. This paper reports on the impact of the rural health development programme implemented as an effective and inexpensive way to improve the heath of the rural population, especially mothers and children. It describes the system of rural health centres, health houses and community health workers (behvarz) and demonstrates the effectiveness of the programme through declining measures of rural-urban disparities in health indicators. The implications of inexpensive rural health policies for other countries in the region such as Afghanistan and central Asian countries with a similar sociocultural structure are discussed. PMID:19181021

Aghajanian, A; Mehryar, A H; Ahmadnia, S; Kazemipour, S

2008-01-01

45

Emergy-based urban health evaluation and development pattern analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study is to measure and evaluate the ecosystem health levels of 31 Chinese capital cities in 2004 through an emergy synthesis framework. A system of indicators was developed corresponding to the four factors of urban ecosystem health including efficiency, structure, impact and flux. Furthermore, combined with individual indices, an emergy-based urban ecosystem health index (EUEHI) was

G. Y. Liu; Z. F. Yang; B. Chen; S. Ulgiati

2009-01-01

46

Impact of postpartum anxiety and depression on child's mental development from two peri-urban communities of Karachi, Pakistan: a quasi-experimental study  

PubMed Central

Background Postpartum anxiety and depression has detrimental effects on the overall mental development of children. This study aims to assess the impact of postpartum anxiety and depression on children’s mental development on all sub-scales in a Pakistani population. Methods A quasi-experimental study was conducted in two peri-urban communities of Karachi, a mega city of Pakistan, to assess the impact of postpartum anxiety and depression on children’s growth and mental development. A total of 420 women were enrolled, who had given consent out of 651 pregnant women identified, during February 2004 to December 2005. Data for socio-demographic, home environment and family relationship variables were collected between 36 weeks of pregnancy and within 10 days of childbirth. Mother’s levels of anxiety and depression were assessed at 1, 2, 6, 12, 18, 24, and 30 months of childbirth. An indigenous, validated screening instrument- Aga Khan University Anxiety and Depression scale was used and diagnostic confirmation was done through a psychologist’s interview, based on DSM IV criteria. Children’s growth and development was monitored in the same sequence using an Early Childhood Development tool that consists of five subscales; socio emotional, language, cognitive, gross motor and fine motor development. Physical growth was monitored by measuring height and weight of the child. Data was analyzed using SAS 9.2. Multivariable Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE) logistic regression was conducted to identify association of postpartum anxiety and depression with each early childhood development indicator, adjusting for parental and child factors. Results A significant association of postpartum anxiety and depression with delayed development on all five subscales of children’s mental development was found in our study. Interestingly, our study found that higher maternal age had adverse effects on child’s emotional whereas positive impact on child’s cognitive development. Children’s stunting had an adverse impact on all five subscales of children’s development. Male children were at higher risk for delayed language and gross motor development relative to female children. Conclusions Our study found that postpartum anxiety and depression is associated with adverse outcomes regarding children’s mental development on all sub-scales. The impact was accentuated by low family income or child’s increasing age. PMID:24148567

2013-01-01

47

Urban greening impacts on tropospheric ozone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cities are characterized by elevated air temperatures as well as high anthropogenic emissions of air pollutants. Cities' greening in form of urban parks, street trees, and vegetation on roofs and walls of buildings is supposed to generally mitigate negative impacts on human health and well-being. However, high emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC) from certain popular urban plants in combination with the elevated concentrations of NOx have the potential to increase ground-level ozone concentrations - with negative impacts on health, agriculture, and climate. Policies targeting reduction of ground-level ozone in urban and suburban areas therefore must consider limiting BVOC emissions along with measures for decreasing NOx and VOC from anthropogenic sources. For this, integrated climate/ chemistry models are needed that take into account the species-specific physiological responses of urban plants which in turn drive their emission behavior. Current models of urban climate and air quality 1) do not account for the feedback between ozone concentrations, productivity, and BVOC emission and 2) do not distinguish different physiological properties of urban tree species. Instead environmental factors such as light, temperature, carbon dioxide, and water supply are applied disregarding interactions between such influences. Thus we may not yet be able to represent the impacts of air pollution under multiple changed conditions such as climate change, altered anthropogenic emission patterns, and new urban structures. We present here the implementation of the new BVOC emission model (Morfopolous et al., in press) that derives BVOC emissions directly from the electron production potential and consumption from photosynthesis calculation that is already supplied by the CLM land surface model. The new approach has the advantage that many environmental drivers of BVOC emissions are implicitly considered in the description of plant photosynthesis and phenology. We investigate the tradeoff between vegetation driven ozone -reduction and -formation processes in dependence on temperature, radiation, CO2 and O3 concentrations. We have parameterized suitable plant functional types for different urban greening structures, currently focusing on central European vegetation. The modified CLM model is applied in a global (CESM) and a regional climate/ air quality model (WRF-Chem) to calculate realistic ozone concentrations in the influence zones of urban conglomerations. BVOC emissions and their impacts are also calculated with the standard MEGAN2.1 approach for comparison. The simulation results are analyzed and discussed in view of the models suitability for air quality scenario estimates under simultaneously changing climate, anthropogenic emissions and plant species composition. References Morfopoulos, C., Prentice, I.C., Keenan T.F., Friedlingstein, P., Medlyn, B., Penuelas, J., Possel, M. (in press): A unifying conceptual model for the environmental responses of isoprene emission by plants. Annals of Botany

Grote, R.; Churkina, G.; Butler, T. M.; Morfopoulos, C.

2013-12-01

48

Meteorological impact on air pollutant transport in highly urbanized region.  

E-print Network

??Meteorological impacts on air pollutant transport in highly urbanized region were investigated using the mesoscale meteorological models and air quality model. Two meteorological impacts were… (more)

Ruan, Tao

2010-01-01

49

Urbanization and climate change impacts on future urban flooding in Can Tho city, Vietnam  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Urban development increases flood risk in cities due to local changes in hydrological and hydrometeorological conditions that increase flood hazard, as well as to urban concentrations that increase the vulnerability. The relationship between the increasing urban runoff and flooding due to increased imperviousness is better perceived than that between the cyclic impact of urban growth and the urban rainfall via microclimatic changes. The large-scale, global impacts due to climate variability and change could compound these risks. We present the case of a typical third world city - Can Tho (the biggest city in Mekong River Delta, Vietnam) - faced with multiple future challenges, namely: (i) the likely effect of climate change-driven sea level rise, (ii) an expected increase of river runoff due to climate change as estimated by the Vietnamese government, (iii) increased urban runoff driven by imperviousness, and (iv) enhancement of extreme rainfall due to urban growth-driven, microclimatic change (urban heat islands). A set of model simulations were used to construct future scenarios, combining these influences. Urban growth of the city was projected up to year 2100 based on historical growth patterns, using a land use simulation model (Dinamica EGO). A dynamic limited-area atmospheric model (WRF), coupled with a detailed land surface model with vegetation parameterization (Noah LSM), was employed in controlled numerical experiments to estimate the anticipated changes in extreme rainfall patterns due to urban heat island effect. Finally, a 1-D/2-D coupled urban-drainage/flooding model (SWMM-Brezo) was used to simulate storm-sewer surcharge and surface inundation to establish the increase in the flood hazard resulting from the changes. The results show that under the combined scenario of significant change in river level (due to climate-driven sea level rise and increase of flow in the Mekong) and "business as usual" urbanization, the flooding of Can Tho could increase significantly. The worst case may occur if a sea level rise of 100 cm and the flow from upstream happen together with high-development scenarios. The relative contribution of causes of flooding are significantly different at various locations; therefore, detailed research on adaptation are necessary for future investments to be effective.

Huong, H. T. L.; Pathirana, A.

2013-01-01

50

A landscape based, systems dynamic model for assessing impacts of urban development on water quality for sustainable seagrass growth in Tampa Bay, Florida  

EPA Science Inventory

We present an integrated assessment model to predict potential unintended consequences of urban development on the sustainability of seagrasses and preservation of ecosystem services, such as catchable fish, in Tampa Bay. Ecosystem services are those ecological functions and pro...

51

Impact of Upstream Urbanization on the Urban Heat Island Effects along the WashingtonBaltimore Corridor  

E-print Network

Impact of Upstream Urbanization on the Urban Heat Island Effects along the Washington considerable research on urban heat island (UHI) effects, most of the previous studies have attributed UHI and Lin 2000; Arnfield 2003). Kalnay and Cai (2003) showed that the urban heat island (UHI) effect could

Zhang, Da-Lin

52

Smartness and European urban performance: assessing the local impacts of smart urban attributes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we adopt a comprehensive definition of Smart City and examine whether and how the main characteristics of urban smartness are growth-enhancing. With a sample of cities from the European Union we assess the city-specific impacts on urban performance of a complex “urban smartness” indicator by applying a Spatial Autoregressive Local Estimate to an urban production function. The

Andrea Caragliu; Chiara Del Bo

2012-01-01

53

Investigating the climatic impact of urban planning strategies through the use of regional climate modelling: a case study for Melbourne, Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urban planning is a useful method for improving local climate and human health in cities through purposefully modifying urban land surface characteristics. This can reduce the potential risks of elevated city temperatures due to the urban heat island (UHI). Unfortunately, simple tools are not readily available for urban planners to assess the climatological impacts of various urban development scenarios. Urban

Andrew M. Coutts; Jason Beringer; Nigel J. Tapper

2008-01-01

54

Urbanization and watershed sustainability: Collaborative simulation modeling of future development states  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Urbanization has a significant impact on water resources and requires a watershed-based approach to evaluate impacts of land use and urban development on watershed processes. This study uses a simulation with urban policy scenarios to model and strategize transferable recommendations for municipalities and cities to guide urban decisions using watershed ecohydrologic principles. The watershed simulation model is used to evaluation intensive (policy in existing built regions) and extensive (policy outside existing build regions) urban development scenarios with and without implementation of Best Management practices (BMPs). Water quantity and quality changes are simulated to assess effectiveness of five urban development scenarios. It is observed that optimal combination of intensive and extensive strategies can be used to sustain urban ecosystems. BMPs are found critical to reduce storm water and water quality impacts on urban development. Conservation zoning and incentives for voluntary adoption of BMPs can be used in sustaining urbanizing watersheds.

Randhir, Timothy O.; Raposa, Sarah

2014-11-01

55

Development and validation of a macroinvertebrate index of biotic integrity (IBI) for assessing urban impacts to Northern California freshwater wetlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite California policies requiring assessment of ambient wetland condition and compensatory wetland mitigations, no intensive\\u000a monitoring tools have been developed to evaluate freshwater wetlands within the state. Therefore, we developed standardized,\\u000a wadeable field methods to sample macroinvertebrate communities and evaluated 40 wetlands across Northern California to develop\\u000a a macroinvertebrate index of biotic integrity (IBI). A priori reference sites were selected

Kevin B. Lunde; Vincent H. Resh

56

Modeling impact of urban air pollution on health  

E-print Network

Modeling impact of urban air pollution on health: Preliminary results and testing a methodology with hospitals for the study of air pollution impact on specific deceases (old people admitted in emergency morbidity data and pollutants concentrations at the regional/urban scale Health and air quality in France

Menut, Laurent

57

Urban Technologist Development Program - Phase I: An Educational Development Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication is the report of the first phase of the Urban Technologists Development Program at Youngstown State University. This phase involves a National Science Foundation supported study of college curriculum needs for urban technologists education. A survey (Appendix C) of urban planners and public works directors across the country was…

Youngstown State Univ., OH.

58

Impacts of urbanization on Florida Key deer behavior and population dynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rapid human population growth and urbanization have had a negative impact on species biodiversity. As competition for resources between man and wildlife continues, it is impor- tant to understand the effects of urbanization on species. Endangered Key deer (Odocoileus virginianus clavium) are endemic to the Florida Keys which have undergone rapid human population growth and development over the past 30

Patricia M. Harveson; Roel R. Lopez; Bret A. Collier; Nova J. Silvy

2006-01-01

59

Impacts of urbanization on Florida Key deer behavior and population dynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rapid human population growth and urbanization have had a negative impact on species biodiversity. As competition for resources between man and wildlife continues, it is important to understand the effects of urbanization on species. Endangered Key deer (Odocoileus virginianus clavium) are endemic to the Florida Keys which have undergone rapid human population growth and development over the past 30 years.

Patricia M. Harveson; Roel R. Lopez; Bret A. Collier; Nova J. Silvy

2007-01-01

60

Without zoning: Urban development and land use controls in Houston  

Microsoft Academic Search

Houston is the only major city in North America without zoning. The growth of Houston illustrates a traditional free market philosophy in which land use zoning is seen as a violation of private property and personal liberty. This paper explores how the lack of zoning has an impact on land use controls and urban development in Houston. Using a theoretical

Zhu Qian

2010-01-01

61

Hydro-meteorological and micro-climatic impacts of urbanization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Urbanization is one of the important drivers of micro and regional climate change. However, urban modeling still faces significant challenges mainly due to difficulties in representing small-scale physical processes occurring in urban canopies and in parameterizing the highly heterogeneous urban surfaces at regional scales. The Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model can be a powerful tool in overcoming these challenges due to its nesting and large-eddy simulation capabilities. In this study, we use the WRF model to study the impact of urbanization on urban hydrology (particularly rainfall) and the urban microclimate (i.e., the urban heat island) along the Baltimore-Washington Corridor. Two periods are simulated using WRF, one includes a heavy rainfall event and the other includes a heat wave event. The simulation results are compared to a variety of measurements, including radar rainfall estimates; vertical profiles of wind, water vapor and potential temperature; surface meteorological observations; and remotely-observed land surface temperature. The findings indicate that changing urban surface representations in the WRF model leads to significant changes in the rainfall pattern and amount, due to the modification of the surface energy budgets and the canopy effect. The sensitivity of urban rainfall modeling to urban surface models is comparable to the sensitivity to the microphysics schemes. The urban canopy model (UCM) is critical for capturing the surface energy partitioning and the land surface temperature. We also observe that the default single-layer urban canopy model (UCM) in WRF overestimates the surface temperatures along Washington-Baltimore Corridor when compared to the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellite observations. To improve the model performance, a new urban canopy model, calibrated using field observations, with two surface types for the roofs (conventional roof and green roof) and three for the ground (asphalt, concrete and grass) is implemented into WRF. The new urban canopy model significantly reduces the errors in land surface temperature over urban areas and can simulate the urban heat island effect reasonably well.

Li, D.; Bou-Zeid, E.; Baeck, M. L.; Jessup, S.; Smith, J. A.

2012-12-01

62

URBAN HEAT ISLANDS AND ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rapid urbanization and industrialization have brought about microclimatic changes particularly with regard to its thermal structure. The well documented climatic modification of the city is urban heat island. The present paper discusses the nature and intensity of heat islands at Visakhapatnam, the tropical coastal city of South India. A detailed study was carried out with regard to urban heat

Suryadevara S. Devi

63

Impacts of Urbanization in the Coastal Tropical City of San Juan, Puerto Rico  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Urban sprawl in tropical locations is rapidly accelerating and it is more evident in islands where a large percentage of the population resides along the coasts. This paper focuses on the analysis of the impacts of land use and land cover for urbanization in the tropical coastal city of San Juan, in the Caribbean island of Puerto Rico. A mesoscale numerical model, the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS), is used to study the impacts of land use for urbanization in the environment including specific characteristics of the urban heat island in the San Juan Metropolitan Area (SJMA), one of the most noticeable urban cores of the Caribbean. The research also makes use of the observations obtained during the airborne San Juan Atlas Mission. Surface and raw insonde data from the mission are used to validate the atmospheric model yielding satisfactory results. Airborne high resolution remote sensing data are used to update the model's surface characteristics in order to obtain a more accurate and detailed configuration of the SJMA and perform a climate impact analysis based on land cover/land use (LCLU) changes. The impact analysis showed that the presence of the urban landscape of San Juan has an impact reflected in higher air temperatures over the area occupied by the city, with positive values of up to 2.5 degrees C, for the simulations that have specified urban LCLU indexes in the model's bottom boundary. One interesting result of the impact analysis was the finding of a precipitation disturbance shown as a difference in total accumulated rainfall between the present urban landscape and with a potential natural vegetation, apparently induced by the presence of the urban area. Results indicate that the urban-enhanced cloud formation and precipitation development occur mainly downwind of the city, including the accumulated precipitation. This spatial pattern can be explained by the presence of a larger urbanized area in the southwest sector of the city, and of the approaching northeasterly trade winds.

Comarazamy, Daniel E.; Gonzalez, Jorge E.; Luvall, Jeffrey C.; Rickman, Douglass

2007-01-01

64

Modelling the Impacts of Different Policy Scenarios on Urban Growth in Lanzhou with Remote Sensing and Cellular Automata  

Microsoft Academic Search

Integration of remote sensing and CA has been the frontier edge of the urban research. This paper presents an application of remote sensing and cellular automata in modelling the impacts of different policy scenarios on urban growth in Lanzhou, China. SLEUTH urban growth model, was introduced and coupled with remote sensing loosely. SLEUTH was an extended cellular automata model, developed

Xu Xibao; Zhang Feng; Zhang Jianming

2006-01-01

65

Impact of urbanization on the water quality, fish habitat, and fish community of a Lake Ontario marsh, Frenchman's Bay.  

E-print Network

1 Impact of urbanization on the water quality, fish habitat, and fish community of a Lake Ontario of water quality from urban development and3 proximity to a major highway have reduced the historically and runoff5 from the urban watershed and highway have resulted in poor water quality, and warmer6 waters

McMaster University

66

Impact of urban heat island on regional atmospheric pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this work is to study the impact of an urban land cover on local meteorology and spatial distribution of atmospheric pollutants over the Paris region. One anticyclonic episode from the ESQUIF campaign was simulated using the meso-scale meteorological and chemical Meso-NHC model coupled to the town energy balance (TEB) urban canopy model. A control simulation was also

C. Sarrat; A. Lemonsu; V. Masson; D. Guedalia

2006-01-01

67

Impact of urbanization and land-use change on climate  

Microsoft Academic Search

The most important anthropogenic influences on climate are the emission of greenhouse gases and changes in land use, such as urbanization and agriculture. But it has been difficult to separate these two influences because both tend to increase the daily mean surface temperature. The impact of urbanization has been estimated by comparing observations in cities with those in surrounding rural

Eugenia Kalnay; Ming Cai

2003-01-01

68

EVALUATION OF SECONDARY ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS OF URBAN RUNOFF POLLUTION CONTROL  

EPA Science Inventory

This report presents a generalized evaluation of the impacts associated with different urban stormwater runoff (UR) treatment techniques. The report addresses the definition of the problem, estimates the volume and characteristics of the UR and the sludges expected, evaluates six...

69

Application of the ACASA model for urban development studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since urban population is growing fast and urban areas are recognized as the major source of CO2 emissions, more attention has being dedicated to the topic of urban sustainability and its connection with the climate. Urban flows of energy, water and carbon have an important impact on climate change and their quantification is pivotal in the city design and management. Large effort has been devoted to quantitative estimates of the urban metabolism components, and several advanced models have been developed and used at different spatial and temporal scales for this purpose. However, it is necessary to develop suitable tools and indicators to effectively support urban planning and management with the goal of achieving a more sustainable metabolism in the urban environment. In this study, the multilayer model ACASA (Advanced Canopy-Atmosphere-Soil Algorithm) was chosen to simulate the exchanges of heat, water vapour and CO2 within and above urban canopy. After several calibration and evaluation tests over natural and agricultural ecosystems, the model was recently modified for application in urban and peri-urban areas. New equations to account for the anthropogenic contribution to heat exchange and carbon production, as well as key parameterizations of leaf-facet scale interactions to separate both biogenic and anthropogenic flux sources and sinks, were added to test changes in land use or urban planning strategies. The analysis was based on the evaluation of the ACASA model performance in estimating urban metabolism components at local scale. Simulated sensible heat, latent heat, and carbon fluxes were compared with in situ Eddy Covariance measurements collected in the city centre of Florence (Italy). Statistical analysis was performed to test the model accuracy and reliability. Model sensitivity to soil types and increased population density values was conducted to investigate the potential use of ACASA for evaluating the impact of planning alternative scenarios. In this contest, an in progress application of ACASA for estimating carbon exchanges alternative scenarios is represented by its integration in a software framework composed by: (i) a Cellular Automata model to simulate the urban land-use dynamics; (ii) a transportation model, able to estimate the variation of the transportation network load; (iii) the ACASA model, and (iv) the mesoscale weather model WRF for the estimation of the relevant urban metabolism components at regional scale. The CA module is able to produce future land use maps, which represent a spatial distribution of the aggregate land-use demand consistent with the main rules governing the functioning of an urban system. Such future land use maps, together with the street network including the current traffic data, are used by the transportation module for estimating future traffic data coherent with the assumed land uses trends. All these information are then used by the coupled model WRF-ACASA for estimating future maps of CO2 fluxes in the urban area under consideration, allowing to estimate the impact of future planning strategies in reducing C emissions. The in-progress application of this system to the city of Florence is presented here.

Marras, S.; Pyles, R. D.; Falk, M.; Snyder, R. L.; Paw U, K. T.; Blecic, I.; Trunfio, G. A.; Cecchini, A.; Spano, D.

2012-04-01

70

Urban development and employment in Abidjan.  

PubMed

The city of Abidjan in the Ivory Coast has grown physically, economically, and demographically at rates exceeding all reasonable expectation. Yet, as in many other development nations, the employment generated by Abidjan's rapid economic expansion has failed to keep pace with the increase in working population it has attracted. Consequently, economic success has been accompanied by a variety of social strains. Some of these have been discussed in earlier issues of the "International Labour Review" by Louis Roussel. This discussion expands on Roussel's earlier treatment by focusing more specifically on several facets of the urban employment problem created by the rapid growth of Abidjan. Attention is directed to labor supply and employment, factors affecting migration, foreign Africans in the Ivory Coast labor force; the urban informal sector; urban infrastructure and development; social problems of population pressure; employment policy options (current government policies and other policy options); and general issues and policy alternatives (motivations for rural urban migration, smaller urban centers as alternative growth poles, and distributing the gains from development). Several essential features of the employment problem stem from the rural urban distribution of the workforce. The rural labor force, including temporary seasonal workers from the savannah countries to the north, remains more or less in balance with increasing rural employment opportunities, since the migration of Ivory Coast nationals to the cities is balanced by the inflow of foreign workers. In contrast, the influx of migrants into urban areas has led to a more rapid increase in the urban labor force than in urban employment, with a consequent rise in unemployment. In 1970 the Abidjan rate of open unemployment was probably around 20%. At this time, most people's idea of a desirable job is one in the formal sector of the urban economy. If there is to be any hope of an eventual balance between expectations and reality, it must be realized that an increasing share of the urban labor force will have to end up in the informal sector. Different attitudes towards work in the informal sector are needed on the part of both young people entering the labor force and of government policy makers. The latter should be seeking ways to increase productivity and incomes in the informal sector rather than for ways to destroy it. Current government policies include the training and educating of nationals to replace foreign technicians and managers, increasing the attractiveness of the rural milieu by the promotion of cooperatives, attempts to reform the land tenure system, the supply of electricity to villages, and the introduction of educational television; and adapting the educational system and technical training programs to the needs of the economy. PMID:12265634

Joshi, H; Lubell, H; Mouly, J

1975-04-01

71

Impact of urban sprawl on United States residential energy use  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Improving energy efficiency through technological advances has been the focus of U.S. energy policy for decades. However, there is evidence that technology alone will be neither sufficient nor timely enough to solve looming crises associated with fossil fuel dependence and resulting greenhouse gas accumulation. Hence attention is shifting to demand-side measures. While the impact of urban sprawl on transportation energy use has been studied to a degree, the impact of sprawl on non-transport residential energy use represents a new area of inquiry. This dissertation is the first study linking sprawl to residential energy use and provides empirical support for compact land-use developments, which, as a demand-side measure, might play an important role in achieving sustainable residential energy consumption. This dissertation develops an original conceptual framework linking urban sprawl to residential energy use through electricity transmission and distribution losses and two mediators, housing stock and formation of urban heat islands. These two mediators are the focuses of this dissertation. By tapping multiple databases and performing statistical and geographical spatial analyses, this dissertation finds that (1) big houses consume more energy than small ones and single-family detached housing consumes more energy than multifamily or single-family attached housing; (2) residents of sprawling metro areas are more likely to live in single-family detached rather than attached or multifamily housing and are also expected to live in big houses; (3) a compact metro area is expected to have stronger urban heat island effects; (4) nationwide, urban heat island phenomena bring about a small energy reward, due to less energy demand on space heating, while they impose an energy penalty in States with a hot climate like Texas, due to higher energy demand for cooling; and taken all these together, (5) residents of sprawling metro areas are expected to consume more energy at home than residents of compact metro areas. This dissertation concludes with the policy implications that emerged from this study and suggestions for future research as well.

Rong, Fang

72

Modeling Low Impact Development Alternatives with SWIMM  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency?s Office of Water (OW) is actively promoting the use of Low Impact Development (LID) practices to help protect and restore water quality in urban and developing areas. Such practices support the concepts of green infrastructure and sustain...

73

Global Forecasts of Urban Expansion to 2030 and Direct Impacts on Biodiversity and Carbon Pools  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Urban land cover change threatens biodiversity and affects ecosystem productivity through loss of habitat, biomass, and carbon storage. Yet, despite projections that world urban populations will increase to 4.3 billion by 2030, little is known about future locations, magnitudes, and rates of urban expansion. Here we develop the first global probabilistic forecasts of urban land cover change and explore the impacts on biodiversity hotspots and tropical carbon biomass. If current trends in population density continue, then by 2030, urban land cover will expand between 800,000 and 3.3 million km2, representing a doubling to five-fold increase from the global urban land cover in 2000. This would result in considerable loss of habitats in key biodiversity hotspots, including the Guinean forests of West Africa, Tropical Andes, Western Ghats and Sri Lanka. Within the pan-tropics, loss in forest biomass from urban expansion is estimated to be 1.38 PgC (0.05 PgC yr-1), equal to approximately 5% of emissions from tropical land use change. Although urbanization is often considered a local issue, the aggregate global impacts of projected urban expansion will require significant policy changes to affect future growth trajectories to minimize global biodiversity and forest carbon losses.

Seto, K. C.; Guneralp, B.; Hutyra, L.

2012-12-01

74

Mayan urbanism: impact on a tropical karst environment.  

PubMed

From the first millennium B.C. through the 9th-century A.D. Classic Maya collapse, nonurban populations grew exponentially, doubling every 408 years, in the twin-lake (Yaxha-Sacnab) basin that contained the Classic urban center of Yaxha. Pollen data show that forests were essentially cleared by Early Classic time. Sharply accelerated slopewash and colluviation, amplified in the Yaxha subbasin by urban construction, transferred nutrients plus calcareous, silty clay to both lakes. Except for the urban silt, colluvium appearing as lake sediments has a mean total phosphorus concentration close to that of basin soils. From this fact, from abundance and distribution of soil phosphorus, and from continuing post-Maya influxes (80 to 86 milligrams of phosphorus per square meter each year), which have no other apparent source, we conclude that riparian soils are anthrosols and that the mechanism of long-term phosphorus loading in lakes is mass transport of soil. Per capita deliveries of phosphorus match physiological outputs, approximately 0.5 kilogram of phosphorus per capita per year. Smaller apparent deliveries reflect the nonphosphatic composition of urban silt; larger societal outputs, expressing excess phosphorus from deforestation and from food waste and mortuary disposal, are probable but cannot be evaluated from our data. Eutrophication is not demonstrable and was probably impeded, even in less-impacted lakes, by suspended Maya silt. Environmental strain, the product of accelerating agroengineering demand and sequestering of nutrients in colluvium, developed too slowly to act as a servomechanism, damping population growth, at least until Late Classic time. PMID:17733669

Deevey, E S; Rice, D S; Rice, P M; Vaughan, H H; Brenner, M; Flannery, M S

1979-10-19

75

The Center for Urban Entrepreneurship & Economic Development  

E-print Network

Entrepreneurship and Economic Development* (22:620:672) (3) Evaluation of New Ventures* (22:390:674) Social: Evaluation of Business Ventures and Urban Entrepreneurship & Economic Development are courses that can count of Strategic Transformation 22:620:606 Negotiations 22:620:617 Doing Business in China 22:553:671 Doing

76

Urban areas impact on surface water quality during rainfall events  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Increasing population and welfare puts water management under stress, especially in what concerns water quality. Surface water properties are strongly linked with hydrological processes and are affected by stream flow variability. Changes in some chemical substances concentrations can be ascribed to different water sources. Runoff generated in urban areas is considered the main responsible for water quality degradation inside catchments. This poster presents the methodology and first results of a study that is being developed to assess the impact of urbanization on surface water quality, during rainfall events. It focuses on the Ribeira dos Covões catchment (620 ha) located in central Portugal. Due to its proximity to the Coimbra city in central region, the urban areas sprawled during the last decades. In 2008, urban areas represented 32% of the area. Recently a highway was constructed crossing the catchment and a technological industrial park is being build-up in the headwaters. Several water samples were collected at four different locations: the catchment outlet and in three sub-catchments with distinct urbanization patterns - Espírito Santo that represents a highly urbanized area (45%) located over sandstone, Porto do Bordalo with 30% of urbanized area located over limestone, and IParque, mainly forest and just downstream the disturbed technological industrial park construction area. The samples were collected at different times during rainfall events to monitor the variability along the hydrograph. Six monitoring campaigns were performed: two in April 2011, at the end of the winter period, and the others between October and November 2011, after the dry summer. The number of samples collected per monitoring campaign is variable according with rainfall pattern. Parameters such as pH, conductivity, turbidity and total suspended sediments were immediately analyzed. The samples were then preserved, after filtered (0.45µm), and later analyzed for dissolved chemical oxygen demand, total phosphorous, nitrogen (Kjeldahl, nitrate and ammonium), some cations and heavy metals, according with standard methods. In each monitored location there is a continuous-recording water-level that provides flow data. The rainfall data is monitored with a raingauge located at the catchment outlet. The results show that surface runoff affects stream water quality according with rainfall pattern. During rainfall events the rising limb flow is associated with an increase in suspended sediment concentration and turbidity, particularly at Iparque. In this sub-catchment, the deforestation and the topsoil removal associated with the technological industrial park construction, promotes suspended sediments growth ranging from 395% to 1645%, corresponding to peak concentrations of 1049mg/L and 3621mg/L, for similar rainfall amounts but with distinct intensities (0.4mm/5minutes and 1.2mm/5minutes, respectively). As regards to the monitored dissolved chemical properties, despite the variability, related with the hydrograph, the increase is much lower comparing with the suspended sediments. Generally, the values are higher at the catchment outlet, which can indicate that the contact time between rainfall and the surfaces before reach the water line affects water quality. This should be considered during urban planning to improve water quality and reduce environmental impacts with low investment.

Ferreira, C. S. S.; Soares, D.; Ferreira, A. J. D.; Costa, M. L.; Steenhuis, T. S.; Coelho, C. O. A.; Walsh, R. P. D.

2012-04-01

77

Introduction to Urban Design and Development  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Part of MIT's innovative OpenCourseWare Project, that provides materials from MIT classes to the public on the web, the site provides materials introducing how urban areas change over time, and the future of urban development. This course examines the evolving structure of cities and the way that cities, suburbs, and metropolitan areas can be designed and developed. Boston and other American cities are studied to see how physical, social, political and economic forces interact to shape and reshape cities over time.

Silberberg, Susan

2006-11-26

78

Remote Detection of Urban Intensity for Climate Change Impact Assessments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Integration of human and earth system models for climate change impact assessments requires consistent projections of urban extent and accurate representation of urban intensity. In this study, a map of urban extent created for the Community Land Model (CLM) from LandScan 2004 population densities is compared to a map of percent impervious surface area (IMPSA) and satellite-derived normalized difference built-up index (NDBI), land surface temperature (LST), and impervious surface area derived from the fractional vegetation cover (Fr). São Paulo, Brazil and surrounding areas are selected for initial evaluation of four categories of urban intensity, including Tall Building District, High Density, Medium Density, and Low Density. Indices derived from MODIS may provide a more rapid and reliable way to map urban and periurban areas for global climate modeling.

Cochran, F. V.; Brunsell, N. A.

2013-12-01

79

Restructuring for growth in urban China: Transitional institutions, urban development, and spatial transformation  

E-print Network

Restructuring for growth in urban China: Transitional institutions, urban development, and spatial is undergoing dramatic growth and restructuring. As the southern center of the Yangtze River Delta, an emerging, including globalization, tourism, industrial development, and urban development, in the context of shifting

Wei, Yehua Dennis

80

On the urban land-surface impact on climate over Central Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For the purpose of qualifying and quantifying the impact of cities and in general the urban surfaces on climate over central Europe, the surface parameterization in regional climate model RegCM4 has been extended with the Single Layer Urban Canopy Model (SLUCM) for urban and suburban land surface. This can be used both in dynamic scale within BATS scheme and in a more detailed SUBBATS scale to treat the surface processes on a higher resolution subgrid. A set of experiments was performed over the period of 2005-2009 over central Europe, either without considering urban surfaces and with the SLUCM treatment. Results show a statistically significant impact of urbanized surfaces on temperature (up to 1.5 K increase in summer), on the boundary layer height (ZPBL, increases up to 50 m). Urbanization further influences surface wind with a winter decrease up to -0,6 m s-1 and both increases and decreases in summer depending the location with respect to cities and daytime (changes up to 0.3 ms-1). Urban surfaces significantly reduce evaporation and thus the humidity over the surface. This impacts in our simulations the summer precipitation rate showing decrease over cities up to - 2 mm day-1. We further showed, that significant temperature increases are not limited to the urban canopy layer but spawn the whole boundary layer. Above that, a small but statistically significant temperature decrease is modeled. The comparison with observational data showed significant improvement in modeling the monthly surface temperatures in summer and the models better describe the diurnal temperature variation reducing the afternoon and evening bias due to the UHI development, which was not captured by the model if one does not apply the urban parameterization. Sensitivity experiments were carried out as well to quantify the response of the meteorological conditions to changes in the parameters specific to the urban environment such as street width, building height, albedo of the roofs, anthropogenic heat release etc. and showed that the results are rather robust and the choice of the key SLUCM parameters impacts the results only slightly (mainly temperature, ZPBL and wind velocity). Further, the important conclusion is that statistically significant impacts are modeled not only over large urbanized areas (cities), but the influence of cities is evident over remote rural areas as well with minor or without any urban surfaces. We show that this is the result of the combined effect of the distant influence of surrounding cities and the influence of the minor local urban surface coverage.

Huszar, Peter; Halenka, Tomas; Belda, Michal; Zemankova, Katerina; Zak, Michal

2014-05-01

81

Developing a framework to assess the water quality and quantity impacts of climate change, shifting land use, and urbanization in a Midwestern agricultural landscape  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dynamic hydrological processes play a critical role in the structure and functioning of agricultural watersheds undergoing urbanization. Developing a predictive understanding of the complex interaction between agricultural productivity, ecosystem health, water quality, urban development, and public policy requires an interdisciplinary effort that investigates the important biophysical and social processes of the system. Our research group has initiated such a framework that includes a coordinated program of integrated scenarios, model experiments to assess the effects of changing drivers on a broad set of ecosystem services, evaluations of governance and leverage points, outreach and public engagement, and information management. Our geographic focus is the Yahara River watershed in south-central Wisconsin, which is an exemplar of water-related issues in the Upper Midwest. This research addresses three specific questions. 1) How do different patterns of land use, land cover, land management, and water resources engineering practices affect the resilience and sensitivity of ecosystem services under a changing climate? 2) How can regional governance systems for water and land use be made more resilient and adaptive to meet diverse human needs? 3) In what ways are regional human-environment systems resilient and in what ways are they vulnerable to potential changes in climate and water resources? A comprehensive program of model experiments and biophysical measurements will be utilized to evaluate changes in five freshwater ecosystem services (flood regulation, groundwater recharge, surface water quality, groundwater quality, and lake recreation) and five related ecosystem services (food crop yields, bioenergy crop yields, carbon storage in soil, albedo, and terrestrial recreation). Novel additions to existing biophysical models will allow us to simulate all components of the hydrological cycle as well as agricultural productivity, nitrogen and phosphorus transport, and lake water quality. The integrated model will be validated using a comprehensive observational database that includes soil moisture, evapotranspiration, stomatal conductance, streamflow, stream and lake water quality, and crop yields and productivity. Integrated scenarios will be developed to synthesize decision-maker perspectives, alternative approaches to resource governance, plausible trends in demographic and economic drivers, and model projections under alternate climate and land use regimes to understand future conditions of the watershed and its ecosystem services. The quantitative data and integrated scenarios will then be linked to evaluate governance of water and land use.

Loheide, S. P.; Booth, E. G.; Kucharik, C. J.; Carpenter, S. R.; Gries, C.; Katt-Reinders, E.; Rissman, A. R.; Turner, M. G.

2011-12-01

82

Meteorological impacts on urban sulfate levels  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of various meteorological conditions on ambient sulfate levels in Boston, Mass., are evaluated. Two-hour average samples of total sulfate and total suspended particulate were collected at three urban sites. Meteorological data including barometric pressure, absolute humidity, and wind direction were obtained for each sampling interval. High correlations between sulfate levels and the meteorological variables are noted. A sulfate

W. A. Turner; C. J. Gregory

1980-01-01

83

DISSOLVED OXYGEN IMPACT FROM URBAN STORM RUNOFF  

EPA Science Inventory

The primary objective of the research reported here is to determine if on a national basis a correlation exists between strength of dissolved oxygen (DO) deficits and the presence of rainfall and/or storm runoff downstream of urban areas. A secondary objective is to estimate the ...

84

Satellite remote sensing data for urban heat waves assessment and human health impacts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Remote sensing is a key application in global-change science and urban climatology. Urbanization, the conversion of other types of land to uses associated with growth of populations and economy has a great impact on both micro-climate as well as macro-climate. By integrating high-resolution and medium-resolution satellite imagery with other geospatial information, have been investigated several land surface parameters including impervious surfaces and land surface temperatures for Bucharest metropolitan area in Romania. The aim of this study is to examine the changes in land use/cover pattern in a rapidly changing area of Bucharest in relation to urbanization since the 1990s till 2011 and then to investigate the impact of such changes on the intensity and spatial pattern of the UHI (Urban Heat Island) effect in the region in relation with heat waves assessment. Investigation of radiative properties, energy balance, heat fluxes and NDVI, EVI is based on satellite data provided by various sensors Landsat TM/ETM, ASTER, MODIS and IKONOS. A detailed analysis was done for summer 2003, 2007 and 2010 years heat wave events in and related impacts on human health. So called effect of "urban heat island" must be considered mostly for summer periods conditions and large European scale heat waves. As future climate trends have been predicted to increase the magnitude and negative impacts of urban heat waves in Bucharest metropolitan area, there is an urgent need to be developed adequate strategies for societal vulnerability reducing.

Zoran, M. A.; Dida, M. R.

2012-10-01

85

South Sudan urban development strategy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Southern Sudan - the ten southern provinces of Sudan - has attained autonomy and may soon achieve total independence from Sudan. Yet decades of civil war not only prevented development but destroyed the infrastructure left over from the colonial period. While Southern Sudan is fortunate to have oil resources that can finance building up the new nation, the task is

Vittorio Emmanuel Pareto

2008-01-01

86

Impacts of Urbanization in the Coastal Tropical City of San Juan, Puerto Rico  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Urban sprawl in tropical locations is rapidly accelerating and it is more evident in islands where a large percentage of the population resides along the coasts. This paper focuses on the analysis of the impacts of land use and land cover for urbanization in the tropical coastal city of San Juan, in the Caribbean island of Puerto Rico. A mesoscale numerical model, the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS), is used to study the impacts of land use for urbanization in the environment including specific characteristics of the urban heat island in the San Juan Metropolitan Area (SJMA), one of the most noticeable urban cores of the Caribbean. The research also makes use of the observations obtained during the airborne San Juan Atlas Mission. Surface and rawinsonde data from the mission are used to validate the atmospheric model yielding satisfactory results. Airborne high resolution remote sensing data are used to update the model's surface characteristics in order to obtain a more accurate and detailed configuration of the SJMA and perform a climate impact analysis based on land cover/land use (LCLU) changes. The impact analysis showed that the presence of the urban landscape of San Juan has an impact reflected in higher air temperatures over the area occupied by the city, with positive values of up to 2.5 C, for the simulations that have specified urban LCLU indexes in the model's bottom boundary. One interesting result of the impact analysis was the finding of a precipitation disturbance shown as a difference in total accumulated rainfall between the present urban landscape and with a potential natural vegetation, apparently induced by the presence of the urban area. Results indicate that the urban enhanced cloud formation and precipitation development occur mainly downwind of the city, including the accumulated precipitation. This spatial pattern can be explained by the presence of a larger urbanized area in the southwest sector of the city, and of the approaching northeasterly trade winds. No significant impacts were found in the sea breeze patterns of the city.

Comarazamy, Daniel E.; Gonzalez, Jorge E.; Luvall, Jeffrey C.; Rickman, Douglas L.; Mulero, Pedro J.

2007-01-01

87

Urban development partnerships challenges for leadership and management  

E-print Network

'Partnership' is a term which is used very liberally in the context of large scale urban development. Mixed-use, brownfield projects, transit-oriented development, urban regeneration: all these projects require partnerships ...

Khong, Daniel

2011-01-01

88

UN-Habitat: Sustainable Urban Development Network  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The United Nations Human Settlements Programme, or UN-HABITAT, is the organizationâ≢s agency for human settlements. The groupâ≢s main objective is to ââ¬ÃÂpromote socially and environmentally sustainable towns and cities with the goal of providing adequate shelter for all.ââˆMore specifically, the Sustainable Urban Development Network, or SUD-NET, works to reduce poverty and encourage the creation and development of ââ¬ÃÂlivable, productive and inclusive cities.ââˆThose interested in globalization and urban development worldwide will find much of interest here, including the groupâ≢s key activities, thematic focus areas, partnerships, and reports. ââ¬ÃÂCities and Climate Change Initiative,ââˆa 2009 report, is currently featured on the website, and is available for download as a PDF.

89

Using Repeated LIDAR to Characterize Topographic Changes in Riparian Areas and Stream Channel Morphology in Areas Undergoing Urban Development: An Accuracy Assessment Guide for Local Watershed Managers  

EPA Science Inventory

Urban development and the corresponding increases in impervious surfaces associated with that development have long been known to have adverse impacts upon urban riparian systems, water quality and quantity, groundwater recharge, streamflow, and aquatic ecosystem integrity. The ...

90

Numerical simulation of the impact of land cover change on Urban Heat Island effect in Nanjing  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, Weather Research and Forecast Model (WRF) is coupled with the optimal urban parameterization scheme to study the impact of land cover change in Nanjing on Urban Heat Island (UHI). Results show that urbanization intensifies surface air temperature over the region, with the intensity of UHI increased. After urbanization, wind speed over the downtown decreases rapidly, while Urban

Zhihong Jiang; Limei Ye; Fei Huo

2011-01-01

91

Urban settlement issues : observations from 181 surveys of urban dwelling environments in developing countries  

E-print Network

Observations and summaries were made on 181 surveys of urban dwelling environments in developing countries, carried out by members of the Urban Settlement Design Program (U.S.D.P.), at MIT. The focus of this study is in ...

Wang, Chih-chien, M.S. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

1982-01-01

92

Meteorological impacts on urban sulfate levels  

SciTech Connect

The effects of various meteorological conditions on ambient sulfate levels in Boston, Mass., are evaluated. Two-hour average samples of total sulfate and total suspended particulate were collected at three urban sites. Meteorological data including barometric pressure, absolute humidity, and wind direction were obtained for each sampling interval. High correlations between sulfate levels and the meteorological variables are noted. A sulfate prediction model based on multiple linear regression is presented. (4 graphs, 19 references, 2 tables)

Turner, W.A.; Gregory, C.J.

1980-04-01

93

Evaluation of the impact of the surrounding urban morphology on building energy consumption  

SciTech Connect

Empirical models of minimum (T{sub min}), average (T{sub avg}) and maximum (T{sub max}) air temperature for Singapore estate have been developed and validated based on a long-tem field measurement. There are three major urban elements, which influence the urban temperature at the local scale. Essentially, they are buildings, greenery and pavement. Other related parameters identified for the study, such as green plot ratio (GnPR), sky view factor (SVF), surrounding building density, the wall surface area, pavement area, albedo are also evaluated to give a better understanding on the likely impact of the modified urban morphology on energy consumption. The objective of this research is to assess and to compare how the air temperature variation of urban condition can affect the building energy consumption in tropical climate of Singapore. In order to achieve this goal, a series of numerical calculation and building simulation are utilized. A total of 32 cases, considering different urban morphologies, are identified and evaluated to give better a understanding on the implication of urban forms, with the reference to the effect of varying density, height and greenery density. The results show that GnPR, which related to the present of greenery, have the most significant impact on the energy consumption by reducing the temperature by up to 2 C. The results also strongly indicate an energy saving of 4.5% if the urban elements are addressed effectively. (author)

Wong, Nyuk Hien; Chen, Yixing; Hajadi, Norwin; Sathyanarayanan, Haripriya; Manickavasagam, Yamini Vidya [Department of Building, National University of Singapore (Singapore); Jusuf, Steve Kardinal [Center for Sustainable Asian Cities, National University of Singapore (Singapore); Syafii, Nedyomukti Imam [Institute of High Performance Computing (Singapore)

2011-01-15

94

Managing the adverse thermal effects of urban development in a densely populated Chinese city.  

PubMed

Guangzhou city in South China has experienced an accelerated urban development since the 1980s. This paper examines the impact of the urban development on urban heat islands through a historical analysis of urban-rural air temperature differences. Remote sensing techniques were applied to derive information on land use/cover and land surface temperatures and to assess the thermal response patterns of land cover types. The results revealed an overriding importance of urban land cover expansion in the changes in heat island intensity and surface temperature patterns. Urban development was also related to a continual air temperature increase in the 1980s and 1990s. The combined use of satellite-derived vegetation and land cover distributions with land surface temperature maps provides a potential useful tool for many planning applications. The city's greening campaigns and landscaping designs should consider the different cooling effects of forest, shrubs and grassy lawns for temperature control and should plant more tall trees. PMID:15160740

Weng, Qihao; Yang, Shihong

2004-02-01

95

Impacts of Urbanization on Indian Summer Monsoon Rainfall  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rapid urbanisation all around the world is a matter of concern to the scientific community. The fast growing urban areas carries out huge anthropogenic activities that burdens natural environment and its resources like air-water quality and space, thus have different climatology to their rural surroundings. World Urbanization Prospects 2005 annual report described 20th century as witnessing a rapid urbanization of the world's population. Though urbanization is a worldwide phenomenon, it is especially prevalent in India, where urban areas have experienced an unprecedented rate of growth with level of urbanization increased from 17.23 % to 31.16% in year 1951 to 2011and the number of cities with population more than one million has grown from 5 to 53 over the same time. We take up an observational study to understand influence of urbanisation on mesoscale circulations and resulting convection, thus nature of precipitation around urban areas. The spatially distributed analysis of gridded daily precipitation data over the country is carried out to identify nature of trends in selected statistics of Indian summer monsoon precipitation and examine its association with urban land cover to have an impact on precipitation statistics. We evaluate explicit changes around urban land use in context of 40 large Indian urban areas. Further we assess local-urban climatic signals in the point level rainfall observations with model based analysis of two nearby locations under similar climatic conditions but differing largely in terms of urbanisation. The results of gridded data analysis indicate an overall tendency towards decrease in mean precipitation however, rainfall activities are enhanced around urban areas across different climate zones of the country. Though trends observed in selected climatic parameters revealed great degree of spatial inter variability in selected precipitation statistics over the country, they accounts a greater degree of inclination for occurrence under regions of urban influence. Examination of urbanization influence on heavy rainfall climatology carried out through point scale experiment with statistical framework of quantile based regression for the most populated city of India Mumbai, in pair with a nearby non-urban area Alibaug also point toward sensitivity of extreme rainfall events to the local land use under urbanisation. Overall the study indicate influence of urbanisation over amendments in conventional regional rainfall pattern to a convinced extent and illustrate that even if only a small percentage of land covers urban areas they may play a key role to alter the hydrology at local and regional scales. The study highlights need of further investigation in terms of quantifying the impact and estimation of associated uncertainties in form of detailed theoretical and numerical studies for India to more clearly highlight the role that urbanisation plays in precipitation enhancement of Indian monsoon rainfall in order to make better assessment of urban planning, water resources management and urban flooding.

Shastri, H. K.; Ghosh, S.; Karmakar, S.

2013-12-01

96

STORMWATER MANAGEMENT AND LOW IMPACT DEVELOPMENT PRESENTATION DESCRIPTION  

EPA Science Inventory

Low Impact Development (LID) is the general term typically used to characterize a comprehensive array of site planning, design and pollution prevention strategies that when combined create a more economically sustainable and ecologically functional urban landscape. LID uses a dec...

97

Estimating Water Quality Pollution Impacts Based on Economic Loss Models in Urbanization Process  

E-print Network

Estimating Water Quality Pollution Impacts Based on Economic Loss Models in Urbanization Process Abstract: The study investigates water quality pollution impacts on urbanization by analyzing temporal and spatial characteristics of different water quality parameters, and simulating economic loss of water

Yu, Qian

98

Urban, Regional and Global Impacts of Biomass Burning Emissions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biomass burning is a major regional and global driver for atmospheric composition. Its effects in regional and global climate are very significant, but still difficult to assess. Even in large urban areas in Latin America such as Mexico City, Sao Paulo and Santiago, and in developed areas such as Paris and Californian cities it is possible to observe significant biomass burning effects air quality. The wood burning components as well as inner city and vicinities burning if agricultural residues impact heavily the concentration of organic aerosol, carbon monoxide and ozone in urban areas. Regionally, regions such as Amazonia and Central America show large plumes of smoke that extend their impact over continental areas, with changes in the radiation balance, air quality and climate. The deforestation rate in Amazonia have dropped strongly from 27,000 Km2 in 2004 to 6,200 Km2 in 2011, a very significant reduction, but this reduction was not observed in Africa and Southeast Asia. Health effects of biomass burning emissions are very significant, and observed in several key regions. Remote sensing techniques for fire detection have progressed significantly and long time series (10-15 years) are now feasible. The black carbon associated with biomass burning has important impacts in formation and development of clouds in Amazonia and other regions. The organic component of biomass burning emissions scatter light and increase diffuse radiation that alters carbon uptake in large regions of Amazonia and certainly other forested areas. Increase of up to 30% in carbon uptake associated with biomass burning emissions was observed in Amazonia, as part of the LBA Experiment. New analytical methods that quantify the absorption angstrom exponent of biomass burning and fossil fuel black carbon (BC) can differentiate BC from different burning sources. In addition, the hygroscopic properties of particles with a core shell of BC coated with organic compounds can be measured and shows very significant cloud nucleation properties of these complex particles that can change cloud formation and development mechanisms. Recent papers on the radiative forcing of black carbon estimate that BC can have a very high positive forcing of +0.5 watts/m2, and at the same time the organic compounds associated with BC emissions can bring the total radiative forcing to zero. This would imply that policies to reduce BC emissions as a strategy to quickly reduce global warming could not be that much effective. BC continues to be a critically important global driver of climate change, but its effects are still quite unknown.

Artaxo, P.; Ferreira De Brito, J.; Barbosa, H. M.; Rizzo, L. V.; Setzer, A.; Cirino, G.

2013-05-01

99

Impact of urban sprawl on United States residential energy use  

Microsoft Academic Search

Improving energy efficiency through technological advances has been the focus of U.S. energy policy for decades. However, there is evidence that technology alone will be neither sufficient nor timely enough to solve looming crises associated with fossil fuel dependence and resulting greenhouse gas accumulation. Hence attention is shifting to demand-side measures. While the impact of urban sprawl on transportation energy

Fang Rong

2006-01-01

100

Modeling Impact of Technological Changes on Urban Commercial Trips by  

E-print Network

Modeling Impact of Technological Changes on Urban Commercial Trips by Commercial Activity Routing (3). The decision processes governing freight distribution and commercial truck traffic are not yet of the workings of distribution processes in relation to the generation of commercial truck traffic. It is widely

Bertini, Robert L.

101

Hindutva meets globalization: The impact on Hindu urban media women  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the impact of globalization and religious nationalism on the personal and professional lives of urban Hindu middle class media women. The research demonstrates how newly strengthened forces of globalization and Hindutva shape Indian womanhood. The research rests on various data that reveal how Indian women interpret and negotiate constructed identities. The study seeks to give voice to

Monalisa Gangopadhyay

2010-01-01

102

Hindutva Meets Globalization: The Impact on Hindu Urban Media Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the impact of globalization and religious nationalism on the personal and professional lives of urban Hindu middle class media women. The research demonstrates how newly strengthened forces of globalization and Hindutva shape Indian womanhood. The research rests on various data that reveal how Indian women interpret and negotiate constructed identities. The study seeks to give voice to

Monalisa Gangopadhyay

2010-01-01

103

Country Report Impact of growing urbanization and air pollution on  

E-print Network

5 Country Report Impact of growing urbanization and air pollution on the regional climate over Indian cities with increases in the consumption of fossil fuel (coal and petroleum) especially of air pollution show disturbing trends that can explain visible changes in the en- vironment. A brief

Singh, Ramesh P.

104

Impacts of urbanization on river flow frequency: A controlled experimental modeling-based evaluation approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Changes in land use are likely to cause a non-linear response in watershed hydrology. Specifically, small increases in urban expansion may greatly increase surface runoff while decreasing infiltration, impacting aquifer recharge and changing streamflow regimes. Quantifying the effects of urbanization on streamflow is crucial to the development of plans to mitigate the effects of anthropogenic changes on watershed processes. This study focused on quantifying the potential effects of varying degrees of urban expansion on the frequency of discharge, velocity, and water depth using the physically-based watershed model, MIKE-SHE, and the 1D hydrodynamic river model, MIKE-11. Five land cover scenarios corresponding to varying degrees of urban expansion were used to determine the sensitivity of these flow variables in the Big River watershed located in east central Missouri, in which urban areas have increased by more than 300% in the last 15 years (1992-2006). Differences in the frequency distributions of the flow variables under each scenario were quantified using a Smirnov test. Results indicated a potential increase in the frequency of high flow events to more than 140% while decreasing the frequency of low flow events by up to 100% if the current rate of urbanization continues. In general, the frequency of low flow events decreased as urban expansion increased while the frequency of average and high-flow events increased as urbanization increased. An increase in frequency of high-flow events is expected to impact the safety of structures, sediment load, water quality, and the riparian ecosystem. This research will be valuable to assess mitigation strategies in order to protect the ecosystem, infrastructure, and livelihood in the watershed where urban development is inevitable.

Chu, M. L.; Knouft, J. H.; Ghulam, A.; Guzman, J. A.; Pan, Z.

2013-07-01

105

Sensitivity of Urbanization Impact over China by Using WRF/Chem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Urbanization in China is an inevitable process coming along with economic development and population boost, which brings two impacts on air quality modeling. One is land-cover change and the other one is the additional stream of anthropogenic heat. In this study, we employed Weather Research Forecasting -Chemistry (WRF-Chem) to evaluate the sensitivity of meteorology and ozone concentrations in response to urbanization, by two cases, Jing-Jin-Ji (JJJ, indicating Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei) and Yangtze River Delta (YRD) areas. The first impact was achieved by updating the default land-cover data in WRF/Chem. Preliminary results showed an increase in 2-m temperature and PBL heights, and a decrease in wind-speed and dew points. For ozone concentrations, after updating land-cover data there was a corresponding rise in the surface level. The maximum increase was as much as 20 ppb for JJJ and 14 ppb for YRD area. The second impact was evaluated by adding anthropogenic heat stream into simulations. This heat stream was developed by considering both urban expansion and peak value at city centers. Test results showed a comparative 2-m temperature increase when compared to the first impact. While for PBL heights and dew points, the difference is negligible. Ozone concentrations within surface layer were also enhanced. The maximum increase was 7 ppb for JJJ area. Taking urbanization into consideration is a significant improvement for air quality modeling over China. After including both 1st and 2nd impact into WRF/Chem, the mean error was reduced by 35.6% for urban locations. One of our ongoing studies is focusing on further improvement of updating more recent land-cover data and anthropogenic heat. Ozone difference after including 1st impact Temporal plots for PKU(urban location)

Yu, M.; Carmichael, G.

2012-12-01

106

Planning and Management of High Density Urban Development Anthony Yeh  

E-print Network

SEMINAR Planning and Management of High Density Urban Development by Anthony Yeh Chair Professor Centre of Urban Planning and Environmental Management and Dean, Graduate School, The University of Hong and management measures that can make high density urban development more liveable. ABOUT THE SPEAKER Anthony Yeh

Tam, Vincent W. L.

107

Stadium development and urban renewal : a look at Washington, DC  

E-print Network

This thesis investigates the factors, related to urban stadium development, that act as a catalyst for subsequent local urban renewal. Over the recent decades there has been substantial debate related to stadium or arena ...

Rizzo, James W. (James Watson)

2008-01-01

108

Environmental and Energy Impact of the Urban Forest in Arid Zone Cities  

Microsoft Academic Search

The massive presence of trees in urban environments, particularly in regions with dry mesothermal climates, generates a significant environmental impact on the open spaces of the public domain and consequently on the enclosed spaces of the private domain. The paper presents the development and the initial results of the utilization of an analytical-computational model, specifically designed to assess the availability

A. Canton; J. L. Cortegoso; J. Fernandez; C. de Rosa

2001-01-01

109

Impacts of urban mass transportation administration capital grants programs. Working paper  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper attempts to analyze the impacts of UMTA capital grants in terms of eleven national transportation goals: adequate service; appropriate rates and prices; economic efficiency; energy conservation; environmental protection; safety; employment generation; industry promotion and protection; regional and urban development; equity; and national defense. Where they are quantifiable, benefits and costs of grant programs are estimated for each goal.

Merewitz

1979-01-01

110

Developing an Integrated Approach for Local Urban Climate Models in London from Neighbourhood to Street Scale  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We currently have an incomplete understanding of how weather varies across London and how the city's microclimate will intensify levels of heat, cold and air pollution in the future. There is a need to target priority areas of the city and to promote design guidance on climate change mitigation strategies. As a result of improvements in the accuracy of local weather data in London, an opportunity is emerging for designers and planners of the built environment to measure the impact of their designs on local urban climate and to enhance the designer's role in creating more informed design choices at an urban micro-scale. However, modelling the different components of the urban environment separately and then collating and comparing the results invariably leads to discrepancies in the output of local urban climate modelling tools designed to work at different scales. Of particular interest is why marked differences appear between the data extracted from local urban climate models when we change the scale of modelling from city to building scale. An example of such differences is those that have been observed in relation to the London Unified Model and London Site Specific Air Temperature model. In order to avoid these discrepancies we need a method for understanding and assessing how the urban environment impacts on local urban climate as a whole. A step to achieving this is by developing inter-linkages between assessment tools. Accurate information on the net impact of the urban environment on the local urban climate will in turn facilitate more accurate predictions of future energy demand and realistic scenarios for comfort and health. This paper will present two key topographies of London's urban environment that influence local urban climate: land use and street canyons. It will look at the possibilities for developing an integrated approach to modelling London's local urban climate from the neighbourhood to the street scale.

Bakkali, M.; Davies, M.; Steadman, J. P.

2012-04-01

111

The third hans cloos lecture. Urban landslides: Socioeconomic impacts and overview of mitigative strategies  

USGS Publications Warehouse

As a result of population pressures, hillsides in the world's urban areas are being developed at an accelerating rate. This development increases the risk for urban landslides triggered by rainfall or earthquake activity. To counter this risk, four approaches have been employed by landslide managers and urban planners: (1) restricting development in landslide-prone areas; (2) implementing and enforcing excavation, grading, and construction codes; (3) protecting existing developments by physical mitigation measures and (4) developing and installing monitoring and warning systems. Where they have been utilized, these approaches generally have been effective in reducing the risk due to landslide hazards. In addition to these practices, landslide insurance holds promise as a mitigative measure by reducing the financial impact of landslides on individual property owners. Until recently, however, such insurance has not been widely available and, where it is available, it is so expensive that it has been little used. ?? Springer-Verlag 2006.

Schuster, R. L.; Highland, L. M.

2007-01-01

112

The Impact of Urbanization on the Precipitation Component of the Water Cycle: A New Perspective  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is estimated that by the year 2025, 60% of the world s population will live in cities (UNFP, 1999). As cities continue to grow, urban sprawl (e.g., the expansion of urban surfaces outward into rural surroundings) creates unique problems related to land use, transportation, agriculture, housing, pollution, and development. Urban expansion also has measurable impacts on environmental processes. Urban areas modify boundary layer processes through the creation of an urban heat island (UHI). The literature indicates that the signature of the urban heat island effect may be resolvable in rainfall patterns over and downwind of metropolitan areas. However, a recent U.S. Weather Research Program panel concluded that more observational and modeling research is needed in this area (Dabberdt et al. 2000). NASA and other agencies initiated programs such as the Atlanta Land-use Analysis: Temperature and Air Quality Project (ATLANTA) (Quattrochi et al. 1998) which aimed to identify and understand how urban heat islands impact the environment. However, a comprehensive assessment of the role of urban-induced rainfall in the global water and energy cycle (GWEC) and cycling of freshwater was not a primary focus of these efforts. NASA's Earth Science Enterprise (ESE) seeks to develop a scientific understanding of the Earth system and its response to natural or human-induced changes to enable improved prediction capability for climate, weather, and natural hazards (NASA, 2000). Within this mission, the ESE has three basic thrusts: science research to increase Earth system knowledge; an applications program to transfer science knowledge to practical use in society; and a technology program to enable new, better, and cheaper capabilities for observing the earth. Within this framework, a research program is underway to further address the co-relationship between land cover use and change (e.g. urban development) and its impact on key components of the GWEC (e.g., precipitation). This presentation discusses the feasibility of using the TRMM or GPM satellite to identify precipitation anomalies likely caused by urbanization (Shepherd et al. 2002). Recent results from analyses of TRMM data around several major U.S. cities (e.g. Dallas, Atlanta, Houston) will be discussed. The presentation also summarizes a NASA-funded research effort to investigate the phenomenon of urban-induced precipitation anomalies using TRMM (future GPM) satellite-based remote sensing, an intensive ground observation/validation effort near Atlanta, and coupled atmosphere-land numerical modeling techniques.

Shephard, J. Marshal

2002-01-01

113

Social Justice, Integrated Development Planning and Post apartheid Urban Reconstruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper focuses on the intersection between South African urban reconstruction and the development of social justice debates in urban geography. Drawing on the distributive choices displayed in post apartheid urban planning strategies the paper sketches the general contours of a contemporary understanding of social justice. It is argued that the structuralist and post-structuralist debates that dominate geographical social justice

Gustav Visser

2001-01-01

114

Housing and urban development research reports  

SciTech Connect

The sixth in a series of documents published by the Department of Housng and Urban Development (HUD) to assist in the formulation of policy decision contains 247 abstracts entered in the HUD USER automated data base during the past six months, bringing the data base total to 3,583 documents. There are 45 subject areas in the main section, with the abstracts in each area arranged alphabetically by title. Each abstract is identified by an order number and is followed by descriptive keywords. Other listings of the documents are alphabetical, numerical, by personal or corporate author, by contract and grant number, and by subject index.

Not Available

1984-01-01

115

Development of the multi-scale model for urban climate analysis and evaluation of urban greening effects on energy consumption  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is necessary to reduce Greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions drastically to stabilize climate change, and Japan is also required to assess its long-term global warming policy. In achieving the low carbon society and sustainable cities, the numerical evaluation of environmental impacts of the application of different technologies and policies was preliminarily examined by utilizing integrative urban environmental model. This research aims to develop the multi-scale model for urban climate analysis and to evaluate the urban greening effects on energy consumption from household and business sectors. It developed the multi-scale model combined the process-based NIES integrated catchment-based eco-hydrology (NICE) model with the meso-scale meteorological model (Regional Atmospheric Modeling System : RAMS) and urban canopy model to estimate the urban climate mitigation effects by introduction of urban heat environmental mitigation technology and scenario. The numerical simulation conducted with the multi-scale level horizontally consisting regional scale (260×260km with 2km grid) and urban area scale (36×26km with 0.2km grid) against the objective area, Kawasaki city of Japan. The urban canopy model predicts the three dimensional atmospheric conditions including anthropogenic heat effect from household, business and factory sectors. Furthermore the tile method applied into the urban canopy model for the improvement of numerical accuracy and detailed land use information in each grid. The validation of this model was conducted by comparison with the observed air temperature of 29 points in entire Kawasaki area from 1st to 31th of August, 2006. From the quantitative validation of model performance, the coefficient of correlation was 0.72 and the root mean square error was 2.99C. The introduction of patch method into urban canopy model made it possible to calculate the each land use effect, and the accuracy of predicted results was improved against the land use area consisting of mixing urban and natural land covers. The urban greening effect was estimated by comparison with the vertical air temperature difference to derive air-conditioning load change against each building between present condition and urban greening condition. By using this model, it estimated that about 14 MWh/day and 197MWh/day of air conditioning energy consumption energy for the household and business sectors without the effect of building inner load were reduced by introducing the greening regulation of Kawasaki city and ideal maximum greening area during August 2006.

Hamano, H.; Nakayama, T.; Fujita, T.; Hori, H.; Tagami, H.

2009-12-01

116

Impacts of landscape structure on surface urban heat islands: A case study of Shanghai, China  

E-print Network

Impacts of landscape structure on surface urban heat islands: A case study of Shanghai, China in revised form 6 June 2011 Accepted 9 July 2011 Available online 5 August 2011 Keywords: Urban heat island of the ecological consequences of urbanization is the urban heat island (UHI) effect, which leads to higher

Wu, Jianguo "Jingle"

117

Impact of street design on urban microclimate for semi arid climate (Constantine)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urban Planning has an immense impact on local microclimate which in turn affects the comfort and space quality within a city. The urban open spaces play an important role in creating the urban climate. The urban streets vary in geometry as defined by height\\/width ratio, sky view factor (SVF) and the orientation that is defined by its long axis. This

F. Bourbia; F. Boucheriba

2010-01-01

118

Numerical study of the impact of urbanization on the precipitation over Taiwan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A highly developed industry and a large population density have turned the western plain of Taiwan into a mega-suburb with many cities and small towns and countless factories, and roads. As a result, the western plain is experiencing a regional heat-island effect. The MM5 mesoscale model was conducted in order to study and evaluate the impacts of the heat-island effect on regional weather, including thunderstorms, over Taiwan. According to land use data provided by the US Geological Survey (USGS), we assumed three different urban sizes in the simulation study to theoretically evaluate the impact of urbanization on the precipitation. Along with urban size increase in central Taiwan, more pronounced effects of meteorological parameters were shown in the sensitivity experiment with urban cases. For the urban case (case SA, with urban size 15×15 km 2), sensible heat flux is nearly 500 W m -2 around noon-time. It is about a factor of 3 more than the non-urban case (case CT) over the western plain. The surface air temperature in case SA increased by nearly 3 °C and humidity decreased with nearly 10% more than case CT. Along with the urban size increases in central Taiwan, the effects are the surrounding areas and were more pronounced not only the precipitation over downwind areas. Apparently, the unique and complex topographic features in Taiwan, including the lifting effect of the mountain bordering the western plain, are also play important roles for precipitation formation. Numerical study suggests that the heat-island effect over the western plain could perturb thermal and dynamic processes and hence affect the location of thunderstorms and precipitation over Taiwan's western plain.

Lin, Chuan-Yao; Chen, W.-C.; Liu, Shaw C.; Liou, Y. An; Liu, G. R.; Lin, T. H.

119

Urban design and local economic development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the enhancement of architectural quality has traditionally been considered by planners as an apolitical issue, a number of urban governments and political elites are beginning to acknowledge the link between urban design and broader economic policies. Birmingham is a case study of a local authority that has explicitly recognized that improved urban design can contribute to local economic regeneration.

Phil Hubbard

1995-01-01

120

Impact of Urban Growth and Urbanization on the Environmental Degradation of Lakes in Hyderabad City, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lakes are a vital part of urban ecosystems which perform important ecological and environmental functions to safeguard local climate, groundwater and habitat. The incessant population growth coupled with low urban planning is causing severe damage to urban ecosystems throughout the world. Hyderabad is one of the largest growing metropolitan cities of India covering an area of 65000 ha situated on the banks of Musi River in the northern part of the Deccan Plateau. The city had a population of 1.25 million in 1961 which increased to 6.8 million in 2011 with a metropolitan population of 7.75 million, making it India's fourth most populous city and sixth most populous urban agglomeration. Hyderabad is popularly known as 'City of Lakes' which occupies the top position in India in terms of Urban Lakes. In 20th century, the number of lakes were around 925 which are now reduced to 521 and most of these lakes are facing extinction. The water spread area of these lakes has been considerably reduced due to steady urban growth and the carrying capacity and ecological status of these urban lakes are in real danger. Many of these lakes have shrunk in size while the waters of several lakes got polluted with the discharge of untreated domestic and industrial effluents. Taking into consideration the environmental degradation of urban lakes, an attempt was made to study the current status, loss of water bodies and water spread using remote sensing and GIS techniques. Time-series satellite images of MSS, IRS and RESOURCESAT and Survey of India maps of 1:50,000 and 1:25,000 were used for this study. Analysis of these together with other data sets was accomplished through integrated use of ERDAS Imagine Arc view and ArcGIS software packages. It is estimated that there were 925 lakes in 1982 in erstwhile Hyderabad Urban Development Authority (HUDA) area which came down to 521 in 2012. A total number of 404 lakes disappeared during the last 30 years period. Consequently the water spread area of these lakes got reduced from 14005 ha. to 11066 ha. The area covered under water bodies has come down from 21.53 per cent of the geographical area in 1982 to 17.02 per cent in 2012. The decline during 2002-2012 period was severe which can be directly related to the highest urban growth (87.2%) during the same period. The study indicates that, immediate attention be drawn towards conservation and management of these lakes for the protection of urban systems.

Nandan, M. J.; Sen, M. K.; Harini, P.; Sekhar, B. M.; Balaji, T.

2013-12-01

121

Evaluation of the environmental impact of the urban energy lifecycle based on lifecycle assessment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Energy resources have environmental impact through their entire lifecycle. The evaluation of the environmental impacts of the energy lifecycle can contribute to decision making regarding energy management. In this paper, the lifecycle assessment (LCA) method is introduced to calculate the environmental impact loads of different types of energy resources (including coal, oil, natural gas, and electricity) used in urban regions. The scope of LCA includes the production, transportation, and consumption processes. The pollutant emission inventory is listed, and the environmental impact loads are acquired through the calculation of environmental impact potentials, normalization, and weighted assessment. The evaluation method is applied to Beijing, China, revealing that photochemical oxidant formation and acidification are the primary impact factors in the lifecycle of all energy resources and that the total environmental impact load increased steadily from 132.69 million person equivalents (PE) in 1996 to 208.97 million PE in 2010. Among the energy types, coal contributes most to the environmental impact, while the impacts caused by oil, natural gas, and electricity have been growing. The evaluation of the environmental impact of the urban energy lifecycle is useful for regulating energy structures and reducing pollution, which could help achieve sustainable energetic and environmental development.

Chen, Chen; Su, Meirong; Yang, Zhifeng; Liu, Gengyuan

2014-03-01

122

Atmospheric Environment 40 (2006) 17431758 Impact of urban heat island on regional atmospheric pollution  

E-print Network

to the town energy balance (TEB) urban canopy model. A control simulation was also performed withoutAtmospheric Environment 40 (2006) 1743­1758 Impact of urban heat island on regional atmospheric Abstract The purpose of this work is to study the impact of an urban land cover on local meteorology

Ribes, Aurélien

123

Urban Aerosol Impacts on Downwind Convective Storms SUSAN C. VAN DEN HEEVER AND WILLIAM R. COTTON  

E-print Network

Urban Aerosol Impacts on Downwind Convective Storms SUSAN C. VAN DEN HEEVER AND WILLIAM R. COTTON March 2006, in final form 27 September 2006) ABSTRACT The impacts of urban-enhanced aerosol land use processes and aerosol microphysics are both incorporated. The results indicate that urban

Collett Jr., Jeffrey L.

124

11:776:402 Weeds: Impact & Management in Urban Landscapes (WIMUL) (3 credits)  

E-print Network

11:776:402 Weeds: Impact & Management in Urban Landscapes (WIMUL) (3 credits) Normally OfferedCompanion Description: This is a senior level course which, in three modules, examines the impact of weeds in urban landscapes and the management options. Urban landscape is broadly defined as the area of greenery integrated

Chen, Kuang-Yu

125

The impact of urban form on U.S. residential energy use  

Microsoft Academic Search

While the impact of urban form on transportation energy use has been studied extensively, its impact on residential energy use has not. This article presents a conceptual framework linking urban form to residential energy use via three causal pathways: electric transmission and distribution losses, energy requirements of different housing stocks, and space heating and cooling requirements associated with urban heat

Reid Ewing; Fang Rong

2008-01-01

126

Urbanization and warming of Phoenix (Arizona, USA): Impacts, feedbacks and mitigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the impacts, feedbacks, and mitigation of the urban heat island in Phoenix, Arizona (USA). At Sky Harbor Airport, urbanization has increased the nighttime minimum temperature by 5°C and the average daily temperatures by 3.1°C. Urban warming has increased the number of “misery hours per day” for humans, which may have important social consequences. Other impacts include (1)

Lawrence A. Baker; Anthony J. Brazel; Nancy Selover; Chris Martin; Nancy McIntyre; Frederick R. Steiner; Amy Nelson; Laura Musacchio

2002-01-01

127

Impact of the Urban Heat Island on Light Duty Vehicle Emissions for the Phoenix, AZ Area  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sustainability of our planet is impacted as regions are transformed from rural to urban engineered infrastructures resulting in alterations at the surface and atmosphere. These changes are manifested in urban areas experiencing increased temperatures with respect to their rural counterparts, known as the Urban Heat Island (UHI) Effect. The impact of the UHI on light duty gasoline vehicle emissions

Todd P. Otanicar; Joby D. Carlson; Jay S. Golden; Kamil E. Kaloush; Patrick E. Phelan

2010-01-01

128

Third-world development: urbanizing for the future.  

PubMed

This article reviews some issues reflected in the 1996 UN Habitat II agenda and recent research on urbanization. The themes of the 1996 Habitat conference were urban development, urban poverty, and governance, civil society, and social capital. It is expected that over 50% of total world population will live in cities in the year 2000. Cities are viewed both as engines of economic growth and centers of severe economic, environmental, and social problems. There is some disagreement about whether cities are rational economic structures or what the World Bank's urban agenda is and its relationship with macroeconomic policy. Discussions of global urban issues are criticized for their neglect of issues of equity and poverty, cultural diversity, and identity and representation. Habitat II also stressed urban sustainability. There is growing recognition that urban management involves more than the "Brown Agenda" of environmental and physical aspects of urban growth. Recent studies identify how politics and power affect people's access to basic urban services. Urban economic activity can also contribute to environmental problems. Urban growth affects the provision of health services. Although there is not a consensus on the role of cities in expanding economic and social development and the best management practices, there is sufficient evidence to indicate that urban processes are varied throughout the developing world. The links between urban and rural areas differentiate cities and expose the need to understand the role of intermediate urban areas surrounding and between larger cities. Poverty has become increasingly urbanized, but the extent of poverty is unknown. Habitat II was an unprecedented effort to engage nongovernment groups, local government staff, trade unions, and the private sector and to emphasize community participation. Networks of trust and reciprocity are key to solving poverty, inequality, and disempowerment problems. PMID:12293005

Mcilwaine, C

1997-01-01

129

RIVER QUALITY MODEL FOR URBAN STORMWATER IMPACTS  

EPA Science Inventory

A simplified continuous receiving water quality model has been developed as a planning guide to permit preliminary screening of areawide wastewater management strategies. The model simulates the hypothetical response of the stream or tidal river system to the separate and combine...

130

Impact of vegetation growth on urban surface temperature distribution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Earlier studies have indicated that, the temperature distribution in the urban area is significantly warmer than its surrounding suburban areas. The process of urbanization has created urban heat island (UHI). As a city expands, trees are cut down to accommodate commercial development, industrial areas, roads, and suburban growth. Trees or green areas normally play a vital role in mitigating the UHI effects especially in regulating high temperature in saturated urban areas. This study attempts to assess the effects of vegetation growth on land surface temperature (LST) distribution in urban areas. An area within the City of Shah Alam, Selangor has been selected as the study area. Land use/land cover and LST maps of two different dates are generated from Landsat 5 TM images of the year 1991 and 2009. Only five major land cover classes are considered in this study. Mono-window algorithm is used to generate the LST maps. Landsat 5 TM images are also used to generate the NDVI maps. Results from this study have shown that there are significant land use changes within the study area. Although the conversion of green areas into residential and commercial areas significantly increase the LST, matured trees will help to mitigate the effects of UHI.

Buyadi, S. N. A.; Mohd, W. M. N. W.; Misni, A.

2014-02-01

131

IMPACT OF OPERATION MURAMBATSVINA (RESTORE ORDER) ON FLEA MARKETS IN MUTARE: IMPLICATIONS FOR ACHIEVING MDG 1 AND SUSTAINABLE URBAN LIVELIHOODS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study set out to assess the socio-economic impacts of 'Operation Murambatsvina' (Restore Order) on flea market operators in Mutare, and examine the implications of these impacts on achieving the first Millennium Development Goal and sustainable livelihoods among the urban poor. A questionnaire survey and interviews were used as complementary primary data collection methods. The main findings were that females

C. Sigauke

132

Two on Planning and Development: Low Impact Development Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These two sites should be useful for urban planners or anyone interested in the issues surrounding development and "sprawl." This second site is home to the Low Impact Development Center (LID), a nonprofit organization dedicated to "research, development and training for water resource and natural resource protection issues" relating to development. Users can download .pdf documents, including information on pilot projects and a LID lit review. The links section of the site is particularly useful as it gives annotated links for a wide range of LID-related sites.

2001-01-01

133

Quenching Urban Thirst: Growing Cities and Their Impacts on Freshwater Ecosystems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This peer-reviewed article from Bioscience journal is on the impacts of urban development on freshwater ecosystems. The development of water resources to satisfy urban water needs has had serious impacts on freshwater ecosystem integrity and on valuable ecosystem services, but positive trends are emerging that point the way toward a solution. We demonstrate this through case studies of water resource development in and around five large urban areas: Los Angeles, Phoenix, New York, San Antonio, and Atlanta. Providing freshwater ecosystems with the water flows necessary to sustain their health, while meeting the other challenges of urban water management, will require greatly increased water productivity in conjunction with improvements in the degree to which planning and management take ecosystem needs into account. There is great potential for improvement in both these areas, but ultimately water planners will also need to set limits on human alterations to river flows in many basins in order to spur greater water productivity and protect ecosystem water allocations before water supplies become overtaxed.

THOMAS W. FITZHUGH and BRIAN D. RICHTER (;)

2004-08-01

134

Regional assessment of urban impacts on landcover and open space finds a smart urban growth policy performs little better than business as usual.  

PubMed

Assessment of landscape change is critical for attainment of regional sustainability goals. Urban growth assessments are needed because over half the global population now lives in cities, which impact biodiversity, ecosystem structure and ecological processes. Open space protection is needed to preserve these attributes, and provide the resources humans need. The San Francisco Bay Area, California, is challenged to accommodate a population increase of 3.07 million while maintaining the region's ecosystems and biodiversity. Our analysis of 9275 km² in the Bay Area links historic trends for three measures: urban growth, protected open space, and landcover types over the last 70 years to future 2050 projections of urban growth and open space. Protected open space totaled 348 km² (3.7% of the area) in 1940, and expanded to 2221 km² (20.2%) currently. An additional 1038 km² of protected open space is targeted (35.1%). Urban area historically increased from 396.5 km² to 2239 km² (24.1% of the area). Urban growth during this time mostly occurred at the expense of agricultural landscapes (62.9%) rather than natural vegetation. Smart Growth development has been advanced as a preferred alternative in many planning circles, but we found that it conserved only marginally more open space than Business-as-usual when using an urban growth model to portray policies for future urban growth. Scenarios to 2050 suggest urban development on non-urban lands of 1091, 956, or 179 km², under Business-as-usual, Smart Growth and Infill policy growth scenarios, respectively. The Smart Growth policy converts 88% of natural lands and agriculture used by Business-as-usual, while Infill used only 40% of those lands. Given the historic rate of urban growth, 0.25%/year, and limited space available, the Infill scenario is recommended. While the data may differ, the use of an historic and future framework to track these three variables can be easily applied to other metropolitan areas. PMID:23755204

Thorne, James H; Santos, Maria J; Bjorkman, Jacquelyn H

2013-01-01

135

Urban Units as an Analysis Tool for Mega-Urban Development. The Case of Guangzhou, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

In China urbanization developed quite late in international comparison due to the household registration system which made migration into cities difficult until the state opened politically and economically in 1978. Since then the study area Guangzhou, located in the Pearl River Delta, belongs to one of the most dynamic and rapid growing regions in China. Migration, industrialization and urbanization led

Ramona Strohschön; Klaus Baier; Rafig Azzam

136

Probabilistic Impact Assessment of Domestic Rainwater Harvesting in Urban Slums: West Africa Case Study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Urban populations now exceed rural populations worldwide, creating unique challenges in providing basic services, especially in developing countries where informal or illegal settlements grow in peri-urban areas. West Africa is an acute example of the problems created by rapid urban growth, with high levels of urban poverty and low water and sanitation access rates. Although considerable effort has been made in providing improved water access and urban services to slum communities, research indicates that clean water access rates are not keeping up with urbanization rates in several areas of the world and that rapidly growing slum communities are beginning to overwhelm many prior water improvements projects. In the face of these challenges, domestic rainwater harvesting is proposed as a technologically appropriate and economically viable option for enhancing water supplies to urban slum households. However, assessing the reliability, potential health impacts, and overall cost-effectiveness of these systems on a regional level is difficult for several reasons. First, long daily rainfall records are not readily available in much of the developing world, including many regions of sub-Saharan Africa. Second, significant uncertainties exist in the relevant cost, water use, and health data. Third, to estimate the potential future impacts at the regional scale, various global change scenarios should be investigated. Finally, in addition to these technical challenges, there is also a need to develop relatively simple and transparent assessment methods for informing policy makers. A procedure is presented for assessment of domestic rainwater harvesting systems using a combination of scenario, sensitivity, and trade-off analyses. Using data from West Africa, simple stochastic weather models are developed to generate rainfall sequences for the region, which are then used to estimate the reliability of providing a range of per capita water supplies. Next, a procedure is proposed for quantifying the health impacts of improved water supplies, and sensitivity analysis of cost and health data provides an indication of cost- effectiveness. Climate change impacts are assessed via weather model parameter adjustment according to statistical downscaling of general circulation model output. Future work involving the interpolation of model parameters to ungaged sites, incorporation of additional global change scenarios (e.g., population, emissions), and extension of the procedure to a full Monte Carlo analysis will be discussed as time allows.

Cowden, J. R.; Watkins, D. W.; Mihelcic, J. R.; Fry, L. M.

2007-12-01

137

Urbanism and Energy in Developing Regions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The pace of urbanization must continue, because in most parts of the world the surplus population in the countryside has nowhere else to go. The world is about 40% urban now and apparently headed for the 80 to 90% share of the total population presently e...

R. L. Meier, S. Berman, D. Dowell

1978-01-01

138

Examining Urban Students' Constructions of a STEM/Career Development Intervention over Time  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using consensual qualitative research, the study examines urban high school students' reactions to a science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) enrichment/career development program, their resources and barriers, their perspectives on the impact of race and gender on their career development, and their overall views of work and their…

Blustein, David L.; Barnett, Michael; Mark, Sheron; Depot, Mark; Lovering, Meghan; Lee, Youjin; Hu, Qin; Kim, James; Backus, Faedra; Dillon-Lieberman, Kristin; DeBay, Dennis

2013-01-01

139

Spatiotemporal trends of terrestrial vegetation activity along the urban development intensity gradient in China's 32 major cities.  

PubMed

Terrestrial vegetation plays many pivotal roles in urban systems. However, the impacts of urbanization on vegetation are poorly understood. Here we examined the spatiotemporal trends of the vegetation activity measured by MODIS Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) along Urban Development Intensity (UDI) gradient in 32 major Chinese cities from 2000 to 2012. We also proposed to use a new set of concepts (i.e., actual, theoretical, and positive urbanization effects) to better understand and quantify the impacts of urbanization on vegetation activities. Results showed that the EVI decreased significantly along a rising UDI for 28 of 32 cities (p<0.05) in linear, convex or concave form, signifying the urbanization impacts on vegetation varied across cities and UDI zones within a city. Further, the actual urbanization effects were much weaker than the theoretical estimates because of the offsetting positive effects generated by multiple urban environmental and anthropogenic factors. Examining the relative changes of EVI in various UDI zones against that in the rural area (?EVI), which effectively removed the effects of climate variability, demonstrated that ?EVI decreased markedly from 2000 to 2012 for about three-quarters of the cities in the exurban (0.05urban (0.5urban core (0.75urban and urban core of many cities could primarily be attributed to the importance of positive effects derived from the urban environment and the improvement of management and maintenance of urban green space. More work is needed to quantify mechanistically the detailed negative and positive effects of urban environmental factors and management practices on vegetation activities. PMID:24829041

Zhou, Decheng; Zhao, Shuqing; Liu, Shuguang; Zhang, Liangxia

2014-08-01

140

Impacts of urban transportation mode split on CO emissions in Jinan, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the world's largest developing country, China currently is undergoing rapid urbanization and motorization, which will result in far-reaching impacts on energy and the environment. According to estimates, energy use and carbon emissions in the transportation sector will comprise roughly 30% of total emissions by 2030. Since the late 1990s, transportation-related issues such as energy, consumption, and carbon emissions have

D. He; F. Meng; M. Wang; K. He

2011-01-01

141

Determining development density using the Urban Carrying Capacity Assessment System  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the urban population increases, so do diverse urban problems and concerns including issues of servicing large numbers of people within existing infrastructures, as a result of over-development and over-concentration. Environmental problems, particularly air and water pollution, have become more evident and are now considered central issues for urban planners and decision-makers. To address these environmental problems, practical approaches which

Kyushik Oh; Yeunwoo Jeong; Dongkun Lee; Wangkey Lee; Jaeyong Choi

2005-01-01

142

Evaluating the impact of urban morphology configurations on the accuracy of urban canopy model temperature simulations with MODIS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

of the urban environment contribute to assessments of current and future urban vulnerabilities to extreme heat events. The accuracy of simulations of the urban canopy can be degraded by inaccurate or oversimplified representations of the urban-built environment within models. Using a 10 year (2003-2012) series of offline 1 km simulations over Greater Houston with the High-Resolution Land Data Assimilation System (HRLDAS), this study explores the model accuracy gained by progressively increasing the complexity of the urban morphology representation in an urban canopy model. The fidelity of the simulations is primarily assessed by a spatiotemporally consistent comparison of a newly developed HRLDAS radiative temperature variable with remotely sensed estimates of land surface temperature from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer. The most accurate urban simulations of radiative temperature are yielded from experiments that (1) explicitly specify the urban fraction in each pixel and (2) include irrigation. The former modification yields a gain in accuracy that is larger than for other changes, such as increasing the number of urban land use types. The latter modification (irrigation) substantially reduces simulated temperature biases and increases model precision compared to model configurations that lack irrigation, presumably because watering of lawns, parks, etc. is a common activity that should be represented in urban canopy models (although it is generally not). Ongoing and future efforts to improve urban canopy model simulations may achieve important gains through better representations of urban morphology, as well as processes that affect near-surface energy partitioning within cities, such as irrigation.

Monaghan, Andrew J.; Hu, Leiqiu; Brunsell, Nathaniel A.; Barlage, Michael; Wilhelmi, Olga V.

2014-06-01

143

The Center for Urban Entrepreneurship & Economic Development (CUEED) together with students and faculty works to create wealth in urban communities  

E-print Network

-classindustryexperiencedfaculty ·Addressingmajorsocietaltrends & issues globally ·Researchprojectsleveragedby companies Excellence in Urban EntrepreneurshipThe Center for Urban Entrepreneurship & Economic Development (CUEED) together with students and faculty works to create wealth in urban communities The Center for Urban Entrepreneurship & Economic

Lin, Xiaodong

144

Migration from Rural to Urban Areas in Peru: Impact on Health Outcomes1  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper evaluates the impact of rural to urban migration on health outcomes in Peru contrasting three different groups: rural, migrant and urban people. This paper finds that migration has heterogeneous effects on health outcomes. Migration increases level of body-mass index BMI (obesity) comparing rural group and migrant group. Rural group has lower BMI level than migrant group, while urban

Juan Jose Miranda

145

Does the invasive species Reynoutria japonica have an impact on soil and flora in urban wastelands?  

E-print Network

Does the invasive species Reynoutria japonica have an impact on soil and flora in urban wastelands and for urban planners and managers. We propose to assess the effects of an invasive species along an invasion.), a widespread invasive species in Europe and North America. We considered eight urban wastelands invaded

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

146

The impact study of urban heat island effect caused by surface land use changes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urban heat island (UHI) effect can be characterized by increasing surface and atmospheric temperature and decreasing rainfall amount in urban area. This research detected the impact of urban land use changes to UHI effect in Taichung city at Taiwan by temporal ASTER and MODIS satellite images and measured data from ground thermometer stations. From spatially analyzed data output, the results

Tien-Yin Chou; Lung-Shih Yang; Chih-Hung Liu; Yuanling Chang

2009-01-01

147

Urbanization and warming of Phoenix (Arizona, USA): Impacts, feedbacks and mitigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the impacts, feedbacks, and mitigation of the urban heat island in Phoenix, Arizona (USA). At Sky Harbor Airport, urbanization has increased the nighttime minimum temperature by 5°C and the average daily temperatures by 3.loC. Urban warming has increased the number of \\

LAWRENCE A. BAKER; ANTHONY I. BRAZEL; CHRIS MARTIN; NANCY McINTYRE

2003-01-01

148

Characterization and estimation of urban heat island at Toronto: impact of the choice of rural sites  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the urban heat island of Toronto was characterized and estimated in order to examine the impact of the selection of rural sites on the estimation of urban heat island (UHI) intensity (?T u-r). Three rural stations, King Smoke Tree (KST), Albion Hill, and Millgrove, were used for the analysis of UHI intensity for two urban stations, Toronto

Tanzina Mohsin; William A. Gough

2011-01-01

149

76 FR 12788 - Environmental Impact Statement for a Proposed Urban Rail system in Austin, TX  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Environmental Impact Statement for a Proposed Urban Rail system in Austin, TX AGENCY: Federal...Statement (EIS) for the proposed Urban Rail system in Austin, Texas. The EIS will...described more completely within, is an Urban Rail System, similar to Streetcar, that...

2011-03-08

150

Workshop Report On Sustainable Urban Development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The key workshop goal was to explore and document how NASA technologies, such as remote sensing, climate modeling, and high-end computing and visualization along with NASA assets such as Earth Observing Satellites (EOS) and Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) can contribute to creating and managing a sustainable urban environment. The focus was on the greater Bay Area, but many aspects of the workshop were applicable to urban management at the local, regional and global scales. A secondary goal was to help NASA better understand the problems facing urban managers and to make city leaders in the Bay Area more aware of NASA's capabilities. By bringing members of these two groups together we hope to see the beginnings of new collaborations between NASA and those faced with instituting sustainable urban management in Bay Area cities.

Langhoff, Stephanie; Martin, Gary; Barone, Larry; Wagener, Wolfgang

2010-01-01

151

Cities Online: Urban Development and the Internet  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These two reports focus on the role the Internet is playing in the mission of US institutions. The first, from Darrell M. West, Brown University, updates his report for 2000 (discussed in the September 22, 2000 Scout Report) on the electronic delivery of government information and services. The 23-page report looks at the functionality and accessibility of state and government Websites, progress made from last year, and differences among the states. In general, the project found that e-government has made progress in the past year, but privacy, security, and accessibility are still troubled areas. The second report, from the Pew Internet Project (PIP), focuses more closely on community development organizations and their relationship to the Internet. PIP looks at five cities -- Austin, Texas; Cleveland, Ohio; Nashville, Tennessee; Portland, Oregon; and Washington, DC -- and the ways that institutions in these cities are using the Internet to accomplish their goals. In particular, "this research asks whether the Internet is serving as a catalyst to change the 'rules of the game' that shape social capital -- the informal norms and customs that grease the wheels of urban life." Users may download the 66-page report in .pdf format or read it online.

2001-01-01

152

Impacts of rainfall weather on urban traffic in beijing: analysis and modeling  

E-print Network

Recently an increasing number of researches have been focused on the influence of rainfall intensity on traffic flow. Conclusions have been reached that inclement weather does have negative impacts on key traffic parameters. However, due to lack of data, limited work has been implemented in China. In this paper, the impacts of rainfall intensity on urban road traffic flow characteristics are quantified, based on the historical traffic data and weather data in Beijing, capital of China. The reductions of road capacity and operating speed are obtained by statistical estimation for different rainfall intensity categories against clear weather. Then the modified speed-density function and speed-flow function are calibrated at different rainfall levels, from which the reductions of free-flow speed can be calculated. Finally, a generalized continuous speed-flow-rainfall model is developed and calibrated. The validation results show a good accuracy, indicating the new model can be used for urban traffic management u...

Jia, Yuhan; Du, Yiman; Qi, Geqi

2014-01-01

153

The Integrated WRF/Urban Modeling System: Development, Evaluation, and Applications to Urban Environmental Problems  

EPA Science Inventory

To bridge the gaps between traditional mesoscale modelling and microscale modelling, the National Center for Atmospheric Research, in collaboration with other agencies and research groups, has developed an integrated urban modelling system coupled to the weather research and fore...

154

Methodologies for Analyzing Impact of Urbanization on Irrigation Districts  

E-print Network

have access to and which flows through their canals and pipelines. Industrial, commercial and retirement community development are resulting in rapid urban growth within portions of the Texas Rio Grande River Basin. The fastest growing areas... conveyance efficiency and increases losses. Finally, the increasing presence of subdivisions and industrial areas in the vicinity of the delivery network increase the liability for canal breaks and flooding. Most districts in the region do very little...

Bonaiti, G.; Fipps, G.

155

The CLUVA project: Climate-change scenarios and their impact on urban areas in Africa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

CLUVA (CLimate change and Urban Vulnerability in Africa; http://www.cluva.eu/) is a 3 years project, funded by the European Commission in 2010. Its main objective is the estimate of the impacts of climate changes in the next 40 years at urban scale in Africa. The mission of CLUVA is to develop methods and knowledge to assess risks cascading from climate-changes. It downscales IPCC climate projections to evaluate threats to selected African test cities; mainly floods, sea-level rise, droughts, heat waves and desertification. The project evaluates and links: social vulnerability; vulnerability of in-town ecosystems and urban-rural interfaces; vulnerability of urban built environment and lifelines; and related institutional and governance dimensions of adaptation. A multi-scale and multi-disciplinary quantitative, probabilistic, modelling is applied. CLUVA brings together climate experts, risk management experts, urban planners and social scientists with their African counterparts in an integrated research effort focusing on the improvement of the capacity of scientific institutions, local councils and civil society to cope with climate change. The CLUVA approach was set-up in the first year of the project and developed as follows: an ensemble of eight global projections of climate changes is produced for east and west Africa until 2050 considering the new IPCC (International Panel on Climate Changes; http://www.ipcc.ch/) scenarios. These are then downscaled to urban level, where territorial modeling is required to compute hazard effects on the vulnerable physical system (urban ecosystems, informal settlements, lifelines such as transportation and sewer networks) as well as on the social context, in defined time frames, and risk analysis is then employed to assess expected consequences. An investigation of the existing urban planning and governance systems and its interface with climate risks is performed. With the aid of the African partners, the developed approach is currently being applied to selected African case studies: Addis Ababa - Ethiopia; Dar es Salaam - Tanzania, Douala - Cameroun; Ouagadougou - Burkina Faso, St. Louis - Senegal. The poster will illustrate the CLUVA's framework to assess climate-change-related risks at an urban scale in Africa, and will report on the progresses of selected case studies to demonstrate feasibility of a multi-scale and multi-risk quantitative approach for risk management.

Di Ruocco, Angela; Weets, Guy; Gasparini, Paolo; Jørgensen, Gertrud; Lindley, Sarah; Pauleit, Stephan; Vahed, Anwar; Schiano, Pasquale; Kabisch, Sigrun; Vedeld, Trond; Coly, Adrien; Tonye, Emmanuel; Touré, Hamidou; Kombe, Wilbard; Yeshitela, Kumelachew

2013-04-01

156

Two on Planning and Development: Development at the Urban Fringe and Beyond  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These two sites should be useful for urban planners or anyone interested in the issues surrounding development and "sprawl." The first, a report from the Economic Research Service (ERS) of the US Department of Agriculture, covers the "forces driving development, its character and impacts on agriculture and rural communities, the means available to channel and control growth, and the pros and cons of potential Federal roles." Users can download each of the report's seven chapters (and references and appendix) separately or as one document in .pdf format.

Anderson, William D.; Heimlich, Ralph E.

2001-01-01

157

Impact on Professional Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The focus of this chapter is on the evidence to date that documents the impact of PDS engagement on four specific groups of participants: veteran P-12 teachers, university faculty, P-12 school principals, and parents and community members. In reviewing the literature concerning the impact of PDS engagement on these four groups, the authors'…

Nolan, Jim, Jr.; Grove, Doris; Leftwich, Horatio; Mark, Kelly; Peters, Brian

2011-01-01

158

Impacts of urbanization on stream habitat and fish across multiple spatial scales.  

PubMed

We analyzed the relation of the amount and spatial pattern of land cover with stream fish communities, in-stream habitat, and baseflow in 47 small southeastern Wisconsin, USA, watersheds encompassing a gradient of predominantly agricultural to predominantly urban land uses. The amount of connected impervious surface in the watershed was the best measure of urbanization for predicting fish density, species richness, diversity, and index of biotic integrity (IBI) score; bank erosion; and base flow. However, connected imperviousness was not significantly correlated with overall habitat quality for fish. Nonlinear models were developed using quantile regression to predict the maximum possible number of fish species, IBI score, and base flow for a given level of imperviousness. At watershed connected imperviousness levels less than about 8%, all three variables could have high values, whereas at connected imperviousness levels greater than 12% their values were inevitably low. Connected imperviousness levels between 8 and 12% represented a threshold region where minor changes in urbanization could result in major changes in stream condition. In a spatial analysis, connected imperviousness within a 50-m buffer along the stream or within a 1.6-km radius upstream of the sampling site had more influence on stream fish and base flow than did comparable amounts of imperviousness further away. Our results suggest that urban development that minimizes amount of connected impervious surface and establishes undeveloped buffer areas along streams should have less impact than conventional types of development. PMID:11443388

Wang, L; Lyons, J; Kanehl, P; Bannerman, R

2001-08-01

159

Development and results of an urban lysimeter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Environmental issues and urban areas growth focus the interest on urban catchment runoff. Urban runoff is mainly generated by runoff over impervious surfaces (i.e., road, roof or parking). Different studies have shown that urban surfaces display an hydrological behaviour including several processes as interception, infiltration and evaporation. Our objective is to describe the different water budget components, of an asphalt pavement plate, in order to assess these processes. The approach is based on an urban lysimeter that allow to assess water gains and losses of the plate by measuring its weight variations. The mean surface area of the plate is about 1m2. The spatial scale of the study has deliberately been kept small to allow greater detail to the processes. Both surface runoff and infiltration through the plate are also weighed. In applying the mass conservation equation to the plate, the precipitation and evaporation terms can be deduced and thus assessing the water budget of the plate. Three different plates have been tested during four month each. Results reveal different hydrological behaviour between the plates. Infiltration varies from 3% to 58% of the total rainfall and runoff varies from 16% to 70 %. Whatever the sample, the evaporation rate is about 25%. Hydrodynamical characteristics of the asphalt plate are the mainly parameters that explain these observations.

Ramier, D.; Berthier, E.; Andrieu, H.

2003-04-01

160

Policy directions in urban health in developing countries--the slum improvement approach.  

PubMed

The urban development, or housing, sector has a longer experience of addressing the problems of the urban poor in developing countries than the health sector. In recent years the policy of 'slum improvement', which involves both sectors, has attracted the support of international donors. This article documents the development of the slum improvement approach and addresses key issues of the approach which have implications for health planning: covering the poorest dwellers; relocation; land tenure; gentrification; debt burdens and the impact on women. Questions about the approach which still need answering are defined and a summary of the constraints in slum improvement and potential solutions is presented. PMID:1509300

Harpham, T; Stephens, C

1992-07-01

161

Interpersonal Relationships and the Development of Behavior Problems in Adolescents in Urban Schools: A Longitudinal Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to investigate the trajectories of behavioral problems for a sample of predominately minority adolescents (n = 212, 91% African-American and/or Hispanic, 45% boys, 55% girls) in a large, urban school district and to determine the impact of parental and peer relationships, gender, and risk status on their development

Montague, Marjorie; Cavendish, Wendy; Enders, Craig; Dietz, Samantha

2010-01-01

162

The management of urban development, or the development of urban management? Problems and premises of an elusive concept  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urban management is now a central issue in urban development. This paper examines the reasons for the present international attention on this concept, and highlights its connection with recent changes in the politico-economic framework of society. Attention is given to the restructuring of the current mode of production prevailing throughout the world, associated changes in the regime of accumulation, with

Edmundo Werna

1995-01-01

163

A Geospatial Approach to Measuring and Modeling the Impact of Urban Growth on Ecosystems: Orlando Case Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urban growth is widely regarded as an important driver of environmental and social problems. It causes the loss of informal open space and wildlife habitats. Timely and accurate assessments of future urban growth scenarios and associated environmental impacts are crucial for urban planning, policy decision, and natural resource management. Now extensive urban research focuses on the dynamics of urban systems

Sunhui Sim

2010-01-01

164

ECOLOGICAL SUSTAINABILITY IN RAPIDLY URBANIZING WATERSHEDS: EVALUATING STRATEGIES DESIGNED TO MITIGATE IMPACTS ON STREAM ECOSYSTEMS  

EPA Science Inventory

Urbanization has profound impacts on the hydrology and ecology of streams via alteration in water temperatures, peak and base flows, and nutrient, sediment, and contaminant inputs. Storm water management (SWM) is commonly used to reduce these impacts; however, comprehensive w...

165

Analysis of climate change impacts on Urban Heat Island through geospatial data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Through spatio-temporal changes of micro and macro-meteorological conditions in metropolitan areas, climate change due to increased anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases and carbon dioxide (CO2) represents a long-term climate hazard with high potential to alter the intensity, temporal pattern, and spatial extent of the urban heat island (UHI). Instrumental observations and numerical reconstructions of global temperature evolution reveal a pronounced warming during the past 150 years. One expression of this warming is the observed increase in the occurrence of summer heat waves. Conceptually this increase is understood as a shift of the statistical distribution towards warmer temperatures, while changes in the width of the distribution are often considered small. Urban areas tend to experience a relatively higher temperature compared with the surrounding rural areas. This thermal difference, in conjunction with waste heat released from urban houses, transportation and industry, contribute to the development of urban heat island (UHI). Summer heat waves will affect much more urban temperatures and microclimates with adverse effects on human health. Remote sensing is a key application in global change science and urban climatology. Urbanization, the conversion of other types of land to uses associated with growth of populations and economy has a great impact on both micro-climate as well as macro-climate. Remote sensing derived biophysical attributes provide great potential for establishing parameters describing urban land cover/use (construction materials and the composition and structure of urban canopies) for improving the understanding of the urban surface energy budgets, and observing the urban heat island (UHI) effect.In this study, Landsat TM and ETM+ , MODIS, IKONOS images over Bucharest metropolitan area from 1988 to 2008 have been selected to retrieve the urban biogeophysical parameters and brightness temperatures in relation with changes of cover/use types. The spatial distribution of heat islands has been changed from a mixed pattern, where bare land, semi-bare land and land under development were warmer than other surface types, to extensive UHI. Our analysis showed that higher temperature in the UHI was located with a scattered pattern, which was related to certain land-cover types. In order to analyze the relationship between UHI and land-cover changes, this study attempted to employ a quantitative approach in exploring the relationship between temperature and several indices, including the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI), Normalized Difference Bareness Index (NDBaI) and Normalized Difference Build-up Index (NDBI). It was found that correlations between NDVI, NDWI, NDBaI and temperature are negative when NDVI is limited in range, but positive correlation is shown between NDBI and temperature.Such analysis is very helpful in urban mesoscale models and urban climate studies.

Zoran, M.

2010-09-01

166

IMPACT OF CITY VERTICALIZATION ON URBAN SURFACE ENERGY BUDGET: A MODELING STUDY  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact of verticalization of cities on local climate is studied with an urban canopy model (UCM) coupled to an atmospheric turbulence model. Simulations with various aspect ratios were performed in order to assess the impact of aspect ratio on urban temperature and energy budget. Results show that net radiation suffers a decreasing as the aspect ratio increase. It is

Edson Marciotto

167

The development and validation of an urbanicity scale in a multi-country study  

PubMed Central

Background Although urban residence is consistently identified as one of the primary correlates of non-communicable disease in low- and middle-income countries, it is not clear why or how urban settings predispose individuals and populations to non-communicable disease (NCD), or how this relationship could be modified to slow the spread of NCD. The urban–rural dichotomy used in most population health research lacks the nuance and specificity necessary to understand the complex relationship between urbanicity and NCD risk. Previous studies have developed and validated quantitative tools to measure urbanicity continuously along several dimensions but all have been isolated to a single country. The purposes of this study were 1) To assess the feasibility and validity of a multi-country urbanicity scale; 2) To report some of the considerations that arise in applying such a scale in different countries; and, 3) To assess how this scale compares with previously validated scales of urbanicity. Methods Household and community-level data from the Young Lives longitudinal study of childhood poverty in 59 communities in Ethiopia, India and Peru collected in 2006/2007 were used. Household-level data include parents’ occupations and education level, household possessions and access to resources. Community-level data include population size, availability of health facilities and types of roads. Variables were selected for inclusion in the urbanicity scale based on inspection of the data and a review of literature on urbanicity and health. Seven domains were constructed within the scale: Population Size, Economic Activity, Built Environment, Communication, Education, Diversity and Health Services. Results The scale ranged from 11 to 61 (mean 35) with significant between country differences in mean urbanicity; Ethiopia (30.7), India (33.2), Peru (39.4). Construct validity was supported by factor analysis and high corrected item-scale correlations suggest good internal consistency. High agreement was observed between this scale and a dichotomized version of the urbanicity scale (Kappa 0.76; Spearman’s rank-correlation coefficient 0.84 (p?urbanicity scale supported construct validity in all three countries (p?urbanicity scale. It is an important step on the path to creating a tool to assess complex processes like urbanization. This scale provides the means to understand which elements of urbanization have the greatest impact on health. PMID:22818019

2012-01-01

168

Investing (in) equity : how can urban development internalize social cost?  

E-print Network

This thesis recognizes the social costs created by privately driven urban development while also acknowledging cities' fiscal dependence on local property taxes. This study is based on the premise that equitable spatial ...

Xypolia, Aspasia, 1976-

2011-01-01

169

Unit of Environmental communication Department of rural and urban development  

E-print Network

Unit of Environmental communication Department of rural and urban development Swedish university of agricultural science Dear students admitted to the Environmental communication and management program in environmental communication and together with educational assistant and teacher Vanessa Coronel I am

170

Interactive model of urban development in residential areas in Skopje  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Development of residential areas in Skopje in a period after the 1963 earthquake led to an emergence of continuous pressure to the physical structure of the city. It's essential to analyse, explore and understand the processes that are shaping our city. The study explores interactive tool that exercise the complex analysis of architectural and urban structure within the Skopje's residential areas and proposes a 3D model to investigate local dynamics and best fitting urban indicators for development. Through series of analysis of diverse typologies, programs, spatial and functional configurations of the dwelling within the city, the study presents an effort by use of Interactive Visualization Tool (InViTo) for modeling of urban development to explicate spatial distribution, the process of transformation and acknowledge the regularities and suitability of development of urban form in Skopje's residential area and, in particular, the relationship between functions and its localizations.

Marina, O.; Masala, E.; Pensa, S.; Stavric, M.

2012-10-01

171

75 FR 38514 - Notice of Funding Availability for the Department of Housing and Urban Development's Community...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT DEPARTMENT...Department of Housing and Urban Development's Community Challenge Planning Grants and the Department...Transportation's TIGER II Planning Grants Correction...Department of Housing and Urban...

2010-07-02

172

Engaging Urban Youths: A Youth Development Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The limited number of organized sport and exercise programs available in urban areas in comparison with more affluent communities, as well as the limited resources, the low pay of service providers who offer the programs (especially in youth work), and the besieged mentality of many professionals require our attention and assistance. Our field…

Hellison, Don

2009-01-01

173

CULTURAL DEVELOPMENT STRATEGIES AND URBAN REVITALIZATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Municipal governments around the globe increasingly turn to museums, performing arts centers, arts districts, and other cultural activities to promote and revitalize their cities. While a significant body of literature examines revitalization strategies that focus primarily around entertainment and commerce, the empirical body of research that specifically investigates the role of cultural strategies in urban redevelopment is still growing. This

Carl Grodach

2007-01-01

174

Decadal variations of hydrological processes under the impact of urbanization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A simulated urbanized area with 15x15 km2, representing ChaiYi City, has proved to produce up to 3 times more sensible heat flux around noon time than that of a non-urbanized area in the central Taiwan. This effect, therefore, can have significant impact on locations of local summer thunderstorms and precipitation over sensitivity tests. However, the precipitation system move upward and northward along the mountain range to the east of the study area instead of the downwind direction,. Both decadal monthly mean precipitation and precipitation days, therefore, have been found increased up to 11% in the east and northeast of the Chiayi area than the west during the summer periods since 1960s. In addition, we also found that the decadal mean precipitation has been decreasing to 9% in the further east toward the mountain rage since 1960s. This uneven spatial distribution indicates that more summer thunderstorms would have happened before they reached the mountain range by the effect of heat island. This spatially and temporally variation of hydrological processes in the study area has posted a new challenge on the estimation of erosion rate based on suspended sediment transport.

Kuo, C.; Lin, C.

2008-12-01

175

Impact of urbanization level on urban air quality: a case of fine particles (PM(2.5)) in Chinese cities.  

PubMed

We examined and compared PM2.5 concentrations in urban and the surrounding regions, and further investigated the impact of urbanization on urban PM2.5 concentrations at the Chinese prefectures. Annual PM2.5 concentrations in most prefectures were greater than 10 ?g/m(3), the air quality guideline of the World Health Organization. Those prefectures were mainly distributed along the east coast and southeast of Sichuan province; The urban PM2.5 concentrations ( [Formula: see text] ) in 85 cities were greater than (>10 ?g/m(3)) those in the surrounding area. Those cities were mainly located in the Beijing-Sichuan and Shanghai-Guangxi belts. In addition, [Formula: see text] was less than (<0 ?g/m(3)) that in surrounding areas in only 41 prefectures, which were located in western China or nearby mega cities; Significant positive correlations were found between [Formula: see text] and urban population (R(2) = 0.99, P < 0.05), and between [Formula: see text] and urban second industry fraction (R(2) = 0.71, P < 0.05), suggesting that urbanization had considerable impact on PM2.5 concentrations. PMID:25113968

Han, Lijian; Zhou, Weiqi; Li, Weifeng; Li, Li

2014-11-01

176

Satellite Maps Show Chesapeake Bay Urban Development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The extent, density, and configuration of the built environment-such as buildings, roads, parking lots, and other materials constructed for human use-have an impact on a wide range of biogeochemical and hydrological processes. These built areas, which are impervious to water infiltration, modify hydrology through the combined influence of increased peak flows, reduced base flows, flashier stream hydrographs (decreased lag times between storm events and peak discharge), and changes in bank and streambed erosion [Nilsson et al., 2003]. Additionally, increasing impervious cover has long been known to amplify point source pollution discharges into streams, including chemical runoff from parking lots and roads [Schueler, 1994]. Two maps of the built environment, expressed in terms of impervious surface area, have been derived for areas that encompass the 168,000-square kilometer Chesapeake Bay watershed (Figure 1), a region that has been highly altered by human land use [Goetz et al., 2004; Jantz et al., 2005]. One map was developed for the region at fine (30-square-meter) spatial resolution, and the other covers the extent of the conterminous United States at one-square-kilometer resolution [Elvidge et al., 2004]. A finer-resolution regional map was used to assess the quality of the national map, demonstrating the utility the latter map for a range of applications related to monitoring land transformation and assessing watershed impacts.

Goetz, Scott J.; Jantz, Patrick

2006-04-01

177

Functional Zoning and Urban Development Tendencies of Bucharest City/Romania  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Any form of urban development policy for environmental management should be based on the differentiation of the structure of a territory that can be found in the shape of functional zoning. Identifying the patterns of morphological structure of the urban space can provide essential clues concerning the proper measures to take into consideration during the activity of urban planning. In this sense, the Bucharest municipality study case provides the example of a dynamic urban space with a complex and distinctive evolutionary structure. The aim of the study is to set out the main events that shaped the Bucharest city space and the patterns resulted from their impact at the functional level of the Romanian capital. In order to identify the development tendencies of the Bucharest municipality, a series of aspects concerning urban morphology should be highlighted that reveal the impact of the socio-economical policies at the structural level of the territory. In this sense, three images of the urban space stand out, representative for the period when they materialized: the Post-Byzantine (XV-XVIII), the Fanariot (XVIII) and the Modern periods (XIX-XX). The corresponding cartographic documents analyzed are: the Franz Purcel Plan (dated 1789), the Romanian Guide Print Plan and, respectively, the AGC Busman Print Plan. The analysis reveals three distinctive morphological types: radial-concentric in the 17th century, polynuclear in the 18th century, leading to the mixed character in the Modern period. The latest trait of the urban territory is based on the concentric character of the street network (three circles were identified at the level of the capital city that point out the evolution of the urban space: Dacia bv-Mircea Vulcanescu, Stefan cel Mare bv-Iancu de Hunedoara and the last circle outlined by the ring road) and the presence of multiple nuclei that accumulate the commercial, administrative and business functions of the city.

Armas, Iuliana; Dumitrascu, Silvia

2010-05-01

178

Sustainable Urbanism : an examination of environmentally responsible neighborhood developments in Europe and lessons for sustainable urban planning  

E-print Network

The emergence of the sustainable development concept at the end of the 1980s triggered the intensification of the environmental sustainability discourse in urban design and planning. The vision of sustainable urbanism ...

Kasioumi, Eirini

2010-01-01

179

Urbanization impact on watershed overland flow generation under Mediterranean influence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Land use and landscape changes alter the hydrologic cycle. Despite many studies examining agricultural and forest changes to urban land use, few have been carried out in Portugal and other countries with a Mediterranean climate. The aim of the study is to assess the hydrological response of urbanizing areas and to identify practices that minimize the impact on the watershed hydrology. The study is carried out in the 6 km2 watershed called Ribeira dos Covões, where rapid urbanization is taken place due to its proximity to Coimbra city centre, the largest city in central Portugal. The study combines field surveys and hydrological monitoring to assess spatiotemporal dynamics and land uses contributions to surface hydrology. Since 2005, the catchment hydrological response has been monitored, through a continuous-recording network that includes a weather station and a river water-level recorder at the outlet. In Fall 2010, the monitoring network was extended by six additional rain gauges and eight water-level recorders. To improve understanding of rainfall-runoff relationships, nine runoff plots of 16m2 were installed in the forest areas, and 31 representative sites were monitored along one year for water repellence, soil moisture and water infiltration. The research showed that the generation of surface runoff in the watershed is different during the summer and winter. During the summer, hydrophobicity is widespread and is especially in forest areas extremely high, resulting in very low or even null water infiltration and quick runoff from infrequent short duration storms. However, despite the soil hydrophobicity the greatest runoff coefficient measured in the runoff plots was only 2.5%, indicating that most rainfall infiltrated outside the water repellent areas and moved via the subsurface to the regional groundwater. In winter the hydrophobicity disappears and the rains increase the ground water table, causing low lying areas to saturate and become runoff source areas. Thus, Hortonian overland flow is important during and immediately after dry periods, while in the wet period the spatial dynamics of saturation overland flow governs runoff responses. Despite the enlargement of the urban areas from 20% to 32% in the last 10 years, the watershed annual runoff coefficient has remained relatively small, and was below 19%. The current low runoff coefficients are a result of the generally sandy soils, the limestone geology (in part of the area) and the deep filled valley on which the watershed is located. All those factors promote infiltration and flow of groundwater under the gage. Considering the quick hydrological response and the predictable runoff increase, associated with urban areas expansion, it is expected flood risk to increase significantly. For this reason it is important to implement planning strategies to preserve the existent infiltration areas and promote new ones, which should consider land uses discontinuities. This should be an important consideration in hydrological modelling and in urban planning.

Ferreira, C. S.; Steenhuis, T. S.; Soares, D.; Ferreira, A. J.; Coelho, C. O.; Walsh, R. P.

2012-12-01

180

Inequitable access to urban reforestation: the impact of urban political economy on housing tenure and urban forests  

Microsoft Academic Search

There has been substantial attention given to the benefits provided by urban forests, but little emphasis placed on the distribution of urban trees and the means by which trees are redistributed through urban reforestation efforts. This paper examines the 2002 program Greening Milwaukee, the city’s largest public\\/private tree planting program. The vast majority of trees planted for this program are

Harold A. Perkins; Nik Heynen; Joe Wilson

2004-01-01

181

Upstream urbanization exacerbates urban heat island effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urban Heat Island (UHI) effects adversely impact weather, air quality, and climate. Previous studies have attributed UHI effects to localized, surface processes. Based on an observational and modeling study of an extreme UHI (heat wave) episode in the Baltimore metropolitan region, we find that upstream urbanization exacerbates UHI effects and that meteorological consequences of extra-urban development can cascade well downwind.

Da-Lin Zhang; Yi-Xuan Shou; Russell R. Dickerson

2009-01-01

182

Health Impacts from Urban Air Pollution in China: The Burden to the Economy and the Benefits of Policy  

E-print Network

Health Impacts from Urban Air Pollution in China: The Burden to the Economy and the Benefits and Policy Program #12;2 #12;Health Impacts from Urban Air Pollution in China: The Burden to the Economy, elevated levels of urban air pollution result in significant adverse health impacts for its large

183

Sustainable urban agriculture in developing countries. A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The population living in cities is continuously increasing worldwide. In developing countries, this phenomenon is exacerbated\\u000a by poverty, leading to tremendous problems of employment, immigration from the rural areas, transportation, food supply and\\u000a environment protection. Simultaneously with the growth of cities, a new type of agriculture has emerged; namely, urban agriculture. Here, the main functions of urban agriculture are described:

Hubert De Bon; Laurent Parrot; Paule Moustier

2010-01-01

184

Sustainable Urban Agriculture in Developing Countries: A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The population living in cities is continuously increasing worldwide. In developing countries, this phenomenon is exacerbated\\u000a by poverty, leading to tremendous problems of employment, immigration from the rural areas, transportation, food supply and\\u000a environment protection. Simultaneously with the growth of cities, a new type of agriculture has emerged; namely, urban agriculture. Here, the main functions of urban agriculture are described:

Hubert de Bon; Laurent Parrot; Paule Moustier

185

Simulation of Regional Climate Change Impacted by Urbanization and Anthropogenic Heat Release in China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Anthropogenic heat release produced from energy use may be an important factor which has an impact on climate change, but currently it is uncertain that how much contribution greenhouse gas, the changes of land surface and anthropogenic heat release gives to global warming respectively. In our study, we collected and analyzed the distribution of the urban anthropogenic heat release with the actual energy consumption and climate observation data in China. Based on the data of urbanization and anthropogenic heat release, the Advanced Research WRF (ARW) model and its urban canopy model (UCM) were used to simulate the influences on regional climate by the change of urban land surface and anthropogenic heat release. In the experiments, the classifications of land use of USGS-24 without urban type and USGS-33 with three urban types are adopted. Considering the large areas of urbanization, the surface air temperature becomes obviously higher over most areas of China than that no change of urban land surface is considered, but the impact is not regular for the precipitation. The latent heat flux generally decreases due to the urbanization. In further, the anthropogenic heat release was added into the model according to the three types of urban classification, and then we can find the temperature continues to increase, but the attitude is smaller than that with the change of urban surface. Therefore, anthropogenic heat release is an unnegligible factor for regional climate change.

Feng, J.; Wang, Y.

2010-12-01

186

Assessment tools for urban catchments: developing biological indicators based on benthic macroinvertebrates  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Biological indicators, particularly benthic macroinvertebrates, are widely used and effective measures of the impact of urbanization on stream ecosystems. A multimetric biological index of urbanization was developed using a large benthic macroinvertebrate dataset (n = 1,835) from the Baltimore, Maryland, metropolitan area and then validated with datasets from Cleveland, Ohio (n = 79); San Jose, California (n = 85); and a different subset of the Baltimore data (n = 85). The biological metrics used to develop the multimetric index were selected using several criteria and were required to represent ecological attributes of macroinvertebrate assemblages including taxonomic composition and richness (number of taxa in the insect orders of Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera), functional feeding group (number of taxa designated as filterers), and habit (percent of individuals which cling to the substrate). Quantile regression was used to select metrics and characterize the relationship between the final biological index and an urban gradient (composed of population density, road density, and urban land use). Although more complex biological indices exist, this simplified multimetric index showed a consistent relationship between biological indicators and urban conditions (as measured by quantile regression) in three climatic regions of the United States and can serve as an assessment tool for environmental managers to prioritize urban stream sites for restoration and protection.

Purcell, A. H.; Bressler, D. W.; Paul, M. J.; Barbour, M. T.; Rankin, E. T.; Carter, J. L.; Resh, V. H.

2009-01-01

187

Urban Creek and Lake Water Quality Issues as Impacted by Urban Stormwater Runoff1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urban creeks and lakes can be important habitats for a variety of aquatic life, as well as an aesthetic resource to communities. A key component of this resource is the quality of water in these waterbodies. This paper is devoted to a review of water quality problems in urban creeks and lakes associated with stormwater runoff and other urban sources

G. Fred Lee; Anne Jones-Lee

188

Development of river flood model in lower reach of urbanized river basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Japan, with its natural mountainous landscape, has demographic feature that population is concentrated in lower reach of elevation close to the coast, and therefore flood damage with large socio-economic value tends to occur in low-lying region. Modeling of river flood in such low-lying urbanized river basin is complex due to the following reasons. In upstream it has been experienced urbanization, which changed land covers from natural forest or agricultural fields to residential or industrial area. Hence rate of infiltration and runoff are quite different from natural hydrological settings. In downstream, paved covers and construct of sewerage system in urbanized areas affect direct discharges and it enhances higher and faster flood peak arrival. Also tidal effect from river mouth strongly affects water levels in rivers, which must be taken into account. We develop an integrated river flood model in lower reach of urbanized areas to be able to address above described complex feature, by integrating model components: LSM coupled distributed hydrological model that models anthropogenic influence on river discharges to downstream; urban hydrological model that simulates run off response in urbanized areas; Saint Venant's equation approximated river model that integrates upstream and urban hydrological models with considering tidal effect from downstream. These features are integrated in a common modeling framework so that model interaction can be directly performed. The model is applied to the Tsurumi river basin, urbanized low-lying river basin in Yokohama and model results show that it can simulate water levels in rivers with acceptable model errors. Furthermore the model is able to install miscellaneous water planning constructs, such as runoff reduction pond in urbanized area, flood control field along the river channel, levee, etc. This can be a useful tool to investigate cost performance of hypothetical water management plan against impact of climate change in the region.

Yoshimura, Kouhei; Tajima, Yoshimitsu; Sanuki, Hiroshi; Shibuo, Yoshihiro; Sato, Shinji; Lee, SungAe; Furumai, Hiroaki; Koike, Toshio

2014-05-01

189

Conservation in metropolitan regions: assessing trends and threats of urban development and climate change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two global challenges to successful conservation are urban expansion and climate change. Rapid urban growth threatens biodiversity and associated ecosystem services, while climate change may make currently protected areas unsuitable for species that exist within them. We examined three measures of landscape change for 8800 km2 of the San Francisco Bay metropolitan region over 80 years past and future: urban growth, protected area establishment, and natural vegetation type extents. The Bay Area is a good test bed for conservation assessment of the impacts of temporal and spatial of urban growth and land cover change. The region is geographically rather small, with over 40% of its lands already dedicated to protected park and open space lands, they are well-documented, and, the area has had extensive population growth in the past and is projected to continue to grow. The ten-county region within which our study area is a subset has grown from 1.78 million people in 1930, to 6.97 million in 2000 and is estimated to grow to 10.94 million by 2050. With such an influx of people into a small geographic area, it is imperative to both examine the past urban expansion and estimate how the future population will be accommodated into the landscape. We quantify these trends to assess conservation 'success' through time. We used historical and current landcover maps to assess trend, and a GIS-based urban modeling (UPlan) to assess future urban growth impacts in the region, under three policy scenarios- business as usual, smart growth, and urban redevelopment. Impacts are measured by the amount of open space targeted by conservation planners in the region that will be urbanized under each urban growth policy. Impacts are also measured by estimates of the energy consumption projected for each of the scenarios on household and business unit level. The 'business as usual' and 'smart growth' scenarios differed little in their impacts to targeted conservation lands, because so little open space remains to accommodate the expected population growth. Redevelopment conserved more naturally vegetated open space. The redevelopment scenario also permits the lowest increase in energy demand because buildings taken out in the process are reconfigured to higher levels of energy efficiency. However, redevelopment requires substantial increases in residential densities to confine the spatial footprint of the expected future urban growth. These three urban growth scenario footprints differ in their impact to natural vegetation and open space. To incorporate the influence of climate change on remaining natural ecosystems in this urbanizing landscape, we projected the stability of existing, mapped, vegetation types in the region under future climates by examining where projected ranges of the dominant plant species comprising each California Wildlife Habitat Relationship type will all remain together, and where they will begin to dis-associate due to biogeographic response to changing climate. This permits identification of stable and unstable zones of vegetation. The combination of climate stable, high conservation priority and likelihood of urban development provides a way to prioritize conservation land acquisitions.

Thorne, J. H.; Santos, M. J.; Bjorkman, J.

2011-12-01

190

Early urban development in the Near East.  

PubMed

It has been thought that the first cities in the Near East were spatially extensive and grew outward from a core nucleated village while maintaining a more or less constant density in terms of persons or households per unit of area. The general applicability outside of the Near East of this southern Mesopotamian.derived model has been questioned recently, and variations from it are increasingly recognized. We can now demonstrate that such variation was present at the beginnings of urbanism in the Near East as well. PMID:17761874

Ur, Jason A; Karsgaard, Philip; Oates, Joan

2007-08-31

191

Effects of Global Change on U.S. Urban Areas: Vulnerabilities, Impacts, and Adaptation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This slide presentation reviews some of the effects that global change has on urban areas in the United States and how the growth of urban areas will affect the environment. It presents the elements of our Synthesis and Assessment Report (SAP) report that relate to what vulnerabilities and impacts will occur, what adaptation responses may take place, and what possible effects on settlement patterns and characteristics will potentially arise, on human settlements in the U.S. as a result of climate change and climate variability. We will also present some recommendations about what should be done to further research on how climate change and variability will impact human settlements in the U.S., as well as how to engage government officials, policy and decision makers, and the general public in understanding the implications of climate change and variability on the local and regional levels. Additionally, we wish to explore how technology such as remote sensing data coupled with modeling, can be employed as synthesis tools for deriving insight across a spectrum of impacts (e.g. public health, urban planning for mitigation strategies) on how cities can cope and adapt to climate change and variability. This latter point parallels the concepts and ideas presented in the U.S. National Academy of Sciences, Decadal Survey report on "Earth Science Applications from Space: National Imperatives for the Next Decade and Beyond" wherein the analysis of the impacts of climate change and variability, human health, and land use change are listed as key areas for development of future Earth observing remote sensing systems.

Quattrochi, Dale A.; Wilbanks, Thomas J.; Kirshen, Paul; Romero-Lankao, Patricia; Rosenzweig, Cynthia; Ruth, Mattias; Solecki, William; Tarr, Joel

2008-01-01

192

Regional Assessment of Urban Impacts on Landcover and Open Space Finds a Smart Urban Growth Policy Performs Little Better than Business as Usual  

PubMed Central

Assessment of landscape change is critical for attainment of regional sustainability goals. Urban growth assessments are needed because over half the global population now lives in cities, which impact biodiversity, ecosystem structure and ecological processes. Open space protection is needed to preserve these attributes, and provide the resources humans need. The San Francisco Bay Area, California, is challenged to accommodate a population increase of 3.07 million while maintaining the region’s ecosystems and biodiversity. Our analysis of 9275 km2 in the Bay Area links historic trends for three measures: urban growth, protected open space, and landcover types over the last 70 years to future 2050 projections of urban growth and open space. Protected open space totaled 348 km2 (3.7% of the area) in 1940, and expanded to 2221 km2 (20.2%) currently. An additional 1038 km2 of protected open space is targeted (35.1%). Urban area historically increased from 396.5 km2 to 2239 km2 (24.1% of the area). Urban growth during this time mostly occurred at the expense of agricultural landscapes (62.9%) rather than natural vegetation. Smart Growth development has been advanced as a preferred alternative in many planning circles, but we found that it conserved only marginally more open space than Business-as-usual when using an urban growth model to portray policies for future urban growth. Scenarios to 2050 suggest urban development on non-urban lands of 1091, 956, or 179 km2, under Business-as-usual, Smart Growth and Infill policy growth scenarios, respectively. The Smart Growth policy converts 88% of natural lands and agriculture used by Business-as-usual, while Infill used only 40% of those lands. Given the historic rate of urban growth, 0.25%/year, and limited space available, the Infill scenario is recommended. While the data may differ, the use of an historic and future framework to track these three variables can be easily applied to other metropolitan areas. PMID:23755204

Thorne, James H.; Santos, Maria J.; Bjorkman, Jacquelyn H.

2013-01-01

193

Aboriginal Economic Development in Urban Areas: A Framework for Comparative Analysis  

E-print Network

The globalizing and urbanizing contexts of Western societies impact Indigenous communities in a variety of ways. This paper deals with the complex definitions that arise in work with urban Indigenous communities, the ...

Morris, Peter L.

2003-03-01

194

1. INTRODUCTION Urbanization is occurring rapidly in semi-arid areas and has far reaching, but largely unquantified, impacts on the water budget of cities. Urbanization  

E-print Network

recharge). Urban modifications also impact the surface energy balance through changes in albedo, thermal, understanding how structural modifications of the water and energy budgets associated with urbanization affect on the urban water balance we need to determine how land use, human decisions about water use, and climate

Hall, Sharon J.

195

The impact of aerosols on urban photochemical ozone production  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ozone in the troposphere is a photochemically-formed secondary pollutant that is harmful to human health, a green-house gas, and an oxidizing species. Several chemical and meteorological factors that affect the rate of photochemical ozone formation in the troposphere are well understood. The impact of urban aerosols on the photochemical formation of ozone has been generally ignored or assumed to be small. This thesis work shows that radiative properties of aerosols influence the ozone formation significantly. The photolysis rate coefficient of NO2 photolysis, j(NO2), was measured at NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center during the summer of 1995. Aerosol optical depth (?) during the summer of 1995 ranged from 0.1 to 2.0 at photochemically active wavelengths, with a mean value of 1.0 on smoggy days. Surface j(NO2) decreased with increasing effective aerosol optical depth (?/cos ?), where ? is the solar zenith angle. Surface j(NO2) on smoggy days compared to a clear day decreased by 60% when sun was low in the sky (? = 60o), but the effects were marginal for overhead sun. Retrieved radiative properties of aerosols were used as input to the Discrete Ordinate Radiative Transfer model to simulate the observed j(NO2) and compute the vertical profiles of photolysis rate coefficients of other important trace gases. Model calculations showed that high ?-values typical of the eastern United States on smoggy days increased the boundary layer UV flux substantially (up to 36%), and led to accelerated photolysis rate coefficients. Agreement between the calculated and measured j(NO2) was excellent. Variable-grid Urban Airshed Model (UAM-V) simulations using the calculated photolysis rate coefficients for different ?-values showed that boundary layer ozone formation is sensitive to column aerosol content, aerosol single scattering albedo (?), and the thickness of the aerosol layer. Boundary layer ozone increased up to 50 ppb when ?380 (? at 380 nm) increased from 0.0 to 2.0 for an ?-value of unity. Absorbing aerosol with an ?-value of 0.75 decreased ozone formation by 25 ppb when ?380 increased from 0.0 to 2.0. Aerosol with an ?-value of 0.96 increased ozone formation by 25 ppb. However, aerosol above the boundary layer decreased ozone production in the boundary layer by 25 ppb. The impact of aerosols on photochemical production of ozone is significant because reduced sulfur dioxide emissions as mandated by the Clean Air Act Amendment of 1990 may result in an unanticipated benefit for ozone pollution problem.

Kondragunta, Shobha

1997-12-01

196

Impact of anthropogenic activities on urban stream water quality: a case study in Guangzhou, China.  

PubMed

Anthropogenic activities are increasingly impacting the quality of urban surface water, particularly in regions undergoing intensive urbanization, such as Guangzhou of South China with a large urban stream network. To examine such impacts, we conducted field sampling on December 24, 2010, May 24, 2011, and August 28, 2011, representative of the low-, normal-, and high-flow periods, respectively. The first sampling was timed immediately after the closing of the 16th Asian Games (November 12-27, 2010) and the 10th Asian Para Games (December 12-19, 2010) held in Guangzhou. Assessments based on a pollution index method showed that the urban streams under investigation were extremely polluted, with direct discharge of untreated domestic sewage identified as the main pollution contributor. In addition, stream water quality around urban villages with high population densities was worse than that within business districts away from the urban villages. Pollution control measures implemented in preparation for the Asian Games were effective for urban streams within the business districts, but less effective for those adjacent to the urban villages. However, short-term efforts may not be able to achieve sustainable urban water quality improvements. In the case of Guangzhou, minimizing or even eliminating direct point-source inputs to the urban streams is perhaps the best option. PMID:25009093

Liu, Jin-Song; Guo, Ling-Chuan; Luo, Xian-Lin; Chen, Fan-Rong; Zeng, Eddy Y

2014-12-01

197

Environmental impacts of urban growth from an integrated dynamic perspective: A case study of Shenzhen, South China  

Microsoft Academic Search

China is home to one-fifth of the world's population and that population is increasingly urban. The landscape is also urbanizing. Although there are studies that focus on specific elements of urban growth, there is very little empirical work that incorporates feedbacks and linkages to assess the interactions between the dynamics of urban growth and their environmental impacts. In this study,

Burak Güneralp; Karen C. Seto

2008-01-01

198

Connecting Urban Youth with their Environment: The Impact of an Urban Ecology Course on Student Content Knowledge, Environmental Attitudes and Responsible Behaviors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study explores the impact of an urban ecology program on participating middle school students' understanding of science and pro-environmental attitudes and behaviors. We gathered pre and post survey data from four classes and found significant gains in scientific knowledge, but no significant changes in student beliefs regarding the environment. We interviewed 12 students to better understand their beliefs. Although student responses showed they had learned discrete content knowledge, they lacked any ecological understanding of the environment and had mixed perceptions of the course's relevance in their lives. Students reported doing pro-environmental behaviors, but overwhelmingly contributed such actions to influences other than the urban ecology course. Analyses indicated a disconnect between the course, the environment, and the impact on the students' lives. Consequently, this suggests the importance of recognizing the implications of context, culture, and identity development of urban youth. Perhaps by providing explicit connections and skills in urban environmental programs through engaging students in environmental scientific investigations that stem from their own issues and questions can increase student engagement, motivation, and self-efficacy of environmental issues.

Hashimoto-Martell, Erin A.; McNeill, Katherine L.; Hoffman, Emily M.

2012-10-01

199

Mesoscale and microscale evaluation of surface pavement impacts on the urban heat island effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

The global phenomenon of rapid urbanization is forcing the transition of native vegetation to man-made engineered surfaces resulting in the urban heat island (UHI) effect. The UHI can adversely impact the sustainability of regions by increasing the dependence of mechanical cooling which results in increased greenhouse gas emissions, consumption of water in the thermoelectric process and increased costs of living

J. S. Golden; K. E. Kaloush

2006-01-01

200

396: An Analysis of the Urban Heat Island of Sheffield - the Impact of a Changing Climate  

Microsoft Academic Search

The presence of a city has a major impact on its local environment in terms of the heat and water balance of the area. In particular, it has been widely observed that the centre of the urban area in a temperate climate tends to be of the order of 4 to 6 °C warmer than its rural surroundings (the Urban

Susan E. Lee; Steve Sharples

201

A Review of Quantitative Methods for Evaluating Impacts of Climate Change on Urban Water Infrastructure  

EPA Science Inventory

It is widely accepted that global climate change will impact the regional and local climate and alter some aspects of the hydrologic cycle, which in turn can affect the performance of the urban water supply, wastewater and storm water infrastructur4e. How the urban water infrastr...

202

A New Examination of Urban Intervention: Social Acceptance of Urban Development  

E-print Network

planning professionals. The space, considered abstract by the author, is subject to manipulation and serves: "[...] the designed space of the scientists, planners, urbanists, technocrats `carvers' and `organisers' [...] pushed in attitude on the part of professionals of urban development and planning is called for: they must

Boyer, Edmond

203

Critical consciousness and career development among urban youth  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study explored the role of critical consciousness as a key factor in predicting progress in career development among urban high school students. Critical consciousness, or the capacity to recognize and overcome sociopolitical barriers, was operationalized through sociopolitical analysis and sociopolitical control. Canonical correlation analysis indicated a statistically significant relationship between critical consciousness and progress in career development, which was

Matthew A. Diemer; David L. Blustein

2006-01-01

204

Education, Development, and the Rebuilding of Urban Community.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The paper asks what are appropriate policies for urban school reform in the context of global transformations affecting cities in both developed and "Third World" countries. Features of this transformation include growing population diversity, a semi-permanent underclass, and the informal economy. Comprehensive community development (i.e.…

Keith, Novella Z.; Keith, Nelson W.

205

Strategies for sustainable urban and transport development in Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

A transportation system can enhance the productivity and quality of life of a community if properly planned and managed. At the same time, development stimulates demand for transport. This paper looks at urban development and the transport system in Nigeria and finds that conflicts exist between them. The paper then tries to analyse these conflicts with a view to understanding

J.-F. K. Akinbami; S. O. Fadare

1997-01-01

206

The impacts of urbanization on endangered florida key deer  

E-print Network

development and its associated risk factors (i.e., habitat loss and fragmentation, deer domestication, and deerÂ?vehicle collisions) have been cited as the greatest threat to the Key deer population. For my dissertation research, I evaluated the impacts of 30...

Harveson, Patricia Moody

2006-04-12

207

Management mitigates the impact of urbanization on meadow vegetation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urban regions often contain remnants of ecologically valuable habitats. Whilst meadow habitats have been recognized as ecologically\\u000a important and much studied, little attention has been given to meadow assemblages of urban locations. We studied the effects\\u000a of meadow type, urbanization level, and management on vascular plant species richness, field layer diversity and soil chemistry\\u000a in 18 grassland sites in the

Sirkku Manninen; Sonja Forss; Stephen Venn

2010-01-01

208

Combining Satellite Data and Models to Assess the Impacts of Urbanization on the Continental US Surface Climate  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Urbanization is one of the most important and long lasting forms of land transformation. Urbanization affects the surface climate in different ways: (1) by reduction of the vegetation fraction causing subsequent reduction in photosynthesis and plant s water transpiration, (2) by alternation of surface runoff and infiltration and their impacts on soil moisture and the water table, (3) by change in the surface albedo and surface energy partitioning, and (4) by transformation of the surface roughness length and modification of surface fluxes. Land cover and land use change maps including urban areas have been developed and will be used in a suite of land surface models of different complexity to assess the impacts of urbanization on the continental US surface climate. These maps and datasets based on a full range of available satellite data and ground observations will be used to characterize distant-past (pre-urban), recent-past (2001), present (2010), and near future (2020) land cover and land use changes. The main objective of the project is to assess the impacts of these land transformation on past, current and near-future climate and the potential feedbacks from these changes on the atmospheric, hydrologic, biological, and socio-economic properties beyond the immediate metropolitan regions of cities and their near suburbs. The WRF modeling system will be used to explore the nature and the magnitude of the two-way interactions between urban lands and the atmosphere and assess the overall regional dynamic effect of urban expansion on the northeastern US weather and climate

Bounoua, L.; Zhang, P.; Imhoff, M.; Santanello, J.; Kumar, S.; Shepherd, M.; Quattrochi, D.; Silva, J.; Rosenzweigh, C.; Gaffin, S.; Mostovoy, G.

2013-01-01

209

Fresno in Transition: Urban Impacts of Rural Migration. Working Paper No. 26.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines the social and economic impacts of Mexican immigration on Fresno (California). Since the early 1980s, immigration to California has been dominated by illegal immigrants from rural Mexico seeking agricultural jobs in rural California. This rural migration impacts urban centers in agricultural regions; these impacts lag the…

Mason, Bert; Alvarado, Andrew; Palacio, Robert

210

DREDGING IMPACT ON AN URBANIZED FLORIDA BAYOU: EFFECTS ON BENTHOS AND ALGAL-PERIPHYTON.  

EPA Science Inventory

Environmental effects of dredging events have been uncommonly reported for shallow, residential estuaries characteristic of the Gulf of Mexico region. The objective of this study was to determine the impact of hydraulic dredging on an urbanized estuary. Physicochemical quality, ...

211

Urban Sodicity in a Humid Subtropical Climate: Impact on Biogeochemical Cycling  

E-print Network

in watersheds. Chapter II quantifies the carbon and nutrient in intact soil core leachates and in water extractable solution from urban soils collected from 33 towns and cities across the state of Texas. Chapter III investigates the impact of sodicity...

Steele, Meredith Kate

2012-10-19

212

Assessment of patches attributes along the Urban Development Gradient  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The world is increasingly urban. If current trends maintain, by 2050 the global urban population is estimated to be 6.3 billion, nearly doubling the world population in 2010. Consequently, more than 60% of the area projected to be urban in 2030 has yet to be built, replacing the open and agriculture lands with construction and infrastructure. The open green patches (OGP), within the urban matrix, are essential for healthy and wellness of cities by supplying the city's ecological services (Mausback and Seybold, 1998). Regarding future trends, there is a need and obligation to insure the functional and sustainability of the city's OPG. Urban vegetation composition and diversity in the OGP had long been considered as an indication for ecologically functioning systems. Furthermore, urban soil is also essential for the sustainability and function of the urban habitat and ecological services, such as maintaining groundwater restraining urban floods etc. (Lehmann and Stahr 2007). There is no single set of rules to classify a functional urban green patch worth preserving. The aim of this study is to examine the effects of patch properties (including geometry, age, type and location along the urban gradient, connectivity, and urban matrix density) on the presence, abundance and characteristics of vegetation and soil conditions of remnant patches The inspired purpose is to eventually find an assessment for urban open green patches OGP quality by linking, patches attributes, plants indexes and soil quality indexes The research is conducted in the city of Haifa, which is located on the northern part of Mount Carmel in the north-western part of Israel . Mean annual rainfall, 550-800 mm, varies with latitude and the mean temperature is 18.80c. Modern Haifa is a relatively young city which maintains remnant vegetation patches within its municipal boundary. 32 OGP were selected in nine categories (size: small, medium and large, distance from city edge: far, average, near), in which vegetation was surveyed. . All vascular plant species were recorded and identified. The mineral soils (A horizon, depth 10-15 cm) were collected to obtain a constant sample size after removing surface litter and organic matter. The samples were analyzed for mineral and structure properties. Preliminary results of the plant survey and analysis indicated that the patches' vegetation is highly diverse. Within the large patches, regardless of their location along the urban development gradient, higher sub-habitat diversity and plants diversity were observed. The diversity is high for local and exotic species alike. In the medium and small size patches, also regardless of their location, there is a diversity of plant composition that may be connected to different disturbances or matrix related effect not yet considered in the study. Preliminary results of the soil survey and analysis indicated that more than 75% of the soil samples taken from the OGP, regardless of their location in the urban development gradient, exhibited a considerable changes in soil profile, compared to "natural" soils and significant alternations in the physical properties were also observed. The substance that was found in the remnant OGP in Haifa is different from soil, however, links between the urban-soils altered properties and the vegetation composition in those patches, and there relationships are not fully understood.

Kopel, Daniella; Wittenberg, lea; Malkinson, Dan

2014-05-01

213

Impacts of Urbanization and Biofuels Production on The Price of Land in the Corn Belt: A Farm-Level Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study uses hedonic techniques to estimate the impact of urban influence, increased bio-fuels production, and environmental factors on land prices in the Corn Belt. We hypothesize that urban influence and ethanol production increase land prices on Corn Belt farms. Although not all states in the Corn Belt are entirely subject to urban influence and ethanol production impacts, some states

Richard Nehring; Kenneth Erickson; Vince Breneman; Alexandre Vialou; David Nulph

214

Impacts of Climate Policy on Urban Air Pollution: Implications for Policy Design for Integrating Air-quality Co-benefits  

E-print Network

Impacts of Climate Policy on Urban Air Pollution: Implications for Policy Design for Integrating, Technology and Policy Program #12;#12;3 Impacts of Climate Policy on Urban Air Pollution: Implications climate change and urban air pollution and imply that opportunities exist to simultaneously deal

215

Satellite Maps Show Chesapeake Bay Urban Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The extent, density, and configuration of the built environment-such as buildings, roads, parking lots, and other materials constructed for human use-have an impact on a wide range of biogeochemical and hydrological processes. These built areas, which are impervious to water infiltration, modify hydrology through the combined influence of increased peak flows, reduced base flows, flashier stream hydrographs (decreased lag times

Scott J. Goetz; Patrick Jantz

2006-01-01

216

Coupling urban event-based and catchment continuous modelling for combined sewer overflow river impact assessment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since Water Framework Directive (WFD) was passed in year 2000, the conservation of water bodies in the EU must be understood in a completely different way. Regarding to combined sewer overflows (CSOs) from urban drainage networks, the WFD implies that we cannot accept CSOs because of their intrinsic features, but they must be assessed for their impact on the receiving water bodies in agreement with specific environmental aims. Consequently, both, urban system and the receiving water body must be jointly analysed to evaluate the environmental impact generated on the latter. In this context, a coupled scheme is presented in this paper to assess the CSOs impact on a river system in Torrelavega (Spain). First, a urban model is developed to statistically characterise the CSOs frequency, volume and duration. The main feature of this first model is the fact of being event-based: the system is modelled with some built synthetic storms which cover adequately the probability range of the main rainfall descriptors, i.e., rainfall event volume and peak intensity. Thus, CSOs are characterised in terms of their occurrence probability. Secondly, a continuous and distributed basin model is built to assess river response at different points in the river network. This model was calibrated initially on a daily scale and downscaled later to hourly scale. The main objective of this second element of the scheme is to provide the most likely state of the receiving river when a CSO occurs. By combining results of both models, CSO and river flows are homogeneously characterised from a statistical point of view. Finally, results from both models were coupled to estimate the final concentration of some analysed pollutants (biochemical oxygen demand, BOD, and total ammonium, NH4+), within the river just after the spills.

Andrés-Doménech, I.; Múnera, J. C.; Francés, F.; Marco, J. B.

2010-10-01

217

Coupling urban event-based and catchment continuous modelling for combined sewer overflow river impact assessment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since the Water Framework Directive (WFD) was passed in year 2000, the protection of water bodies in the EU must be understood in a completely different way. Regarding to combined sewer overflows (CSOs) from urban drainage networks, the WFD implies that CSOs cannot be accepted because of their intrinsic features, but must be assessed for their impact on the receiving water bodies in agreement with specific environmental aims. Consequently, both, the urban system and the receiving one must be jointly analysed to evaluate their impact. In this context, a coupled scheme is presented in this paper to assess the CSOs impact in a river system in Torrelavega (Spain). First, an urban model is developed to characterise statistically the CSOs frequency, volume and duration. The main feature of this first model is the fact of being event-based: the system is modelled with some built synthetic storms which cover adequately the probability range of the main rainfall descriptors, i.e., rainfall event volume and peak intensity. Thus, CSOs are characterised in terms of their occurrence probability. Secondly, a continuous and distributed basin model is built to assess the river response at different points in the river network. This model was calibrated initially on a daily scale and downscaled later to the hourly scale. The main objective of this second element of the scheme is to provide the most likely state of the receiving river when a CSO occurs. By combining results of both models, CSO and river flows are homogeneously characterised from a statistical point of view. Finally, results from both models were coupled to estimate the final concentration of some analysed pollutants (the biochemical oxygen demand, BOD, and the total ammonium, NH4+), in the river just after the spills.

Andrés-Doménech, I.; Múnera, J. C.; Francés, F.; Marco, J. B.

2010-05-01

218

Impact of Urban Sprawl on Water Quality in Eastern Massachusetts, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study of water quality, land use, and population variations over the past three decades was conducted in eastern Massachusetts\\u000a to examine the impact of urban sprawl on water quality using geographic information system and statistical analyses. Since\\u000a 1970, eastern Massachusetts has experienced pronounced urban sprawl, which has a substantial impact on water quality. High\\u000a spatial correlations are found between

Jun Tu; Zong-Guo Xia; Keith C. Clarke; Allan Frei

2007-01-01

219

IMPACTS OF URBAN COYOTES ON PEOPLE AND PETS IN NEW YORK STATE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract: Coyotes ,(Canis latrans) are currently common ,in most ,of New ,York State with an apparent increase of coyotes,in urban areas. Coyotes can potentially cause a variety of effects and impacts. Urban ,coyotes can impact the general public by causing ,safety concerns for children and pets and by causing,feelings of grief for attacked and missing pets. Politicians and government,agencies can

Louis T. Berchielli

220

Effects of Global Change on U.S. Urban Areas: Vulnerabilities, Impacts, and Adaptation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Human settlements, both large and small, are where the vast majority of people on the Earth live. Expansion of cities both in population and areal extent, is a relentless process that will accelerate in the 21st century. As a consequence of urban growth both in the United States and around the globe, it is important to develop an understanding of how urbanization will affect the local and regional environment. Of equal importance, however, is the assessment of how cities will be impacted by the looming prospects of global climate change and climate variability. The potential impacts of climate change and variability has recently been annunciated by the IPCC's "Climate Change 2007" report. Moreover, the U.S. Climate Change Science Program (CCSP) is preparing a series of "Synthesis and Assessment Products" (SAPs) reports to support informed discussion and decision making regarding climate change and variability by policy matters, resource managers, stakeholders, the media, and the general public. We are authors on a SAP describing the effects of global climate change on human settlements. This paper will present the elements of our SAP report that relate to what vulnerabilities and impacts will occur, what adaptation responses may take place, and what possible effects on settlement patterns and characteristics will potentially arise, on human settlements in the U.S. as a result of climate change and climate variability. We will also present some recommendations about what should be done to further research on how climate change and variability will impact human settlements in the U.S., as well as how to engage government officials, policy and decision makers, and the general public in understanding the implications of climate change and variability on the local and regional levels. Additionally, we wish to explore how technology such as remote sensing data coupled with modeling, can be employed as synthesis tools for deriving insight across a spectrum of impacts (e.g. public health, urban planning for mitigation strategies) on how cities can cope and adapt to climate change and variability. This latter point parallels the concepts and ideas presented in the U.S. National Academy of Sciences, Decadal Survey report on "Earth Science Applications from Space: National Imperatives for the Next Decade and Beyond" wherein the analysis of the impacts of climate change and variability, human health, and land use change are listed as key areas for development of future Earth observing remote sensing systems.

Quattrochi, Dale A.; Wilbanks, Thomas J.; Kirshen, Paul; Romero-Lnkao, Patricia; Rosenzweig, Cynthia; Ruth, Matthias; Solecki, William; Tarr, Joel

2007-01-01

221

U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development: Periodicals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The U.S Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) publishes periodicals aimed towards urban development professionals, policy makers, and scholars. This website brings all of these periodicals together in one place, and visitors can look through current and past issues of "Cityscape", and the quarterly report, "U.S. Housing Market Conditions". For those interested in a more general-interest publication, "Cityscape" is a good bet, as it contains pieces on housing vouchers, ethnically diverse urban neighborhoods, and the legacy of the Fair Housing Act. Finally, the "U.S. Housing Market Conditions" reports consist of statistical data and written reports on the quarterly status of economic and housing market trends for 10 geographical regions.

2006-01-01

222

IMPACT OF CORRIDOR STRUCTURE ON URBAN HEAT ISLAND IN BEIJING, CHINA  

E-print Network

This paper focuses on examining the impact of corridor structure on urban heat island using the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) data. To analyze the impact of the three corridor structures, i.e., road, greenbelt and water body, on surrounding temperatures, some of representative regions of road?greenbelt?water were chosen, and several surrounding regions were also chosen as comparative regions within second ring road. Generally speaking, these corridor structures have different effects on the urban heat island listed as follows. The cooling effect of water body to the urban heat island is the most obvious, greenbelt takes the second place, and then it is the road system whose direction is crucial to the alleviation of the urban heat island. Moreover the impacting range of the three corridor structures is limited, and usually not exceeding 300 meters. 1. NTRODUCTION With rapid urbanization, urban heat island(UHI)becomes one of the urban environmental issues. UHI effect is due to the temperature difference between urban and its ’ surrounding suburban rural areas. The primary root of heat island in cities is due to the absorption of solar radiation by buildings, roads, and other subsurface materials during daytime. The absorbed heat is subsequently re-radiated to the surroundings and increases

Mingyi Du; Weixian Sun; Yurong Chen

223

Impact of concrete and PVC pipes on urban water chemistry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Waterways contain a chemical signature of catchment land use, climate and geology. This is increasingly being influenced by the urban landscape and particularly the composition of materials and activities that occur on impervious surfaces. This paper examines the degree and extent of two types of drainage materials, concrete and PVC, on urban water chemistry. This study found that water collected

P. J. Davies; I. A. Wright; O. J. Jonasson; S. J. Findlay

2010-01-01

224

The Urban Impacts of Federal Policies: Vol. 3, Fiscal Conditions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The growing fiscal problems of American cities have drawn new attention to the dual role of the Federal government: on one hand a contributor to current problems; on the other, the main potential source of solutions and financial relief. Federal involvement in urban affairs is far more extensive than is suggested by the handful of explicitly urban

Barro, Stephen M.

225

Impacts of urban agriculture in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urban agriculturalists keeping mainly cross-bred dairy cattle in four different density areas in the city of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania were investigated as to whether they had information about the damaging effects of their animals on the environment. They responded to questions related to five issues of animal activity that damaged the urban environment. The findings revealed that, on average,

Malongo R. S. Mlozi

1997-01-01

226

Urban impacts on mean and trend of surface incident solar radiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

aerosols over urban areas may have important effects on surface incident solar radiation (Rs). Studies have claimed that Rs decreased significantly more in urban areas than in rural areas from 1964 to 1989. However, these estimates have substantial biases because they ignored the spatial inhomogeneity of Rs measurements. To address this issue, we selected urban-rural station pairs collocated within 2° × 2° and found 105 such pairs based on the Global Energy Balance Archive (GEBA). On average, the impact of urban aerosols on mean and trend of Rs is 0.2(0.7, median) ± 11.2 W m-2 and 0.1(-0.7, median) ± 6.6 W m-2 per decade from 1961 to 1990, respectively. Hence, the averaged urban impacts on the mean and trend of Rs over Europe, China and Japan from 1961 to 1990 are small although they may be significant at specific sites.

Wang, Kaicun; Ma, Qian; Wang, XiaoYan; Wild, Martin

2014-07-01

227

Health impacts from urban air pollution in China : the burden to the economy and the benefits of policy  

E-print Network

In China, elevated levels of urban air pollution result in significant adverse health impacts for its large and rapidly growing urban population. An expanded version of the Emissions Prediction and Policy Analysis (EPPA), ...

Matus, Kira J. (Kira Jen)

2005-01-01

228

Impact of urban parameterization on high resolution air quality forecast with the GEM - AQ model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this study is to assess the impact of urban cover on high-resolution air quality forecast simulations with the GEM-AQ (Global Environmental Multiscale and Air Quality) model. The impact of urban area on the ambient atmosphere is non-stationary, and short-term variability of meteorological conditions may result in significant changes of the observed intensity of urban heat island and pollutant concentrations. In this study we used the Town Energy Balance (TEB) parameterization to represent urban effects on modelled meteorological and air quality parameters at the final nesting level with horizontal resolution of ~5 km over Southern Poland. Three one-day cases representing different meteorological conditions were selected and the model was run with and without the TEB parameterization. Three urban cover categories were used in the TEB parameterization: mid-high buildings, very low buildings and low density suburbs. Urban cover layers were constructed based on an area fraction of towns in a grid cell. To analyze the impact of urban parameterization on modelled meteorological and air quality parameters, anomalies in the lowest model layer for the air temperature, wind speed and pollutant concentrations were calculated. Anomalies of the specific humidity fields indicate that the use of the TEB parameterization leads to a systematic reduction of moisture content in the air. Comparison with temperature and wind speed measurements taken at urban background monitoring stations shows that application of urban parameterization improves model results. For primary pollutants the impact of urban areas is most significant in regions characterized with high emissions. In most cases the anomalies of NO2 and CO concentrations were negative. This reduction is most likely caused by an enhanced vertical mixing due to elevated surface temperature and modified vertical stability.

Struzewska, J.; Kaminski, J. W.

2012-11-01

229

The Greenness of Cities: Carbon Dioxide Emissions and Urban Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbon dioxide emissions may create significant social harm because of global warming, yet American urban development tends to be in low density areas with very hot summers. In this paper, we attempt to quantify the carbon dioxide emissions associated with new construction in different locations across the country. We look at emissions from driving, public transit, home heating, and household

Edward L. Glaeser; Matthew E. Kahn

2008-01-01

230

The greenness of cities: Carbon dioxide emissions and urban development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbon dioxide emissions may create significant social harm because of global warming, yet American urban development tends to be in low density areas with very hot summers. In this paper, we attempt to quantify the carbon dioxide emissions associated with new construction in different locations across the country. We look at emissions from driving, public transit, home heating, and household

Edward L. Glaeser; Matthew E. Kahn

2010-01-01

231

UrbanSolutionsCenter Breeding and Development of Ornamental Plants  

E-print Network

UrbanSolutionsCenter Breeding and Development of Ornamental Plants Background Ornamental plants and increases in human activity, ornamental plants sometimes lose their natural resistance to abiotic and biotic stresses. Although ornamental plants have adaptation mechanisms via natural selection, artificial selection

232

Professional Sports Facilities, Franchises and Urban Economic Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Local political and community leaders and the owners of professional sports teams frequently claim that professional sports facilities and franchises are important engines of economic development in urban areas. These structures and teams allegedly contribute millions of dollars of net new spending annually and create hundreds of new jobs, and provide justification for hundreds of millions of dollars of public

Dennis Coates; Brad R. Humphreys

2003-01-01

233

Spatial knowledge management tools in urban development Karin Pfeffer1  

E-print Network

Spatial knowledge management tools in urban development Karin Pfeffer1 , Isa Baud1 , Eric Denis2 for knowledge management, data reliability and the type of knowledge transmitted will become a pressing issue and reference data. We start the paper with a theoretical discussion on knowledge management models, followed

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

234

DEVELOPMENT OF AN IMPROVED URBAN AIRSHED MODELING SYSTEM  

EPA Science Inventory

A research and development effort to improve certain physical processes simulated in the Urban Airshed Model (UAM) processor and model programs, and to update the computer software is described. he UAM is an Eulerian photochemical grid model designed to simulate the relevant phys...

235

Intelligent urban development: An introduction to a participatory approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electronic solutions are increasingly a part of urban management and development. Whilst these have been viewed mainly in terms of their potential for reducing public expenditure, this paper argues that there are other major social, economic and political issues for which electronic solutions offer potential, but which have received less attention. For example, in terms of one of the most

Jeff Turner; Len Holmes; Frances C. Hodgson

2000-01-01

236

Department of Urban and Rural Development Division of Environmental Communication  

E-print Network

1 (1) Department of Urban and Rural Development Division of Environmental Communication Stina. In Information, Communication and Society 2008 Powell, S. På väg mot ett genusintegrerat SLU, kartläggning och/08, 2008 2009, Powell, S. Betydelsen av fri tid på konferens EC Newsletter 2007, Powell S. Environmental

237

Assessing climate impacts of planning policies-An estimation for the urban region of Leipzig (Germany)  

SciTech Connect

Local climate regulation by urban green areas is an important urban ecosystem service, as it reduces the extent of the urban heat island and therefore enhances quality of life. Local and regional planning policies can control land use changes in an urban region, which in turn alter local climate regulation. Thus, this paper describes a method for estimating the impacts of current land uses as well as local and regional planning policies on local climate regulation, using evapotranspiration and land surface emissivity as indicators. This method can be used by practitioners to evaluate their policies. An application of this method is demonstrated for the case study Leipzig (Germany). Results for six selected planning policies in Leipzig indicate their distinct impacts on climate regulation and especially the role of their spatial extent. The proposed method was found to easily produce a qualitative assessment of impacts of planning policies on climate regulation.

Schwarz, Nina, E-mail: nina.schwarz@ufz.de; Bauer, Annette, E-mail: annette.bauer@ufz.de; Haase, Dagmar, E-mail: dagmar.haase@ufz.d

2011-03-15

238

Impacts of urbanization on groundwater quality and recharge in a semi-arid alluvial basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SummaryThe management of groundwater resources is paramount in semi-arid regions experiencing urban development. In the southwestern United States, enhancing recharge of urban storm runoff has been identified as a strategy for augmenting groundwater resources. An understanding of how urbanization may impact the timing of groundwater recharge and its quality is a prerequisite for mitigating water scarcity and identifying vulnerability to contamination. We sampled groundwater wells along the Rillito Creek in southern Arizona that had been previously analyzed for tritium in the late 1980s to early 1990s and analyzed samples for tritium ( 3H) and helium-3 ( 3H/ 3He) to evaluate changes in 3H and age date groundwaters. Groundwater samples were also analyzed for chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and basic water quality metrics. Substantial changes in 3H values from waters sampled in the early 1990s compared to 2009 were identified after accounting for radioactive decay and indicate areas of rapid recharge. 3H- 3He groundwater ages ranged from 22 years before 2009 to modern recharge. CFC-11, -12 and -113 concentrations were anomalously high across the basin, and non-point source pollution in runoff and/or leaky infrastructure was identified as the most plausible source of this contamination. CFCs were strongly and positively correlated to nitrate ( r2 = 0.77) and a mobile trace metal, nickel ( r2 = 0.71), suggesting that solutes were derived from a similar source. Findings from this study suggest new waters from urban non-point sources are contributing to groundwater recharge and adversely affecting water quality. Reducing delivery of contaminants to areas of focused recharge will be critical to protect future groundwater resources.

Carlson, Mark A.; Lohse, Kathleen A.; McIntosh, Jennifer C.; McLain, Jean E. T.

2011-10-01

239

Are Urban Heat Island Adaptation Strategies Created Equal? Hydroclimatic Impact Assessment for U.S. 2100 Urban Expansion (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With population projections ranging from 380 to 690 million inhabitants for U.S. 2100, considerable conversion of landscapes will be necessary to meet increased demand for the built environment. Incorporating Integrated Climate and Land Use Scenarios (ICLUS) urban expansion data for 2100 as surface boundary conditions within the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) modeling system, we examine hydroclimatic consequences owing to built environment expansion scenarios across the conterminous U.S. Continuous, multi-year and multi-member continental scale numerical simulations are performed for a modern day urban representation (Control), a worst-case (A2) and a best-case (B1) urban expansion scenario. Three adaptation approaches are explored to assess the potential offset of urban-induced warming to growth of the built environment: (i) widespread adoption of cool roofs, (ii) a simple representation of green roofs, and a (iii) hypothetical hybrid approach integrating properties of both cool and green roofs (i.e., reflective green roofs).Widespread adoption of adaptation strategies exhibit hydroclimatic impacts that are regionally and seasonally dependant. To help prioritize region-specific adaptation strategies, the potential to offset urban-induced warming by each of the trio of strategies is examined and contrasted across the various hydrometeorological environments.

Georgescu, M.; Bierwagen, B. G.; Morefield, P.; Weaver, C. P.

2013-12-01

240

High Spatial Resolution Thermal Infrared Remote Sensing Data for Analysis of the Atlanta, Georgia, Urban Heat Island Effect and Its Impacts on the Environment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The twenty-first century is the first "urban century" according to the United Nations Development Program. The focus of cities reflects awareness of the growing percentage of the world's population that lives in urban areas. In environmental terms, cities are the original producers of many of the global problems related to waste disposal, air and water pollution, and associated environmental and ecological challenges. Expansion of cities, both in population and areal extent, is a relentless process. In 2000, approximately 3 billion people representing about 40% of the global population, resided in urban areas. Urban population will continue to rise substantially over the next several decades according to UN estimates, and most of this growth will Occur in developing countries. The UN estimates that by 2025, 60% of the world's population will live in urban areas. As a consequence, the number of"megacities" (those cities with populations of 10 million inhabitants or more) will increase by 100 by 2025. Thus, there is a critical need to understand urban areas and what their impacts are on environmental, ecological and hydrologic resources, as well as on the local, regional, and even global climate. One of the more egregious side effects of urbanization is the increase in surface and air temperatures that lead to deterioration in air quality. In the United States, under the more stringent air quality guidelines established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in 1997, nearly 300 counties in 34 states will not meet these new air quality standards for ground level ozone. Mitigation of the urban heat island (UHI) effect is actively being evaluated as a possible way to reduce ground ozone levels in cities and assist states in improving air quality. Foremost in the analysis of how the UHI affects air quality and other environmental factors is the use of remote sensing technology and data to characterize urban land covers in sufficient detail to quantifiably measure the impact of increased urban heating on air quality. The urban landscape impacts surface thermal energy exchanges that determine development of the UHI. This paper will illustrate how we are using high spatial remote sensing data collected over the Atlanta, Georgia metropolitan area in conjunction with other geographic information, to perform a detailed urban land cover classification and to determine the contribution of these land covers to the urban heat island effect. Also, the spatial arrangement of the land covers and the impact on urban heating from these selected patterns of development are evaluated. Additionally, this paper will show how these data are being used as inputs to improve air quality modeling for Atlanta, including potential benefits from UHI mitigation.

Quattrochi, Dale A.

2007-01-01

241

Assessing urban sustainability: microclimate and design qualities of a new development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Links between urban design qualities and microclimate conditions, combined with environmental impact and user responses, were identified In a previous article, showing the implications of the urban transformation process in the context of globalisation. This paper presents the results of applying environmental and sustainability assessment criteria to a new urban project in Puerto Madero, the dockland area under revitalisation process,

Silvia de Schiller; John Martin Evans

242

Environmental changes associated with mass urban tourism and nature tourism development in Hong Kong  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hong Kong's tourism is overwhelmingly urban-focused. There is a heavy concentration of tourist and ancillary facilities in a small core urban area. A well-defined tourist business district has evolved with imprints on urban morphology. Hotels and the travel industry have limited direct environmental impacts; recent efforts have reduced energy and water consumption and waste generation. Changing preferences and market diversification

C. Y. Jim

2000-01-01

243

Biology Experience Impacts Career Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Evaluates a collaborative program in which high achieving biology students participate in genetics research under the guidance and supervision of a geneticist. Reviews the impact of their participation on college and career choices as well as understanding of science methodology, genetics, agricultural science, and product development. (SOE)

Moore, Mary Jane; Holmes, William R.

2003-01-01

244

Potentials, problems, and policy implications for urban agriculture in developing countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urban agriculture has, forcenturies, served as a vital input in thelivelihood strategies of urban households inthe developing countries. As a response to theeconomic crises exacerbated by the structuraladjustment programs and increasing migration,urban agriculture has expanded rapidly withinthe last 20 years. An examination of thegeneral trends in urban agriculture reveals anumber of issues policy-makers in developingcountries should address to provide services

Erik Bryld

2003-01-01

245

Recent urban policy and development in China: a reversal of "anti-urbanism".  

PubMed

The nature of and reasons for China's urban distribution policy adopted in 1982 are examined. The influence of socialist planning ideology on urban policy is noted. Contradictions between economic reform and urban policies are identified. PMID:12281827

Kwok, R Y

1987-10-01

246

Urban Heat Island Adaptation Strategies are not created equal: Assessment of Impacts and Tradeoffs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sustainable urban expansion requires an extension of contemporary approaches that focus nearly exclusively on reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. Researchers have proposed biophysical approaches to urban heat island mitigation (e.g., via deployment of cool or green roofs) but little is known how these technologies vary with place and season and what impacts are beyond those of near surface temperature. Using a suite of continuous, multi-year and multi-member continental scale numerical simulations for the United States, we examine hydroclimatic impacts for a variety of U.S. urban expansion (to the year 2100) and urban adaptation futures and compare those to contemporary urban extent. Adaptation approaches include widespread adoption of cool roofs, green roofs, and a hypothetical hybrid approach integrating properties of both cool and green roofs (i.e., reflective green roofs). Widespread adoption of adaptation strategies exhibits hydroclimatic impacts that are regionally and seasonally dependent. For some regions and seasons, urban-induced warming of 3°C can be completely offset by the adaptation approaches examined. For other regions and seasons, widespread adoption of some adaptation strategies can result in significant reduction in precipitation. Finally, implications of large-scale urbanization for seasonal energy demand will be examined.

Georgescu, Matei

2014-05-01

247

Beijing Urban Spatial Distribution and Resulting Impacts on Heat Islands  

Microsoft Academic Search

The physical characteristics of the ground surface are regarded as the main factors in the urban heat island phenomena. Over\\u000a two seasons, this study spatially and quantitatively examines the influence of urban surface features on land surface temperature\\u000a in Beijing, China through the use of remote sensing (RS) combined with geographic information systems (GIS). Primary data\\u000a sources include: Landsat Thematic

Z. Ouyang; R. B. Xiao; E. W. Schienke; W. F. LI; X. Wang; H. Miao; H. Zheng

248

Mitigation of urban heat islands: meteorology, energy, and airquality impacts  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents results from energy, meteorological andphotochemical (air quality) modeling for the Los Angeles Basin, one ofthe largest and smoggiest urban regions in the U.S. and the world. Oursimulations suggest that by mitigating urban heat islands, savings of 5to 10 percent peak utility load may be possible. In addition, heat islandmitigation can reduce smog formation by 10-20 percent. in

Haider Taha; Alan Meier; Weijun Gao; Toshio Ojima

1999-01-01

249

in development and the urban environment  

E-print Network

wanted from the Forestry Commission was simply, `Plant more trees!' Trees are important to politicians than fundamental to good development. Generally unfounded fears over safety or through root disturbance

250

Professional Development and Urban Leadership: A Study of Urban Administrators' Perceptions of What Matters Most in Their Professional Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 1996, a major overhaul in the delivery of professional development for administrators was undertaken in the urban school district under study. A Principal Leadership Institute was created and the 182 principals and vice-principals of the district were randomly assigned to 8 cohorts, each of which was affiliated with 1 of the 8 universities and…

Walker, Elaine M.; Mitchel, Charles P.; Turner, Wayne

251

A Collaborative Model for Developing Classroom Management Skills in Urban Professional Development School Settings  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes a school-university partnership that focuses on the development of classroom management skills for preservice teachers in an urban setting, through collaboration between mentors, principals, and a university supervisor. To prepare preservice teachers for the unique challenges of urban schools, three key elements were…

Dobler, Elizabeth; Kesner, Cathy; Kramer, Rebecca; Resnik, Marilyn; Devin, Libby

2009-01-01

252

The Impact of Urban Activities on Heavy Metal Distribution and Bioavailability Index in Selected Tropical Urban Soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The distribution and bioavailability of heavy metals in the environment is of particular concern because of their potential\\u000a toxicity to the ecosystem. A study was conducted to investigate the impact of informal industries (commonly known in Kenya\\u000a as Jua kali industries) on the heavy metal distribution and bioavailability indices in selected tropical urban soil samples from Nakuru\\u000a town, Kenya. The

John Onam Onyatta; Charles Kibii Chepkwony; Peter Olengo Ongoma

253

Forecasting the combined effects of urbanization and climate change on stream ecosystems: From impacts to management options  

USGS Publications Warehouse

1. Streams collect runoff, heat, and sediment from their watersheds, making them highly vulnerable to anthropogenic disturbances such as urbanization and climate change. Forecasting the effects of these disturbances using process-based models is critical to identifying the form and magnitude of likely impacts. Here, we integrate a new biotic model with four previously developed physical models (downscaled climate projections, stream hydrology, geomorphology, and water temperature) to predict how stream fish growth and reproduction will most probably respond to shifts in climate and urbanization over the next several decades. 2. The biotic submodel couples dynamics in fish populations and habitat suitability to predict fish assemblage composition, based on readily available biotic information (preferences for habitat, temperature, and food, and characteristics of spawning) and day-to-day variability in stream conditions. 3. We illustrate the model using Piedmont headwater streams in the Chesapeake Bay watershed of the USA, projecting ten scenarios: Baseline (low urbanization; no on-going construction; and present-day climate); one Urbanization scenario (higher impervious surface, lower forest cover, significant construction activity); four future climate change scenarios [Hadley CM3 and Parallel Climate Models under medium-high (A2) and medium-low (B2) emissions scenarios]; and the same four climate change scenarios plus Urbanization. 4. Urbanization alone depressed growth or reproduction of 8 of 39 species, while climate change alone depressed 22 to 29 species. Almost every recreationally important species (i.e. trouts, basses, sunfishes) and six of the ten currently most common species were predicted to be significantly stressed. The combined effect of climate change and urbanization on adult growth was sometimes large compared to the effect of either stressor alone. Thus, the model predicts considerable change in fish assemblage composition, including loss of diversity. 5. Synthesis and applications. The interaction of climate change and urban growth may entail significant reconfiguring of headwater streams, including a loss of ecosystem structure and services, which will be more costly than climate change alone. On local scales, stakeholders cannot control climate drivers but they can mitigate stream impacts via careful land use. Therefore, to conserve stream ecosystems, we recommend that proactive measures be taken to insure against species loss or severe population declines. Delays will inevitably exacerbate the impacts of both climate change and urbanization on headwater systems. ?? 2008 The Authors.

Nelson, K.C.; Palmer, M.A.; Pizzuto, J.E.; Moglen, G.E.; Angermeier, P.L.; Hilderbrand, R.H.; Dettinger, M.; Hayhoe, K.

2009-01-01

254

Urban poverty, ethnicity, and personality development  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are multiple factors which contribute to the development of the individual's personality. Many of these factors have been amply discussed in traditional theories of personality formation. An area that has been neglected in these discussions has been the role that poverty and ethnic and cultural factors may have in this regard. This paper offers a discussion of these issues

Rafael Art Javier; William G. Herron; Philip T. Yanos

1995-01-01

255

Environmental impact assessment modeling in an urban man-made lake using fuzzy logic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmental impact assessment essentially depends on diverse closely connected components and variables. For this purpose, identification of the whole components is fundamentally required. This study aims to investigate environmental impact assessment of an urban man-made lake in the western part of Tehran, based on recognition of affecting components and their reciprocal effects. Since the components are not constant during the

J. Jassbi; J. Nouri; M. Abbaspour; K. Varshosaz; N. Jafarzadeh

256

77 FR 22599 - Department of Housing and Urban Development Summary of Public Comments, Response to Public...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...FR-5580-N-03] Department of Housing and Urban Development Summary of Public Comments...Communities, Department of Housing and Urban Development, 451 Seventh Street SW...recommendations for an enterprise geospatial architecture for HUD. In recent years, HUD has...

2012-04-16

257

Megacity Sustainability: Urban Form, Development, and Governance  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The historical experience, governance systems, level of development, and geographical settings of each megacity are so different\\u000a that it may be foolhardy to attempt to draw any conclusions based on this sample of cities. Clearly the most interesting aspects\\u000a of each city’s experience must be found in the individual chapters, yet there are some significant parallels in the experiences\\u000a and

André Sorensen

258

Land-use suitability analysis for urban development in Beijing.  

PubMed

Land-use suitability analyses are of considerable use in the planning of mega-cities. An Urban Development Land-use Suitability Mapping (UDLSM) approach has been constructed, based on opportunity and constraint criteria. Two Multi-criteria Evaluation (MCE) methods, the Ideal Point Method (IPM) and Ordered Weighted Averaging (OWA), were used to generate the opportunity map. The protection map was obtained by means of constraint criteria, utilizing the Boolean union operator. A suitability map was then generated by overlaying the opportunity and protection maps. By applying the UDLSM approach to Beijing, its urban development land-use suitability was mapped, and a sensitivity analysis undertaken to examine the robustness of the proposed approach. Indirect validation was achieved by mutual comparisons of suitability maps resulting from the two MCE methods, where the overall agreement of 91% and kappa coefficient of 0.78 indicated that both methods provide very similar spatial land-use suitability distributions. The suitability level decreases from central Beijing to its periphery, and the area classed as suitable amounts to 28% of the total area. Leading attributes of each opportunity factor for suitability were revealed, with 2256 km(2), i.e. 70%, of existing development land being overlaid by suitable areas in Beijing. Conflicting parcels of land were identified by overlaying the resultant map with two previous development blueprints for Beijing. The paper includes several recommendations aimed at improving the long-term urban development plans for Beijing. PMID:25036557

Liu, Renzhi; Zhang, Ke; Zhang, Zhijiao; Borthwick, Alistair G L

2014-12-01

259

Climate change impacts on rainfall extremes and urban drainage: state-of-the-art review  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Under the umbrella of the IWA/IAHR Joint Committee on Urban Drainage, the International Working Group on Urban Rainfall (IGUR) has reviewed existing methodologies for the analysis of long-term historical and future trends in urban rainfall extremes and their effects on urban drainage systems, due to anthropogenic climate change. Current practises have several limitations and pitfalls, which are important to be considered by trend or climate change impact modellers and users of trend/impact results. The review considers the following aspects: Analysis of long-term historical trends due to anthropogenic climate change: influence of data limitation, instrumental or environmental changes, interannual variations and longer term climate oscillations on trend testing results. Analysis of long-term future trends due to anthropogenic climate change: by complementing empirical historical data with the results from physically-based climate models, dynamic downscaling to the urban scale by means of Limited Area Models (LAMs) including explicitly small-scale cloud processes; validation of RCM/GCM results for local conditions accounting for natural variability, limited length of the available time series, difference in spatial scales, and influence of climate oscillations; statistical downscaling methods combined with bias correction; uncertainties associated with the climate forcing scenarios, the climate models, the initial states and the statistical downscaling step; uncertainties in the impact models (e.g. runoff peak flows, flood or surcharge frequencies, and CSO frequencies and volumes), including the impacts of more extreme conditions than considered during impact model calibration and validation. Implications for urban drainage infrastructure design and management: upgrading of the urban drainage system as part of a program of routine and scheduled replacement and renewal of aging infrastructure; how to account for the uncertainties; flexible and sustainable solutions; adaptive approach that provides inherent flexibility and reversibility and avoids closing off options; importance of active learning. References: Willems, P., Olsson, J., Arnbjerg-Nielsen, K., Beecham, S., Pathirana, A., Bülow Gregersen, I., Madsen, H., Nguyen, V-T-V. (2012). Impacts of climate change on rainfall extremes and urban drainage. IWA Publishing, 252 p., Paperback Print ISBN 9781780401256; Ebook ISBN 9781780401263 Willems, P., Arnbjerg-Nielsen, K., Olsson, J., Nguyen, V.T.V. (2012), 'Climate change impact assessment on urban rainfall extremes and urban drainage: methods and shortcomings', Atmospheric Research, 103, 106-118

Willems, Patrick; Olsson, Jonas; Arnbjerg-Nielsen, Karsten; Beecham, Simon; Pathirana, Assela; Bülow Gregersen, Ida; Madsen, Henrik; Nguyen, Van-Thanh-Van

2013-04-01

260

Effects of Land Use Development on Urban Open Spaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

City of Aydin has grown extremely due to immigration from the eastern part of Turkey, immigration from rural areas to urban areas of the city and alterations in economic and social structure of the nation. The rapid expansion of the urban area results in dramatic change in the open space system of the town. Understanding this transformation is important to generate sustainable planning in the area. The purpose of this study is to elaborate the different open space opportunities in Aydin and to detect the change in these areas. Black and white aerial photographs from 1977 and 1993 and Ikonos 2002 images are utilized for the analysis in GIS environment. First, 14 different open space types are defined and the open spaces are delineated from the aerials and satellite images. Second, the change in the area of these patches is analyzed. The results indicate that urban open spaces are negatively affected by historic land use development. The natural and agricultural patches diminished while semi-natural or man made open space patches increased. Opportunities to increase the variability in the open space types should be embraced to promote sustainability in the urban matrix. Ecological design of the man made open spaces is necessary to increase their contribution in this endeavor.

Esbah, Hayriye; Deniz, Bulent

261

On the situation of the urban landscape and development  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, information on urban living in an urban environment, The work of fast-paced feel of tension and pressure for inspiration, Analysis of the urban landscape environment can reduce the physical and psychological pressure on people, relax, The urban landscape can lead people to take part in healthy activities, Thereby enhancing the value of the urban landscape. On this

Zheng Lingfeng; Jiang Xilong

2009-01-01

262

Urbanization and Development of Infrastructure in the East Asian Region  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urbanization is characterized by agglomeration of production and consumption, which stimulates overall economic growth. The East Asian region is now experiencing a rapid increase in urban populations. It is projected that in 2030 urban populations in the region will amount to thirty percent of the total global urban population. Although urbanization in East Asia can be characterized in various aspects,

Atsushi Iimi

2005-01-01

263

Urban Heat Islands and Their Mitigation vs. Local Impacts of Climate Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urban heat islands and their mitigation take on added significance, both negative and positive, when viewed from a climate-change perspective. In negative terms, urban heat islands can act as local exacerbating factors, or magnifying lenses, to the effects of regional and large-scale climate perturbations and change. They can locally impact meteorology, energy\\/electricity generation and use, thermal environment (comfort and heat

H. Taha

2007-01-01

264

Survey of European Programs: Education for Urbanization in the Developing Countries. An International Urbanization Survey Report to the Ford Foundation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report is intended as a contribution to the International Urbanization Survey, initiated by The Ford Foundation. The Survey is designed to review and assess experience in the complex problems posed by the rapid growth of urban centres throughout the developing countries. The terms of reference used here were broadly taken to be as follows: to…

Bernstein, Beverly

265

Urban Security Initiative: Earthquake impacts on the urban ``system of systems``  

SciTech Connect

This paper is a discussion of how to address the problems of disasters in a large city, a project titled Urban Security Initiative undertaken by the Los Alamos National Laboratory. The paper first discusses the need to address the problems of disasters in large cities and ten provides a framework that is suitable to address this problem. The paper then provides an overview of the module of the project that deals with assessment of earthquake damage on urban infrastructure in large cities and an internet-based approach for consensus building leading to better coordination in the post-disaster period. Finally, the paper discusses the future direction of the project.

Maheshwari, S.; Jones, E.; Rasmussen, S.

1999-06-01

266

Modeling the impacts of anthropogenic heating on the urban climate of Philadelphia: a comparison of implementations in two PBL schemes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Waste heat released from human activities (anthropogenic heating) can be a significant contributor to the urban energy balance, and can thus play an important role in affecting the urban thermal environment, ambient air quality, and other attributes of the urban climate system. To quantify the impacts of anthropogenic heating we have incorporated it as a source term in the near-surface

Hongli Fan; David J. Sailor

2005-01-01

267

Growing Better Cities: Urban Agriculture for Sustainable Development  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Throughout the history of cities, many persons grew some of their own food in local garden plots, and in some cases, they were able to supplement their household income with the fruits (and vegetables) of their labor. As the United Nations has recently predicted that 60% of the world's total population will live in cities by the year 2030, more and more concerned parties have become interested in encouraging urban agriculture, particularly in the developing world. In this provocative work, Luc J.A. Mougeot of the International Development Centre (based in Canada), reviews the work of his own institution in this area of human endeavor, and also offers some concrete recommendations for policymakers hoping to maximize the potential of urban agriculture. The report is divided into five chapters, and contains some helpful sections which include, "Managing municipal wastewater" "Easing ecological problems", and "Growing gardens with greywater".

Mougeot, Luc J.

2006-01-01

268

[Changes in urban development: is the globalization era one of urban deconcentration?].  

PubMed

Urbanization patterns in Mexico during the past five decades clearly reflect trends in the country's capitalist development. Accelerated industrialization with protectionism; redistributive policies with unlimited expansion of public expenditures; industrial conversion attended by economic crisis and structural adjustment during the "lost decade" of the 1980s; and indiscriminate opening, currency instability, and anti-inflation measures in the stage of globalization represent four successive phases. This work argues that the commercial opening and application of a neoliberal model are likely to renew tendencies toward concentration of population and economic activity in a few metropolitan areas. There are indications that manufacturing is again tending to concentrate in the older industrial cities, especially Mexico City. The 1995 census suggests that, beginning in 1988, the metropolitan areas again began to attract population growth, after a cycle of outflow from the center city to the metropolitan periphery in the 1970s and 1980s. The trend toward deconcentration, thus, may not represent a linear and long-term tendency. Instead, fluctuations over time are intimately related to macroeconomic forces and regulatory mechanisms that influence the urban system. No consensus has been reached concerning the theoretical explanations of effects on regional or urban systems when international restrictions on commerce are eliminated. The neoclassical perspective predicts a homogenizing effect, assuming that key conditions are met, while a competing theory predicts that increasing competition will inevitably be met by increases in the scale of production. Incentives to focus production in a small number of places would lead to economic and demographic concentration in the urban centers or regions enjoying better infrastructure, more qualified labor forces, and more extensive markets for labor and consumption. A renewed cycle of locus in Mexico's largest metropolitan zones may currently be underway. PMID:12158086

Rivera, S

1997-01-01

269

An analysis of the relationship between spatial patterns of water quality and urban development in Shanghai, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent urban development in Shanghai, the largest city in China, and its impact on the water environment are examined in this study. The area of built-up surface was obtained from the classification of the Landsat 7 ETM+ images of the year 2000 for Shanghai. The proportion of built-up surface and population density were extracted from buffer zones with radii ranging

Zhi-yong Yin; Susan Walcott; Brian Kaplan; Jian Cao; Weiqing Lin; Minjian Chen; Dongsheng Liu; Yuemin Ning

2005-01-01

270

TURBULENCE PARAMETERS IMPACTING DISPERSION IN AN URBAN CONVECTIVE BOUNDARY LAYER  

EPA Science Inventory

Turbulence measurements of the three dimensional wind components were collected by an instrumented research aircraft on 7 days in August 1976. These aircraft flights were conducted as part of the Regional Air Pollution Study (RAPS) urban boundary layer field program in St. Louis,...

271

An impact assessment methodology for urban surface runoff quality following best practice treatment.  

PubMed

The paper develops an easy to apply desk-based semi-quantitative approach for the assessment of residual receiving water quality risks associated with urban surface runoff following its conveyance through best practice sustainable drainage systems (SUDS). The innovative procedure utilises an integrated geographical information system (GIS)-based pollution index approach based on surface area impermeability, runoff concentrations/loadings and individual SUDS treatment performance potential to evaluate the level of risk mitigation achievable by SUDS drainage infrastructure. The residual impact is assessed through comparison of the determined pollution index with regulatory receiving water quality standards and objectives. The methodology provides an original theoretically based procedure which complements the current acute risk assessment approaches being widely applied within pluvial flood risk management. PMID:22227301

Ellis, J Bryan; Revitt, D Michael; Lundy, Lian

2012-02-01

272

Conceptual framework for describing selected urban and community impacts of federal energy policies  

SciTech Connect

A conceptual framework is presented for describing selected urban and community impacts of Federal energy policies. The framework depends on a simple causal model. The outputs of the model are impacts, changes in the state of the world of particular interest to policymakers. At any given time, a set of determinants account for the state of the world with respect to an impact category. Application of the model to a particular impact category requires: establishing a definition and measure for the impact category and identifying the determinants of these impacts. Analysis of the impact of a particular policy requires the following: identifying the policy and its effects (as estimated by others), isolating any effects that themselves constitute an urban and community impact, identifying any effects that change the value of determinants, and describing the impact with reference to the new values of determinants. This report provides a framework for these steps. Three impacts addressed are: neighborhood stability, housing availability, and quality and availability of public services. In each chapter, a definition and measure for the impact are specified; its principal determinants are identified; how the causal model can be used to estimate impacts by applying it to three illustrative Federal policies (domestic oil price decontrol, building energy performance standards, and increased Federal aid for mass transit) is demonstrated. (MCW)

Morris, F.A,; Marcus, A.A.; Keller, D.

1980-06-01

273

Impact of Megacity Shanghai on the Urban Heat-Island Effects over the Downstream City Kunshan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The impact of upstream urbanization on the enhanced urban heat-island (UHI) effects between Shanghai and Kunshan is investigated by analyzing seven years of surface observations and results from mesoscale model simulations. The observational analysis indicates that, under easterly and westerly winds, the temperature difference between Shanghai and Kunshan increases with wind speed when the wind speed 5 m s. The Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) numerical model, coupled with a one-layer urban canopy model (UCM), is used to examine the UHI structure and upstream effects by replacing the urban surface of Shanghai and/or Kunshan with cropland. The WRF/UCM modelling system is capable of reproducing the surface temperature and wind field reasonably well. The simulated urban canopy wind speed is a better representation of the near-surface wind speed than is the 10-m wind speed at the centre of Shanghai. Without the urban landscape of Shanghai, the surface air temperature over downstream Kunshan would decrease by 0.2-0.4 C in the afternoon and 0.4-0.6 C in the evening. In the simulation with the urban landscape of Shanghai, a shallow cold layer is found above the UHI, with a minimum temperature of about to 0.5 C during the afternoon hours. Strong horizontal divergence is found in this cold layer. The easterly breeze over Shanghai is strengthened at the surface by strong UHI effects, but weakened at upper levels. With the appearance of the urban landscape specific humidity decreases by 0.5-1 g kg within the urban area because of the waterproof property of an urban surface. On the other hand, the upper-level specific humidity is increased because of water vapour transferred by the strong upward vertical motions.

Kang, Han-Qing; Zhu, Bin; Zhu, Tong; Sun, Jia-Li; Ou, Jian-Jun

2014-09-01

274

Integrated modeling of climate change and urbanization impacts on water management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study analyzed the effectiveness of two alternatives for water management under urbanization and climate change scenarios. Climate change and urbanization scenarios were obtained using a statistical downscaling method (SDSM) model and an impervious cover model (ICM), respectively. Alternatives considered for the Anyangcheon watershed were the redevelopment of the existing reservoir and the reuse of wastewater treatment plant effluent. The flow and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) concentration duration curves were derived, and the number of days required satisfying the environmental requirement flow and the target BOD concentration was counted using the Hydrological Simulation Program-Fortran (HSPF) model. Results of this study showed that low flows and BOD concentrations were very sensitive to climate change and urbanization as compared to high flows. Climate change reduced the effectiveness of the alternatives in terms of low flow and water quality, while urbanization caused an increase in effectiveness in general. Also climate change affected the effectiveness on water quality more but urbanization caused that on low flow more. Climate change scenario A2 showed a larger impact than A1B. The alternative having large improvements of hydrological cycles shows the larger decrease of effectiveness due to climate change and urbanization. Although urbanization distorts the hydrological cycle, effective alternatives can reduce its damage. When climate change and urbanization occur at the same time, the effectiveness of the alternatives usually decreases. The number of days required satisfying the target water quantity and quality is more sensitive to urbanization than low flow and BOD concentration. These results showed that climate change and urbanization should be considered in water resource/watershed and environmental planning.

Chung, E.; Lee, K. S.; Oh, J.; Song, J.

2010-12-01

275

Developing Urban Community Garden Projects1 Austen Moore, Amy Harder, and Norma Samuel2  

E-print Network

WC139 Developing Urban Community Garden Projects1 Austen Moore, Amy Harder, and Norma Samuel2 1 or groups interested in starting urban community gardens and includes information about how to identify garden sites, build partnerships, engage community members, and develop a project overview. Urban

Jawitz, James W.

276

Quantifying the Urban Water Supply Impacts of Climate Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

The difference in timing between water supply and urban water demand necessitates water storage. Existing reservoirs were\\u000a designed based upon hydrologic data from a given historical period, and, given recent evidence for climatic change, may be\\u000a insufficient to meet demand under future climate change scenarios. The focus of this study is to present a generally applicable\\u000a methodology to assess the

Jeffrey K. O’Hara; Konstantine P. Georgakakos

2008-01-01

277

An analysis of freeway impact on urban neighborhoods  

E-print Network

that geographic mobility is disruptive to neighborhoods only when groups are not structured to deal with residential change. For example, Fellin and Litwak, in a study conducted on this subject, found that bureaucrats, as opposed to entrepreneurs, white collar... the effects of geographic mobility in urban neichborhoods it is noted that there are contradictory findings as to whether migration is disruptive to neighborhoods. Yiore- over, some groups may be structured to deal more adequately with social change...

Guseman, Patricia Knight

2012-06-07

278

Impact of Urbanization and Land Use Changes on Climate  

E-print Network

The study examines the effects of urbanization and land use changes on climatic environment of Visakhapatnam city. A detailed study was carried out with regard to urban heat islands and to examine the nature and intensity of heat islands in the city. This study is very important in city planning for the avoidance of air pollution hazards. Trend analysis of the temperatures has been carried out in order to assess the effects of urbanization on thermal climate. The regression analysis gives an indication of overall tendency of the temperature. The mean annual temperature varies from 23.5°c to 30.9°c; mean maximum summer (April-June) temperature varies from 32.8°c – 34.0°c and mean minimum winter (Dec – Feb) temperature ranges from 17.5°c – 19.3°c. The mean annual rainfall is 954mm and Visakhapatnam receives maximum amount of rainfall during post monsoon period (Oct-Nov) due to cyclonic activity. The trends of both annual and monsoonal rainfall at Visakhapatnam over a period of 50 years, from 1951 to 2000 are also examined.

Govindu Vanum

279

A Survey of Urban Economics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Concentrates on studies of growth, composition (industry and population), and spatial form of urban areas--models of growth and intraurban land use, and urban simulation and efforts to build large scale statistical models for analyzing the impact of government policies on patterns of urban development. (RJ)

Goldstein, Gerald S.; Moses, Leon N.

1973-01-01

280

Personalization of bedrooms by urban adolescents in Botswana : expressing identity and developing place attachment.  

E-print Network

??This qualitative study investigated how urban adolescents' in Botswana personalized bedrooms to express identity and develop place attachment because identity development in adolescents is important.… (more)

Fidzani, Lily Clara

2010-01-01

281

A Numerical Study of the Urban Heat Island in the Coastal Tropical City of San Juan, Puerto Rico: Model Validation and Impacts of LCLU Changes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Urban sprawls in tropical locations are rapidly accelerating and it is more evident in islands where a large percentage of the population resides along the coasts. This paper focuses on the analysis of the impacts of land use and land cover for urbanization in the tropical coastal city of San Juan, in the tropical island of Puerto Rico. A mesoscale numerical model, the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS), is used to study specific characteristics and patterns of the urban heat island in the San Juan Metropolitan Area (SJMA), the most noticeable urban core of the Caribbean. The research present in this paper makes use of the observations obtained during the airborne San Juan Atlas Mission in two ways. First, surface and rawinsonde data are used to validate the atmospheric model yielding satisfactory results. Second, airborne remote sensing information is used to update the model's surface characteristics to obtain a detailed configuration of the SJMA in order to perform the LCLU changes impact analysis. This analysis showed that the presence of San Juan has an impact reflected in higher air temperatures over the area occupied by the city, with positive values of up to 2.5 C, for the simulations that have specified urban LCLU indexes in the bottom boundary. One interesting result of the impact analysis was the finding of a precipitation disturbance shown as a difference in total accumulated rainfall between simulation with the city and with a potential natural vegetation induced by the presence of the urban area. Model results indicate that the urban-induced cloud formation and precipitation development occur mainly downwind of the city, including the accumulated precipitation. This spatial pattern can be explained by the presence of a-larger urbanized area in the southwest sector of the city, and of the approaching northeasterly trade winds.

Comarazamy, Daniel E.; Gonzalez, Jorge E.; Luvall, Jeff; Rickman, Douglas L.

2007-01-01

282

Impact of Low-Level Jets on the Nocturnal Urban Heat Island Intensity in Oklahoma City  

E-print Network

the radiation and surface energy balance. As a result, cities are known to affect weather and climateImpact of Low-Level Jets on the Nocturnal Urban Heat Island Intensity in Oklahoma City XIAO-MING HU/Renewable and Sustainable Energy Institute, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado FUQING ZHANG Department of Meteorology

Xue, Ming

283

IMPACTS OF MIXING PROCESSES IN THE NOCTURNAL ATMOSPHERIC1 BOUNDARY LAYER ON URBAN OZONE CONCENTRATIONS2  

E-print Network

Photochemical pollutants, such as ground-level ozone (O3), are known to peak primarily in33 summer during high1 IMPACTS OF MIXING PROCESSES IN THE NOCTURNAL ATMOSPHERIC1 BOUNDARY LAYER ON URBAN OZONE, Oklahoma6 7 8 9 #12;2 Abstract:10 A number of open questions remain regarding the role of low-level jets

Xue, Ming

284

IMPERVIOUS SURFACE AREA AND BENTHIC MACROINVERTEBRATE RESPONSE AS INDEX OF IMPACT FROM URBANIZATION ON FRESHWATER WETLANDS  

EPA Science Inventory

The use of benthic macroinvertebrates to monitor water quality and ecological integrity is not as well established for wetlands as it is for rivers, streams and lakes where this form of biomonitoring is now a formalized procedure. he impact to wetlands from urbanization (as measu...

285

Impact of Onsite Wastewater Treatment Systems on Nitrogen and Baseflow in Urban Watersheds of Metropolitan Atlanta  

E-print Network

Impact of Onsite Wastewater Treatment Systems on Nitrogen and Baseflow in Urban Watersheds 2401, Miller Plant Sciences Building Onsite wastewater treatment systems (OWTS) are widely used Septic Wastewater-Treatment Systems on Base Flow in Selected Watersheds in Gwinnett County, Georgia

Arnold, Jonathan

286

Preparation for Teaching in Urban Schools: Perceptions of the Impact of Traditional Preparation Programs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

During 2 decades of debate about teacher preparation education practitioners and policymakers have called for a more skilled professional teaching force (Darling-Hammond, 2010). Of particular concern has been poverty's impact on education--specifically in struggling urban schools--prompting legislation such as the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB),…

Timmons, Crystal

2010-01-01

287

Monitoring impact of urban settlements on nearby protected areas from space  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present a satellite based approach to monitor impacts of urban settlements on nearby protected areas worldwide. The footprint of human occupation is uniquely visible from space in the form of artificial night lighting, ranging from the burning of the rainforest to massive offshore fisheries to the omnipresent lights of cities and towns and related connecting road

Christoph Aubrecht; Malanding Jaiteh; Alexander de Sherbinin; Travis Longcore; Chris Elvidge

2010-01-01

288

Dredging impact on an urbanized Florida bayou: effects on benthos and algal-periphyton  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmental effects of dredging events have been uncommonly reported for shallow, residential estuaries characteristic of the Gulf of Mexico region. The objective of this study was to determine the impact of hydraulic dredging on an urbanized estuary. Physicochemical quality, benthic community composition, whole sediment toxicity, periphytic algal community composition and trace metal tissue quality were determined prior to and after

M. A Lewis; D. E Weber; R. S Stanley; J. C Moore

2001-01-01

289

Urban Uses and Social Impact of New Communication Technology: A Critical and Philosophical Perspective.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The impact of the new communication technology is analyzed in this paper in the context of cities and urbanization. The paper explores the concurrent decline of central cities and that of the mass media, as well as the rise of decentralization and "suburbanization" and the rise in media specialization. It suggests that the increase in multiple…

Burd, Gene

290

Impact of an Urban Effluent on Antibiotic Resistance of Riverine Enterobacteriaceae and Aeromonas spp  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to evaluate the impact of an urban effluent on antibiotic resistance of freshwater bacterial populations, water samples were collected from the Arga river (Spain), upstream and downstream from the wastewater discharge of the city of Pamplona. Strains of Enterobacteriaceae (representative of the human and animal commensal flora) (110 isolates) and Aeromonas (typically waterborne bacteria) (118 isolates) were selected

MARISOL GONI-URRIZA; MICHELE CAPDEPUY; CORINNE ARPIN; NATHALIE RAYMOND; PIERRE CAUMETTE; CLAUDINE QUENTIN

2000-01-01

291

The Impact of Response to Intervention on Student Reading Achievement in Urban Elementary Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to determine if the implementation of a Response to Intervention framework had a positive impact on student reading achievement in urban elementary schools. This was a causal-comparative study that examined the reading performance of a sample of kindergarten through grade three students who experienced the Response to…

Weaver, Wendy Smyth

2011-01-01

292

Three decades of urbanization: Estimating the impact of land-cover change on stream salamander populations  

E-print Network

indicates that southern two-lined salamander (Eurycea cirrigera) populations have decreased from 32% to 44 catchments has likely resulted in a substantial decline of populations of stream salamanders and could haveThree decades of urbanization: Estimating the impact of land-cover change on stream salamander

Dorcas, Michael E.

293

The Urban Impacts of Federal Policies: Vol. 4, Population and Residential Location.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This analysis of Federal impacts on the urban residential sector focuses on: (1) the influence of Federal programs and policies on intermetropolitan population movements (migration from the North to the sunbelt); and (2) program and policy influences on the process of suburbanization (the flight of the affluent from central cities). Considered are…

Vaughan, Roger J.; Vogel, Mary E.

294

Gender Differences in the Longitudinal Impact of Exposure to Violence on Mental Health in Urban Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is evidence of gender differences in psychopathology during adolescence, but little research has investigated gender differences in trauma-related symptoms. Exposure to violence is a commonly experienced potentially traumatic event among urban adolescents, and the few studies examining gender differences in its mental health impact have…

Zona, Kate; Milan, Stephanie

2011-01-01

295

Developing Anthropogenic Heating Profiles for Urban Areas Across the United States  

E-print Network

produce an urban heat island (UHI) effect, which is manifest as warmer temperatures compared, Lodz, Poland. [3] Bornstein, R.D., 1968: Observations of the Urban Heat Island Effect in New York CityDeveloping Anthropogenic Heating Profiles for Urban Areas Across the United States Jeff Milne1,2, M

Hall, Sharon J.

296

Urban forest biomass estimates: is it important to use allometric relationships developed specifically  

E-print Network

Urban forest biomass estimates: is it important to use allometric relationships developed specifically for urban trees? M. R. McHale & I. C. Burke & M. A. Lefsky & P. J. Peper & E. G. Mc analyzed the benefits, costs, and carbon storage capacity associated with urban trees. These studies have

Lefsky, Michael

297

1 Introduction Over 70% of the population in developed countries lives in urbanized areas (Henderson  

E-print Network

1 Introduction Over 70% of the population in developed countries lives in urbanized areas, 1995). A major problem in urban area remote sensing from space is the heterogeneity of the urban, transportation nets), several different vegetation cover types (parks, gardens, agricultural areas), bare soil

Clarke, Keith

298

The Importance of Team Leadership Development to the Urban University's Mission.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Perspectives on the role of the urban university and the development and implementation of team leadership programs are presented. It is suggested that the urban metropolis is a part of the university's mission, and is an extremely complex network of institutional structures, and human resources. The university can respond to urban needs by…

Maio, Eugene A.; Buchtel, Foster S.

299

Critical elements in sustaining participatory planning: Bagamoyo strategic urban development planning framework in Tanzania  

Microsoft Academic Search

Worldwide, generally, and in Tanzania, particularly, urban development planning has in the 1990s become participatory and strategic and less technocratic and comprehensive. The shift has involved the preparation and implementation of general planning schemes rather than detail planning schemes. Inability to sustain technocratic and comprehensive urban planning, which is widely published, has prompted the shift to participatory and strategic urban

Francos Halla

2005-01-01

300

Mitigation of urban heat islands: meteorology, energy, and airquality impacts  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents results from energy, meteorological andphotochemical (air quality) modeling for the Los Angeles Basin, one ofthe largest and smoggiest urban regions in the U.S. and the world. Oursimulations suggest that by mitigating urban heat islands, savings of 5to 10 percent peak utility load may be possible. In addition, heat islandmitigation can reduce smog formation by 10-20 percent. in summer, whichis as effective as controlling emissions from all mobile sources in theregion. For a typical late-August episode, our simulations suggest thatimplementing cool cities in the Los Angeles Basin would have a net effectof reducing ozone concentrations. Peak concentrations at 3 pm decrease byup to 7 percent (from 220 down to 205 ppb) while the total ozone mass inthe mixed layer decreases by up to 640 metric tons (a decrease of 4.7percent). Largest reductions in concentrations at 3 pm are on the orderof 50 ppb whereas the largest increases are on the order of 20 ppb. Withrespect to the National Ambient Air Quality Standard, domain widepopulation weighted exceedance exposure to ozone decreases by up to 20percent during peak afternoon hours and by up to 10 percent during thedaytime.

Taha, Haider; Meier, Alan; Gao, Weijun; Ojima, Toshio

1999-09-30

301

Planning for Development using Social Impact  

Microsoft Academic Search

Economic development activities change the physical and social environments in which individuals live. For planners, it is important to anticipate the types of changes that might occur, and to put measures in place that mitigate negative impacts and promote positive impacts on people and communities. Social Impact Assessment (SIA) was introduced as a tool for understanding the social impacts of

Chiew-Ing Liew; Hugh R. Bigsby; Bob Gidlow

2011-01-01

302

Friend or Foe? Urbanization and the Biosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The environmental influence of urban areas is still often assumed to be negligible at global scales. Although local environmental conditions such as the urban heat island effect are well-documented, surprisingly little work has focused on cross-scale interactions, or the ways in which local urban processes cumulatively impact global changes. Given the rapid rates of rural-urban migration, economic development and urban spatial expansion, improved systems for measuring, monitoring and modeling the global environmental impacts of cities should receive far greater scientific attention. This presentation will summarize urban environmental issues and impacts at local, regional and global scales and introduce the fundamental concepts and tools needed to measure and respond to these problems. Newly available datasets for the distribution and intensity of urban land use will be introduced, demonstrating the importance of clearly defining 'urbanized' land for empirical studies at the global scale. The negative environmental impacts of urban development will be compared with the often over-looked "positives" of urban growth from a global environmental perspective. Progress in understanding and forecasting the global impacts of urban areas will require systematic global urban research designs that treat cities as urban systems, anthropogenic biomes and urban ecoregions. The challenges and opportunities of global environmental research on urban areas have important implications not only for current research but also for educating the next generation of earth system scientists.

Schneider, A.

2008-12-01

303

Environmental management of a highly impacted, urbanized tropical estuary: rehabilitation and restoration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The principles of the dynamics and interrelationships within the dominant subtropical and tropical Caribbean seagrass community have been studied previously before, during, and after impact. From these and scores of observations of damage and recovery patterns in Thalassia ecosystems, a sense of management recovery strategy has emerged. Artificial restoring of Thalassia testudinum seeds into areas cut off from stock (fruit, seeds) appeared feasible on a large scale after the Turkey Point (Biscayne Bay, Miami, Florida) restoration and test sampling throughout North Biscayne Bay. Two large-scale seeding attempts were made; after 11 months they compared favorably with Turkey Point specimens with regard to growth parameters, despite the turbidity and other persistent pollution. Thus, the possible areas in which Thalassia seed restoration can be used has increased to include estuaries of multiple impact still in various stages of recovery after physical and sewage pollution. This technique should be especially useful to “developing” nations where important nearshore fisheries nurseries based on Thalassia ecosystems have been heavily damaged and now lie barren. Man's impact on the estuary where seed restoration was attempted includes the following activities: 50% of the bay bottom directly dredged or filled (leaving much unconsolidated sediment); 50 million gallons of domestic waste dumped directly into a low flushing part of the bay for 20 years; seven major causeways transecting the bay, restricting circulation and flushing; two artificial inlets made into navigational channels; freshwater sheet flow drastically changed due to channelization by flood-control canals; urban runoff from a million people entering the bay. Most of the impacts have now abated; however, their long-term effects remain.

Thorhaug, A.

1980-03-01

304

The Arts and Urban Development: Critical Comment and Discussion. Monograph Series in Public and International Affairs No. 12.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is a collection of essays on the arts and urban development. Included are the following articles: (1) "The Arts and Urban Development" by James L. Shanahan; (2) "Cultural Policy and Intra-Urban Development" by Richard Raymond and Michael Sesnowitz; (3) "The Vague World of the Arts and Urban Development," by Bruce Seaman; (4) "Business…

Hendon, William S., Ed.

305

Shopping the City: Real Estate Finance and Urban Retail Development  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Beginning in the early 1990s, the urban cores of many American cities experienced a building renaissance, with the construction of new commercial buildings and tourist-themed facilities continuing apace for over a decade. Despite this development, inner city retail development has generally stagnated over the past few years, with the exception of a few cities. In this 32-page report released in July 2003, Kenneth T. Rosen, Grace J. Kim, and Avani A. Patel examines "the major changes in the real estate finance marketplace, the implications of those changes on development decisions, and public policy actions that could facilitate projects in these markets." In the paper, the authors note that despite the strong economy of the 1990s, most corporations dealing in institutional real estate projects have elected to work on projects in smaller suburban markets, and in a select few cities that have robust downtown areas. Overall, this paper is a compelling look at the nature of the retail markets in urban areas, and what type of public policy interventions might encourage increased investment in these areas.

Kim, Grace J.; Patel, Avani A.; Rosen, Kenneth T.

2003-01-01

306

Towards understanding the impacts of congestion pricing on urban trucking  

E-print Network

Understanding policy impacts on freight is essential for planners who have overlooked this transport group in the past and must evaluate new congestion alleviation policies with respect to regional economic and social ...

Waliszewski, Janine M

2005-01-01

307

Urban Heat Islands and Their Mitigation vs. Local Impacts of Climate Change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Urban heat islands and their mitigation take on added significance, both negative and positive, when viewed from a climate-change perspective. In negative terms, urban heat islands can act as local exacerbating factors, or magnifying lenses, to the effects of regional and large-scale climate perturbations and change. They can locally impact meteorology, energy/electricity generation and use, thermal environment (comfort and heat waves), emissions of air pollutants, photochemistry, and air quality. In positive terms, on the other hand, mitigation of urban heat islands (via urban surface modifications and control of man-made heat, for example) can potentially have a beneficial effect of mitigating the local negative impacts of climate change. In addition, mitigation of urban heat islands can, in itself, contribute to preventing regional and global climate change, even if modestly, by helping reduce CO2 emissions from power plants and other sources as a result of decreased energy use for cooling (both direct and indirect) and reducing the rates of meteorology-dependent emissions of air pollutants. This presentation will highlight aspects and characteristics of heat islands, their mitigation, their modeling and quantification techniques, and recent advances in meso-urban modeling of California (funded by the California Energy Commission). In particular, the presentation will focus on results from quantitative, modeling-based analyses of the potential benefits of heat island mitigation in 1) reducing point- and area-source emissions of CO2, NOx, and VOC as a result of reduced cooling energy demand and ambient/surface temperatures, 2) reducing evaporative and fugitive hydrocarbon emissions as a result of lowered temperatures, 3) reducing biogenic hydrocarbon emissions from existing vegetative cover, 4) slowing the rates of tropospheric/ground-level ozone formation and/or accumulation in the urban boundary layer, and 5) helping improve air quality. Quantitative estimates of the above will be presented based on recent and earlier meteorological, energy, thermal environmental, emissions, and photochemical modeling studies for California and Texas.

Taha, H.

2007-12-01

308

Dynamic analysis on urban land development based on remote sensing image and GIS technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent years, China's rapid economic development speeds up the process of urbanization, the most prominent is the rapid expansion of urban land. In this paper, remote sensing, GIS and statistical analysis techniques are used to analyze the dynamic process of land development of Wuhan city from 1995 to 2010, and its causes. Then the effectiveness of the urban master plan of Wuhan city in 1996 is evaluated. Finally, we analyze the possible reasons for the failure of urban planning, which will provide a reference for the future urban planning and management of Wuhan city.

Li, Xinyan; Xu, Zhe

2013-10-01

309

Health impacts of ultraviolet radiation in urban ecosystems: a review  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper explores the literature on ultraviolet irradiance (UV) in urban ecosystems with respect to the likely effects on human health. The focus was the question of whether the health effects of UV radiation should be included in planning of landscape elements such as trees and shading structures. In examining the literature, special attention was given to seeking information on the question of whether it is important that shade be provided for elementary school play areas, and if so, how should it be accomplished? Before such practical questions could be dealt with, it became obvious that answers to several pertinent secondary questions had to be sought. Foremost of these was, what are the negative and positive health effects of UV exposure? Recent epidemiological findings of apparent benefits of sunlight because of vitamin-D photosynthesis and resulting anti-cancer effects make this highly relevant. Another basic question is that of trends in ozone depletion, which leads to interesting questions of long-term trends, short-term extremes, and urban influences on UV irradiance. A host of these and other pertinent questions, such as, "What is the relationship between climate of a location and dress," i.e., "How much exposure will people receive during time spent outdoors?" require much more study. Judging from current knowledge of typical spectra of solar radiation in tree shade and the difference between the action spectra for vitamin D synthesis and erythema in human skin, exposure to solar radiation in tree shade for a short period of time can be somewhat more beneficial for vitamin D synthesis and regulation than detrimental in producing sunburn.

Heisler, Gordon M.

2005-08-01

310

Urbanization in Kenya: Urbanization Trends and Prospects; Rural Development and Urban Growth. An International Urbanization Survey Report to the Ford Foundation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two articles on the urbanization of Kenya are presented in this survey. The first one, "Urbanization Trends and Prospects," by Luigi Laurenti, states that urbanization has only recently been recognized as a problem of some importance in Kenya, and this recognition is far from comprehensive. Consequently, public policy--and especially planning for…

Laurenti, Luigi; Gerhart, John

311

Urban Quality Development and Management: Capacity Development and Continued Education for the Sustainable City  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to describe and discuss the development and the structure of a new international master on the subject of urban quality development and management (UQDM), and explore the potential of the process and the outcome in serving as models adoptable by faculty at other universities. Design/methodology/approach: The…

Lehmann, Martin; Fryd, Ole

2008-01-01

312

Blogging the Field: An Emergent Continuum for Urban Teacher Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Preparing teachers to work in urban settings poses unique challenges, as urban communities are complex and require systemic understanding of students and their families, culture, and community. Pre-service teachers often harbor misconceptions about what it means to work in urban settings and many bring to their teacher education program minimal…

Domine, Vanessa

2012-01-01

313

DEVELOPMENT OF METHODS TO DEFINE WATER QUALITY EFFECTS OF URBAN RUNOFF  

EPA Science Inventory

The projected costs for treating combined sewer overflows and urban runoff nationwide are extremely large, and therefore necessitate that methods be available to quantitatively evaluate the receiving water impacts associated with these discharges. This report summarizes the resul...

314

Urban growth pattern and sustainable development: a comparative study of municipalities in the Seoul Metropolitan Region  

E-print Network

The main purpose of this study was to obtain a better understanding of the impact of urban growth and change on sustainability based on a comparative study of municipalities comprising Gyeonggi Province within the Seoul Metropolitan Region, Korea...

Paek, Seunggeun

2006-10-30

315

Upstream urbanization exacerbates urban heat island effects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Urban Heat Island (UHI) effects adversely impact weather, air quality, and climate. Previous studies have attributed UHI effects to localized, surface processes. Based on an observational and modeling study of an extreme UHI (heat wave) episode in the Baltimore metropolitan region, we find that upstream urbanization exacerbates UHI effects and that meteorological consequences of extra-urban development can cascade well downwind. Under southwesterly wind, Baltimore, MD, experienced higher peak surface temperatures and higher pollution concentrations than did the larger urban area of Washington, DC. Ultra-high resolution numerical simulations with National Land Cover Data (NLCD) of 2001 show a nonlocal, dynamical contribution to UHI effects; when the upstream urban area is replaced by natural vegetation (in the model) the UHI effects could be reduced by more than 25%. These findings suggest that judicious land-use and urban planning, especially in rapidly developing countries, could help alleviate UHI consequences including heat stress and smog.

Zhang, Da-Lin; Shou, Yi-Xuan; Dickerson, Russell R.

2009-12-01

316

Eye exercises of acupoints: their impact on refractive error and visual symptoms in Chinese urban children  

PubMed Central

Background Traditional Chinese eye exercises of acupoints involve acupoint self-massage. These have been advocated as a compulsory measure to reduce ocular fatigue, as well as to retard the development of myopia, among Chinese school children. This study evaluated the impact of these eye exercises among Chinese urban children. Methods 409 children (195 males, 47.7%), aged 11.1?±?3.2 (range 6–17) years, from the Beijing Myopia Progression Study (BMPS) were recruited. All had completed the eye exercise questionnaire, the convergence insufficiency symptom survey (CISS), and a cycloplegic autorefraction. Among these, 395 (96.6%) performed the eye exercises of acupoints. Multiple logistic regressions for myopia and multiple linear regressions for the CISS score (after adjusting for age, gender, average parental refractive error, and time spent doing near work and outdoor activity) for the different items of the eye exercises questionnaire were performed. Results Only the univariate odds ratio (95% confidence interval) for “seriousness of attitude” towards performing the eye exercises of acupoints (0.51, 0.33-0.78) showed a protective effect towards myopia. However, none of the odds ratios were significant after adjusting for the confounding factors. The univariate and multiple ? coefficients for the CISS score were -2.47 (p?=?0.002) and -1.65 (p?=?0.039), -3.57 (p?=?0.002) and -2.35 (p?=?0.042), and -2.40 (p?=?0.003) and -2.29 (p?=?0.004), for attitude, speed of exercise, and acquaintance with acupoints, respectively, which were all significant. Conclusions The traditional Chinese eye exercises of acupoints appeared to have a modest effect on relieving near vision symptoms among Chinese urban children aged 6 to 17 years. However, no remarkable effect on reducing myopia was observed. PMID:24195652

2013-01-01

317

Sustaining urban development through participation: an Ethiopian case study.  

PubMed

Under the Mengistu regime, Addis Ababa was divided into six zones, 28 woredas, and 303 kebeles, the kebeles being the smallest grassroots administrative unit. To enhance community participation, the Kebele 29 Project promoted the establishment of grassroots community groups by dividing the kebele into four zones and 37 neighborhoods. Each neighborhood is represented by a chairperson and a deputy who take responsibility for reviewing the priority needs of households, relaying information between the project and the community, and following up the project interventions. The author considers the sustainability of income-generating activities established as part of many urban development projects instigated by development agencies, the likelihood of inhabitants generating enough income for the upkeep of new or improved infrastructure, and whether the necessary commitment from the community can be created in a situation in which civil organizations have been banned or discouraged. These issues are considered in the context of Oxfam UK/I's involvement in the Kebele 29 Project. PMID:12346982

Tadele, F

1996-02-01

318

Open Access Research Article Assessment of Health Related Impacts of Urban Heat Island (UHI) in  

E-print Network

Urban heat island (UHI) has the potential to directly influence the health and welfare of urban residents. This study assessed the health related impacts of urban heat island in Douala Metropolis in Cameroon. Two land-use classes (resident and commercial) and two land-cover types (paved and green surfaces) were used for the selection of the sample sites using purposive sampling technique. Two hundred and fifty questionnaires were distributed and analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics such as multiple and simple bar charts, tables, graphs, central tendency, running mean and spearman’s rank correlation. The result revealed that the people of Douala are always in discomfort the climate usually in the form of heat stress, stroke, crumps, exhaustion, fatigue, headache, nausea, fainting and even death. The result equally showed a strong relationship between the land-use/cover and heat related symptoms.

unknown authors

319

Humanitarian presence and urban development: new opportunities and contrasts in Goma, DRC.  

PubMed

This paper examines the impact of the presence of international humanitarian organisations on local urban transformation processes in the city of Goma, Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). Rather than evaluating the direct effects of humanitarian interventions and strategies, it focuses on the indirect but profound effects of the presence of this 'humanitarian sector'. It argues that the international humanitarian presence became a significant factor in the recent shaping and reshaping of the city's profile and has reinforced competition over the urban political and socioeconomic space. The paper evaluates the direct and indirect impact of the international humanitarian presence on the local urban economy and the larger political economy of war in eastern DRC. It analyses how this presence has reinforced processes of spatial reconfiguration, how it has influenced urban planning, and how it has affected dynamics of gentrification and marginalisation on the urban spatial level. PMID:20132264

Büscher, Karen; Vlassenroot, Koen

2010-04-01

320

The city design and the new Urban Revolution : conceptualizing catalytic, sustainable development in Mexico's second tier  

E-print Network

What is the present role of technical change - particularly change in integrated Information-Communication Technology (ICT) - in facilitating sustainable urbanism in the developing world? Technological advancements are ...

Albericci, Allison N. (Allison Nicole)

2012-01-01

321

Living on the Edge: Minimizing the Impact of Development along Rincon Creek  

E-print Network

. With no indication that population growth and development pressures will subside, strategies to minimize and mitigate the impact of development on natural areas at the urban-wild land edge are becoming increasingly important cycle while riparian areas support 60-75% of all Arizona's resident wildlife species (Pima County, 2000

Fay, Noah

322

An Auxiliary Method To Reduce Potential Adverse Impacts Of Projected Land Developments: Subwatershed Prioritization  

EPA Science Inventory

An index based method is developed that ranks the subwatersheds of a watershed based on their relative impacts on watershed response to anticipated land developments, and then applied to an urbanizing watershed in Eastern Pennsylvania. Simulations with a semi-distributed hydrolo...

323

Quantification of Urbanization in Relation to Chronic Diseases in Developing Countries: A Systematic Review  

PubMed Central

During and beyond the twentieth century, urbanization has represented a major demographic shift particularly in the developed world. The rapid urbanization experienced in the developing world brings increased mortality from lifestyle diseases such as cancer and cardiovascular disease. We set out to understand how urbanization has been measured in studies which examined chronic disease as an outcome. Following a pilot search of PUBMED, a full search strategy was developed to identify papers reporting the effect of urbanization in relation to chronic disease in the developing world. Full searches were conducted in MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, and GLOBAL HEALTH. Of the 868 titles identified in the initial search, nine studies met the final inclusion criteria. Five of these studies used demographic measures (such as population density) at an area level to measure urbanization. Four studies used more complicated summary measures of individual and area level data (such as distance from a city, occupation, home and land ownership) to define urbanization. The papers reviewed were limited by using simple area level summary measures (e.g., urban rural dichotomy) or having to rely on preexisting data at the individual level. Further work is needed to develop a measure of urbanization that treats urbanization as a process and which is sensitive enough to track changes in “urbanicity” and subsequent emergence of chronic disease risk factors and mortality. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article doi:10.1007/s11524-008-9325-4 contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:18931915

Foster, Charlie; Hutchinson, Lauren; Arambepola, Carukshi

2008-01-01

324

Impact of urban WWTP and CSO fluxes on river peak flow extremes under current and future climate conditions.  

PubMed

The impact of urban water fluxes on the river system outflow of the Grote Nete catchment (Belgium) was studied. First the impact of the Waste Water Treatment Plant (WWTP) and the Combined Sewer Overflow (CSO) outflows on the river system for the current climatic conditions was determined by simulating the urban fluxes as point sources in a detailed, hydrodynamic river model. Comparison was made of the simulation results on peak flow extremes with and without the urban point sources. In a second step, the impact of climate change scenarios on the urban fluxes and the consequent impacts on the river flow extremes were studied. It is shown that the change in the 10-year return period hourly peak flow discharge due to climate change (-14% to +45%) was in the same order of magnitude as the change due to the urban fluxes (+5%) in current climate conditions. Different climate change scenarios do not change the impact of the urban fluxes much except for the climate scenario that involves a strong increase in rainfall extremes in summer. This scenario leads to a strong increase of the impact of the urban fluxes on the river system. PMID:23787302

Keupers, Ingrid; Willems, Patrick

2013-01-01

325

Feasibility assessment tool for urban anaerobic digestion in developing countries.  

PubMed

This paper describes a method developed to support feasibility assessments of urban anaerobic digestion (AD). The method not only uses technical assessment criteria but takes a broader sustainability perspective and integrates technical-operational, environmental, financial-economic, socio-cultural, institutional, policy and legal criteria into the assessment tool developed. Use of the tool can support decision-makers with selecting the most suitable set-up for the given context. The tool consists of a comprehensive set of questions, structured along four distinct yet interrelated dimensions of sustainability factors, which all influence the success of any urban AD project. Each dimension answers a specific question: I) WHY? What are the driving forces and motivations behind the initiation of the AD project? II) WHO? Who are the stakeholders and what are their roles, power, interests and means of intervention? III) WHAT? What are the physical components of the proposed AD chain and the respective mass and resource flows? IV) HOW? What are the key features of the enabling or disabling environment (sustainability aspects) affecting the proposed AD system? Disruptive conditions within these four dimensions are detected. Multi Criteria Decision Analysis is used to guide the process of translating the answers from six sustainability categories into scores, combining them with the relative importance (weights) attributed by the stakeholders. Risk assessment further evaluates the probability that certain aspects develop differently than originally planned and assesses the data reliability (uncertainty factors). The use of the tool is demonstrated with its application in a case study for Bahir Dar in Ethiopia. PMID:23722149

Lohri, Christian Riuji; Rodi?, Ljiljana; Zurbrügg, Christian

2013-09-15

326

Development and application of a new grey dynamic hierarchy analysis system (GDHAS) for evaluating urban ecological security.  

PubMed

Selecting indicators based on the characteristics and development trends of a given study area is essential for building a framework for assessing urban ecological security. However, few studies have focused on how to select the representative indicators systematically, and quantitative research is lacking. We developed an innovative quantitative modeling approach called the grey dynamic hierarchy analytic system (GDHAS) for both the procedures of indicator selection and quantitative assessment of urban ecological security. Next, a systematic methodology based on the GDHAS is developed to assess urban ecological security comprehensively and dynamically. This assessment includes indicator selection, driving force-pressure-state-impact-response (DPSIR) framework building, and quantitative evaluation. We applied this systematic methodology to assess the urban ecological security of Tianjin, which is a typical coastal super megalopolis and the industry base in China. This case study highlights the key features of our approach. First, 39 representative indicators are selected for the evaluation index system from 62 alternative ones available through the GDHAS. Second, the DPSIR framework is established based on the indicators selected, and the quantitative assessment of the eco-security of Tianjin is conducted. The results illustrate the following: urban ecological security of Tianjin in 2008 was in alert level but not very stable; the driving force and pressure subsystems were in good condition, but the eco-security levels of the remainder of the subsystems were relatively low; the pressure subsystem was the key to urban ecological security; and 10 indicators are defined as the key indicators for five subsystems. These results can be used as the basis for urban eco-environmental management. PMID:23698700

Shao, Chaofeng; Tian, Xiaogang; Guan, Yang; Ju, Meiting; Xie, Qiang

2013-05-01

327

Army Low Impact Development Technical User Guide  

E-print Network

for Installation Management Prepared by: U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Baltimore District U.S. Army Development Center, Inc. #12; #12;Army Low Impact Development Technical User Guide U.S. Army Corps sustainability goals. #12;Army Low Impact Development Technical User Guide U.S. Army Corps of Engineers January

US Army Corps of Engineers

328

Near-Roadway Pollution and Childhood Asthma: Implications for Developing "Win-Win" Compact Urban Development and Clean Vehicle Strategies  

PubMed Central

Background: The emerging consensus that exposure to near-roadway traffic-related pollution causes asthma has implications for compact urban development policies designed to reduce driving and greenhouse gases. Objectives: We estimated the current burden of childhood asthma-related disease attributable to near-roadway and regional air pollution in Los Angeles County (LAC) and the potential health impact of regional pollution reduction associated with changes in population along major traffic corridors. Methods: The burden of asthma attributable to the dual effects of near-roadway and regional air pollution was estimated, using nitrogen dioxide and ozone as markers of urban combustion-related and secondary oxidant pollution, respectively. We also estimated the impact of alternative scenarios that assumed a 20% reduction in regional pollution in combination with a 3.6% reduction or 3.6% increase in the proportion of the total population living near major roads, a proxy for near-roadway exposure. Results: We estimated that 27,100 cases of childhood asthma (8% of total) in LAC were at least partly attributable to pollution associated with residential location within 75 m of a major road. As a result, a substantial proportion of asthma-related morbidity is a consequence of near-roadway pollution, even if symptoms are triggered by other factors. Benefits resulting from a 20% regional pollution reduction varied markedly depending on the associated change in near-roadway proximity. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that there are large and previously unappreciated public health consequences of air pollution in LAC and probably in other metropolitan areas with dense traffic corridors. To maximize health benefits, compact urban development strategies should be coupled with policies to reduce near-roadway pollution exposure. PMID:23008270

Perez, Laura; Lurmann, Fred; Wilson, John; Pastor, Manuel; Brandt, Sylvia J.; Kunzli, Nino

2012-01-01

329

Human impacts in an urban port: The carbonate budget, Otago Harbour, New Zealand  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Otago Harbour is a long (23 km), narrow (mean width = 2 km), shallow (mean water depth = 4.5 m) tidal inlet covering 46 km 2 on the southeast coast of South Island, New Zealand (45°50'S, 170°35'E). Development of the City of Dunedin (pop. 125,000) and its associated port at Port Chalmers has been associated with extensive dredging, land reclamation, and shoreline construction. Here we develop a carbonate sediment budget for Otago Harbour, with limits defined at Mean High Water Spring and the harbour entrance; from the water-air interface to a few cm below the sediment-water interface. Carbonate is added to this system primarily by in-situ production (˜10,000 tonnes CaCO 3 y -1) and by transport though the harbour entrance from the longshore system (˜24,000 tonnes CaCO 3 y -1). Shellfishing (˜2 tonnes CaCO 3 y -1), dredging (˜18,000 tonnes CaCO 3 y -1), and early sea-floor processes such as abrasion and dissolution (˜2000 tonnes CaCO 3 y -1) remove carbonate from the system. The present-day carbonate budget results in ˜14,000 tonnes CaCO 3 y -1 sediment storage, equivalent to ˜0.14 mm y -1 accumulation. Two thousand years ago, the budget would have had nearly the same inputs but many fewer outputs, potentially resulting in storage twice what it is today; projected increases in human impacts suggest that carbonate storage may end within 100 years. Carbonate storage in sediments has a role in preserving environmental information and sequestering carbon, but the major value of a budget model is in clarifying the importance of human impacts. Urban harbours are not in a 'natural' state, and increasing human activity, both locally and globally, affects their overall health.

Smith, Abigail M.; Wood, Anna C. L.; Liddy, Michelle F. A.; Shears, Amy E.; Fraser, Ceridwen I.

2010-12-01

330

Investigations on the impacts of urban aerosol release and heat island effect on downwind precipitation in high latitudes  

E-print Network

Investigations on the impacts of urban aerosol release and heat island effect on downwind the urban effects (release of heat, moisture, aerosols, sealing) on wintertime precipitation in high than 500%. In winter, the heat island effect led to an increase in temperature of 1 K (Magee et al

Moelders, Nicole

331

Urban Runoff Impact on the qPCR Signal of Enterococci and Other Alternative Fecal Indicators in a Tropical Beach  

EPA Science Inventory

In order to effectively control inputs of contamination to coastal recreational waters, an improved understanding of the impact of both point and non-point sources of urban runoff is needed. In this study, we focused on the effect of non-point source urban runoff on the enterococ...

332

USE OF PHYSICAL, CHEMICAL, AND BIOLOGICAL INDICES TO ASSESS IMPACTS OF CONTAMINANTS AND PHYSICAL HABITAT ALTERATION IN URBAN STREAMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human activities in urban areas can lead to both chemical pollution and physical alteration of stream habitats. The evaluation of ecological impacts on urban streams can be problematic where both types of degradation occur. Effects of contaminants, for example, may be masked if stream channelization, loss of riparian vegetation, or other physical stressors exert comparable or larger influences. In the

CATRIONA E. ROGERS; D ANIEL J. BRABANDER; T. B ARBOUR; HAROLD F. H EMOND

2002-01-01

333

A remote sensing?GIS evaluation of urban expansion and its impact on surface temperature in the Zhujiang Delta, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Zhujiang Delta of South China has experienced a rapid urban expansion over the past two decades due to accelerated economic growth. This paper reports an investigation into the application of the integration of remote sensing and geographic information systems (GIS) for detecting urban growth and assessing its impact on surface temperature in the region. Remote sensing techniques were used

Q. Weng

2001-01-01

334

Assessing the Impact of Urban Runoff in Recreational Beaches in South Carolina and Florida Using Culturable and QPCR Fecal Indicator  

EPA Science Inventory

Urban/suburban runoff carries a variety of pollutants that often includes bacterial pathogens and indicators of fecal contamination. The objective of this study was to assess the microbial water quality of recreational beaches impacted solely by urban runoff through the use of cu...

335

Modeling Impact of Technological Changes on Urban Commercial Trips by Commercial Activity Routing Type  

Microsoft Academic Search

An array of noteworthy developments in logistics practice has taken place without an equivalent and comprehensive development in urban freight transportation modeling. Part of the problem is the lack of deep understanding of the workings of distribution processes in relation to the generation of truck traffic. In this paper it is emphasized the role and importance that distribution network size,

Miguel A. Figliozzi

2006-01-01

336

Scale impacts of land cover and vegetation corridors on urban thermal behavior in Nanjing, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  In order to integrate urban microclimatic pattern, heat island intensity, land cover and cooling effect of vegetation corridors\\u000a in a more comprehensive way, both fixed and mobile observations at two types of scale have been made simultaneously in different\\u000a weather conditions during hot weather in Nanjing, China. Then the air temperature distribution of Nanjing and its impact factor\\u000a were detected

Liangmei Huang; Dehua Zhao; Jiazhen Wang; Jiyu Zhu; Jianlong Li

2008-01-01

337

Assessment of surface air warming in northeast China, with emphasis on the impacts of urbanization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on homogenized land surface air temperature (SAT) data (derived from China Homogenized Historical Temperature (CHHT)\\u000a 1.0), the warming trends over Northeast China are detected in this paper, and the impacts of urban heat islands (UHIs) evaluated.\\u000a Results show that this region is undergoing rapid warming: the trends of annual mean minimum temperature (MMIT), mean temperature\\u000a (MT), and mean maximum

Qingxiang Li; Wei Li; Peng Si; Gao Xiaorong; Wenjie Dong; Phil Jones; Jiayou Huang; Lijuan Cao

2010-01-01

338

Estimating Land Use Impacts on Regional Scale Urban Water Balance and Groundwater Recharge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anthropogenic activities have exerted increasingly large-scale influences on terrestrial ecological systems from the past\\u000a century, primarily through agriculture; however, the impact of such changes on the hydrologic cycle is poorly understood.\\u000a As one of the important land use (LU) in the coastal Dogo Plain of the Seto Inland Sea, Japan, paddy fields have been decreasing\\u000a with the increase in urbanization

Bin He; Yi Wang; Keiji Takase; Goro Mouri; Bam H. N. Razafindrabe

2009-01-01

339

Synthetic analysis of urban landscape pattern and environmental impact based on Remote Sensing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Taking Xuzhou City as a case, the studies of landscape classification, pattern analysis and eco-environmental impacts evaluation are made using Landsat TM\\/ETM+ images in this paper. For this purpose, firstly urban landscape information is extracted from Landsat TM\\/ETM+ images using C5.0 decision tree classification method based on spectral features, texture features and shape information. The results prove that the classification

Pan Chen; Du Peijun; Lin Yi; Chen Yingying

2009-01-01

340

Impact of street intersections on air quality in an urban environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact of the street intersections on flow and gaseous pollutants from vehicles exhausts within urban canyons was numerically investigated using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model. Three-dimensional flow and dispersion of gaseous pollutants were modeled using standard ??? turbulence model, which was numerically solved based on Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes equations by the commercial CFD code FLUENT. The concentration fields in

Mohamed F. Yassin; R. Kellnerová; Z. Ja?our

2008-01-01

341

Environmental-impacts of Urban Road Transportation in South-western States of Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study of the impacts of urban road transportation on the environmental resources, air and the health of residents of some heavily trafficked locations-eight in Lagos metropolis, four in Ibadan and four in Ado-Ekiti were carried out. Also, two locations in Lagos, one in Ibadan and one in Ado-Ekiti were used as control. Air quality indicators namely carbon-monoxide (CO), sulphur

B. A. Osuntogun; C. A. Koku

2007-01-01

342

Impact of utilizing 3D digital urban models on the design content of urban design plans in US cities  

E-print Network

Some experts suggest that urban design plans in US cities may lack adequate coverage of the essential design aspects, particularly three-dimensional design aspects of the physical environment. Digital urban models and information technology tools...

Al-Douri, Firas A. Salman

2006-10-30

343

Infrastructure and automobile shifts: positioning transit to reduce life-cycle environmental impacts for urban sustainability goals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Public transportation systems are often part of strategies to reduce urban environmental impacts from passenger transportation, yet comprehensive energy and environmental life-cycle measures, including upfront infrastructure effects and indirect and supply chain processes, are rarely considered. Using the new bus rapid transit and light rail lines in Los Angeles, near-term and long-term life-cycle impact assessments are developed, including consideration of reduced automobile travel. Energy consumption and emissions of greenhouse gases and criteria pollutants are assessed, as well the potential for smog and respiratory impacts. Results show that life-cycle infrastructure, vehicle, and energy production components significantly increase the footprint of each mode (by 48-100% for energy and greenhouse gases, and up to 6200% for environmental impacts), and emerging technologies and renewable electricity standards will significantly reduce impacts. Life-cycle results are identified as either local (in Los Angeles) or remote, and show how the decision to build and operate a transit system in a city produces environmental impacts far outside of geopolitical boundaries. Ensuring shifts of between 20-30% of transit riders from automobiles will result in passenger transportation greenhouse gas reductions for the city, and the larger the shift, the quicker the payback, which should be considered for time-specific environmental goals.

Chester, Mikhail; Pincetl, Stephanie; Elizabeth, Zoe; Eisenstein, William; Matute, Juan

2013-03-01

344

Study on Urban Development and Climate Change of Lanzhou City from 1978 to 2000  

Microsoft Academic Search

Regional development and environmental change has been one of the most frequently discussed issues among various intergovernmental conferences since cities have proved to be the biggest carbon source of the world Greenhouse Gases. Based on meteorological observation data and socio-economic statistical data from 1978 to 2000, this paper gained the spatial-temporal distribution features of urban climate change and urban development

Gang Li; Zhuolun Li; Cuiyun Wang; Xuemin Li

2010-01-01

345

Comparative Study of Msocow and New York Urban Heat Islands Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The most important urban climate effect is the existing and development so called Sur- & cedil;ban heat islandT. Moscow as one of more intensively developing megalopolis of Eu- rope is the largest source of neat within the Central and Eastern Europe. New York City is the largest urban heat source at ocean costs around the world. The paper presents the

A. S. Ginzburg; K. G. Rubinstein

2002-01-01

346

Urban Regimes, Sports Stadiums, and the Politics of Economic Development Agendas in Chicago  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sports issues have increasingly become prominent items on the urban policy agenda. Most demands for sports-related policies have been woven into the general fabric of economic development in the community. in this article, the authors examine the issues surrounding sports stadium development in Chicago from 1985-90. An urban regime framework, based on the notion of governing coalitions, is used to

John P. Pelissero; Beth M. Henschen; Edward I. Sidlaw

1991-01-01

347

An Initial Formulation. Research, Diagnosis and Development in Urban Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Described in this report are factors which affect and/or limit urban educational research and dimensions of cities which should be considered in making social and organizational research in urban education more relevant. Some of these considerations are learning, institutional and management deficits, the lack of a total systems perspective on the…

Gappert, Gary

348

Dynamic modeling of Tampa Bay urban development using parallel computing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Urban land use and land cover has changed significantly in the environs of Tampa Bay, Florida, over the past 50 years. Extensive urbanization has created substantial change to the region's landscape and ecosystems. This paper uses a dynamic urban-growth model, SLEUTH, which applies six geospatial data themes (slope, land use, exclusion, urban extent, transportation, hillside), to study the process of urbanization and associated land use and land cover change in the Tampa Bay area. To reduce processing time and complete the modeling process within an acceptable period, the model is recoded and ported to a Beowulf cluster. The parallel-processing computer system accomplishes the massive amount of computation the modeling simulation requires. SLEUTH calibration process for the Tampa Bay urban growth simulation spends only 10 h CPU time. The model predicts future land use/cover change trends for Tampa Bay from 1992 to 2025. Urban extent is predicted to double in the Tampa Bay watershed between 1992 and 2025. Results show an upward trend of urbanization at the expense of a decline of 58% and 80% in agriculture and forested lands, respectively.

Xian, George; Crane, Mike; Steinwand, Dan

2005-08-01

349

Dynamic modeling of Tampa Bay urban development using parallel computing  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Urban land use and land cover has changed significantly in the environs of Tampa Bay, Florida, over the past 50 years. Extensive urbanization has created substantial change to the region's landscape and ecosystems. This paper uses a dynamic urban-growth model, SLEUTH, which applies six geospatial data themes (slope, land use, exclusion, urban extent, transportation, hillside), to study the process of urbanization and associated land use and land cover change in the Tampa Bay area. To reduce processing time and complete the modeling process within an acceptable period, the model is recoded and ported to a Beowulf cluster. The parallel-processing computer system accomplishes the massive amount of computation the modeling simulation requires. SLEUTH calibration process for the Tampa Bay urban growth simulation spends only 10 h CPU time. The model predicts future land use/cover change trends for Tampa Bay from 1992 to 2025. Urban extent is predicted to double in the Tampa Bay watershed between 1992 and 2025. Results show an upward trend of urbanization at the expense of a decline of 58% and 80% in agriculture and forested lands, respectively. ?? 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Xian, G.; Crane, M.; Steinwand, D.

2005-01-01

350

Environmental impacts of dispersed development from federal infrastructure projects.  

PubMed

Dispersed development, also referred to as urban growth or sprawl, is a pattern of low-density development spread over previously rural landscapes. Such growth can result in adverse impacts to air quality, water quality, human health, aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems, agricultural land, military training areas, water supply and wastewater treatment, recreational resources, viewscapes, and cultural resources. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) is charged with protecting public health and the environment, which includes consideration of impacts from dispersed development. Specifically, because federal infrastructure projects can affect the progress of dispersed development, the secondary impacts resulting from it must be assessed in documents prepared under the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). The Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) has oversight for NEPA and Section 309 of the Clean Air Act requires that U.S. EPA review and comment on federal agency NEPA documents. The adverse effects of dispersed development can be induced by federal infrastructure projects including transportation, built infrastructure, modifications in natural infrastructure, public land conversion and redevelopment of properties, construction of federal facilities, and large traffic or major growth generation developments requiring federal permits. This paper presents an approach that U.S. EPA reviewers and NEPA practitioners can use to provide accurate, realistic, and consistent analysis of secondary impacts of dispersed development resulting from federal infrastructure projects. It also presents 24 measures that can be used to mitigate adverse impacts from dispersed development by modifying project location and design, participating in preservation or restoration activities, or informing and supporting local communities in planning. PMID:15141453

Southerland, Mark T

2004-06-01

351

Modeling integrated urban water systems in developing countries: case study of Port Vila, Vanuatu.  

PubMed

Developing countries struggle to provide adequate urban water services, failing to match infrastructure with urban expansion. Despite requiring an improved understanding of alternative infrastructure performance when considering future investments, integrated modeling of urban water systems is infrequent in developing contexts. This paper presents an integrated modeling methodology that can assist strategic planning processes, using Port Vila, Vanuatu, as a case study. 49 future model scenarios designed for the year 2050, developed through extensive stakeholder participation, were modeled with UVQ (Urban Volume and Quality). The results were contrasted with a 2015 model based on current infrastructure, climate, and water demand patterns. Analysis demonstrated that alternative water servicing approaches can reduce Port Vila's water demand by 35 %, stormwater generation by 38 %, and nutrient release by 80 % in comparison to providing no infrastructural development. This paper demonstrates that traditional centralized infrastructure will not solve the wastewater and stormwater challenges facing rapidly growing urban cities in developing countries. PMID:24973053

Poustie, Michael S; Deletic, Ana

2014-12-01

352

The impact of internet crime on development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The global wave of information and communication technologies (ICT) development has become a strong driving force in almost every aspect of development. This paper aims to explore the impact of internet crime on individuals, organisations, businesses and government agencies in both developed and developing countries with special reference to developing countries. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The analysis in this paper

Adam Salifu

2008-01-01

353

Debt and the Built Urban Environment: Examining the Growth of Urban Slums in the Less Developed Countries, 1990–2010  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study examines the influence of external debt on the change in the proportion of the total population living in urban slum conditions in the less developed countries between 1990 and 2010, drawing from a political economy of the world-system theoretical perspective. Ordinary least squares panel regression illustrates external debt as a percent of gross national income has a

James Rice; Julie Steinkopf Rice

2012-01-01

354

Impact of anthropogenic heat release on regional climate in three vast urban agglomerations in China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We simulated the impact of anthropogenic heat release (AHR) on the regional climate in three vast city agglomerations in China using the Weather Research and Forecasting model with nested high-resolution modeling. Based on energy consumption and high-quality land use data, we designed two scenarios to represent no-AHR and current-AHR conditions. By comparing the results of the two numerical experiments, changes of surface air temperature and precipitation due to AHR were quantified and analyzed. We concluded that AHR increases the temperature in these urbanized areas by about 0.5°C—1°C, and this increase is more pronounced in winter than in other seasons. The inclusion of AHR enhances the convergence of water vapor over urbanized areas. Together with the warming of the lower troposphere and the enhancement of ascending motions caused by AHR, the average convective available potential energy in urbanized areas is increased. Rainfall amounts in summer over urbanized areas are likely to increase and regional precipitation patterns to be altered to some extent.

Feng, Jinming; Wang, Jun; Yan, Zhongwei

2014-03-01

355

Three decades of urbanization: Estimating the impact of land-cover change on stream salamander populations  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Urbanization has become the dominant form of landscape disturbance in parts of the United States. Small streams in the Piedmont region of the eastern United States support high densities of salamanders and are often the first habitats to be affected by landscape-altering factors such as urbanization. We used US Geological Survey land cover data from 1972 to 2000 and a relation between stream salamanders and land cover, established from recent research, to estimate the impact of contemporary land-cover change on the abundance of stream salamanders near Davidson, North Carolina, a Piedmont locale that has experienced rapid urbanization during this time. Our analysis indicates that southern two-lined salamander (Eurycea cirrigera) populations have decreased from 32% to 44% while northern dusky salamanders (Desmognathus fuscus) have decreased from 21% to 30% over the last three decades. Our results suggest that the widespread conversion of forest to urban land in small catchments has likely resulted in a substantial decline of populations of stream salamanders and could have serious effects on stream ecosystems. ?? 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Price, S.J.; Dorcas, M.E.; Gallant, A.L.; Klaver, R.W.; Willson, J.D.

2006-01-01

356

Impact of height and shape of building roof on air quality in urban street canyons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A building's roof shape and roof height play an important role in determining pollutant concentrations from vehicle emissions and its complex flow patterns within urban street canyons. The impact of the roof shape and height on wind flow and dispersion of gaseous pollutants from vehicle exhaust within urban canyons were investigated numerically using a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model. Two-dimensional flow and dispersion of gaseous pollutants were analyzed using standard ?- ? turbulence model, which was numerically solved based on Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations. The diffusion fields in the urban canyons were examined with three roof heights ( Z H/ H = 0.17, 0.33 and 0.5) and five roof shapes: (1) flat-shaped roof, (2) slanted-shaped roof, (3) downwind wedge-shaped roof, (4) upwind wedge-shaped roof, and (5) trapezoid-shaped roof. The numerical model was validated against the wind tunnels results in order to optimize the turbulence model. The numerical simulations agreed reasonably with the wind tunnel results. The results obtained indicated that the pollutant concentration increased as the roof height decreases. It also decreased with the slanted and trapezoid-shaped roofs but increased with the flat-shaped roof. The pollutant concentration distributions simulated in the present work, indicated that the variability of the roof shapes and roof heights of the buildings are important factors for estimating air quality within urban canyons.

Yassin, Mohamed F.

2011-09-01

357

Impacts of Roadway Emissions on Urban Fine Particle Exposures: the Nairobi Area Traffic Contribution to Air Pollution (NATCAP) Study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Air quality is a serious and worsening problem in the rapidly growing cities of sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), due to rapid urbanization, growing vehicle fleets, changing life styles, limited road infrastructure and land use planning, and high per-vehicle emissions. However, the absence of ambient monitoring data, and particularly urban roadside concentrations of particulate matter in SSA cities, severely limits our ability to assess the real extent of air quality problems. Emitted fine particles by on-road vehicles may be particularly important in SSA cities because large concentrations of poorly maintained vehicles operate in close proximity to commercial and other activities of low-income urban residents. This scenario provokes major air quality concerns and its investigation should be of priority interest to policy makers, city planners and managers, and the affected population. As part of collaboration between Columbia University and the University of Nairobi, a PM2.5 air monitoring study was carried out over two weeks in July 2009. The objectives of the study were 1) to assess average daytime PM2.5 concentrations on a range of Nairobi streets that represent important hot-spots in terms of the joint distribution of traffic, commercial, and resident pedestrian activities, 2) to relate those concentrations to motor vehicle counts, 3) to compare urban street concentrations to urban and rural background levels, and 4) to assess vertical and horizontal dispersion of PM2.5 near roadways. Portable, battery-operated PM2.5 samplers were carried by field teams at each of the five sites (three urban, one commuter highway, and one rural site), each of which operated from 7 AM to 7 PM during 10 weekdays in July 2009. Urban background monitoring took place on a rooftop at the University of Nairobi. Preliminary findings suggest highly elevated PM2.5 concentrations at the urban sites where the greatest pedestrian traffic was observed. These findings underscore the need for air quality and transportation planning and management directed at mitigating roadway pollution. Reducing PM emissions from motor vehicles would have direct health benefits for residents of Nairobi and other SSA cities. However, further studies are required to depict the seasonal variations, include gaseous pollution aspect, and strengthen the knowledge on air quality in the region as well as improving the data base for health impact assessment. Acknowledgement This study was initiated and funded by Columbia University's Earth Institute's Center for Sustainable Urban Development (CSUD). CSUD is a Volvo Research and Educational Foundations Center of Excellence for Future Urban Transport. International Science Programs (ISP), Uppsala University, Sweden is recognized for its research support to Institute of Nuclear Science & Technology. Additional technical support for air monitoring and analysis was provided by the Exposure Assessment Facility Core of the Center for Environmental Health in Northern Manhattan (NIEHS P30 ES09089).

Gatari, Michael; Ngo, Nicole; Ndiba, Peter; Kinney, Patrick

2010-05-01

358

Developing an Index to Measure Urban Heat Island Effect Using Satellite Land Skin Temperature and Land Cover Observations  

E-print Network

Developing an Index to Measure Urban Heat Island Effect Using Satellite Land Skin Temperature A new index of calculating the intensity of urban heat island effects (UHI) for a city using satellite to be examined. 1. Introduction Urban heat island effects (UHI) are defined by tem- peratures in urban regions

Jin, Menglin

359

Assessing the relative and cumulative impacts of future urbanisation and climate change on storm runoff in a peri-urban catchment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Urbanisation brings with it a range of impacts upon the urban water cycle, particularly during storm events where a loss of pervious surfaces (and increase in impervious surfaces) coupled with increased artificial drainage result in decreased infiltration and more rapid runoff - leading to an increased likelihood and magnitude of flooding. Such impacts are especially pronounced in peri-urban catchments where the rapid progression from rural to urban significantly alters storm runoff response, and could be further affected by climate change. This study provides a comparative analysis between the impacts of urbanisation (and associated change in impervious cover) and climate change within a rapidly developing peri-urban catchment in the south of England over a 50 year period. A new methodology for mapping long-term change in historical urban land-use from topographic maps was applied to derive decadal changes in impervious cover. Catchment monitoring was undertaken to provide observed flow and rainfall for indicative hydrological response and hydrological model calibration. The successive impacts of decadal increases in urbanisation on storm runoff were assessed using a hydrological model suited to representing the impacts of change in impervious cover and by applying design summer and winter storm events at both 5 year and 100 year return periods. Both the comparative and cumulative impacts of climate change upon generation of storm runoff were assessed by comparing scenarios of: i) no increase in urbanisation with climate change, and ii) urbanisation with climate change, with the baseline scenario of iii) urbanisation without climate change. Predicted future changes in monthly precipitation and potential evaporation were derived from a downscaled ensemble of climate change scenarios (2070-2099) from the UK Climate Projections (UKCP09) Regional Climate Model (RCM) under A1B emissions scenario. Results are discussed in relation to projections of future growth and climate change for developing peri-urban areas within localised catchments and for the regional Thames basin. The uncertainties in the applied modelling strategy are discussed in relation to the limitations of climate change data and the associated perturbation of design storm events in urban areas.

Miller, James; Kim, Hyeonjun; Kjeldsen, Thomas; Grebby, Stephen

2014-05-01

360

Flood risk management for the riverside urban areas of Hanoi : The need for synergy in urban development and risk management policies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate the reasons for an unusual over-development of flood-prone areas outside the river dyke in Hanoi, while analysing the urban development and disaster management policies, and to suggest policy measures for regulating the rapid urbanization incorporating catastrophic flood risk planning. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Urban development and disaster management policies were analyzed and

Hoang Vinh Hung; Rajib Shaw; Masami Kobayashi

2010-01-01

361

Impact of Urban Parks on the Climatic Pattern of Mendoza's Metropolitan Area, in Argentina  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mendoza's Metropolitan Area (MMA), in central-western Argentina, is the result of a development model where the man-made environment and the natural one conform an intermingled mosaic, resulting in a strong insertion of green open spaces in the city. In this context, the open spaces: parks, squares and urban forests significantly modify the climatic pattern of the built environment. In this

Erica Correa; Claudia Martínez; Graciela Lesino; Carlos de Rosa; Alicia Cantón

362

Impact of rainfall temporal resolution on urban water quality modelling performance and uncertainties.  

PubMed

A key control on the response of an urban drainage model is how well the observed rainfall records represent the real rainfall variability. Particularly in urban catchments with fast response flow regimes, the selection of temporal resolution in rainfall data collection is critical. Furthermore, the impact of the rainfall variability on the model response is amplified for water quality estimates, as uncertainty in rainfall intensity affects both the rainfall-runoff and pollutant wash-off sub-models, thus compounding uncertainties. A modelling study was designed to investigate the impact of altering rainfall temporal resolution on the magnitude and behaviour of uncertainties associated with the hydrological modelling compared with water quality modelling. The case study was an 85-ha combined sewer sub-catchment in Bogotá (Colombia). Water quality estimates showed greater sensitivity to the inter-event variability in rainfall hyetograph characteristics than to changes in the rainfall input temporal resolution. Overall, uncertainties from the water quality model were two- to five-fold those of the hydrological model. However, owing to the intrinsic scarcity of observations in urban water quality modelling, total model output uncertainties, especially from the water quality model, were too large to make recommendations for particular model structures or parameter values with respect to rainfall temporal resolution. PMID:23823541

Manz, Bastian Johann; Rodríguez, Juan Pablo; Maksimovi?, Cedo; McIntyre, Neil

2013-01-01

363

Evaluation of impacts of trees on PM2.5 dispersion in urban streets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reducing airborne particulate matter (PM), especially PM2.5 (PM with aerodynamic diameters of 2.5 ?m or less), in urban street canyons is critical to the health of central city population. Tree-planting in urban street canyons is a double-edged sword, providing landscape benefits while inevitably resulting in PM2.5 concentrating at street level, thus showing negative environmental effects. Thereby, it is necessary to quantify the impact of trees on PM2.5 dispersion and obtain the optimum structure of street trees for minimizing the PM2.5 concentration in street canyons. However, most of the previous findings in this field were derived from wind tunnel or numerical simulation rather than on-site measuring data. In this study, a seasonal investigation was performed in six typical street canyons in the residential area of central Shanghai, which has been suffering from haze pollution while having large numbers of green streets. We monitored and measured PM2.5 concentrations at five heights, structural parameters of street trees and weather. For tree-free street canyons, declining PM2.5 concentrations were found with increasing height. However, in presence of trees the reduction rate of PM2.5 concentrations was less pronounced, and for some cases, the concentrations even increased at the top of street canyons, indicating tree canopies are trapping PM2.5. To quantify the decrease of PM2.5 reduction rate, we developed the attenuation coefficient of PM2.5 (PMAC). The wind speed was significantly lower in street canyons with trees than in tree-free ones. A mixed-effects model indicated that canopy density (CD), leaf area index (LAI), rate of change of wind speed were the most significant predictors influencing PMAC. Further regression analysis showed that in order to balance both environmental and landscape benefits of green streets, the optimum range of CD and LAI was 50%-60% and 1.5-2.0 respectively. We concluded by suggesting an optimized tree-planting pattern and discussing strategies for a better green streets planning and pruning.

Jin, Sijia; Guo, Jiankang; Wheeler, Stephen; Kan, Liyan; Che, Shengquan

2014-12-01

364

Impact of land-use on water pollution in a rapidly urbanizing catchment in China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many catchments in developing countries are undergoing fast urbanization which is usually characterized by population increase, economic growth as well as drastic changes of land-use from natural/rural to urban area. During the urbanization process, some catchments experience water quality deterioration due to rapid increase of pollution loads. Nonpoint source pollution resulting from storm water runoff has been recognized as one of the major causes of pollutants in many cities in developing countries. The composition of land-use for a rapidly urbanizing catchment is usually heterogeneous, and this may result in significant spatial variations of storm runoff pollution and increase the difficulties of water quality management in the catchment. The Shiyan Reservoir catchment, a typical rapidly urbanizing area in China, is chosen as the study area, and temporary monitoring sites were set at the outlets of its 6 sub-catchments to synchronously measured rainfall, runoff and water quality during 4 storm events. Three indicators, event pollutant loads per unit area (EPL), event mean concentration (EMC) and pollutant loads transported by the first 50% of runoff volume (FF50), were used to describe the runoff pollution for different pollutants (such as COD, BOD, NH3-N, TN, TP and SS) in each sub-catchment during the storm events; and the correlations between runoff pollution spatial variations and land-use patterns were tested by Spearman's rank correlation analysis. The results indicated that similar spatial variation trends were found for different pollutants (EPL or EMC) in light storm events, which strongly correlate with the proportion of residential land-use; however, they have different trends in heavy storm events, which correlate with the different proportional combination of residential, industrial, agricultural and bare land-use. It is also shown that it is necessary to consider some pervious land-use types in runoff pollution monitoring or management for a rapidly urbanizing area, particularly in heavy storm.

Khu, Soon-Thiam; Qin, Huapeng

2010-05-01

365

HABITAT-USE PATTERNS OF FLORIDA KEY DEER: IMPLICATIONS OF URBAN DEVELOPMENT  

E-print Network

sea level; pineland, hammock, developed) and avoided tidal or lower-elevation areas ( sea level; freshwater marsh, buttonwood, mangrove). Analyses of Geographic Information System (GISHABITAT-USE PATTERNS OF FLORIDA KEY DEER: IMPLICATIONS OF URBAN DEVELOPMENT ROEL R. LOPEZ,1

Peterson, M. Nils

366

The urban environment and health in a world of increasing globalization: issues for developing countries.  

PubMed Central

Urban living is the keystone of modern human ecology. Cities have multiplied and expanded rapidly worldwide over the past two centuries. Cities are sources of creativity and technology, and they are the engines for economic growth. However, they are also sources of poverty, inequality, and health hazards from the environment. Urban populations have long been incubators and gateways for infectious diseases. The early industrializing period of unplanned growth and laissez-faire economic activity in cities in industrialized countries has been superseded by the rise of collective management of the urban environment. This occurred in response to environmental blight, increasing literacy, the development of democratic government, and the collective accrual of wealth. In many low-income countries, this process is being slowed by the pressures and priorities of economic globalization. Beyond the traditional risks of diarrhoeal disease and respiratory infections in the urban poor and the adaptation of various vector-borne infections to urbanization, the urban environment poses various physicochemical hazards. These include exposure to lead, air pollution, traffic hazards, and the "urban heat island" amplification of heatwaves. As the number of urban consumers and their material expectations rise and as the use of fossil fuels increases, cities contribute to the large-scale pressures on the biosphere including climate change. We must develop policies that ameliorate the existing, and usually unequally distributed, urban environmental health hazards and larger-scale environmental problems. PMID:11019460

McMichael, A. J.

2000-01-01

367

Code of Federal Regulations. Housing and Urban Development. Title 24, Parts 0 to 199. (Revised as of April 1, 1997).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Table of Contents: Explanation; Title 24: Subtitle A--Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development; Subtitle B--Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development; Chapter I--Office of Assistant Secretary for Equal Opportunity, ...

1997-01-01

368

Enabling and inhibiting urban development : a case study of Lahore Improvement Trust as a late colonial institution  

E-print Network

This thesis examines the Lahore Improvement Trust in relation to the urban development of the city of Lahore in mid-twentieth century. LIT was responsible for most major urban development in the city from 1936 up until ...

Malik, Hala Bashir

2014-01-01

369

Development of a Simulation Tool to Predict Urban Wind Potential  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Since energy production is no longer limited to decentralized systems, but brought into the urban environment, where a huge\\u000a amount of energy consumption takes place, new technologies are emerging and already known technologies are used in another\\u000a context. One of these technologies is wind energy. Even though the wind energy is significantly lower in urban districts wind\\u000a turbines are currently

Christina Beller

370

[Social urban development and poverty control as health promotion].  

PubMed

The Salomon Neumann Medal of the German Society for Social Medicine and Prevention bears the inscription. "Medicine is a Social Science". This provocative statement is most topical. It compels us to actively promote health by healthier living and environmental conditions apart from medical prevention. A core of this sphere of action is the reduction of social inequalities. Several recent congresses and publications have clearly shown that this subject remains one of the biggest challenges facing health promotion. German law has set the signs for reducing socially rooted inequalities for chances of health. This article postulates the thesis that health promotion can find allies for a healthy public policy in programmes planning for healthy urban development and for combatting poverty. The specific approaches for combatting social inequalities in the health sphere are reported and examples are given how such a health promotion policy may be translated into reality on a communal level. Finally, spotlight is on the dilemma of combatting inequality of chance due to differences in social status. PMID:11329919

Trojan, A

2001-03-01

371

Evaluating the Impact of Human Resource Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These four papers are from a symposium on evaluating the impact of human resource development (HRD). "Pre-Job Training and the Earnings of High-Tech Employees in Taiwan" (Tung-Chun Huang) reports on a study that concludes that public training programs have no impact on participants' earnings in later jobs, but participation in private training…

1999

372

DEVELOPMENT OF IMPACT ORIENTED CLIMATE SCENARIOS  

EPA Science Inventory

Appropriate scenarios of future climate must be developed prior to any assessment of the impacts of climate change. he information needed by impact assessors was examined in consultation with those having experience in scenario use. ost assessors require regional scenarios with a...

373

Overview of the General Atomics Low Speed Urban Maglev Technology Development Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

The overall objective of this program is to develop magnetic levitation technology that is a cost effective, reliable, and environmentally friendly option for urban mass transportation in the United States. Maglev is a revolutionary approach in which trains are supported by magnetic forces without any wheels contacting the rail surfaces. The Urban Maglev Program is sponsored by the Federal Transit

Sam Gurol; Bob Baldi; General Atomics; Richard F. Post

2002-01-01

374

Anthropology, Development and ICTs: Slums, Youth and the Mobile Internet in Urban India  

E-print Network

Anthropology, Development and ICTs: Slums, Youth and the Mobile Internet in Urban India Nimmi an anthropological study of everyday mobile internet adoption among teenagers in a low- income urban setting. We-instrumental and entertainment- driven needs. The key here is for ICTD discourse to situate insights from anthropological studies

Rajamani, Sriram K.

375

China's Urban Transport Development Strategy: Proceedings of a Symposium in Beijing, November 8-10, 1995  

Microsoft Academic Search

Presents the proceedings of the China Urban Transport Symposium, held in Beijing, November 9-11, 1995, jointly sponsored by China's Ministry of Construction and Ministry of Finance, the People's Bank of China, the World Bank, and the Asian Development Bank. The symposium addressed a wide range of topics, including motor vehicle pollution, urban transport management and planning, bicycles in cities, mass

S. Stares; L. Zhi

1996-01-01

376

`Perfect ventilation, good sewerage and effective water closets': Urban factors in the development  

E-print Network

... Discourses of public health in C19 Urban sanitation in Dublin, nineteenth century Public health and hospital sanitation ``Perfect ventilation, good sewerage and effective water closets': Urban factors in the development of modern nursing Public health and hospital sanitation Hospital sanitation and the Board

377

Groundwater in Urban Development. Assessing Management Needs and Formulating Policy Strategies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Groudwater is of major importance in providing mains water supply, and is intensively exploited for private, domestic, and industrial use in many urban centers of the developing world. At the same time, the subsurface has come to serve as the receptor for much urban and industrial wastewater and for solid waste disposal. There are increasingly widespread indications of degradation in

Stephen Foster; Adrian Lawrence; Brian Morris

1998-01-01

378

US Urban Teachers' Perspectives of Culturally Competent Professional Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Health disparities related to food choices, nutrition behaviours and smoking habits in urban communities in the United States signal the importance of health education (HE) in schools, yet educators in urban communities face unique cultural challenges often unaddressed in professional development (PD). The purpose of this study was to use a…

Flory, Sara B.; McCaughtry, Nate; Martin, Jeffrey J.; Murphy, Anne; Blum, Barbara; Wisdom, Kimberlydawn

2014-01-01

379

Community water supply for the urban poor in developing countries: The case of Dhaka, Bangladesh  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a model for community and institutional supply of potable water to the urban poor in the cities of developing countries, through an examination of Dhaka, Bangladesh. The model identifies ways of providing small-scale water supply systems for urban slum and squatter communities by following internationally recognised principles of potable water supply and building on existing recognised ‘good

H. M. Delwar Akbar; John R. Minnery; Basil van Horen; Phil Smith

2007-01-01

380

A new paradigm for low-cost urban water supplies and sanitation in developing countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract To achieve the Millennium Development Goals for urban water supply and sanitation , 300,000 and , 400,000 people will have to be provided with an adequate water supply and adequate sanitation, respectively, every day during 2001– 2015. The provision of urban water supply and sanitation services for these numbers,of people necessitates action not only on an unprecedented scale, but

Duncan Mara; Graham Alabaster

2008-01-01

381

Horticulture in Urban Ecosystems: Some Socioeconomic and Environmental Lessons from Studies in Three Developing Regions  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the light of the documented prevalence of peri-urban horticulture in developing countries, the paper highlights the need to identify and resolve health risks associated with the urban location of these systems. Contamination of vegetables with heavy metals from vehicle emissions in Kampala occurred at different levels depending on location and affected storage roots, stems and leaves in different ways.

Gordon Prain; Blanca Arce; Nancy Karanja

382

Impact of traffic volume and composition on the air quality and pedestrian exposure in urban street canyon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vehicle emissions are identified as a major source of air pollution in metropolitan areas. Emission control programs in many cities have been implemented as part of larger scale transport policy interventions to control traffic pollutants and reduce public health risks. These interventions include provision of traffic-free and low emission zones and congestion charging. Various studies have investigated the impact of urban street configurations, such as street canyon in urban centers, on pollutants dispersion and roadside air quality. However, there are few investigations in the literature to study the impact of change of fleet composition and street canyon effects on the on-road pollutants concentrations and associated roadside pedestrian exposure to the pollutants. This study presents an experimental investigation on the traffic related gas and particle pollutants in and near major streets in one of the most developed business districts in Hong Kong, known as Central. Both street canyon and open roadway configurations were included in the study design. Mobile measurement techniques were deployed to monitor both on-road and roadside pollutants concentrations at different times of the day and on different days of a week. Multiple traffic counting points were also established to concurrently collect data on traffic volume and fleet composition on individual streets. Street canyon effects were evident with elevated on-road pollutants concentrations. Diesel vehicles were found to be associated with observed pollutant levels. Roadside black carbon concentrations were found to correlate with their on-road levels but with reduced concentrations. However, ultrafine particles showed very high concentrations in roadside environment with almost unity of roadside/on-road ratios possibly due to the accumulation of primary emissions and secondary PM formation. The results from the study provide useful information for the effective urban transport design and bus route reorganization to minimize the impact of traffic emissions on the urban air quality and public health. Observations on the elevated ultrafine particle concentrations in roadside pedestrian levels also demonstrate the urgent need to improve roadside air quality to reduce pedestrians' health risks especially inside street canyon.

Rakowska, Agata; Wong, Ka Chun; Townsend, Thomas; Chan, Ka Lok; Westerdahl, Dane; Ng, Simon; Mo?nik, Griša; Drinovec, Luka; Ning, Zhi

2014-12-01

383

Assessment of Urban Infrastructure Impact on New York City Neighborhoods Thermal Variations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New York City (NYC) is a highly urbanized city with most of the population living in tall buildings. Despite technological improvements and stricter regulations, cities still show increasing signs of environmental stress such as traffic congestion, noise and air quality degradation. Rethinking the current models of city planning could enable to limit these detrimental effects of urbanization. In addition, the built environment creates a new climatic regime which needs a better understanding. Building density, height and emission has a major impact on local temperature and other air quality indicators. Studies have shown that during extreme weather conditions and heat waves the mortality rate in urban areas increases. Cities are comprised of a wide variety of urban settings and various neighborhoods have different physical responses to meteorological events, so it is expected that the temperature and heat stress across a given city to fluctuate sharply. Therefore, this research has focused on neighborhood-scale field campaigns to downscale temperature and air quality predictions from city to neighborhood scale in NYC. In order to assess the temperature variability within the city at street level, during the hottest part of the day, this project used eight mobile units bearing temperature and relative humidity sensors, as well as ten weather stations mounted on light poles in various NYC neighborhoods. This study also looks at fine scale structures in the urban heat island of Manhattan at street level through an infrared camera with the spectral range of 7.5-13 ?m in order to relate heat and emissions from building surfaces to land surface characteristics such as building density, vegetation coverage, proximity to water, and albedo. LandSat TM5 images were used (with 30 m resolution) for land surface classification. During the summer and early fall of 2011, 2012 and 2013 extensive field campaigns were performed, the results of which show some persistent patterns that could be related to surface characteristics. This work is a collaboration between the health component of the Consortium for Climate Risk in the Urban Northeast (CCRUN), funded by NOAA Regional Integrated Science Assessment (RISA), and New York University Center for Urban Science and Progress (CUSP).

Nazari, R.; Ghandehari, M.; Karimi, M.; Vant-hull, B.; Khanbilvardi, R.

2013-12-01

384

Monitoring impact of urban settlements on nearby protected areas from space  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we present a satellite based approach to monitor impacts of urban settlements on nearby protected areas worldwide. The footprint of human occupation is uniquely visible from space in the form of artificial night lighting, ranging from the burning of the rainforest to massive offshore fisheries to the omnipresent lights of cities and towns and related connecting road networks. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Geophysical Data Center (NOAA-NGDC) processes and archives data acquired by the U.S. Air Force Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) Operational Linescan System (OLS) which was initially designed to monitor the global distribution of clouds using visible and thermal infrared spectral bands. At night the visible band signal is intensified with a photomultiplier tube enabling the detection of moonlit clouds. The boost in gain provides this sensor with the unique capability of observing lights present at the earth's surface at night. Considering nighttime lights as a proxy for anthropogenic activities also influencing neighboring regions enables a globally consistent human impact analysis. The assessment of impacts on threatened ecosystems and related loss of biodiversity is essential in the context of the global (climate) change debate whereas monitoring and protecting the diversity of life on Earth is one of the 'global issues' affecting society. UNEP's World Conservation Monitoring Centre (WCMC) provides information on spatial distribution and delineation of protected areas. The information for this World Database on Protected Areas (WDPA) has been compiled since 1981 and is made available to the global community through UNEP's Protected Areas Programme. The WDPA is a joint project of UNEP and the IUCN World Commission on Protected Areas (WCPA) being prepared in collaboration with governments and NGOs. A set of spatial indicators describing lighting impact and approximated human influence was developed based on joint analysis of the two data sets. Increasing research activities on assessing ecological consequences of artificial night lighting in recent years have attracted the attention of both scientist and journalists. The term light pollution is widely used referring to any adverse effect of artificial light including sky glow, glare, light trespass, light clutter, decreased visibility at night, and energy waste (definition according to the International Dark-Sky Association). First results of the analysis indicate that regions in Europe and Asia Minor, the Caribbean, South and East Asia as well as in the Eastern part of the United States are most affected. Introducing aggregated data on biomes reveals that temperate broadleaf and mixed forests suffer the biggest impact in terms of light pollution in protected areas. The presented impact assessment underscores the need for accurate and consistent spatial data on a global scale and can help to indicate which protected areas are most threatened by human activities. It is an important step towards public communication and raising general awareness on the topic of light pollution and its ecological consequences.

Aubrecht, Christoph; Jaiteh, Malanding; de Sherbinin, Alexander; Longcore, Travis; Elvidge, Chris

2010-05-01

385

Effects of urban development on the flood-flow characteristics of the Walnut Creek Basin, Des Moines Metropolitan area, Iowa  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Model studies were made to determine the probable impact of urban development on the magnitude and frequency of flooding in the lower reach of the Walnut Creek basin, Des Moines metropolitan area, Iowa. Stream-modeling techniques, which include complete defintion of unit hydrographs and precipitation loss-rate criteria, were utilized to evaluate the effects of urban development as measured by percentages of impervious area over the basin. A mathematical model, called HEC-1, was calibrated by using concurrent rainfall-runoff data collected at three gaging stations in the basin. The model parameters were regionalized to allow future users to estimate the model parameters for ungaged areas within the basin. Long-term rainfall data recorded at two nearby stations were employed as basic input to the calibrated model to generate annual peak discharges corresponding to selected degrees of urbanization. Results are presented in tables and graphs, which compare the preurban and urban floodflow characteristics of the lower reach of the Walnut Creek basin. (Woodard-USGS)

Lara, Oscar G.

1978-01-01

386

The Use of Newly Added Resources in Urban Schools To Foster School Improvement: Contexts, Mediating Factors, and Their Impact.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined the use of privately funded, newly added resources to improve the education of at-risk urban students (books, instructional materials, computers, and after school programs). Data from interviews, observations, and surveys indicated that the resources had a positive impact. A range of factors influenced the impact of these resources, some…

Xu, Jianzhong

2002-01-01

387

Developing a Master Plan for Restoring/Stabilizing an Urban Watercourse: Highland Creek  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Highland Creek is a fully urbanized watershed (104 km2 ) in Toronto, Ontario. Through the process of urbanization and placement of sanitary, storm and transportation infrastructure within the channel corridor, the length of channel within the drainage network has been reduced. Of the remaining length (38 km), more than half the channel is protected by engineering counter measures along channel bank and/or bed, many of which are failing. In addition, through the processes of channel adjustment (i.e., primarily degradation and widening) in response to urban hydromodification, 17 % of the 143 subsurface sanitary sewer crossings are currently exposed and at risk of failure. Indeed, a major storm event in 2005 caused substantial channel movement, failure of a manhole and underlying sanitary sewer, leading to sewage discharge into Highland Creek. A consequence of all of these modifications has been the creation of numerous fish barriers, loss of all but the most tolerant fish species and degradation of both the physical and chemical habitat conditions. The City of Toronto has initiated a study to develop a Geomorphic Systems Master Plan to stabilize/restore Highland Creek with the primary intent of protecting infrastructure. The study is following the Nine Step Analysis Procedure of the Adaptive Management Methodology (Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources) which includes three stages of analyses (i.e., Watershed Issue Assessment, Planning and Environmental Assessment, and Design Process). The study is multi-disciplinary and has included a thorough inventory of existing channel conditions and characteristics (biologic, geomorphic); a comprehensive risk assessment that considers implications of historic channel change and existing conditions exposure/failure of infrastructure/counter measures; assessment of further anticipated channel responses (cross-section, profile, planform) to urban hydromodification have been undertaken. Analyses to assess the effectiveness of various stormwater management strategies in reducing impacts on the channel has been completed. The intent of all analyses is to develop a plan (spatial and temporal) for stabilizing the watercourse, reducing risk to infrastructure and private property, and enhancing fish habitat.

Pushkar, M. T.; Hindley, B.; Phillips, R. T.; Snodgrass, B.

2009-05-01

388

QuikSCAT response to urban developments and seasonal cycles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We explore azimuthal variations in the 25-km resolution QuikSCAT L1B Ku-band satellite radar data in urban areas. The normalized microwave radar backscatter (?0) increases from rural to urban regions suggesting that an anthropogenic influences from buildings and other infrastructure. A seasonal signal is also identified over all azimuthal angles in multiple global regions. Potential influencing factors of changes in the observed ?0 over land-use types from uninhabited to urban areas are explored including building and road orientation, precipitation, and vegetation. Buildings, roads, and curbs act as dihedral corner reflectors and enhance ?0 for azimuthal observation angles normal to the structure face. Azimuthal variations in the ?0 signal appear in urban areas with highly organized gridded street systems such as Beijing, China and Phoenix, Arizona; azimuthal variation is much less in cities with less organized streets such as Sao Paulo, Brazil. Changes in seasonal precipitation cannot be used to directly predict seasonal changes in ?0; however, changes in vegetation appear closely associated with a seasonal signal of ?0 in urban and rural areas.

Paget, A. C.; Long, D. G.

2013-12-01

389

Using Social-Emotional and Character Development to Improve Academic Outcomes: A Matched-Pair, Cluster-Randomized Controlled Trial in Low-Income, Urban Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: School-based social-emotional and character development (SECD) programs can influence not only SECD but also academic-related outcomes. This study evaluated the impact of one SECD program, Positive Action (PA), on educational outcomes among low-income, urban youth. Methods: The longitudinal study used a matched-pair, cluster-randomized…

Bavarian, Niloofar; Lewis, Kendra M.; DuBois, David L.; Acock, Alan; Vuchinich, Samuel; Silverthorn, Naida; Snyder, Frank J.; Day, Joseph; Ji, Peter; Flay, Brian R.

2013-01-01

390

Realities of weather extremes on daily life in urban India - How quantified impacts infer sensible adaptation options  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Emerging and developing economies are currently undergoing one of the profoundest socio-spatial transitions in their history, with strong urbanization and weather extremes bringing about changes in the economy, forms of living and living conditions, but also increasing risks and altered social divides. The impacts of heat waves and strong rain events are therefore differently perceived among urban residents. Addressing the social differences of climate change impacts1 and expanding targeted adaptation options have emerged as urgent policy priorities, particularly for developing and emerging economies2. This paper discusses the perceived impacts of weather-related extreme events on different social groups in New Delhi and Hyderabad, India. Using network statistics and scenario analysis on Fuzzy Cognitive Maps (FCMs) as part of a vulnerability analysis, the investigation provides quantitative and qualitative measures to compare impacts and adaptation strategies for different social groups. Impacts of rain events are stronger than those of heat in both cities and affect the lower income classes particularly. Interestingly, the scenario analysis (comparing altered networks in which the alteration represents a possible adaptation measure) shows that investments in the water infrastructure would be most meaningful and more effective than investments in, e.g., the traffic infrastructure, despite the stronger burden from traffic disruptions and the resulting concentration of planning and policy on traffic ease and investments. The method of Fuzzy Cognitive Mapping offers a link between perception and modeling, and the possibility to aggregate and analyze the views of a large number of stakeholders. Our research has shown that planners and politicians often know about many of the problems, but are often overwhelmed by the problems in their respective cities and look for a prioritization of adaptation options. FCM provides this need and identifies priority adaptation options when resources are scarce. 1 Parry ML, Canziani OF, Palutikof JP, van der Linden PJ, Hanson CE (eds) (2007) Contribution of Working Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge New York. 2 TERI (2007) Adaptation to Climate Change in the context of Sustainable Development. Background Paper to the conference ''Climate Change and Sustainable Development: An international workshop to strengthen research and understanding'', 7-8 April 2006, The Energy and Resources Institute, New Delhi.

Reckien, D.

2012-12-01

391

Adaptation of Land-Use Demands to the Impact of Climate Change on the Hydrological Processes of an Urbanized Watershed  

PubMed Central

The adaptation of land-use patterns is an essential aspect of minimizing the inevitable impact of climate change at regional and local scales; for example, adapting watershed land-use patterns to mitigate the impact of climate change on a region’s hydrology. The objective of this study is to simulate and assess a region’s ability to adapt to hydrological changes by modifying land-use patterns in the Wu-Du watershed in northern Taiwan. A hydrological GWLF (Generalized Watershed Loading Functions) model is used to simulate three hydrological components, namely, runoff, groundwater and streamflow, based on various land-use scenarios under six global climate models. The land-use allocations are simulated by the CLUE-s model for the various development scenarios. The simulation results show that runoff and streamflow are strongly related to the precipitation levels predicted by different global climate models for the wet and dry seasons, but groundwater cycles are more related to land-use. The effects of climate change on groundwater and runoff can be mitigated by modifying current land-use patterns; and slowing the rate of urbanization would also reduce the impact of climate change on hydrological components. Thus, land-use adaptation on a local/regional scale provides an alternative way to reduce the impacts of global climate change on local hydrology. PMID:23202833

Lin, Yu-Pin; Hong, Nien-Ming; Chiang, Li-Chi; Liu, Yen-Lan; Chu, Hone-Jay

2012-01-01

392

Evaluation of xenobiotic impact on urban receiving waters by means of statistical methods.  

PubMed

Xenobiotics in urban receiving waters are an emerging problem. A sound knowledge of xenobiotic input, distribution and fate in the aquatic environment is a prerequisite for risk assessments. Methods to assess the impact of xenobiotics on urban receiving waters should address the diverse characteristics of the target compounds and the spatiotemporal variability of concentrations. Here, we present results from a one-year-monitoring program concerning concentrations of pharmaceuticals, additives from personal care products and industrial chemicals in an urban drainage catchment in untreated and treated wastewater, surface water and groundwater. Univariate and multivariate statistical methods were applied to characterize the xenobiotic concentrations. Correlation and principal component analysis revealed a pronounced pattern of xenobiotics in the surface water samples. The concentrations of several xenobiotics were characterized by a negative proportionality to the water temperature. Therefore, seasonal attenuation is assumed to be a major process influencing the measured concentrations. Moreover, dilution of xenobiotics the surface water was found to significantly influence the concentrations. These two processes control more the xenobiotic occurrence in the surface water than the less pronounced concentration pattern in the wastewater sources. For the groundwater samples, we assume that foremost attenuation processes lead to the found differentiation of xenobiotics. PMID:20706016

Musolff, A; Leschik, S; Schafmeister, M-T; Reinstorf, F; Strauch, G; Krieg, R; Schirmer, M

2010-01-01

393

The Impact of Temporal Aggregation of Land Surface Temperature Data for Urban Heat Island Monitoring  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Temporally composited remote sensing products are widely used in monitoring the urban heat island (UHI). In order to quantify the impact of temporal aggregation for assessing the UHI, we examined MODIS land surface temperature (LST) products for 11 years focusing on Houston, Texas and its surroundings. By using the daily LST from 2000 to 2010, the urban and rural daily LST were presented for the 8-day period and annual comparisons for both day and night. Statistics based on the rural-urban LST differences show that the 8-day composite mean UHI effects are generally more intensive than that calculated by daily UHI images. Moreover, the seasonal pattern shows that the summer daytime UHI has the largest magnitude and variation while nighttime UHI magnitudes are much smaller and less variable. Regression analyses enhance the results showing an apparently higher UHI derived from 8-day composite dataset. The summer mean UHI maps were compared, indicating a land cover related pattern. We introduced yearly MODIS land cover type product to explore the spatial differences caused by temporal aggression of LST product. The mean bias caused by land cover types are calculated about 0.5 ~ 0.7K during the daytime, and less than 0.1K at night. The potential causes of the higher UHI are discussed. The analysis shows that the land-atmosphere interactions, which result in the regional cloud formation, are the primary reason.

Hu, L.; Brunsell, N. A.

2012-12-01

394

Spatial and Temporal Impacts of Urbanization on Local Hydrological Processes - A Case Study in the Central Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simulated urban area with size 15x15 km2 representing Chiayi area of central Taiwan can produce up to 3 times more sensible heat flux around noon time than that of a non-urban area. This effect has significant impact on locations of local summer thunderstorms and precipitation over Taiwan western plain by sensitivity tests. We used precipitation and stream gauges in

C. Kuo; C. Lin

2007-01-01

395

Linking land-use conversion and landscape-scale energy balance to explore the impact of the urban heat island (UHI) on the regional micrometeorological pattern  

Microsoft Academic Search

Linking land-use conversion and landscape-scale energy balance to explore the impact of the urban heat island (UHI) on the regional micrometeorological pattern Urban heat island (UHI) effect, which is recognized as a significant influence of anthropogenic environment modification, has been becoming one of the important issues for the urban climatology in many Asian mega- cities in the recent decades. The

J. Juang

2008-01-01

396

MIT OpenCourseWare: Introduction to Urban Design and Development, Fall 2003  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Part of MIT's innovative OpenCourseWare Project, that provides materials from MIT classes to the public on the web, the site provides materials from a course that examined the forces that act upon urban areas, and how the areas develop in response. Topics include public participation in development, redevelopment, urban design, the art of cities, the environmental and social effects of cities, and the ideal visions we have of urban areas. The site provides extensive recommended readings and samples of student work on Boston and New Delhi.

Frenchman, Dennis; Morrow, Greg

2007-04-06

397

Effects of urban development in the Puget Lowland, Washington, on interannual streamflow patterns: Consequences for channel form and streambed disturbance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recovery and protection of streams in urban areas depend on a comprehensive understanding of how human activities affect stream ecosystems. The hydrologic effects of urban development and the consequences for stream channel form and streambed stability were examined in 16 streams in the Puget Lowland, Washington, using three streamflow metrics that integrate storm-scale effects of urban development over annual to

Christopher P. Konrad; Derek B. Booth; Stephen J. Burges

2005-01-01

398

Redevelopment and Revitalization Along Urban Arterials: Case Study of San Pablo Avenue, California, from the Developers' Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urban arterials are both promising and problematic locations for infill development and urban revitalization. San Pablo Avenue, a multilane urban arterial traversing nine cities and two counties along the eastern shore of San Francisco Bay in California, is considered here. The road developed over a long period: first as a streetcar line, then as an intercity automobile route, and most

Luis Mejias; Elizabeth Deakin

2005-01-01

399

Development of Criteria for Evaluating Urban River Settings for Tourism-Rereation Use  

E-print Network

An earlier study, Cultural Benefits from Metropolitan River Recreation--San Antonio Prototype, (Gunn, et al., 1972), revealed that urban water resources can be successfully developed for tourism and recreation. The San Antonio River Walk is a unique...

Gunn, C. A.; Hanna, J. W.; Parenzin, A. J.; Blumberg, F. M.

400

Tenements : dwellings for the urban poor. Comparative study illustrating 28 cases in developing countries  

E-print Network

Tenements are significant systems that provide habitation to the poor in most of the urban areas of the developing countries. Yet, tenements are practically ignored if not prohibited by the public sector and consequently ...

Aliman, Isam Mohammad

1981-01-01

401

New urbanism on a grand scale : the challenges for large-scale, multi-phase master planned developments  

E-print Network

New Urbanism has been described as an urban design movement promoting the master planning and development of communities that have walkable, human-scale neighborhoods while integrating the necessary elements of modern life ...

Olchowicz, Edward J

2011-01-01

402

The City as a national growth machine : city-building and the role of urban development in South Korea's political and economic transitions  

E-print Network

This dissertation bridges the fields of international development and urban studies to examine South Korea's city building and urban development processes, arguing that the interaction between urban and industrial policies ...

Joo, Yu Min

2011-01-01

403

Urban heat islands developing in coastal tropical cities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Beautiful and breezy cities on small tropical islands, it turns out, may not be exempt from the same local climate change effects and urban heat island effects seen in large continental cities such as Los Angeles or Mexico City. A surprising, recent discovery indicates that this is the case for San Juan, Puerto Rico, a relatively affluent coastal tropical city

Jorge E. González; Jeffrey C. Luvall; Douglas Rickman; Daniel Comarazamy; Ana Picón; Eric Harmsen; Hamed Parsiani; Ramón E. Vásquez; Nazario Ramírez; Robin Williams; Robert W. Waide; Craig A. Tepley

2005-01-01

404

Effects of Continuing Professional Development on Urban Elementary Students' Knowledge  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this investigation was to examine one urban school district's attempt to revise their elementary school physical education offerings to promote student gains in healthy living knowledge. Specifically, the authors sought to determine if children's physical activity/fitness knowledge increased when taught by teachers engaged in a…

Kulinna, Pamela Hodges; McCaughtry, Nathan; Martin, Jeffrey; Cothran, Donetta

2011-01-01

405

Children Researching Their Urban Environment: Developing a Methodology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Listening to children: environmental perspectives and the school curriculum" (L2C) was a UK research council project based in schools in a socially and economically deprived urban area in England. It focused on 10/12 year old children's experience of their local community and environment, and how they made sense of this in relation both to their…

Hacking, Elisabeth Barratt; Barratt, Robert

2009-01-01

406

Literacy Development of Students in Urban Schools: Research and Policy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Educators can use this collection of diverse, thought-provoking perspectives from the best minds in the field to help make the best decisions possible for urban schools. The book's 26 chapters concisely synthesize research on a number of topics and link it to literacy instruction issues-including implications for local, state, and national…

Flood, James, Ed.; Anders, Patricia L., Ed.

2005-01-01

407

Development and Learning of Children and Youth in Urban America.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The chapters in this collection, distributed to conference participants as a springboard for conference discussions, consider sustainable models for school-family-community collaboration, partnerships in education, and other ways to improve learning for urban youth. The contributions are: (1) "The Empowerment Zone and Enterprise Community"…

Wang, Margaret C., Ed.; Reynolds, Maynard C., Ed.

408

Developing an Ecosystem Services Online Decision Support Tool to Assess the Impacts of Climate Change and Urban Growth in the Santa Cruz Watershed: Where We Live, Work, and Play  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Using respective strengths of the biological, physical, and social sciences, we are developing an online decision support tool, the Santa Cruz Watershed Ecosystem Portfolio Model (SCWEPM), to help promote the use of information relevant to water allocation and land management in a binational watershed along the U.S.-Mexico border. The SCWEPM will include an ES valuation system within a suite of linked regional driver-response models and will use a multicriteria scenario-evaluation framework that builds on GIS analysis and spatially-explicit models that characterize important ecological, economic, and societal endpoints and consequences that are sensitive to climate patterns, regional water budgets, and regional LULC change in the SCW.

Norman, Laura; Tallent-Halsell, Nita; Labiosa, William; Weber, Matt; McCoy, Amy; Hirschboeck, Katie; Callegary, James; van Riper, Charles, III; Gray, Floyd

2010-01-01

409

Remote Sensing of Urban Land Cover/Land Use Change, Surface Thermal Responses, and Potential Meteorological and Climate Change Impacts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

City growth influences the development of the urban heat island (UHI), but the effect that local meteorology has on the UHI is less well known. This paper presents some preliminary findings from a study that uses multitemporal Landsat TM and ASTER data to evaluate land cover/land use change (LULCC) over the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MFSC) and its Huntsville, AL metropolitan area. Landsat NLCD data for 1992 and 2001 have been used to evaluate LULCC for MSFC and the surrounding urban area. Land surface temperature (LST) and emissivity derived from NLCD data have also been analyzed to assess changes in these parameters in relation to LULCC. Additionally, LULCC, LST, and emissivity have been identified from ASTER data from 2001 and 2011 to provide a comparison with the 2001 NLCD and as a measure of current conditions within the study area. As anticipated, the multi-temporal NLCD and ASTER data show that significant changes have occurred in land covers, LST, and emissivity within and around MSFC. The patterns and arrangement of these changes, however, is significant because the juxtaposition of urban land covers within and outside of MSFC provides insight on what impacts at a local to regional scale, the inter-linkage of these changes potentially have on meteorology. To further analyze these interactions between LULCC, LST, and emissivity with the lower atmosphere, a network of eleven weather stations has been established across the MSFC property. These weather stations provide data at a 10 minute interval, and these data are uplinked for use by MSFC facilities operations and the National Weather Service. The weather data are also integrated within a larger network of meteorological stations across north Alabama. Given that the MSFC weather stations will operate for an extended period of time, they can be used to evaluate how the building of new structures, and changes in roadways, and green spaces as identified in the MSFC master plan for the future, will potentially affect land cover LSTs across the Center. Moreover, the weather stations will also provide baseline data for developing a better understanding of how localized weather factors, such as extreme rainfall and heat events, affect micrometeorology. These data can also be used to model the interrelationships between LSTs and meteorology on a longer term basis to help evaluate how changes in these parameters can be quantified from satellite data collected in the future. In turn, the overall integration of multi-temporal meteorological information with LULCC, and LST data for MSFC proper and the surrounding Huntsville urbanized area can provide a perspective on how urban land surface types affect the meteorology in the boundary layer and ultimately, the UHI. Additionally, data such as this can be used as a foundation for modeling how climate change will potentially impact local and regional meteorology and conversely, how urban LULCC can or will influence changes on climate over the north Alabama area.

Quattrochi, Dale A.; Jedlovec, Gary; Meyer, Paul

2011-01-01

410

Rural-urban migration, informal sector and development policies: a theoretical analysis.  

PubMed

"A theoretical model of rural-urban migration has been developed with special reference to the informal sector. The wage rate and employment in the informal sector are determined endogenously. The paper shows the simultaneous existence of open unemployment and informal sector in the urban area in migration equilibrium. The effects of alternative subsidy policies on unemployment and welfare of the workers are studied." The model is intended primarily for use in analyzing trends and policies in developing countries. PMID:12344755

Gupta, M R

1993-06-01

411

Understanding Community Context and Adult Health Changes in China: Development of an Urbanicity Scale  

PubMed Central

The classification of places as either urban or rural is typically based on an absolute threshold of population and/or population density. However, conceptual definitions of urbanization and urbanicity encompass dimensions beyond solely population size and population density. Multiple important distinguishing urban characteristics beyond population size have been described. The crude classification of places as urban or rural coupled with infrequent updates to this information create a measure that is prone to misclassification error. An improved measure of urbanicity would draw information from the domains that characterize urban and rural places, would be sensitive to changes over time, and would represent gradations on the continuum from rural to urban environments. The goal of the current study was to develop such a scale from existing data, test whether the scale was reliable and valid, and assess whether it provided information beyond what could be determined from the traditional urban/rural dichotomous variable. We utilized established scaling procedures from the psychometric literature to construct and evaluate a multicomponent scale to measure urban features on a continuum in China. We also provided an example of its potential contribution to health research by examining its relationship with the adult body mass index (BMI). Because the scale was constructed and tested using established scaling procedures and using a wide array of variables, it represents an improvement over previous attempts at such a scale and will provide a reliable and valid measurement tool for researchers in this arena. The scale was developed to predict the incidence of overweight/obesity populations in China, but it promises to be most useful for other economic, demographic, social welfare, and health outcomes. PMID:20810197

Jones-Smith, Jessica; Popkin, Barry M.

2010-01-01

412

The Impact of Educational Interventions on Organizational Culture at an Urban Federal Agency. Ph.D. Thesis - Old Dominion Univ.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This study on the impact of educational interventions on organizational culture is an evaluation of a major educational initiative undertaken by an urban federal agency, namely the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Langley Research Center (NASA-LaRC). The design of this educational evaluation captures the essence of NASA-LaRC's efforts to continue its distinguished and international stature in the aeronautical research community following the Challenger tragedy. More specifically, this study is an evaluation of the educational initiative designed to ameliorate organizational culture via educational interventions, with emphasis on communications, rewards and recognition, and career development. After completing a review of the related literature, chronicling the educational initiative, interviewing senior managers and employees, and critically examining thousands of free responses on employee perceptions of organizational culture, it is found that previous definitions of organizational culture are more accurately classified as manifestations of organizational culture. This research has endeared to redefine 'organizational culture' by offering a more accurate and diagnostic perspective.

Mckenzie, Janet Myrick

1994-01-01

413

Addressing the Complexities of Literacy and Urban Teaching in the USA: Strategic Professional Development as Intervention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Teaching quality impacts classroom instruction. Teaching is difficult, demanding and draining work; teaching in urban environs exacerbates the difficulties, the demands and the complexities of teaching. Through the eyes of an assistant superintendent, charged with implementing a new vision for literacy teaching and learning, this manuscript…

Sulentic Dowell, Margaret-Mary

2012-01-01

414

The impact of preschool education component of ICDS on mental and cognitive development of children.  

PubMed

The aim of this evaluation was to assess the impact of nonformal preschool education of the mental and cognitive development of rural and urban children from the Ludhiana Integrated Child Development Services (ICDs) district, Punjab, India; comparisons were made with non-ICDs attenders. 30 anganwadi community workers (AWWs) with ICDs were randomly selected equally from a total of about 200 workers in urban and rural blocks. 360 children aged 3-6 years; equally divided among urban and rural areas, were selected; 180 of these children, equally divided between urban and rural areas, were controls of nonattenders of preschool. Information about cognitive and mental development was obtained from AWWs records and interviews, parents, and a cognitive ability test. Mean test scores among rural ICDS attenders aged 3-4 years of age were 73.77 compared with 67.33 for nonattenders. The scores for rural ICDs attenders 4-5 years old was 95.60 vs. 82.20 for nonattenders. For the 5-6 year old group, scores for rural ICDs attenders were 104.23 compared with 93.27 for nonattenders. The scores were statistically significant for score differences for all age groups in the rural population and the urban population. Urban ICDS attenders scored 73/87 compared with 65.57 for nonattenders aged 3-4 years. Urban ICDS attenders aged 4-5 years scored 92.97 compared with 83.23 for nonattenders. Urban ICDS attenders aged 5-6 years scored 105.03 compared with 92.57 for nonattenders. There were no significant differences between rural and urban attenders or nonattenders for any age group. There was a significant (p .001) correlation between age and cognitive ability: rural attenders, r = .81; rural nonattenders, r = .78; urban attenders, r - 84, urban nonattenders r = 86. The findings supported previous studies, by, for instance, Adhish et al. on cognitive differences between children in ICDs and non ICDs villages. Place of residence was not found to be related to mental development. There was an increase in the cognitive development with the advancement of age. PMID:12287142

Raizada, N; Sachar, R K; Bhatia, R C; Sehgal, R; Soni, R K

1993-01-01

415

Impacts of city-block-scale countermeasures against urban heat-island phenomena upon a building’s energy-consumption for air-conditioning  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study quantifies the possible impacts of urban heat-island countermeasures upon buildings’ energy use during summer in Tokyo metropolis. Considering the dependency of the buildings air temperature upon the local urban canopy structure, Tokyo urban canopies were classified in the city-block-scale using the sky-view factor (svf). Then, a multi-scale model system describing the interaction between buildings’ energy use and urban

Yukihiro Kikegawa; Yutaka Genchi; Hiroaki Kondo; Keisuke Hanaki

2006-01-01

416

High resolution weather data for urban hydrological modelling and impact assessment, ICT requirements and future challenges  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hydrological analysis of urban catchments requires high resolution rainfall and catchment information because of the small size of these catchments, high spatial variability of the urban fabric, fast runoff processes and related short response times. Rainfall information available from traditional radar and rain gauge networks does no not meet the relevant scales of urban hydrology. A new type of weather radars, based on X-band frequency and equipped with Doppler and dual polarimetry capabilities, promises to provide more accurate rainfall estimates at the spatial and temporal scales that are required for urban hydrological analysis. Recently, the RAINGAIN project was started to analyse the applicability of this new type of radars in the context of urban hydrological modelling. In this project, meteorologists and hydrologists work closely together in several stages of urban hydrological analysis: from the acquisition procedure of novel and high-end radar products to data acquisition and processing, rainfall data retrieval, hydrological event analysis and forecasting. The project comprises of four pilot locations with various characteristics of weather radar equipment, ground stations, urban hydrological systems, modelling approaches and requirements. Access to data processing and modelling software is handled in different ways in the pilots, depending on ownership and user context. Sharing of data and software among pilots and with the outside world is an ongoing topic of discussion. The availability of high resolution weather data augments requirements with respect to the resolution of hydrological models and input data. This has led to the development of fully distributed hydrological models, the implementation of which remains limited by the unavailability of hydrological input data. On the other hand, if models are to be used in flood forecasting, hydrological models need to be computationally efficient to enable fast responses to extreme event conditions. This presentation will highlight ICT-related requirements and limitations in high resolution urban hydrological modelling and analysis. Further ICT challenges arise in provision of high resolution radar data for diverging information needs as well as in combination with other data sources in the urban environment. Different types of information are required for such diverse activities as operational flood protection, traffic management, large event organisation, business planning in shopping districts and restaurants, timing of family activities. These different information needs may require different configurations and data processing for radars and other data sources. An ICT challenge is to develop techniques for deciding how to automatically respond to these diverging information needs (e.g., through (semi-)automated negotiation). Diverse activities also provide a wide variety of information resources that can supplement traditional networks of weather sensors, such as rain sensors on cars and social media. Another ICT challenge is how to combine data from these different sources for answering a particular information need. Examples will be presented of solutions are currently being explored.

ten Veldhuis, Marie-claire; van Riemsdijk, Birna

2013-04-01

417

SUSTAIN ? A Framework for Placement of Best Management Practices in Urban Watersheds to Protect Water Quality  

EPA Science Inventory

SUSTAIN (System for Urban Stormwater Treatment and Analysis INtegration) is a decision support system to facilitate selection and placement of best management practices (BMPs) and low impact development (LID) techniques at strategic locations in urban watersheds. It was develope...

418

Evaluating the impact of HIA on urban reconstruction decision-making. Who manages whose risks?  

SciTech Connect

Practitioners and academic researchers increasingly look to evaluation of health impact assessment (HIA) to improve its practice, its efficiency and its legitimacy. Evaluation is also used to account to policy-makers, who express doubts that the benefits of HIA justify its costs. Until recently evaluation of HIA focused on instrument design and procedures but now the focus needs to shift to analysis of the interaction of HIA and decision-making. Multiple case studies have been applied to identify the conditions in which HIA produces the desired benefits. These studies used analytical concepts derived from the literature on evaluation, knowledge utilization, science of sociology and knowledge management. This paper describes a case study in which the strategic motives of the decision-makers affected the impact of an HIA. This HIA comprised of a quantitative environmental model 'City and Environment' that was used to assess environmental health impacts of an urban reconstruction plan in a Dutch city. The evaluation of the HIA shows that the decision to follow the recommendations of the HIA was part of a damage control strategy. The more HIA goals deviate from the policy problem and the less HIA is embedded in institutional procedures, then the more HIA impact will be subject to strategic decision-making behaviour. Appropriate cognitive and social strategies are needed to avoid 'negative learning' in those the HIA seeks to influence.

Bekker, Marleen P.M. [Institute of Health Policy and Management, Erasmus Medical Centre, Rotterdam (Netherlands)]. E-mail: m.bekker@erasmusmc.nl; Putters, Kim [Department of Law, Administration and Informatisation, University of Tilburg (Netherlands); Grinten, Tom E.D. van der [Institute of Health Policy and Management, Erasmus Medical Centre, Rotterdam (Netherlands)

2005-10-15

419

Community-initiated urban development: an ecological intervention.  

PubMed

Neglected urban environments have been linked to social isolation, depression, and other health problems. In Portland, OR in 2003, an intervention was implemented and evaluated in three neighborhoods with the objective of promoting community participation in urban renewal and engaging residents in the construction of attractive urban places. Municipal officials approved and permitted community-designed street murals, public benches, planter boxes, information kiosks with bulletin boards, trellises for hanging gardens, all positioned in the public right-of-way. Residents within a two-block radius of the three sites were systematically sampled and interviewed before (N = 325) and after (N = 349) the intervention, of which, 265 individuals completed both surveys of the panel study. After the intervention, multivariate results revealed improvements in mental health (p = 0.03), increased sense of community (p < 0.01), and an overall expansion of social capital (p = 0.04). Through community empowerment, participation, and collective action, the strategy successfully engaged residents in restoring neighborhoods, with direct benefits to community well-being. PMID:17123178

Semenza, Jan C; March, Tanya L; Bontempo, Brian D

2007-01-01

420

Effects of Urban Development on Water-Quality in the Piedmont of North Carolina The NAWQA Urban Land-Use Gradient Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study of urban basins located in the Piedmont of North Carolina is underway as part of the U. S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) to determine the relation between level of urban development and water quality. Data were collected from 30 basins on water chemistry (nutrient, pesticide, and ion concentrations), geomorphic and habitat characteristics, hydrologic stage, discharge, water

D. A. Harned; T. F. Cuffney; E. M. Giddings; G. McMahon

2004-01-01

421

Sustainable Urban Development and Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design for the British City. Towards an Effective Urban Environmentalism for the 21st Century  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the inter-related concepts of sustainable urban development and CPTED (crime prevention through environmental design). It argues that a ‘safer’ and ‘sustainable’ community must be characterised by the image of regulation, or at least some control of real and imagined threats to personal or community health and the threat of crime and personal attack. Planners and urban designers

PM Cozens

2002-01-01

422

Promoting Urban Teachers' Understanding of Technology, Content, and Pedagogy in the Context of Case Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the potential of a professional development program centered on case development to help urban teachers: (a) integrate technology with content and pedagogy and (b) cultivate habits of reflection required to learn from practice. Qualitative analysis revealed that case development helped teachers develop an understanding of…

Mouza, Chrystalla

2011-01-01

423

IMPACT: a multi-level family and school intervention targeting obesity in urban youth.  

PubMed

IMPACT (Ideas Moving Parents and Adolescents to Change Together) is a 3-group randomized, multi-level trial comparing the efficacy of two distinct behavioral interventions and a control condition on body mass index (BMI) in middle school urban youth who are overweight/obese. Interventions include: (1) SystemCHANGE (SC), a promising new behavior change approach that focuses on system redesign of the family environment and daily routines; (2) HealthyCHANGE (HC), a cognitive-behavioral and Motivational Interviewing (MI)-consistent approach to behavior change that focuses on increasing intrinsic motivation, self-monitoring, goal setting, and problem solving; and (3) diet and physical education counseling (attention control). In addition, about half of the participants are enrolled in a K-8 public school that offers an innovative community-sponsored fitness program, augmented by study-supported navigators. In addition to the primary interventions effects, the study assesses the moderating effect of the school environment on BMI, blood pressure, cardiovascular risk factors, and quality of life. The sample consists of 360 children entering 6th grade from a large urban school district in the Midwest, identified through an existing BMI screening program. The intervention period is 36 months, and measures are obtained at baseline, 12, 24, and 36 months. Using intent-to-treat analyses across the 36-month intervention window, we hypothesize that both SC and HC will have a greater impact on BMI and other health outcomes compared to health education alone, and that the enriched school environment will enhance these effects. This manuscript describes IMPACT's study design and methods. PMID:24008055

Moore, Shirley M; Borawski, Elaine A; Cuttler, Leona; Ievers-Landis, Carolyn E; Love, Thomas E

2013-11-01

424

Trends in Urbanization and Implications for Peri-Urban Livelihoods in Accra, Ghana  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Urbanization is a common occurrence in both developed and developing worlds. Similar to occurrences in other developing world cities, Accra's urbanization is marked by fast, unplanned and uneven growth into mostly peripheral lands (Grant and Yankson 2002; Yeboah 2001; Ghana Statistical Service (GSS) 2002). Such trends in urbanization in places where data on the urbanization process is seriously inadequate and infrequent, (Rakodi 1997a; Ohadika 1991; Fasona and Omojola 2004) pose a major challenge to urban planning and management (Henderson 2002), and affect the livelihood base of several peri-urban households. Properly monitoring the urbanization process in the developing world and understanding its effects on people's lives depends on the availability of useful and up-to- date data (Weber and Puissant 2003; Mundia and Aniya 2006) that could be obtained using new and robust analytical techniques (Yang 2003). In addition, in the urban environment, differences in rates of urbanization, income, employment status, and gender dynamics across neighborhoods suggest that the impacts of increasing urbanization on peri-urban livelihoods are likely to vary across peoples and places. Against this backdrop, this dissertation uses Accra as a case study to, first, measures the nature and extent of urban expansion using a non-conventional technique, and then analyzes neighborhood - and gender-differentiated impacts of increasing urbanization on household livelihoods in peri-urban Accra. Study findings reveal: 1) major conversion of vegetated land to urban lands uses and support the effectiveness of the Self-Organizing Map and Landsat data to map complex and hazy urban tropical environments; 2) that the impacts of urbanization on peri-urban livelihoods are structured along the lines of neighborhood-level urbanization; changes brought by a higher rate of urbanization are more beneficial than harmful to household livelihoods; 3) that positive livelihood outcomes in high-growth neighborhoods as a result of increasing urbanization have disproportionately benefited male-headed households compared to female-headed households. Although study findings do not match some of the prior thinking about impacts of urbanization on livelihoods, it corroborates recent urban theory that asserts that urbanization does not necessarily result in the perpetuation of urban poverty.

Adom, Cynthia

425

Developing an enhanced minor injury unit for support of urban festivities.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to plan a temporary minor injury unit (MIU) in an urban centre, to cope with large numbers of minor casualties from a predicted mass gathering. Numerous minor injuries could potentially overwhelm the local accident and emergency (A&E) department. To prevent this, a temporary MIU was planned in the city centre, developed by a multidisciplinary team of staff from the base A&E department and the more central hosting hospital, plus police and ambulance services. Issues involved included: identification of premises; training personnel; development of clinical protocols; determining equipment requirements; liaison with other departments; and public education. An electively closed ward was selected as a site. Two experienced doctors worked each shift, plus three local nursing staff directed by a senior A&E nurse. Joint training sessions were organized, promoting team cohesion. Clinical protocols, based on guidelines for a pre-existing MIU run by the A&E department, were augmented to recognize the increased capability available with the presence of medical staff. Equipment and drug requirements were dictated by these protocols. Planning was completed early to allow dissemination of information to the public. Despite this, the unit failed to have an impact on attendance to the main A&E department. Developing an MIU requires close coordination of numerous agencies and departments, plus adequate public education. Accurate predictions of casualties are needed to plan equipment and staffing levels, but can be difficult to determine. PMID:11587464

McGuire, L C; Bell, A Z

2001-09-01

426

Ecological network and emergy analysis of urban metabolic systems: Model development, and a case study of four Chinese cities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analysis of the structure and function of urban metabolic systems is an important goal of urban research. We used network pathways and network utility analysis to analyze the basic network structure of the urban metabolic system and the complex ecological relationships within the system, providing a new way to perform such research. Using four Chinese cities as examples, we developed

Yan Zhang; Zhifeng Yang; Xiangyi Yu

2009-01-01

427

Assessment of the Impacts of Climate Change on Stream Discharge and Water Quality in an Arid, Urbanized Watershed  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hydrologic and water quality models can provide a general framework to conceptualize and investigate the relationships between climate and water resources. Under a hot and dry climate, highly urbanized watersheds are more vulnerable to changes in climate, such as excess heat and drought. In this study, a comprehensive watershed model, Hydrological Simulation Program FORTRAN (HSPF), is used to assess the impacts of future climate change on the stream discharge and water quality in Las Vegas Wash in Nevada, the only surface water body that drains from the Las Vegas Valley (an area with rapid population growth and urbanization) to Lake Mead. In this presentation, the process of model building, calibration and validation, the generation of climate change scenarios, and the assessment of future climate change effects on stream hydrology and quality are demonstrated. The hydrologic and water quality model is developed based on the data from current national databases and existing major land use categories of the watershed. The model is calibrated for stream discharge, nutrients (nitro