Note: This page contains sample records for the topic urban development impacts from Science.gov.
While these samples are representative of the content of Science.gov,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of Science.gov
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.
Last update: November 12, 2013.
1

An extensible, modular architecture for simulating urban development, transportation, and environmental impacts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract UrbanSim simulates the development of urban areas, including land use, trans- portation, and environmental impacts, over periods of twenty or more years. Its purpose is to aid urban planners, residents, and elected ocials in evaluating the long-term results of alternate plans, particularly as they relate to such issues as housing, business and economic development, sprawl, open space, trac conges-

Michael Noth; Alan Borning; Paul Waddell

2003-01-01

2

Process and impact evaluation of the Greater Christchurch Urban Development Strategy Health Impact Assessment  

PubMed Central

Background despite health impact assessment (HIA) being increasingly widely used internationally, fundamental questions about its impact on decision-making, implementation and practices remain. In 2005 a collaboration between public health and local government authorities performed an HIA on the Christchurch Urban Development Strategy Options paper in New Zealand. The findings of this were incorporated into the Greater Christchurch Urban Development Strategy; Methods using multiple qualitative methodologies including key informant interviews, focus groups and questionnaires, this study performs process and impact evaluations of the Christchurch HIA including evaluation of costs and resource use; Results the evaluation found that the HIA had demonstrable direct impacts on planning and implementation of the final Urban Development Strategy as well as indirect impacts on understandings and ways of working within and between organisations. It also points out future directions and ways of working in this successful collaboration between public health and local government authorities. It summarises the modest resource use and discusses the important role HIA can play in urban planning with intersectoral collaboration and enhanced relationships as both catalysts and outcomes of the HIA process; Conclusion as one of the few evaluations of HIA that have been published to date, this paper makes a substantial contribution to the literature on the impact, utility and effectiveness of HIA.

Mathias, Kaaren R; Harris-Roxas, Ben

2009-01-01

3

PREDICTING THE IMPACT OF URBAN DEVELOPMENT ON STREAM TEMPERATURE USING A THERMAL URBAN RUNOFF MODEL (TURM)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present a Thermal Urban Runoff Model (TURM) developed by the Dane County Land Conservation Department and the University of Wisconsin-Madison to predict the effect of urban development on runoff thermal regime. The model can predict the temperature increase of runoff from impervious surface by calculating the heat transfer between runoff and the heated impervious surfaces that

A. Roa-Espinosa; T. B. Wilson; J. M. Norman; Kenneth Johnson

4

The strategic ecological impact assessment of urban development policies: a case study of Rizhao City, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

In China urban development policies (UDP) are legislated aiming to promote the cities’ socio-economic development. Urbanization,\\u000a however, leads to urban expansion and land-use changes, which in turn affects the structure, function and processes of terrestrial\\u000a and marine ecosystems. Rizhao City, a seaport city of China, was chosen as a case study in order to study the ecological impacts\\u000a of UDP

Shujun Wang; Jennifer Li; Daqian Wu; Jian Liu; Kai Zhang; Renqing Wang

2009-01-01

5

The Impact of Urbanization on CO2 Emissions: Evidence from Developing Countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyzes the impact of urbanization on CO2 emissions in developing countries. In this study we treat population as a predictor in the model, instead of assuming a unitary elasticity of emissions with respect to population growth. We contribute to the existing literature by examining the effect of urbanization, taking into account the presence of heterogeneity in the sample

Inmaculada Martínez-Zarzoso

2008-01-01

6

Impact of urbanization and industrial development on holiday effect  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Our study is to examine the "holiday effect", defined as the difference in air pollutant concentrations between holiday and non-holiday periods, and associated factors controlling the strength of holiday effect in Taiwan. This holiday effect can be applied to other countries with similar national or cultural holidays. Daily surface measurements of six major air pollutants from fifty-four air quality monitoring stations of the Taiwan Environmental Protection Administration (TEPA) during the Chinese New Year (CNY) and non-Chinese New Year (NCNY) periods of 1994-2008 are used. The air pollutant concentrations are significantly different between the CNY and NCNY periods, in almost all the Taiwan area, except CO in the eastern part which is a relatively less-developed area. The strengths of holiday effects of NOx, CO, NMHC and O3 are larger in the north than in the south, and those of SO2 and PM10 are larger in the south than in the north. Factors controlling the strength of holiday effect such as the degree of urbanization and anthropogenic sources are examined. The population number and motor vehicle number rather than the population number density and motor vehicle number density have a significantly positive relationship with the strengths of holiday effects of NOx, CO and NMHC. The strengths of holiday effects of NOx and CO are mainly contributed from mobile sources and those of SO2 and PM10 are from stationary sources and that of NMHC is from both mobile and stationary sources. As the dominant anthropogenic sources in the air quality division have larger emissions, holiday effect strengths of associated air pollutants are found to be stronger.

Tan, P.; Chou, C.; Chen, P.

2011-12-01

7

Impact of urbanization and industrial development on holiday effect  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Our study is to examine the "holiday effect", defined as the difference in air pollutant concentrations between holiday and non-holiday periods, and associated factors controlling the strength of holiday effect in Taiwan. This holiday effect can be applied to other countries with similar national or cultural holidays. Daily surface measurements of six major air pollutants from fifty-four air quality monitoring stations of the Taiwan Environmental Protection Administration (TEPA) during the Chinese New Year (CNY) and non-Chinese New Year (NCNY) periods of 1994-2008 are used. The air pollutant concentrations are significantly different between the CNY and NCNY periods, in almost all the Taiwan area, except CO in the eastern part which is a relatively less-developed area. The strengths of holiday effects of NOx, CO, NMHC and O3 are larger in the north than in the south, and those of SO2 and PM10 are larger in the south than in the north. Factors controlling the strength of holiday effect such as the degree of urbanization and anthropogenic sources are examined. The population number and motor vehicle number rather than the population number density and motor vehicle number density have a significantly positive relationship with the strengths of holiday effects of NOx, CO and NMHC. The strengths of holiday effects of NOx and CO are mainly contributed from mobile sources and those of SO2 and PM10 are from stationary sources and that of NMHC is from both mobile and stationary sources. As the dominant anthropogenic sources in the air quality division have larger emissions, holiday effect strengths of associated air pollutants are found to be stronger.

Tan, P.-H.; Chen, P.-Y.

2012-04-01

8

The Impact of Urbanization on CO2 Emissions: Evidence from Developing Countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyzes the impact of urbanization on CO2 emissions in developing countries, taking into account the presence of heterogeneity in the sample of countries and testing for the stability of the estimated elasticities over time. The sample covers the period from 1975 through 2003 for different groups of countries, classified according to their income levels. Our results show that,

Inmaculada Martínez-Zarzoso

2008-01-01

9

Rural to urban migration is an unforeseen impact of development intervention in Ethiopia.  

PubMed

Rural development initiatives across the developing world are designed to improve community well-being and livelihoods. However they may also have unforeseen consequences, in some cases placing further demands on stretched public services. In this paper we use data from a longitudinal study of five Ethiopian villages to investigate the impact of a recent rural development initiative, installing village-level water taps, on rural to urban migration of young adults. Our previous research has identified that tap stands dramatically reduced child mortality, but were also associated with increased fertility. We demonstrate that the installation of taps is associated with increased rural-urban migration of young adults (15-30 years) over a 15 year period (15.5% migrate out, n?=?1912 from 1280 rural households). Young adults with access to this rural development intervention had three times the relative risk of migrating to urban centres compared to those without the development. We also identify that family dynamics, specifically sibling competition for limited household resources (e.g. food, heritable land and marriage opportunities), are key to understanding the timing of out-migration. Birth of a younger sibling doubled the odds of out-migration and starting married life reduced it. Rural out-migration appears to be a response to increasing rural resource scarcity, principally competition for agricultural land. Strategies for livelihood diversification include education and off-farm casual wage-labour. However, jobs and services are limited in urban centres, few migrants send large cash remittances back to their families, and most return to their villages within one year without advanced qualifications. One benefit for returning migrants may be through enhanced social prestige and mate-acquisition on return to rural areas. These findings have wide implications for current understanding of the processes which initiate rural-to-urban migration and transitions to low fertility, as well as for the design and implementation of development intervention across the rural and urban developing world. PMID:23155400

Gibson, Mhairi A; Gurmu, Eshetu

2012-11-14

10

Rural to Urban Migration Is an Unforeseen Impact of Development Intervention in Ethiopia  

PubMed Central

Rural development initiatives across the developing world are designed to improve community well-being and livelihoods. However they may also have unforeseen consequences, in some cases placing further demands on stretched public services. In this paper we use data from a longitudinal study of five Ethiopian villages to investigate the impact of a recent rural development initiative, installing village-level water taps, on rural to urban migration of young adults. Our previous research has identified that tap stands dramatically reduced child mortality, but were also associated with increased fertility. We demonstrate that the installation of taps is associated with increased rural-urban migration of young adults (15–30 years) over a 15 year period (15.5% migrate out, n?=?1912 from 1280 rural households). Young adults with access to this rural development intervention had three times the relative risk of migrating to urban centres compared to those without the development. We also identify that family dynamics, specifically sibling competition for limited household resources (e.g. food, heritable land and marriage opportunities), are key to understanding the timing of out-migration. Birth of a younger sibling doubled the odds of out-migration and starting married life reduced it. Rural out-migration appears to be a response to increasing rural resource scarcity, principally competition for agricultural land. Strategies for livelihood diversification include education and off-farm casual wage-labour. However, jobs and services are limited in urban centres, few migrants send large cash remittances back to their families, and most return to their villages within one year without advanced qualifications. One benefit for returning migrants may be through enhanced social prestige and mate-acquisition on return to rural areas. These findings have wide implications for current understanding of the processes which initiate rural-to-urban migration and transitions to low fertility, as well as for the design and implementation of development intervention across the rural and urban developing world.

Gibson, Mhairi A.; Gurmu, Eshetu

2012-01-01

11

Urban watershed management: Using remote sensing to implement Low Impact Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses how remote sensing, specifically Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR), was used to carry out a detailed Low Impact Development (LID) suitability estimate in an urban watershed. The research uses LiDAR as an accurate and efficient tool for identifying and quantifying LID retrofit locations. The results of the LiDAR analysis were run in a hydrologic model to determine

Chris A. Jensen; Rick J. Quinn; Taylor H. Davis

2010-01-01

12

THE ECOLOGICAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT OF URBAN DEVELOPMENT POLICIES: A CASE STUDY OF JI'NAN CITY, CHINA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on socio-economic development and population growth, rapid urbanisation is currently happening in China, leading to urban expansion and land use changes. This, in turn, affects biodiversity, habitats and ecosystem services. It is therefore important to identify and assess the impact of urban development policies (UDP) on ecosystems and their components at a policy level. Ji'nan City, the capital of

SHUJUN WANG; JENNIFER LI; DAQIAN WU; RENQING WANG; KAI ZHANG; JIAN LIU

2009-01-01

13

The Impact Of Urban Development On Recharge And Groundwater Quality In A Coastal Aquifer Near Perth, Western Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Near Perth, Western Australia, thirty boreholes were drilled at eleven sites in similar hydrogeological settings. The sites represent three levels of urban development: an uncleared area, a new residential area (less than 20 years old) and an old residential area (more than 60 years old). The objective was to assess the impact of sewered urban development on recharge and groundwater

S. Appleyard

1995-01-01

14

The effects of low impact development on urban flooding under different rainfall characteristics.  

PubMed

Low impact development (LID) is generally regarded as a more sustainable solution for urban stormwater management than conventional urban drainage systems. However, its effects on urban flooding at a scale of urban drainage systems have not been fully understood particularly when different rainfall characteristics are considered. In this paper, using an urbanizing catchment in China as a case study, the effects of three LID techniques (swale, permeable pavement and green roof) on urban flooding are analyzed and compared with the conventional drainage system design. A range of storm events with different rainfall amounts, durations and locations of peak intensity are considered for holistic assessment of the LID techniques. The effects are measured by the total flood volume reduction during a storm event compared to the conventional drainage system design. The results obtained indicate that all three LID scenarios are more effective in flood reduction during heavier and shorter storm events. Their performance, however, varies significantly according to the location of peak intensity. That is, swales perform best during a storm event with an early peak, permeable pavements perform best with a middle peak, and green roofs perform best with a late peak, respectively. The trends of flood reduction can be explained using a newly proposed water balance method, i.e., by comparing the effective storage depth of the LID designs with the accumulative rainfall amounts at the beginning and end of flooding in the conventional drainage system. This paper provides an insight into the performance of LID designs under different rainfall characteristics, which is essential for effective urban flood management. PMID:24029461

Qin, Hua-Peng; Li, Zhuo-Xi; Fu, Guangtao

2013-09-10

15

Urban Health in Developing Countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The world is becoming more urbanized. This trend is now particularly pronounced in the developing world, where the urban population\\u000a is expected to double in the next 30 years. The impact of urbanization on the health of citizens in developing countries has\\u000a received increasing attention recently. Urban residents in developing countries, especially the poor, are exposed to the health\\u000a hazards

Siddharth Agarwal; Aradhana Srivastava; Sanjeev Kumar

16

An Examination of the Impacts of Urbanization on Green Space Access and Water Resources: A Developed and Developing World Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

This dissertation addresses the impact of urbanization and land use change on the availability and accessibility of two urban amenities that are often inequitably distributed: green space and water features. Diverse methodologies were utilized in order to gain a better understanding of the role of these amenities in improving urban quality of life and integrated water management. Using an interdisciplinary

Heather E. Wright Wendel

2011-01-01

17

Investigation of sulfidic sediments in a coastal lake impacted by urban development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lake Coombabah is a 2 km2, shallow, turbid estuarine system, surrounded by urbanized development situated within the Gold Coast Broadwater tidal system on the east coast of Australia; it is one of the fastest growing urban areas in the developed world 5. The region is an example of a system that demands urgent attention to the relationship between the environment

Bernard Powell; Leigh A Sullivan; Richard T Bush; Edward D Burton

2006-01-01

18

The Impact of Islamic and Customary Laws on Urban form Development in Southwestern Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urban form and architecture, whether religious or secular, does not rely only on principles of aesthetics to reflect its essence, but to a great extent reflects a society’s religious and social demands. The article reviews Islamic law, sharicah, and local customary laws, curf, and the influence they have had on the structural development of the urban form and architecture of

Mohammed Abdullah Eben Saleh

1998-01-01

19

The impact of urban development on butterflies within a city region  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of urban development on butterfly species' richness and species' incidence is tested for the Greater Manchester conurbation and two sample areas, mapped at finer scales, within the southern part of the conurbation. The tests include measures of bias for recording effort (number of visits). Species' richness is found to increase with percentage urban cover for Greater Manchester (tetrad

Peter B. Hardy; Roger L. H. Dennis

1999-01-01

20

The Impact Of Urban Development On Recharge And Groundwater Quality In A Coastal Aquifer Near Perth, Western Australia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Near Perth, Western Australia, thirty boreholes were drilled at eleven sites in similar hydrogeological settings. The sites represent three levels of urban development: an uncleared area, a new residential area (less than 20 years old) and an old residential area (more than 60 years old). The objective was to assess the impact of sewered urban development on recharge and groundwater quality. Tritium data suggest that a greater proportion of recharge in the urban areas is from point sources, and this probably caused high redox potentials (up to 291 mV) in groundwater in the old residential area. Recharge in the new urban area is estimated to be about 37 percent of the average annual rainfall of about 0.8 m, and this value is probably greater than recharge in undeveloped areas. Concentrations of sulphate increase progressively with the age of urban development, from an average of 8 mg/L to 69 mg/L, probably as a result of fertilizer input and the oxidation of soil-held sulphides with land clearing. Nitrate concentrations are significantly higher in urban areas (average concentration >1 mg/L as N) than in the non-urban areas (average concentration <0.5 mg/L as N). However, the measured concentrations are all lower than expected from current fertilizer inputs in sewered urban areas of about 80 kg/ha, indicating that denitrification is taking place. A limited reservoir of reducing agents may be available from denitrification, and this may have implications for the sustained use of groundwater as a potable supply in coastal suburbs of Perth.

Appleyard, S.

1995-02-01

21

Urbanization in Developing Countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rapid urbanization in many developing countries over the past half century seems to have been accompanied by excessively high levels of concentration of the urban population in very large cities. Some degree of urban concentration may be desirable initially to reduce inter- and intraregional infrastructure expenditures. But in a mature system of cities, economic activity is more spread out.

Vernon Henderson

2002-01-01

22

Development and validation of a macroinvertebrate index of biotic integrity (IBI) for assessing urban impacts to Northern California freshwater wetlands.  

PubMed

Despite California policies requiring assessment of ambient wetland condition and compensatory wetland mitigations, no intensive monitoring tools have been developed to evaluate freshwater wetlands within the state. Therefore, we developed standardized, wadeable field methods to sample macroinvertebrate communities and evaluated 40 wetlands across Northern California to develop a macroinvertebrate index of biotic integrity (IBI). A priori reference sites were selected with minimal urban impacts, representing a best-attainable condition. We screened 56 macroinvertebrate metrics for inclusion in the IBI based on responsiveness to percent urbanization. Eight final metrics were selected for inclusion in the IBI: percent three dominant taxa; scraper richness; percent Ephemeroptera, Odonata, and Trichoptera (EOT); EOT richness; percent Tanypodinae/Chironomidae; Oligochaeta richness; percent Coleoptera; and predator richness. The IBI (potential range 0-100) demonstrated significant discriminatory power between the reference (mean?=?69) and impacted wetlands (mean?=?28). It also declined with increasing percent urbanization (R (2)?=?0.53, p?urban (stormwater and flood control ponds), as well as rural freshwater wetlands (stockponds, seasonal wetlands, and natural ponds). Biological differences between perennial and non-perennial wetlands suggest that developing separate indicators for these wetland types may improve applicability, although the existing data set was not sufficient for exploring this option. PMID:21823050

Lunde, Kevin B; Resh, Vincent H

2011-08-09

23

Land resource impact indicators of urban sprawl  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sprawl has been loosely defined as dispersed and inefficient urban growth. We propose a series of five indicators that examine the per capita consumption of land taken in new development in relation to several critical land resource impacts associated to sprawl including: (1) density of new urbanization; (2) loss of prime farmland; (3) loss of natural wetlands; (4) loss of

John E. Hasse; Richard G. Lathrop

2003-01-01

24

The Urban Professional Development School Network: Assessing the Partnership's Impact on Initial Teacher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In an era of dissatisfaction with the nation's prekindergarten through grade 12 schools and criticism of teacher education programs, professional development school (PDS) partnerships have emerged as one solution. Using quantitative and qualitative data obtained during the first two years of an urban PDS network that includes a large, private…

Damore, Sharon J.; Kapustka, Katherine M.; McDevitt, Patrick

2011-01-01

25

The Urban Professional Development School Network: Assessing the Partnership's Impact on Initial Teacher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In an era of dissatisfaction with the nation's prekindergarten through grade 12 schools and criticism of teacher education programs, professional development school (PDS) partnerships have emerged as one solution. Using quantitative and qualitative data obtained during the first two years of an urban PDS network that includes a large, private…

Damore, Sharon J.; Kapustka, Katherine M.; McDevitt, Patrick

2011-01-01

26

Residents' Perceptions of the Impact of Cultural Tourism on Urban Development: The Case of Gwangju, Korea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cultural tourism constitutes an alternative strategy of sustainable urban development for improving quality of life. The main objective of this type of tourism is to transform regions characterized by cultural resources into ideal places for vacation, residence or business. In this study residents' perceptions of cultural tourism were examined in a case study of Gwangju, Korea. It was found that

Youngsun Shin

2010-01-01

27

Impacts of Urban Development on Channel Slope, Erosion, and Depositional Processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Watershed land uses, including urbanization, influence erosion and depositional processes in a tributary to the Navarro basin in north coastal California. The Robinson Creek subwatershed is deeply incised into easily erodible Quaternary alluvial river and terrace valley-fill deposits in the vicinity of the urbanizing town of Boonville. Remnant riparian forest vegetation exists at the top of the terrace. Detailed field surveys of a 1.3 km channel reach document spatial variation in slope and suggest that a series of knickzones accommodate elevation differences between areas upstream and downstream of the urbanizing area. Average reach slope is ~0.012 whereas average terrace slope is ~0.009. This difference accounts for lower bank heights (~4.6 m) at the upstream end of the reach than at the downstream end (~8.1 m). The apparent recent increase in channel slope, an indicator of channel adjustment, leads to an increase in shear stress available to erode and transport bed and bank sediment in the relatively narrow channel. Temporal variation in bed elevation is related to episodic floods in this actively adjusting channel; up to 0.2 m of incision occurred during floods in water year 2006. Bank erosion is considerable and erosion-control structures are a typical response to land loss, threats to residential structures and domestic water wells, and undercutting of bridge piers and individual streamside trees. Existing bank erosion control structures limit geomorphic processes and aquatic and riparian restoration options over the long term. Moreover, progressive urban development including building structures near the top-of-bank further limit alternatives for restoration of geomorphic processes and associated aquatic and riparian habitat that require increases in channel width as a response to continuing channel incision.

Florsheim, J. L.

2007-12-01

28

Sustainable urban development and geophysics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The new millennium has seen a fresh wave of world economic development especially in the Asian-Pacific region. This has contributed to further rapid urban expansion, creating shortages of energy and resources, degradation of the environment, and changes to climatic patterns. Large-scale, new urbanization is mostly seen in developing countries but urban sprawl is also a major social problem for developed nations. Urbanization has been accelerating at a tremendous rate. According to data collected by the United Nations [1], 50 years ago less than 30% of the world population lived in cities. Now, more than 50% are living in urban settings which occupy only about 1% of the Earth's surface. During the period from 1950 to 1995, the number of cities with a population higher than one million increased from 83 to 325. By 2025 it is estimated that more than 60% of 8.3 billion people (the projected world population [1]) will be city dwellers. Urbanization and urban sprawl can affect our living quality both positively and negatively. In recent years geophysics has found significant and new applications in highly urbanized settings. Such applications are conducive to the understanding of the changes and impacts on the physical environment and play a role in developing sustainable urban infrastructure systems. We would like to refer to this field of study as 'urban geophysics'. Urban geophysics is not simply the application of geophysical exploration in the cities. Urbanization has brought about major changes to the geophysical fields of cities, including those associated with electricity, magnetism, electromagnetism and heat. An example is the increased use of electromagnetic waves in wireless communication, transportation, office automation, and computer equipment. How such an increased intensity of electromagnetic radiation affects the behaviour of charged particles in the atmosphere, the equilibrium of ecological systems, or human health, are new research frontiers to be investigated [2]. The first objective of urban geophysics is to study systematically the geophysical fields in cities, searching for principles and processes governing the intensity and patterns of variation of the geophysical properties, as well as the potential consequences on the biosphere. Secondly, geophysics has already been found to be a useful tool for subsurface detection and investigation, hazard mitigation, and assessment of environmental contamination. Geophysicists have documented numerous cases of successful applications of geophysical techniques to solve problems related to hazard mitigation, safeguarding of lifeline infrastructure and urban gateways (air- and sea-ports, railway and highway terminals), archaeological and heritage surveys, homeland security, urban noise control, water supplies, sanitation and solid waste management etc. In contrast to conventional geophysical exploration, the undertaking of geophysical surveys in an urban setting faces many new challenges and difficulties. First of all, the ambient cultural noise in cities caused by traffic, electromagnetic radiation and electrical currents often produce undesirably strong interference with geophysical measurements. Secondly, subsurface surveys in an urban area are often targeted at the uppermost several metres of the ground, which are the most heterogeneous layers with many man-made objects. Thirdly, unlike conventional geophysical exploration which requires resolution in the order of metres, many urban geophysical surveys demand a resolution and precision in the order of centimetres or even millimetres. Finally restricted site access and limited time for conducting geophysical surveys, regulatory constraints, requirements for traffic management and special logistical arrangements impose additional difficulties. All of these factors point to the need for developing innovative research methods and geophysical instruments suitable for use in urban settings. This special issue on 'Sustainable urban development and geophysics' in Journal of Geophysics and Engineering is a response to th

Liu, Lanbo; Chan, L. S.

2007-09-01

29

Decision support for fuzzy comprehensive evaluation of urban development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urban development often impacts the economic development pattern and the spacial distribution of resource allocation of a particular area. Urban development can be conceptualized as a multicriteria decision-making problem; therefore, multicriteria evaluation has been used to trace the trend of urban development. In this paper, a fuzzy multicriteria evaluation model is developed to study the trend of urban development. First,

Shan Feng; Li D. Xu

1999-01-01

30

Urban Aerosol Impacts on Downwind Convective Storms  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impacts of urban-enhanced aerosol concentrations on convective storm development and precipita- tion over and downwind of St. Louis, Missouri, are investigated. This is achieved through the use of a cloud-resolving mesoscale model, in which sophisticated land use processes and aerosol microphysics are both incorporated. The results indicate that urban-forced convergence downwind of the city, rather than the presence of

Susan C. van den Heever; William R. Cotton

2007-01-01

31

Impacts of Internal Migration on Economic Growth and Urban Development in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The massive population flow from rural to urban areas in post-reform China is the result of both institutional and structural changes caused by economic growth. In the planned economy, China had a household registration system (hukou system) which was designed to control population migration and labor mobility between rural and urban areas as well as across regions. The issuing of

Cai Fang Wang Dewen

32

Impacts of Urban Development on Channel Slope, Erosion, and Depositional Processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Watershed land uses, including urbanization, influence erosion and depositional processes in a tributary to the Navarro basin in north coastal California. The Robinson Creek subwatershed is deeply incised into easily erodible Quaternary alluvial river and terrace valley-fill deposits in the vicinity of the urbanizing town of Boonville. Remnant riparian forest vegetation exists at the top of the terrace. Detailed field

J. L. Florsheim

2007-01-01

33

Impacts of urban form on future US passenger-vehicle greenhouse gas emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urban form – for example, sprawl versus infill developmentimpacts people's daily travel patterns and annual vehicle-kilometers traveled (VKT). This paper explores how urban form impacts greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from passenger-vehicles, the largest source of urban transportation GHG emissions. Our research uses a recently published urban scaling rule to develop six scenarios for high- and low-sprawl US urban

Steve Hankey; Julian D. Marshall

2010-01-01

34

ECOSYSTEM IMPACTS OF URBANIZATION ASSESSMENT METHODOLOGY  

EPA Science Inventory

A methodology is developed to use space-time analysis and ecosystem modeling to assess the secondary impacts of wastewater treatment facilities (i.e., urbanization) on the ecosystem. The existing state of the ecosystem is described with emphasis on the dynamic, periodic, trend, a...

35

Effects of hazardous wastes on housing and urban development and mitigation of impacts  

SciTech Connect

This report determines the nature and scope of the hazardous waste problem affecting HUD programs and community development and redevelopment activities. It defines the problem and develops categories of hazardous wastes most applicable to HUD. The report identifies sources of hazardous waste and gives examples of their impacts. The role of HUD and other agencies in controlling hazardous waste is reviewed, and recommendations are made for mitigating known and potential impacts. Three case studies -- in Dover Township and Elizabeth, N.J., and in Richmond, Va., illustrate the wide range of impacts made possible because of improper handling of or lack of appreciation for hazardous substances. The report suggests that a Hazard Identification Guidebook be developed, similar to others addressing housing safety and noise assessment, that would require HUD personnel to carry out a number of investigations on and around a site. This process is briefly described here and could serve as a basis for a guidebook. Flow charts illustrate this process. Tables and 23 references are supplied.

Boyer, K.R.; Conrad, E.T.; Kane, P.F.; McLaughlin, M.W.; Morgan, J.T.

1980-10-10

36

Simulating the impact of urban sprawl on air quality and population exposure in the German Ruhr area. Part II: Development and evaluation of an urban growth scenario  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact of uncontrolled urban growth (‘sprawl’) on air pollution and associated population exposure is investigated. This is done for the Ruhr area in Germany, by means of a coupled modelling system dealing with land use changes, traffic, meteorology, and atmospheric dispersion and chemistry. In a companion paper [De Ridder, K., Lefebre F., Adriaensen S., Arnold U., Beckroege W., Bronner

Koen De Ridder; Filip Lefebre; Stefan Adriaensen; Ute Arnold; Wolfgang Beckroege; Christine Bronner; Ole Damsgaard; Ivo Dostal; Jiri Dufek; Jacky Hirsch; Luc IntPanis; Zdenek Kotek; Thierry Ramadier; Annette Thierry; Stijn Vermoote; Annett Wania; Christiane Weber

2008-01-01

37

Culture in Urban and Regional Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

This chapter critically assesses, from an economic viewpoint, the role of the arts and culture in urban and regional development and growth. This includes the analysis of short run spending impacts, and longer term effects on location quality and creativity. In addition, the specific possibilities for using arts and cultural activities as a focal point in strategies for urban revitalization

Trine Bille; Gunther G. Schulze

38

THE IMPACT OF THE COMMONWEALTH GAMES 2010 ON URBAN DEVELOPMENT OF DELHI  

Microsoft Academic Search

India is all set to host the 2010 edition of the Commonwealth Games. This is the first major “hallmark event” to be hosted by New Delhi since the 1982 Asian Games. Hallmark events have the ability to transform the urban landscape of a city. This is the focus area of the paper. Can these games bring about a transformation of

Vinayak UPPAL

2009-01-01

39

Impact of 2008 Olympic Games on Urban Transportation and it's Development Strategies in Beijing  

Microsoft Academic Search

When Beijing was awarded to host the 2008 Olympic Games on July 13, 2001, it not only marked the long expected victory for the Chinese capital to host the international event for the first time, but also opened a wide gate for urban transportation investment. As one of the most populated cities in the world, Beijing has already facing enormous

Hassan ZOGHI; Kianoush SIAMARDI; Morteza TOLOUEI

2009-01-01

40

Sustainable urban development and geophysics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The new millennium has seen a fresh wave of world economic development especially in the Asian-Pacific region. This has contributed to further rapid urban expansion, creating shortages of energy and resources, degradation of the environment, and changes to climatic patterns. Large-scale, new urbanization is mostly seen in developing countries but urban sprawl is also a major social problem for developed

Lanbo Liu; L. S. Chan

2007-01-01

41

Energy, economic and urban impacts of United States postindustrial development: A critique of the postindustrial paradigm  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Postindustrial theory has become the mainstream model of social progress in the Western world during the latter half of the twentieth century. It is a technoeconomic vision of change which argues that society is transforming from the industrial order to new social forms and functions that are anchored in services and information rather than materials and manufacturing. Observable shifts cited as evidence of postindustrialization include the movement from blue-collar to white-collar occupations, the increasing scale of economic activities, and the widespread adoption of electricity-based technology. This dissertation identifies three primary principles which define postindustrial theory: abundance, or expanding wealth and productivity; technological and economic efficiency; and adaptation to technological and economic forces. In the United States, postindustrialism has been challenged by the national urban crisis of the 1960s and the energy crises of the 1970s. The apparent contradictions to social well-being prompted a theoretical reconceptualization which defined the "crises" as "transition costs." Empirical implications are defined and appropriate indicators identified to assess the validity of postindustrialism as an explanation of current phenomena and a guide for future development. The time frame for the analysis is 1967--1997, which encompasses the culmination of post-World War II growth, the periods of crisis, and present manifestations. It is concluded that postindustrial theory is less an explanation of contemporary social change than a presumption that change is progressive. The period of "transition" is critically examined as one in which rapid increases in inequality, decreases in social health and growth in trends of unsustainable resource use occur. The future orientation of postindustrialism, and its appeal to aggregate trends as evidence of progress, ignores the existence of problems experienced by a majority of Americans and mounting threats to the natural environment, It is argued that a new theory of political economy is needed which explains current conditions, provides an understanding of progress that incorporates the roles of politics and social valuation, and embraces the goals of equity, sustainability and social justice.

Wykoff, Rebecca J.

42

Program-Wide Case Studies. Land Use and Urban Development Project. BART Impact Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The paper consists of in-depth, policy-oriented case studies of BARTs impacts on selected communities, synthesizing all case study work in the BART Impact Program. The variety of BART impacts are described for downtown San Francisco and downtown Oakland, ...

M. H. Fajans M. V. Dyett

1978-01-01

43

Front-loading urban stormwater management for success â?? a perspective incorporating current studies on the implementation of retrofit low-impact development  

EPA Science Inventory

Recent work into the implementation of low-impact development and green infrastructure suggests that a decentralized, source-control approach has the potential to significantly reduce urban stormwater runoff quantity. We posit that the factors of increasing public participation i...

44

Developing Spatial Urban Planning Guidance for Achieving Sustainable Urban Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sustainable urban planning guides are being developed to direct spatial urban planning both at the local and regional levels towards sustainability. However, due to the multifaceted nature of spatial planning, different guides do focus on different aspects of planning and tend to overlook or lay little emphasis on other aspects. The goal of achieving sustainability through spatial urban planning requires

Habib M. Alshuwaikhat

45

The impact of origin community characteristics on rural-urban out-migration in a developing country  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is widely believed that structural variables such as inequitable land distribution, lack of rural employment opportunities,\\u000a and rural-urban wage and amenity gaps influence population movements in developing countries. Yet quantitative evidence is\\u000a scant. In this paper a multilevel model is used to investigate the effects of individual-, household-, and areal-level factors\\u000a on rural-urban out-migration in the Ecuadorian Sierra. Data

Richard E. Bilsborrow; Thomas M. McDevitt; Sherrie Kossoudji; Richard Fuller

1987-01-01

46

Climate change risks to United States infrastructure: impacts on coastal development, roads, bridges, and urban drainage  

EPA Science Inventory

Changes in temperature, precipitation, sea level, and coastal storms will likely increase the vulnerability of infrastructure across the United States. Using four models of vulnerability, impacts, and adaptation of infrastructure, its deployment, and its role in protecting econom...

47

Urbanization and Informal Development in China: Urban Villages in Shenzhen  

Microsoft Academic Search

Informal housing and industrial developments in the so-called urban villages have been key features of the recent Chinese urbanization. In this article we will examine the development of urban villages in one of the most dynamic Chinese cities - Shenzhen. The article first reviews the urbanization and migration process in the region and the emergence of urban villages. It then

YA PING WANG; YANGLIN WANG; JIANSHENG WU

2009-01-01

48

The International Urban Development Association  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Established in 1974 in Paris, The International Urban Development Association (INTA) is an international network that "encourages the exchange of information, experiences and best practices on urban development and renewal across the world." The site's homepage offers access to the three sections that will be of greatest interest to most visitors, namely "Forum", "Services", and "Institute". In the "Forum" area, visitors can review documents from various meetings and congresses that have looked at the redevelopment of public urban spaces, heritage development, and cross-border cooperation in the Caucasian region. The "Services" area contains commentaries by urban experts on proposed urban development plans, such as the proposed master plan for two sport sites in northeastern Paris and a regeneration scheme for the city of Nador in Morocco. Finally, the "Institute" section brings together documents from seminars and conferences held by INTA, such as those that have dealt with urban-based sports complexes and the competitive advantages of urban regions.

49

The Impacts of Terrorism on Urban Form  

Microsoft Academic Search

DURING THE PAST DECADE, terrorist attacks in New York, Washington, London, and other major cities have been popularly regarded as having profound impacts on the security and confidence of urban residents. The loss of life and damage to structures that transforms the urban landscape may similarly transform the structure of the urban economy. For example, many of the companies that

Stephen Brock. Blomberg; Stephen. Sheppard

2007-01-01

50

Assessing the impact of urban land development on net primary productivity in the southeastern United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

The southeastern United States (SE-US) has undergone one of the highest rates of landscape changes in the country due to changing demographics and land use practices over the last few decades. Increasing evidence indicates that these changes have impacted mesoscale weather patterns, biodiversity and water resources. Since the Southeast has one of the highest rates of land productivity in the

Cristina Milesi; Christopher D. Elvidge; Ramakrishna R. Nemani; Steven W. Running

2003-01-01

51

Urban impact on ecological integrity of nearby rivers in developing countries: the Borkena River in highland Ethiopia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accelerated pollution and eutrophication of rivers and streams because of human activity are a concern throughout the world\\u000a and severe in Africa where Ethiopia is case in point. The objective of this study was to assess the urban impact on the ecological\\u000a integrity of the Borkena River at the eastern escarpment of the central Ethiopian highlands. The water quality status

Abebe Beyene; Worku Legesse; Ludwig Triest; Helmut Kloos

2009-01-01

52

The financial impact of the Leadership Development Initiative on urban elementary schools in the Archdiocese of New York  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines a development training program in urban Catholic elementary schools in the Archdiocese of New York. The study is designed to analyze how training Catholic school principals will assist in making schools self-sufficient and less dependent on a subsidy that is no longer available. The Leadership Development Initiative training program is the basis of that analysis. ^ Phase

John Justin OConnor

1998-01-01

53

The impacts of sports facilities development on the urban growth of Kuala Lumpur federal territory, malaysia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sports and sports facilities development have improved rapidly over the past years in Malaysia. However, such improvements are inadequate compared to the overall development of sports at international level. In recent years sport is getting more and more influential and it will continue to grow in importance, even for developing countries. Recent developments have witnessed the use of sports facilities

Maassoumeh Barghchi; Dasimah Bt Omar; Mohd Salleh Aman

2010-01-01

54

The Impact of a Professional Development Program to Improve Urban Middle-Level English Language Learner Achievement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This mixed-methodological study examined changes in perceptions of teachers (n = 70) engaged in a two-year professional development program designed to meet the unique needs of English Language Learners (ELL), and changes in ELL students' (n = 235) math and reading achievement scores. The study was conducted in two urban middle schools in Kansas…

Friend, Jennifer; Most, Ryan; McCrary, Kenneth

2009-01-01

55

Urban Impact at the Urban-Agricultural Interface in Madison, WI: an Ecosystem Modeling Approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Global population and the proportion of people living in urban areas both continue to grow while average urban density is decreasing worldwide. Because urban areas are often located in the most agriculturally productive lands, expansion of the built environment can cause sharp reductions in land available for cultivation. Conversion of land to urban use also significantly alters climate variables. Urban materials differ from natural land covers in terms of albedo, thermal properties, and permeability, altering energy and water cycles. Anthropogenic heat emissions also alter the energy balance in and around a city. Preliminary analysis of urban impacts around Madison, WI, a small city located in a thriving agricultural region, was performed using the National Land Cover Database (NLCD), MODIS albedo products, ground-based observations, and a simulation of urban expansion, within a geographic information system (GIS). Population of the county is expected to increase by 58% while urban density is projected to decrease by 49% between 1992 and 2030, reflecting projected worldwide patterns. Carbon stored in the top 25cm of soil was found to be over 2.5 times greater in remnant prairies than in croplands and was calculated to be even less in urban areas; projected urban development may thus lead to large losses in carbon storage. Albedo measurements also show a significant decrease with urban development. Projected urban expansion between 2001 and 2030 is expected to convert enough agricultural lands to urban areas to result in a loss of 247,000 tons of crop yield in Dane County alone, based on current yields. For a more complete analysis of these impacts, urban parameters are incorporated into a terrestrial ecosystem model known as Agro-IBIS. This approach allows for detailed comparison of energy balance and biogeochemical cycles between local crop systems, lawns, and impervious city surfaces. Changes in these important cycles, in soil carbon storage, and in crop productivity/yield for 1992 - 2001 and projected 2030 development around Madison, WI will be shown.

Logan, K. E.; Kucharik, C. J.; Schneider, A.

2009-12-01

56

Cityness and African Urban Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores one possible argument for how to respond to the epistemic troubles in the production of knowledge about\\u000a urban Africa. The problem I have in mind is the preponderance of policy-oriented research on the development challenges and\\u000a absences of African cities, as opposed to a more rounded theorisation of urban life (urbanism) or cityness. The paper starts\\u000a by

Edgar Pieterse

2010-01-01

57

Strategic environmental assessment for sustainable urban development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Strategic environmental assessment (SEA) evaluates the environmental impacts of policies, plans, and programs. This article examines the use of SEA for sustainable urban development. We first explore opportunities for SEA to promote sustainability principles. Then, we analyze case studies that have applied SEA to comprehensive planning. Our results indicate that SEA can effectively weave sustainability principles into the fabric of

Leonard Ortolano

1996-01-01

58

Effects of urban information and communication technology on sustainable development  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the urban information and communication technology and its impacts on sustainable development. The findings are based on the views represented in literature and the relationship between information and communication technology and sustainability in urban development. Therefore, information and communication technology as the main component of the information society should be taken into consideration in sustainable development. In

M. Navabakhsh; M. Motlaq

2009-01-01

59

Urban Residents' Perceptions of Environmental Impacts  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines urban residents' perceptions of environmental impacts in the city of Pigeon Forge, Tennessee. The study vies to contribute to knowledge concerning how citizens in Tennessee view tourism and its impact on the environment. A mail survey was administered to 400 registered voters. Factor analysis, Cramer's V statistical measures of association, chi-square tests, and Spearman correlation coefficients were

Madlyn M. Bonimy

2011-01-01

60

IMPACTS OF URBANIZATION ON WATERSHED HYDROLOGIC FUNCTION  

EPA Science Inventory

Although urbanization has a major impact on watershed hydrology, there have not been studies to quantify basic hydrological relationships that are altered by the addition of impervious surfaces. The USDA-ARS and USEPA-ORD-NRMRL have initiated a pilot program to study the impacts...

61

IMPACTS OF URBANIZATION ON WATERSHED HYDROLOGIC FUNCTION  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Although urbanization has a major impact on watershed hydrology, there have not been studies to quantify basic hydrological relationships are altered by the addition of impervious surfaces. The USDA-ARS and USEPA-ORD-NRMRL have initiated a pilot program to study the impacts of different extents and...

62

Polycentric urban development: the case of Hangzhou  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the advantages of polycentric structure and its rich literature drawn from cities in industialized countries, little attention has been paid to the study of polycentric urban development in developing countries based on land-use information. With Hangzhou used as a case study, the authors investigate polycentric urban development through an analysis of directions of urban expansion, urban – rural gradients, and growth

Wenze Yue; Yong Liu; Peilei Fan

2010-01-01

63

Sustainability Indicators and Urban Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rapid economic growth, social polarization, and the worsening of environmental and health conditions characterize the ongoing development processes especially in Asian mega cities. The economic growth is connected with enormous urban growth, as well as the increase of industrial and commercial zones and traffic. Industrial production with low environmental standards, individual cars and insufficient housing conditions produce health-endangering environmental loads.

Ulrike Weiland

64

Urban development and climate change  

Microsoft Academic Search

With growing worldwide concern about global climate change, this article asks two critical questions: What reduction in vehicle?miles traveled (VMT) is possible in the USA with compact development rather than continuing urban sprawl?; and What reduction in greenhouse gas emissions would accompany such a reduction in VMT? Based on four different planning literatures, the answer to the first question appears

Reid Ewing; Keith Bartholomew; Steve Winkelman; Jerry Walters; Geoffrey Anderson

2008-01-01

65

Urban Problems and Community Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The essays in this collection promote a conception of community development that entails building practical capacities to improve the quality of life among residents of targeted neighborhoods. The causes, consequences, and potential solutions of urban problems that lie both inside and outside neighborhood borders are emphasized. The chapters are:…

Ferguson, Ronald F., Ed.; Dickens, William T., Ed.

66

Impacts of housing development on nutrients flow along canals in a peri-urban area of Bangkok, Thailand.  

PubMed

Change of nutrients load and flow according to land-use change induced by housing development was investigated in Bang Yai, Nonthaburi, Thailand, which located in the peri-urban area of Bangkok. Each house in the newly developed residential community was regulated to be equipped with a septic tank to collect night soil. However, greywater and leachate from the septic tank was collected by a community sewage system and discharged into the canals with insufficient treatment, while the canals still function as infrastructure for irrigation and transportation. In the study area, built-up area became 1.4 times and agricultural fields decreased by 13% from 2003 until 2007. Total nutrients load to the canals was increased by 25% as nitrogen and 14% as phosphorus according to the increase of built-up area. Net nutrients load from agricultural fields was largely set off when we evaluated nutrients inflow from the canals to the agricultural field through irrigation. Consequently, nutrients load from domestic wastewater accounted most of net nutrients load into the canal. PMID:20182088

Honda, R; Hara, Y; Sekiyama, M; Hiramatsu, A

2010-01-01

67

Chapter 30 Culture in Urban and Regional Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

This chapter critically assesses, from an economic viewpoint, the role of the arts and culture in urban and regional development and growth. This includes the analysis of short run spending impacts, and longer term effects on location quality and creativity. In addition, the specific possibilities for using arts and cultural activities as a focal point in strategies for urban revitalization

Günther G. Schulze

2006-01-01

68

Emergy-based urban health evaluation and development pattern analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study is to measure and evaluate the ecosystem health levels of 31 Chinese capital cities in 2004 through an emergy synthesis framework. A system of indicators was developed corresponding to the four factors of urban ecosystem health including efficiency, structure, impact and flux. Furthermore, combined with individual indices, an emergy-based urban ecosystem health index (EUEHI) was

G. Y. Liu; Z. F. Yang; B. Chen; S. Ulgiati

2009-01-01

69

URBAN RUNOFF RECEIVING WATER IMPACTS: PROGRAM OVERVIEW  

EPA Science Inventory

Receiving water impacts are a major national concern. The US is spending billions of dollars on secondary treatment plants, meanwhile urban stormwater and combined sewer overflow (CSO) are still uncontrolled. To attain the goals set forth in PL 92-500 and PL 95-217 in an economic...

70

Theory of urban energetics and mechanisms of urban development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The interrelationships between energy and civilization was proposed in the late 19th century [see Martinez-Alier, J., 1987. Ecological Economics. Blackwell, Oxford]. Geddes [Geddes, P., 1915. City in Evolution. Williams and Norgate Ltd., London] also proposed the concept of linking energy flow with urban development in the early 20th century. Many recent studies of the relationship between urban development and energy

Shu-Li Huang; Chia-Wen Chen

2005-01-01

71

Impact of Urban Growth on Surface Climate: A Case Study in Oran, Algeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors develop a land use map discriminating urban surfaces from other cover types over a semiarid region in North Africa and use it in a land surface model to assess the impact of urbanized land on surface energy, water, and carbon balances. Unlike in temperate climates where urbanization creates a marked heat island effect, this effect is not strongly

Lahouari Bounoua; Abdelmounaine Safia; Jeffrey Masek; Christa Peters-Lidard; Marc L. Imhoff

2009-01-01

72

Climate change impact assessment on urban rainfall extremes and urban drainage: Methods and shortcomings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cities are becoming increasingly vulnerable to flooding because of rapid urbanization, installation of complex infrastructure, and changes in the precipitation patterns caused by anthropogenic climate change. The present paper provides a critical review of the current state-of-the-art methods for assessing the impacts of climate change on precipitation at the urban catchment scale. Downscaling of results from global circulation models or regional climate models to urban catchment scales are needed because these models are not able to describe accurately the rainfall process at suitable high temporal and spatial resolution for urban drainage studies. The downscaled rainfall results are however highly uncertain, depending on the models and downscaling methods considered. This uncertainty becomes more challenging for rainfall extremes since the properties of these extremes do not automatically reflect those of average precipitation.In this paper, following an overview of some recent advances in the development of innovative methods for assessing the impacts of climate change on urban rainfall extremes as well as on urban hydrology and hydraulics, several existing difficulties and remaining challenges in dealing with this assessment are discussed and further research needs are described.

Willems, P.; Arnbjerg-Nielsen, K.; Olsson, J.; Nguyen, V. T. V.

2012-01-01

73

Regional road development, rural and urban poverty: Evidence from China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study estimates the impact of road investments on overall economic growth, rural and urban growth, and rural and urban poverty reduction. To achieve these goals, an econometric model that captures the different channels through which road investment impacts growth and poverty is developed and estimated using provincial-level data for 1982–1999 in China. Low-grade (mostly rural) roads have benefit\\/cost ratios

Shenggen Fan; Connie Chan-Kang

2008-01-01

74

Investigating the climatic impact of urban planning strategies through the use of regional climate modelling: a case study for Melbourne, Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urban planning is a useful method for improving local climate and human health in cities through purposefully modifying urban land surface characteristics. This can reduce the potential risks of elevated city temperatures due to the urban heat island (UHI). Unfortunately, simple tools are not readily available for urban planners to assess the climatological impacts of various urban development scenarios. Urban

Andrew M. Coutts; Jason Beringer; Nigel J. Tapper

2008-01-01

75

Research on development of Rural Urbanization and development strategies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rural Urbanization is a process of the transfer of the rural population to cities and towns and the change of the rural economy into urban economy. Urbanization is a major issue for the social and economic development of China in the new era. This paper mainly describes the development history, current situation and development models of rural urbanization in China,

Hongmei Chen; Yujun Miao

2010-01-01

76

Stream Quality Preservation through Planned Urban Development.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The effects of a land use plan to restrict urban development in areas critical to the water resource system are identified through empirical studies. Specifically, relationships are established between amount, density, type, and location of urban developm...

R. E. Coughlin T. R. Hammer

1973-01-01

77

Intimations of the Potential Environmental Impact of Urbanization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Roughly fifty years ago the hydrologic literature began to reflect growing recognition of the potential impact of urbanization on the environment. Documented impacts ranged from the urban heat island of several degrees Fahrenheit to doubling of the cross-sectional area of urban stream channels. Observers noted a broad spectrum of changes. Peak stages of small floods increased along with their volume and frequency. Increasing direct runoff was accompanied by decreasing elevation of the groundwater table. As the impermeable surface of streets and roof tops expands, sediment concentration declines as bank erosion, not the land surface, becomes the dominant source of supply. Runoff from streets and storm drains in places proved to be comparable to effluent from secondary treatment plants often containing pathogens as well as organics, salts, and metals. Ameliorating or reversing the negative hydrologic impacts has proven difficult. Creative design encompassing channel morphology and the scaling and disposition of reservoirs is the requisite mantra, not restoration. Unfortunately, hierarchical drainage nets and random spatial and temporal characteristics of precipitation events are generally incompatible with sequential land development and equity in storage requirements for individual parcels of land. Nevertheless, in the last half-century the image of urban rivers has been transformed from drainage ditch to potential aesthetic treasure.

Wolman, M. G.

2006-05-01

78

Global forecasts of urban expansion to 2030 and direct impacts on biodiversity and carbon pools  

PubMed Central

Urban land-cover change threatens biodiversity and affects ecosystem productivity through loss of habitat, biomass, and carbon storage. However, despite projections that world urban populations will increase to nearly 5 billion by 2030, little is known about future locations, magnitudes, and rates of urban expansion. Here we develop spatially explicit probabilistic forecasts of global urban land-cover change and explore the direct impacts on biodiversity hotspots and tropical carbon biomass. If current trends in population density continue and all areas with high probabilities of urban expansion undergo change, then by 2030, urban land cover will increase by 1.2 million km2, nearly tripling the global urban land area circa 2000. This increase would result in considerable loss of habitats in key biodiversity hotspots, with the highest rates of forecasted urban growth to take place in regions that were relatively undisturbed by urban development in 2000: the Eastern Afromontane, the Guinean Forests of West Africa, and the Western Ghats and Sri Lanka hotspots. Within the pan-tropics, loss in vegetation biomass from areas with high probability of urban expansion is estimated to be 1.38 PgC (0.05 PgC yr?1), equal to ?5% of emissions from tropical deforestation and land-use change. Although urbanization is often considered a local issue, the aggregate global impacts of projected urban expansion will require significant policy changes to affect future growth trajectories to minimize global biodiversity and vegetation carbon losses.

Seto, Karen C.; Guneralp, Burak; Hutyra, Lucy R.

2012-01-01

79

Integrating public transport into urban area development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Incorporating public transport into urban area development is important since it involves more than better accessibility. Despite the difficulties, there are certainly opportunities to give public transport a more ambitious role. The aspects of public transport in urban area development have been studied by the authors during several projects and recent assignments. The lessons learned here have been described based

R van der Bijl; F de Zeeuw

2009-01-01

80

New urbanism developments in Canada: a survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the summer of 2006, researchers surveyed Canadian “new urbanism” projects by reviewing literature and websites, examining municipal and government documentation, and contacting local authorities. The study found that many of the projects that began as “new urbanist” changed during development, eventually becoming more conventional in character. Only one development project reached build?out as a complete new urbanism community by

Jill L. Grant; Stephanie Bohdanow

2008-01-01

81

The optimal timing of urban land development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conclusion A modified Wicksell model has been used to explain optimal timing decisions concerning the development of land from a lower to a higher urban use. The analysis has shown that, within the context of the assumptions, the optimal date for development or redevelopment of urban land depends on (1) the discount rate applying in the real estate market, (2)

Donald C. Shoup

1970-01-01

82

Managing the adverse thermal effects of urban development in a densely populated Chinese city  

Microsoft Academic Search

Guangzhou city in South China has experienced an accelerated urban development since the 1980s. This paper examines the impact of the urban development on urban heat islands through a historical analysis of urban–rural air temperature differences. Remote sensing techniques were applied to derive information on land use\\/cover and land surface temperatures and to assess the thermal response patterns of land

Qihao Weng; Shihong Yang

2004-01-01

83

An exploratory study of the impact of an inquiry-based professional development course on the beliefs and instructional practices of urban inservice teachers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five urban teachers completed a total of 50 contact hours of professional development in which they: participated in authentic, inquiry-based experiences facilitated by a scientist; learned new science content related to the nature of science and scientific inquiry; developed inquiry-based lesson plans to implement in their classrooms; and developed science-specific strategies to mentor novice and experienced teachers. The focus of

Leslie Ann Suters

2004-01-01

84

Strategies for managing the effects of urban development on streams  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Urban development remains an important agent of environmental change in the United States. The U.S. population grew by 17 percent from 1982 to 1997, while urbanized land area grew by 47 percent, suggesting that urban land consumption far outpaced population growth (Fulton and others, 2001; Sierra Club, 2003; American Farmland Trust, 2009). Eighty percent of Americans now live in metropolitan areas. Each American effectively occupies about 20 percent more developed land (for housing, schools, shopping, roads, and other related services) than 20 years ago (Markham and Steinzor, 2006). Passel and Cohn (2008) predict a dramatic 48 percent increase in the population of the United States from 2005 to 2050. The advantages and challenges of living in these developed areas—convenience, congestion, employment, pollution—are part of the day-to-day realities of most Americans. Nowhere are the environmental changes associated with urban development more evident than in urban streams. The U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program investigation of the effects of urban development on stream ecosystems (EUSE) during 1999–2004 provides the most spatially comprehensive analysis of stream impacts of urban development that has been completed in the United States. A nationally consistent study design was used in nine metropolitan areas of the United States—Portland, Oregon; Salt Lake City, Utah; Birmingham, Alabama; Atlanta, Georgia; Raleigh, North Carolina; Boston, Massachusetts; Denver, Colorado; Dallas, Texas; and Milwaukee, Wisconsin. A summary report published as part of the EUSE study describes several of these impacts on urban streams (Coles and others, 2012).

Cappiella, Karen; Stack, William P.; Fraley-McNeal, Lisa; Lane, Cecilia; McMahon, Gerard

2012-01-01

85

The Urban Development/Open Space Action Program in Santa Clara County: An Economic Analysis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report assesses the Urban Development/Open Space Action Program (UD/OS) of the Santa Clara County Planning Policy Committee in terms of impact on urban sprawl and its overall effects on the urban land market. The economic consequences of UD/OS are eva...

B. F. Massell

1973-01-01

86

Survey of key issues: environmental impacts of urban transportation  

SciTech Connect

Urban transportation systems daily carry over three-fourths the citizens in developed nations and a smaller share of those in lesser developed nations. Because transportation networks follow population density, environmental impacts of these systems have been, and will continue to be, major concerns worldwide. Air quality concerns are generally of more importance, followed by noise and water quality issues. Waste disposal is of lesser concern from transportation systems but still at issue. At the basis of the concerns for environmental impacts are public health and safety issues. This survey found that (1) substantial progress has been made in developed nations regarding air pollution from automobiles; (2) noise standards are in place for aircraft and highway vehicles in most developed nations; (3) water quality issues vary in severity by location; (4) traffic safety impacts have been decreasing in many nations due to increased seat belt usage and improved highway design. Issues for the future focus on acid rain, vehicle safety, and keeping the environmental gains achieved until now. Lesser developed nations will face substantial environmental concerns as they expand their transport networks to keep pace with expected growth in urban population. The opportunity exists today for those nations to lower air emissions, in particular, but will require careful balancing of mobility and health concerns. 41 refs.

LaBelle, S.

1985-03-01

87

Impacts of urbanization on Florida Key deer behavior and population dynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rapid human population growth and urbanization have had a negative impact on species biodiversity. As competition for resources between man and wildlife continues, it is impor- tant to understand the effects of urbanization on species. Endangered Key deer (Odocoileus virginianus clavium) are endemic to the Florida Keys which have undergone rapid human population growth and development over the past 30

Patricia M. Harveson; Roel R. Lopez; Bret A. Collier; Nova J. Silvy

2006-01-01

88

Projected Impact of Urbanization on Cardiovascular Disease in China  

PubMed Central

Objectives The Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) Policy Model-China, a national scale cardiovascular disease computer simulation model, was used to project future impact of urbanization. Methods Populations and cardiovascular disease incidence rates were stratified into four submodels: North-Urban, South-Urban, North-Rural, and South-Rural. 2010 was the base year, and high and low urbanization rate scenarios were used to project 2030 populations. Results Rural-to-urban migration, population growth, and aging were projected to more than double cardiovascular disease events in urban areas and increase by 27.0–45.6% in rural areas. Urbanization is estimated to raise age-standardized coronary heart disease incidence by 73–81 per 100,000 and stroke incidence only slightly. Conclusions Rural-to-urban migration will likely be a major demographic driver of the cardiovascular disease epidemic in China.

Chan, Faye; Adamo, Susana; Coxson, Pamela; Goldman, Lee; Gu, Dongfeng; Zhao, Dong; Chen, Chung-Shiuan; He, Jiang; Mara, Valentina; Moran, Andrew

2012-01-01

89

CHAPTER 4 Urbanization, Agglomeration, and Economic Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 2007 the United Nations Population Fund released a report forecasting rapidly rising levels of urbanization over the next two decades, especially in the developing world. It noted that for the fi rst time in history, more than half the world's population resides in urban areas. The same year UN- HABITAT issued a report highlighting the slums and deplorable living

John M. Quigley

90

Evaluation of urban railways noise impact  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study of the environmental impact of urban railways mainly regards the noise generated by trains. Italian standards provide for the characterization of territorial pertinence zones (from the outer center line and for each side of the railway tracks), inside which specific absolute limit values of noise introduction produced by the same infrastructure are permitted. Therefore, according to provisions in these areas, the noise evaluation has to be performed referring only to the infrastructure contribution, without evaluating other acoustic sources in the same areas. As a consequence, in the pertinence zones the imposed limits for the infrastructure presence and the limits imposed by the acoustic municipal zoning, taking into account the acoustic impact of the other sources, are valid simultaneously but separately when evaluating the acoustic impact. However, in these areas the general acoustic climate is due to the overlap of both acoustic classes, and the noise induced on the population is determined by the contemporary presence of both sources. It is eventually very important to evaluate the effective noise dose absorbed by the population, especially when having to design mitigation interventions.

Coppi, Massimo; Grignaffini, Stefano

2002-11-01

91

Urban water infrastructure optimization to reduce environmental impacts and costs.  

PubMed

Urban water planning and policy have been focusing on environmentally benign and economically viable water management. The objective of this study is to develop a mathematical model to integrate and optimize urban water infrastructures for supply-side planning and policy: freshwater resources and treated wastewater are allocated to various water demand categories in order to reduce contaminants in the influents supplied for drinking water, and to reduce consumption of the water resources imported from the regions beyond a city boundary. A case study is performed to validate the proposed model. An optimal urban water system of a metropolitan city is calculated on the basis of the model and compared to the existing water system. The integration and optimization decrease (i) average concentrations of the influents supplied for drinking water, which can improve human health and hygiene; (ii) total consumption of water resources, as well as electricity, reducing overall environmental impacts; (iii) life cycle cost; and (iv) water resource dependency on other regions, improving regional water security. This model contributes to sustainable urban water planning and policy. PMID:19939551

Lim, Seong-Rin; Suh, Sangwon; Kim, Jung-Hoon; Park, Hung Suck

2009-11-25

92

Impact of urban sprawl on water quality in eastern Massachusetts, USA.  

PubMed

A study of water quality, land use, and population variations over the past three decades was conducted in eastern Massachusetts to examine the impact of urban sprawl on water quality using geographic information system and statistical analyses. Since 1970, eastern Massachusetts has experienced pronounced urban sprawl, which has a substantial impact on water quality. High spatial correlations are found between water quality indicators (especially specific conductance, dissolved ions, including Ca, Mg, Na, and Cl, and dissolved solid) and urban sprawl indicators. Urbanized watersheds with high population density, high percentage of developed land use, and low per capita developed land use tended to have high concentrations of water pollutants. The impact of urban sprawl also shows clear spatial difference between suburban areas and central cities: The central cities experienced lower increases over time in specific conductance concentration, compared to suburban and rural areas. The impact of urban sprawl on water quality is attributed to the combined effects of population and land-use change. Per capita developed land use is a very important indicator for studying the impact of urban sprawl and improving land use and watershed management, because inclusion of this indicator can better explain the temporal and spatial variations of more water quality parameters than using individual land use or/and population density. PMID:17557170

Tu, Jun; Xia, Zong-Guo; Clarke, Keith C; Frei, Allan

2007-06-04

93

Multiple effects of urbanization on the biodiversity of developing countries: The case of a fast-growing metropolitan area (Concepción, Chile)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urbanization is increasingly homogenizing the biota of less developed countries. Even though urban sprawl is a worldwide problem, most studies on the effects of urbanization, and the conceptual models have focused on developed countries. South America has not escaped urbanization, and here we discuss the potential impacts of urban sprawl with respect to three ecosystems in the metropolitan area of

Aníbal Pauchard; Mauricio Aguayo; Eduardo Peña; Roberto Urrutia

2006-01-01

94

The Impact of Urbanization on Agricultural Processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between urbanization and agriculture is examined. With heavy migrations from rural to urban areas in the United States, there have been significant changes in land utilization. Land converted to urban uses is increasing, though it has little effect on total crop production. The technological transformation of agriculture has had much larger effects and has operated as a push-pull

Gerald F. Winfield

1973-01-01

95

Development Communication in an Urban Setting.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The application of lessons gained from rural experience with development communications to the problems of delivering social services to the poorer segments of the urban areas is described in a report on the squatter upgrading project in Lusaka, the capit...

1980-01-01

96

Impact of urbanization and land-use change on climate  

Microsoft Academic Search

The most important anthropogenic influences on climate are the emission of greenhouse gases and changes in land use, such as urbanization and agriculture. But it has been difficult to separate these two influences because both tend to increase the daily mean surface temperature. The impact of urbanization has been estimated by comparing observations in cities with those in surrounding rural

Eugenia Kalnay; Ming Cai

2003-01-01

97

Impacts of Exurban Development on Water Quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This chapter details the impacts of exurban development on water quantity and quality in the United States. The chapter begins\\u000a by reviewing studies that document the consequences of urbanization on water quality, with emphasis on exurban development.\\u000a We show how watersheds are contaminated by a range of organic and inorganic compounds as land use along the rural-to-urban\\u000a gradient intensifies. These

Kathleen A. Lohse; Adina M. Merenlender

98

Progress in Housing and Urban Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Several community development programs have gained federal funding through the Housing and Community Development Act. These activities include the development of property tax relief measures for the elderly and a housing modernization program. Rules governing the funding have been proposed by the Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD).…

Walker, Bailus, Jr.

1975-01-01

99

Application of the ACASA model for urban development studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since urban population is growing fast and urban areas are recognized as the major source of CO2 emissions, more attention has being dedicated to the topic of urban sustainability and its connection with the climate. Urban flows of energy, water and carbon have an important impact on climate change and their quantification is pivotal in the city design and management. Large effort has been devoted to quantitative estimates of the urban metabolism components, and several advanced models have been developed and used at different spatial and temporal scales for this purpose. However, it is necessary to develop suitable tools and indicators to effectively support urban planning and management with the goal of achieving a more sustainable metabolism in the urban environment. In this study, the multilayer model ACASA (Advanced Canopy-Atmosphere-Soil Algorithm) was chosen to simulate the exchanges of heat, water vapour and CO2 within and above urban canopy. After several calibration and evaluation tests over natural and agricultural ecosystems, the model was recently modified for application in urban and peri-urban areas. New equations to account for the anthropogenic contribution to heat exchange and carbon production, as well as key parameterizations of leaf-facet scale interactions to separate both biogenic and anthropogenic flux sources and sinks, were added to test changes in land use or urban planning strategies. The analysis was based on the evaluation of the ACASA model performance in estimating urban metabolism components at local scale. Simulated sensible heat, latent heat, and carbon fluxes were compared with in situ Eddy Covariance measurements collected in the city centre of Florence (Italy). Statistical analysis was performed to test the model accuracy and reliability. Model sensitivity to soil types and increased population density values was conducted to investigate the potential use of ACASA for evaluating the impact of planning alternative scenarios. In this contest, an in progress application of ACASA for estimating carbon exchanges alternative scenarios is represented by its integration in a software framework composed by: (i) a Cellular Automata model to simulate the urban land-use dynamics; (ii) a transportation model, able to estimate the variation of the transportation network load; (iii) the ACASA model, and (iv) the mesoscale weather model WRF for the estimation of the relevant urban metabolism components at regional scale. The CA module is able to produce future land use maps, which represent a spatial distribution of the aggregate land-use demand consistent with the main rules governing the functioning of an urban system. Such future land use maps, together with the street network including the current traffic data, are used by the transportation module for estimating future traffic data coherent with the assumed land uses trends. All these information are then used by the coupled model WRF-ACASA for estimating future maps of CO2 fluxes in the urban area under consideration, allowing to estimate the impact of future planning strategies in reducing C emissions. The in-progress application of this system to the city of Florence is presented here.

Marras, S.; Pyles, R. D.; Falk, M.; Snyder, R. L.; Paw U, K. T.; Blecic, I.; Trunfio, G. A.; Cecchini, A.; Spano, D.

2012-04-01

100

Modeling environmental impacts of urban expansion: a systematic method for dealing with uncertainties.  

PubMed

In a rapidly transitioning China, urban land use has changed dramatically, both spatially and in terms of magnitude; these changes have significantly affected the natural environment. This paper reports the development of an Integrated Environmental Assessment of Urban Land Use Change (IEA-ULUC) model, which combines cellular automata, scenario analysis, and stochastic spatial sampling with the goal of exploring urban land-use change, related environmental impacts, and various uncertainties. By applying the IEA-ULUC model to a new urban development area in Dalian in northeastern China, the evolution of spatial patterns from 1986 to 2005 was examined to identify key driving forces affecting the changing trajectories of local land use. Using these results, future urban land use in the period 2005-2020 was projected for four scenarios of economic development and land-use planning regulation. A stochastic sampling process was implemented to generate industrial land distributions for each land expansion scenario. Finally, domestic and industrial water pollution loads to the ocean were estimated, and the environmental impacts of each scenario are discussed. The results showed that the four urban expansion scenarios could lead to considerable differences in environmental responses. In principle, urban expansion scenarios along the intercity transportation rail/roadways could have higher negative environmental impacts than cluster-developing scenarios, while faster economic growth could more intensely aggravate the environment than in the moderate growth scenarios. PMID:22775401

Liu, Yi; Yang, Sheng; Chen, Jining

2012-07-20

101

Assessing the impacts of landscape patterns on urban thermal environment based on RS and GIS A case study in Changchun City  

Microsoft Academic Search

The urban thermal environment problems have become more and more serious and prominent with the rapid development of urbanization, and the impacts of landscape patterns on urban thermal environment also become one of the hot topics and key problems in urban ecology. A case study in Changchun in Jilin Province of China was carried out, further analysis referred to quantifying

Lei Wang; Shuwen Zhang; Yunlong Yao; Jing Ning; Wenhui Kuang

2009-01-01

102

Evaluation of the vegetated urban canopy model (VUCM) and its impacts on urban boundary layer simulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The vegetated urban canopy model (VUCM) is implemented in a meteorological model, the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS), for urban atmospheric modeling. The VUCM includes various urban physical processes such as in-canyon radiative transfer, turbulent energy exchanges, substrate heat conduction, and in-canyon momentum drag. The coupled model RAMS/VUCM is evaluated and then used to examine its impacts on the dynamic and thermodynamic structure of the urban boundary layer (UBL) in the Seoul metropolitan area. The spatial pattern of the nocturnal urban heat island (UHI) in Seoul is quite well simulated by the RAMS/VUCM. A statistical evaluation of 2-m air temperature reveals a significant improvement in model performance, especially in the nighttime. The RAMS/VUCM simulates the diurnal variations of surface energy balance fluxes realistically. This contributes to a reasonable UBL formation. A weakly unstable UBL is formed in the nighttime with UBL heights of about 100-200 m. When urban surfaces are represented in the RAMS using a land surface model of the Land Ecosystem-Atmosphere Feedback (LEAF), the RAMS/LEAF produces strong cold biases and thus fails to simulate UHI formation. This is due to the poor representation or absence of important urban physical processes in the RAMS/LEAF. This study implies that urban physical processes should be included in numerical models in order to reasonably simulate meteorology and air quality in urban areas and that the VUCM is one of the promising urban canopy models.

Lee, Sang-Hyun; Baik, Jong-Jin

2011-02-01

103

Urban development and employment in Abidjan.  

PubMed

The city of Abidjan in the Ivory Coast has grown physically, economically, and demographically at rates exceeding all reasonable expectation. Yet, as in many other development nations, the employment generated by Abidjan's rapid economic expansion has failed to keep pace with the increase in working population it has attracted. Consequently, economic success has been accompanied by a variety of social strains. Some of these have been discussed in earlier issues of the "International Labour Review" by Louis Roussel. This discussion expands on Roussel's earlier treatment by focusing more specifically on several facets of the urban employment problem created by the rapid growth of Abidjan. Attention is directed to labor supply and employment, factors affecting migration, foreign Africans in the Ivory Coast labor force; the urban informal sector; urban infrastructure and development; social problems of population pressure; employment policy options (current government policies and other policy options); and general issues and policy alternatives (motivations for rural urban migration, smaller urban centers as alternative growth poles, and distributing the gains from development). Several essential features of the employment problem stem from the rural urban distribution of the workforce. The rural labor force, including temporary seasonal workers from the savannah countries to the north, remains more or less in balance with increasing rural employment opportunities, since the migration of Ivory Coast nationals to the cities is balanced by the inflow of foreign workers. In contrast, the influx of migrants into urban areas has led to a more rapid increase in the urban labor force than in urban employment, with a consequent rise in unemployment. In 1970 the Abidjan rate of open unemployment was probably around 20%. At this time, most people's idea of a desirable job is one in the formal sector of the urban economy. If there is to be any hope of an eventual balance between expectations and reality, it must be realized that an increasing share of the urban labor force will have to end up in the informal sector. Different attitudes towards work in the informal sector are needed on the part of both young people entering the labor force and of government policy makers. The latter should be seeking ways to increase productivity and incomes in the informal sector rather than for ways to destroy it. Current government policies include the training and educating of nationals to replace foreign technicians and managers, increasing the attractiveness of the rural milieu by the promotion of cooperatives, attempts to reform the land tenure system, the supply of electricity to villages, and the introduction of educational television; and adapting the educational system and technical training programs to the needs of the economy. PMID:12265634

Joshi, H; Lubell, H; Mouly, J

1975-04-01

104

Urban storm-induced discharge impacts  

SciTech Connect

Toxic heavy metals, organic pollutants, fecal coliform bacteria and pathogens, high flow rates, and sediment are commonly associated with urban receiving-water problems. Most beneficial water uses have been adversely affected by urban runoff. Many of the effects are associated with organic and toxic pollutant accumulations over a long time and are not associated with individual runoff events. The US EPA's Storm and Combined Sewer Research Program has sponsored several long-term research projects that are concerned with urban receiving-water problems. This article discusses the testing, sampling, pollutant effects, and some of the other results of the research programs.

Field, R. (Environmental Protection Agency, Edison, NJ (USA)); Pitt, R.E. (Univ. of Alabama, Birmingham (USA))

1990-08-01

105

Introduction to Urban Design and Development  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Part of MIT's innovative OpenCourseWare Project, that provides materials from MIT classes to the public on the web, the site provides materials introducing how urban areas change over time, and the future of urban development. This course examines the evolving structure of cities and the way that cities, suburbs, and metropolitan areas can be designed and developed. Boston and other American cities are studied to see how physical, social, political and economic forces interact to shape and reshape cities over time.

Silberberg, Susan

2006-11-26

106

Impact of radio advertisements on buying behaviour of urban commuters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This study aims to analyze the impact of radio advertisements on urban commuters towards buying behaviour in retail stores and attempts to determine the role of radio advertising on dissemination of information on the sales promotions. The impact of radio advertisements on the store choice and buying preferences are analyzed based on empirical investigation. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – This study

Rajagopal

2011-01-01

107

Modeling Low Impact Development Alternatives with SWIMM  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency?s Office of Water (OW) is actively promoting the use of Low Impact Development (LID) practices to help protect and restore water quality in urban and developing areas. Such practices support the concepts of green infrastructure and sustain...

108

Evaluating nutrient impacts in urban watersheds: challenges and research opportunities.  

PubMed

This literature review focuses on the prevalence of nitrogen and phosphorus in urban environments and the complex relationships between land use and water quality. Extensive research in urban watersheds has broadened our knowledge about point and non-point pollutant sources, but the fate of nutrients is not completely understood. For example, it is not known how long-term nutrient cycling processes in turfgrass landscapes influence nitrogen retention rates or the relative atmospheric contribution to urban nitrogen exports. The effect of prolonged reclaimed water irrigation is also unknown. Stable isotopes have been used to trace pollutants, but distinguishing sources (e.g., fertilizers, wastewater, etc.) can be difficult. Identifying pollutant sources may aid our understanding of harmful algal blooms because the extent of the relationship between urban nutrient sources and algal blooms is unclear. Further research on the delivery and fate of nutrients within urban watersheds is needed to address manageable water quality impacts. PMID:23202644

Carey, Richard O; Hochmuth, George J; Martinez, Christopher J; Boyer, Treavor H; Dukes, Michael D; Toor, Gurpal S; Cisar, John L

2012-11-29

109

Indicators for assessing anthropogenic impact on urban surface and groundwater  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background, Aim and Scope  Our study focuses on the indication of anthropogenic impacts on the urban surface and groundwater in large cities, demonstrated\\u000a for the cities of Halle\\/Saale and Leipzig (Germany). For the study we selected indicator substances such as xenobiotics, trace\\u000a elements, and stable isotopes which are connected to human activities in urban areas. The xenobiotics reported here are the

Gerhard Strauch; Monika Möder; Rainer Wennrich; Karsten Osenbrück; Hans-Reinhard Gläser; Timo Schladitz; Claudia Müller; Kristin Schirmer; Frido Reinstorf; Mario Schirmer

2008-01-01

110

Evaluation of urban sprawl and urban landscape pattern in a rapid developing region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Urban sprawl is a worldwide phenomenon especially in fast developing regions of China which is a typical representative. The study on the spatiotemporal characteristics of urban sprawl and urban pattern is useful for land sustainable management and urban land planning. This research explores the spatiotemporal dynamics of urban sprawl in the context of a rapid urbanization process in a booming economic region of southern China from 1979 to 2005. Three urban sprawl types are distinguished based on analyzing overlaid urban area maps of each two adjacent study years which originates from the interpretation of remote sensed images and the vector land use maps. The landscape metrics are used to analyze the spatiotemporal pattern of urban sprawl for each study period. The study results show that urban areas have expanded dramatically, and the spatiotemporal landscape pattern configured by three sprawl types changed obviously.

Lv, Zhi-Qiang; Zhou, Qi-Gang

2011-10-01

111

A planning model for urban housing developments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary A planning model for urban housing projects is developed within the framework of systems analysis. The first part gives a cost model of housing projects. Costs are shown to depend on the costs of building sites, construction costs, costs for streets and for parking facilities. The planning model takes factual and legal constraints into consideration. A housing benefit function

H. Albach

1971-01-01

112

Development Communication in an Urban Setting.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The application of lessons gained from rural experience with development communications to the problems of delivering social services to the poorer segments of the urban areas is described in a report on the squatter upgrading project in Lusaka, the capital of Zambia. A Project Support Communications Unit established to provide communication…

Development Communication Report, 1980

1980-01-01

113

Airline Traffic and Urban Economic Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary. This paper provides new evidence on the link between airline traffic and employ- ment in US metropolitan areas. The evidence confirms the common view that good airline service is an important factor in urban economic development. Frequent service to a variety of destinations, reflected in a high level of passenger enplanements, facilitates easy face-to-face contact with businesses in other

Jan K. Brueckner

2003-01-01

114

Dynamics of Urban Development on Flood Plains.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study presents a descriptive analysis of urban land use development on flood plain areas within Wichita, Kansas. The principal data source is building permits and tax records which identify the number of square feet of floor space constructed, year o...

R. F. Wiseman

1977-01-01

115

Approaches to Locating Urban Functions in Developing Rural Areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article compares two approaches to planning the locations of urban functions in developing rural regions. The prevailing functional integration approach gives more weight to integrating and articulating an urban hierarchy than to increasing the access of rural populations to urban-based services. It relies on supply-side descriptions of functional urban hierarchies and linkages and fails to consider effective demand when

Eric S. Belsky; Gerald J. Karaska

1990-01-01

116

Land Pooling: The Public Private Participatory Urban Development in Nepal  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. SUMMARY Kathmandu was one of the beautiful cities of the world till 1960s. The urban population of Kathmandu grown 5.5 percent annually. The urban area is sprawl all over the valley and loss of prime agricultural land, lack of housing and urban infrastructures, and environmental pollution are serious problems. In the past, urban development was carried on government land

P. P. OLI

2003-01-01

117

DISSOLVED OXYGEN IMPACT FROM URBAN STORM RUNOFF  

EPA Science Inventory

The primary objective of the research reported here is to determine if on a national basis a correlation exists between strength of dissolved oxygen (DO) deficits and the presence of rainfall and/or storm runoff downstream of urban areas. A secondary objective is to estimate the ...

118

Using Repeated LIDAR to Characterize Topographic Changes in Riparian Areas and Stream Channel Morphology in Areas Undergoing Urban Development: An Accuracy Assessment Guide for Local Watershed Managers  

EPA Science Inventory

Urban development and the corresponding increases in impervious surfaces associated with that development have long been known to have adverse impacts upon urban riparian systems, water quality and quantity, groundwater recharge, streamflow, and aquatic ecosystem integrity. The ...

119

Development and validation of the Noah-Urban Canopy Model for two distinct urban climates in the Los Angeles basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Increasing population in urban areas over the last 50 years has elevated the interest in urban climate processes and land-atmosphere interactions. Altered land cover in urban areas has significant impacts on surface properties, including albedo, thermal capacity, heat conductivity and soil moisture. Changes in these properties impact the heat, mass, momentum, and energy budgets of a city and ultimately results in distinct urban climates that include the urban heat island (UHI), urban-induced wind, increased precipitation downwind from urban areas, and air pollution. The focus of this study is on understanding the spatial and temporal patterns in heat and moisture fluxes in semi-arid metropolitan regions. A high resolution modeling framework using the Noah-LSM (Land Surface Model) coupled with an Urban Canopy Model (UCM) is used to simulate surface energy fluxes at a 300-m resolution over two distinct semi-arid metropolises, downtown Los Angeles and Santa Monica, CA. The model is initialized, calibrated and validated using traditional ground-based data and then with a suite of remotely sensed land surface and atmospheric variables. The differences in building type (urban type), land cover, and land surface 'greenness' between these densely urbanized regions are identified and corresponding sensible and latent heat fluxes are compared. Influence of the coastal maritime climate on energy fluxes is also evaluated. Statistical measures are used to evaluate model performance against both traditional ground-based as well as remote sensing products. Surface temperature is evaluated against MODIS and Landsat products as well as traditional ground-based observations. A previously developed high-resolution remotely-sensed evapotranspiration product is also used to validate modeled latent heat fluxes.

Vahmani, P.; Hogue, T. S.; Kim, J.

2011-12-01

120

Urbanization impacts on severe weather dynamical processes and climatology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rainfall changes are a complex manifestation of multi-scale processes that are influenced by both natural and anthropogenic activities. This dissertation focuses on understanding the relationship between rainfall climatology and urbanization. Even though there is a long-term increase in the rainfall amounts under a global warming background, the land use / land cover change can also be an additional factor contributing to regional climate change. This research study investigates the urbanization effect on rainfall at regional scales: (i) Multidecadal large scale: by investigating the eastern US urban rainfall climatology from 1958-2008; (ii) Decadal mesoscale summer-time thunderstorm climatology over central Indiana from 2000- 2009, and high resolution model studies for representative thunderstorms. For the multi-decadal rainfall climatology over eastern US, we examined the relationship between rainfall characteristics and urbanization by analyzing data from 4593 surface stations over the last 50 years (1958-2008), Parameter-elevation Regressions on Independent Slopes Model (PRISM) data in last two decades, North America Regional Reanalysis (NARR) winds, and a proxy for urbanization through gridded human population data. Results indicate that the summer monthly rainfall amount shows an increasing trend under the influence of urbanization changes. The frequency of heavy rainfall events shows a preferential positive bias towards urbanized regions. Most notably, consistent with case studies for individual cities, the frequency of rainfall amounts downwind of urban-rural boundaries shows a climatologically increasing trend. Analysis of heavy (top 2 percentile) and extreme (top 0.5 percentile) rainfall events indicates decreasing trends of heavy (top 10 percentile) rainfall event frequency and possible increasing trends of extreme rainfall event frequency over urban areas. Spatially the urbanization impact on rainfall was more pronounced in the North and the Central US with an increase in rainfall amounts, while the southern region showed mixed results. For the mesoscale thunderstorm climatology, we used both subjective and objective methods to analyze the summertime thunderstorm behavior over Indianapolis from 2000 to 2009. Results indicate that the intensity of thunderstorm is relatively lower over urban center and higher over upwind and downwind direction. Observations indicate that thunderstorm often split into smaller cells over the urban region and reintensify as larger, merged cells downwind. This splitting or morphology change in the thunderstorm characteristics was noted for nearly 30% of the daytime storms, with a bias for daytime cold fronts. Mesoscale model studies suggest that the urban-rural heterogeneity aids the formation of a mesoscale convergence zone which can alter the thunderstorm characteristics. Overall, this study highlights the important role of land use /land cover and urbanization for understanding the mesoscale rainfall changes as part of regional climate change.

Lei, Ming

121

Developing a framework to assess the water quality and quantity impacts of climate change, shifting land use, and urbanization in a Midwestern agricultural landscape  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dynamic hydrological processes play a critical role in the structure and functioning of agricultural watersheds undergoing urbanization. Developing a predictive understanding of the complex interaction between agricultural productivity, ecosystem health, water quality, urban development, and public policy requires an interdisciplinary effort that investigates the important biophysical and social processes of the system. Our research group has initiated such a framework that includes a coordinated program of integrated scenarios, model experiments to assess the effects of changing drivers on a broad set of ecosystem services, evaluations of governance and leverage points, outreach and public engagement, and information management. Our geographic focus is the Yahara River watershed in south-central Wisconsin, which is an exemplar of water-related issues in the Upper Midwest. This research addresses three specific questions. 1) How do different patterns of land use, land cover, land management, and water resources engineering practices affect the resilience and sensitivity of ecosystem services under a changing climate? 2) How can regional governance systems for water and land use be made more resilient and adaptive to meet diverse human needs? 3) In what ways are regional human-environment systems resilient and in what ways are they vulnerable to potential changes in climate and water resources? A comprehensive program of model experiments and biophysical measurements will be utilized to evaluate changes in five freshwater ecosystem services (flood regulation, groundwater recharge, surface water quality, groundwater quality, and lake recreation) and five related ecosystem services (food crop yields, bioenergy crop yields, carbon storage in soil, albedo, and terrestrial recreation). Novel additions to existing biophysical models will allow us to simulate all components of the hydrological cycle as well as agricultural productivity, nitrogen and phosphorus transport, and lake water quality. The integrated model will be validated using a comprehensive observational database that includes soil moisture, evapotranspiration, stomatal conductance, streamflow, stream and lake water quality, and crop yields and productivity. Integrated scenarios will be developed to synthesize decision-maker perspectives, alternative approaches to resource governance, plausible trends in demographic and economic drivers, and model projections under alternate climate and land use regimes to understand future conditions of the watershed and its ecosystem services. The quantitative data and integrated scenarios will then be linked to evaluate governance of water and land use.

Loheide, S. P.; Booth, E. G.; Kucharik, C. J.; Carpenter, S. R.; Gries, C.; Katt-Reinders, E.; Rissman, A. R.; Turner, M. G.

2011-12-01

122

An exploratory study of the impact of an inquiry-based professional development course on the beliefs and instructional practices of urban inservice teachers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Five urban teachers completed a total of 50 contact hours of professional development in which they: participated in authentic, inquiry-based experiences facilitated by a scientist; learned new science content related to the nature of science and scientific inquiry; developed inquiry-based lesson plans to implement in their classrooms; and developed science-specific strategies to mentor novice and experienced teachers. The focus of this research was to determine changes in their: beliefs and instructional practices; understanding of scientific literacy; and efficacy toward mentoring other teachers. A collective case study methodology was used in which participants completed questionnaires and were observed and interviewed, prior to and at the completion of the course. They were also asked to complete reflective journal questions during the course. While the teachers' beliefs did not change as measured by the Teacher's Pedagogical Philosophy Interview (TPPI) (teacher-centered beliefs for "Teacher Actions" and "Teacher and Content"; conceptual/student-centered for "Student Actions" and "Philosophy of Teaching"), their teacher-centered behaviors changed to conceptual/student-centered as measured by the Secondary Science Teachers Analysis Matrix (STAM). Their responses to the Constructivist Learning Environment Survey (CLES) generally correlated with their post-STAM results. Participants gained a better understanding of the creative aspect of the nature of science as measured by the Modified Nature of Scientific Knowledge Scale (MNSKS) instrument, while two novice teachers improved their personal science teaching efficacy after participation in the course as measured by the Science Teaching Efficacy Belief Instrument (STEBI). Four of the five teachers felt better prepared to mentor others to use inquiry-based instruction. In contrast to these positive trends, their outcome expectancy beliefs (STEBI subscale) were generally lower than their perceived personal teaching efficacy before and after the course, which could be an indicator of the environment in urban schools where there is often little support or equipment for innovative practices in science. Generally there was a shift from traditional to constructivist instructional practices as measured by the STAM, while results varied for teacher beliefs and efficacy regarding science instruction as measured by the TPPI, CLES, and STEBI and teachers' understanding of the nature of science as measured by the MNSKS.

Suters, Leslie Ann

123

Impact of input data uncertainties on urban stormwater model parameters.  

PubMed

The use of urban drainage models requires careful calibration, where model parameters are selected in order to minimize the difference between measured and simulated results. It has been recognized that often more than one set of calibration parameters can achieve similar model accuracy. A probability distribution of model parameters should therefore be constructed to examine the model's sensitivity to its parameters. With increasing complexity of models, it also becomes important to analyze the model parameter sensitivity while taking into account uncertainties in input and calibration data. In this study a Bayesian approach was used to develop a framework for quantification of impacts of uncertainties in the model inputs on the parameters of a simple integrated stormwater model for calculating runoff, total suspended solids and total nitrogen loads. The framework was applied to two catchments in Australia. It was found that only systematic rainfall errors have a significant impact on flow model parameters. The most sensitive flow parameter was the effective impervious area, which can be calibrated to completely compensate for the input data uncertainties. The pollution model parameters were influenced by both systematic and random rainfall errors. Additionally an impact of circumstances (e.g. catchment type, data availability) has been recognized. PMID:19759457

Kleidorfer, M; Deletic, A; Fletcher, T D; Rauch, W

2009-01-01

124

Analysis of urban development of Haridwar, India, using entropy approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urban development is a complex process, which should be observed at various levels and in many aspects for full understanding.\\u000a The pervasive problems generated by urban development have prompted, in the present work, to study the spatial extent of urbanization\\u000a in Haridwar, India, and patterns of periodic changes in urban development (systematic\\/random) in order to develop future plans\\u000a for (i)

Ramakar Jha; Vijay P. Singh; V. Vatsa

2008-01-01

125

Energy costs, urban development, and housing  

SciTech Connect

Six revised and edited papers from a conference held by the Brookings Institute in 1981 assess the effects of higher energy costs on various aspects of urban development and housing, including industrial location and regional development. Comments and discussion from public-agency participants follow each of the papers. Following an introductory summary of the policy findings and the conference papers, the six papers are: Home Energy Costs and the Housing of the Poor and Elderly, Energy Prices and Urban Decentralization, Energy and the Existing Stock of Housing, New Residential Construction and Energy Costs, Energy and the Location of Industry, and Energy and Regional Development. Separate abstracts were prepared for the seven chapters selected for the Energy Data Base (EDB) and Energy Abstracts for Policy Analysis (EAPA), and one was processed separately.

Downs, A.; Bradbury, K.L. (eds.)

1984-01-01

126

South Sudan urban development strategy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Southern Sudan - the ten southern provinces of Sudan - has attained autonomy and may soon achieve total independence from Sudan. Yet decades of civil war not only prevented development but destroyed the infrastructure left over from the colonial period. While Southern Sudan is fortunate to have oil resources that can finance building up the new nation, the task is

Vittorio Emmanuel Pareto

2008-01-01

127

Evaluation of urban sprawl and urban landscape pattern in a rapidly developing region.  

PubMed

Urban sprawl is a worldwide phenomenon happening particularly in rapidly developing regions. A study on the spatiotemporal characteristics of urban sprawl and urban pattern is useful for the sustainable management of land management and urban land planning. The present research explores the spatiotemporal dynamics of urban sprawl in the context of a rapid urbanization process in a booming economic region of southern China from 1979 to 2005. Three urban sprawl types are distinguished by analyzing overlaid urban area maps of two adjacent study years which originated from the interpretation of remote sensed images and vector land use maps. Landscape metrics are used to analyze the spatiotemporal pattern of urban sprawl for each study period. Study results show that urban areas have expanded dramatically, and the spatiotemporal landscape pattern configured by the three sprawl types changed obviously. The different sprawl type patterns in five study periods have transformed significantly, with their proportions altered both in terms of quantity and of location. The present research proves that urban sprawl quantification and pattern analysis can provide a clear perspective of the urbanization process during a long time period. Particularly, the present study on urban sprawl and sprawl patterns can be used by land use and urban planners. PMID:22095203

Lv, Zhi-Qiang; Dai, Fu-Qiang; Sun, Cheng

2011-11-18

128

The impact of aerosols on urban photochemical ozone production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ozone in the troposphere is a photochemically-formed secondary pollutant that is harmful to human health, a green-house gas, and an oxidizing species. Several chemical and meteorological factors that affect the rate of photochemical ozone formation in the troposphere are well understood. The impact of urban aerosols on the photochemical formation of ozone has been generally ignored or assumed to be

Shobha Kondragunta

1997-01-01

129

Response surfaces for climate change impact assessments in urban areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Assessment of the impacts of climate change in real-world water systems, such as urban drainage networks, is a research priority for IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel of Climate Change). The usual approach is to force a hydrological transformation model with a changed climate scenario. To tackle uncertainty, the model should be run with at least high, middle and low change scenarios. This

A. Semadeni-Davies

2003-01-01

130

EVALUATION OF URBANIZATION IMPACTS ON HYDROLOGY - LABORATORY AND FIELD APPROACHES  

EPA Science Inventory

Although urbanization has a major impact on watershed hydrology, there have not been many studies to quantify how basic hydrological relationships are altered by the addition of impervious surface under controlled conditions. In addition, few studies have been conducted to quanti...

131

Hindutva Meets Globalization: The Impact on Hindu Urban Media Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the impact of globalization and religious nationalism on the personal and professional lives of urban Hindu middle class media women. The research demonstrates how newly strengthened forces of globalization and Hindutva shape Indian womanhood. The research rests on various data that reveal how Indian women interpret and negotiate constructed identities. The study seeks to give voice to

Monalisa Gangopadhyay

2010-01-01

132

Hindutva meets globalization: The impact on Hindu urban media women  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the impact of globalization and religious nationalism on the personal and professional lives of urban Hindu middle class media women. The research demonstrates how newly strengthened forces of globalization and Hindutva shape Indian womanhood. The research rests on various data that reveal how Indian women interpret and negotiate constructed identities. The study seeks to give voice to

Monalisa Gangopadhyay

2010-01-01

133

Microsimulation of Urban Development and Location Choices: Design and Implementation of UrbanSim  

Microsoft Academic Search

UrbanSim is a new urban simulation model, developed over the past several years, which is now operational in three urban areas in the United States. The model system is designed to address emerging needs to better coordinate transportation and land use planning as a result of recognition of the strong interactions between land use and transportation, increasing pressure from federal

P. Waddell; A. Borning; M. Noth; N. Freier; M. Becke; G. Ulfarsson

2003-01-01

134

Developing a multi-network urbanization model: A case study of urban growth in Denver, Colorado  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urbanization is an important issue concerning diverse scientific and policy communities. Computational models quantifying locations and quantities of urban growth offer numerous environmental and socioeconomic benefits. Traditional urban growth models are based on a single-algorithm fitting procedure and thus restricted on their ability to capture spatial heterogeneity. Accordingly, a GIS-based modeling framework titled multi-network urbanization (MuNU) model is developed that

Jida Wang; Giorgos Mountrakis

2011-01-01

135

Spatial distribution and historical records of mercury sedimentation in urban lakes under urbanization impacts.  

PubMed

China is assumed one of the largest contributors to the world's total mercury (Hg) emissions, with a rapid increase in anthropogenic Hg emissions. However, little is known about Hg fate and transport in urban areas of China. In this study, total Hg contents in surface (0-5 cm) sediments from lakes in 14 parks (3 in the central urban core (CUC) area, 5 in the developed urban (DDU) area, 2 in the developing urban (DIU) area, and 4 in the suburban (SU) area) and (210)Pb-dated sediment cores from lakes in 5 parks (3 in the CUC and 2 in the DDU) in Shanghai were assessed to compare current patterns (urbanization effect) with the historical records of Hg emissions over the past century. Total Hg content in surface sediments showed a clear urbanization pattern. Dated sediment cores revealed a 2-3 fold increase in total Hg content, while Hg fluxes exponentially increased from ~1900 to present and accelerated since 1990 when China's economy and urbanization booms started. Anthropogenic Hg fluxes in post-2000 ranged from 253 to 1452 ?g m(-2) yr(-1), 2-7 times greater than preindustrial (pre-1900) Hg fluxes. Total Hg and Pb contents in both surface sediments and sediment cores were highly correlated and Hg flux in sediment cores also significantly correlated with annual coal consumption in the period 1949-2008. The significant correlations suggest that coal combustion is a major source of Hg emission in Shanghai. PMID:23327992

Li, Hong-Bo; Yu, Shen; Li, Gui-Lin; Deng, Hong; Xu, Bo; Ding, Jing; Gao, Jin-Bo; Hong, You-Wei; Wong, Ming-Hung

2013-01-14

136

Developing an Integrated Approach for Local Urban Climate Models in London from Neighbourhood to Street Scale  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We currently have an incomplete understanding of how weather varies across London and how the city's microclimate will intensify levels of heat, cold and air pollution in the future. There is a need to target priority areas of the city and to promote design guidance on climate change mitigation strategies. As a result of improvements in the accuracy of local weather data in London, an opportunity is emerging for designers and planners of the built environment to measure the impact of their designs on local urban climate and to enhance the designer's role in creating more informed design choices at an urban micro-scale. However, modelling the different components of the urban environment separately and then collating and comparing the results invariably leads to discrepancies in the output of local urban climate modelling tools designed to work at different scales. Of particular interest is why marked differences appear between the data extracted from local urban climate models when we change the scale of modelling from city to building scale. An example of such differences is those that have been observed in relation to the London Unified Model and London Site Specific Air Temperature model. In order to avoid these discrepancies we need a method for understanding and assessing how the urban environment impacts on local urban climate as a whole. A step to achieving this is by developing inter-linkages between assessment tools. Accurate information on the net impact of the urban environment on the local urban climate will in turn facilitate more accurate predictions of future energy demand and realistic scenarios for comfort and health. This paper will present two key topographies of London's urban environment that influence local urban climate: land use and street canyons. It will look at the possibilities for developing an integrated approach to modelling London's local urban climate from the neighbourhood to the street scale.

Bakkali, M.; Davies, M.; Steadman, J. P.

2012-04-01

137

Using a distributed hydrologic model to assess the impact of urbanization in Singapore  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A fully distributed hydrological model (MOBIDIC) is applied to study the impact of urbanization on local hydrology in the Kranji watershed, Northwest Singapore. Based on the available data, the MOBIDIC is firstly calibrated at the two sub-watersheds (KC2 and KC6), where the percentages of urbanized area are 80% in KC2, while 6% in KC6. Different urban expansion scenarios are developed through buffer analysis and the corresponding hydrologic responses are simulated by the MOBIDIC model, and the simulations are compared with the predictions from a linear model which is a combination of contributions from the urbanized area and non-urbanized area. An elasticity measure is also developed to measure the degree of linearity in the hydrologic responses. Results show: i) As the urbanized area increases, "groundwater", "soil water", "evaporation", "baseflow", "hypodermic flow", and "percolation" increase, while "surface runoff", "watershed outflow", and "flow peak" decrease, which is consistent with the literature; ii) Through the comparison with the linear model and the analysis with elasticity measure, these hydrologic responses have a close linear relationship with urbanized area.

Yang, J.; Entekhabi, D.; Castelli, F.; Chua, L.

2011-12-01

138

The Relationship of Port Development and Urban Waterfront Revitalization.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of the study was to examine the relationship of port development and urban waterfront revitalization in the United States. A review was undertaken of ports and urban waterfront revitalization literature, site visits to cities which had taken i...

J. Armstrong H. M. Johnson R. G. Ciabattari R. R. Stough

1980-01-01

139

Land development, land use, and urban sprawl in Puerto Rico ...  

Treesearch

Description: The island of Puerto Rico has both a high population density and a long ... This study integrates geospatial technology and population census data to understand ... Half of the urban development occurs outside of urban centers.

140

IMPACT OF URBANIZATION ON THE HYDROLOGY OF THE POCONO CREEK WATERSHED: A MODEL STUDY  

EPA Science Inventory

The Pocono Creek watershed located in Monroe County, PA, is threatened by high population growth and urbanization. Of concern specifically is the potential impact of future developments in the watershed on the reduction of base flow and the consequent risk of degradation of wild ...

141

A Quantitative Examination of Factors that Impact Technology Integration in Urban Public Secondary Mathematics Classrooms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The problem explored in this study was whether access to technology impacted technology integration in mathematics instruction in urban public secondary schools. Access to technology was measured by availability of computers in the classroom, teacher experience, and teacher professional development. Technology integration was measured by…

Harvey-Buschel, Phyllis

2009-01-01

142

Assessment of Possible Impacts of Climate Change in an Urban Catchment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stationarity of rainfall statistical parameters is a fundamental assumption in hydraulic infrastructure design that may not be valid in an era of changing climate. This study develops a framework for examining the potential impacts of future increases in short duration rainfall intensity on urban infrastructure and natural ecosystems of small watersheds and demonstrates this approach for the Mission\\/Wagg Creek watershed

Catherine Denault; Robert G. Millar; Barbara J. Lence

2006-01-01

143

Examining childhood development in contaminated urban settings.  

PubMed Central

Normal childhood development and growth is affected by such factors as genetics, nutrition, and multiple familial and social factors. In large urban settings, children are constantly exposed to varying amounts of assorted toxic chemicals both inside and outside the home. Many of these contaminants are suspected to be associated with developmental alterations. The heterogeneity of risk factors in urban populations poses a challenging situation for research. Change must be made in the manner in which developmental toxicological research is undertaken. Plans should be made for immediate data collection after a large-scale exposure to prevent the loss of valuable information. Retrospective studies would benefit from applying rapid assessment techniques to identify high- and low-risk children. In all cases, the development of research design and investigative format needs to reflect the strengths of both social factors and scientific facts. Cross-disciplinary approaches, using physicians and physical and social scientists and incorporating community knowledge, are required for the evaluation of children in urban settings, with each discipline contributing to theory and methodology.

Guillette, E A

2000-01-01

144

The third hans cloos lecture. Urban landslides: Socioeconomic impacts and overview of mitigative strategies  

USGS Publications Warehouse

As a result of population pressures, hillsides in the world's urban areas are being developed at an accelerating rate. This development increases the risk for urban landslides triggered by rainfall or earthquake activity. To counter this risk, four approaches have been employed by landslide managers and urban planners: (1) restricting development in landslide-prone areas; (2) implementing and enforcing excavation, grading, and construction codes; (3) protecting existing developments by physical mitigation measures and (4) developing and installing monitoring and warning systems. Where they have been utilized, these approaches generally have been effective in reducing the risk due to landslide hazards. In addition to these practices, landslide insurance holds promise as a mitigative measure by reducing the financial impact of landslides on individual property owners. Until recently, however, such insurance has not been widely available and, where it is available, it is so expensive that it has been little used. ?? Springer-Verlag 2006.

Schuster, R. L.; Highland, L. M.

2007-01-01

145

Sustainable development for some: green urban development and affordability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many brownfield development projects and many redevelopment projects aimed at improving older urban spaces list sustainable development as a stated goal. It is a key question, however, whether the benefits of these redevelopment projects are equitably shared with the original members of the community, and in the case of brownfields with residents of adjacent neighbours, or are there differential benefits

Ann Dale; Lenore L. Newman

2009-01-01

146

Mega Events as an opportunity for Urban Regeneration. Impact on a Host Greek City  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY This paper analyses the impacts of mega events such as the Olympic Games on urban redevelopment. These include regeneration projects for the host cities and urban infrastructural improvements, since mega events can act as catalysts for urban change. The first part of the paper reviews the effects of hosting major sporting or other events on urban space: success factors

Efi DIMOPOULOU

147

Social Justice, Integrated Development Planning and Post apartheid Urban Reconstruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper focuses on the intersection between South African urban reconstruction and the development of social justice debates in urban geography. Drawing on the distributive choices displayed in post apartheid urban planning strategies the paper sketches the general contours of a contemporary understanding of social justice. It is argued that the structuralist and post-structuralist debates that dominate geographical social justice

Gustav Visser

2001-01-01

148

Developing a Professional Learning Community among Urban School Principals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article describes how ten exemplary urban school principals worked together under a Wallace Foundation Grant to advance the understanding of urban school leadership. The grant's intent was to contribute to the development of a national model for the assessment of master principals by demonstrating how building-level leadership in urban

Hipp, Kristine Keifer; Weber, Paul

2008-01-01

149

Housing and urban development research reports  

SciTech Connect

The sixth in a series of documents published by the Department of Housng and Urban Development (HUD) to assist in the formulation of policy decision contains 247 abstracts entered in the HUD USER automated data base during the past six months, bringing the data base total to 3,583 documents. There are 45 subject areas in the main section, with the abstracts in each area arranged alphabetically by title. Each abstract is identified by an order number and is followed by descriptive keywords. Other listings of the documents are alphabetical, numerical, by personal or corporate author, by contract and grant number, and by subject index.

Not Available

1984-01-01

150

[Environmental impact on the formation of the public opinion among the urban population with developed oil refining industry, chemical petroleum industry and chemical industry].  

PubMed

The research proved oil-processing, petrochemical and chemical enterprises to be potent releasers of chemical hazards containing in industrial waste. The petrochemical and oil enterprises pollute environment and deteriorate sanitary conditions in populated area. The residents evaluate actual ecologic danger adequately. Sociologic analysis of how city dwellers assess quality of their environment and health is quate objective indicator of urban ecology and could be assigned to priority methods of ecologic and hygienic studies. PMID:9574983

Sharafutdinov, I Ia; Galiev, M A

1997-01-01

151

Development Activities and Rural-Urban Migration: Is It Possible to Keep Them Down on the Farm.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A review of rural-urban migration literature is provided in this report. Nine different development activities in rural areas, as well as international agency development projects and their impacts on such migration are presented. The report contains disc...

R. E. Rhoda

1979-01-01

152

Urbanization and warming of Phoenix (Arizona, USA): Impacts, feedbacks and mitigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the impacts, feedbacks, and mitigation of the urban heat island in Phoenix, Arizona (USA). At Sky Harbor Airport, urbanization has increased the nighttime minimum temperature by 5°C and the average daily temperatures by 3.1°C. Urban warming has increased the number of “misery hours per day” for humans, which may have important social consequences. Other impacts include (1)

Lawrence A. Baker; Anthony J. Brazel; Nancy Selover; Chris Martin; Nancy McIntyre; Frederick R. Steiner; Amy Nelson; Laura Musacchio

2002-01-01

153

Urban Public Finance in Developing Countries.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Foreword; Acknowledgments; Data Sources and Definitions; Introduction: Why Study Urban Public Finance; Part I A Framework for Analysis; Part II Local Government Taxes; Part III User Charges for Urban Services; Part IV Intergovernmental Fiscal Re...

R. W. Bahl J. F. Linn

1992-01-01

154

Impact of Urbanization and Climate Change on Aquifer Thermal Regimes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We evaluated the past impacts of urbanization and climate change on groundwater—in particular, aquifer temperature—in the\\u000a Sendai plain, Japan, and further compared with the probable changes due to changing climate in the future. A series of simulations\\u000a were performed and matched with the observed temperature-depth profiles as a preliminary step for parameter calibration. The\\u000a magnitude of ground surface warming estimated

Luminda Niroshana Gunawardhana; So Kazama; Saeki Kawagoe

155

Evaluation of the environmental impact of the urban energy lifecycle based on lifecycle assessment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Energy resources have environmental impact through their entire lifecycle. The evaluation of the environmental impacts of the energy lifecycle can contribute to decision making regarding energy management. In this paper, the lifecycle assessment (LCA) method is introduced to calculate the environmental impact loads of different types of energy resources (including coal, oil, natural gas, and electricity) used in urban regions. The scope of LCA includes the production, transportation, and consumption processes. The pollutant emission inventory is listed, and the environmental impact loads are acquired through the calculation of environmental impact potentials, normalization, and weighted assessment. The evaluation method is applied to Beijing, China, revealing that photochemical oxidant formation and acidification are the primary impact factors in the lifecycle of all energy resources and that the total environmental impact load increased steadily from 132.69 million person equivalents (PE) in 1996 to 208.97 million PE in 2010. Among the energy types, coal contributes most to the environmental impact, while the impacts caused by oil, natural gas, and electricity have been growing. The evaluation of the environmental impact of the urban energy lifecycle is useful for regulating energy structures and reducing pollution, which could help achieve sustainable energetic and environmental development.

Chen, Chen; Su, Meirong; Yang, Zhifeng; Liu, Gengyuan

2013-10-01

156

Evaluation of the impact of planning alternative strategies on urban metabolism with the ACASA model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A crucial point in urban sustainable development is to evaluate the impact that future planning alternatives has on the main factors affecting the citizens liveableness, as the development of the urban heat island or the carbon emissions level. Recent advances in bio-physical sciences have led to new methods and models to estimate energy, water, and carbon fluxes. Also, several studies have addressed urban metabolism issues, but few have integrated the development of numerical tools and methodologies for the analysis of fluxes between a city and its environment with its validation and application in terms of future development alternatives. Over the past several years and most recently within the European Project "BRIDGE", CMCC tested the ACASA (Advanced-Canopy-Atmosphere-Soil Algorithm) land-surface model over agricultural ecosystems (grapes), wild vegetation (forests and Mediterranean maquis), and urban (Florence) or mixed urban/vegetated land (Helsinki). Preliminary results show success in adapting the model to mixed urban systems in each of the main fluxes of interest. The model was improved to adapt it for urban environment, and key parameterizations of leaf-facet scale interactions permit separate accounting of both biogenic and anthropogenic flux sources and sinks, and allow for easy scenario building for simulations designed to test changes in land use or urban planning. In this way, sustainable planning strategies are proposed based on quantitative assessments of energy, water, and carbon fluxes. In this research, three planning alternatives accounting for an increase in urbanization intensity were tested by ACASA in Helsinki (Finland) for the year 2008. Helsinki is located at a high latitude and is characterized by a rapid urbanization that requires a substantial amount of energy for heating. The model behavior for the baseline and alternatives scenarios (i.e., urban classes with low, mid, and high residential intensity) during the entire year was investigated and the model results were compared with in situ Eddy Covariance energy and mass flux measurements. Model sensitivity to land use change and increased population density values was tested individually first. Then, the impact of the three urban classes was evaluated by analyzing energy and mass fluxes produced by combining soil type classes, varying from silty-clay-loam to sand and bedrock, to increased population density values, respectively. Preliminary results are shown and statistical analysis was performed in order to evaluate the model performance for each scenario. From this first analysis, it appeared that ACASA model was able to adequately reproduce the increase in urban heat island and carbon emissions related to rapid urbanization. Also, the model could be used to simulate urban fluxes at both local and regional scale (when coupled to the mesoscale model WRF) and help local administration in planning future sustainable development strategies.

Marras, S.; Casula, M.; Pyles, R. D.; Paw U, K. T.; Spano, D.

2011-12-01

157

Nested high-resolution modeling of the impact of urbanization on regional climate in three vast urban agglomerations in China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, the Weather Research and Forecasting Model, coupled to the Urban Canopy Model, is employed to simulate the impact of urbanization on the regional climate over three vast city agglomerations in China. Based on high-resolution land use and land cover data, two scenarios are designed to represent the nonurban and current urban land use distributions. By comparing the results of two nested, high-resolution numerical experiments, the spatial and temporal changes on surface air temperature, heat stress index, surface energy budget, and precipitation due to urbanization are analyzed and quantified. Urban expansion increases the surface air temperature in urban areas by about 1°C, and this climatic forcing of urbanization on temperature is more pronounced in summer and nighttime than other seasons and daytime. The heat stress intensity, which reflects the combined effects of temperature and humidity, is enhanced by about 0.5 units in urban areas. The regional incoming solar radiation increases after urban expansion, which may be caused by the reduction of cloud fraction. The increased temperature and roughness of the urban surface lead to enhanced convergence. Meanwhile, the planetary boundary layer is deepened, and water vapor is mixed more evenly in the lower atmosphere. The deficit of water vapor leads to less convective available potential energy and more convective inhibition energy. Finally, these combined effects may reduce the rainfall amount over urban areas, mainly in summer, and change the regional precipitation pattern to a certain extent.

Wang, Jun; Feng, Jinming; Yan, Zhongwei; Hu, Yonghong; Jia, Gensuo

2012-11-01

158

Quenching Urban Thirst: Growing Cities and Their Impacts on Freshwater Ecosystems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This peer-reviewed article from Bioscience journal is on the impacts of urban development on freshwater ecosystems. The development of water resources to satisfy urban water needs has had serious impacts on freshwater ecosystem integrity and on valuable ecosystem services, but positive trends are emerging that point the way toward a solution. We demonstrate this through case studies of water resource development in and around five large urban areas: Los Angeles, Phoenix, New York, San Antonio, and Atlanta. Providing freshwater ecosystems with the water flows necessary to sustain their health, while meeting the other challenges of urban water management, will require greatly increased water productivity in conjunction with improvements in the degree to which planning and management take ecosystem needs into account. There is great potential for improvement in both these areas, but ultimately water planners will also need to set limits on human alterations to river flows in many basins in order to spur greater water productivity and protect ecosystem water allocations before water supplies become overtaxed.

THOMAS W. FITZHUGH and BRIAN D. RICHTER (;)

2004-08-01

159

A study on the development of urbanization in China.  

PubMed

This paper focuses on urbanization trends in China. Urbanization is a change of social and economic structures during the process of industrialization. Such transformation is seen as the concentration in urban areas of population, nonagricultural sectors, capital, and market, which were previously distributed in the rural areas. Unlike other countries, industrialization in China began under the highly centralized system of a planned economy after the founding of the People's Republic. The accompanying urbanization has followed a trend of planned development which originated from the top and characterized primarily by the investment in urban infrastructure by the government and state-owned enterprises. In the late 1970s and early 1980s, however, a more market-oriented reform began which paved the way for the second wave of industrialization featuring the mushrooming of township enterprises. Since then, urbanization originated by private entities from the grassroots has played a significant role in China and is becoming the primary driving force in the country's urbanization process. In light of the present status of urbanization in China and the problems confronted, the key to healthy development is to ensure the balance between scale management of agriculture and the growth of rural nonagricultural businesses, between the development of nonagricultural businesses and rural urbanization, and between rural urbanization and the establishment of township infrastructures. PMID:12322420

Gu, S; Liu, C; Zhong, S

1998-01-01

160

The Department of Housing and Urban Development and Cooperative Extension: A Case for Urban Collaboration.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|U.S. Department of Agriculture-sponsored cooperative extension systems and university programs offered through the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development may find themselves in collaboration or conflict as both expand urban outreach activities. A case study in Des Moines, Iowa, illustrates how collaboration can occur and redundancy…

Borich, Timothy O.

2001-01-01

161

Development of an Urban Multilayer Radiation Scheme and Its Application to the Urban Surface Warming Potential  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To investigate how a three-dimensional structure such as an urban canyon can affect urban surface warming, we developed an urban multilayer radiation scheme. The complete consideration of multiple scattering of shortwave and longwave radiation using the radiosity method is an important feature of the present scheme. A brief description of this scheme is presented, followed by evaluations that compare its results with observations of the effective albedo and radiative temperature for urban blocks. Next, we calculate the urban surface warming potential (USWP), defined as the difference between the daily mean radiative temperature of urban surfaces (which are assumed to be black bodies), including their canyon effects and the daily mean temperature of a flat surface with the same material properties, under a radiative equilibrium state. Assuming standard material properties (albedo and emissivity of 0.4 and 0.9, respectively), we studied the sensitivity of the USWP to various aspect ratios of building heights to road widths. The results show that the temporally-averaged surface temperature of an urban area can be higher than that of a flat surface. In addition, we determined the overestimation of the effective temperature of urban surfaces induced by the overestimation of the radiation distribution to the walls when one uses a single-layer scheme for urban block arrays that have a low sky-view factor less than around 0.5.

Aoyagi, Toshinori; Takahashi, Shunji

2012-02-01

162

Spatial Linkages and Urban Economic Development. Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report summarizes the project Spatial Linkages and Urban Economic Development funded by the Economic Development Administration. The project consisted of five components: 1. Development of a time consistent set of spatial boundaries for neighborhoods...

L. Anselin S. J. Rey

2010-01-01

163

Land Subsidence and Urban Development in Jakarta (Indonesia)  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Jakarta is the capital city of Indonesia with a population of about 9 people, inhabiting an area of about 660 square-km. In the last three decades, urban development of Jakarta has grown very rapidly in the sectors of industry, trade, transportation, real estate and many others. This exponentially increase urban development introduce several environmental problems. Land subsidence is one

Hasanuddin Z. ABIDIN; Heri ANDREAS; Irwan GUMILAR; Mohammad GAMAL

164

Green TODs: marrying transit-oriented development and green urbanism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transit-oriented development (TOD) and green urbanism have gained attention as development models for charting a more sustainable urban future. These two built forms, however, are often dealt with separately, as distinct topics. This paper explores synergies that are created when neighbourhoods are designed as both green and transit-oriented and how ‘Green TOD’ can reduce a project's environmental footprint more than

Robert Cervero; Cathleen Sullivan

2011-01-01

165

Vocational Hope and Vocational Identity: Urban Adolescents' Career Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Emancipatory communitarian perspectives advocate for theory, research, and action that address the needs of oppressed groups, such as urban adolescents. Considering the dearth of instruments sensitive to the career development needs of urban adolescents, this study examined the component structure of three indices of career development with 220…

Diemer, Matthew A.; Blustein, David L.

2007-01-01

166

Transformative Professional Development: A Model for Urban Science Education Reform  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study presents a model of Transformative Professional Development (TPD) for use in sustained, collaborative, professional development of teachers in urban middle school science. TPD focuses on urban science teacher change and is responsive to school climate, teacher needs, and teacher beliefs with the intention of promoting change in…

Johnson, Carla C.; Marx, Sherry

2009-01-01

167

Urban and metropolitan development and the Clean Air Act  

Microsoft Academic Search

The U.S. Conference of Mayors Clean Air Program assists cities in exploring ways in which the objectives of the Clean Air Act can be reconciled with economic development of urban areas. Jointly sponsored by four federal agencies - the Environmental Protection Agency, and the Department of Commerce, Housing and Urban Development, and Transportation - the Clean Air Program conducted five

A. S. Hoffer; T. L. McClimon

1980-01-01

168

Examining Urban Students' Constructions of a STEM/Career Development Intervention over Time  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using consensual qualitative research, the study examines urban high school students' reactions to a science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) enrichment/career development program, their resources and barriers, their perspectives on the impact of race and gender on their career development, and their overall views of work and their…

Blustein, David L.; Barnett, Michael; Mark, Sheron; Depot, Mark; Lovering, Meghan; Lee, Youjin; Hu, Qin; Kim, James; Backus, Faedra; Dillon-Lieberman, Kristin; DeBay, Dennis

2013-01-01

169

Examining Urban Students' Constructions of a STEM/Career Development Intervention over Time  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Using consensual qualitative research, the study examines urban high school students' reactions to a science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) enrichment/career development program, their resources and barriers, their perspectives on the impact of race and gender on their career development, and their overall views of work and their…

Blustein, David L.; Barnett, Michael; Mark, Sheron; Depot, Mark; Lovering, Meghan; Lee, Youjin; Hu, Qin; Kim, James; Backus, Faedra; Dillon-Lieberman, Kristin; DeBay, Dennis

2013-01-01

170

Professional Development in the Modern Urban University  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Faculty members in urban universities face both special challenges and unique opportunities. Greater respect for urban universities produces greater expectations, and, inevitably, greater stress from both within and without, and this makes the cultivation of faculty resources more important than ever. By widening and deepening professional…

Wergin, Jon F.

2007-01-01

171

Classifying urban crashes for countermeasure development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Efforts to reduce urban crash rates have been hampered by a lack of information about motor vehicle crash types. The present study is based on a systematic sample of 4,526 police crash reports from four urban areas. The sample was weighted to give each area equal representation. Diagrams and narrative descriptions from each report were reviewed, and the most common

Richard A. Retting; Allan F. Williams; David F. Preusser; Helen B. Weinstein

1995-01-01

172

Impact of urban agriculture on malaria vectors in Accra, Ghana  

PubMed Central

To investigate the impact of urban agriculture on malaria transmission risk in urban Accra larval and adult stage mosquito surveys, were performed. Local transmission was implicated as Anopheles spp. were found breeding and infected Anopheles mosquitoes were found resting in houses in the study sites. The predominant Anopheles species was Anopheles gambiae s.s.. The relative proportion of molecular forms within a subset of specimens was 86% S-form and 14% M-form. Anopheles spp. and Culex quinquefasciatus outdoor biting rates were respectively three and four times higher in areas around agricultural sites (UA) than in areas far from agriculture (U). The annual Entomological Inoculation Rate (EIR), the number of infectious bites received per individual per year, was 19.2 and 6.6 in UA and U sites, respectively. Breeding sites were highly transitory in nature, which poses a challenge for larval control in this setting. The data also suggest that the epidemiological importance of urban agricultural areas may be the provision of resting sites for adults rather than an increased number of larval habitats. Host-seeking activity peaked between 2–3 am, indicating that insecticide-treated bednets should be an effective control method.

Klinkenberg, Eveline; McCall, PJ; Wilson, Michael D; Amerasinghe, Felix P; Donnelly, Martin J

2008-01-01

173

76 FR 12788 - Environmental Impact Statement for a Proposed Urban Rail system in Austin, TX  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Environmental Impact Statement for a Proposed Urban Rail system in Austin, TX AGENCY: Federal...Statement (EIS) for the proposed Urban Rail system in Austin, Texas. The EIS will...described more completely within, is an Urban Rail System, similar to Streetcar, that...

2011-03-08

174

Research for High-Quality Urban Teaching: Defining It, Developing It, Assessing It.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses the need to increase urban teacher supply and address urban teacher turnover by learning what makes teaching in urban schools fulfilling and offering related policy solutions. The paper looks at defining urban teacher quality, understanding urban teacher learning, developing processes and structures that support urban teacher learning,…

Oakes, Jeannie; Franke, Megan Loef; Quartz, Karen Hunter; Rogers, John

2002-01-01

175

Two on Planning and Development: Low Impact Development Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These two sites should be useful for urban planners or anyone interested in the issues surrounding development and "sprawl." This second site is home to the Low Impact Development Center (LID), a nonprofit organization dedicated to "research, development and training for water resource and natural resource protection issues" relating to development. Users can download .pdf documents, including information on pilot projects and a LID lit review. The links section of the site is particularly useful as it gives annotated links for a wide range of LID-related sites.

2001-01-01

176

Impact of Insurance Industry Practices of Urban Neighborhoods.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The role that insurance plays in the health of urban neighborhoods is examined in this Urban Consortium Information Bulletin. Urban residents and businesses are increasingly asking local governments to help with rising insurance rates, policy cancellation...

T. Miller

1980-01-01

177

The Integrated WRF/Urban Modeling System: Development, Evaluation, and Applications to Urban Environmental Problems  

EPA Science Inventory

To bridge the gaps between traditional mesoscale modelling and microscale modelling, the National Center for Atmospheric Research, in collaboration with other agencies and research groups, has developed an integrated urban modelling system coupled to the weather research and fore...

178

Urban waterfront rehabilitation: can it contribute to environmental improvements in the developing world?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper examines urban waterfront rehabilitation as a sustainable development strategy in Chinese cities. Though waterfront rehabilitation is increasingly being employed in developed world cities, the environmental benefits are not always clear. Nonetheless, China, like other developing countries, has shown interest in this strategy, for improving its local water quality, upgrading environmental management, and improving quality of life for urban residents. As developing world cities struggle to break from the traditional model of 'pollute first, clean up later', it is critical that they employ strategies which minimize or remediate environmental impacts while still promoting economic development. This paper analyzes three such projects: the Qinhuai River Environmental Improvement Project in Nanjing, the Suzhou Creek Rehabilitation in Shanghai, and the Wuli Lake Rehabilitation in Wuxi. A critical analysis indicates that these projects have served numerous purposes which contribute to the cities' sustainable development. Though waterways may not be restored to pristine conditions, the incremental improvements appear to be a necessary catalyst for sustainable urban development.

Vollmer, Derek

2009-04-01

179

Realising the diversity dividend: population diversity and urban economic development  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper critically examines the increasing use of population diversity as a source of competitive advantage and distinctiveness within policies promoting urban economic development. Rising levels of population diversity are a characteristic feature of many urban areas and this has led to increased policy attempts to realise a so-called ‘diversity dividend’. Yet much of this policy thinking demonstrates a restricted

Stephen Syrett; Leandro Sepulveda

2011-01-01

180

The development and redevelopment of urban villages in Shenzhen  

Microsoft Academic Search

China, like many other developing countries, has seen a huge influx of population into its cities coupled with urban expansion. The presence of massive numbers of rural migrants in cities does not result in slums or squatters due to institutional constraints. In the absence of government help, urban villages have evolved in many cities to provide adequate and affordable housing

Pu Hao; Richard Sliuzas; Stan Geertman

2011-01-01

181

Developing a New Scoping Model for Urban Water Sustainability  

Microsoft Academic Search

It was an early SWITCH decision to use the water and transport balance concepts underpinning the integrated urban water management scoping model Aquacycle and its successor UVQ as the basis for the development of a rapid urban water sustainability assessment tool. An Excel-based version of the new tool, provisionally referred to as Aquacycle plus, has been implemented and verified against

Ewan Last; Rae Mackay

2007-01-01

182

Urban Rail Transit Construction and Regional Economic Development in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of urban rail transit is a cause which should need huge investment. The current Chinese urban rail transit infrastructure is mainly manifested as an act of government investment. If inappropriately, it will not only cause a huge waste of money and a heavy financial burden upon the government, but also can be more likely to lead to a

Changfu Huang; Yuan Xia

2011-01-01

183

Urban development in Adana, Turkey, and its environmental consequences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rapid urbanization without effective management results in natural sources and a substantial part of the urban population being placed at risk from man?made environmental problems, which become increasingly serious. This paper examines the environmental problems of Adana, the sixth largest and most developed city in Turkey. Adana faced huge problems of water, soil and noise pollution, solid and liquid waste

H. Doygun

2005-01-01

184

Prioritizing Urban Children, Teachers, and Schools through Professional Development Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|How can we better educate disadvantaged urban students? Drawing on over five years' experience in a broad partnership involving twelve urban professional development schools in five districts, a teachers' union, a comprehensive public university, and several community-based organizations, the contributors to this volume describe how they worked…

Wong, Pia Lindquist, Ed.; Glass, Ronald David, Ed.

2009-01-01

185

Recent developments in urban marginality along Mexico's northern border  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyzes recent developments in urban marginality along Mexico's northern border. The northern border in the last two decades has undergone a significant economic transformation as well as an explosive population growth. The paper emphasizes that in spite of impressive economic indicators border cities in Mexico urban marginality continue; that is, economic gains have not trickled down as it

Sergio Peña

2005-01-01

186

Continued Effort and Success: An Urban Professional School Development Program  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The PDS partnership between the Cleveland State University Master of Urban Secondary Teaching (MUST) program and the Cleveland School of Science and Medicine (CSSM) has an established history of preparing educators to teach in urban schools. Recently awarded the NAPDS Award for Exemplary Professional Development School Achievement, this…

Corrigan, Diane G.; Weber, Edward J.; Francis, Kiffany

2013-01-01

187

Resilience Development of Preservice Teachers in Urban Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Retention of teachers in urban schools continues to plague public schools. Could universities increase the likelihood that teachers will stay in urban schools longer by preparing them for some of the adversities they may face and helping them develop resilience in relation to these challenges? Could we produce resilient educators before they…

Roselle, Rene

2007-01-01

188

Society, energy and materials: the contribution of urban metabolism studies to sustainable urban development issues  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urban areas, in particular cities, are significant consumers of materials and energy, either directly on their land areas or indirectly through the materials, goods and services they import or export; there are upstream and downstream consequences of the removal of resources and the discharge of waste materials (to the atmosphere, water and soils), with multiple impacts on the biosphere. The

Sabine Barles

2010-01-01

189

Impacts of urbanization on the hazard, vulnerability and risk of pluvial disaster  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The design capacity of an urban drainage system is often smaller than that of a fluvial protection facility such as levee. Many metropolises located in lowlands suffer pluvial inundation disaster more than pluvial flood disaster. For improving mitigation strategies, flood risk assessment is an important tool of non-structure flood control measures, especially in the countries suffering tropical cyclones and monsoon with high frequency. Locating in the hot zone of typhoon tracks in the Western Pacific, Taiwan suffers three to five typhoons annually. As results of urbanization in Taiwan, heavy rainfalls cause inundation disaster rising with the increase of population and the demand of land development. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the impacts of urbanization on the hazard, vulnerability and risk of pluvial disaster. This study applies the concept that risk is composed by hazard and vulnerability to assess the flood risk of human life. Two-dimensional overland-flow simulation is performed based on a design extreme rainfall event to calculate the score of pluvial hazard factors for human life, including flood depth, velocity and rising ratio. The score of pluvial vulnerability for human life is carried out according to the factors of resident and environment. The risk matrix is applied to show the risk by composing the inundation hazards and vulnerabilities. Additionally, flood simulations performed are concerned with different stages of drainage channel construction that indicates the progress of the pluvial disaster mitigation for evaluating the impacts of urbanization on inundation hazard. The changes of land use and density of population are concerned with the impacts of urbanization on inundation vulnerability. The Tainan City, one of the earliest cities on Taiwan, is selected as the case study because serious flooding was induced by Typhoon Morakot in 2009. Typhoon Morakot carried intense rain moved from the east slowly as low as 4 km/hr while the southwest monsoon also entered this region at the same time. The combined effect of these was that in the mid-area between typhoon and southwest monsoon, a sharp air-pressure gradient was built which unpredictably brought about heavy rainfall for about 72 hours in the study area to produce a record-breaking rainfall of 625mm in 48 hours. Through the assessing the impacts of urbanization on pluvial inundation risk of the Tainan City in the Typhoon Morakot event, the results show that the inundation hazard is decreased and the vulnerability is increased due to urbanization. Finally, the pluvial inundation risk maps for human life can provide useful information for setting mitigation strategies of flood inundation.

Pan, T.-Y.; Chang, T.-J.; Lai, J.-S.; Chang, H.-K.

2012-04-01

190

Urban Development Revisited: The Role of Neighborhood Needs and Local Participation in Urban Revitalization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditional models of economic development such as economic base and urban revitalization models have been found wanting. Both models rely on expert-based assessments of local development needs. More recent approaches call for a stronger focus on local development needs and resident skills as the basis for designing development strategies. One such neighborhood-based approach to development is presented in this paper.

Sabine U. OHara

2001-01-01

191

Fuzzy logic approach for description of meteorological impacts on urban air pollution species: a Hong Kong case study  

Microsoft Academic Search

An alternative approach to the conventional dynamic and photochemical models is presented to forecast urban air pollutants operationally. It is well known that there are some practical difficulties, which prevent the necessary progress in the development of these models as a forecasting tool. A fuzzy logic based method has been developed here to study the impact of meteorological factors on

Oleg M. Pokrovsky; Roger H. F. Kwok; C. N. Ng

2002-01-01

192

Impacts of urbanization on stream habitat and fish across multiple spatial scales.  

PubMed

We analyzed the relation of the amount and spatial pattern of land cover with stream fish communities, in-stream habitat, and baseflow in 47 small southeastern Wisconsin, USA, watersheds encompassing a gradient of predominantly agricultural to predominantly urban land uses. The amount of connected impervious surface in the watershed was the best measure of urbanization for predicting fish density, species richness, diversity, and index of biotic integrity (IBI) score; bank erosion; and base flow. However, connected imperviousness was not significantly correlated with overall habitat quality for fish. Nonlinear models were developed using quantile regression to predict the maximum possible number of fish species, IBI score, and base flow for a given level of imperviousness. At watershed connected imperviousness levels less than about 8%, all three variables could have high values, whereas at connected imperviousness levels greater than 12% their values were inevitably low. Connected imperviousness levels between 8 and 12% represented a threshold region where minor changes in urbanization could result in major changes in stream condition. In a spatial analysis, connected imperviousness within a 50-m buffer along the stream or within a 1.6-km radius upstream of the sampling site had more influence on stream fish and base flow than did comparable amounts of imperviousness further away. Our results suggest that urban development that minimizes amount of connected impervious surface and establishes undeveloped buffer areas along streams should have less impact than conventional types of development. PMID:11443388

Wang, L; Lyons, J; Kanehl, P; Bannerman, R

2001-08-01

193

ECOLOGICAL SUSTAINABILITY IN RAPIDLY URBANIZING WATERSHEDS: EVALUATING STRATEGIES DESIGNED TO MITIGATE IMPACTS ON STREAM ECOSYSTEMS  

EPA Science Inventory

Urbanization has profound impacts on the hydrology and ecology of streams via alteration in water temperatures, peak and base flows, and nutrient, sediment, and contaminant inputs. Storm water management (SWM) is commonly used to reduce these impacts; however, comprehensive w...

194

Analysis of climate change impacts on Urban Heat Island through geospatial data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Through spatio-temporal changes of micro and macro-meteorological conditions in metropolitan areas, climate change due to increased anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases and carbon dioxide (CO2) represents a long-term climate hazard with high potential to alter the intensity, temporal pattern, and spatial extent of the urban heat island (UHI). Instrumental observations and numerical reconstructions of global temperature evolution reveal a pronounced warming during the past 150 years. One expression of this warming is the observed increase in the occurrence of summer heat waves. Conceptually this increase is understood as a shift of the statistical distribution towards warmer temperatures, while changes in the width of the distribution are often considered small. Urban areas tend to experience a relatively higher temperature compared with the surrounding rural areas. This thermal difference, in conjunction with waste heat released from urban houses, transportation and industry, contribute to the development of urban heat island (UHI). Summer heat waves will affect much more urban temperatures and microclimates with adverse effects on human health. Remote sensing is a key application in global change science and urban climatology. Urbanization, the conversion of other types of land to uses associated with growth of populations and economy has a great impact on both micro-climate as well as macro-climate. Remote sensing derived biophysical attributes provide great potential for establishing parameters describing urban land cover/use (construction materials and the composition and structure of urban canopies) for improving the understanding of the urban surface energy budgets, and observing the urban heat island (UHI) effect.In this study, Landsat TM and ETM+ , MODIS, IKONOS images over Bucharest metropolitan area from 1988 to 2008 have been selected to retrieve the urban biogeophysical parameters and brightness temperatures in relation with changes of cover/use types. The spatial distribution of heat islands has been changed from a mixed pattern, where bare land, semi-bare land and land under development were warmer than other surface types, to extensive UHI. Our analysis showed that higher temperature in the UHI was located with a scattered pattern, which was related to certain land-cover types. In order to analyze the relationship between UHI and land-cover changes, this study attempted to employ a quantitative approach in exploring the relationship between temperature and several indices, including the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI), Normalized Difference Bareness Index (NDBaI) and Normalized Difference Build-up Index (NDBI). It was found that correlations between NDVI, NDWI, NDBaI and temperature are negative when NDVI is limited in range, but positive correlation is shown between NDBI and temperature.Such analysis is very helpful in urban mesoscale models and urban climate studies.

Zoran, M.

2010-09-01

195

Two on Planning and Development: Development at the Urban Fringe and Beyond  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These two sites should be useful for urban planners or anyone interested in the issues surrounding development and "sprawl." The first, a report from the Economic Research Service (ERS) of the US Department of Agriculture, covers the "forces driving development, its character and impacts on agriculture and rural communities, the means available to channel and control growth, and the pros and cons of potential Federal roles." Users can download each of the report's seven chapters (and references and appendix) separately or as one document in .pdf format.

Heimlich, Ralph E.; Anderson, William D.

2001-01-01

196

The impact of urban land expansion on soil quality in rapidly urbanizing regions in China: Kunshan as a case study  

Microsoft Academic Search

At a stage of rapid economic development and urbanization in China, most cities are faced with serious problems caused by\\u000a environment deterioration such as pollution, space press, afforestation degradation, and disordering. Kunshan City, one of\\u000a the most economically vigorous regions in China, has suffered a more prominent conflict between urbanization and environmental\\u000a safety. In this paper, urban land expansion in

Jian Zhang; Lijie Pu; Buzhuo Peng; Zhonggui Gao

2011-01-01

197

The impacts of urban landscape pattern on urban land surface temperature: —Taking Urumqi as an Example  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urbanization has become an important contributor for global warming and urban air temperature is rising gradually in all the cities. It means that urban land use and land cover (LULC) changed became critical in determining the urban environment quality. This paper presents an integrated study to investigate and identify landscape pattern which have the influence to increase of land surface

Wang Shanshan; Chen Xi; Bao An-ming; Alishir Kurban

2009-01-01

198

Urban planning, housing and the socio-economic development of women in a developing country  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper identifies aspects of housing and urban development legislation that inhibit the socio-economic progress of women in Cameroon. Three components of the legislation, namely the urban master plan, the land use decree and the building control ordinance are shown to imbibe elements that are overtly biased against women. Measures deemed capable of making housing and urban development policy outcomes

Ambe J. Njoh

1998-01-01

199

A water-quality monitoring network for assessing impacts of urban development in the Cherry Creek basin, Denver metropolitan area, Colorado, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Execution of a comprehensive monitoring program has been continued for characterizing water-quality conditions for surface waters within the lower part of the Cherry Creek basin, including Cherry Creek Reservoir. This is an area undergoing rapid land-use changes from agricultural lands to residential and commercial development. A data-collection network was comprised of several tributary-inflow, in-reservoir, reservoir-outflow, and detention- pond sites for

Timothy D. Steele; James R. Kunkel; Sue Z. Wemmert

200

Development and results of an urban lysimeter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Environmental issues and urban areas growth focus the interest on urban catchment runoff. Urban runoff is mainly generated by runoff over impervious surfaces (i.e., road, roof or parking). Different studies have shown that urban surfaces display an hydrological behaviour including several processes as interception, infiltration and evaporation. Our objective is to describe the different water budget components, of an asphalt pavement plate, in order to assess these processes. The approach is based on an urban lysimeter that allow to assess water gains and losses of the plate by measuring its weight variations. The mean surface area of the plate is about 1m2. The spatial scale of the study has deliberately been kept small to allow greater detail to the processes. Both surface runoff and infiltration through the plate are also weighed. In applying the mass conservation equation to the plate, the precipitation and evaporation terms can be deduced and thus assessing the water budget of the plate. Three different plates have been tested during four month each. Results reveal different hydrological behaviour between the plates. Infiltration varies from 3% to 58% of the total rainfall and runoff varies from 16% to 70 %. Whatever the sample, the evaporation rate is about 25%. Hydrodynamical characteristics of the asphalt plate are the mainly parameters that explain these observations.

Ramier, D.; Berthier, E.; Andrieu, H.

2003-04-01

201

Urban Management Curriculum Development Project. Volume II: Appendices 1-5.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Urban Management Curriculum Development Project was a 3 - year program to develop, test, and distribute new curriculum and training materials for urban managers and those training to become urban managers. At the start of the project, a selection comm...

L. Price D. Orem B. Cohn F. Fisher S. Claridy

1978-01-01

202

Criteria for Participation in the Urban Development Action Grant Program Should Be Refined.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

According to the Department of Housing and Urban Development's eligibility criteria for the Urban Development Action Grant Program, 52 percent, or 333 of the 646, large cities and urban counties in the United States are 'severely distressed' and eligible ...

1980-01-01

203

A framework for developing urban forest ecosystem services and ...  

Treesearch

... to help us quantify, monitor, and value the ecosystem services that benefit people. ... This study presents a framework for developing indicators using field data, ... and to monitor the effects of urban greening policies on human well- being.

204

Interactive model of urban development in residential areas in Skopje  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Development of residential areas in Skopje in a period after the 1963 earthquake led to an emergence of continuous pressure to the physical structure of the city. It's essential to analyse, explore and understand the processes that are shaping our city. The study explores interactive tool that exercise the complex analysis of architectural and urban structure within the Skopje's residential areas and proposes a 3D model to investigate local dynamics and best fitting urban indicators for development. Through series of analysis of diverse typologies, programs, spatial and functional configurations of the dwelling within the city, the study presents an effort by use of Interactive Visualization Tool (InViTo) for modeling of urban development to explicate spatial distribution, the process of transformation and acknowledge the regularities and suitability of development of urban form in Skopje's residential area and, in particular, the relationship between functions and its localizations.

Marina, O.; Masala, E.; Pensa, S.; Stavric, M.

2012-10-01

205

Developing Self-Esteem in urban youth  

Microsoft Academic Search

A group of Black, urban, teenage males from the Central Detroit catchment area were certified through the Comprehensive Employment and Training Act's (CETA) Summer Youth Employment Program to participate in a Youth and Self-Esteem project. The project's objective was to expose the participants to older Black males who have made significant contributions to community. Through research and direct interviews, we

M. B. Susan Sells

1984-01-01

206

CULTURAL DEVELOPMENT STRATEGIES AND URBAN REVITALIZATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Municipal governments around the globe increasingly turn to museums, performing arts centers, arts districts, and other cultural activities to promote and revitalize their cities. While a significant body of literature examines revitalization strategies that focus primarily around entertainment and commerce, the empirical body of research that specifically investigates the role of cultural strategies in urban redevelopment is still growing. This

Carl Grodach

2007-01-01

207

Engaging Urban Youths: A Youth Development Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The limited number of organized sport and exercise programs available in urban areas in comparison with more affluent communities, as well as the limited resources, the low pay of service providers who offer the programs (especially in youth work), and the besieged mentality of many professionals require our attention and assistance. Our field…

Hellison, Don

2009-01-01

208

Energy, Urban Policy, and Socioeconomic Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The energy crisis is a major urban issue with many implications for the poor, non-Whites, and the elderly. Limited and fixed incomes fail to keep pace with rising energy costs. Reductions in public services and employment opportunities caused by the energy crisis will also have a great effect on minorities. (Author/RLV)

Henderson, Lenneal J.

1978-01-01

209

Urban development and traffic accidents in Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Brazil started to experience high traffic accident rates since the 1960s, when road transportation began to be dominant and the number of motorized vehicles increased sharply. The severity of the problem was also related to the fast and uncontrolled urban growth, which allowed for the organization of an inherently dangerous circulation space, characterized by a complex pattern of traffic conflicts.

Eduardo Alcântara Vasconcellos

1999-01-01

210

Urban governance in relation to the operation of urban services in developing countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urbanisation has become a powerful force in developing countries and is a development which has taken place quickly and comparatively recently in Asia, Africa and Latin America. However, a review funded by the Ford Foundation, concluded that this phenomenon of urban growth has not been recognised adequately in research and policy, or in the development programmes of international assistance agencies.

Trudy Harpham; Kwasi A. Boateng

1997-01-01

211

Inequitable access to urban reforestation: the impact of urban political economy on housing tenure and urban forests  

Microsoft Academic Search

There has been substantial attention given to the benefits provided by urban forests, but little emphasis placed on the distribution of urban trees and the means by which trees are redistributed through urban reforestation efforts. This paper examines the 2002 program Greening Milwaukee, the city’s largest public\\/private tree planting program. The vast majority of trees planted for this program are

Harold A. Perkins; Nik Heynen; Joe Wilson

2004-01-01

212

Forecasting the combined effects of urbanization and climate change on stream ecosystems: from impacts to management options  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary 1. Streams collect runoff, heat, and sediment from their watersheds, making them highly vulnerable to anthropogenic disturbances such as urbanization and climate change. Forecasting the effects of these disturbances using process-based models is critical to identifying the form and magnitude of likely impacts. Here, we integrate a new biotic model with four previously developed physical models (downscaled climate projections,

Kären C. Nelson; Margaret A. Palmer; James E. Pizzuto; Glenn E. Moglen; Paul L. Angermeier; Robert H. Hilderbrand; Michael Dettinger; Katharine Hayhoe

2009-01-01

213

The Impacts of the Urban Environment on Extreme Rainfall from Warm Season Thunderstorm Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The spatial variability of extreme rainfall over urban environments and its change in time is examined from both a climatological and a case-study perspective. The areas of focus are the Washington D.C-Baltimore and New York City Metropolitan areas. Climatological analyses utilize Cloud-to-Ground lightning data from the National Lightning Detection Network (NLDN) and radar-rainfall products from the HydroNEXRAD project. The regional distribution of heavy convection, time-trends, initiation locations and extreme thunderstorm lifecycle characteristics are presented for both areas. Case studies include a collection of extreme events over the two Metropolitan areas that combine detailed observations and mesoscale modeling using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model with chemistry and cloud-aerosol interaction (WRF-Chem) capabilities. The impacts of the urban environment on extreme thunderstorm evolution, in terms of the Urban Heat Island (UHI), the Urban Canopy Layer (UCL), and urban aerosols are examined for this collection of events. High-resolution urban data is incorporated in the modeling scheme with the use of the Urban Canopy Model capability of WRF. Key results of the study include large differences in rainfall accumulation when aerosols and chemistry are included in the model that hint to the role of hygroscopic aerosols on extreme warm season thunderstorm evolution. The urban environment itself impacts the rainfall distribution and movement of extreme thunderstorms, in the urban vicinity, mainly through the impacts of the urban canopy layer and aerosols.

Ntelekos, A. A.; Smith, J. A.; Krajewski, W. F.; Baeck, M.; Zhang, Y.

2007-12-01

214

Cities of Consumption: The Impact of Corporate Practices on the Health of Urban Populations  

PubMed Central

The increasing concentration of the world’s population in cities and the growing accumulation of political and economic power by corporations create new threats to health and opportunities for improving global health. By considering the intersection of these two fundamental social determinants of well-being, we elucidate some of the mechanisms by which they influence the health of urban populations. After reviewing the changing historical impact of corporations on cities, we focus on the growth of consumption as a leading cause of mortality and morbidity and describe how the food, tobacco, automobile, and other industries promote unhealthy behaviors and lifestyles in urban settings. Cities are also sites for developing alternatives to unhealthy corporate practices, and we assess strategies used to modify practices that harm health.

Galea, Sandro

2008-01-01

215

Bridges to the Future: Forces Impacting Urban Economies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report briefly discusses forces which have been singled out by the author as being potentially important factors in the future of urban economies. Chapter headings include: Urbanization and Economic Change; Technology; Personal Consumption Patterns; P...

G. G. Schwartz

1978-01-01

216

The impact of urbanization on water and sediment chemistry of ...  

Treesearch

Source: Journal of Freshwater Ecology. ... The sediments of the urban pools were contaminated with elevated levels of barium, chromium, and lead. The water of the urban pools had higher pH, conductivity, and alkalinity and less dissolved ...

217

Impact on Professional Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The focus of this chapter is on the evidence to date that documents the impact of PDS engagement on four specific groups of participants: veteran P-12 teachers, university faculty, P-12 school principals, and parents and community members. In reviewing the literature concerning the impact of PDS engagement on these four groups, the authors'…

Nolan, Jim, Jr.; Grove, Doris; Leftwich, Horatio; Mark, Kelly; Peters, Brian

2011-01-01

218

Urban development results in stressors that degrade stream ecosystems  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In 2003, eighty-three percent of Americans lived in metropolitan areas, and considerable population increases are predicted within the next 50 years. Nowhere are the environmental changes associated with urban development more evident than in urban streams. Contaminants, habitat destruction, and increasing streamflow flashiness resulting from urban development have been associated with the disruption of biological communities, particularly the loss of sensitive aquatic biota. Every stream is connected downstream to other water bodies, and inputs of contaminants and (or) sediments to streams can cause degradation downstream with adverse effects on biological communities and on economically valuable resources, such as fisheries and tourism. Understanding how algal, invertebrate, and fish communities respond to physical and chemical stressors associated with urban development can provide important clues on how multiple stressors may be managed to protect stream health as a watershed becomes increasingly urbanized. This fact sheet highlights selected findings of a comprehensive assessment by the National Water-Quality Assessment Program of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) of the effects of urban development on stream ecosystems in nine metropolitan study areas.

Bell, Amanda H.; Coles, James F.; McMahon, Gerard; Woodside, Michael D.

2012-01-01

219

Modelling future urban scenarios in developing countries: an application case study in Lagos, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider urban sustainability issues in developing countries, with a focus on urban growth. The need for urban management tools that are able to provide prospective scenarios is addressed. Urban simulations can represent a useful approach to understanding the consequences of current planning policies -- or their incompleteness. Nevertheless, simulations of future urban growth are usually quite difficult without tools

José I Barredo; Luca Demicheli; Carlo Lavalle; Marjo Kasanko; Niall McCormick

2004-01-01

220

Urbanization impacts on the structure and function of forested wetlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

The exponential increase in population has fueled a significant demographic shift: 60% of the Earth's population will live in urban areas by 2030. While this population growth is significant in its magnitude, the ecological footprint of natural resource consumption and use required to sustain urban populations is even greater. The land use and cover changes accompanying urbanization (increasing human habitation

Stephen Faulkner

2004-01-01

221

The Health of Urban Populations in Developing Countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although our sketch of urban health in developing countries cannot substitute for the full treatment that the issues deserve,\\u000a we hope that at least it may at least suggest the unexploited potential of social epidemiological research to illuminate urban\\u000a health risks and behavior in these countries. The compartmentalization of health research to which we referred at the outset\\u000a is both

Mark R. Montgomery; Alex C. Ezeh

222

Modelling the catchment-scale environmental impacts of wastewater treatment in an urban sewage system for CO? emission assessment.  

PubMed

Water shortages and water pollution are a global problem. Increases in population can have further acute effects on water cycles and on the availability of water resources. Thus, wastewater management plays an important role in mitigating negative impacts on natural ecosystems and human environments and is an important area of research. In this study, we modelled catchment-scale hydrology, including water balances, rainfall, contamination, and urban wastewater treatment. The entire water resource system of a basin, including a forest catchment and an urban city area, was evaluated synthetically from a spatial distribution perspective with respect to water quantity and quality; the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) technique was applied to optimize wastewater treatment management with the aim of improving water quality and reducing CO? emissions. A numerical model was developed to predict the water cycle and contamination in the catchment and city; the effect of a wastewater treatment system on the urban region was evaluated; pollution loads were evaluated quantitatively; and the effects of excluding rainwater from the treatment system during flooding and of urban rainwater control on water quality were examined. Analysis indicated that controlling the amount of rainwater inflow to a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) in an urban area with a combined sewer system has a large impact on reducing CO? emissions because of the load reduction on the urban sewage system. PMID:20729603

Mouri, Goro; Oki, Taikan

2010-01-01

223

Regional Assessment of Urban Impacts on Landcover and Open Space Finds a Smart Urban Growth Policy Performs Little Better than Business as Usual  

PubMed Central

Assessment of landscape change is critical for attainment of regional sustainability goals. Urban growth assessments are needed because over half the global population now lives in cities, which impact biodiversity, ecosystem structure and ecological processes. Open space protection is needed to preserve these attributes, and provide the resources humans need. The San Francisco Bay Area, California, is challenged to accommodate a population increase of 3.07 million while maintaining the region’s ecosystems and biodiversity. Our analysis of 9275 km2 in the Bay Area links historic trends for three measures: urban growth, protected open space, and landcover types over the last 70 years to future 2050 projections of urban growth and open space. Protected open space totaled 348 km2 (3.7% of the area) in 1940, and expanded to 2221 km2 (20.2%) currently. An additional 1038 km2 of protected open space is targeted (35.1%). Urban area historically increased from 396.5 km2 to 2239 km2 (24.1% of the area). Urban growth during this time mostly occurred at the expense of agricultural landscapes (62.9%) rather than natural vegetation. Smart Growth development has been advanced as a preferred alternative in many planning circles, but we found that it conserved only marginally more open space than Business-as-usual when using an urban growth model to portray policies for future urban growth. Scenarios to 2050 suggest urban development on non-urban lands of 1091, 956, or 179 km2, under Business-as-usual, Smart Growth and Infill policy growth scenarios, respectively. The Smart Growth policy converts 88% of natural lands and agriculture used by Business-as-usual, while Infill used only 40% of those lands. Given the historic rate of urban growth, 0.25%/year, and limited space available, the Infill scenario is recommended. While the data may differ, the use of an historic and future framework to track these three variables can be easily applied to other metropolitan areas.

Thorne, James H.; Santos, Maria J.; Bjorkman, Jacquelyn H.

2013-01-01

224

Urbanization and its impacts on water environment in tumen river basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The trans-boundary scope of the Tumen River Basin (TRB) going through China, Russia and DPRK has been defined, and on the\\u000a basis of this, status of urbanization and its impacts on water environment in recent 20 years in TRB have been analyzed. Urbanization\\u000a in TRB can be characterized as: 1) There is medium level of overall urbanization in TRB. Certain

Shi-jun Wang; Dan Wang; Xiang-hua Yang

2002-01-01

225

A Qualitative Study of the Sources and Impact of Stress Among Urban Teachers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although urban teachers are at-risk of experiencing significant work-related stress, urban teacher stress has been neglected\\u000a in the research literature to date. Through semi-structured interviews conducted with a sample of K-4 urban teachers (N = 14) from three high-poverty schools in a large, Midwestern city, we examined teachers’ perceptions regarding sources and\\u000a impact of stress and the resources needed to address identified

Elisa S. ShernoffTara; Tara G. Mehta; Marc S. Atkins; Raechel Torf; Jordan Spencer

2011-01-01

226

Impact of temperature on oxidant photochemistry in urban, polluted rural and remote environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact of temperature on formation of O3 and odd nitrogen photochemistry is investigated using urban-, regional-, and global-scale simulations. Urban and polluted rural environments are explored with a regional simulation derived from a specific episode in the midwestern United States. The simulations predict that O3 increases with temperature in both urban and polluted rural environments. The O3-temperature relation is

Sanford Sillman; Perry J. Samson

1995-01-01

227

Impacts of Urbanization on Groundwater Quality and Recharge in a Semi-arid Alluvial Basin  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The management of groundwater resources is paramount in semi-arid regions experiencing urban development. In the southwestern United States, enhancing recharge of urban storm runoff has been identified as a strategy for augmenting groundwater resources. An understanding of how urbanization may impac...

228

Impacts of urban transportation and land use policies on transportation energy consumption  

Microsoft Academic Search

This dissertation explores relationships between energy consumption in urban passenger transportation, land use, transportation system characteristics, and travel behavior. The research was conducted to develop analytical techniques to predict the consequences of some of the alternative urban transportation energy conservation strategies currently being contemplated. Several policies were identified which could result in urban growth and transportation systems usage patterns having

Peskin

1977-01-01

229

Environmental impacts of urban growth from an integrated dynamic perspective: A case study of Shenzhen, South China  

Microsoft Academic Search

China is home to one-fifth of the world's population and that population is increasingly urban. The landscape is also urbanizing. Although there are studies that focus on specific elements of urban growth, there is very little empirical work that incorporates feedbacks and linkages to assess the interactions between the dynamics of urban growth and their environmental impacts. In this study,

Burak Güneralp; Karen C. Seto

2008-01-01

230

Early urban development in the Near East.  

PubMed

It has been thought that the first cities in the Near East were spatially extensive and grew outward from a core nucleated village while maintaining a more or less constant density in terms of persons or households per unit of area. The general applicability outside of the Near East of this southern Mesopotamian.derived model has been questioned recently, and variations from it are increasingly recognized. We can now demonstrate that such variation was present at the beginnings of urbanism in the Near East as well. PMID:17761874

Ur, Jason A; Karsgaard, Philip; Oates, Joan

2007-08-31

231

Stream ecosystems change with urban development  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The healthy condition of the physical living space in a natural stream—defined by unaltered hydrology (streamflow), high diversity of habitat features, and natural water chemistry—supports diverse biological communities with aquatic species that are sensitive to disturbances. In a highly degraded urban stream, the poor condition of the physical living space—streambank and tree root damage from altered hydrology, low diversity of habitat, and inputs of chemical contaminants—contributes to biological communities with low diversity and high tolerance to disturbance.

Bell, Amanda H.; James, F. Coles; McMahon, Gerard

2012-01-01

232

Effects of urban development on ant communities: implications for ecosystem services and management.  

PubMed

Research that connects the effects of urbanization on biodiversity and ecosystem services is lacking. Ants perform multifarious ecological functions that stabilize ecosystems and contribute to a number of ecosystem services. We studied responses of ant communities to urbanization in the Lake Tahoe basin by sampling sites along a gradient of urban land development. We sampled ant communities, measured vegetation characteristics, quantified human activities, and evaluated ant-community responses by grouping ants into service-providing units (SPUs), defined as a group of organisms and their populations that perform specific ecosystem services, to provide an understanding of urbanization impacts on biodiversity and their delivery of ecosystem services. Species richness and abundance peaked at intermediate levels of urban development, as did the richness of 3 types of ant SPUs (aerators, decomposers, and compilers). With increasing land development aerator and decomposer ants significantly declined in abundance, whereas compiler ants significantly increased in abundance. Competing models demonstrated that precipitation was frequently among the strongest influences on ant community structure; however, urban development and human activities also had a strong, negative influence on ants, appearing in most models with DeltaAIC(c) < 2 for species richness and abundance patterns of SPUs and generalists. Response diversity was observed within SPUs, which suggests that the corresponding ecosystem services were maintained until development reached 30-40%. Our data provide evidence that ecosystem functions, such as water infiltration and soil productivity, may be diminished at sites subject to greater levels of urbanization and that conserving ant communities and the ecosystem services they provide could be an important target in land-use planning and conservation efforts. PMID:18778268

Sanford, Monte P; Manley, Patricia N; Murphy, Dennis D

2008-09-04

233

Development of capacitor hybrid system for urban buses  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors have developed a capacitor hybrid vehicle equipped with a newly developed capacitor system and a miller cycle CNG engine for low floor urban buses. The CNG engine drives a generator at over 40% thermal efficiency. The newly developed capacitor system, since it has high energy and power density, is able to regenerate almost all the braking energy of

Masakazu Sasaki; Shuuichi Araki; Tatsuji Miyata; Takayuki Kawaji

2002-01-01

234

An integrated urban development and ecological simulation model  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper develops an integrated strategy to model the urban development and ecological dynamics in the Central Puget Sound Region. This effort is part of the Puget Sound Regional Integrated Synthesis model (PRISM) - an interdisciplinary initiative at the University of Washington aiming to develop a dynamic and integrated understanding of the environmental and human systems in the Puget Sound.

Marina Alberti; Paul Waddell

2000-01-01

235

Modeling impacts of increased urban vegetation on ozone air quality in the South Coast Air Basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyzes the possible effects of increased urban vegetation on the ozone air quality in California's South Coast Air Basin (SoCAB). Air quality impacts are accounted for through mesoscale meteorological and photochemical modeling of a late-August period. The simulations indicate that the net effect of increased urban vegetation is a decrease in ozone concentrations if the additional vegetation (trees)

Haider Taha

1996-01-01

236

Watershed-Scale Impacts of Forest Buffers on Water Quality and Runoff in Urbanizing Environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forestry practices that are applied to buffer regions can be used as a strategy to improve water quality and flow regime in urbanizing watersheds. This study evaluates watershed-wide impacts of buffering urban forestry practices. Watershed simulation modeling is used to study the effectiveness of best management practices BMPs scenarios representing riparian and street buffers on water quality, quantity, and open

Michelle Matteo; Timothy Randhir; David Bloniarz

2006-01-01

237

A Review of Quantitative Methods for Evaluating Impacts of Climate Change on Urban Water Infrastructure  

EPA Science Inventory

It is widely accepted that global climate change will impact the regional and local climate and alter some aspects of the hydrologic cycle, which in turn can affect the performance of the urban water supply, wastewater and storm water infrastructur4e. How the urban water infrastr...

238

Impact assessment of urban wet-weather sewer discharges on the Vernavola river (Northern Italy)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The research concerned the ecological impact assessment of urban wet-weather sewer discharges on the Vernavola river (Pavia, Northern Italy) focusing both on the sewer system and on the receiving natural environment. The complexity of the urban drainage system (combined sewer networks, pumping stations, stormwater storage tanks, etc.) was characterised through in situ inspections, measurements and numerical modelling. Various dry- and

S. Todeschini; S. Papiri; R. Sconfietti

2011-01-01

239

Impact of future urban expansion on hydroclimatology in the Upper Great Lakes Region  

Microsoft Academic Search

Global land cover\\/land use (LCLU) is changing notably due to expansion of urban areas. The associated reduction in infiltration and runoff lag time have long been the domain of the urban hydrologist, while this landscape transformation also leads to changes in land surface heterogeneities, resulting in alterations of land-atmosphere interactions and convective processes. The integrated impacts of both impervious area

L. Bowling; K. Cherkauer; M. Lei; V. Mishra; D. Niyogi; B. Pijanowski; D. Ray; G. Yang

2008-01-01

240

The Impact of Urbanization on Global Surface Temperature Trends  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rapid urbanization over the past half century has contributed to a warming bias in some Global Historical Climatological Network (GHCN) temperature records. The extent to which this urban warming bias contributes to global temperature trends remains largely unquantified both in raw and homogenized datasets, and no clear consensus exists on the need for specific urbanization corrections in global temperature reconstructions. In order to determine the magnitude of urbanization bias in the dataset, and to quantify the extent to which the newly adopted GHCN homogenization procedures correct for it, we examine minimum, maximum, and mean temperature trends from stations classified using numerous proxies for urbanity including MODIS, urban boundaries (GRUMP), satellite nightlights, and impermeable surface area, each created from publicly available high-resolution GIS datasets. These urbanity proxies are used to segment stations into separate urban and rural sets, and temperature differences between the two are calculated using both spatial gridding and station pairing approaches. The analysis is performed on raw and homogenized monthly data derived from the Global Historical Climatology Network (GHCN) Daily dataset that includes approximately 24,000 temperature measurement stations during the period from 1960 to present. Homogenized data that have been further adjusted using NASA GISS's Satellite Nightlight urban correction are also evaluated. The magnitude of the urbanization bias in the raw data and the degree to which this bias is mitigated with homogenization is discussed.

Hausfather, Z.; Mosher, S.; Menne, M. J.; Williams, C. N.; Stokes, N.; Jones, D.

2011-12-01

241

The presence and impact of environmental lead in passerine birds along an urban to rural land use gradient.  

PubMed

Contamination of wetlands by lead shot and lead fishing weights has generated a tremendous amount of research into the impact of lead poisoning on wildlife. Less well known are the potential threats to wildlife posed by lead contaminants still prevalent in urban environments. Despite a U.S. federal ban on lead-based paint and gasoline in 1978 and 1986, respectively, lead residue is still prevalent at hazardous levels in urban and suburban environments and may present a health concern for people and wildlife, particularly birds. We quantified soil lead content in residential properties across a rural-to-urban land-use gradient in the metropolitan Washington, D.C. area and then assessed the impact of lead contamination on body condition in adult and nestling passerine birds at the same sites. Soil lead concentration was significantly higher in urban sites compared to rural sites. Accordingly, adult and nestling birds captured in urban sites had significantly higher blood lead concentrations than their rural counterparts. However, only gray catbird nestlings exhibited lower body condition as a result of lead contamination. Birds continue to breed in urban habitats despite numerous negative attributes to these environments including light, noise, pedestrian and toxic contaminants, such as lead. These sites often contain habitat that appears suitable for roosting, nesting, and foraging and thus may act as an ecological trap for breeding birds because breeding success is often negatively associated with increasing urbanization. Lead contamination is one more feature of urbanization that birds and other wildlife must face in an increasingly developed world. PMID:17549547

Roux, Karin E; Marra, Peter P

2007-06-01

242

Urban Sprawl Impacts on the Carbon and Water Cycles in the United States  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As recurrent construction booms keep expanding the urban suburban areas in the continental United States with the typical low-density pattern often referred to as sprawl, so is the amount of urban vegetation. Irrigation and fertilization treatments common for most of the lawns and trees of the American urban and suburban landscape result in urban areas maintaining a significant role in the terrestrial carbon cycle, but at a high cost in resources, especially water. Here we analyze almost a decade (1992/93-2000) of urban land development in the conterminous US inferred from the nighttime citylights data from DMSP/OLS. We use EOS NDVI data and the NASA-CASA model to provide a spatially explicit assessment of the contribution of urban areas to the continental net primary productivity and compare it to pre-urban and potential conditions. We also present an assessment of the amount of water resources required to maintain current levels of urban net primary productivity.

Milesi, C.; Potter, C.; Elvidge, C.; Nemani, R.

2005-12-01

243

Impacts of Urbanization and Biofuels Production on The Price of Land in the Corn Belt: A Farm-Level Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study uses hedonic techniques to estimate the impact of urban influence, increased bio-fuels production, and environmental factors on land prices in the Corn Belt. We hypothesize that urban influence and ethanol production increase land prices on Corn Belt farms. Although not all states in the Corn Belt are entirely subject to urban influence and ethanol production impacts, some states

Richard Nehring; Kenneth Erickson; Vince Breneman; Alexandre Vialou; David Nulph

244

Impact of Educational Interventions on Organizational Culture at an Urban Federal Agency.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study on the impact of educational interventions on organizational culture is an evaluation of a major educational initiative undertaken by an urban federal agency, namely the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Langley Research Center (N...

J. M. Mckenzie

1994-01-01

245

DREDGING IMPACT ON AN URBANIZED FLORIDA BAYOU: EFFECTS ON BENTHOS AND ALGAL-PERIPHYTON.  

EPA Science Inventory

Environmental effects of dredging events have been uncommonly reported for shallow, residential estuaries characteristic of the Gulf of Mexico region. The objective of this study was to determine the impact of hydraulic dredging on an urbanized estuary. Physicochemical quality, ...

246

Research on Transformation of Urban Development Mode in China: From City Marketing to Endogenous Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Under the background of global economic crisis, more and more local governments regard city marketing as a significant mode for urban development so as to strengthen urban competitiveness for more external development resources. However, since the social economic system of China is currently in a transitional period, decentralization, marketization and globalization urge the local governments to bear a strong developing

Yu Tao; Zhang Jing-xiang

2009-01-01

247

Impacts of urban levels of ozone on Pinus halepensis foliage.  

PubMed

Between May and September, 1996, seedlings of Pinus halepensis were placed at a site adjacent to an automated air pollution monitoring station within the urban area of Florence. Additional 'control' plants were placed in chambers ventilated with charcoal/Purafil(R)-filtered air. All trees were well watered throughout the whole experimental period. During the exposure period, ambient levels of sulphur dioxide were very low, whilst the accumulated hourly exposure to ozone above 40 ppb (i.e. AOT40) exceeded 20000 ppb h(-1) - peak hourly ozone concentrations rising to levels above 100 ppb. Trees exposed to ambient levels of air pollution exhibited typical symptoms of ozone damage (chlorotic mottle) on previous year needles toward the end of the summer. Similar symptoms were not observed on equivalent trees exposed to filtered-air, nor were visible symptoms accompanied by insect or pest infestation. Anatomical and ultrastructural observations made on symptomatic needles revealed degeneration in mesophyll cells bordering sub-stomatal cavities and alterations in chloroplast ultrastructure (fat accumulation, starch and tannin pattern modifications). These observations are consistent with the known effects of air pollutants (namely ozone) recorded in the literature. Findings are discussed in relation to the impacts of ozone on P. halepensis in the Mediterranean region. PMID:10927130

Soda; Bussotti; Grossoni; Barnes; Mori; Tani

2000-08-01

248

Problems of modern urban drainage in developing countries.  

PubMed

Socio-economic factors in developing countries make it more difficult to solve problems of urban drainage than in countries that are more advanced. Factors inhibiting the adoption of modern solutions include: (1) in matters of urban drainage, 19th-century sanitary philosophy still dominates; (2) both legal and clandestine land settlement limits the space that modern solutions require; (3) contamination of storm runoff by foul sewage, sediment and garbage prevents adoption of developed-country practices; (4) climatic and socio-economic factors favour the growth of epidemics where runoff is retained for flood-avoidance and to increase infiltration; (5) lack of a technological basis for adequate drainage management and design; (6) lack of the interaction between community and city administration that is needed to obtain modern solutions to urban drainage problems. Awareness of these difficulties is fundamental to the search for modern and viable solutions appropriate for developing countries. PMID:11989890

Silveira, A L L

2002-01-01

249

Questionnaires for Urban Development Action Grant (UDAG) Evaluation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Fourth in a series of volumes designed to develop an evaluation design for the Urban Development Action Grant (UDAG) program, this volume consists of a set of data collection instruments to be administered to various public officials, agency staff, and pr...

D. Culp L. Haydon G. Reigeluth N. Rockler J. Tilney

1981-01-01

250

Urban Tourism in Developing Countries: A case of Malaysia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines and analyses the dynamics of cities in developing countries that have led to an increase in their tourism profile through a review of trends in urban tourism such as product development and tourist demand. This is seen as a significant sector by authorities to generate economic growth. It has also led to an increase in planning for

Hairul Ismail; Tom Baum; Jithendran Kokranikkal

251

Developing a Sustained Interest in Science among Urban Minority Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study draws upon qualitative case study to investigate the connections between the "funds of knowledge" that urban, high-poverty students bring to science learning and the development of a sustained interest in science. We found that youth developed a sustained interest in science when: (1) their science experiences connected with how they…

Basu, Sreyashi Jhumki; Barton, Angela Calabrese

2007-01-01

252

IMPACTS OF URBAN COYOTES ON PEOPLE AND PETS IN NEW YORK STATE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract: Coyotes ,(Canis latrans) are currently common ,in most ,of New ,York State with an apparent increase of coyotes,in urban areas. Coyotes can potentially cause a variety of effects and impacts. Urban ,coyotes can impact the general public by causing ,safety concerns for children and pets and by causing,feelings of grief for attacked and missing pets. Politicians and government,agencies can

Louis T. Berchielli

253

Impact of Urban Sprawl on Water Quality in Eastern Massachusetts, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study of water quality, land use, and population variations over the past three decades was conducted in eastern Massachusetts\\u000a to examine the impact of urban sprawl on water quality using geographic information system and statistical analyses. Since\\u000a 1970, eastern Massachusetts has experienced pronounced urban sprawl, which has a substantial impact on water quality. High\\u000a spatial correlations are found between

Jun Tu; Zong-Guo Xia; Keith C. Clarke; Allan Frei

2007-01-01

254

Coupling urban event-based and catchment continuous modelling for combined sewer overflow river impact assessment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since the Water Framework Directive (WFD) was passed in year 2000, the protection of water bodies in the EU must be understood in a completely different way. Regarding to combined sewer overflows (CSOs) from urban drainage networks, the WFD implies that CSOs cannot be accepted because of their intrinsic features, but must be assessed for their impact on the receiving water bodies in agreement with specific environmental aims. Consequently, both, the urban system and the receiving one must be jointly analysed to evaluate their impact. In this context, a coupled scheme is presented in this paper to assess the CSOs impact in a river system in Torrelavega (Spain). First, an urban model is developed to characterise statistically the CSOs frequency, volume and duration. The main feature of this first model is the fact of being event-based: the system is modelled with some built synthetic storms which cover adequately the probability range of the main rainfall descriptors, i.e., rainfall event volume and peak intensity. Thus, CSOs are characterised in terms of their occurrence probability. Secondly, a continuous and distributed basin model is built to assess the river response at different points in the river network. This model was calibrated initially on a daily scale and downscaled later to the hourly scale. The main objective of this second element of the scheme is to provide the most likely state of the receiving river when a CSO occurs. By combining results of both models, CSO and river flows are homogeneously characterised from a statistical point of view. Finally, results from both models were coupled to estimate the final concentration of some analysed pollutants (the biochemical oxygen demand, BOD, and the total ammonium, NH4+), in the river just after the spills.

Andrés-Doménech, I.; Múnera, J. C.; Francés, F.; Marco, J. B.

2010-05-01

255

IMPACT OF A PAID URBAN FIELD EXPERIENCE ON TEACHER CANDIDATES' WILLINGNESS TO WORK IN URBAN SCHOOLS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes a paid field experience designed to investigate teacher candidates' willingness to teach in urban schools. Seventy-three teacher candidates each participated in an urban field experience including 90 hours of tutoring and 12 hours of training. Data from pre and post surveys indicated no significant difference as the number of previous field hours increased, from the beginning to

Marya Grande; Barbara Burns; Raquel Schmidt; Michele A. Marable

2009-01-01

256

Impact of a Paid Urban Field Experience on Teacher Candidates' Willingness to Work in Urban Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article describes a paid field experience designed to investigate teacher candidates' willingness to teach in urban schools. Seventy-three teacher candidates each participated in an urban field experience including 90 hours of tutoring and 12 hours of training. Data from pre and post surveys indicated no significant difference as the number…

Grande, Marya; Burns, Barbara; Schmidt, Raquel; Marable, Michele A.

2009-01-01

257

[Hygiene research in solving the health aspects of urban development].  

PubMed

The urban development and the problems it raises at present, are in direct relation with the conditions, which affect considerably the health of the population. The territorial and settlement system, the urban planning on ecological basis, the new methods of building in applying polymeric materials, the conditions of the environment in health establishments, the regulations of the physical factors, noise and electromagnetic energy are subject to the hygienic studies, in which the Institute of Hygiene and Occupational Health is engaged. The connective unit in the variety of the mentioned fields of investigation is the health of the inhabitants and finding the right way in its protection and keeping. The attitudes of prophylaxis, the creation and establishing of urban environment, corresponding to the conflict-free existence and potentiation of the health development of the inhabitants, are clarified, as they are related to the basic trends of the world Health Organization, whose targets are "Health for All by the year 2000". PMID:3241801

Efremov, E; Chuchkova, M; Lozanov, L; Iotov, L; Toshkov, S

1988-01-01

258

Using Cellular Automata Model to Simulate the Impact of Urban Growth Policy on Environment in Danshuei Township, Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The impact of urban growth on eco-environment leading to global climate change has attracted great concern. In this research,\\u000a we use NetLogo, a cellular automation based software, to simulate the development process of Danshuei from an original settlement\\u000a to a highly developed satellite town of the Taipei Metropolitan area, Taiwan. The study area is a good case showing how to

Feng-Tyan Lin; Wan-Yu Tseng

2010-01-01

259

Impact of urbanization on the groundwater regime in a fast growing city in central India.  

PubMed

This paper describes the impact of urbanization on the groundwater regime in a fast growing city, Solapur, in central India, giving special emphasis on the management of the present and ultimate demand of water in 2,020 AD. The objective is to apprise the city planners and administrators of the effects of urbanization on the groundwater regime in a fast growing medium-sized city in a developing country where the infrastructure developments are not in conformity with the rapid growth in population. Solapur city with an area of 178.57 km2 receives a recharge of about 24 million m3 of groundwater from various sources annually. Reduction in recharge, as conventionally assumed due to the impact of urbanization, could not, however, be well established. Instead, there was a rise in recharge as water use in the city grew from time to time and more and more water was supplied to satisfy the human needs. Compared to mid-1970s, groundwater levels have increased within the main city area due to increased recharge and decreased groundwater abstraction. However, outside the main city area, there is a general decline in groundwater levels due to increased groundwater utilization for irrigation purposes. Groundwater quality deterioration has been highly localized. Water quality has deteriorated during the last 10 years, especially in dugwells, mainly due to misuse and disuse of these structures and poor circulation of groundwater. However, in case of borewells, comparison of the present water quality with that in mid-1970s and early 1980s does not show any perceptible change. Deeper groundwater tapped by borewells can still be used for drinking purposes with caution. PMID:18205022

Naik, Pradeep K; Tambe, Jivesh A; Dehury, Biranchi N; Tiwari, Arun N

2008-01-18

260

Effects of Global Change on U.S. Urban Areas: Vulnerabilities, Impacts, and Adaptation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Human settlements, both large and small, are where the vast majority of people on the Earth live. Expansion of cities both in population and areal extent, is a relentless process that will accelerate in the 21st century. As a consequence of urban growth both in the United States and around the globe, it is important to develop an understanding of how urbanization will affect the local and regional environment. Of equal importance, however, is the assessment of how cities will be impacted by the looming prospects of global climate change and climate variability. The potential impacts of climate change and variability has recently been enunciated by the IPCC's "Climate Change 2007" report. Moreover, the U.S. Climate Change Science Program (CCSP) is preparing a series of "Synthesis and Assessment Products" (SAP) reports to support informed discussion and decision making regarding climate change and variability by policy makers, resource managers, stakeholders, the media, and the general public. We are working on a chapter of SAP 4.6 ("Analysis of the Effects of Global Chance on Human Health and Welfare and Human Systems") wherein we wish to describe the effects of global climate change on human settlements. This paper will present the thoughts and ideas that are being formulated for our SAP report that relate to what vulnerabilities and impacts will occur, what adaptation responses may take place, and what possible effects on settlement patterns and characteristics will potentially arise, on human settlements in the U.S. as a result of climate change and climate variability. We wish to present these ideas and concepts as a "work in progress" that are subject to several rounds of review, and we invite comments from listeners at this session on the rationale and veracity of our thoughts. Additionally, we wish to explore how technology such as remote sensing data coupled with modeling, can be employed as synthesis tools for deriving insight across a spectrum of impacts (e.g. public health, urban planning for mitigation strategies) on how cities can cope and adapt to climate change and variability. This latter point parallels the concepts and ideas presented in the U.S. National Academy of Sciences, Decadal Survey report on "Earth Science Applications from Space: National Imperatives for the Next Decade and Beyond" wherein the analysis of the impacts of climate change and variability, human health, and land use change are listed as key areas for development of future Earth observing remote sensing systems.

Quattrochi, D. A.; Wilbanks, T. J.; Kirshen, P. H.; Romero-Lankao, P.; Rosenzweig, C. E.; Ruth, M.; Solecki, W.; Tarr, J. A.

2007-05-01

261

The Development of Political Thinking in Urban Adolescents.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The development of political thinking during adolescence was studied by interviewing 463 suburban and urban schoolchildren of average intelligence in grades 6, 8, 10, and 12. Each subject was interviewed individually by means of a Piaget-type questionnaire. Analysis of the questionnaire responses revealed a very distinctive developmental pattern.…

Gallatin, Judith

262

Intelligent urban development: An introduction to a participatory approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electronic solutions are increasingly a part of urban management and development. Whilst these have been viewed mainly in terms of their potential for reducing public expenditure, this paper argues that there are other major social, economic and political issues for which electronic solutions offer potential, but which have received less attention. For example, in terms of one of the most

Jeff Turner; Len Holmes; Frances C. Hodgson

2000-01-01

263

Critical Consciousness and Career Development among Urban Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study explored the role of critical consciousness as a key factor in predicting progress in career development among urban high school students. Critical consciousness, or the capacity to recognize and overcome sociopolitical barriers, was operationalized through sociopolitical analysis and sociopolitical control. Canonical correlation…

Diemer, Matthew A.; Blustein, David L.

2006-01-01

264

U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development: Periodicals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The U.S Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) publishes three periodicals aimed towards urban development professionals, policy makers, and scholars. This website brings all three of these periodicals together in one place, and visitors can look through current and past issues of "ResearchWorks", "Cityscape", and the quarterly report, "U.S. Housing Market Conditions". For those interested in a more general-interest publication, "Cityscape" is a good bet, as it contains pieces on housing vouchers, ethnically diverse urban neighborhoods, and the legacy of the Fair Housing Act. "ResearchWorks" is the official newsletter of HUD's Office of Policy Development & Research, and here visitors can read about recent case studies and success stories in the area of urban development. There are some interesting theme issues here as well, including "Universities Rebuilding America" and "The Public's Views of Affordable Housing". Finally, the "U.S. Housing Market Conditions" reports consist of statistical data and written reports on the quarterly status of economic and housing market trends for 10 geographical regions.

2007-05-05

265

Urban waste management: Development in Helsinki 1945-1983  

Microsoft Academic Search

Viable waste management is crucial for the functioning of a city. Still, the urban history of waste management and its historical development in the capital of Finland has been researched only little. In post-war Helsinki the policy makers were struggling with the demands to improve the waste disposal methods towards more hygienic ones, the increased amount of waste to be

Paula Schönach

266

Professional Development for Urban Principals in Underperforming Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Principals in America's lowest performing urban schools face many challenges, including public scrutiny as a consequence of being identified as such by state and federal legislation. These special circumstances have implications for the professional development of the leaders of these schools. This article chronicles the work of the Connecticut…

Houle, Judith C.

2006-01-01

267

Developing a variable-scale map projection for urban areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

An algorithm for the development of a variable-scale map projection is presented and the code given in C. Such constructs have applications in urban areas where the central zones, which are detailed densely are to be displayed at a larger scale than the surrounding suburbs which are more extensive, but with sparser mappable features.

D. Fairbairn; G. Taylor

1995-01-01

268

Impacts of Urban Landuse on Macroinvertebrate Communities in Southeastern Wisconsin Streams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Macroinvertebrates were used to assess the impact of urbanization on stream quality across a gradient of watershed imperviousness in 43 southeastern Wisconsin streams. The percentage of watershed connected imperviousness was chosen as the urbanization indicator to examine impact of urban land uses on macroinvertebrate communities. Most urban land uses were negatively correlated with the Shannon diversity index, percent of pollution intolerant Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera individuals, and generic richness. Nonurban land uses were positively correlated with these same metrics. The Hilsenhoff biotic index indicated that stream quality declined with increased urbanization. Functional feeding group metrics varied across a gradient of urbanization, suggesting changes in stream quality. Proportions of collectors and gatherers increased, while proportions of filterers, scrapers, and shredders decreased with increased watershed imperviousness. This study demonstrated that urbanization severely degraded stream macroinvertebrate communities, hence stream quality. Good stream quality existed where imperviousness was less than 8 percent, but less favorable assessments were inevitable where imperviousness exceeded 12 to 20 percent. Levels of imperviousness between 8 and 12 percent represented a threshold where minor increases in urbanization were associated with sharp declines in stream quality.

Stephenuck, Kristine F.; Crunkilton, Ronald L.; Wang, Lizhu

2002-08-01

269

Improved understanding and prediction of the hydrologic response of highly urbanized catchments through development of the Illinois Urban Hydrologic Model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

What happens to the rain in highly urbanized catchments? That is the question that urban hydrologists must ask themselves when trying to integrate the hydrologic and hydraulic processes that affect the hydrologic response of urban catchments. The Illinois Urban Hydrologic Model (IUHM) has been developed to help answer this question and improve understanding and prediction of hydrologic response in highly urbanized catchments. Urban catchments are significantly different than natural watersheds, but there are similarities that allow features of the pioneering geomorphologic instantaneous unit hydrograph concept developed for natural watersheds to be adapted to the urban setting. This probabilistically based approach is a marked departure from the traditional deterministic models used to design and simulate urban sewer systems and does not have the burdensome input data requirements that detailed deterministic models possess. Application of IUHM to the CDS-51 catchment located in the village of Dolton, Illinois, highlights the model's ability to predict the hydrologic response of the catchment as well as the widely accepted SWMM model and is in accordance with observed data recorded by the United States Geological Survey. In addition, the unique structure and organization of urban sewer networks make it possible to characterize a set of ratios for urban catchments that allow IUHM to be applied when detailed input data are not available.

Cantone, Joshua; Schmidt, Arthur

2011-08-01

270

Forecast Issues in the Urban Zone: Report of the 10th Prospectus Development Team of the U.S. Weather Research Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 10th Prospectus Development Team (PDT-10) of the U.S. Weather Research Program was charged with identifying research needs and opportunities related to the short-term prediction of weather and air quality in urban forecast zones. Weather has special and significant impacts on large numbers of the U.S. population who live in major urban areas. It is recognized that urban users have

Walter F. Dabberdt; Jeremy Hales; Steven Zubrick; Andrew Crook; Witold Krajewski; J. Christopher Doran; Cynthia Mueller; Clark King; Ronald N. Keener; Robert Bornstein; David Rodenhuis; Paul Kocin; Michael A. Rossetti; Fred Sharrocks; Ellis M. Stanley Sr.

2000-01-01

271

Urban Growth in Developing Countries: A Review of Current Trends and a Caution Regarding Existing Forecasts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper is to clarify the nature of the on-going urban transition in developing countries, the quality of the available data, and the uncertainty of existing urban forecasts. Although the recently released United Nations’ publication World Urbanization Prospects is an invaluable resource for those interested in studying urban change, the data in the report are somewhat deceptive

Barney Cohen

2004-01-01

272

Analysis of land-use scenarios for urban sustainable development: a case study of Lijiang City  

Microsoft Academic Search

A scientific approach to urban planning is required to ensure environmental protection and ecological sustainability. This paper presents a range of urban land-use scenarios and their implications for urban development and economic demand in the Old Town of Lijiang. Using geographic information system (GIS) and questionnaire analysis, three future urban planning scenarios were created based on data and storylines for

Rencai Dong; Hong Xu; Yaqing Gou; Xiao Fu; Gang Wu

2011-01-01

273

Impediments and constraints in the uptake of water sensitive urban design measures in greenfield and infill developments.  

PubMed

Water sensitive urban developments are designed with integrated urban water management concepts and water sensitive urban design measures. The initiatives that may be included are the substitution of imported drinking water with alternative sources using a fit-for-purpose approach and structural and non-structural measures for the source control of stormwater. A water sensitive approach to urban development can help in achieving sustainability objectives by minimising disturbance to ecological and hydrological processes, and also relieve stress on conventional water systems. Water sensitive urban developments remain novel in comparison with conventional approaches, so the understanding and knowledge of the systems in regards to their planning; design; implementation; operation and maintenance; health impacts and environmental impacts is still developing and thus the mainstream uptake of these approaches faces many challenges. A study has been conducted to understand these challenges through a detailed literature review, investigating a large number of local greenfield and infill developments, and conducting extensive consultation with water professionals. This research has identified the social, economic, political, institutional and technological challenges faced in implementing water sensitive urban design in greenfield and infill developments. The research found in particular that there is the need for long-term monitoring studies of water sensitive urban developments. This monitoring is important to validate the performance of novel approaches implemented and improve associated guidelines, standards, and regulatory and governance frameworks, which can lead to mainstream acceptance of water sensitive urban development approaches. The dissemination of this research will help generate awareness among water professionals, water utilities, developers, planners and regulators of the research challenges to be addressed in order to achieve more mainstream acceptance of water sensitive approaches to urban development. This study is based on existing water sensitive urban developments in Australia, however, the methodology adopted in investigating impediments to the uptake of these developments can be applied globally. It is hoped that insights from this study will benefit water professionals in other countries where there is also a move towards water sensitive urban development. PMID:22233914

Sharma, Ashok K; Cook, Stephen; Tjandraatmadja, Grace; Gregory, Alan

2012-01-01

274

3D urban models: recent developments in the digital modelling of urban environments in three-dimensions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports on rec ent developments in the visualisation of urban landscapes. There is a growing interest in the construction of 3D models of urban and built environment for which a host of digital mapping and rendering techniques are being developed. This paper extracts some of the cases that we came across during worldwide interviews carried out in March

Narushige Shiode

2001-01-01

275

Development at the wildland-urban interface and the mitigation of forest-fire risk.  

PubMed

This work addresses the impacts of development at the wildland-urban interface on forest fires that spread to human habitats. Catastrophic fires in the western United States and elsewhere make these impacts a matter of urgency for decision makers, scientists, and the general public. Using a simple fire-spread model, along with housing and vegetation data, we show that fire size probability distributions can be strongly modified by the density and flammability of houses. We highlight a sharp transition zone in the parameter space of vegetation flammability and house density. Many actual fire landscapes in the United States appear to have spreading properties close to this transition. Thus, the density and flammability of buildings should be taken into account when assessing fire risk at the wildland-urban interface. Moreover, our results highlight ways for regulation at this interface to help mitigate fire risk. PMID:17717082

Spyratos, Vassilis; Bourgeron, Patrick S; Ghil, Michael

2007-08-23

276

Residential development choices and consequences: Urban land cover change, perceptions and value of alternative subdivision designs, and the benefits of protected ecosystem services  

Microsoft Academic Search

Municipal officials are often faced with difficult decisions about land uses in and around city boundaries. Urban expansion often causes negative environmental impacts, but there are designs for development which can mitigate some of these effects at the site scale. This dissertation examines urban land cover change in four Iowa cities, examines familiarity with and value for conservation subdivision (CSD)

Troy A. Bowman

2011-01-01

277

Forecasting the combined effects of urbanization and climate change on stream ecosystems: from impacts to management options.  

PubMed

Streams collect runoff, heat, and sediment from their watersheds, making them highly vulnerable to anthropogenic disturbances such as urbanization and climate change. Forecasting the effects of these disturbances using process-based models is critical to identifying the form and magnitude of likely impacts. Here, we integrate a new biotic model with four previously developed physical models (downscaled climate projections, stream hydrology, geomorphology, and water temperature) to predict how stream fish growth and reproduction will most probably respond to shifts in climate and urbanization over the next several decades.The biotic submodel couples dynamics in fish populations and habitat suitability to predict fish assemblage composition, based on readily available biotic information (preferences for habitat, temperature, and food, and characteristics of spawning) and day-to-day variability in stream conditions.WE ILLUSTRATE THE MODEL USING PIEDMONT HEADWATER STREAMS IN THE CHESAPEAKE BAY WATERSHED OF THE USA, PROJECTING TEN SCENARIOS: Baseline (low urbanization; no on-going construction; and present-day climate); one Urbanization scenario (higher impervious surface, lower forest cover, significant construction activity); four future climate change scenarios [Hadley CM3 and Parallel Climate Models under medium-high (A2) and medium-low (B2) emissions scenarios]; and the same four climate change scenarios plus Urbanization.Urbanization alone depressed growth or reproduction of 8 of 39 species, while climate change alone depressed 22 to 29 species. Almost every recreationally important species (i.e. trouts, basses, sunfishes) and six of the ten currently most common species were predicted to be significantly stressed. The combined effect of climate change and urbanization on adult growth was sometimes large compared to the effect of either stressor alone. Thus, the model predicts considerable change in fish assemblage composition, including loss of diversity.Synthesis and applications. The interaction of climate change and urban growth may entail significant reconfiguring of headwater streams, including a loss of ecosystem structure and services, which will be more costly than climate change alone. On local scales, stakeholders cannot control climate drivers but they can mitigate stream impacts via careful land use. Therefore, to conserve stream ecosystems, we recommend that proactive measures be taken to insure against species loss or severe population declines. Delays will inevitably exacerbate the impacts of both climate change and urbanization on headwater systems. PMID:19536343

Nelson, Kären C; Palmer, Margaret A; Pizzuto, James E; Moglen, Glenn E; Angermeier, Paul L; Hilderbrand, Robert H; Dettinger, Michael; Hayhoe, Katharine

2009-02-01

278

Identification and quantification of the hydrological impacts of imperviousness in urban catchments: a review.  

PubMed

Urbanisation produces numerous changes in the natural environments it replaces. The impacts include habitat fragmentation and changes to both the quality and quantity of the stormwater runoff, and result in changes to hydrological systems. This review integrates research in relatively diverse areas to examine how the impacts of urban imperviousness on hydrological systems can be quantified and modelled. It examines the nature of reported impacts of urbanisation on hydrological systems over four decades, including the effects of changes in imperviousness within catchments, and some inconsistencies in studies of the impacts of urbanisation. The distribution of imperviousness within urban areas is important in understanding the impacts of urbanisation and quantification requires detailed characterisation of urban areas. As a result most mapping of urban areas uses remote sensing techniques and this review examines a range of techniques using medium and high resolution imagery, including spectral unmixing. The third section examines the ways in which scientists and hydrological and environmental engineers model and quantify water flows in urban areas, the nature of hydrological models and methods for their calibration. The final section examines additional factors which influence the impact of impervious surfaces and some uncertainties that exist in current knowledge. PMID:21334133

Jacobson, Carol R

2011-02-18

279

The impact of projected increases in urbanization on ecosystem services  

PubMed Central

Alteration in land use is likely to be a major driver of changes in the distribution of ecosystem services before 2050. In Europe, urbanization will probably be the main cause of land-use change. This increase in urbanization will result in spatial shifts in both supplies of ecosystem services and the beneficiaries of those services; the net outcome of such shifts remains to be determined. Here, we model changes in urban land cover in Britain based on large (16%) projected increases in the human population by 2031, and the consequences for three different services—flood mitigation, agricultural production and carbon storage. We show that under a scenario of densification of urban areas, the combined effect of increasing population and loss of permeable surfaces is likely to result in 1.7 million people living within 1 km of rivers with at least 10 per cent increases in projected peak flows, but that increasing suburban ‘sprawl’ will have little effect on flood mitigation services. Conversely, losses of stored carbon and agricultural production are over three times as high under the sprawl as under the ‘densification’ urban growth scenarios. Our results illustrate the challenges of meeting, but also of predicting, future demands and patterns of ecosystem services in the face of increasing urbanization.

Eigenbrod, F.; Bell, V. A.; Davies, H. N.; Heinemeyer, A.; Armsworth, P. R.; Gaston, K. J.

2011-01-01

280

The impact of projected increases in urbanization on ecosystem services.  

PubMed

Alteration in land use is likely to be a major driver of changes in the distribution of ecosystem services before 2050. In Europe, urbanization will probably be the main cause of land-use change. This increase in urbanization will result in spatial shifts in both supplies of ecosystem services and the beneficiaries of those services; the net outcome of such shifts remains to be determined. Here, we model changes in urban land cover in Britain based on large (16%) projected increases in the human population by 2031, and the consequences for three different services--flood mitigation, agricultural production and carbon storage. We show that under a scenario of densification of urban areas, the combined effect of increasing population and loss of permeable surfaces is likely to result in 1.7 million people living within 1 km of rivers with at least 10 per cent increases in projected peak flows, but that increasing suburban 'sprawl' will have little effect on flood mitigation services. Conversely, losses of stored carbon and agricultural production are over three times as high under the sprawl as under the 'densification' urban growth scenarios. Our results illustrate the challenges of meeting, but also of predicting, future demands and patterns of ecosystem services in the face of increasing urbanization. PMID:21389035

Eigenbrod, F; Bell, V A; Davies, H N; Heinemeyer, A; Armsworth, P R; Gaston, K J

2011-03-09

281

A Collaborative Model for Developing Classroom Management Skills in Urban Professional Development School Settings  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article describes a school-university partnership that focuses on the development of classroom management skills for preservice teachers in an urban setting, through collaboration between mentors, principals, and a university supervisor. To prepare preservice teachers for the unique challenges of urban schools, three key elements were…

Dobler, Elizabeth; Kesner, Cathy; Kramer, Rebecca; Resnik, Marilyn; Devin, Libby

2009-01-01

282

One Hundred Years of New York City's "Urban Heat Island": Temperature Trends and Public Health Impacts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we examine the relationship between the historical development of New York City and its effect on the urban climate. Urban "heat islands" (UHI) are created principally by man-made surfaces, including concrete, dark roofs, asphalt lots and roads, which absorb most of the sunlight falling on them and reradiate that energy as heat. Many urban streets have fewer trees and other vegetation to shade buildings, block solar radiation and cool the air by evapotranspiration. The historical development of the NYC heat island effect was assessed in terms of average temperature differences of the city center relative to its surrounding 31-county metropolitan region, comprised of parts of New York State, New Jersey, and Connecticut. Monthly maximum and minimum temperatures for 1900-1997 were obtained from NOAA's National Climatic Data Center, the NASA-Goddard Institute for Space Studies, and the Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory of Columbia University for 24 weather stations within the region that are part of the U.S. Historical Climatology Network. Analysis of annual mean temperatures shows an increasing difference between NYC (Central Park weather station) and its surrounding region over the twentieth century. Analysis of the temperature differences over time between NY Central Park (NYCP) station and 23 regional weather stations classified according to distance and level of urbanization show a heat island effect existing in NYC, with mean temperatures in the NYCP Station generally higher than the surrounding stations, ranging from 1.20\\deg C to 3.02\\deg C. A difference of at least 1\\deg C already existed at the beginning of the 20th century between the mean temperature in NYC and its surrounding rural areas, and this difference increased over the twentieth century. There was a significant decrease in the monthly and seasonal variability of the UHI effect over the century. Temperature extremes and summertime heat can create heat stress and other health consequences for urban residents. Public health impacts are assessed as the proportion of heat-related regional mortality estimated to be attributable to New York City's heat island effect during an average 1990's summer. Concentration-response functions describing the temperature-mortality relationship in NYC derived from the epidemiological literature are used to estimate numbers of deaths in a typical 1990s summer and those attributable to the city's heat island effect. The techniques and potential public health benefits of a pilot project to mitigate the heat island effect in NYC will be discussed.

Rosenthal, J. E.; Knowlton, K. M.; Rosenzweig, C.; Goldberg, R.; Kinney, P. L.

2003-12-01

283

Impacts of climate change on rainfall extremes and urban drainage systems: a review.  

PubMed

A review is made of current methods for assessing future changes in urban rainfall extremes and their effects on urban drainage systems, due to anthropogenic-induced climate change. The review concludes that in spite of significant advances there are still many limitations in our understanding of how to describe precipitation patterns in a changing climate in order to design and operate urban drainage infrastructure. Climate change may well be the driver that ensures that changes in urban drainage paradigms are identified and suitable solutions implemented. Design and optimization of urban drainage infrastructure considering climate change impacts and co-optimizing these with other objectives will become ever more important to keep our cities habitable into the future. PMID:23823535

Arnbjerg-Nielsen, K; Willems, P; Olsson, J; Beecham, S; Pathirana, A; Bülow Gregersen, I; Madsen, H; Nguyen, V-T-V

2013-01-01

284

An environmental pressure index proposal for urban development planning based on the analytic network process  

SciTech Connect

This paper introduces a new approach to prioritize urban planning projects according to their environmental pressure in an efficient and reliable way. It is based on the combination of three procedures: (i) the use of environmental pressure indicators, (ii) the aggregation of the indicators in an Environmental Pressure Index by means of the Analytic Network Process method (ANP) and (iii) the interpretation of the information obtained from the experts during the decision-making process. The method has been applied to a proposal for urban development of La Carlota airport in Caracas (Venezuela). There are three options which are currently under evaluation. They include a Health Club, a Residential Area and a Theme Park. After a selection process the experts chose the following environmental pressure indicators as ANP criteria for the project life cycle: used land area, population density, energy consumption, water consumption and waste generation. By using goal-oriented questionnaires designed by the authors, the experts determined the importance of the criteria, the relationships among criteria, and the relationships between the criteria and the urban development alternatives. The resulting data showed that water consumption is the most important environmental pressure factor, and the Theme Park project is by far the urban development alternative which exerts the least environmental pressure on the area. The participating experts coincided in appreciating the technique proposed in this paper is useful and, for ranking ordering these alternatives, an improvement from traditional techniques such as environmental impact studies, life-cycle analysis, etc.

Gomez-Navarro, Tomas, E-mail: tgomez@dpi.upv.e [Departamento de Proyectos de Ingenieria, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Camino de Vera s/n. 46022, Valencia (Spain); Garcia-Melon, Monica, E-mail: mgarciam@dpi.upv.e [Departamento de Proyectos de Ingenieria, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Camino de Vera s/n. 46022, Valencia (Spain); Acuna-Dutra, Silvia, E-mail: sacuna@unimet.edu.v [Departamento de Estudios Ambientales, Universidad Metropolitana, Autopista Guarenas, Sector La Urbina, Distribuidor Metropolitano, Caracas (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Diaz-Martin, Diego, E-mail: ddiaz@unimet.edu.v [Departamento de Estudios Ambientales, Universidad Metropolitana, Autopista Guarenas, Sector La Urbina, Distribuidor Metropolitano, Caracas (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of)

2009-09-15

285

Urban Management Curriculum Development Project. Volume 1.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report evaluates the content, teaching methodology, testing process, and usefulness of 15 different management education curriculums and the management of the Curriculum Development Project. The curriculums cover a variety of technical topics of inte...

S. Clairdy B. Cohn F. Fisher D. Orem L. Price

1978-01-01

286

41 CFR Appendix to Part 102 - 83-Memorandum of Understanding Between the Department Of Housing And Urban Development And the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...the Department Of Housing And Urban Development And the General Services Administration...the Department Of Housing And Urban Development And the General Services Administration...the Secretary of Housing and Urban Development. Section 808(d)...

2013-01-01

287

76 FR 73989 - Redelegation of Authority Under Section 3 of the Housing and Urban Development Act of 1968  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT [Docket No. FR-5544-D-09...Section 3 of the Housing and Urban Development Act of 1968 AGENCY: Office...Section 3 of the Housing and Urban Development Act of 1968 and HUD's...

2011-11-29

288

The Impact of Detailed Urban-Scale Processing on the Aerosol Direct Effect and its Impacts on the Climate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Anthropogenic aerosols directly impact the climate system by scattering and absorbing incoming solar radiation. The vast majority of these anthropogenic aerosols and their precursors are emitted in urban areas. However, at the present time, global scale general circulation models tend to use overly simplified representations of this non-linear urban scale processing, such as dilution of emissions to course grids, and simplified aerosol-climate couplings, such as offline or prognostic aerosols. This work aims to bridge these gaps. A more realistic representation of the fast chemical and physical processing that occurs on the urban scale has been approximated for 251 of the world’s largest urban areas [Cohen and Prinn, 2009, http://globalchange.mit.edu/files/document/MITJPSPGC_Rpt181.pdf]. This urban processing model has been coupled 2-way to a global aerosol-chemical transport model, and has been shown to lead to changes in the global and regional loading of aerosols, AOD, and AAOD [Cohen, 2010, PhD Thesis, http://web.mit.edu/~jasonbc/www/JasonCohenThesis2010.pdf)]. Here, we present the results of using this detailed urban processing model within the framework of an interactive aerosol-climate model [Kim et al, 2008, doi:10.1029/2007JD009756], integrated over a sufficiently long time frame, so as to allow for the effect on the climate system to be quantified. Specifically, the modeling effort analyzed the differences between a reference climate without aerosols, a climate with aerosols and without urban processing, and a climate with aerosols and including urban processing. In all of these cases, only the direct effects of aerosols were considered on the climate system. It has been demonstrated that there are significant errors induced by not including detailed urban processing, thus showing that to better understand the magnitude and distribution of the aerosol direct effect, detailed urban scale processing needs to be considered.

Cohen, J. B.; Wang, C.; Prinn, R. G.

2010-12-01

289

Modeling the impacts of anthropogenic heating on the urban climate of Philadelphia: a comparison of implementations in two PBL schemes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Waste heat released from human activities (anthropogenic heating) can be a significant contributor to the urban energy balance, and can thus play an important role in affecting the urban thermal environment, ambient air quality, and other attributes of the urban climate system. To quantify the impacts of anthropogenic heating we have incorporated it as a source term in the near-surface

Hongli Fan; David J. Sailor

2005-01-01

290

Urban planning and civil society in Japan: Japanese urban planning development during the 'Taisho Democracy' period (1905–31)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Much has been written in recent years about the importance of civil society in ensuring positive outcomes for people in the development of urban space. For citizens to be involved in a meaningful way in urban planning requires the existence of a political space - created by organizations, community groups, social movements, voluntary societies - that is outside the control

André Sorensen

2001-01-01

291

Urban Security Initiative: Earthquake impacts on the urban ``system of systems``  

SciTech Connect

This paper is a discussion of how to address the problems of disasters in a large city, a project titled Urban Security Initiative undertaken by the Los Alamos National Laboratory. The paper first discusses the need to address the problems of disasters in large cities and ten provides a framework that is suitable to address this problem. The paper then provides an overview of the module of the project that deals with assessment of earthquake damage on urban infrastructure in large cities and an internet-based approach for consensus building leading to better coordination in the post-disaster period. Finally, the paper discusses the future direction of the project.

Maheshwari, S.; Jones, E.; Rasmussen, S.

1999-06-01

292

Impact of rehabilitation of Assiut barrage, Nile River, on groundwater rise in urban areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To make optimum use of the most vital natural resource of Egypt, the River Nile water, a number of regulating structures (in the form of dams and barrages) for control and diversion of the river flow have been constructed in this river since the start of the 20th century. One of these barrages is the Assiut barrage which will require considerable repairs in the near future. The design of the rehabilitation of the barrage includes a headpond with water levels maintained at a level approximately 0.60 m higher than the highest water level in the headpond of the present barrage. This development will cause an increase of the seepage flow from the river towards the adjacent agricultural lands, Assiut Town and villages. The increased head pond level might cause a rise of the groundwater levels and impedance of drainage outflows. The drainage conditions may therefore be adversely affected in the so-called impacted areas which comprise floodplains on both sides of the Nile for about 70 km upstream of the future barrage. A rise in the groundwater table, particularly when high river levels impede drainage, may result in waterlogging and secondary salinization of the soil profile in agricultural areas and increase of groundwater into cellars beneath buildings in the urban areas. In addition, a rise in the groundwater table could have negative impact on existing sanitation facilities, in particular in the areas which are served with septic tanks. The impacts of increasing the headpond level were assessed using a three-dimensional groundwater model. The mechanisms of interactions between the Nile River and the underlying Quaternary aquifer system as they affect the recharge/discharge processes are comprehensively outlined. The model has been calibrated for steady state and transient conditions against historical data from observation wells. The mitigation measures for the groundwater rise in the urban areas have been tested using the calibrated mode.

Dawoud, Mohamed A.; El Arabi, Nahed E.; Khater, Ahmed R.; van Wonderen, Jan

2006-08-01

293

[Changes in urban development: is the globalization era one of urban deconcentration?].  

PubMed

Urbanization patterns in Mexico during the past five decades clearly reflect trends in the country's capitalist development. Accelerated industrialization with protectionism; redistributive policies with unlimited expansion of public expenditures; industrial conversion attended by economic crisis and structural adjustment during the "lost decade" of the 1980s; and indiscriminate opening, currency instability, and anti-inflation measures in the stage of globalization represent four successive phases. This work argues that the commercial opening and application of a neoliberal model are likely to renew tendencies toward concentration of population and economic activity in a few metropolitan areas. There are indications that manufacturing is again tending to concentrate in the older industrial cities, especially Mexico City. The 1995 census suggests that, beginning in 1988, the metropolitan areas again began to attract population growth, after a cycle of outflow from the center city to the metropolitan periphery in the 1970s and 1980s. The trend toward deconcentration, thus, may not represent a linear and long-term tendency. Instead, fluctuations over time are intimately related to macroeconomic forces and regulatory mechanisms that influence the urban system. No consensus has been reached concerning the theoretical explanations of effects on regional or urban systems when international restrictions on commerce are eliminated. The neoclassical perspective predicts a homogenizing effect, assuming that key conditions are met, while a competing theory predicts that increasing competition will inevitably be met by increases in the scale of production. Incentives to focus production in a small number of places would lead to economic and demographic concentration in the urban centers or regions enjoying better infrastructure, more qualified labor forces, and more extensive markets for labor and consumption. A renewed cycle of locus in Mexico's largest metropolitan zones may currently be underway. PMID:12158086

Rivera, S

1997-01-01

294

The Impact of Urban Sprawl on a Rural Community  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper attempts to capture some of the controversy schools and education experience in rural communities which find themselves on the edge of urban sprawl. As suburbanites settle farther from metropolitan areas, once homogeneous rural communities must open up to new populations. Often, as described here, competing community expectations for schools and schooling clash and students are caught in the

PAUL THEOBALDl

295

Benchmarking the impacts of US magnet schools in urban schools  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore the range of benchmark applications associated with US magnet schools in urban areas. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The collection and critical analysis of secondary data from relevant publications are used to evaluate the results of America's magnet schools. Analysis of organizational and leadership theory has been utilized in order to benchmark future

Daryl D. Green; Deshaun H. Davis

2010-01-01

296

Hemeroby, urbanity and ruderality: bioindicators of disturbance and human impact  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary 1. Species vary according to whether they benefit from or are harmed by disturbance and intensive human activity. This variation can be quantified by indices of disturbance and unnaturalness. 2. An urban flora was characterized by comparing quadrat data from cities with several large data sets from the countryside. Existing scales of species response to disturbance and unnaturalness, ruderality

M. O. HILL; D. B. ROY; Ken Thompson

2002-01-01

297

Urbanization impacts on severe weather dynamical processes and climatology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rainfall changes are a complex manifestation of multi-scale processes that are influenced by both natural and anthropogenic activities. This dissertation focuses on understanding the relationship between rainfall climatology and urbanization. Even though there is a long-term increase in the rainfall amounts under a global warming background, the land use \\/ land cover change can also be an additional factor contributing

Ming Lei

2011-01-01

298

TURBULENCE PARAMETERS IMPACTING DISPERSION IN AN URBAN CONVECTIVE BOUNDARY LAYER  

EPA Science Inventory

Turbulence measurements of the three dimensional wind components were collected by an instrumented research aircraft on 7 days in August 1976. These aircraft flights were conducted as part of the Regional Air Pollution Study (RAPS) urban boundary layer field program in St. Louis,...

299

A hybrid knowledge-based system for urban development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents a knowledge-based decision support system (KB-CEDSS) that is integrated with a multilayer artificial neural network (ANN) for evaluating urban development. The multilayer ANN is trained to rapidly replicate the evaluation provided by the KB-CEDSS. By integrating knowledge-based systems, decision support systems and ANNs, the system achieves improvements in the implementation of each as well as increases the

Li D. Xu

1996-01-01

300

An impact assessment methodology for urban surface runoff quality following best practice treatment.  

PubMed

The paper develops an easy to apply desk-based semi-quantitative approach for the assessment of residual receiving water quality risks associated with urban surface runoff following its conveyance through best practice sustainable drainage systems (SUDS). The innovative procedure utilises an integrated geographical information system (GIS)-based pollution index approach based on surface area impermeability, runoff concentrations/loadings and individual SUDS treatment performance potential to evaluate the level of risk mitigation achievable by SUDS drainage infrastructure. The residual impact is assessed through comparison of the determined pollution index with regulatory receiving water quality standards and objectives. The methodology provides an original theoretically based procedure which complements the current acute risk assessment approaches being widely applied within pluvial flood risk management. PMID:22227301

Ellis, J Bryan; Revitt, D Michael; Lundy, Lian

2012-01-09

301

Impacts of Mixing Processes in Nocturnal Atmospheric Boundary Layer on Urban Ozone Concentrations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A number of open questions remain regarding the role of low-level jets (LLJs) and nocturnal mixing processes in the buildup of tropospheric ozone. The prevalence of southerly winds and LLJs in the U.S. Southern Great Plains during summer makes this region an ideal site for investigating the structure of the nocturnal boundary layer and its impacts on urban air quality. Ozone (O3) and nitrogen oxide concentrations measured at regulatory monitoring sites in the Oklahoma City (OKC) area and simulations with the Weather Research and Forecasting with Chemistry (WRF/Chem) model were analyzed to show how the nocturnal LLJ moderates boundary-layer mixing processes and air quality. Datasets collected during the Joint Urban 2003 campaign, which took place in July 2003 in OKC, provided detailed information about nocturnal boundary-layer structure and dynamics. In general, {O3} time series show the expected behavior that urban {O3} concentrations decrease at night due to nitrogen oxide titration reactions, but elevated {O3} concentrations and secondary {O3} peaks are also seen quite frequently after sunset. LLJs developed on most nights during the study period and were associated with strong vertical wind shear, which affected the boundary-layer stability and structure. Near-surface {O3} concentrations are higher during less stable nights when active mixing persists throughout the night. The WRF/Chem model results agree well with the observations and further demonstrate the role of LLJs in moderating nocturnal mixing processes and air quality. The highest nocturnal {O3} concentrations are linked to a strong LLJ that promotes both nocturnal long-range transport and persistent downward mixing of {O3} from the residual layer to the surface.

Klein, Petra M.; Hu, Xiao-Ming; Xue, Ming

2013-10-01

302

Conceptual framework for describing selected urban and community impacts of federal energy policies  

SciTech Connect

A conceptual framework is presented for describing selected urban and community impacts of Federal energy policies. The framework depends on a simple causal model. The outputs of the model are impacts, changes in the state of the world of particular interest to policymakers. At any given time, a set of determinants account for the state of the world with respect to an impact category. Application of the model to a particular impact category requires: establishing a definition and measure for the impact category and identifying the determinants of these impacts. Analysis of the impact of a particular policy requires the following: identifying the policy and its effects (as estimated by others), isolating any effects that themselves constitute an urban and community impact, identifying any effects that change the value of determinants, and describing the impact with reference to the new values of determinants. This report provides a framework for these steps. Three impacts addressed are: neighborhood stability, housing availability, and quality and availability of public services. In each chapter, a definition and measure for the impact are specified; its principal determinants are identified; how the causal model can be used to estimate impacts by applying it to three illustrative Federal policies (domestic oil price decontrol, building energy performance standards, and increased Federal aid for mass transit) is demonstrated. (MCW)

Morris, F.A,; Marcus, A.A.; Keller, D.

1980-06-01

303

Urban green space network development for biodiversity conservation: Identification based on graph theory and gravity modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urban areas can contain rich flora that contribute significantly to biodiversity, but loss and isolation of habitats due to urban sprawl threaten biodiversity and warrant limits on development. The connectivity provided by urban green spaces offers habitats and corridors that help conserve biodiversity. Researchers and planners have begun using landscape ecology principles to develop green space networks and increase connectivity

Fanhua Kong; Haiwei Yin; Nobukazu Nakagoshi; Yueguang Zong

2010-01-01

304

Research of promoting coordinated development of urban and rural teachers by network teaching platform  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this country, there is a great gap on teacher resources allocation in urban and rural. Aiming at solving the problems of lacking qualified teachers resource and teacher post-training in rural, this paper presents network teaching platform to promote coordinated development of urban and rural areas teachers. It sets up a model for promoting coordinated development of urban and rural

Jinglin Jia; Dan Wu

2009-01-01

305

Developing parameters of design for an urban context and demonstrating them as a future design model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many theories have been proposed to improve urban living conditions, but still they do not manage to solve these urban problems. In order to develop a model that can fill this gap, parameters for urban designs have been formed here using various readings and case studies. These are summarized in the thesis research to develop the design model. After selecting

Jigar Abhay Gandhi

2010-01-01

306

Development of a Mathematical Model for Urban Runoff Quantity and Quality.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The development and efficiency of a quantity and quality mathematical model for urban runoff with simple input to be used in conjunction with studies related to urban waste water management is outlined. The model called a Modified linearized Subhydrograph...

S. Sarikelle

1980-01-01

307

Systematic Study and Development of Long-Range Programs of Urban Water Resources Research.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

ASCE is assisting in outlining, developing and initiating a coordinated national program of urban water resources research. Deliberate and systematic study of urban water problems on a comprehensive basis had long been neglected. The objective of the rese...

W. C. Ackermann J. C. Geyer C. F. Izzard S. W. Jens D. E. Jones

1968-01-01

308

Spacial development characteristics of small towns under the background of urban-rural integration: A case study of Qingyang town  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is about the space development characteristics of Qingyang town under the background of urban-rural integration. Through the analysis of urbanization strategies and urban planning in Qingyang, its spacial development characteristics of transportation, township and industries are concluded. And the importance of Qingyang's urbanization strategies and urban planning is explained.

Rui Li; Song Liu

2012-01-01

309

[The location of employment in developing countries. Models of urbanization and comparative analyses of the Canadian and Mexican urban systems].  

PubMed

The rapid urban growth and increasing number of megacities in Latin America and other developing countries are fundamentally different phenomena than those observed at the time that location theory was developed. To examine whether existing location theory applies to developing countries, an econometric analysis of the relationship between urbanization, city size, and development was first conducted. The relationship between urbanization and development was expressed in the form of a series of regression analyses applied to World Bank data for 96 developing and developed countries. After logarithmic transformation, a simple equation associating total and total urban population of the country and per capita gross national product was able to explain 93% of the variance in total urban population. This result demonstrates that it is not possible to regard urbanization as abnormal. As to the size of particular cities, deviations from the "normal" trajectory of urbanization apparently originate in particular institutional features of some countries. Manifestations of overurbanization in Latin America demonstrate that urbanization is a necessary, but not sufficient, condition of development. A comparative study of spatial location of employment in different economic sectors in Canada and Mexico was next conducted. For this analysis, cities of over 25,000 population in Canada and Mexico were classified into 32 economic activity sectors, which were regrouped into 18 for the analysis. Two matrixes of ten city types and 18 and 32 employment groups were constructed for each country, with the corresponding number of employees noted. The employment information was transformed into quotients of location, with a quotient above 100 signifying concentration of employment. The results did not suggest that factors of localization of employment are different in developing countries. Models of localization of economic activities adopt analogous characteristics imposed by geography and technological conditions. In Canada as in Mexico, economies of scale and distance are the principle variable explaining models of localization. PMID:12288661

Lemelin, A; Polese, M

310

Simulating the impacts of ecological protection policies on urban land use sustainability in Shenyang-Fushun, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chinese cities are undergoing rapid urban sprawl, dramatic landscape change, industrialisation, and ecological damage, which threaten urban sustainable development. The aim of our research was to answer the following question: is it possible to achieve sustainable development through rational ecological protection policies that harmonise future urbanisation, re?industrialisation, economic development, and sustainable urban land use in these cities? To answer the

Fengming Xi; Hong S. He; Yuanman Hu; Rencang Bu; Yu Chang; Xiaoqing Wu; Miao Liu; Tiemao Shi

2010-01-01

311

Friend or Foe? Urbanization and the Biosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The environmental influence of urban areas is still often assumed to be negligible at global scales. Although local environmental conditions such as the urban heat island effect are well-documented, surprisingly little work has focused on cross-scale interactions, or the ways in which local urban processes cumulatively impact global changes. Given the rapid rates of rural-urban migration, economic development and urban spatial expansion, improved systems for measuring, monitoring and modeling the global environmental impacts of cities should receive far greater scientific attention. This presentation will summarize urban environmental issues and impacts at local, regional and global scales and introduce the fundamental concepts and tools needed to measure and respond to these problems. Newly available datasets for the distribution and intensity of urban land use will be introduced, demonstrating the importance of clearly defining 'urbanized' land for empirical studies at the global scale. The negative environmental impacts of urban development will be compared with the often over-looked "positives" of urban growth from a global environmental perspective. Progress in understanding and forecasting the global impacts of urban areas will require systematic global urban research designs that treat cities as urban systems, anthropogenic biomes and urban ecoregions. The challenges and opportunities of global environmental research on urban areas have important implications not only for current research but also for educating the next generation of earth system scientists.

Schneider, A.

2008-12-01

312

Development of honeycomb impact limiters  

Microsoft Academic Search

General Atomics (GA), has a contract with DOE's Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) to develop two legal weight truck casks to transport spent fuel. The GA-4 and GA-9 Casks transport four pressurized-water-reactor (PWR) and nine boiling-water-reactor spent fuel assemblies respectively. The GA-4 and GA-9 Casks preliminary designs include honeycomb impact limiters on the top and bottom of the

M. A. Koploy; C. Taylor

1989-01-01

313

Do Teacher Absences Impact Student Achievement? Longitudinal Evidence From One Urban School District  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article exploits highly detailed data on teacher absences from a large urban school district in the northern United States to shed light on the determinants and effects of teacher absences. The topic is important because both school and district policies can influence teachers’ propensity to be absent. The authors estimate the impact of teacher absences on academic achievement of

Raegen T. Miller; Richard J. Murnane; John B. Willett

2008-01-01

314

Preparation for Teaching in Urban Schools: Perceptions of the Impact of Traditional Preparation Programs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|During 2 decades of debate about teacher preparation education practitioners and policymakers have called for a more skilled professional teaching force (Darling-Hammond, 2010). Of particular concern has been poverty's impact on education--specifically in struggling urban schools--prompting legislation such as the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB),…

Timmons, Crystal

2010-01-01

315

Gender Differences in the Longitudinal Impact of Exposure to Violence on Mental Health in Urban Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|There is evidence of gender differences in psychopathology during adolescence, but little research has investigated gender differences in trauma-related symptoms. Exposure to violence is a commonly experienced potentially traumatic event among urban adolescents, and the few studies examining gender differences in its mental health impact have…

Zona, Kate; Milan, Stephanie

2011-01-01

316

Urban Uses and Social Impact of New Communication Technology: A Critical and Philosophical Perspective.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The impact of the new communication technology is analyzed in this paper in the context of cities and urbanization. The paper explores the concurrent decline of central cities and that of the mass media, as well as the rise of decentralization and "suburbanization" and the rise in media specialization. It suggests that the increase in multiple…

Burd, Gene

317

Teacher perceptions of factors impacting on student achievement in effective and less effective urban elementary schools  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated teacher perceptions of factors impacting on student achievement in 18 effective and less effective elementary schools by surveying staff in randomly selected schools located in a large, urban district. Nine schools each were assigned to the effective or less effective groups based on a comparison of their average state assessment scores for a three-year period. A total

Cynthia Mitchell-Lee

2001-01-01

318

Impact of Urbanization on the Proteome of Birch Pollen and Its Chemotactic Activity on Human Granulocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Epidemiologic studies reveal a dramatic increase in allergies in the last decades. Air pollution is considered to be one of the factors responsible for this augmentation. The aim of this study was to analyze the impact of urbanization on birch pollen. The birch pollen proteome was investigated in order to identify differences in protein abundance between pollen from rural

M. Bryce; O. Drews; M. F. Schenk; A. Menzel; N. Estrella; I. Weichenmeier; M. J. M. Smulders; J. Buters; J. Ring; A. Görg; H. Behrendt; C. Traidl-Hoffmann

2010-01-01

319

Environmental impacts of urban sprawl: a survey of the literature and proposed research agenda  

Microsoft Academic Search

'Urban sprawl' has recently become a subject of popular debate and policy initiatives from governmental bodies and nonprofit organizations. However, there is little agreement on many aspects of this phenomenon: its definition, its impacts -- both nonmonetary and monetary -- economic and policy models that predict the presence of sprawl, and decision-support models that could assist policymakers in evaluating alternative

Michael P Johnson

2001-01-01

320

Monitoring impact of urban settlements on nearby protected areas from space  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present a satellite based approach to monitor impacts of urban settlements on nearby protected areas worldwide. The footprint of human occupation is uniquely visible from space in the form of artificial night lighting, ranging from the burning of the rainforest to massive offshore fisheries to the omnipresent lights of cities and towns and related connecting road

Christoph Aubrecht; Malanding Jaiteh; Alexander de Sherbinin; Travis Longcore; Chris Elvidge

2010-01-01

321

Has the first implementation phase of the Community Nutrition Project in urban Senegal had an impact?  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveWe evaluated the impact of the Community Nutrition Project (CNP) of Senegal, West Africa on the population. In poor urban districts, the CNP provided underweight 6- to 35-mo-old children with growth monitoring\\/promotion and food supplementation, and education for mothers for a period of 6 mo.

Agnès Gartner; Yves Kameli; Pierre Traissac; Agnès Dhur; Francis Delpeuch; Bernard Maire

2007-01-01

322

Land use change scenarios and associated groundwater impacts in a protected peri-urban area  

Microsoft Academic Search

Land use changes in peri-urban areas are usually associated with significant impacts on groundwater resources due to alteration\\u000a of the recharge regime as well as through the establishment of pollution sources. Quantifying the aforementioned impacts and\\u000a assessing the vulnerability of the groundwater resources is an important step for the better management and protection of\\u000a the aquifers. In the present study,

Elias Dimitriou; Elias Moussoulis

323

Analysis of the impact of low impact development on runoff from a new district in Korea.  

PubMed

An analysis of the impact of a low impact development (LID) on runoff was performed using a Storm Water Management Model 5 (SWMM5)-LID model. The SWMM5 package has been developed to facilitate the analysis of the hydrologic impacts of LID facilities. Continuous simulation of urban stormwater runoff from the district which included the LID design was conducted. In order to examine the impact of runoff in the LID district the first, second and third highest ranked flood events over the past 38 years were analyzed. The assessment estimated that a LID system under historical storm conditions would reduce peak runoff by approximately 55-66% and runoff volume by approximately 25-121% in comparison with that before the LID design. The impact on runoff was also simulated under 50, 80 and 100 year return period conditions. Under these conditions, the runoff reductions within the district were estimated to be about 6-16% (peak runoff) and 33-37% (runoff volume) in comparison with conditions prior to the LID. It is concluded from these results that LID is worthy of consideration for urban flood control in future development and as part of sewer and stormwater management planning. PMID:24056429

Lee, Jung-Min; Hyun, Kyoung-Hak; Choi, Jong-Soo

2013-01-01

324

Development of a comprehensive air quality modeling framework for a coastal urban airshed in south Texas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tropospheric ozone is one of the major air pollution problems affecting urban areas of United States as well as other countries in the world. Analysis of surface observed ozone levels in south and central Texas revealed several days exceeding 8-hour average ozone National Ambient of Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) over the past decade. Two major high ozone episodes were identified during September of 1999 and 2002. A photochemical modeling framework for the high ozone episodes in 1999 and 2002 were developed for the Corpus Christi urban airshed. The photochemical model was evaluated as per U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) recommended statistical methods and the models performed within the limits set by EPA. An emission impact assessment of various sources within the urban airshed was conducted using the modeling framework. It was noted that by nudging MM5 with surface observed meteorological parameters and sea-surface temperature, the coastal meteorological predictions improved. Consequently, refined meteorology helped the photochemical model to better predict peak ozone levels in urban airsheds along the coastal margins of Texas including in Corpus Christi. The emissions assessment analysis revealed that Austin and San Antonio areas were significantly affected by on-road mobile emissions from light-duty gasoline and heavy-duty diesel vehicles. The urban areas of San Antonio, Austin, and Victoria areas were estimated to be NOx sensitive. Victoria was heavily influenced by point sources in the region while Corpus Christi was influenced by both point and non-road mobile sources and was identified to be sensitive to VOC emissions. A rise in atmospheric temperature due to climate change potentially increase ozone exceedances and the peak ozone levels within the study region and this will be a major concern for air quality planners. This study noted that any future increase in ambient temperature would result in a significant increase in the urban and regional ozone levels within the modeling domain and it would also enhance the transported levels of ozone across the region. Overall, the photochemical modeling framework helped in evaluating the impact of various parameters affecting ozone air quality; and, it has the potential to be a tool for policy-makers to develop effective emissions control strategies under various regulatory and climate conditions.

Farooqui, Mohmmed Zuber

325

Research on the role of urban rail transit in promoting economic development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urban rail transit becomes the important mean for developing urban economy, improving industrial structure and raising citizens’ living standard for its great social and economic effects. With the growth of economy, its role of boosting domestic demand and driving economic growth has been more obvious. And it will become the major impetus for fueling green GDP growth and promoting urban

Huang Chang-fu; Xia Yuan

2011-01-01

326

Impacts of land-use change on the water cycle of urban areas within the Upper Great Lakes drainage basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Urbanization is altering the global landscape at an unprecedented rate. This form of land cover/land-use change (LCLUC) can significantly reduce infiltration and runoff response times, and alter heat and water vapor fluxes, which can further alter surface-forced regional circulation patterns and modulate precipitation volume and intensity. Spatial patterns of future LCLUC are projected using the Land Transformation Model (LTM), enhanced to incorporate dynamic landcover, economics and policy using Bayesian Belief Networks (LTM- BBN). Different land use scenarios predicted by the LTM-BBN as well as a pre-development scenario are represented through the Unified Noah Land Surface Model (LSM) with an enhanced urban canopy model, embedded in the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. The coupled WRF-Noah LSM model will be used to investigate the connections between land-use, hydrometeorology and the atmosphere, through analysis of water and energy balances over several urbanized watersheds within the Upper Great Lakes region. Preliminary results focus on a single watershed, the White River in Indiana, which includes the city of Indianapolis. Coupled WRF-Noah simulations made using pre and post-development land use maps provide a 7 year climatology of convective storm morphology around the urban center. Precipitation and other meteorological variables from the WRF-Noah simulations are used to drive simulations of the White River watershed using the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) macroscale hydrologic model. The VIC model has been modified to represent urban areas and has been calibrated for modern flow regimes in the White River watershed. Pre- and post-development VIC simulations are used to assess the impact of Indianapolis area infiltration changes. Finally, VIC model simulations utilizing projected land use change from 2005 through 2040 for the Indianapolis metropolitan area explore the magnitude of future hydrologic change, especially peak flow response to extreme precipitation events.

Bowling, L. C.; Cherkauer, K. A.; Pijanowski, B. C.; Niyogi, D.

2006-12-01

327

Quantification of urban metabolism through coupling with the life cycle assessment framework: concept development and case study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cities now consume resources and produce waste in amounts that are incommensurate with the populations they contain. Quantifying and benchmarking the environmental impacts of cities is essential if urbanization of the world’s growing population is to occur sustainably. Urban metabolism (UM) is a promising assessment form in that it provides the annual sum material and energy inputs, and the resultant emissions of the emergent infrastructural needs of a city’s sociotechnical subsystems. By fusing UM and life cycle assessment (UM–LCA) this study advances the ability to quantify environmental impacts of cities by modeling pressures embedded in the flows upstream (entering) and downstream (leaving) of the actual urban systems studied, and by introducing an advanced suite of indicators. Applied to five global cities, the developed UM–LCA model provided enhanced quantification of mass and energy flows through cities over earlier UM methods. The hybrid model approach also enabled the dominant sources of a city’s different environmental footprints to be identified, making UM–LCA a novel and potentially powerful tool for policy makers in developing and monitoring urban development policies. Combining outputs with socioeconomic data hinted at how these forces influenced the footprints of the case cities, with wealthier ones more associated with personal consumption related impacts and poorer ones more affected by local burdens from archaic infrastructure.

Goldstein, Benjamin; Birkved, Morten; Quitzau, Maj-Britt; Hauschild, Michael

2013-09-01

328

Urban Development Transitions and Their Implications for Poverty Reduction and Policy Planning in Uganda  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urbanization is one of the critical global trends shaping the future of humanity. At the same time, it has been argued that\\u000a full development requires an urbanized environment. This paper attempts to examine and characterize the major phases of urbanization\\u000a in Uganda and what this means for urban policy planning and poverty reduction in the country. Although the history of

Paul Isolo Mukwaya; Hannington Sengendo; Shuaib Lwasa

2010-01-01

329

Environmental impacts of natural gas distribution networks within urban neighborhoods  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study uses the life cycle assessment methodology to analyze the type and origin of environmental impacts related to natural gas distribution networks in high and low density neighborhoods, and compares the environmental performance of two infrastructures in low density neighborhoods: a standard natural gas grid and a discontinuous system based on propane tanks. The results show that the impact

Jordi Oliver-Solà; Xavier Gabarrell; Joan Rieradevall

2009-01-01

330

Low Impact Development (LID) Technologies for Sustainable Water Management: Studies from a Green Roof  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anthropogenic induced landscape alterations, such as urbanization, can cause drastic alterations to predevelopment hydrologic conditions and the systems linked to these cycles. Low impact development (LID) technologies, such as green roofs, can help to minimize these impacts given their ability to retain and detain stormwater and subsequently evapotranspire or infiltrate excess water. An innovative technique for simultaneously monitoring stormwater retention,

K. A. Digiovanni; F. A. Montalto; S. Gaffin

2009-01-01

331

Air Pollution, Economic Development of Communities, and Health Status Among the Elderly in Urban China  

PubMed Central

In Western societies, the impact of air pollution on residents' health is higher in less wealthy communities. However, it is not clear whether such an interaction effect applies to developing countries. The authors examine how the level of community development modifies the impact of air pollution on health outcomes of the Chinese elderly using data from the third wave of the Chinese Longitudinal Health Longevity Survey in 2002, which includes 7,358 elderly residents aged 65 or more years from 735 districts in 171 cities. The results show that, compared with a 1-point increase in the air pollution index in urban areas with a low gross domestic product, a similar increase in the air pollution index in areas with a high gross domestic product is associated with more difficulties in activities of daily living (odds ratio =?1.41, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.09, 1.83), instrumental activities of daily living (linear coefficient =?0.98, 95% CI: 0.58, 1.37), and cognitive function (linear coefficient =?2.67, 95% CI: 1.97, 3.36), as well as a higher level of self-rated poor health (odds ratio =?2.20, 95% CI: 1.68, 2.86). Contrary to what has been found in the West, Chinese elderly who live in more developed urban areas are more susceptible to the effect of air pollution than are their counterparts living in less developed areas.

Gu, Danan

2008-01-01

332

Urban Heat Islands and Their Mitigation vs. Local Impacts of Climate Change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Urban heat islands and their mitigation take on added significance, both negative and positive, when viewed from a climate-change perspective. In negative terms, urban heat islands can act as local exacerbating factors, or magnifying lenses, to the effects of regional and large-scale climate perturbations and change. They can locally impact meteorology, energy/electricity generation and use, thermal environment (comfort and heat waves), emissions of air pollutants, photochemistry, and air quality. In positive terms, on the other hand, mitigation of urban heat islands (via urban surface modifications and control of man-made heat, for example) can potentially have a beneficial effect of mitigating the local negative impacts of climate change. In addition, mitigation of urban heat islands can, in itself, contribute to preventing regional and global climate change, even if modestly, by helping reduce CO2 emissions from power plants and other sources as a result of decreased energy use for cooling (both direct and indirect) and reducing the rates of meteorology-dependent emissions of air pollutants. This presentation will highlight aspects and characteristics of heat islands, their mitigation, their modeling and quantification techniques, and recent advances in meso-urban modeling of California (funded by the California Energy Commission). In particular, the presentation will focus on results from quantitative, modeling-based analyses of the potential benefits of heat island mitigation in 1) reducing point- and area-source emissions of CO2, NOx, and VOC as a result of reduced cooling energy demand and ambient/surface temperatures, 2) reducing evaporative and fugitive hydrocarbon emissions as a result of lowered temperatures, 3) reducing biogenic hydrocarbon emissions from existing vegetative cover, 4) slowing the rates of tropospheric/ground-level ozone formation and/or accumulation in the urban boundary layer, and 5) helping improve air quality. Quantitative estimates of the above will be presented based on recent and earlier meteorological, energy, thermal environmental, emissions, and photochemical modeling studies for California and Texas.

Taha, H.

2007-12-01

333

Environmental management of a highly impacted, urbanized tropical estuary: rehabilitation and restoration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The principles of the dynamics and interrelationships within the dominant subtropical and tropical Caribbean seagrass community have been studied previously before, during, and after impact. From these and scores of observations of damage and recovery patterns in Thalassia ecosystems, a sense of management recovery strategy has emerged. Artificial restoring of Thalassia testudinum seeds into areas cut off from stock (fruit, seeds) appeared feasible on a large scale after the Turkey Point (Biscayne Bay, Miami, Florida) restoration and test sampling throughout North Biscayne Bay. Two large-scale seeding attempts were made; after 11 months they compared favorably with Turkey Point specimens with regard to growth parameters, despite the turbidity and other persistent pollution. Thus, the possible areas in which Thalassia seed restoration can be used has increased to include estuaries of multiple impact still in various stages of recovery after physical and sewage pollution. This technique should be especially useful to “developing” nations where important nearshore fisheries nurseries based on Thalassia ecosystems have been heavily damaged and now lie barren. Man's impact on the estuary where seed restoration was attempted includes the following activities: 50% of the bay bottom directly dredged or filled (leaving much unconsolidated sediment); 50 million gallons of domestic waste dumped directly into a low flushing part of the bay for 20 years; seven major causeways transecting the bay, restricting circulation and flushing; two artificial inlets made into navigational channels; freshwater sheet flow drastically changed due to channelization by flood-control canals; urban runoff from a million people entering the bay. Most of the impacts have now abated; however, their long-term effects remain.

Thorhaug, A.

1980-03-01

334

Cloud Impacts on Photolysis and Ozone Production Rates in Urban Southeast Texas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With reductions in the 8-hour NAAQS ozone standard to 75 ppbv or lower, periods other than the traditional summer/fall ozone season will become increasingly important as policy makers work to develop regional control strategies and State Implementation Plans to comply with the new standards. In April & May of 2009 an intensive measurement campaign, the Study of Houston Atmospheric and Radical Precursors (SHARP) was conducted in the greater Houston, TX area. A primary goal of the campaign was to examine the processes involved in the spring time ozone exceedances in southeast Texas. The work presented here examines the impact of clouds on ozone production and loss rates calculated using the NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) 0-D photochemical box model. To assess the impacts of changes in actinic flux on ozone production and loss rates, the LaRC model was run with photolysis rates from both measured and modeled actinic fluxes. Measured actinic fluxes were made using a Scanning Actinic Flux Spectroradiometer and modeled actinic fluxes were calculated using the Tropospheric Ultraviolet and Visible (TUV) radiative transfer model. During this study net ozone production rates peak mid-morning and consequently cloudy conditions during this time period have greater impacts on peak ozone levels. Several case studies will be examined when meteorological models incorrectly forecasted cloud formation and the subsequent poor simulation of peak ozone mixing ratios. Similarly, our results show that changes in UV levels due to clouds also impact steady-state mixing ratios of HONO and HCHO, the primary OH radical sources during the morning rapid ozone formation period. These results are also compared to results from other urban air quality studies conducted in recent years.

Flynn, J. H.; Lefer, B. L.; Rappenglueck, B.; Luke, W. T.; Huey, L. G.; Dibb, J. E.; Jobson, B. T.

2010-12-01

335

Professional Development on Multiple Literacies in an Urban Professional Development School  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is a narrative report of a three-year professional development effort taking place within a professional development school (PDS). University professors collaborated with teachers in an urban junior high school to work on broadening their conceptions of literacy to enable student success. At the end of the project, it was clear that the ‘professional development’ was just as profound for

Sandra Hollingsworth; Margaret A. Gallego

2004-01-01

336

Effects of urban development on floods in northern Virginia  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Graphical and mathematical relations are presented to estimate the flood-peak magnitudes having recurrence intervals ranging up to 100 years for drainage basins with various degrees of urban or suburban development. Five independent variables are required for use of the relations. They are the size, length, and slope of the basin, which may be measured from maps, and the percentage of impervious surface and type of drainage system, which may be evaluated by a basin inspection but in actual practice will usually be estimated for future developed conditions. Based upon analysis of flood information for 81 sites, 59 of which are in the Washington, D.C., metropolitan area, the relations should be useful for design of drainage systems and for definition of good limits. The relations presented are applicable only to the Washington, D.C., area, but the method of analysis is general and may be used for any .area where the major floods result from rainfall. Urban and suburban development are shown .to affect floodflows to a significant degree. Improvements of the drainage system may reduce the lag time to one-eighth that of the natural channels. This lag-time reduction, combined with an increased storm runoff resulting from impervious surfaces, increases the flood peaks by a factor that ranges from two to nearly eight. The flood-peak increase depends upon the drainage-basin characteristics and the flood recurrence interval.

Anderson, Daniel G.

1970-01-01

337

Shopping the City: Real Estate Finance and Urban Retail Development  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Beginning in the early 1990s, the urban cores of many American cities experienced a building renaissance, with the construction of new commercial buildings and tourist-themed facilities continuing apace for over a decade. Despite this development, inner city retail development has generally stagnated over the past few years, with the exception of a few cities. In this 32-page report released in July 2003, Kenneth T. Rosen, Grace J. Kim, and Avani A. Patel examines "the major changes in the real estate finance marketplace, the implications of those changes on development decisions, and public policy actions that could facilitate projects in these markets." In the paper, the authors note that despite the strong economy of the 1990s, most corporations dealing in institutional real estate projects have elected to work on projects in smaller suburban markets, and in a select few cities that have robust downtown areas. Overall, this paper is a compelling look at the nature of the retail markets in urban areas, and what type of public policy interventions might encourage increased investment in these areas.

Rosen, Kenneth T.; Kim, Grace J.; Patel, Avani A.

2003-01-01

338

Human population, urban settlement patterns and their impact on Plasmodium falciparum malaria endemicity  

PubMed Central

Background The efficient allocation of financial resources for malaria control and the optimal distribution of appropriate interventions require accurate information on the geographic distribution of malaria risk and of the human populations it affects. Low population densities in rural areas and high population densities in urban areas can influence malaria transmission substantially. Here, the Malaria Atlas Project (MAP) global database of Plasmodium falciparum parasite rate (PfPR) surveys, medical intelligence and contemporary population surfaces are utilized to explore these relationships and other issues involved in combining malaria risk maps with those of human population distribution in order to define populations at risk more accurately. Methods First, an existing population surface was examined to determine if it was sufficiently detailed to be used reliably as a mask to identify areas of very low and very high population density as malaria free regions. Second, the potential of international travel and health guidelines (ITHGs) for identifying malaria free cities was examined. Third, the differences in PfPR values between surveys conducted in author-defined rural and urban areas were examined. Fourth, the ability of various global urban extent maps to reliably discriminate these author-based classifications of urban and rural in the PfPR database was investigated. Finally, the urban map that most accurately replicated the author-based classifications was analysed to examine the effects of urban classifications on PfPR values across the entire MAP database. Results Masks of zero population density excluded many non-zero PfPR surveys, indicating that the population surface was not detailed enough to define areas of zero transmission resulting from low population densities. In contrast, the ITHGs enabled the identification and mapping of 53 malaria free urban areas within endemic countries. Comparison of PfPR survey results showed significant differences between author-defined 'urban' and 'rural' designations in Africa, but not for the remainder of the malaria endemic world. The Global Rural Urban Mapping Project (GRUMP) urban extent mask proved most accurate for mapping these author-defined rural and urban locations, and further sub-divisions of urban extents into urban and peri-urban classes enabled the effects of high population densities on malaria transmission to be mapped and quantified. Conclusion The availability of detailed, contemporary census and urban extent data for the construction of coherent and accurate global spatial population databases is often poor. These known sources of uncertainty in population surfaces and urban maps have the potential to be incorporated into future malaria burden estimates. Currently, insufficient spatial information exists globally to identify areas accurately where population density is low enough to impact upon transmission. Medical intelligence does however exist to reliably identify malaria free cities. Moreover, in Africa, urban areas that have a significant effect on malaria transmission can be mapped.

Tatem, Andrew J; Guerra, Carlos A; Kabaria, Caroline W; Noor, Abdisalan M; Hay, Simon I

2008-01-01

339

Impacts of Urban Mass Transportation Administration Capital Grants Programs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The paper attempts to analyze the impacts of UMTA capital grants in terms of eleven national transportation goals: adequate service; appropriate rates and prices; economic efficiency; energy conservation; environmental protection; safety; employment gener...

L. Merewitz

1979-01-01

340

Urban Places in Nonmetro Areas: Historic Preservation and Economic Development.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Urban places during the 20th century faced economic forces causing the decline of their downtowns. Historic preservation, as part of a broader framework, is used for the redevelopment of the urban places' central business districts in nonmetro areas. Whil...

P. L. Stenberg

1995-01-01

341

DEVELOPMENT OF METHODS TO DEFINE WATER QUALITY EFFECTS OF URBAN RUNOFF  

EPA Science Inventory

The projected costs for treating combined sewer overflows and urban runoff nationwide are extremely large, and therefore necessitate that methods be available to quantitatively evaluate the receiving water impacts associated with these discharges. This report summarizes the resul...

342

Urban surface modeling and the meso-scale impact of cities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  New developments of the international community in modeling the urban canopy surface energy balance are presented and classified\\u000a into five main categories: (i) models statistically fit to observations, (ii) and (iii) modified vegetation schemes with or\\u000a without drag terms in the canopy, and (iv) and (v), new urban canopy schemes, that present both horizontal and vertical surfaces,\\u000a again with or

V. Masson

2006-01-01

343

Impact of urban fragmentation on the genetic structure of the eastern red-backed salamander  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urban development is a major cause of habitat loss and fragmentation. Few studies, however, have dealt with fragmentation\\u000a in an urban landscape. In this paper, we examine the genetic structure of isolated populations of the eastern red-backed salamander\\u000a (Plethodon cinereus) in a metropolitan area. We sampled four populations located on a mountain in the heart of Montréal (Québec, Canada), which\\u000a presents

Sarah Noël; Martin Ouellet; Patrick Galois; François-Joseph Lapointe

2007-01-01

344

Blogging the Field: An Emergent Continuum for Urban Teacher Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Preparing teachers to work in urban settings poses unique challenges, as urban communities are complex and require systemic understanding of students and their families, culture, and community. Pre-service teachers often harbor misconceptions about what it means to work in urban settings and many bring to their teacher education program minimal…

Domine, Vanessa

2012-01-01

345

Small town development and rural urbanization in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new way of urbanization has emerged in China where farmers are urbanizing the rural areas instead of migrating to the large cities. This article addresses the question of why current urbanization takes this direction in which surplus labor has been transferred from agriculture into the industrial and service sectors without leaving the rural areas. The findings indicate that continual

Gabe T. Wang; Xiaobo Hu

1999-01-01

346

Urban Development in the United States, 1690-1990  

Microsoft Academic Search

The United States transformed itself from a rural to an urban society over the last three centuries. After a century of unremarkable growth, the pace of urbanization was historically unprecedented between the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. In the twentieth century, the urban population continued to increase but in a much more dispersed manner as the suburban population increased. Throughout

Sukkoo Kim

1999-01-01

347

Urbanization and Economic Development: A Bias toward Large Cities?  

Microsoft Academic Search

We find that a nation's urban population percentage increases with GDP per capita; industrialization; export orientation; and possibly, foreign assistance. It decreases with the importance of agriculture. Industrialization and agricultural importance have the same implications for the concentration of urban population in cities with 100,000+ population as for the urban percentage. Greater export orientation reduces such concentration. Finally, GDP per

Ronald L. Moomaw; Ali M. Shatter

1996-01-01

348

Blogging the Field: An Emergent Continuum for Urban Teacher Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Preparing teachers to work in urban settings poses unique challenges, as urban communities are complex and require systemic understanding of students and their families, culture, and community. Pre-service teachers often harbor misconceptions about what it means to work in urban settings and many bring to their teacher education program minimal…

Domine, Vanessa

2012-01-01

349

Urban and metropolitan development and the Clean Air Act  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Conference of Mayors Clean Air Program assists cities in exploring ways in which the objectives of the Clean Air Act can be reconciled with economic development of urban areas. Jointly sponsored by four federal agencies - the Environmental Protection Agency, and the Department of Commerce, Housing and Urban Development, and Transportation - the Clean Air Program conducted five regional Clean Air Conferences which brought together representatives from the public and private sectors to discuss air quality problems. The Final Report is a list of recommendations to the Federal agencies involved as to how they can better assist cities in meeting the requirements of the Clean Air Act. In short, the recommendations state that better cooperation and communication will be the key ingredients in assisting cities in establishing their clean air programs. Better coordination is needed not only between the Federal and local governments but also among the Federal agencies themselves. In addition, local governments must be part of the decisionmaking process. Finally, new approaches to resolving clean air problems must be given more attention by Federal, state, and local governments.

Hoffer, A.S.; McClimon, T.L.

1980-01-01

350

Seismic events and their impacts on water infrastructure in a large urban conglomeration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objective of this work is to show a few examples of water-related hazards in urban zones subjected to seismic hazards. We present the case of Mexico City, an urban conglomeration with more than 20 million inhabitants, with soil subsidence due to excessive groundwater pumping and prone to a historical earthquake incidence (in magnitude and cost-damages). Past significant seismic events and their impacts on the water supply and sewage network are analyzed. Likewise, potential material and economic losses that the urban water network could face in case of an extreme earthquake are shown. Finally, cost-effective solutions are proposed in order to reduce water-related risks over the short and medium term following a seismic event of substantial magnitude.

Francisca Naranjo, Maria

2013-04-01

351

Urban Quality Development and Management: Capacity Development and Continued Education for the Sustainable City  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to describe and discuss the development and the structure of a new international master on the subject of urban quality development and management (UQDM), and explore the potential of the process and the outcome in serving as models adoptable by faculty at other universities. Design/methodology/approach: The…

Lehmann, Martin; Fryd, Ole

2008-01-01

352

Jails, prisons, and the health of urban populations: A review of the impact of the correctional system on community health  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review examined the interactions between the correctional system and the health of urban populations. Cities have more\\u000a poor people, more people of color, and higher crime rates than suburban and rural areas; thus, urban populations are overrepresented\\u000a in the nation's jails and prisons. As a result, US incarceration policies and programs have a disproportionate impact on urban\\u000a communities, especially

Nicholas Freudenberg

2001-01-01

353

Measuring Urban Commercial Land Value Impacts of Access Management Techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

The safety benefits of access management, the controlling of access points on roadways, have been proven and have been well documented in past research. However, there is limited research on the economic impacts of access management, and most existing research is qualitative. Further quantitative research is needed because commercial business owners believing that direct and complete access to their land

Jamie Luedtke; David Plazak

354

Community Violence Exposure and Positive Youth Development in Urban Youth  

PubMed Central

Youth in urban environments are exposed to community violence, yet some do well and continue on a positive developmental trajectory. This study investigated the relationships between lifetime community violence exposure (including total, hearing about, witnessing, and victimization), family functioning, and positive youth development (PYD) among 110 urban youth ages 10–16 years (54% female) using a paper and pen self-report survey. This cross-sectional study was part of an interdisciplinary community-based participatory research effort in West/Southwest Philadelphia. Almost 97% of the sample reported some type of community violence exposure. Controlling for presence of mother in the home and presence of father in the home, separate linear regression models for PYD by each type of community violence exposure indicated that gender and family functioning were significantly associated with PYD. None of the types of community violence exposure were significant in the models. Significant interactions between gender and presence of mother in the home and gender and family functioning helped better explain these relationships for some of the types of community violence exposure. Presence of mother was associated with higher PYD for girls, but not for boys. Boys with poor family functioning had lower PYD than girls with poor family functioning. This study helps to better delineate relationships between CVE and PYD by adding new knowledge to the literature on the role of family functioning. Points of intervention should focus on families, with attention to parental figures in the home and overall family functioning.

Deatrick, Janet A.; Kassam-Adams, Nancy; Richmond, Therese S.

2011-01-01

355

Community violence exposure and positive youth development in urban youth.  

PubMed

Youth in urban environments are exposed to community violence, yet some do well and continue on a positive developmental trajectory. This study investigated the relationships between lifetime community violence exposure (including total, hearing about, witnessing, and victimization), family functioning, and positive youth development (PYD) among 110 urban youth ages 10-16 years (54% female) using a paper and pen self-report survey. This cross-sectional study was part of an interdisciplinary community-based participatory research effort in West/Southwest Philadelphia. Almost 97% of the sample reported some type of community violence exposure. Controlling for presence of mother in the home and presence of father in the home, separate linear regression models for PYD by each type of community violence exposure indicated that gender and family functioning were significantly associated with PYD. None of the types of community violence exposure were significant in the models. Significant interactions between gender and presence of mother in the home and gender and family functioning helped better explain these relationships for some of the types of community violence exposure. Presence of mother was associated with higher PYD for girls, but not for boys. Boys with poor family functioning had lower PYD than girls with poor family functioning. This study helps to better delineate relationships between CVE and PYD by adding new knowledge to the literature on the role of family functioning. Points of intervention should focus on families, with attention to parental figures in the home and overall family functioning. PMID:21461763

McDonald, Catherine C; Deatrick, Janet A; Kassam-Adams, Nancy; Richmond, Therese S

2011-12-01

356

Quantification of urbanization in relation to chronic diseases in developing countries: a systematic review.  

PubMed

During and beyond the twentieth century, urbanization has represented a major demographic shift particularly in the developed world. The rapid urbanization experienced in the developing world brings increased mortality from lifestyle diseases such as cancer and cardiovascular disease. We set out to understand how urbanization has been measured in studies which examined chronic disease as an outcome. Following a pilot search of PUBMED, a full search strategy was developed to identify papers reporting the effect of urbanization in relation to chronic disease in the developing world. Full searches were conducted in MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, and GLOBAL HEALTH. Of the 868 titles identified in the initial search, nine studies met the final inclusion criteria. Five of these studies used demographic measures (such as population density) at an area level to measure urbanization. Four studies used more complicated summary measures of individual and area level data (such as distance from a city, occupation, home and land ownership) to define urbanization. The papers reviewed were limited by using simple area level summary measures (e.g., urban rural dichotomy) or having to rely on preexisting data at the individual level. Further work is needed to develop a measure of urbanization that treats urbanization as a process and which is sensitive enough to track changes in "urbanicity" and subsequent emergence of chronic disease risk factors and mortality. PMID:18931915

Allender, Steven; Foster, Charlie; Hutchinson, Lauren; Arambepola, Carukshi

2008-10-18

357

Urban History  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Reviews the development of urban history since the 1870s and describes the present variety of urban history studies. Current studies seem to focus on either macromodels and urban systems or on internal networks and densities. (Author/AV)|

Sharpless, John B.; Warner, Sam Bass, Jr.

1977-01-01

358

A remote sensing?GIS evaluation of urban expansion and its impact on surface temperature in the Zhujiang Delta, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Zhujiang Delta of South China has experienced a rapid urban expansion over the past two decades due to accelerated economic growth. This paper reports an investigation into the application of the integration of remote sensing and geographic information systems (GIS) for detecting urban growth and assessing its impact on surface temperature in the region. Remote sensing techniques were used

Q. Weng

2001-01-01

359

Rural and Urban Caregivers for Older Adults in Poland: Perceptions of Positive and Negative Impact of Caregiving  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study examines rural-urban differences in informal caregivers' perceptions of caregiving. The study's theoretical framework is based on the two-factor model of caregiving, which views caregiving as having both positive and negative impact. Data were collected in personal interviews with 126 rural and 127 urban caregivers in the Bialystok…

Bien, Barbara; Wojszel, Beata; Sikorska-Simmons, Elzbieta

2007-01-01

360

Rural and Urban Caregivers for Older Adults in Poland: Perceptions of Positive and Negative Impact of Caregiving  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines rural-urban differences in informal caregivers' perceptions of caregiving. The study's theoretical framework is based on the two-factor model of caregiving, which views caregiving as having both positive and negative impact. Data were collected in personal interviews with 126 rural and 127 urban caregivers in the Bialystok…

Bien, Barbara; Wojszel, Beata; Sikorska-Simmons, Elzbieta

2007-01-01

361

Assessing the Impact of Land Conversion to Urban Use on Soils with Different Productivity Levels in the USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

especially in Africa and Asia (Brown, 1995). The world's population is estimated to reach 8 billion by the year There has been increased public concern in the USA over the long- 2025, a 38% increase from its current population. Yet, term impact of urbanization on the available land used to produce food, feed, and fiber. Concern that urban use of

Egide L. Nizeyimana; G. W. Petersen; M. L. Imhoff; H. R. Sinclair; S. W. Waltman; D. S. Reed-Margetan; E. R. Levine; J. M. Russo

2001-01-01

362

Modeling impacts of roof reflectivity, integrated photovoltaic panels and green roof systems on sensible heat flux into the urban environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study presents results of a modeling effort to explore the role that sustainable roofing technologies play in impacting the rooftop energy balance, and the resultant net sensible heat flux into the urban atmosphere with a focus on the summertime urban heat island. The model has been validated using data from a field experiment conducted in Portland Oregon. Roofing technologies

Adam Scherba; David J. Sailor; Todd N. Rosenstiel; Carl C. Wamser

363

Evolving through Collaboration and Commitment: The Story of the North Florida Urban Professional Development School Partnership  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The 2009 Professional Development Schools National Conference recognized the North Florida Urban Professional Development School Partnership for its outstanding work in an urban education context and so named it one of the three recipients of the first-ever National Association for Professional Development Schools Award for Exemplary Professional…

Witsell, Kathleen; Keenan, Donna; Nelson, Fred; Daniel, Larry; Syverud, Susan; Hall, Katrina; O'Farrell, Cathy

2009-01-01

364

Constructing premium network spaces: reflections on infrastructure networks and contemporary urban development  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article argues that standardized, public or private infrastructure monopolies are receding as hegemonic forms of urban infrastructure development. We are starting to witness the uneven overlaying of new, customized, high-performance urban infrastructures onto the apparently immanent, universal and (usually) public monopoly networks laid down in developed cities between the 1930s and 1960s. This article seeks to develop a broad

Stephen Graham

2000-01-01

365

The effects of future urban development on habitat fragmentation in the Santa Monica Mountains  

Microsoft Academic Search

A site suitability model of urban development was created for the Santa Monica Mountains in southern California, USA, to project to what degree future development might fragment the natural habitat. The purpose was to help prioritize land acquisition for the Santa Monica Mountains National Recreation Area and examine to what extent projected urban development would affect distinct vegetation classes. The

Jennifer J. Swenson; Janet Franklin

2000-01-01

366

The effects of future urban development on habitat fragmentation in the Santa Monica Mountains  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract A site suitability model of urban development was created for the Santa Monica Mountains in southern California, USA, to project to what degree future development might fragment the natural habitat. The purpose was to help prioritize land acquisition for the Santa Monica Mountains National Recreation Area and examine,to what extent projected urban development,would affect distinct vegetation classes. The model

Jennifer J. Swenson; Janet Franklin

2000-01-01

367

Urban drought: a potential environmental hotspot in the western region development of China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A large-scale economic development program in western China has begun since 1999. Fast urbanization is expected with urban population increasing dramatically. Western China is mostly in arid and semi-arid climate zone and water resources are very limited. It suggests that an early warning system specifically designed to deal with urban droughts should be developed. Thresholds on identifying the water related hotspots must be determined based on different regions and economic sectors.

Ye, Qian; Glantz, Michael H.; Song, Lianchun; Sun, Guowu; Pan, Xiaoling

2003-07-01

368

Near-Roadway Pollution and Childhood Asthma: Implications for Developing "Win-Win" Compact Urban Development and Clean Vehicle Strategies  

PubMed Central

Background: The emerging consensus that exposure to near-roadway traffic-related pollution causes asthma has implications for compact urban development policies designed to reduce driving and greenhouse gases. Objectives: We estimated the current burden of childhood asthma-related disease attributable to near-roadway and regional air pollution in Los Angeles County (LAC) and the potential health impact of regional pollution reduction associated with changes in population along major traffic corridors. Methods: The burden of asthma attributable to the dual effects of near-roadway and regional air pollution was estimated, using nitrogen dioxide and ozone as markers of urban combustion-related and secondary oxidant pollution, respectively. We also estimated the impact of alternative scenarios that assumed a 20% reduction in regional pollution in combination with a 3.6% reduction or 3.6% increase in the proportion of the total population living near major roads, a proxy for near-roadway exposure. Results: We estimated that 27,100 cases of childhood asthma (8% of total) in LAC were at least partly attributable to pollution associated with residential location within 75 m of a major road. As a result, a substantial proportion of asthma-related morbidity is a consequence of near-roadway pollution, even if symptoms are triggered by other factors. Benefits resulting from a 20% regional pollution reduction varied markedly depending on the associated change in near-roadway proximity. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that there are large and previously unappreciated public health consequences of air pollution in LAC and probably in other metropolitan areas with dense traffic corridors. To maximize health benefits, compact urban development strategies should be coupled with policies to reduce near-roadway pollution exposure.

Perez, Laura; Lurmann, Fred; Wilson, John; Pastor, Manuel; Brandt, Sylvia J.; Kunzli, Nino

2012-01-01

369

An integrated framework for quantifying and valuing climate change impacts on urban energy and infrastructure: A Chicago case study  

Microsoft Academic Search

We use a quantitative modeling framework capable of translating increasing stress on energy demand and costs, infrastructure maintenance, and capital investments into economic impacts to estimate future climate change effects on urban infrastructure and economy. This framework enables quantitative estimates of the economic impacts of climate change based on observed relationships between key climate thresholds and their impacts on energy

Katharine Hayhoe; Mark Robson; John Rogula; Maximilian Auffhammer; Norman Miller; Jeff VanDorn; Donald Wuebbles

2010-01-01

370

The impacts of globalization on the urban spatial-economic system in Korea  

Microsoft Academic Search

This chapter discusses trends in Korean urbanization during the era of increasing globalization. Much of the earlier globalization\\u000a bypassed Korea except in the sense that its industrial growth was propelled forward by export expansion. More recently, however,\\u000a Korea has had to face the impacts of globalization on the internal dynamics of the Korean economy and its cities: trade liberalization,\\u000a market

Sang-Chuel Choe

371

Alternative land use regulations and environmental impacts: assessing future land use in an urbanizing watershed  

Microsoft Academic Search

Land use models provide a way to examine the impacts of future urbanization and alternative land use regulations on the environment before irreversible changes are made. A simple spatially-explicit model was used to explore potential build-out conditions under different sets of regulations for the Barnegat Bay watershed, New Jersey, USA. Four build-out scenarios were created based on: (1) current regulations,

Tenley M. Conway; Richard G. Lathrop

2005-01-01

372

Alternative land use regulations and environmental impacts: assessing future land use in an urbanizing watershed  

Microsoft Academic Search

Land use models provide a way to examine the impacts of future urbanization and alternative land use regulations on the environment before irreversible changes are made. A simple spatially-explicit model was used to explore potential build-out conditions under different sets of regulations for the Barnegat Bay watershed, New Jersey, USA. Four build-out scenarios were created based on: (1) current regulations,

Tenley M. Conwaya; Richard G. Lathrop

2004-01-01

373

Estimating Land Use Impacts on Regional Scale Urban Water Balance and Groundwater Recharge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anthropogenic activities have exerted increasingly large-scale influences on terrestrial ecological systems from the past\\u000a century, primarily through agriculture; however, the impact of such changes on the hydrologic cycle is poorly understood.\\u000a As one of the important land use (LU) in the coastal Dogo Plain of the Seto Inland Sea, Japan, paddy fields have been decreasing\\u000a with the increase in urbanization

Bin He; Yi Wang; Keiji Takase; Goro Mouri; Bam H. N. Razafindrabe

2009-01-01

374

Predicted health impacts of urban air quality management  

PubMed Central

Study objective: The 1995 UK Environment Act required local authorities to review air quality and, where UK National Air Quality Strategy objectives (except ozone) are likely to be exceeded in 2005, to declare local air quality management areas and prepare action plans. This study modelled the impacts on health of reductions from current levels of PM10 to these objectives. Design: The framework for conducting quantified health impact assessment assessed causality, then, if appropriate, examined the shape and magnitude of the exposure-response relations. The study modelled declines in pollution to achieve the objectives, then modelled the numbers of deaths and admissions affected if air pollution declined from existing levels to meet the objectives, using routine data. Setting: Westminster, central London. Main results: Attaining the 2004 PM10 24 hour objective in Westminster results in 1–21 lives no longer shortened in one year (annual deaths 1363). Reducing exceedences from 35 to seven almost doubles the estimates. The 2009 objective for the annual mean requires a substantial reduction in PM10, which would delay 8–20 deaths. About 20 respiratory and 14–20 circulatory admissions would be affected and around 5% of emergency hospital attendances for asthma by attaining the lower annual mean target. The effects of long term exposure to particulates may be an order of magnitude higher: models predict about 24 deaths are delayed by reaching the 2004 annual target (40 µg/m3[gravimetric]) and a hundred deaths by reducing annual mean PM10 to 20 µg/m3[gravimetric]. Conclusions: Modelling can be used to estimate the potential health impacts of air quality management programmes.

Mindell, J; Joffe, M

2004-01-01

375

An Auxiliary Method To Reduce Potential Adverse Impacts Of Projected Land Developments: Subwatershed Prioritization  

EPA Science Inventory

An index based method is developed that ranks the subwatersheds of a watershed based on their relative impacts on watershed response to anticipated land developments, and then applied to an urbanizing watershed in Eastern Pennsylvania. Simulations with a semi-distributed hydrolo...

376

Market impact on cassava's development potential in the Atlantic Coast region of Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact of markets on agricultural development was analyzed by means of a case study on cassava in the Atlantic Coast region of Colombia. In the development process, the demand for agricultural products changes considerably. Traditional food products, such as roots and tubers, face a decreasing demand in the course of urbanization and income growth. Feed grains and animal products

W. G. Janssen

1986-01-01

377

The respiratory health impact of a large urban fire.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES. In July 1988, a fire destroyed a huge supermarket warehouse in Richmond, Calif, sending smoke into residential neighborhoods for nearly a week. There was no organized public health response. To evaluate the respiratory health impact on the general population, a survey of emergency room visits and hospital admissions to the two acute-care hospitals serving the population downwind was conducted. METHODS. Medical records of 489 patients meeting specified diagnostic criteria during the week of the fire and several reference periods were abstracted. Ratios of proportions for respiratory diagnoses (i.e., emergency room visits for a given diagnosis/total emergency room visits) were calculated, comparing the fire week with the reference periods, and 1988 mortality data for the area were reviewed. RESULTS. Ratios of proportions for emergency room visits for asthma and all lower respiratory conditions increased significantly during the fire. Respiratory-related hospitalizations also increased. However, there was no observable increase in respiratory mortality. CONCLUSIONS. This fire was found to have had a moderate impact on the respiratory health of local residents. Public health intervention is indicated to prevent respiratory morbidity when extended exposure to structural fire smoke is predictable.

Lipsett, M; Waller, K; Shusterman, D; Thollaug, S; Brunner, W

1994-01-01

378

A Satellite Based Assessment of the Impact of Urban Sprawl on Carbon Balance (NPP) of the United States  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For the first time, diurnal observations from two Earth imaging satellites were used to measure the extent of urban sprawl and estimate the photosynthetic capacity of the land surface inside and outside urbanized areas and assess the impact of urbanization on the terrestrial carbon cycle. Night-time data from the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program's Operational Linescan System were used to map urban areas and monthly maximum NDVI values from1-km AVHRR data were used with the Carnegie Ames Stanford Approach biophysical model to estimate net primary production (NPP). Seasonal profiles of NPP for urban and non-urban areas describe a variable effect on production depending upon the prevailing local climate and a strong urban "warming" signal can be seen. A comparison between a simulated "pre-urban" landscape and current conditions indicates that urbanization has reduced the productivity of the US land surface by about 0.012 PgC per year - about 0.5% of the estimated annual total. In terms of human requirements, this loss translates to enough energy to feed 105 million persons per year. The impact on biological systems therefore may be significant.

Imhoff, M. L.; Lawrence, W.; Bounoua, L.; Stutzer, D.; Tucker, C. J.; Ricketts, T.; Drob, K. M.

2001-12-01

379

HOUSEHOLDS, LIVELIHOODS AND URBAN POVERTY Background Paper for the ESCOR Commissioned Research on Urban Development: Urban Governance, Partnership and Poverty  

Microsoft Academic Search

This background paper considers how people in low-income urban households pursue secure livelihoods. Livelihoods are understood not only in terms of income earning but a much wider range of activities, such as gaining and retaining access to resources and opportunities, dealing with risk, negotiating social relationships within the household and managing social networks and institutions within communities and the city.

Jo Beall; Nazneen Kanji

380

Modeled Impacts of Development Type on Runoff Volume and Infiltration Performance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Development type has emerged as an important focal point for addressing a wide range of social, cultural, and environmental concerns related to urban growth. Low impact development techniques that rely heavily on infiltration practices are increasingly being used to manage storm water. In this study, four development types (conventional curvilinear, urban cluster, coving, and new urbanism) were modeled both with and without infiltration practices to determine their relative effects on urban runoff. Modeling was performed with a modified version of the Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) runoff method that enables evaluation of infiltration practices. Model results indicate that urban cluster developments produce the smallest volume of runoff due to the large portion of land kept in a natural condition. Infiltration practices are most effective for small storms and in developments with Hydrologic Group A soils. Significant reductions in runoff can be achieved in all four development types if infiltration practices treat many impervious surfaces. As more infiltration practices are implemented, the differences in runoff among development types diminish. With a strategic combination of site layout and infiltration design, any development type can reduce hydrologic impacts, allowing developers to consider other factors, such as convenience, marketability, community needs, and aesthetics.

Brander, Kent E.; Owen, Katherine E.; Potter, Kenneth W.

2004-08-01

381

A Strategic Approach to Urban Research and Development: Social and Behavioral Science Considerations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Committee on Social and Behavioral Urban Research was asked to advise the Housing and Urban Development Department (HUD) on elements of its long-range research and development program (R & D). Federal, state, and local governments have had access to only small amounts of relevant social and behavioral science knowledge or small numbers of…

National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC.

382

Urban Development under Ambiguous Property Rights: A Case of China's Transition Economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Property rights play a key role in maintaining sustainable growth and in achieving efficient development. China's economic reforms have stimulated urban physical development through the commodification and marketization of land-use rights and building construction. Property rights over urban land have been decentralized, but the gradualist reform of state assets has not assigned and delineated property rights clearly between the principal

Jieming Zhu

2002-01-01

383

Urban development through hosting international events: a history of the Olympic Games  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, there has been increased interest in the idea of promoting urban development and change through the hosting of major events. This approach offers host cities the possibility of 'fast track' urban regeneration, a stimulus to economic growth, improved transport and cultural facilities, and enhanced global recognition and prestige. Many authors attribute the increased importance of event-led development

Brian Chalkley; Stephen Essex

1999-01-01

384

Helping Urban Adolescents Develop Positive Self-Concepts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Counselors who are really interested in motivating urban youth must come to recognize the importance of a strength-oriented approach to guidance. They must stop talking about deficits and, instead, identify and use the unique strengths of urban adolescents. Success counseling is one technique that can be used to facilitate this process. (Author)

Washington, Kenneth R.

1976-01-01

385

Professional Development: Assisting Urban Schools in Making Annual Yearly Progress  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Under the No Child Left Behind Act (2002), all schools are required to demonstrate that all students make annual yearly progress (AYP). This can be difficult, particularly for students in urban schools and even more so for students with disabilities. The authors report on one large urban school district's attempts to provide support to 140…

Cramer, Elizabeth D.; Gudwin, Denise M.; Salazar, Magda

2007-01-01

386

An Initial Formulation. Research, Diagnosis and Development in Urban Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Described in this report are factors which affect and/or limit urban educational research and dimensions of cities which should be considered in making social and organizational research in urban education more relevant. Some of these considerations are learning, institutional and management deficits, the lack of a total systems perspective on…

Gappert, Gary

387

Urban development and particulate air pollution in Coimbatore city, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Haphazard urbanization and unprecedented vehicular growth that exacerbate air quality are prevalent features in India. Coimbatore, an important industrial city ranking 15th in terms of principal urban agglomerations of India, was classified as a moderately polluted area in National Ambient Air Quality Monitoring survey in 1997. The current study (March 1999–February 2001) was undertaken to assess suspended particulate matter (SPM)

R. MOHANRAJ; P. A. AZEEZ

2005-01-01

388

Urban Missions Mini-Grants as Faculty Development Tools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes how "Implementing Urban Missions" mini-grants proved successful in encouraging personnel at Ohio Dominican College in Columbus to forge learning partnerships with community agencies and residents; the grants also served to identify future leaders in the ongoing implementation of the college's urban mission and leveraged support for the…

Butler, Christina

2002-01-01

389

The Entrepreneurial City: Fabricating Urban Development in Syracuse, New York  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a case study of contemporary urban redevelopment in Syracuse, New York, within a theoretical framework drawn from urban political economy. Our analysis integrates the role of the local state in assuming the financial risk for a redevelopment project with an understanding of the meanings and role of a fabricated cultural landscape in ensuring the success of the

Susan M. Roberts; Richard H. Schein

1993-01-01

390

A transdisciplinary approach to oppressive cityscapes and the role of greenery as key factors in sustainable urban development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Through the recent process of urban development, characterized by urban expansion and redevelopment, industrialized countries have witnessed a surge in the number, scale and complexity of urban structures. However, it has become difficult to keep urban space adaptable to environmental realities and our cities don't completely meet the demands of society. These demands include the sustainable upgrading of social infrastructure

M. Asgarzadeh; T. Koga; N. Yoshizawa; J. Munakata; K. Hirate

2009-01-01

391

Increasing Green Infrastructure in Compact Developments: Strategies for Providing Ecologically Beneficial Greenery in Modern Urban Built Environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urban forest canopies are generally declining in areal extent across the United States. At the same time urban areal extent per capita is increasing, and human population is urbanizing. Eighty percent of North Americans are now living in urbanized areas. Municipalities are reacting to concerns about such trends by permitting an increasing number of compact developments that may conflict with

Daniel C. Staley

392

Impact of urbanization on suspended sediment and organic matter fluxes from small catchments in Tahiti  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study provides an initial characterization of pollution associated with storm runoff in Tahiti. A thousand floodwater samples were collected from three representative catchments and subsequently analysed. The main pollution parameters chosen were total suspended sediment (TSS), chemical oxygen demand (COD), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), total nitrogen (TN) and Total Phosphorus (TP). First, organic pollution appeared to be related closely to sediment, thus TSS could be used as a global indicator. Next, regression models between an event's TSS load and its hydrological characteristics were used to obtain annual load estimates. Great interannual variability was found to be strongly influenced by the few major floods that occur during the rainy season. Our results also emphasize the importance of the impact of urbanization on solid catchment exportation: from 60 TSS t/km2/year in a natural forested catchment, fluxes reached more than 700 TSS t/km2/year during preparatory urbanization earthworks before stabilizing at 140 TSS t/km2/year in a consolidated urbanized area. Clearly, runoff effects need to be taken into consideration for effective urban planning and for the preservation of the coastal environment in Tahiti.

Wotling, G.; Bouvier, Ch.

2002-06-01

393

Impact of urban pollution emitted in Warsaw on aerosol properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the analyses of the long-term observations of aerosol optical thickness (AOT) and concentrations of particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter <10 ?m (PM10) in the Warsaw extended area. The AOT was observed between 2005 and 2011 in Warsaw and in Belsk (about 45 km away from Warsaw) with hand-held Microtops (Warsaw) and CIMEL (Belsk) sun photometers. The PM10 concentrations were measured at three Warsaw stations as well as in Belsk. The ground-based observations, and the satellite data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) provided information about the influence of Warsaw emissions on the AOT. The estimated effect is about 0.02 (at 500 nm) based on the sun photometers' comparisons and 0.03 (at 550 nm) based on the MODIS results. Relatively small impact of Warsaw emissions on the AOT (about 10-15%) is consistent with the PM10 data. The mean PM10 differences, estimated during the same time as sun photometer measurements, for Warsaw Ursynow (a residential area) and Belsk was only 5.7 ?g m-3 (13%), and for Warsaw Targowek (a mixed shopping and residential area) and Belsk was about 9.8 ?g m-3 (20%). For the station located in the central Warsaw, near to the street with the heavy traffic, the difference in the long-term mean of the PM10 was significantly larger and reached 22.1 ?g m-3 (36%). Finally, an extreme smoke event observed on 4 April 2009, when favorable weather conditions led to the differences in the AOT between Warsaw and Belsk in a range of 0.11-0.2 (at 500 nm) has been described.

Zawadzka, O.; Markowicz, K. M.; Pietruczuk, A.; Zielinski, T.; Jaroslawski, J.

2013-04-01

394

Simulating Hydrologic and Water Quality Impacts in an Urbanizing Watershed  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Hydrologic Simulation Program-Fortran (HSPF) was calibrated and used to assess the future effects of various land development scenarios on water quality in the Polecat Creek watershed in Caroline County, Virginia. Model parameters related to hydrology and water quality were calibrated and validated using observed streamflow and water quality data collected at the watershed outlet and the outlets of two

Sangjun Im; Kevin M. Brannan; Saied Mostaghimi

2003-01-01

395

Connecting Urban Youth with Their Environment: The Impact of an Urban Ecology Course on Student Content Knowledge, Environmental Attitudes and Responsible Behaviors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study explores the impact of an urban ecology program on participating middle school students' understanding of science and pro-environmental attitudes and behaviors. We gathered pre and post survey data from four classes and found significant gains in scientific knowledge, but no significant changes in student beliefs regarding the…

Hashimoto-Martell, Erin A.; McNeill, Katherine L.; Hoffman, Emily M.

2012-01-01

396

Congressional Inquiry on Urbanization: Summary of Cable Responses.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Rapid urbanization continues to have a profound impact on many developing countries. This compilation of information from A.I.D. Missions worldwide assesses the potential adverse effects of urbanization and identifies possible remedial actions. The Missio...

C. Pill

1989-01-01

397

Impact of rainfall temporal resolution on urban water quality modelling performance and uncertainties.  

PubMed

A key control on the response of an urban drainage model is how well the observed rainfall records represent the real rainfall variability. Particularly in urban catchments with fast response flow regimes, the selection of temporal resolution in rainfall data collection is critical. Furthermore, the impact of the rainfall variability on the model response is amplified for water quality estimates, as uncertainty in rainfall intensity affects both the rainfall-runoff and pollutant wash-off sub-models, thus compounding uncertainties. A modelling study was designed to investigate the impact of altering rainfall temporal resolution on the magnitude and behaviour of uncertainties associated with the hydrological modelling compared with water quality modelling. The case study was an 85-ha combined sewer sub-catchment in Bogotá (Colombia). Water quality estimates showed greater sensitivity to the inter-event variability in rainfall hyetograph characteristics than to changes in the rainfall input temporal resolution. Overall, uncertainties from the water quality model were two- to five-fold those of the hydrological model. However, owing to the intrinsic scarcity of observations in urban water quality modelling, total model output uncertainties, especially from the water quality model, were too large to make recommendations for particular model structures or parameter values with respect to rainfall temporal resolution. PMID:23823541

Manz, Bastian Johann; Rodríguez, Juan Pablo; Maksimovi?, Cedo; McIntyre, Neil

2013-01-01

398

Linking infrastructure and urban economy: simulation of water-disruption impacts in earthquakes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper a simulation approach to modeling the linkages between physical infrastructure systems and the urban economy is developed. A simulation approach based on probabilistically specifying the key model relationships is effective for situations that involve substantial uncertainty, and is particularly suited to assessing risk from natural hazards. In this paper, a model of economic losses from earthquakes is

Stephanie E Chang; Walter D Svekla; Masanobu Shinozuka

2002-01-01

399

Urban Governance and its Impact on the Role Perception and Behaviour of European City Councillors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The trend towards new forms of political steering at the local level is a matter of fact that has been demonstrated in numerous studies. Thereby, the development is not one-dimensional, but produces a variety of different types of urban governance. Presumably, the empiric trend towards new forms of political steering changes the political power structure and the roles of relevant

Larissa Plüss

2012-01-01

400

The impact of interactions in spatial simulation of the dynamics of urban sprawl  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the modeling process for simulating the spatial dynamics of an urban ecosystem. Logistic regression is a common method for empirically modeling and analyzing land use and land use change. In most conventional applications of logistic regression, only the individual factors of the system are considered in the development of the logistic regression functions. However, this does not

Shoufan Fang; George Z. Gertner; Zhanli Sun; Alan A. Anderson

2005-01-01

401

Development of ball impact test system  

Microsoft Academic Search

We introduce in this paper background and development of the high-speed ball shear test systems, in particular a specific ball impact test system. Measured impact force profiles and corresponding structural dynamics calibrations are provided for the understanding of characteristics of this particular package-level test methodology as well as transient structural responses of solder joints subjected to impact loads. A design

Chang-Lin Yeh; Yi-Shao Lai

2006-01-01

402

Cumulative impacts of human activities on urban garden soils: origin and accumulation of metals.  

PubMed

The concentration of heavy metals and soil properties in fifty urban garden soils of Szeged (SE Hungary) were determined to evaluate the cumulative impacts of urbanization and cultivation on these soils. Using two enrichment factors (EFs) (based on reference horizon; Ti as reference element) and multivariate statistical analysis (PCA), the origin of the studied elements was defined. According to statistical coincidence of EFs confirmed by t-test, anthropogenic enrichment of Cu (EF = 4), Zn (EF = 2.7) and Pb (EF = 2.5) was significant in topsoils. Moreover, PCA also revealed the geogenic origin of Ni, Co, Cr and As and differentiated two groups of the anthropogenic metals [Pb, Zn] [Cu]. Spatial distribution of the metals visualized by GIS reflected the traffic origin of Pb; while based on ANOVA, the anthropogenic source of Cu is relevant (mainly pesticides) and there is a statistically significant difference in its concentration depending on land use. PMID:23500047

Szolnoki, Zs; Farsang, A; Puskás, I

2013-03-15

403

The urban environment and health in a world of increasing globalization: issues for developing countries.  

PubMed Central

Urban living is the keystone of modern human ecology. Cities have multiplied and expanded rapidly worldwide over the past two centuries. Cities are sources of creativity and technology, and they are the engines for economic growth. However, they are also sources of poverty, inequality, and health hazards from the environment. Urban populations have long been incubators and gateways for infectious diseases. The early industrializing period of unplanned growth and laissez-faire economic activity in cities in industrialized countries has been superseded by the rise of collective management of the urban environment. This occurred in response to environmental blight, increasing literacy, the development of democratic government, and the collective accrual of wealth. In many low-income countries, this process is being slowed by the pressures and priorities of economic globalization. Beyond the traditional risks of diarrhoeal disease and respiratory infections in the urban poor and the adaptation of various vector-borne infections to urbanization, the urban environment poses various physicochemical hazards. These include exposure to lead, air pollution, traffic hazards, and the "urban heat island" amplification of heatwaves. As the number of urban consumers and their material expectations rise and as the use of fossil fuels increases, cities contribute to the large-scale pressures on the biosphere including climate change. We must develop policies that ameliorate the existing, and usually unequally distributed, urban environmental health hazards and larger-scale environmental problems.

McMichael, A. J.

2000-01-01

404

The urban environment and health in a world of increasing globalization: issues for developing countries.  

PubMed

Urban living is the keystone of modern human ecology. Cities have multiplied and expanded rapidly worldwide over the past two centuries. Cities are sources of creativity and technology, and they are the engines for economic growth. However, they are also sources of poverty, inequality, and health hazards from the environment. Urban populations have long been incubators and gateways for infectious diseases. The early industrializing period of unplanned growth and laissez-faire economic activity in cities in industrialized countries has been superseded by the rise of collective management of the urban environment. This occurred in response to environmental blight, increasing literacy, the development of democratic government, and the collective accrual of wealth. In many low-income countries, this process is being slowed by the pressures and priorities of economic globalization. Beyond the traditional risks of diarrhoeal disease and respiratory infections in the urban poor and the adaptation of various vector-borne infections to urbanization, the urban environment poses various physicochemical hazards. These include exposure to lead, air pollution, traffic hazards, and the "urban heat island" amplification of heatwaves. As the number of urban consumers and their material expectations rise and as the use of fossil fuels increases, cities contribute to the large-scale pressures on the biosphere including climate change. We must develop policies that ameliorate the existing, and usually unequally distributed, urban environmental health hazards and larger-scale environmental problems. PMID:11019460

McMichael, A J

2000-01-01

405

Kreativ Byutvikling Stedsans og Sentrumssatsing i Porsgrunn (Creative Urban Development Sense of Place and Centre Concentration in Porsgrunn, Norway).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of Porsgrunn's planning project 'creative urban development' has been to exploit culture as a driving force in the urban development. The project has provided temporary cultural events and a new salient cultural infrastructure in the town ce...

V. Nenseth

2008-01-01

406

Rakennetun Ympariston Kestavan Kehityksen Kriteerit ja Indikaattorit (Sustainable Development Criteria and Indicators for Urban Design).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This publication presents a review of sustainable development indicators, summarizes the main results of the European TISSUE research project and introduces the VTT draft proposal for sustainable development criteria for target setting in urban design. Th...

T. Hakkinen K. Rauhala P. Huovila

2006-01-01

407

The areal conditions, bases and differences of the rural urbanization in China's Coastal Development Region  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyzes the regional base for urbanization in rural areas of the Coastal Development Region: the natural conditions; the historical changes, and present-day levels and characteristics of the development of the economy, population, cities and towns.

Shunzan Ye; Qingyu Ma

1990-01-01

408

IMPERVIOUS COVER EVALUATION: LINKING URBAN DEVELOPMENT WITH HYDROLOGICAL CHANGE  

EPA Science Inventory

Research indicates that anthropogenic impervious surfaces have an important relationship with non-point source pollution (NPS) in urban watersheds. These human-created surfaces include such features as roads, parking lots, rooftops, sidewalks, and driveways. ...

409

Overview of the General Atomics Low Speed Urban Maglev Technology Development Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

The overall objective of this program is to develop magnetic levitation technology that is a cost effective, reliable, and environmentally friendly option for urban mass transportation in the United States. Maglev is a revolutionary approach in which trains are supported by magnetic forces without any wheels contacting the rail surfaces. The Urban Maglev Program is sponsored by the Federal Transit

Sam Gurol; Bob Baldi; General Atomics; Richard F. Post

2002-01-01

410

DEVELOPMENT PATTERNS IN CANADA'S LARGEST URBAN AGGLOMERATION: FOUR DECADES OF EVOLUTION  

Microsoft Academic Search

The city of Toronto, Ontario and its surrounding regions constitute the largest urban agglomeration in Canada and the fifth largest in North America. Urban development within this area is an impor- tant planning and environmental issue. Landsat images from 1972 to 2004 (a total of 10 scenes covering a period of 32 years) were used in this research that cover

K. Wayne Forsythe; Paul Du

411

China's recent urban development in the process of land and housing marketisation and economic globalisation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The postreform landscape is characterised by the formation of a more market-oriented system and the ‘open-door’ policy. Economic globalisation and marketisation, especially in the arena of urban land and housing, are becoming the key variables determining the postreform urban development in China. Since China opened its door in 1978, foreign investment has continued to flow into the cities and played

Fulong Wu

2001-01-01

412

Groundwater in Urban Development. Assessing Management Needs and Formulating Policy Strategies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Groudwater is of major importance in providing mains water supply, and is intensively exploited for private, domestic, and industrial use in many urban centers of the developing world. At the same time, the subsurface has come to serve as the receptor for much urban and industrial wastewater and for solid waste disposal. There are increasingly widespread indications of degradation in

Stephen Foster; Adrian Lawrence; Brian Morris

1998-01-01

413

Urbanization in developing countries: Current trends, future projections, and key challenges for sustainability  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper is to provide a broad overview of the recent patterns and trends of urban growth in developing countries. Over the last 20 years many urban areas have experienced dramatic growth, as a result of rapid population growth and as the world's economy has been transformed by a combination of rapid technological and political change. Around

Barney Cohen

2006-01-01

414

Opening the Black Box: Influential Elements of an Effective Urban Professional Development School  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The George Washington University's Urban Initiative Professional Development School (UI-PDS) partnership used interviews, surveys, focus groups, and observations to research its effectiveness in preparing urban educators. The research conducted with UI-PDS preservice teachers and first year graduates, indicates they were well equipped to meet the…

Taymans, Juliana; Tindle, Kathleen; Freund, Maxine; Ortiz, Deanna; Harris, Lindsay

2012-01-01

415

The Future of Institutions as Participants in Urban Development and Conservation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Colleges and universities will have a growing role in urban development, in the revitalization of static or declining urban settings, and in setting quality standards for land conservation. Precedents exist in the past and current involvement of a variety of major institutions in projects reflecting both community and institutional needs. (MSE)

Chapman, M. Perry

1983-01-01

416

Public–private partnerships for urban land development in Mexico: a victory for hope versus expectation?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past decade, public–private partnerships have become increasingly prominent on the international urban policy agenda. Yet few studies have attempted to measure the performance of partnerships, especially for urban land development and particularly where they bring an informal or customary agent into the formal segment of the market. This paper assesses the record of partnerships in Mexico involving ejido

Gareth A. Jones; Rosaria A. Pisa

2000-01-01

417

24 CFR 1000.42 - Are the requirements of section 3 of the Housing and Urban Development Act of 1968 applicable?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2009-04-01 2009-04-01...of section 3 of the Housing and Urban Development Act of 1968 applicable? 1000...Section 1000.42 Housing and Urban Development OFFICE OF ASSISTANT...

2009-04-01

418

24 CFR 1000.42 - Are the requirements of section 3 of the Housing and Urban Development Act of 1968 applicable?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01...of section 3 of the Housing and Urban Development Act of 1968 applicable? 1000...Section 1000.42 Housing and Urban Development OFFICE OF ASSISTANT...

2013-04-01

419

24 CFR 1000.42 - Are the requirements of section 3 of the Housing and Urban Development Act of 1968 applicable?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01...of section 3 of the Housing and Urban Development Act of 1968 applicable? 1000...Section 1000.42 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to...

2010-04-01

420

The African-American Urban Milieu and Economic Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Economic disparity between urban white America and urban black America is becoming more pronounced, whether in central cities, suburbs, or edge cities. African-American employment prospects have declined in central cities, increased slightly in suburbs, and increased substantially for the few African Americans living and working in edge cities. William Julius Wilson cites the decline in stable, higher-paying, blue-collar employment in

Lenneal J. Henderson

1994-01-01

421

Forest bird communities across a gradient of urban development  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined native bird communities in forest patches across a gradient of urbanization. We used field data and multivariate\\u000a statistical techniques to examine the effects of landscape context, roads, traffic noise, and vegetation characteristics on\\u000a bird community composition in the North Carolina Piedmont (U.S.A.). Landscape-level variables, particularly those related\\u000a to urbanization, were most important in structuring forest bird communities.

Emily Minor; Dean Urban

2010-01-01

422

Power lines: Urban space, energy development and the making of the modern Southwest  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

"Power Lines: Urban Space, Energy Development, and the Making of the Modern Southwest" explores the social and environmental transformation of the postwar Southwest and the resulting disputes between urban boosters, federal officials, Native Americans, and environmental activists. The dissertation focuses on the infrastructure built to provide the burgeoning populations of Phoenix, Los Angeles, and other Southwestern cities with electricity. This infrastructure allowed metropolitan boosters in the Southwest to attract Cold War defense manufacturing and to build a new suburban landscape even as industrialization on Indian lands provided electricity for those landscapes. Tracing the transition of electrical generation from a dispersed geography relying on local resources to a centralized geography utilizing primarily coal from Navajo land, "Power Lines" demonstrates the increasing centrality of Indian lands and labor to the metropolitan Southwest. Paying close attention to these networks reveals the far-reaching changes caused by postwar metropolitan growth. "Power Lines" challenges understandings of urban space that neglect the material resources that allow cities to "live." As the nation's cities and suburbs became increasingly energy-intensive, electrical utilities reached deep into the metropolitan periphery, transforming landscapes hundreds of miles from city centers into urban space. The construction of the new "geography of power" in the Southwest also reflects the impact of growth liberalism on postwar growth, as federal money funded suburban, manufacturing, and infrastructure developments. This pursuit of growth produced new political struggles, both as the development of energy resources conflicted with emerging environmentalist sensibilities and as American Indians increasingly resented the industrialization of their land for the benefit of others. By the 1970s, the simultaneous pursuit and criticism of growth came to define the modern Southwest. The dissertation examines a variety of sources from actors throughout the Southwest---the papers of Phoenix's boosters, federal officials, environmental leaders, and Navajo politicians; newspapers from Phoenix, Los Angeles, and Window Rock; the records of electric utilities, the Bureau of Reclamation, and the Navajo Tribal Council---emphasizing that the modern Southwest was made not only in metropolitan centers but in the actions of those throughout the region and the nation.

Needham, Todd Andrew

423

Simulating the impact of urban sprawl on air quality and population exposure in the German Ruhr area. Part I: Reproducing the base state  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Compact city forms are associated with minimal consumption of land and energy, hence, they are often promoted as being the more sustainable thus preferred mode of urban development. In this context, numerical simulations were performed to evaluate the effect of urban sprawl on air quality and associated human exposure. Working on a highly urbanised area in the German Ruhrgebiet, models dealing with satellite data processing, traffic flows, pollutant emission and atmospheric dispersion were applied in an integrated fashion, under conditions representative of the urbanised area as it is today. A fair agreement was obtained between simulated and observed meteorological variables, as well as between simulated and observed concentrations of ozone and particulate matter. Simulated atmospheric pollution fields were found to closely reflect urbanisation patterns. In a companion paper [De Ridder, K., Lefebre, F., Adriaensen, S., Arnold, U., Beckroege, W., Bronner, C., Damsgaard, O., Dostal, I., Dufek, J., Hirsch, J., IntPanis, L., Kotek, Z., Ramadier, T., Thierry, A., Vermoote, S., Wania, A., Weber, C., 2008. Simulating the impact of urban sprawl on air quality and population exposure in the German Ruhr area. Part II: Development and evaluation of an urban growth scenario], the results of this base case simulation will be compared with those of a scenario simulation, designed to mimic urban sprawl, so as to allow the evaluation of the latter on air quality and associated human exposure.

De Ridder, Koen; Lefebre, Filip; Adriaensen, Stefan; Arnold, Ute; Beckroege, Wolfgang; Bronner, Christine; Damsgaard, Ole; Dostal, Ivo; Dufek, Jiri; Hirsch, Jacky; IntPanis, Luc; Kotek, Zdenek; Ramadier, Thierry; Thierry, Annette; Vermoote, Stijn; Wania, Annett; Weber, Christiane

424

Household Credit to the Poor and its Impact on Child Schooling in Peri-urban Areas, Vietnam  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper uses a novelty dataset of poor households in peri-urban areas in Vietnam to estimate impacts of small loans on child schooling. The Probit and Negative Binomial model estimates roughly indicate no strong evidence of the effect, especially of informal credit. Formal credit is likely to have positive impacts on child schooling, but its effect is not strong enough

Tinh Doan; John Gibson; Mark Holmes

2011-01-01

425

Effects of urban development on the flood-flow characteristics of the Walnut Creek Basin, Des Moines Metropolitan area, Iowa  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Model studies were made to determine the probable impact of urban development on the magnitude and frequency of flooding in the lower reach of the Walnut Creek basin, Des Moines metropolitan area, Iowa. Stream-modeling techniques, which include complete defintion of unit hydrographs and precipitation loss-rate criteria, were utilized to evaluate the effects of urban development as measured by percentages of impervious area over the basin. A mathematical model, called HEC-1, was calibrated by using concurrent rainfall-runoff data collected at three gaging stations in the basin. The model parameters were regionalized to allow future users to estimate the model parameters for ungaged areas within the basin. Long-term rainfall data recorded at two nearby stations were employed as basic input to the calibrated model to generate annual peak discharges corresponding to selected degrees of urbanization. Results are presented in tables and graphs, which compare the preurban and urban floodflow characteristics of the lower reach of the Walnut Creek basin. (Woodard-USGS)

Lara, Oscar G.

1978-01-01

426

Measurement indicators and an evaluation approach for assessing urban sustainable development: A case study for China's Jining City  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cities are complex ecosystems affected by social, economic, environmental, and cultural factors. The problem of attaining urban sustainable development is thus an important challenge. The development of evaluation indicators and a method for assessing the status of urban sustainable development will be required to support urban ecological planning, construction, and management. By using Jining City in China's Shandong Province as

Feng Li; Xusheng Liu; Dan Hu; Rusong Wang; Wenrui Yang; Dong Li; Dan Zhao

2009-01-01

427

Tourism Real Estate Development as a Policy Tool for Urban Tourism: A Case Study of Dali and Lijiang, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tourist towns are a new and extraordinary form of urbanization in the peripheral regions of China, especially for regions where distinctive tourist attractions are located. Tourism urbanization is occurring in China due to high pressure for urbanization and because real estate has become a major development force. This article investigates the interconnected consequences of tourism development, tourism-related leisure property development,

Honggang Xu; Yuefang Wu; Geoffrey Wall

2012-01-01

428

Challenging racism, sexism, and social injustice: support for urban adolescents' critical consciousness development.  

PubMed

This mixed-model study examined the relationship between urban adolescents' perceived support for challenging racism, sexism, and social injustice from peers, family, and community members and their critical consciousness development. These relationships were examined by relating participants' qualitative perceptions of support for challenging racism, sexism, and social injustice to quantitative data obtained from Likert-type measures of the reflection and action components of critical consciousness. Perceived support for challenging racism, sexism, and social injustice had a significant impact upon the reflection component of critical consciousness; the significance criterion was supported by effect size estimates. Support for challenging racism, sexism, and social injustice was not significantly related to the action component of critical consciousness. Participants perceived the most support for challenging racism, moderate support for challenging social injustice, and the least support for challenging sexism. Additionally, female participants perceived more support for challenging sexism than male participants. These results suggest that the informal interactions of urban adolescents play a role in shaping their critical consciousness, and hold implications for psychosocial interventions and research with marginalized populations. PMID:16881749

Diemer, Matthew A; Kauffman, Aimee; Koenig, Nathan; Trahan, Emily; Hsieh, Chueh-An

2006-07-01

429

Economic Development Impacts of 20% Wind (Poster)  

SciTech Connect

Meeting 20% of the nation's electricity demand with wind energy will require enourmous investment in wind farms, manufacturing, and infrastructure. This investment will create substantial economic development impacts on local, regional, and national levels. This conference poster for Windpower 2007 outlines the various economic development impacts from a 20% wind scenario.

Kelly, M.; Tegen, S.

2007-06-01

430

Evaluation of xenobiotic impact on urban receiving waters by means of statistical methods.  

PubMed

Xenobiotics in urban receiving waters are an emerging problem. A sound knowledge of xenobiotic input, distribution and fate in the aquatic environment is a prerequisite for risk assessments. Methods to assess the impact of xenobiotics on urban receiving waters should address the diverse characteristics of the target compounds and the spatiotemporal variability of concentrations. Here, we present results from a one-year-monitoring program concerning concentrations of pharmaceuticals, additives from personal care products and industrial chemicals in an urban drainage catchment in untreated and treated wastewater, surface water and groundwater. Univariate and multivariate statistical methods were applied to characterize the xenobiotic concentrations. Correlation and principal component analysis revealed a pronounced pattern of xenobiotics in the surface water samples. The concentrations of several xenobiotics were characterized by a negative proportionality to the water temperature. Therefore, seasonal attenuation is assumed to be a major process influencing the measured concentrations. Moreover, dilution of xenobiotics the surface water was found to significantly influence the concentrations. These two processes control more the xenobiotic occurrence in the surface water than the less pronounced concentration pattern in the wastewater sources. For the groundwater samples, we assume that foremost attenuation processes lead to the found differentiation of xenobiotics. PMID:20706016

Musolff, A; Leschik, S; Schafmeister, M-T; Reinstorf, F; Strauch, G; Krieg, R; Schirmer, M

2010-01-01

431

Adaptation of land-use demands to the impact of climate change on the hydrological processes of an urbanized watershed.  

PubMed

The adaptation of land-use patterns is an essential aspect of minimizing the inevitable impact of climate change at regional and local scales; for example, adapting watershed land-use patterns to mitigate the impact of climate change on a region's hydrology. The objective of this study is to simulate and assess a region's ability to adapt to hydrological changes by modifying land-use patterns in the Wu-Du watershed in northern Taiwan. A hydrological GWLF (Generalized Watershed Loading Functions) model is used to simulate three hydrological components, namely, runoff, groundwater and streamflow, based on various land-use scenarios under six global climate models. The land-use allocations are simulated by the CLUE-s model for the various development scenarios. The simulation results show that runoff and streamflow are strongly related to the precipitation levels predicted by different global climate models for the wet and dry seasons, but groundwater cycles are more related to land-use. The effects of climate change on groundwater and runoff can be mitigated by modifying current land-use patterns; and slowing the rate of urbanization would also reduce the impact of climate change on hydrological components. Thus, land-use adaptation on a local/regional scale provides an alternative way to reduce the impacts of global climate change on local hydrology. PMID:23202833

Lin, Yu-Pin; Hong, Nien-Ming; Chiang, Li-Chi; Liu, Yen-Lan; Chu, Hone-Jay

2012-11-12

432

Impact of long-term water and energy consumption in Tokyo on wastewater effluent: implications for the thermal degradation of urban streams  

Microsoft Academic Search

The heated effluent of urban wastewater results in the thermal degradation of urban streams. To better understand the process of wastewater heating and its thermal impact on streams, a watershed-scale water and heat balance model which accounts for water and energy supply, consumption, and transport processes within urban areas is proposed to quantify the annual and monthly mean effluent temperatures

Tsuyoshi Kinouchi

2007-01-01

433

Impact of urbanization on natural ecosystem service values: a comparative study.  

PubMed

With rapid population growth and rural-to-urban migration in many Chinese cities, a large amount of natural lands have been converted to urban and agricultural lands recently. During this process of land conversion, economic development and quality of life improvement are considered as major goals, and their influences on ecological systems have often been neglected. The degradation of natural ecological systems due to land use change, however, has become severe, and may require immediate attentions from urban planners and local governments. Taking HaDaQi industrial corridor, Heilongjiang Province, China, as a case study area, this paper examined the trend of land use changes during 1990-2005, and quantified their influences on natural ecosystem service values. In particular, this study applied two major valuation methods, and examined whether different valuation methods generate significantly different results. Analysis of results suggests that human dominated land uses (e.g., urban and agriculture) have expanded rapidly at the cost of natural lands (e.g., wetlands and forest). Due to these land use changes, the total ecosystem service value decreased 29% (2.26% annually) from 1990 to 2005 when the first method was applied, and this rate is estimated to be 15.7% (1.13% annually) with the second approach. Moreover, the annual rate of ecosystem service value decline during 2000-2005 is about four times higher than that in 1990-2000 with both methods, suggesting much more severe ecosystem degradation during 2000-2005. PMID:21061169

Zang, Shuying; Wu, Changshan; Liu, Hang; Na, Xiaodong

2010-11-01

434

Impact of European emission control strategies on urban and local air quality  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of specific emission control measures on the air quality of urban centres and local area hotspots. In order to achieve this, a sequence of regional, urban and local scale models was applied to assess the impact of European emission control strategies on urban and local scale air quality. First, vehicle fleet and activity data were estimated using appropriate models. The results of these models were used as input to the COPERT model in order to estimate vehicle emissions (NO2 and PM10) at country level up to the year 2030. Vehicle emissions were calculated according to two different scenarios: A baseline scenario, CLE (Current LEgislation) and an optimistic alternative, MFR (Maximum Feasible Reductions). Urban background and traffic hotspot concentrations of air pollutants were then calculated using the OFIS (Ozone FIne Structure) and OSPM (Operational Street Pollution Model) models respectively for 20 cities in Europe and for particular types of streets. Air quality was found to improve in 2030 compared to the reference year 2000, in line with the stricter NOx and PM vehicle emission limits imposed. The NO2 street increments for narrow canyons estimated for the reference year were found to be in the range of 16-53 ?g m-3, depending on the city considered. These were reduced to 14-36 ?g m-3 in the CLE scenario and 7-24 ?g m-3 in the MFR scenario. The corresponding range for PM10 was estimated to be 5-15 ?g m-3 for the reference year and was reduced to 2-8 ?g m-3 and 0.2-2.4 ?g m-3 for the CLE and the MFR scenarios respectively.

Giannouli, Myrsini; Kalognomou, Evangelia-Anna; Mellios, Giorgos; Moussiopoulos, Nicolas; Samaras, Zissis; Fiala, Jaroslav

2011-09-01

435

Quantifying multi-temporal urban development characteristics in Las Vegas from Landsat and ASTER data  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Urban development has expanded rapidly in Las Vegas, Nevada of the United States, over the last fifty years. A major environmental change associated with this urbanization trend is the transformation of the landscape from natural cover types to increasingly anthropogenic impervious surface. This research utilizes remote sensing data from both the Landsat and Terra-Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) instruments in conjunction with digital orthophotography to estimate urban extent and its temporal changes by determining sub-pixel impervious surfaces. Percent impervious surface area has shown encouraging agreement with urban land extent and development density. Results indicate that total urban land-use increases approximately 110 percent from 1984 to 2002. Most of the increases are associated with medium-to high-density urban development. Places having significant increases in impervious surfaces are in the northwestern and southeastern parts of Las Vegas. Most high-density urban development, however, appears in central Las Vegas. Impervious surface conditions for 2002 measured from Landsat and ASTER satellite data are compared in terms of their accuracy. ?? 2008 American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing.

Xian, G.; Crane, M.; McMahon, C.

2008-01-01

436

The impact of new developments on river water quality from an integrated system modelling perspective.  

PubMed

New housing areas are a ubiquitous feature of modern life in the developing and developed world alike built in response to rising social, demographic and economic pressures. Inevitably, these new developments will have an impact on the environment around them. Empirical evidence confirms the close relationship between urbanisation and ambient water quality. However, what is lacking so far is a detailed and more generalised analysis of environmental impact at a relatively small scale. The aim of this paper is to quantify the impact of new developments on river water quality within an integrated system modelling perspective. To conduct the impact analyses, an existing integrated urban wastewater model was used to predict water flow and quality in the sewer system, treatment plant and receiving water body. The impact on combined sewer overflow (CSO) discharges, treatment plant effluent, and within the river at various reaches is analysed by 'locating' a new development on a semi-hypothetical urban catchment. River water quality is used as feedback to constrain the scale of the new development within different thresholds in compliance with water quality standards. Further, the regional sensitivity analysis (RSA) method is applied to reveal the parameters with the greatest impact on water quality. These analyses will help to inform town planners and water specialists who advise them, how to minimise the impact of such developments given the specific context. PMID:19036407

Fu, Guangtao; Butler, David; Khu, Soon-Thiam

2008-11-25

437

Impact of Urban Spatial Structure on Travel Demand in the United States.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Bento, Cropper, Mobarak, and Vinha combine measures of urban form and public transit supply for 114 urbanized areas with the 1990 Nationwide Personal Transportation Survey to address two questions: (1) How do measures of urban form, including city shape, ...

A. M. Bento M. L. Cropper A. M. Mobarak K. Vinha

2003-01-01

438

MIT OpenCourseWare: Introduction to Urban Design and Development, Fall 2003  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Part of MIT's innovative OpenCourseWare Project, that provides materials from MIT classes to the public on the web, the site provides materials from a course that examined the forces that act upon urban areas, and how the areas develop in response. Topics include public participation in development, redevelopment, urban design, the art of cities, the environmental and social effects of cities, and the ideal visions we have of urban areas. The site provides extensive recommended readings and samples of student work on Boston and New Delhi.

Morrow, Greg; Frenchman, Dennis

2007-04-06

439

Assessing the impact of urban sprawl on soil resources of Nanjing city using satellite images and digital soil databases  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Yangtse delta area is one of the most rapidly developing areas in China. There are mega-cities like Shanghai and Nanjing and the surrounding urban areas of different sizes including those along the lower reach of the Yangtse river from Shanghai to Nanjing. In combination with their satellite counties and towns, they form one of the most densely distributed urban

Xuelei Zhang; Jie Chen; Manzhi Tan; Yanci Sun

2007-01-01

440

Persontransport i Norske Byomrader Utviklingstrekk, Drivkrefter og Rammebetingelser (Determinants of Urban Transport Development in Norway).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report offers a comprehensive presentation of the most relevant determinants of urban transport development in Norway. Among the topics to be analyzed are driver's license holdership, car ownership, land use, framework conditions of public transport,...

N. Fearnley N. Vibe O. Engebretsen

2005-01-01

441

75 FR 38514 - Notice of Funding Availability for the Department of Housing and Urban Development's Community...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Department of Housing and Urban Development's Community Challenge Planning Grants and the Department of Transportation's TIGER II Planning Grants Correction In notice document 2010-15353 beginning on page 36246 in the issue of Thursday, June 24,...

2010-07-02

442

Increasing the Department of Housing and Urban Development's Effectiveness through Improved Management. Volume 1.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This is the first in a series of GAO reports evaluating management effectiveness at major federal departments. The Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) is striving to better manage its programs and achieve its current objectives of (1) reduci...

1984-01-01

443

Urban Growth in Developing Countries: A Review of Projections and Predictions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Comparison of the United Nations' earliest and most recent projections to the year 2000 suggests that urban and city growth in developing regions has occurred much more slowly than was anticipated as recently as 1980. A modified \\

Martin Brockerhoff

1999-01-01

444

Trends in Urbanization and Implications for Peri-Urban Livelihoods in Accra, Ghana  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Urbanization is a common occurrence in both developed and developing worlds. Similar to occurrences in other developing world cities, Accra's urbanization is marked by fast, unplanned and uneven growth into mostly peripheral lands (Grant and Yankson 2002; Yeboah 2001; Ghana Statistical Service (GSS) 2002). Such trends in urbanization in places where data on the urbanization process is seriously inadequate and infrequent, (Rakodi 1997a; Ohadika 1991; Fasona and Omojola 2004) pose a major challenge to urban planning and management (Henderson 2002), and affect the livelihood base of several peri-urban households. Properly monitoring the urbanization process in the developing world and understanding its effects on people's lives depends on the availability of useful and up-to- date data (Weber and Puissant 2003; Mundia and Aniya 2006) that could be obtained using new and robust analytical techniques (Yang 2003). In addition, in the urban environment, differences in rates of urbanization, income, employment status, and gender dynamics across neighborhoods suggest that the impacts of increasing urbanization on peri-urban livelihoods are likely to vary across peoples and places. Against this backdrop, this dissertation uses Accra as a case study to, first, measures the nature and extent of urban expansion using a non-conventional technique, and then analyzes neighborhood - and gender-differentiated impacts of increasing urbanization on household livelihoods in peri-urban Accra. Study findings reveal: 1) major conversion of vegetated land to urban lands uses and support the effectiveness of the Self-Organizing Map and Landsat data to map complex and hazy urban tropical environments; 2) that the impacts of urbanization on peri-urban livelihoods are structured along the lines of neighborhood-level urbanization; changes brought by a higher rate of urbanization are more beneficial than harmful to household livelihoods; 3) that positive livelihood outcomes in high-growth neighborhoods as a result of increasing urbanization have disproportionately benefited male-headed households compared to female-headed households. Although study findings do not match some of the prior thinking about impacts of urbanization on livelihoods, it corroborates recent urban theory that asserts that urbanization does not necessarily result in the perpetuation of urban poverty.

Adom, Cynthia

445

The impact of hazards on the urban tissue - 3-D representation and digital databases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The focus of this ongoing research is the 3-D modelling of changes in the urban tissue by catastrophic events. For this purpose protected areas in the centre of Bucharest were considered. The principle idea was to establish a reasonable amount of 3-D city models in GIS and CAD and examine how they can be useful in and used for sustainable development decisions, in the case of protection against hazards.

Bostenaru-Dan, M.; Panagopoulos, T.; Gociman, C. O.; Armas, I.; Dill, A.; Chiriloae, A.; Florescu, T.

2013-06-01

446

Comparative study of climate and human impacts on seasonal baseflow in urban and agricultural watersheds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study explores the long-term trends of low flow magnitude and the slopes and shapes of the recession curves during winter and summer seasons under climatic and human factors. Four watersheds in the American Midwest are selected for the analysis, including two urban watersheds (Salt Creek and Des Plaines) and two agricultural watersheds (Embarras and Kankakee). The results show that the long-term baseflow recession slope trends in all the watersheds are primarily induced by human interferences. In the urban watersheds, the recession slopes decrease over time in both winter and summer due to effluent discharges. In the Kankakee watershed with irrigation, the recession slopes decrease in winter but increase in summer, and the opposite winter and summer trends are caused by the seasonal water use regime of irrigated agriculture. In the Embarras watershed with rainfed agriculture, the recession slopes decrease over time in winter but display no change in summer. Sources of water withdrawal (groundwater versus surface water) also have different impacts on the recession process. This long-term analysis of recession rates, in conjunction with the changes in low flow magnitude, offers valuable insight on human interferences to hydrologic processes. Beyond the specific case studies, this paper documents how a scientific approach based on existing streamflow observation can be applied to improving our understanding of the impact of human and climatic influences on baseflow and low flow processes.

Wang, Dingbao; Cai, Ximing

2010-03-01

447

Impact of an advertising campaign on condom use in urban Pakistan.  

PubMed

This study describes an assessment of the impact on condom use in urban Pakistan of the second phase of an intensive condom advertising campaign conducted as part of a social marketing program. Between April and June 2009, advertisements for Touch condoms appeared on private television channels and on radio stations. To assess the impact of the campaign, a nationally representative panel survey of men married to women aged 15-49 was conducted, collecting information on behaviors related to condom use and recall of contraceptive advertisements. We employed conditional change regression analysis to determine whether awareness of the Touch ad at follow-up was associated with improved attitudes toward condoms and condom use. Respondents with confirmed awareness of the Touch campaign experienced significant improvements in indicators related to condom use, even after controlling for region, socioeconomic and demographic characteristics, the values of the indicators at baseline, and exposure to the first phase of the campaign. They experienced increases in the following: perceived availability of condoms; discussion of family planning; approval of family planning; procurement of condoms; and ever use, current use, and consistent use of condoms with wife. The study indicates that condom advertising can be effective in increasing condom use in urban Pakistan. PMID:21465728

Agha, Sohail; Meekers, Dominique

2010-12-01

448

Environmental impacts of urban snow management--the alpine case study of Innsbruck.  

PubMed

In regions with colder climate, snow at roads can accumulate significant amounts of pollutant chemicals. In northern countries various efforts have been made to face this problem, but for the alpine region little is known about the pollution of urban snow. The present case study was carried out in the city of Innsbruck (Austria). It aimed at measuring pollution of roadside snow and estimating the impact of snow management practises on environmental quality. Concentrations of copper, zinc, lead, cadmium, suspended solids and chloride were determined during a series of sampling events. Various locations with low and high traffic densities and in different distances from a highway have been investigated. The concentrations of copper were generally higher at sites with high traffic density compared to locations with low traffic impact. In contrast to this, the concentrations of zinc and lead remained almost unvaried irrespective of traffic density at the different sampling sites. For cadmium, the picture was more diverse, showing moderately elevated concentrations of this metal also at the urban reference site not polluted by traffic. This indicates that there may be also other important sources for cadmium besides traffic. Suspended solids accumulated in the roadside snow, the highest concentrations were found at the sites with high traffic density. The chloride concentrations were considerable in the snow, especially at the highway. Based on the results of the present measurement campaign, the environmental impact of snow disposal in rivers was also estimated. A negative impact on rivers from snow disposal seems likely to occur, although the discharged loads could only be calculated with substantial uncertainty, considering the high variability of the measured pollutant concentrations. For a more accurate evaluation of this management practise on rivers, further investigations would be necessary. PMID:17559907

Engelhard, C; De Toffol, S; Lek, I; Rauch, W; Dallinger, R

2007-06-07

449

Understanding Community Context and Adult Health Changes in China: Development of an Urbanicity Scale  

PubMed Central

The classification of places as either urban or rural is typically based on an absolute threshold of population and/or population density. However, conceptual definitions of urbanization and urbanicity encompass dimensions beyond solely population size and population density. Multiple important distinguishing urban characteristics beyond population size have been described. The crude classification of places as urban or rural coupled with infrequent updates to this information create a measure that is prone to misclassification error. An improved measure of urbanicity would draw information from the domains that characterize urban and rural places, would be sensitive to changes over time, and would represent gradations on the continuum from rural to urban environments. The goal of the current study was to develop such a scale from existing data, test whether the scale was reliable and valid, and assess whether it provided information beyond what could be determined from the traditional urban/rural dichotomous variable. We utilized established scaling procedures from the psychometric literature to construct and evaluate a multicomponent scale to measure urban features on a continuum in China. We also provided an example of its potential contribution to health research by examining its relationship with the adult body mass index (BMI). Because the scale was constructed and tested using established scaling procedures and using a wide array of variables, it represents an improvement over previous attempts at such a scale and will provide a reliable and valid measurement tool for researchers in this arena. The scale was developed to predict the incidence of overweight/obesity populations in China, but it promises to be most useful for other economic, demographic, social welfare, and health outcomes.

Jones-Smith, Jessica; Popkin, Barry M.

2010-01-01

450

DETECTION OF URBAN HOUSING DEVELOPMENT USING MULTISENSOR SATELLITE DATA AND MAPS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Detection of land-cover \\/ land-use changes is an im portant process in monitoring and managing urban de velopment and natural resources, because it provides quantitative analysis of the spatial distribution in the popula tion of interest. A large number of change-detection techniques have been developed, but little has been done to detect detailed changes, such as urban housing development, using

Yun Zhang

1998-01-01

451

Rural-urban migration, informal sector and development policies: a theoretical analysis.  

PubMed

"A theoretical model of rural-urban migration has been developed with special reference to the informal sector. The wage rate and employment in the informal sector are determined endogenously. The paper shows the simultaneous existence of open unemployment and informal sector in the urban area in migration equilibrium. The effects of alternative subsidy policies on unemployment and welfare of the workers are studied." The model is intended primarily for use in analyzing trends and policies in developing countries. PMID:12344755

Gupta, M R

1993-06-01

452

The development of urbanism in the northern Horn of Africa in ancient and medieval times  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this paper is to outline the development of urbanism in the northern Horn of Africa from prehistoric to medieval times (c. 4000 BC-AD 1500) based on the available archaeological and historical evidence. This development is investigated as a'historical process'in order to make evident the specific factors that affected the rise and collapse of urbanism in the region

RODOLFO FATTOVICH

453

Developing an Ecosystem Services Online Decision Support Tool to Assess the Impacts of Climate Change and Urban Growth in the Santa Cruz Watershed; Where We Live, Work, and Play  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using respective strengths of the biological, physical, and social sciences, we are developing an online decision support tool, the Santa Cruz Watershed Ecosystem Portfolio Model (SCWEPM), to help promote the use of information relevant to water allocation and land management in a binational watershed along the U.S.-Mexico border. The SCWEPM will include an ES valuation system within a suite of

Laura Norman; Nita Tallent-Halsell; William Labiosa; Matt Weber; Amy McCoy; Katie Hirschboeck; James Callegary; Charles Van Riper; Floyd Gray

2010-01-01

454

Literacy Development of Students in Urban Schools: Research and Policy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Educators can use this collection of diverse, thought-provoking perspectives from the best minds in the field to help make the best decisions possible for urban schools. The book's 26 chapters concisely synthesize research on a number of topics and link it to literacy instruction issues-including implications for local, state, and national…

Flood, James, Ed.; Anders, Patricia L., Ed.

2005-01-01

455

Effects of Continuing Professional Development on Urban Elementary Students' Knowledge  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this investigation was to examine one urban school district's attempt to revise their elementary school physical education offerings to promote student gains in healthy living knowledge. Specifically, the authors sought to determine if children's physical activity/fitness knowledge increased when taught by teachers engaged in a…

Kulinna, Pamela Hodges; McCaughtry, Nathan; Martin, Jeffrey; Cothran, Donetta

2011-01-01

456

Effects of Continuing Professional Development on Urban Elementary Students' Knowledge  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this investigation was to examine one urban school district's attempt to revise their elementary school physical education offerings to promote student gains in healthy living knowledge. Specifically, the authors sought to determine if children's physical activity/fitness knowledge increased when taught by teachers engaged in a…

Kulinna, Pamela Hodges; McCaughtry, Nathan; Martin, Jeffrey; Cothran, Donetta

2011-01-01

457

Simultaneous Renewal in the Urban Professional Development School  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Urban schools have the greatest need for renewal of existing staff and the infusion of new teachers. Unfortunately, they present a challenging environment in which to prepare teachers while fostering the renewal process in experienced teachers. Goodlad (1994) proposes that both the school and university embark upon this renewal process through…

Williams, Mae; Shaw, Stan F.

2003-01-01

458

Addressing the Complexities of Literacy and Urban Teaching in the USA: Strategic Professional Development as Intervention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Teaching quality impacts classroom instruction. Teaching is difficult, demanding and draining work; teaching in urban environs exacerbates the difficulties, the demands and the complexities of teaching. Through the eyes of an assistant superintendent, charged with implementing a new vision for literacy teaching and learning, this manuscript…

Sulentic Dowell, Margaret-Mary

2012-01-01

459

Impact evaluation of educational development programmes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although most educational development professionals value the importance of monitoring their programme's impact, systematic evaluation is not common, and often relies on inference measures such as extent of participation and satisfaction. This paper discusses approaches to programme impact evaluation in terms of six possible points of focus: (1) participants' perceptions\\/satisfaction; (2) participants' beliefs about teaching and learning; (3) participants' teaching

Carolin Kreber; Paula Brook

2001-01-01

460

DEVELOPMENT OF IMPACT ORIENTED CLIMATE SCENARIOS  

EPA Science Inventory

Appropriate scenarios of future climate must be developed prior to any assessment of the impacts of climate change. he information needed by impact assessors was examined in consultation with those having experience in scenario use. ost assessors require regional scenarios with a...

461

High resolution weather data for urban hydrological modelling and impact assessment, ICT requirements and future challenges  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hydrological analysis of urban catchments requires high resolution rainfall and catchment information because of the small size of these catchments, high spatial variability of the urban fabric, fast runoff processes and related short response times. Rainfall information available from traditional radar and rain gauge networks does no not meet the relevant scales of urban hydrology. A new type of weather radars, based on X-band frequency and equipped with Doppler and dual polarimetry capabilities, promises to provide more accurate rainfall estimates at the spatial and temporal scales that are required for urban hydrological analysis. Recently, the RAINGAIN project was started to analyse the applicability of this new type of radars in the context of urban hydrological modelling. In this project, meteorologists and hydrologists work closely together in several stages of urban hydrological analysis: from the acquisition procedure of novel and high-end radar products to data acquisition and processing, rainfall data retrieval, hydrologic