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1

The impact of urban development on hydrologic regime from catchment to basin scales  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the role of urban spatial development on hydrologic response at both catchment (sub-grid) and river basin (between grid) scales in central Indiana. At the catchment scale, effective impervious area (EIA) was estimated using high density urban area and the patch size of low density urban area. The impact of urban spatial arrangement on floods was investigated using

Guoxiang Yang; Laura C. Bowling; Keith A. Cherkauer; Bryan C. Pijanowski

2011-01-01

2

An Impact Evaluation of the Urban Development Action Grant Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This evaluation of the Urban Development Action Grant (UDAG) program addresses four important issues: need for UDAG, benefits of UDAG, distribution of UDAG funds, and local economic development capacity. The UDAG program is assisting distressed cities and...

E. S. Savas

1982-01-01

3

Process and impact evaluation of the Greater Christchurch Urban Development Strategy Health Impact Assessment  

PubMed Central

Background despite health impact assessment (HIA) being increasingly widely used internationally, fundamental questions about its impact on decision-making, implementation and practices remain. In 2005 a collaboration between public health and local government authorities performed an HIA on the Christchurch Urban Development Strategy Options paper in New Zealand. The findings of this were incorporated into the Greater Christchurch Urban Development Strategy; Methods using multiple qualitative methodologies including key informant interviews, focus groups and questionnaires, this study performs process and impact evaluations of the Christchurch HIA including evaluation of costs and resource use; Results the evaluation found that the HIA had demonstrable direct impacts on planning and implementation of the final Urban Development Strategy as well as indirect impacts on understandings and ways of working within and between organisations. It also points out future directions and ways of working in this successful collaboration between public health and local government authorities. It summarises the modest resource use and discusses the important role HIA can play in urban planning with intersectoral collaboration and enhanced relationships as both catalysts and outcomes of the HIA process; Conclusion as one of the few evaluations of HIA that have been published to date, this paper makes a substantial contribution to the literature on the impact, utility and effectiveness of HIA.

Mathias, Kaaren R; Harris-Roxas, Ben

2009-01-01

4

Development of a Tool for Siting Low Impact Development in Urban Watersheds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Low impact development (LID) -- a comprehensive land use planning and design approach with the goal of mitigating development impacts on hydrologic/nutrient cycles and ecosystems -- is increasingly being touted as an effective approach to lessen overland runoff and pollutant loadings. Examples of LIDs include riparian buffers, grassed swales, detention/retention ponds, rain gardens, green roofs and rain barrels. Broad-scale decision support tools for siting LIDs have been developed for agricultural watersheds, but are rare for urban watersheds, largely due to greater land use complexity and lack of necessary high-resolution geospatial data. Here, we develop a framework to assist city planners and water quality managers in siting LIDs in urban watersheds. One key component of this research is a framework accessible to those interested in using it. Hence, development of the framework has centered around 1) determining optimal data requirements for siting LID in an urban watershed and 2) developing a tool compatible with both open-source and commercial GIS software. We employ a wide variety of landscape metrics to evaluate the tool. A case study of the Lake Thunderbird Watershed, an urbanized watershed southeast of Oklahoma City, illustrates the effectiveness of a tool that is capable of siting LID in an urban watershed.

Martin-Mikle, C.; de Beurs, K.; Julian, J.

2013-12-01

5

The strategic ecological impact assessment of urban development policies: a case study of Rizhao City, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

In China urban development policies (UDP) are legislated aiming to promote the cities’ socio-economic development. Urbanization,\\u000a however, leads to urban expansion and land-use changes, which in turn affects the structure, function and processes of terrestrial\\u000a and marine ecosystems. Rizhao City, a seaport city of China, was chosen as a case study in order to study the ecological impacts\\u000a of UDP

Shujun Wang; Jennifer Li; Daqian Wu; Jian Liu; Kai Zhang; Renqing Wang

2009-01-01

6

Climate variability effects on urban recharge beneath low impact development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Groundwater resources in urban and coastal environments are highly vulnerable to human pressures and climate variability and change, and many communities face water shortages and need to find alternative water supplies. Therefore, understanding how low impact development (LID) site planning and integrated/best management practices (BMPs) affect recharge rates and volumes is important because of the increasing use of LID and BMP to reduce stormwater runoff and improve surface-water quality. Often considered a secondary management benefit, many BMPs may also enhance recharge to local aquifers; however these hypothesized benefits have not been thoroughly tested or quantified. In this study, we quantify stormwater capture and recharge enhancement beneath a BMP infiltration trench of the LID research network at San Francisco State University, San Francisco, California. Stormwater capture and retention was analyzed using the SCS TR-55 curve number method and in-situ infiltration rates to assess LID storage. Recharge was quantified using vadose zone monitoring equipment, a detailed water budget analysis, and a Hydrus-2D model. Additionally, the effects of historical and predicted future precipitation on recharge rates were examined using precipitation from the Geophysical Fluid Dynamic Laboratory (GFDL) A1F1 climate scenario. Observed recharge rates beneath the infiltration trench range from 1,600 to 3,700 mm/year and are an order of magnitude greater than recharge beneath an irrigated grass lawn and a natural setting. The Hydrus-2D model results indicate increased recharge under the GFDL A1F1 scenario compared with historical and GFDL modeled 20th century rates because of the higher frequency of large precipitation events that induce runoff into the infiltration trench. However, under a simulated A1F1 El Niño year, recharge calculated by a water budget does not increase compared with current El Niño recharge rates. In comparison, simulated recharge rates were considerably lower beneath the grass lawn for historical and future precipitation years. This work highlights the potential management strategy of using LID to capture excess runoff during El Niño years that can be recharged and stored as groundwater. An additional benefit of LID in coastal aquifer systems is the ability to capture and redirect precipitation from runoff to recharge that may help mitigate the negative effects from groundwater pumping and sea-water intrusion.

Newcomer, M. E.; Gurdak, J. J.

2012-12-01

7

Impact of urbanization and industrial development on holiday effect  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Our study is to examine the "holiday effect", defined as the difference in air pollutant concentrations between holiday and non-holiday periods, and associated factors controlling the strength of holiday effect in Taiwan. This holiday effect can be applied to other countries with similar national or cultural holidays. Daily surface measurements of six major air pollutants from fifty-four air quality monitoring stations of the Taiwan Environmental Protection Administration (TEPA) during the Chinese New Year (CNY) and non-Chinese New Year (NCNY) periods of 1994-2008 are used. The air pollutant concentrations are significantly different between the CNY and NCNY periods, in almost all the Taiwan area, except CO in the eastern part which is a relatively less-developed area. The strengths of holiday effects of NOx, CO, NMHC and O3 are larger in the north than in the south, and those of SO2 and PM10 are larger in the south than in the north. Factors controlling the strength of holiday effect such as the degree of urbanization and anthropogenic sources are examined. The population number and motor vehicle number rather than the population number density and motor vehicle number density have a significantly positive relationship with the strengths of holiday effects of NOx, CO and NMHC. The strengths of holiday effects of NOx and CO are mainly contributed from mobile sources and those of SO2 and PM10 are from stationary sources and that of NMHC is from both mobile and stationary sources. As the dominant anthropogenic sources in the air quality division have larger emissions, holiday effect strengths of associated air pollutants are found to be stronger.

Tan, P.-H.; Chen, P.-Y.

2012-04-01

8

Monitoring trends of urban development and environmental impact of Beijing, 1999-2006.  

PubMed

The high rates of environmental change and accelerated species loss in the urban development process should be quantified to rebalance the social and environmental dimensions of sustainability. In this study, an emergy-based environmental impact assessment model is designed according to the framework of the Eco-Indicator 99 for monitoring the negative effects on human well-being and ecosystem integrity in the urban development system of Beijing from 1999 to 2006. The environmental impact assessment model is based on the sustainability promotion perspective, and emphasizes the determinants of human health and ecosystem integrity in the urban development process. It is vital that the links among human health, ecosystem integrity and urban sustainability are therefore considered especially from the perspective of a supply-side environmental cost evaluation (including ecological service supply, ecological and economic losses and investment for treatment). Results suggest that: (1) out of all the pollutants, ecological services were mainly used to dilute sulfur dioxide and NH(3)-N; (2) nitrogen dioxide and greenhouse gases released by the urban system contribute heavily to both ecological and economic losses evaluated in emergy terms; and (3) emissions impact, mainly from airborne pollutants, with small contribution from waterborne emissions, generally increases from 1999 to 2006, undermining the sustainability of Beijing. The emergy synthesis proves to be very appropriate to account for large-scale and indirect costs generated by pollution as side effects of economic activity. Such knowledge is a necessary pre-requisite to perform a reliable cost-benefit evaluation of urban sustainability strategies, and provide guidance for policy decision making to maximize benefits and minimize negative impacts. PMID:21696806

Liu, Gengyuan; Yang, Zhifeng; Chen, Bin; Ulgiati, Sergio

2011-08-15

9

Rural to urban migration is an unforeseen impact of development intervention in Ethiopia.  

PubMed

Rural development initiatives across the developing world are designed to improve community well-being and livelihoods. However they may also have unforeseen consequences, in some cases placing further demands on stretched public services. In this paper we use data from a longitudinal study of five Ethiopian villages to investigate the impact of a recent rural development initiative, installing village-level water taps, on rural to urban migration of young adults. Our previous research has identified that tap stands dramatically reduced child mortality, but were also associated with increased fertility. We demonstrate that the installation of taps is associated with increased rural-urban migration of young adults (15-30 years) over a 15 year period (15.5% migrate out, n?=?1912 from 1280 rural households). Young adults with access to this rural development intervention had three times the relative risk of migrating to urban centres compared to those without the development. We also identify that family dynamics, specifically sibling competition for limited household resources (e.g. food, heritable land and marriage opportunities), are key to understanding the timing of out-migration. Birth of a younger sibling doubled the odds of out-migration and starting married life reduced it. Rural out-migration appears to be a response to increasing rural resource scarcity, principally competition for agricultural land. Strategies for livelihood diversification include education and off-farm casual wage-labour. However, jobs and services are limited in urban centres, few migrants send large cash remittances back to their families, and most return to their villages within one year without advanced qualifications. One benefit for returning migrants may be through enhanced social prestige and mate-acquisition on return to rural areas. These findings have wide implications for current understanding of the processes which initiate rural-to-urban migration and transitions to low fertility, as well as for the design and implementation of development intervention across the rural and urban developing world. PMID:23155400

Gibson, Mhairi A; Gurmu, Eshetu

2012-01-01

10

An analysis of urban development and its environmental impact on the Tampa Bay watershed  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Urbanization has transformed natural landscapes into anthropogenic impervious surfaces. Urban land use has become a major driving force for land cover and land use change in the Tampa Bay watershed of west-central Florida. This study investigates urban land use change and its impact on the watershed. The spatial and temporal changes, as well as the development density of urban land use are determined by analyzing the impervious surface distribution using Landsat satellite imagery. Population distribution and density are extracted from the 2000 census data. Non-point source pollution parameters used for measuring water quality are analyzed for the sub-drainage basins of Hillsborough County. The relationships between 2002 urban land use, population distribution and their environmental influences are explored using regression analysis against various non-point source pollutant loadings in these sub-drainage basins. The results suggest that strong associations existed between most pollutant loadings and the extent of impervious surface within each sub-drainage basin in 2002. Population density also exhibits apparent correlations with loading rates of several pollutants. Spatial variations of selected non-point source pollutant loadings are also assessed. ?? 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Xian, G.; Crane, M.; Su, J.

2007-01-01

11

The effects of low impact development on urban flooding under different rainfall characteristics.  

PubMed

Low impact development (LID) is generally regarded as a more sustainable solution for urban stormwater management than conventional urban drainage systems. However, its effects on urban flooding at a scale of urban drainage systems have not been fully understood particularly when different rainfall characteristics are considered. In this paper, using an urbanizing catchment in China as a case study, the effects of three LID techniques (swale, permeable pavement and green roof) on urban flooding are analyzed and compared with the conventional drainage system design. A range of storm events with different rainfall amounts, durations and locations of peak intensity are considered for holistic assessment of the LID techniques. The effects are measured by the total flood volume reduction during a storm event compared to the conventional drainage system design. The results obtained indicate that all three LID scenarios are more effective in flood reduction during heavier and shorter storm events. Their performance, however, varies significantly according to the location of peak intensity. That is, swales perform best during a storm event with an early peak, permeable pavements perform best with a middle peak, and green roofs perform best with a late peak, respectively. The trends of flood reduction can be explained using a newly proposed water balance method, i.e., by comparing the effective storage depth of the LID designs with the accumulative rainfall amounts at the beginning and end of flooding in the conventional drainage system. This paper provides an insight into the performance of LID designs under different rainfall characteristics, which is essential for effective urban flood management. PMID:24029461

Qin, Hua-peng; Li, Zhuo-xi; Fu, Guangtao

2013-11-15

12

Ozone Air Quality Impacts of Shale Gas Development in South Texas Urban Areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent technological advances, mainly horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing, and continued drilling in shale, have increased domestic production of oil and gas in the United State (U.S.). However, shale gas developments could also affect the environment and human health, particularly in areas where oil and gas developments are new activities. This study is focused on the impacts of shale gas developing activities on summertime ozone air quality in South Texas urban areas since many of them are already ozone nonattainment areas. We use an integrated approach to investigate the ozone air quality impact of the shale gas development in South Texas urban areas. They are: (1) satellite measurement of precursors, (2) observations of ground-level ozone concentrations, and (3) air mass trajectory modeling. Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) is an important precursor to ozone formation, and summertime average tropospheric nitrogen dioxide (NO2) column densities measured by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Ozone Monitoring Instrument increased in the South Texas shale area (i.e., the Eagle Ford Shale area) in 2011 and 2012 as compared to 2008-2010. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's ground-level observations showed summertime average and peak ozone (i.e., the 4th highest daily maximum 8-hour average ozone) concentrations slightly increased from 2010 to 2012 in Austin and San Antonio. However, the frequencies of peak ozone concentrations above the 75ppb ozone standard have been significantly increasing since 2011 in Austin and San Antonio. It is expected to increase the possibilities of violating the ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) for South Texas urban areas in the future. The results of trajectory modeling showed air masses transported from the southeastern Texas could reach Austin and San Antonio and confirmed that emissions from the Eagle Ford Shale area could affect ozone air quality in South Texas urban areas in 2011 and 2012. Overall, emissions associated with shale gas activities in South Texas have been affecting ozone air quality in neighboring urban areas. Developing effective control strategies for reducing emissions from shale gas activities and improving ozone air quality is an important issue in Texas and other states in the U.S..Changes in percentage of summertime 4th highest ozone daily maximum as comparing to previous year

Chang, C.; Liao, K.

2013-12-01

13

An Examination of the Impacts of Urbanization on Green Space Access and Water Resources: A Developed and Developing World Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

This dissertation addresses the impact of urbanization and land use change on the availability and accessibility of two urban amenities that are often inequitably distributed: green space and water features. Diverse methodologies were utilized in order to gain a better understanding of the role of these amenities in improving urban quality of life and integrated water management. Using an interdisciplinary

Heather E. Wright Wendel

2011-01-01

14

Regional climate variability and patterns of urban development - Impacts on the urban water cycle and nutrient export (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The goal of this work is to evaluate the interactions between urban development patterns and the hydrologic cycle and its associated nutrient cycles, within the context of regional and local climate variability. More specifically, our objective is to create a modeling system capable of simulating the feedback relationships that control urban water sustainability. Core elements include spatial modeling of urban development patterns and individual land use and location processes at parcel and neighborhood scales and for different policy scenarios; three-dimensional modeling of coupled surface water-groundwater and land surface-atmospheric systems at multiple scales (including consideration of the engineered water system), where development patterns are incorporated as input; and field work and modeling aimed at quantifying flow paths and fluxes of water and nitrogen in this system. The project team is evaluating linkages among (1) how human locational choices, water-based ecosystem services, and regulatory policies affect the supply of land and patterns of development over time; (2) how the changing composition and variability of urbanizing surfaces affect local and regional climate; and (3) how patterns of development (including the engineered water system) and climate variability affect fluxes, flow paths and storage of water and nitrogen in urban areas. The Baltimore Ecosystem Study LTER (http://beslter.org) serves as a platform for place-based research to carry out this work.

Welty, C.; Bou-Zeid, E.; Doheny, E.; Gold, A.; Groffman, P. M.; Grove, M.; Kaushal, S.; Klaiber, A.; Irwin, E.; Miller, A. J.; Newburn, D.; Smith, J. A.; Towe, C.

2013-12-01

15

Watershed Watch Undergraduate Research Projects: Monitoring Environmental Impacts on Tree Growth - Urban Development and Hurricanes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Watershed Watch (NSF 0525433) is designed to engage early undergraduate students from two-year and four-year colleges in student-driven full inquiry-based instruction in the biogeosciences. Program goals for Watershed Watch are to test if inquiry-rich student-driven projects sufficiently engage undeclared students (or noncommittal STEM majors) to declare a STEM major (or remain with their STEM major). The program is a partnership between two four-year campuses - the University of New Hampshire (UNH), and Elizabeth City State University (ECSU, in North Carolina); and two two-year campuses - Great Bay Community College (GBCC, in New Hampshire) and the College of the Albemarle (COA, in North Carolina). Two Watershed Watch students from the 2009 Summer Research Institute (SRI), held on the ECSU campus, August 3-14, 2009 investigated the use of wood cores collected from loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) and bald cypress (Taxodium distichum). One student team studied the possible impacts of urban development on tree growth, focusing on the use of dendrochronology to assess the effect of environmental factors on the trees. Tree cores and foliar samples were collected at the ECSU Outdoor Classroom and compared with the same species from the Great Dismal Swamp (GDS) in Virginia. The main targets of this experiment were one aquatic tree, the bald cypress, and a land based tree, the loblolly pine. This allowed us to compare an urbanized area (ECSU) with a more natural setting (GDS) to evaluate factors impacting tree growth. This experiment suggests that there may be potentially harmful impacts of an urban environment with the data that at ECSU. The growth rings of the ECSU campus tree cores are noticeably narrow, especially in the loblolly pine from the ECSU outdoor classroom, and multiple fluctuations in more recent tree rings of the bald cypress in the ECSU campus. Growth ring compression, beginning approximately in 1956 in 100-year old loblolly pines, corresponds in timing with the nearby construction of two student dormitories within 100 feet of the trees. The other student team studied cores for evidence of possible impacts from four recent hurricanes (Isabel, category 5, 2003; Floyd, category 4, 1999; Bonnie, category 3, 1998; and Fran, Category 3, 1996) on trees from the Alligator River (near Cape Hatteras, NC) and from the ECSU campus (well inland). Cores were evaluated for the presence or absence of false growth rings that could be the result of saltwater impoundment associated with storm surges. False growth rings were seen in the cores of loblolly pine from the Alligator River site, but only for the years 2003 and 1999. No false growth rings were seen in the cores of loblolly pine from the ECSU campus. Both hurricanes Isabel and Floyd were stronger storms and had higher storm surges (8-10 ft) than either Bonnie or Fran (storm surges of 3-5 feet). The team hypothesized that the false growth rings were related to the impacts of the two stronger storms.

Rock, B. N.; Hale, S.

2009-12-01

16

Stormwater management impacts on urban stream water quality and quantity during and after development in Clarksburg, MD  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Urbanization and urban land use leads to degradation of local stream habitat and 'urban stream syndrome.' Best Management Practices (BMPs) are often used in an attempt to mitigate the impact of urban land use on stream water quality and quantity. Traditional development has employed stormwater BMPs that were placed in a centralized manner located either in the stream channel or near the riparian zone to treat stormwater runoff from large drainage areas; however, urban streams have largely remained impaired. Recently, distributed placement of BMPs throughout the landscape has been implemented in an attempt to detain, treat, and infiltrate stormwater runoff from smaller drainage areas near its source. Despite increasing implementation of distributed BMPs, little has been reported on the catchment-scale (1-10 km^2) performance of distributed BMPs and how they compare to centralized BMPs. The Clarksburg Special Protection Area (CSPA), located in the Washington, DC exurbs within the larger Chesapeake Bay watershed, is undergoing rapid urbanization and employs distributed BMPs on the landscape that treat small drainage areas with the goal of preserving high-quality stream resources in the area. In addition, the presence of a nearby traditionally developed (centralized BMPs) catchment and an undeveloped forested catchment makes the CSPA an ideal setting to understand how the best available stormwater management technology implemented during and after development affects stream water quality and quantity through a comparative watershed analysis. The Clarksburg Integrated Monitoring Partnership is a consortium of local and federal agencies and universities that conducts research in the CSPA including: monitoring of stream water quality, geomorphology, and biology; analysis of stream hydrological and water quality data; and GIS mapping and analysis of land cover, elevation change and BMP implementation data. Here, the impacts of urbanization on stream water quantity, geomorphology, and biology during development while implementing advanced sediment and erosion control BMPs are discussed. Also, effects of centralized versus distributed stormwater BMPs and land cover on stream water quantity and quality following suburban development are presented. This includes stream response to precipitation events, baseflow and stormflow export of water, and water chemistry data. Results from this work have informed land use planning at the local level and are being incorporated through adaptive management to maintain the high-quality stream resources in the CSPA. More generally, results from this work could inform urban development stakeholders on effective strategies to curtail urban stream syndrome.

Loperfido, J. V.; Noe, G. B.; Jarnagin, S.; Mohamoud, Y. M.; Van Ness, K.; Hogan, D. M.

2012-12-01

17

The Urban Professional Development School Network: Assessing the Partnership's Impact on Initial Teacher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In an era of dissatisfaction with the nation's prekindergarten through grade 12 schools and criticism of teacher education programs, professional development school (PDS) partnerships have emerged as one solution. Using quantitative and qualitative data obtained during the first two years of an urban PDS network that includes a large, private…

Damore, Sharon J.; Kapustka, Katherine M.; McDevitt, Patrick

2011-01-01

18

High Speed Rail in China and its Potential Impacts on Urban and Regional Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

After giving a brief description of the background to the development of high speed rail in China, this article attempts to identify the spatial effects of the emerging network at the regional and urban scales, on the basis of official planning documents and recent research by Chinese academics and experts. It argues in particular that high speed rail will reinforce

Shuangshuang Tang; Michel Savy; Jean-François Doulet

2011-01-01

19

Sustainable urban development and geophysics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The new millennium has seen a fresh wave of world economic development especially in the Asian-Pacific region. This has contributed to further rapid urban expansion, creating shortages of energy and resources, degradation of the environment, and changes to climatic patterns. Large-scale, new urbanization is mostly seen in developing countries but urban sprawl is also a major social problem for developed nations. Urbanization has been accelerating at a tremendous rate. According to data collected by the United Nations [1], 50 years ago less than 30% of the world population lived in cities. Now, more than 50% are living in urban settings which occupy only about 1% of the Earth's surface. During the period from 1950 to 1995, the number of cities with a population higher than one million increased from 83 to 325. By 2025 it is estimated that more than 60% of 8.3 billion people (the projected world population [1]) will be city dwellers. Urbanization and urban sprawl can affect our living quality both positively and negatively. In recent years geophysics has found significant and new applications in highly urbanized settings. Such applications are conducive to the understanding of the changes and impacts on the physical environment and play a role in developing sustainable urban infrastructure systems. We would like to refer to this field of study as 'urban geophysics'. Urban geophysics is not simply the application of geophysical exploration in the cities. Urbanization has brought about major changes to the geophysical fields of cities, including those associated with electricity, magnetism, electromagnetism and heat. An example is the increased use of electromagnetic waves in wireless communication, transportation, office automation, and computer equipment. How such an increased intensity of electromagnetic radiation affects the behaviour of charged particles in the atmosphere, the equilibrium of ecological systems, or human health, are new research frontiers to be investigated [2]. The first objective of urban geophysics is to study systematically the geophysical fields in cities, searching for principles and processes governing the intensity and patterns of variation of the geophysical properties, as well as the potential consequences on the biosphere. Secondly, geophysics has already been found to be a useful tool for subsurface detection and investigation, hazard mitigation, and assessment of environmental contamination. Geophysicists have documented numerous cases of successful applications of geophysical techniques to solve problems related to hazard mitigation, safeguarding of lifeline infrastructure and urban gateways (air- and sea-ports, railway and highway terminals), archaeological and heritage surveys, homeland security, urban noise control, water supplies, sanitation and solid waste management etc. In contrast to conventional geophysical exploration, the undertaking of geophysical surveys in an urban setting faces many new challenges and difficulties. First of all, the ambient cultural noise in cities caused by traffic, electromagnetic radiation and electrical currents often produce undesirably strong interference with geophysical measurements. Secondly, subsurface surveys in an urban area are often targeted at the uppermost several metres of the ground, which are the most heterogeneous layers with many man-made objects. Thirdly, unlike conventional geophysical exploration which requires resolution in the order of metres, many urban geophysical surveys demand a resolution and precision in the order of centimetres or even millimetres. Finally restricted site access and limited time for conducting geophysical surveys, regulatory constraints, requirements for traffic management and special logistical arrangements impose additional difficulties. All of these factors point to the need for developing innovative research methods and geophysical instruments suitable for use in urban settings. This special issue on 'Sustainable urban development and geophysics' in Journal of Geophysics and Engineering is a response to th

Liu, Lanbo; Chan, L. S.

2007-09-01

20

Urban Aerosol Impacts on Downwind Convective Storms  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impacts of urban-enhanced aerosol concentrations on convective storm development and precipita- tion over and downwind of St. Louis, Missouri, are investigated. This is achieved through the use of a cloud-resolving mesoscale model, in which sophisticated land use processes and aerosol microphysics are both incorporated. The results indicate that urban-forced convergence downwind of the city, rather than the presence of

Susan C. van den Heever; William R. Cotton

2007-01-01

21

Effectiveness of low impact development practices in two urbanized watersheds: retrofitting with rain barrel/cistern and porous pavement.  

PubMed

The impacts of urbanization on hydrology and water quality can be minimized with the use of low impact development (LID) practices in urban areas. This study assessed the performance of rain barrel/cistern and porous pavement as retrofitting technologies in two urbanized watersheds of 70 and 40 km(2) near Indianapolis, Indiana. Six scenarios consisting of the watershed existing condition, 25% and 50% implementation of rain barrel/cistern and porous pavement, and 25% rain barrel/cistern combined with 25% porous pavement were evaluated using a proposed LID modeling framework and the Long-Term Hydrologic Impact Assessment (L-THIA)-LID model. The model was calibrated for annual runoff from 1991 to 2000, and validated from 2001 to 2010 for the two watersheds. For the calibration period, R(2) and NSE values were greater than 0.60 and 0.50 for annual runoff and streamflow. Baseflow was not calibrated in this study. During the validation period, R(2) and NSE values were greater than 0.50 for runoff and streamflow, and 0.30 for baseflow in the two watersheds. The various application levels of barrel/cistern and porous pavement resulted in 2-12% reduction in runoff and pollutant loads for the two watersheds. Baseflow loads slightly increased with increase in baseflow by more than 1%. However, reduction in runoff led to reduction in total streamflow and associated pollutant loads by 1-9% in the watersheds. The results also indicate that the application of 50% rain barrel/cistern, 50% porous pavement and 25% rain barrel/cistern combined with 25% porous pavement are good retrofitting options in these watersheds. The L-THIA-LID model can be used to inform management and decision-making for implementation of LID practices at the watershed scale. PMID:23474339

Ahiablame, Laurent M; Engel, Bernard A; Chaubey, Indrajeet

2013-04-15

22

Life cycle assessment in the environmental impact evaluation of urban development--a case study of land readjustment project, Hyogo District, Japan.  

PubMed

In this paper, the Life Cycle of Urban Development was firstly analyzed, and the phases of Life Cycle Assessment applied to Urban Development (ULCA) were described. As a case study, ULCA was applied in the environmental impact assessment of the land readjustment project of Hyogo District of Saga, Japan. In addition, mitigation proposals for reducing CO(2) were also presented and the relevant environmental effects were simulated. PMID:14566986

Ge, Jian; Lu, Jiang; Hokao, Kazunori

2003-01-01

23

The impact of urban areas on weather  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The industrial revolution led to a rapid development of urban areas. This has continued unremittingly over the last 200 years or so. In most urban areas the surface properties are heterogeneous, which has significant implications for energy budgets, water budgets and weather phenomena within the part of the earth's atmosphere that humans live. In this paper I discuss the structure of the planetary boundary layer, confining our analysis to the region above the rooftops (canopy layer) up to around the level where clouds form. It is in this part of the atmosphere that most of the weather impacting our lives occurs, and where the buildings of our cities impact the weather.In this review, observations of the structure of the urban atmospheric boundary layer are discussed. In particular the use of Doppler lidar provides measurements above the canopy layer. The impact of high-rise buildings is considered.Urban morphology impacts energy fluxes and airflow leading to phenomena such as the urban heat island and convective rainfall initiation. I discuss in situ surface-based remote sensing and satellite measurements of these effects. Measurements have been used with simple and complex numerical models to understand the complexity and balance of the interactions involved. Cities have been found to be sometimes up to 10 degC warmer than the surrounding rural areas, and to cause large increases in rainfall amounts. However, there are situations in which urban aerosol may suppress precipitation.Although much progress has been made in understanding these impacts, our knowledge remains incomplete. These limitations are identified. As city living becomes even more the norm for large numbers of people, it is imperative that we ensure that urban effects on the weather are included in development plans for the built environment of the future.

Collier, C. G.

2006-01-01

24

MOST Urban Issues: Urban Development and Governance  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

UNESCO's Management of Social Transformations Programme (MOST) hosts this Website dedicated to urban issues in global development. Included here is a substantial array of academic and professional publications, including working papers and project reports; Internet sites; and MOST programme descriptions and conference information relating to issues of transforming the development of urban areas in ways that maximize democracy, economic equality, and quality of life. Current postings include a report on MOST's recently completed project Industrial Decentralization and Urban Development in India with consideration of SouthEast and East Asian States, and related working papers. Most of the publications offered on the Website are in .pdf format.

25

Ecosystem Impacts of Urbanization Assessment Methodology.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A methodology is developed to use space-time analysis and ecosystem modeling to assess the secondary impacts of wastewater treatment facilities (i.e., urbanization) on the ecosystem. The existing state of the ecosystem is described with emphasis on the dy...

D. L. Jameson

1976-01-01

26

Urbanization and low-income housing in Malaysia: impact on the urban Malays.  

PubMed

The focus of this study is on urbanization in Malaysia. "This paper is divided into three parts. The first part examines the trend of uneven urban development in West Malaysia. The second part discusses the change [in] ethnic composition of urban population between 1970 and 1980 intercensal period. The third part analyses the impact of the urbanization process on the Malays in the context of housing problems of the lower income groups." (SUMMARY IN THA) PMID:12283536

Agus, M R

1990-01-01

27

The changing status of women in India : Impact of urbanization and development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Argues that legal and constitutional rights in themselves do not change social attitudes. In the longer term these attitudes are conditioned by economic pressures, which would ultimately lead to improvement in the status of women. In the Indian context, developmental planning and urbanization did not have a specific focus on the role of women in economic change. As a result,

R. N. Ghosh; K. C. Roy

1997-01-01

28

Minimizing the Impact of Urbanization on Long Term Runoff  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increasing concern about the problems caused by urban sprawl has encouraged development and implementation of smart growth approaches to land use management. One of the goals of smart growth is water resources protection, in particular minimizing the runoff impact of urbanization. To investigate the magnitude of the potential benefits of land use planning for water resources protection, possible runoff impacts

Zhenxu Tang; Bernie A. Engel; Kyoung J. Lim; Brayn C. Pijanowski; Jon Harbor

2005-01-01

29

Front-loading urban stormwater management for success ? a perspective incorporating current studies on the implementation of retrofit low-impact development  

EPA Science Inventory

Recent work into the implementation of low-impact development and green infrastructure suggests that a decentralized, source-control approach has the potential to significantly reduce urban stormwater runoff quantity. We posit that the factors of increasing public participation i...

30

Climate change risks to United States infrastructure: impacts on coastal development, roads, bridges, and urban drainage  

EPA Science Inventory

Changes in temperature, precipitation, sea level, and coastal storms will likely increase the vulnerability of infrastructure across the United States. Using four models of vulnerability, impacts, and adaptation of infrastructure, its deployment, and its role in protecting econom...

31

Violent Loss and Urban Children: Understanding the Impact on Grieving and Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Youth attitudes, perspectives, and behaviors regarding violence and loss are shaped by a variety of community, familial, and cultural influences. Their life stories are testimonials to the impact of cumulative grief experiences, each of which are powerful reminders of the fragility of life in their world. Erroneously, some believe that youth…

Zenere, Frank

2009-01-01

32

Impact of Urban Surfaces on Precipitation Processes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) was established in 1988 by two United Nations organizations, the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) and the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) to assess the "risk of human-induced climate change". Such reports are used by decision-makers around the world to assess how our climate is changing. Its reports are widely respected and cited and have been highly influential in forming national and international responses to climate change. The Fourth Assessment report includes a section on the effects of surface processes on climate. This sub-chapter provides an overview of recent developments related to the impact of cities on rainfall. It highlights the possible mechanisms that buildings, urban heat islands, urban aerosols or pollution, and other human factors in cities that can affect rainfall.

Shepherd, J. M.

2004-01-01

33

Modeling the impact of urbanization on infectious disease transmission in developing countries: a case study in Changchun City, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents an integrated model to model the effects of urbanization on infectious disease transmission by coupling a cellular automata (CA) land use development model, population projection matrix model and CA epidemic model. The improvement of this model lies in using an improved CA epidemic model that can divide individuals into three states (susceptible, infected and recovered) and combine connection factor, movement factor into the epidemic model to provide more helpful outcomes in infectious disease transmission. A population density surface model and a household density surface were used to bridge the gap between urbanization and infectious disease transmission. A case study is presented involving modelling infectious disease transmission in Changchun City, a rapidly urbanizing city in China. The simulation results for Changchun City over a 30-year period show that the average numbers of susceptible individuals, infected individuals and recovered individuals in the latter time are greater than those in the previous time during the process of urbanization. In addition, the average numbers of susceptible individuals, infected individuals and recovered individuals increase with higher population growth rate.

Zhang, Ping; Atkinson, Peter; Yang, Changbao

2008-10-01

34

PREDICTING THE RELATIVE IMPACTS OF URBAN DEVELOPMENT POLICIES AND ON-ROAD VEHICLE TECHNOLOGIES ON AIR QUALITY IN THE UNITED STATES: MODELING AND ANALYSIS OF A CASE STUDY IN AUSTIN, TEXAS  

EPA Science Inventory

Urban development results in changes to land use and land cover and, consequently, to biogenic and anthropogenic emissions, meteorological processes, and processes such as dry deposition that influence future predictions of air quality. This study examines the impacts of alter...

35

The impact of origin community characteristics on rural-urban out-migration in a developing country.  

PubMed

It is widely believed that structural variables such as inequitable land distribution, lack of rural employment opportunities, and rural-urban wage and amenity gaps influence population movements in developing countries. Yet quantitative evidence is scant. In this paper a multilevel model is used to investigate the effects of individual-, household-, and areal-level factors on rural-urban out-migration in the Ecuadorian Sierra. Data from a detailed survey carried out in 1977-1978 and from government macro-areal statistics are used to investigate factors affecting the out-migration of youths aged 12-25. Preliminary conclusions are presented on the usefulness of multilevel models in studying migration and policy implications for Ecuador. PMID:3609405

Bilsborrow, R E; McDevitt, T M; Kossoudji, S; Fuller, R

1987-05-01

36

Urbanization Impacts on Mammals across Urban-Forest Edges and a Predictive Model of Edge Effects  

PubMed Central

With accelerating rates of urbanization worldwide, a better understanding of ecological processes at the wildland-urban interface is critical to conserve biodiversity. We explored the effects of high and low-density housing developments on forest-dwelling mammals. Based on habitat characteristics, we expected a gradual decline in species abundance across forest-urban edges and an increased decline rate in higher contrast edges. We surveyed arboreal mammals in sites of high and low housing density along 600 m transects that spanned urban areas and areas turn on adjacent native forest. We also surveyed forest controls to test whether edge effects extended beyond our edge transects. We fitted models describing richness, total abundance and individual species abundance. Low-density housing developments provided suitable habitat for most arboreal mammals. In contrast, high-density housing developments had lower species richness, total abundance and individual species abundance, but supported the highest abundances of an urban adapter (Trichosurus vulpecula). We did not find the predicted gradual decline in species abundance. Of four species analysed, three exhibited no response to the proximity of urban boundaries, but spilled over into adjacent urban habitat to differing extents. One species (Petaurus australis) had an extended negative response to urban boundaries, suggesting that urban development has impacts beyond 300 m into adjacent forest. Our empirical work demonstrates that high-density housing developments have negative effects on both community and species level responses, except for one urban adapter. We developed a new predictive model of edge effects based on our results and the literature. To predict animal responses across edges, our framework integrates for first time: (1) habitat quality/preference, (2) species response with the proximity to the adjacent habitat, and (3) spillover extent/sensitivity to adjacent habitat boundaries. This framework will allow scientists, managers and planners better understand and predict both species responses across edges and impacts of development in mosaic landscapes.

Villasenor, Nelida R.; Driscoll, Don A.; Escobar, Martin A. H.; Gibbons, Philip; Lindenmayer, David B.

2014-01-01

37

Impact of urban development on aquatic macroinvertebrates in south eastern Australia: degradation of in-stream habitats and comparison with non-urban streams  

Microsoft Academic Search

Internationally, waterways within urban areas are subject to broad-scale environmental impairment from urban land uses. In\\u000a this study, we used in-stream macroinvertebrates as surrogates to measure the aquatic health of urban streams in the established\\u000a suburbs of northern Sydney, in temperate south eastern Australia. We compared these with samples collected from streams flowing\\u000a in adjacent naturally vegetated catchments. Macroinvertebrates were

Peter J. DaviesIan; Ian A. Wright; Sophia J. Findlay; Olof J. Jonasson; Shelley Burgin

2010-01-01

38

Impacts of urbanization on the carbon cycle (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Urban areas are expanding rapidly in population and land area. The impact of urban areas on carbon budgets is especially profound. Cities consume nearly 80% of total global energy use and produce approximately 70% of CO2 emissions. Expansion of urban areas in the coming decades is expected to outpace urban population growth, making urban land use change and associated impacts on regional C dynamics a critical element of the global C cycle. Despite the rapid urban expansion, the trajectories of carbon losses and gains following urban development remain poorly quantified, particularly at the urban-rural interface. This is the zone where land use change and C stocks are most dynamic, but least well quantified. While a growing body of research has allowed us to better quantify biomass in forested areas and within the boundaries of major cities, comparatively little work has addressed C stocks and dynamics in the 'middle ground' where the majority of land use change is occurring. Existing spatially-explicit regional and continental scale biomass estimates exclude urban developed areas or presume that they contain little or no biomass. Data on urban C fluxes to and from the atmosphere are likewise very sparse. Our existing network of surface CO2 observation sites intentionally avoids cities. We describe a multidisciplinary study across the greater Boston metropolitan region to characterize the sources and sinks of CO2 across urban-to-rural gradients including the development of new emissions inventories, assessment of land cover change, and process-level studies of variations in ecosystem productivity.

Hutyra, L.; Raciti, S. M.; Dunn, A. L.; Gately, C.; Sue Wing, I.; Woodcock, C.; Olofsson, P.; Friedl, M. A.

2013-12-01

39

Urban bioclimatology in developing countries.  

PubMed

A brief review of the literature on urban human bioclimatology in the tropics is undertaken. Attempts to chart human bioclimatic conditions on the regional/local scale have been made in several developing countries. The effective temperature scheme (with all its limitations) is the one that has been most frequently applied. The possibilities of application of bioclimatic models based on human heat balance for the tropical urban environment are discussed. PMID:8253170

Jauregui, E

1993-11-15

40

Early urban impact on Mediterranean coastal environments.  

PubMed

A common belief is that, unlike today, ancient urban areas developed in a sustainable way within the environmental limits of local natural resources and the ecosystem's capacity to respond. This long-held paradigm is based on a weak knowledge of the processes underpinning the emergence of urban life and the rise of an urban-adapted environment in and beyond city boundaries. Here, we report a 6000-year record of environmental changes around the port city of Akko (Acre), Israel, to analyse ecological processes and patterns stemming from the emergence and growth of urban life. We show that early urban development deeply transformed pre-existing ecosystems, swiftly leading to an urban environment already governed by its own ecological rules and this, since the emergence of the cities. PMID:24345820

Kaniewski, David; Van Campo, Elise; Morhange, Christophe; Guiot, Joël; Zviely, Dov; Shaked, Idan; Otto, Thierry; Artzy, Michal

2013-01-01

41

Early urban impact on Mediterranean coastal environments  

PubMed Central

A common belief is that, unlike today, ancient urban areas developed in a sustainable way within the environmental limits of local natural resources and the ecosystem's capacity to respond. This long-held paradigm is based on a weak knowledge of the processes underpinning the emergence of urban life and the rise of an urban-adapted environment in and beyond city boundaries. Here, we report a 6000-year record of environmental changes around the port city of Akko (Acre), Israel, to analyse ecological processes and patterns stemming from the emergence and growth of urban life. We show that early urban development deeply transformed pre-existing ecosystems, swiftly leading to an urban environment already governed by its own ecological rules and this, since the emergence of the cities.

Kaniewski, David; Van Campo, Elise; Morhange, Christophe; Guiot, Joel; Zviely, Dov; Shaked, Idan; Otto, Thierry; Artzy, Michal

2013-01-01

42

Early urban impact on Mediterranean coastal environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A common belief is that, unlike today, ancient urban areas developed in a sustainable way within the environmental limits of local natural resources and the ecosystem's capacity to respond. This long-held paradigm is based on a weak knowledge of the processes underpinning the emergence of urban life and the rise of an urban-adapted environment in and beyond city boundaries. Here, we report a 6000-year record of environmental changes around the port city of Akko (Acre), Israel, to analyse ecological processes and patterns stemming from the emergence and growth of urban life. We show that early urban development deeply transformed pre-existing ecosystems, swiftly leading to an urban environment already governed by its own ecological rules and this, since the emergence of the cities.

Kaniewski, David; van Campo, Elise; Morhange, Christophe; Guiot, Joël; Zviely, Dov; Shaked, Idan; Otto, Thierry; Artzy, Michal

2013-12-01

43

IMPACTS OF URBANIZATION ON WATERSHED HYDROLOGIC FUNCTION  

EPA Science Inventory

Although urbanization has a major impact on watershed hydrology, there have not been studies to quantify basic hydrological relationships that are altered by the addition of impervious surfaces. The USDA-ARS and USEPA-ORD-NRMRL have initiated a pilot program to study the impacts...

44

The Impact of Professional Development on Elementary Teachers' Strategies for Teaching Science with Diverse Student Groups in Urban Elementary Schools  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study examined elementary teachers' instructional strategies for promoting scientific understanding and inquiry and supporting English language development with diverse student groups including English language learners. The study was part of a 5-year research and development project consisting of reform-based science curriculum units and teacher workshops aimed at providing effective science instruction to promote students' science and literacy achievement in urban elementary schools. Data consisted of 213 post-observation interviews with third, fourth, and fifth grade teachers. The teachers reported using instructional strategies to promote scientific understanding, but generally did not employ more sophisticated inquiry-based strategies. They also reported using instructional strategies to support English language development. There were significant differences among grade levels and by years of teacher participation.

Adamson, Karen; Santau, Alexandra; Lee, Okhee

2013-04-01

45

Urban Development Action Grant Program: A Comprehensive Evaluation Design.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Third in a series of volumes designed to develop an evaluation design for the Urban Development Action Grant (UDAG) program, this volume presents a detailed methodology and analysis plan for evaluating the impacts of the UDAG program. Having a microlevel ...

D. Culp L. Haydon G. Reigeluth N. Rockler J. Tilney

1981-01-01

46

The impact of rural-urban migration on child survival  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Large rural-urban child mortality differentials in many developing countries suggest that rural families can improve their children’s survival chances by leaving the countryside and settling in towns and cities. This study uses data from Demographic and Health Surveys in 17 countries to assess the impact of maternal rural-urban migration on the survival chances of children under age two in

Martin Brockerhoff

47

Urbanization and climate change impacts on future urban flood risk in Can Tho city, Vietnam  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Urban development increases flood risk in cities due to local changes in hydrological and hydrometeorological conditions that increase flood hazard, and also to urban concentrations that increase the vulnerability. The relationship between the increasing urban runoff and flooding due to increased imperviousness better perceived than that between the cyclic impact of urban growth and the urban rainfall via microclimatic changes. The large-scale, global impacts due to climate variability and change could compound these risks. We present the case of a typical third world city - Can Tho (the biggest city in Mekong River Delta, Vietnam) - faced with multiple future challenges, namely: (i) climate change-driven sea-level rise and tidal effect, (ii) increase river runoff due to climate change, (iii) increased urban runoff driven by imperviousness, and (iv) enhancement of extreme rainfall due to urban growth-driven micro-climatic change (urban heat islands). A set of model simulations were used to assess the future impact of the combination of these influences. Urban growth of the city was projected up to year 2100 based on historical growth patterns, using a land-use simulation model (Dinamica-EGO). A dynamic limited-area atmospheric model (WRF), coupled with a detailed land-surface model with vegetation parameterization (Noah LSM), was employed in controlled numerical experiments to estimate the anticipated changes in extreme rainfall patterns due to urban heat island effect. Finally, a 1-D/2-D coupled urban-drainage/flooding model (SWMM-Brezo) was used to simulate storm-sewer surcharge and surface inundation to establish the increase in the flood risk resulting from the changes. The results show that, if the city develops as predicted, the maximum of inundation depth and area in Can Tho will increase by about 20%. The impact of climate change on inundation is more serious than that of urbanization. The worse case may occur if the sea level rises 100 cm and the flow from upstream happen in the high-development scenarios. The relative contribution of causes of flooding are significantly different at various locations; therefore, detailed research on adaptation are necessary for the future investments to be effective.

Huong, H. T. L.; Pathirana, A.

2011-12-01

48

A Model of Urban Development.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The spatial development of an urban market/planned economy is analyzed. The economy is open and small relative to the nation. It produces housing and capital for local use as well as a good used in trade. These are scale economies in the export sector but...

B. von Rabenau

1981-01-01

49

Evaluation of urban railways noise impact  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study of the environmental impact of urban railways mainly regards the noise generated by trains. Italian standards provide for the characterization of territorial pertinence zones (from the outer center line and for each side of the railway tracks), inside which specific absolute limit values of noise introduction produced by the same infrastructure are permitted. Therefore, according to provisions in

Massimo Coppi; Stefano Grignaffini

2002-01-01

50

Urbanization and climate change impacts on future urban flooding in Can Tho city, Vietnam  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Urban development increases flood risk in cities due to local changes in hydrological and hydrometeorological conditions that increase flood hazard, as well as to urban concentrations that increase the vulnerability. The relationship between the increasing urban runoff and flooding due to increased imperviousness is better perceived than that between the cyclic impact of urban growth and the urban rainfall via microclimatic changes. The large-scale, global impacts due to climate variability and change could compound these risks. We present the case of a typical third world city - Can Tho (the biggest city in Mekong River Delta, Vietnam) - faced with multiple future challenges, namely: (i) the likely effect of climate change-driven sea level rise, (ii) an expected increase of river runoff due to climate change as estimated by the Vietnamese government, (iii) increased urban runoff driven by imperviousness, and (iv) enhancement of extreme rainfall due to urban growth-driven, microclimatic change (urban heat islands). A set of model simulations were used to construct future scenarios, combining these influences. Urban growth of the city was projected up to year 2100 based on historical growth patterns, using a land use simulation model (Dinamica EGO). A dynamic limited-area atmospheric model (WRF), coupled with a detailed land surface model with vegetation parameterization (Noah LSM), was employed in controlled numerical experiments to estimate the anticipated changes in extreme rainfall patterns due to urban heat island effect. Finally, a 1-D/2-D coupled urban-drainage/flooding model (SWMM-Brezo) was used to simulate storm-sewer surcharge and surface inundation to establish the increase in the flood hazard resulting from the changes. The results show that under the combined scenario of significant change in river level (due to climate-driven sea level rise and increase of flow in the Mekong) and "business as usual" urbanization, the flooding of Can Tho could increase significantly. The worst case may occur if a sea level rise of 100 cm and the flow from upstream happen together with high-development scenarios. The relative contribution of causes of flooding are significantly different at various locations; therefore, detailed research on adaptation are necessary for future investments to be effective.

Huong, H. T. L.; Pathirana, A.

2013-01-01

51

A landscape based, systems dynamic model for assessing impacts of urban development on water quality for sustainable seagrass growth in Tampa Bay, Florida  

EPA Science Inventory

We present an integrated assessment model to predict potential unintended consequences of urban development on the sustainability of seagrasses and preservation of ecosystem services, such as catchable fish, in Tampa Bay. Ecosystem services are those ecological functions and pro...

52

The impact of rural-urban migration on child survival.  

PubMed

Large rural-urban child mortality differentials in many developing countries suggest that rural families can improve their children's survival chances by leaving the countryside and settling in towns and cities. This study uses data from Demographic and Health Surveys in 17 countries to assess the impact of maternal rural-urban migration on the survival chances of children under age two in the late 1970s and 1980s. Results show that, before migration, children of migrant women had similar or slightly higher mortality risks than children of women who remained in the village. In the two-year period surrounding their mother's migration, their chances of dying increased sharply as a result of accompanying their mothers or being left behind, to levels well above those of rural and urban non-migrant children. Children born after migrants had settled in the urban area, however, gradually experienced much better survival chances than children of rural non-migrants, as well as lower mortality risks than migrants' children born in rural areas before migration. The study concludes that many disadvantaged urban children would probably have been much worse off had their mothers remained in the village, and that millions of children's lives may have been saved in the 1980s as a result of mothers moving to urban areas. PMID:10150514

Brockerhoff, M

1994-10-01

53

Measurement and spatio-temporal distribution of urbanization development quality of urban agglomeration in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urbanization development quality (UDQ) of urban agglomeration (UA) is one of the important indexes to evaluate if the UA urbanization\\u000a speed is reasonable, if the population urbanization process is sound, if the economic urbanization process is efficient, if\\u000a the social urbanization process is harmonious and fair, which is generally composed of three parts, including economic urbanization\\u000a development quality, social urbanization

Deli Wang; Chuanglin Fang; Boyang Gao; Jinchuan Huang; Qingshan Yang

54

Global forecasts of urban expansion to 2030 and direct impacts on biodiversity and carbon pools.  

PubMed

Urban land-cover change threatens biodiversity and affects ecosystem productivity through loss of habitat, biomass, and carbon storage. However, despite projections that world urban populations will increase to nearly 5 billion by 2030, little is known about future locations, magnitudes, and rates of urban expansion. Here we develop spatially explicit probabilistic forecasts of global urban land-cover change and explore the direct impacts on biodiversity hotspots and tropical carbon biomass. If current trends in population density continue and all areas with high probabilities of urban expansion undergo change, then by 2030, urban land cover will increase by 1.2 million km(2), nearly tripling the global urban land area circa 2000. This increase would result in considerable loss of habitats in key biodiversity hotspots, with the highest rates of forecasted urban growth to take place in regions that were relatively undisturbed by urban development in 2000: the Eastern Afromontane, the Guinean Forests of West Africa, and the Western Ghats and Sri Lanka hotspots. Within the pan-tropics, loss in vegetation biomass from areas with high probability of urban expansion is estimated to be 1.38 PgC (0.05 PgC yr(-1)), equal to ?5% of emissions from tropical deforestation and land-use change. Although urbanization is often considered a local issue, the aggregate global impacts of projected urban expansion will require significant policy changes to affect future growth trajectories to minimize global biodiversity and vegetation carbon losses. PMID:22988086

Seto, Karen C; Güneralp, Burak; Hutyra, Lucy R

2012-10-01

55

Global forecasts of urban expansion to 2030 and direct impacts on biodiversity and carbon pools  

PubMed Central

Urban land-cover change threatens biodiversity and affects ecosystem productivity through loss of habitat, biomass, and carbon storage. However, despite projections that world urban populations will increase to nearly 5 billion by 2030, little is known about future locations, magnitudes, and rates of urban expansion. Here we develop spatially explicit probabilistic forecasts of global urban land-cover change and explore the direct impacts on biodiversity hotspots and tropical carbon biomass. If current trends in population density continue and all areas with high probabilities of urban expansion undergo change, then by 2030, urban land cover will increase by 1.2 million km2, nearly tripling the global urban land area circa 2000. This increase would result in considerable loss of habitats in key biodiversity hotspots, with the highest rates of forecasted urban growth to take place in regions that were relatively undisturbed by urban development in 2000: the Eastern Afromontane, the Guinean Forests of West Africa, and the Western Ghats and Sri Lanka hotspots. Within the pan-tropics, loss in vegetation biomass from areas with high probability of urban expansion is estimated to be 1.38 PgC (0.05 PgC yr?1), equal to ?5% of emissions from tropical deforestation and land-use change. Although urbanization is often considered a local issue, the aggregate global impacts of projected urban expansion will require significant policy changes to affect future growth trajectories to minimize global biodiversity and vegetation carbon losses.

Seto, Karen C.; Guneralp, Burak; Hutyra, Lucy R.

2012-01-01

56

Disaster incubation, cumulative impacts and the urban/ex-urban/rural dynamic  

SciTech Connect

This article explores environmental impacts and risks that can accumulate in rural and ex-urban areas and regions and their relation to urban and global development forces. Two Southern Ontario cases are examined: an area level water disaster and cumulative change at the regional level. The role of disaster incubation analysis and advanced environmental assessment tools are discussed in terms of their potential to contribute to more enlightened and effective assessment and planning processes. It is concluded that conventional approaches to EA and planning are characteristically deficient in addressing the full range of impacts and risks, and particularly those originating from pathogens, dispersed and insidious sources. Rigorous application of disaster incubation analysis and more advanced forms of EA has considerable potential to influence a different pattern of planning and decision making.

Mulvihill, Peter R. [Faculty of Environmental Studies, York University, 4700 Keele Street, Toronto, Ontario, M3J 1P3 (Canada)]. E-mail: prm@yorku.ca; Ali, S. Harris [Faculty of Environmental Studies, York University, 4700 Keele Street, Toronto, Ontario, M3J 1P3 (Canada)]. E-mail: hali@yorku.ca

2007-05-15

57

Integrating public transport into urban area development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Incorporating public transport into urban area development is important since it involves more than better accessibility. Despite the difficulties, there are certainly opportunities to give public transport a more ambitious role. The aspects of public transport in urban area development have been studied by the authors during several projects and recent assignments. The lessons learned here have been described based

R van der Bijl; F de Zeeuw

2009-01-01

58

The Impact of Professional Development on Elementary Teachers' Strategies for Teaching Science with Diverse Student Groups in Urban Elementary Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined elementary teachers' instructional strategies for promoting scientific understanding and inquiry and supporting English language development with diverse student groups including English language learners. The study was part of a 5-year research and development project consisting of reform-based science curriculum units and…

Adamson, Karen; Santau, Alexandra; Lee, Okhee

2013-01-01

59

Strategies for managing the effects of urban development on streams  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Urban development remains an important agent of environmental change in the United States. The U.S. population grew by 17 percent from 1982 to 1997, while urbanized land area grew by 47 percent, suggesting that urban land consumption far outpaced population growth (Fulton and others, 2001; Sierra Club, 2003; American Farmland Trust, 2009). Eighty percent of Americans now live in metropolitan areas. Each American effectively occupies about 20 percent more developed land (for housing, schools, shopping, roads, and other related services) than 20 years ago (Markham and Steinzor, 2006). Passel and Cohn (2008) predict a dramatic 48 percent increase in the population of the United States from 2005 to 2050. The advantages and challenges of living in these developed areas—convenience, congestion, employment, pollution—are part of the day-to-day realities of most Americans. Nowhere are the environmental changes associated with urban development more evident than in urban streams. The U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program investigation of the effects of urban development on stream ecosystems (EUSE) during 1999–2004 provides the most spatially comprehensive analysis of stream impacts of urban development that has been completed in the United States. A nationally consistent study design was used in nine metropolitan areas of the United States—Portland, Oregon; Salt Lake City, Utah; Birmingham, Alabama; Atlanta, Georgia; Raleigh, North Carolina; Boston, Massachusetts; Denver, Colorado; Dallas, Texas; and Milwaukee, Wisconsin. A summary report published as part of the EUSE study describes several of these impacts on urban streams (Coles and others, 2012).

Cappiella, Karen; Stack, William P.; Fraley-McNeal, Lisa; Lane, Cecilia; McMahon, Gerard

2012-01-01

60

Impacts of urbanization on Florida Key deer behavior and population dynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rapid human population growth and urbanization have had a negative impact on species biodiversity. As competition for resources between man and wildlife continues, it is important to understand the effects of urbanization on species. Endangered Key deer (Odocoileus virginianus clavium) are endemic to the Florida Keys which have undergone rapid human population growth and development over the past 30 years.

Patricia M. Harveson; Roel R. Lopez; Bret A. Collier; Nova J. Silvy

2007-01-01

61

Impacts of urbanization on Florida Key deer behavior and population dynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rapid human population growth and urbanization have had a negative impact on species biodiversity. As competition for resources between man and wildlife continues, it is impor- tant to understand the effects of urbanization on species. Endangered Key deer (Odocoileus virginianus clavium) are endemic to the Florida Keys which have undergone rapid human population growth and development over the past 30

Patricia M. Harveson; Roel R. Lopez; Bret A. Collier; Nova J. Silvy

2006-01-01

62

Evaluation of urban railways noise impact  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study of the environmental impact of urban railways mainly regards the noise generated by trains. Italian standards provide for the characterization of territorial pertinence zones (from the outer center line and for each side of the railway tracks), inside which specific absolute limit values of noise introduction produced by the same infrastructure are permitted. Therefore, according to provisions in these areas, the noise evaluation has to be performed referring only to the infrastructure contribution, without evaluating other acoustic sources in the same areas. As a consequence, in the pertinence zones the imposed limits for the infrastructure presence and the limits imposed by the acoustic municipal zoning, taking into account the acoustic impact of the other sources, are valid simultaneously but separately when evaluating the acoustic impact. However, in these areas the general acoustic climate is due to the overlap of both acoustic classes, and the noise induced on the population is determined by the contemporary presence of both sources. It is eventually very important to evaluate the effective noise dose absorbed by the population, especially when having to design mitigation interventions.

Coppi, Massimo; Grignaffini, Stefano

2002-11-01

63

Structural adjustment, urban systems, and disaster vulnerability in developing countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Structural adjustment (SA) — or macroeconomic reform — has become a dominant characteristic especially in developing countries, where national economies are being reshaped to a common discipline regardless of local circumstances. Within this context, the paper examines the impact of structural adjustment on disaster vulnerability in the urban sector, through examining some structural considerations which underpin forms of technical guidance

Mohamed Hamza; Roger Zetter

1998-01-01

64

Impact of Urban Sprawl on Water Quality in Eastern Massachusetts, USA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A study of water quality, land use, and population variations over the past three decades was conducted in eastern Massachusetts to examine the impact of urban sprawl on water quality using geographic information system and statistical analyses. Since 1970, eastern Massachusetts has experienced pronounced urban sprawl, which has a substantial impact on water quality. High spatial correlations are found between water quality indicators (especially specific conductance, dissolved ions, including Ca, Mg, Na, and Cl, and dissolved solid) and urban sprawl indicators. Urbanized watersheds with high population density, high percentage of developed land use, and low per capita developed land use tended to have high concentrations of water pollutants. The impact of urban sprawl also shows clear spatial difference between suburban areas and central cities: The central cities experienced lower increases over time in specific conductance concentration, compared to suburban and rural areas. The impact of urban sprawl on water quality is attributed to the combined effects of population and land-use change. Per capita developed land use is a very important indicator for studying the impact of urban sprawl and improving land use and watershed management, because inclusion of this indicator can better explain the temporal and spatial variations of more water quality parameters than using individual land use or/and population density.

Tu, Jun; Xia, Zong-Guo; Clarke, Keith C.; Frei, Allan

2007-08-01

65

Global urbanization and impact on health  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nearly half the world's population now lives in urban settlements. Cities offer the lure of better employment, education, health care, and culture; and they contribute disproportionately to national economies. However, rapid and often unplanned urban growth is often associated with poverty, environmental degradation and population demands that outstrip service capacity. These conditions place human health at risk. Reliable urban health

Melinda Moore; Philip Gould; Barbara S. Keary

2003-01-01

66

URBAN HEAT ISLANDS AND ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rapid urbanization and industrialization have brought about microclimatic changes particularly with regard to its thermal structure. The well documented climatic modification of the city is urban heat island. The present paper discusses the nature and intensity of heat islands at Visakhapatnam, the tropical coastal city of South India. A detailed study was carried out with regard to urban heat

Suryadevara S. Devi

67

A new assessment method for urbanization environmental impact: urban environment entropy model and its application.  

PubMed

The thermodynamic law is one of the most widely used scientific principles. The comparability between the environmental impact of urbanization and the thermodynamic entropy was systematically analyzed. Consequently, the concept "Urban Environment Entropy" was brought forward and the "Urban Environment Entropy" model was established for urbanization environmental impact assessment in this study. The model was then utilized in a case study for the assessment of river water quality in the Pearl River Delta Economic Zone. The results indicated that the assessing results of the model are consistent to that of the equalized synthetic pollution index method. Therefore, it can be concluded that the Urban Environment Entropy model has high reliability and can be applied widely in urbanization environmental assessment research using many different environmental parameters. PMID:18161028

Ouyang, Tingping; Fu, Shuqing; Zhu, Zhaoyu; Kuang, Yaoqiu; Huang, Ningsheng; Wu, Zhifeng

2008-11-01

68

Development Communication in an Urban Setting.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The application of lessons gained from rural experience with development communications to the problems of delivering social services to the poorer segments of the urban areas is described in a report on the squatter upgrading project in Lusaka, the capit...

1980-01-01

69

Hydrometeorologic impacts of urban expansion and the role of spatial arrangement (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Global land cover/land use is changing notably due to expansion of urban areas, resulting in the conversion of natural landscapes to roads, industrial areas, and buildings. The associated reduction in infiltration and runoff lag time have long been the domain of the urban hydrologist, while this landscape transformation also leads to changes in land surface heterogeneities, resulting in alterations of land-atmosphere interactions and convective processes. The integrated impacts of both impervious area and precipitation changes to flood risk in urban environments have not been well-represented by existing predictive tools, which often focus at disparate scales. This presentation attempts an integrated assessment of the multi-scale interaction of urban landcover, hydrology and convective processes, in order to investigate how urbanization has altered the hydrometeorology of urban thunderstorm events, and the role of the spatial arrangement and scale of urban landcover on urban flood frequency. Studies suggest that in some cases, urban influence creates a convergence zone upstream of the urban area, resulting in precipitation increases both upstream and downstream of the urban influence. Total runoff increases consistently with urbanization by restricting infiltration on the land surface, but this is coupled with high uncertainty in the spatial pattern of precipitation change. For some watersheds, the convective influence can result in a significant increase in peak streamflow, relative to impervious influence alone. The spatial pattern of urban development can further affect the hydrologic regime by influencing the hydrologic connectivity of urban areas at the catchment scale, while at the river basin scale the travel time from urban centers to the watershed outlet controls flood magnitudes.

Bowling, L. C.

2013-12-01

70

EVALUATION OF SECONDARY ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS OF URBAN RUNOFF POLLUTION CONTROL  

EPA Science Inventory

This report presents a generalized evaluation of the impacts associated with different urban stormwater runoff (UR) treatment techniques. The report addresses the definition of the problem, estimates the volume and characteristics of the UR and the sludges expected, evaluates six...

71

Impacts of Exurban Development on Water Quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This chapter details the impacts of exurban development on water quantity and quality in the United States. The chapter begins\\u000a by reviewing studies that document the consequences of urbanization on water quality, with emphasis on exurban development.\\u000a We show how watersheds are contaminated by a range of organic and inorganic compounds as land use along the rural-to-urban\\u000a gradient intensifies. These

Kathleen A. Lohse; Adina M. Merenlender

72

Understanding Urban Development In Canada. "Understanding Economics" Series No. 3.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet for Canadian secondary school students examines urbanization and its relationship to other factors of the economy. Five sections analyze urbanization, the pattern of urban development, community needs, the management of urban growth, and urban governance. Part I traces the growth of the Canadian population, noting that 10% of the…

Plunkett, T. J.

73

Assessing the impacts of landscape patterns on urban thermal environment based on RS and GIS A case study in Changchun City  

Microsoft Academic Search

The urban thermal environment problems have become more and more serious and prominent with the rapid development of urbanization, and the impacts of landscape patterns on urban thermal environment also become one of the hot topics and key problems in urban ecology. A case study in Changchun in Jilin Province of China was carried out, further analysis referred to quantifying

Lei Wang; Shuwen Zhang; Yunlong Yao; Jing Ning; Wenhui Kuang

2009-01-01

74

Patterns of Watershed Urbanization and Impacts on Water Quality  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Urban runoff contributes to nonpoint source pollution, but there is little understanding of the way that pattern and extent of urbanization contributes to this problem. Indicators of type and density of urbanization and access to municipal services were examined in six urban watersheds in Durham, North Carolina. Principal components analysis (PCA) was used to identify patterns in the distribution of these variables across the urban landscape. While spatial variation in urban environments is not perfectly captured by any one variable, the results suggest that most of the variation can be explained using several variables related to the extent and distribution of urban development. Multiple linear regression models were fit to relate these urbanization indicators to total phosphorus, total kjeldahl nitrogen, total suspended solids, and fecal coliforms. Development density was correlated to decreased water quality in each of the models. Indicators of urbanization type such as the house age, amount of contiguous impervious surface, and stormwater connectivity explained additional variation. In the nutrient models, access to city services was also an important factor. The results indicate that while urbanization density is important in predicting water quality, indicators of urbanization type and access to city services help explain additional variation in the models.

Carle, Melissa Vernon; Halpin, Patrick N.; Stow, Craig A.

2005-06-01

75

Urban School Decentralization and Curriculum Development Strategies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purposes of this study were: (1) to ascertain the extent to which urban school systems have decentralized the administration of their schools, (2) to obtain opinions on its workability in terms of curriculum development, (3) to begin development of an instrument for clarifying role and function issues at various echelons of decision-making,…

Cawelti, Gordon

76

Modeling Low Impact Development Alternatives with SWIMM  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency?s Office of Water (OW) is actively promoting the use of Low Impact Development (LID) practices to help protect and restore water quality in urban and developing areas. Such practices support the concepts of green infrastructure and sustain...

77

On the urban land-surface impact on climate over Central Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For the purpose of qualifying and quantifying the impact of cities and in general the urban surfaces on climate over central Europe, the surface parameterization in regional climate model RegCM4 has been extended with the Single Layer Urban Canopy Model (SLUCM) for urban and suburban land surface. This can be used both in dynamic scale within BATS scheme and in a more detailed SUBBATS scale to treat the surface processes on a higher resolution subgrid. A set of experiments was performed over the period of 2005-2009 over central Europe, either without considering urban surfaces and with the SLUCM treatment. Results show a statistically significant impact of urbanized surfaces on temperature (up to 1.5 K increase in summer), on the boundary layer height (ZPBL, increases up to 50 m). Urbanization further influences surface wind with a winter decrease up to -0,6 m s-1 and both increases and decreases in summer depending the location with respect to cities and daytime (changes up to 0.3 ms-1). Urban surfaces significantly reduce evaporation and thus the humidity over the surface. This impacts in our simulations the summer precipitation rate showing decrease over cities up to - 2 mm day-1. We further showed, that significant temperature increases are not limited to the urban canopy layer but spawn the whole boundary layer. Above that, a small but statistically significant temperature decrease is modeled. The comparison with observational data showed significant improvement in modeling the monthly surface temperatures in summer and the models better describe the diurnal temperature variation reducing the afternoon and evening bias due to the UHI development, which was not captured by the model if one does not apply the urban parameterization. Sensitivity experiments were carried out as well to quantify the response of the meteorological conditions to changes in the parameters specific to the urban environment such as street width, building height, albedo of the roofs, anthropogenic heat release etc. and showed that the results are rather robust and the choice of the key SLUCM parameters impacts the results only slightly (mainly temperature, ZPBL and wind velocity). Further, the important conclusion is that statistically significant impacts are modeled not only over large urbanized areas (cities), but the influence of cities is evident over remote rural areas as well with minor or without any urban surfaces. We show that this is the result of the combined effect of the distant influence of surrounding cities and the influence of the minor local urban surface coverage.

Huszar, Peter; Halenka, Tomas; Belda, Michal; Zemankova, Katerina; Zak, Michal

2014-05-01

78

Development Communication in an Urban Setting.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The application of lessons gained from rural experience with development communications to the problems of delivering social services to the poorer segments of the urban areas is described in a report on the squatter upgrading project in Lusaka, the capital of Zambia. A Project Support Communications Unit established to provide communication…

Development Communication Report, 1980

1980-01-01

79

Dynamics of Urban Development on Flood Plains.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study presents a descriptive analysis of urban land use development on flood plain areas within Wichita, Kansas. The principal data source is building permits and tax records which identify the number of square feet of floor space constructed, year o...

R. F. Wiseman

1977-01-01

80

Impacts of Urbanization in the Coastal Tropical City of San Juan, Puerto Rico  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Urban sprawl in tropical locations is rapidly accelerating and it is more evident in islands where a large percentage of the population resides along the coasts. This paper focuses on the analysis of the impacts of land use and land cover for urbanization in the tropical coastal city of San Juan, in the Caribbean island of Puerto Rico. A mesoscale numerical model, the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS), is used to study the impacts of land use for urbanization in the environment including specific characteristics of the urban heat island in the San Juan Metropolitan Area (SJMA), one of the most noticeable urban cores of the Caribbean. The research also makes use of the observations obtained during the airborne San Juan Atlas Mission. Surface and rawinsonde data from the mission are used to validate the atmospheric model yielding satisfactory results. Airborne high resolution remote sensing data are used to update the model's surface characteristics in order to obtain a more accurate and detailed configuration of the SJMA and perform a climate impact analysis based on land cover/land use (LCLU) changes. The impact analysis showed that the presence of the urban landscape of San Juan has an impact reflected in higher air temperatures over the area occupied by the city, with positive values of up to 2.5 C, for the simulations that have specified urban LCLU indexes in the model's bottom boundary. One interesting result of the impact analysis was the finding of a precipitation disturbance shown as a difference in total accumulated rainfall between the present urban landscape and with a potential natural vegetation, apparently induced by the presence of the urban area. Results indicate that the urban enhanced cloud formation and precipitation development occur mainly downwind of the city, including the accumulated precipitation. This spatial pattern can be explained by the presence of a larger urbanized area in the southwest sector of the city, and of the approaching northeasterly trade winds. No significant impacts were found in the sea breeze patterns of the city.

Comarazamy, Daniel E.; Gonzalez, Jorge E.; Luvall, Jeffrey C.; Rickman, Douglas L.; Mulero, Pedro J.

2007-01-01

81

Development and validation of the Noah-Urban Canopy Model for two distinct urban climates in the Los Angeles basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Increasing population in urban areas over the last 50 years has elevated the interest in urban climate processes and land-atmosphere interactions. Altered land cover in urban areas has significant impacts on surface properties, including albedo, thermal capacity, heat conductivity and soil moisture. Changes in these properties impact the heat, mass, momentum, and energy budgets of a city and ultimately results in distinct urban climates that include the urban heat island (UHI), urban-induced wind, increased precipitation downwind from urban areas, and air pollution. The focus of this study is on understanding the spatial and temporal patterns in heat and moisture fluxes in semi-arid metropolitan regions. A high resolution modeling framework using the Noah-LSM (Land Surface Model) coupled with an Urban Canopy Model (UCM) is used to simulate surface energy fluxes at a 300-m resolution over two distinct semi-arid metropolises, downtown Los Angeles and Santa Monica, CA. The model is initialized, calibrated and validated using traditional ground-based data and then with a suite of remotely sensed land surface and atmospheric variables. The differences in building type (urban type), land cover, and land surface 'greenness' between these densely urbanized regions are identified and corresponding sensible and latent heat fluxes are compared. Influence of the coastal maritime climate on energy fluxes is also evaluated. Statistical measures are used to evaluate model performance against both traditional ground-based as well as remote sensing products. Surface temperature is evaluated against MODIS and Landsat products as well as traditional ground-based observations. A previously developed high-resolution remotely-sensed evapotranspiration product is also used to validate modeled latent heat fluxes.

Vahmani, P.; Hogue, T. S.; Kim, J.

2011-12-01

82

Employment Dimensions of the Urban Development Action Grant Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study examines the nature of employment created through the Urban Development Action Grant (UDAG) program, using the perspective of dual or segmented labor market (DLM) theory. Initial DLM hypotheses were developed from urban labor market studies of ...

E. J. Ford

1982-01-01

83

Developing a framework to assess the water quality and quantity impacts of climate change, shifting land use, and urbanization in a Midwestern agricultural landscape  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dynamic hydrological processes play a critical role in the structure and functioning of agricultural watersheds undergoing urbanization. Developing a predictive understanding of the complex interaction between agricultural productivity, ecosystem health, water quality, urban development, and public policy requires an interdisciplinary effort that investigates the important biophysical and social processes of the system. Our research group has initiated such a framework that includes a coordinated program of integrated scenarios, model experiments to assess the effects of changing drivers on a broad set of ecosystem services, evaluations of governance and leverage points, outreach and public engagement, and information management. Our geographic focus is the Yahara River watershed in south-central Wisconsin, which is an exemplar of water-related issues in the Upper Midwest. This research addresses three specific questions. 1) How do different patterns of land use, land cover, land management, and water resources engineering practices affect the resilience and sensitivity of ecosystem services under a changing climate? 2) How can regional governance systems for water and land use be made more resilient and adaptive to meet diverse human needs? 3) In what ways are regional human-environment systems resilient and in what ways are they vulnerable to potential changes in climate and water resources? A comprehensive program of model experiments and biophysical measurements will be utilized to evaluate changes in five freshwater ecosystem services (flood regulation, groundwater recharge, surface water quality, groundwater quality, and lake recreation) and five related ecosystem services (food crop yields, bioenergy crop yields, carbon storage in soil, albedo, and terrestrial recreation). Novel additions to existing biophysical models will allow us to simulate all components of the hydrological cycle as well as agricultural productivity, nitrogen and phosphorus transport, and lake water quality. The integrated model will be validated using a comprehensive observational database that includes soil moisture, evapotranspiration, stomatal conductance, streamflow, stream and lake water quality, and crop yields and productivity. Integrated scenarios will be developed to synthesize decision-maker perspectives, alternative approaches to resource governance, plausible trends in demographic and economic drivers, and model projections under alternate climate and land use regimes to understand future conditions of the watershed and its ecosystem services. The quantitative data and integrated scenarios will then be linked to evaluate governance of water and land use.

Loheide, S. P.; Booth, E. G.; Kucharik, C. J.; Carpenter, S. R.; Gries, C.; Katt-Reinders, E.; Rissman, A. R.; Turner, M. G.

2011-12-01

84

Evaluation of the impact of the surrounding urban morphology on building energy consumption  

SciTech Connect

Empirical models of minimum (T{sub min}), average (T{sub avg}) and maximum (T{sub max}) air temperature for Singapore estate have been developed and validated based on a long-tem field measurement. There are three major urban elements, which influence the urban temperature at the local scale. Essentially, they are buildings, greenery and pavement. Other related parameters identified for the study, such as green plot ratio (GnPR), sky view factor (SVF), surrounding building density, the wall surface area, pavement area, albedo are also evaluated to give a better understanding on the likely impact of the modified urban morphology on energy consumption. The objective of this research is to assess and to compare how the air temperature variation of urban condition can affect the building energy consumption in tropical climate of Singapore. In order to achieve this goal, a series of numerical calculation and building simulation are utilized. A total of 32 cases, considering different urban morphologies, are identified and evaluated to give better a understanding on the implication of urban forms, with the reference to the effect of varying density, height and greenery density. The results show that GnPR, which related to the present of greenery, have the most significant impact on the energy consumption by reducing the temperature by up to 2 C. The results also strongly indicate an energy saving of 4.5% if the urban elements are addressed effectively. (author)

Wong, Nyuk Hien; Chen, Yixing; Hajadi, Norwin; Sathyanarayanan, Haripriya; Manickavasagam, Yamini Vidya [Department of Building, National University of Singapore (Singapore); Jusuf, Steve Kardinal [Center for Sustainable Asian Cities, National University of Singapore (Singapore); Syafii, Nedyomukti Imam [Institute of High Performance Computing (Singapore)

2011-01-15

85

UN-Habitat: Sustainable Urban Development Network  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The United Nations Human Settlements Programme, or UN-HABITAT, is the organizationâ≢s agency for human settlements. The groupâ≢s main objective is to ââ¬ÃÂpromote socially and environmentally sustainable towns and cities with the goal of providing adequate shelter for all.ââˆMore specifically, the Sustainable Urban Development Network, or SUD-NET, works to reduce poverty and encourage the creation and development of ââ¬ÃÂlivable, productive and inclusive cities.ââˆThose interested in globalization and urban development worldwide will find much of interest here, including the groupâ≢s key activities, thematic focus areas, partnerships, and reports. ââ¬ÃÂCities and Climate Change Initiative,ââˆa 2009 report, is currently featured on the website, and is available for download as a PDF.

86

Rapid urbanization - Its impact on mental health: A South Asian perspective.  

PubMed

Rapid increase in urban population as a proportion of total population is resulting in rapid urbanization of the world. By the end of 2008, a majority of the world's population will be living in the cities. This paradigm shift in the dynamics of human population is attracting attention of demographers, sociologists, scientists, and politicians alike. Urbanization brings with it a unique set of advantages and disadvantages. Though it is driving the economies of most of the nations of the world, a serious concern regarding the impact of urbanization on mental health is warranted. The impact of urbanization on mental health in South-Asian countries needs to be examined. These countries by virtue of their developing economies and a significant proportion of population still living below poverty line are particularly vulnerable and tend to have a higher burden of diseases with an already compromised primary health care delivery system. The range of disorders and deviancies associated with urbanization is enormous and includes psychoses, depression, sociopathy, substance abuse, alcoholism, crime, delinquency, vandalism, family disintegration, and alienation. Thus, it is a heterogenous mix of problems and categorizing them to one particular subtype seems daunting and undesirable. Urbanization is affecting the entire gamut of population especially the vulnerable sections of society - elderly, children and adolescents, and women. Rapid urbanization has also led to creation of "fringe population" mostly living from hand to mouth which further adds to poverty. Poverty and mental health have a complex and multidimensional relationship. Urban population is heavily influenced by changing cultural dynamics leading to particular psychiatric problems like depression, alcoholism, and delinquency. Judicious use of resources, balanced approach to development, and sound government policies are advocated for appropriate growth of advancing economies of South-Asian region. PMID:19742238

Trivedi, Jitendra K; Sareen, Himanshu; Dhyani, Mohan

2008-07-01

87

Impacts of urbanization on river flow frequency: A controlled experimental modeling-based evaluation approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Changes in land use are likely to cause a non-linear response in watershed hydrology. Specifically, small increases in urban expansion may greatly increase surface runoff while decreasing infiltration, impacting aquifer recharge and changing streamflow regimes. Quantifying the effects of urbanization on streamflow is crucial to the development of plans to mitigate the effects of anthropogenic changes on watershed processes. This study focused on quantifying the potential effects of varying degrees of urban expansion on the frequency of discharge, velocity, and water depth using the physically-based watershed model, MIKE-SHE, and the 1D hydrodynamic river model, MIKE-11. Five land cover scenarios corresponding to varying degrees of urban expansion were used to determine the sensitivity of these flow variables in the Big River watershed located in east central Missouri, in which urban areas have increased by more than 300% in the last 15 years (1992-2006). Differences in the frequency distributions of the flow variables under each scenario were quantified using a Smirnov test. Results indicated a potential increase in the frequency of high flow events to more than 140% while decreasing the frequency of low flow events by up to 100% if the current rate of urbanization continues. In general, the frequency of low flow events decreased as urban expansion increased while the frequency of average and high-flow events increased as urbanization increased. An increase in frequency of high-flow events is expected to impact the safety of structures, sediment load, water quality, and the riparian ecosystem. This research will be valuable to assess mitigation strategies in order to protect the ecosystem, infrastructure, and livelihood in the watershed where urban development is inevitable.

Chu, M. L.; Knouft, J. H.; Ghulam, A.; Guzman, J. A.; Pan, Z.

2013-07-01

88

Ramp metering impact on urban corridor traffic: Field results  

Microsoft Academic Search

Field trial results when applying a particular ramp metering strategy to an urban corridor network (Corridor Périphérique in Paris) including a motorway, a parallel arterial, and connecting radial streets are reported. The impact of ramp metering on corridor traffic is studied by comparative evaluation of several performance indices in the cases with and without control. The main finding of the

Marcos Papageorgiou

1995-01-01

89

The Impact of Reform Recommendations on Urban Special Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Federally proposed educational reform recommendations such as those in "America 2000" are examined for their impact on urban special education. Areas discussed include curriculum reforms, preschool education for at-risk youth, graduation rates, national achievement testing, drug-free environment, parental choice of schools, alternative teacher…

McIntyre, Thomas

1992-01-01

90

Urban, Regional and Global Impacts of Biomass Burning Emissions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biomass burning is a major regional and global driver for atmospheric composition. Its effects in regional and global climate are very significant, but still difficult to assess. Even in large urban areas in Latin America such as Mexico City, Sao Paulo and Santiago, and in developed areas such as Paris and Californian cities it is possible to observe significant biomass burning effects air quality. The wood burning components as well as inner city and vicinities burning if agricultural residues impact heavily the concentration of organic aerosol, carbon monoxide and ozone in urban areas. Regionally, regions such as Amazonia and Central America show large plumes of smoke that extend their impact over continental areas, with changes in the radiation balance, air quality and climate. The deforestation rate in Amazonia have dropped strongly from 27,000 Km2 in 2004 to 6,200 Km2 in 2011, a very significant reduction, but this reduction was not observed in Africa and Southeast Asia. Health effects of biomass burning emissions are very significant, and observed in several key regions. Remote sensing techniques for fire detection have progressed significantly and long time series (10-15 years) are now feasible. The black carbon associated with biomass burning has important impacts in formation and development of clouds in Amazonia and other regions. The organic component of biomass burning emissions scatter light and increase diffuse radiation that alters carbon uptake in large regions of Amazonia and certainly other forested areas. Increase of up to 30% in carbon uptake associated with biomass burning emissions was observed in Amazonia, as part of the LBA Experiment. New analytical methods that quantify the absorption angstrom exponent of biomass burning and fossil fuel black carbon (BC) can differentiate BC from different burning sources. In addition, the hygroscopic properties of particles with a core shell of BC coated with organic compounds can be measured and shows very significant cloud nucleation properties of these complex particles that can change cloud formation and development mechanisms. Recent papers on the radiative forcing of black carbon estimate that BC can have a very high positive forcing of +0.5 watts/m2, and at the same time the organic compounds associated with BC emissions can bring the total radiative forcing to zero. This would imply that policies to reduce BC emissions as a strategy to quickly reduce global warming could not be that much effective. BC continues to be a critically important global driver of climate change, but its effects are still quite unknown.

Artaxo, P.; Ferreira De Brito, J.; Barbosa, H. M.; Rizzo, L. V.; Setzer, A.; Cirino, G.

2013-05-01

91

Sensitivity of Urbanization Impact over China by Using WRF/Chem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Urbanization in China is an inevitable process coming along with economic development and population boost, which brings two impacts on air quality modeling. One is land-cover change and the other one is the additional stream of anthropogenic heat. In this study, we employed Weather Research Forecasting -Chemistry (WRF-Chem) to evaluate the sensitivity of meteorology and ozone concentrations in response to urbanization, by two cases, Jing-Jin-Ji (JJJ, indicating Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei) and Yangtze River Delta (YRD) areas. The first impact was achieved by updating the default land-cover data in WRF/Chem. Preliminary results showed an increase in 2-m temperature and PBL heights, and a decrease in wind-speed and dew points. For ozone concentrations, after updating land-cover data there was a corresponding rise in the surface level. The maximum increase was as much as 20 ppb for JJJ and 14 ppb for YRD area. The second impact was evaluated by adding anthropogenic heat stream into simulations. This heat stream was developed by considering both urban expansion and peak value at city centers. Test results showed a comparative 2-m temperature increase when compared to the first impact. While for PBL heights and dew points, the difference is negligible. Ozone concentrations within surface layer were also enhanced. The maximum increase was 7 ppb for JJJ area. Taking urbanization into consideration is a significant improvement for air quality modeling over China. After including both 1st and 2nd impact into WRF/Chem, the mean error was reduced by 35.6% for urban locations. One of our ongoing studies is focusing on further improvement of updating more recent land-cover data and anthropogenic heat. Ozone difference after including 1st impact Temporal plots for PKU(urban location)

Yu, M.; Carmichael, G.

2012-12-01

92

Innovative Practices in Large Urban Development Projects: Conflicting Frames in the Quest for “New Urbanity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large urban development projects are at the forefront of scholarly attention. This article aims at complementing critical analyses of urban projects from a political-economic perspective with an analysis centred on planning agency and practice. The focus is on the role of innovative planning concepts in the governance process. The question raised is: how can discourse on the urban quality of

Enrico Gualini; Stan Majoor

2007-01-01

93

Evolution of urban robotic system developments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urban settings represent a challenging environment for teleoperated and autonomous robot systems. We present several different improved and novel robotic locomotion and exploration\\/inspection systems designed for the arenas of military reconnaissance and even entertainment\\/toys. The designs presented in this paper focus in on all- and flat-floor teleoperated\\/autonomous-capability robotic platforms developed at CMU over the past year. The Pandora and Minidora

Hagen Schempfa; E. Mutschler; Brian Chemela; S. Nayar; Colin Piepgrasa; William Crowleya; Scott Boehmkea

1999-01-01

94

Spatial distribution and historical records of mercury sedimentation in urban lakes under urbanization impacts.  

PubMed

China is assumed one of the largest contributors to the world's total mercury (Hg) emissions, with a rapid increase in anthropogenic Hg emissions. However, little is known about Hg fate and transport in urban areas of China. In this study, total Hg contents in surface (0-5 cm) sediments from lakes in 14 parks (3 in the central urban core (CUC) area, 5 in the developed urban (DDU) area, 2 in the developing urban (DIU) area, and 4 in the suburban (SU) area) and (210)Pb-dated sediment cores from lakes in 5 parks (3 in the CUC and 2 in the DDU) in Shanghai were assessed to compare current patterns (urbanization effect) with the historical records of Hg emissions over the past century. Total Hg content in surface sediments showed a clear urbanization pattern. Dated sediment cores revealed a 2-3 fold increase in total Hg content, while Hg fluxes exponentially increased from ~1900 to present and accelerated since 1990 when China's economy and urbanization booms started. Anthropogenic Hg fluxes in post-2000 ranged from 253 to 1452 ?g m(-2) yr(-1), 2-7 times greater than preindustrial (pre-1900) Hg fluxes. Total Hg and Pb contents in both surface sediments and sediment cores were highly correlated and Hg flux in sediment cores also significantly correlated with annual coal consumption in the period 1949-2008. The significant correlations suggest that coal combustion is a major source of Hg emission in Shanghai. PMID:23327992

Li, Hong-Bo; Yu, Shen; Li, Gui-Lin; Deng, Hong; Xu, Bo; Ding, Jing; Gao, Jin-Bo; Hong, You-Wei; Wong, Ming-Hung

2013-02-15

95

Impact of urbanization and land-use change on climate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The most important anthropogenic influences on climate are the emission of greenhouse gases and changes in land use, such as urbanization and agriculture. But it has been difficult to separate these two influences because both tend to increase the daily mean surface temperature. The impact of urbanization has been estimated by comparing observations in cities with those in surrounding rural areas, but the results differ significantly depending on whether population data or satellite measurements of night light are used to classify urban and rural areas. Here we use the difference between trends in observed surface temperatures in the continental United States and the corresponding trends in a reconstruction of surface temperatures determined from a reanalysis of global weather over the past 50 years, which is insensitive to surface observations, to estimate the impact of land-use changes on surface warming. Our results suggest that half of the observed decrease in diurnal temperature range is due to urban and other land-use changes. Moreover, our estimate of 0.27°C mean surface warming per century due to land-use changes is at least twice as high as previous estimates based on urbanization alone.

Kalnay, Eugenia; Cai, Ming

2003-05-01

96

Combating Deforestation? – Impacts of Improved Stove Dissemination on Charcoal Consumption in Urban Senegal  

Microsoft Academic Search

With 2.7 billion people relying on woodfuels for cooking in developing countries, the dissemination of improved cooking stoves (ICS) is frequently considered an effective instrument to combat deforestation particularly in arid countries. This paper evaluates the impacts of an ICS dissemination project in urban Senegal on charcoal consumption using data collected among 624 households. The virtue of our data is

Gunther Bensch; Jörg Peters

2011-01-01

97

IMPACT OF URBANIZATION ON THE HYDROLOGY OF THE POCONO CREEK WATERSHED: A MODEL STUDY  

EPA Science Inventory

The Pocono Creek watershed located in Monroe County, PA, is threatened by high population growth and urbanization. Of concern specifically is the potential impact of future developments in the watershed on the reduction of base flow and the consequent risk of degradation of wild ...

98

The Impact of Urbanization on the Precipitation Component of the Water Cycle: A New Perspective  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is estimated that by the year 2025, 60% of the world s population will live in cities (UNFP, 1999). As cities continue to grow, urban sprawl (e.g., the expansion of urban surfaces outward into rural surroundings) creates unique problems related to land use, transportation, agriculture, housing, pollution, and development. Urban expansion also has measurable impacts on environmental processes. Urban areas modify boundary layer processes through the creation of an urban heat island (UHI). The literature indicates that the signature of the urban heat island effect may be resolvable in rainfall patterns over and downwind of metropolitan areas. However, a recent U.S. Weather Research Program panel concluded that more observational and modeling research is needed in this area (Dabberdt et al. 2000). NASA and other agencies initiated programs such as the Atlanta Land-use Analysis: Temperature and Air Quality Project (ATLANTA) (Quattrochi et al. 1998) which aimed to identify and understand how urban heat islands impact the environment. However, a comprehensive assessment of the role of urban-induced rainfall in the global water and energy cycle (GWEC) and cycling of freshwater was not a primary focus of these efforts. NASA's Earth Science Enterprise (ESE) seeks to develop a scientific understanding of the Earth system and its response to natural or human-induced changes to enable improved prediction capability for climate, weather, and natural hazards (NASA, 2000). Within this mission, the ESE has three basic thrusts: science research to increase Earth system knowledge; an applications program to transfer science knowledge to practical use in society; and a technology program to enable new, better, and cheaper capabilities for observing the earth. Within this framework, a research program is underway to further address the co-relationship between land cover use and change (e.g. urban development) and its impact on key components of the GWEC (e.g., precipitation). This presentation discusses the feasibility of using the TRMM or GPM satellite to identify precipitation anomalies likely caused by urbanization (Shepherd et al. 2002). Recent results from analyses of TRMM data around several major U.S. cities (e.g. Dallas, Atlanta, Houston) will be discussed. The presentation also summarizes a NASA-funded research effort to investigate the phenomenon of urban-induced precipitation anomalies using TRMM (future GPM) satellite-based remote sensing, an intensive ground observation/validation effort near Atlanta, and coupled atmosphere-land numerical modeling techniques.

Shephard, J. Marshal

2002-01-01

99

Examining childhood development in contaminated urban settings.  

PubMed Central

Normal childhood development and growth is affected by such factors as genetics, nutrition, and multiple familial and social factors. In large urban settings, children are constantly exposed to varying amounts of assorted toxic chemicals both inside and outside the home. Many of these contaminants are suspected to be associated with developmental alterations. The heterogeneity of risk factors in urban populations poses a challenging situation for research. Change must be made in the manner in which developmental toxicological research is undertaken. Plans should be made for immediate data collection after a large-scale exposure to prevent the loss of valuable information. Retrospective studies would benefit from applying rapid assessment techniques to identify high- and low-risk children. In all cases, the development of research design and investigative format needs to reflect the strengths of both social factors and scientific facts. Cross-disciplinary approaches, using physicians and physical and social scientists and incorporating community knowledge, are required for the evaluation of children in urban settings, with each discipline contributing to theory and methodology.

Guillette, E A

2000-01-01

100

STORMWATER MANAGEMENT AND LOW IMPACT DEVELOPMENT PRESENTATION DESCRIPTION  

EPA Science Inventory

Low Impact Development (LID) is the general term typically used to characterize a comprehensive array of site planning, design and pollution prevention strategies that when combined create a more economically sustainable and ecologically functional urban landscape. LID uses a dec...

101

Factors Contributing to Urban Heat Island Development: A Global Perspective  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Urban heat islands (UHIs) are the result of the urban core of a city encountering temperatures that are warmer than the surrounding rural areas. Temperature in the urban core can be 2-5°C warmer during the day and as much as 10°C warmer at night compared to outlying areas. This modification of the local climate can contribute to significant health-related impacts during heat waves, increased energy consumption, a decrease in air quality, deteriorating urban ecosystems, and enhancing the thermal pollution into urban water bodies. To understand the mechanisms contributing to the formation of UHIs and to identify sound mitigation strategies requires examining the UHIs of cities around the world to look for factors that enhance or minimize the heat island effect. Numerous factors influence the strength of the UHI, and vary from city to city. Population size and density influence the magnitude and spatial extent of the UHI. The ecosystem in which the city resides affects the rural climatology. Regional weather patterns can also influence the development of UHIs, with the frequency of certain types of weather conducive to the development of strong UHIs. Local geography such as proximity to water bodies and topography can influence UHI development. Cultural and regional influences such as the use of certain types of building materials, architecture, and the density of vegetation can all contribute towards the strength of a city's UHI. To better understand how UHIs develop and to understand the factors that influence them, we have undertaken the Islands in the Sun project, which includes an analysis of the UHIs of the largest cities in the world. In this study we examine how different factors have influenced the structure of the UHI and to identify factors that can mitigate and minimize their impact. Here we present a preliminary analysis of four metropolitan areas: Minneapolis-St. Paul, Buenos Aires, Riyadh, and Jakarta. In this study we investigate how various factors define a city's UHI. The cities presented here include some of the factors that can influence the UHI signal. The magnitude, diurnal and seasonal variability of the UHI is examined in each city through temperature records and satellite imagery. The UHIs are analyzed to assess the influences of the local geography and meteorology, the ecosystem in which the city resides, and the nature of the built environment. Because the Minneapolis-St. Paul region contains numerous water bodies, special emphasis is placed on the impact of its UHI on thermal pollution.

Hertel, W.; Snyder, P. K.; Twine, T. E.

2012-12-01

102

Assessing the impact of urbanization on regional net primary productivity in Jiangyin County, China.  

PubMed

Urbanization is one of the most important aspects of global change. The process of urbanization has a significant impact on the terrestrial ecosystem carbon cycle. The Yangtze Delta region has one of the highest rates of urbanization in China. In this study, carried out in Jiangyin County as a representative region within the Yangtze Delta, land use and land cover changes were estimated using Landsat TM and ETM+ imagery. With these satellite data and the BEPS process model (Boreal Ecosystem Productivity Simulator), the impacts of urbanization on regional net primary productivity (NPP) and annual net primary production were assessed for 1991 and 2002. Landsat-based land cover maps in 1991 and 2002 showed that urban development encroached large areas of cropland and forest. Expansion of residential areas and reduction of vegetated areas were the major forms of land transformation in Jiangyin County during this period. Mean NPP of the total area decreased from 818 to 699 gCm(-2)yr(-1) during the period of 1991 to 2002. NPP of cropland was only reduced by 2.7% while forest NPP was reduced by 9.3%. Regional annual primary production decreased from 808 GgC in 1991 to 691 GgC in 2002, a reduction of 14.5%. Land cover changes reduced regional NPP directly, and the increasing intensity and frequency of human-induced disturbance in the urbanized areas could be the main reason for the decrease in forest NPP. PMID:17234324

Xu, C; Liu, M; An, S; Chen, J M; Yan, P

2007-11-01

103

Impact of Urbanization on Storm Response of White Rock Creek, Dallas, Texas.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study documents hydrological changes resulting from urbanization of the upper sub-basin of White Rock Creek watershed in Collin and Dallas counties, Texas. The 66.4 square mile watershed was transformed from 87% rural in 1961 to 95% urban in 2002, following construction of the Dallas suburbs of Richardson, Addison, Plano and Frisco. The objective of the study was to investigate changes in the storm response of White Rock Creek in terms of peak storm flow, storm flow volume and lag time. The approach employed to compare pre- and post-urbanization hydrology was to develop average unit hydrographs for each time period and use them to generate the creek's storm flow response to a set of six hypothetical precipitation events. The results suggest that substantial hydrological changes have occurred. The average infiltration capacity of the watershed was reduced by about 60%, so that storm flow was generated at lower precipitation intensities in the post-urbanization period. Storm flow peak discharge and volume were more than doubled for a hypothetical 10-year precipitation event. Average lag time was about 45 minutes faster in the post-urbanization period. It was concluded that urbanization has significantly impacted the storm response of the creek and increased the potential for flooding. It is anticipated that similar hydrological changes will occur in other rapidly urbanizing watersheds in the Dallas-Fort Worth Metropolitan region.

Williams, H.; Groening-Vicars, J.

2005-12-01

104

[Impact of urbanization on pedodiversity in Suzhou area].  

PubMed

Based on the TM remote sensing information of 1984, 1995, 2000 and 2003, this paper quantitatively analyzed the spatial-temporal dynamic changes of pedodiversity in Suzhou area under quickly growing urbanization. The results showed that in this area, clay loamy typic-hapli-stagnic anthrosol and fine sand clay loamy typic-hapli-stagnic anthrosol were the predominant soil types, but their distribution area decreased 5.11% and 3.14%, respectively, in latest 20 years. Jinchang, Pingjiang and Canglang Districts were the focuses of urbanization in Suzhou area, where pedodiversity changed furiously. During 1984 approximately 2003, more than 90% of the clay loamy typic-hapli-stagni gleyosol in Pingjiang District and sandy calcaric-mottlic-udi-orthic primosol in Taicang City were almost disappeared, and changed into residential area. Statistical analysis showed that urbanization had a significant impact on pedodiversity, and was the prime driving force on the pedodiversity in Suzhou area. PMID:16471339

Sun, Yanci; Zhang, Xuelei; Chen, Jie

2005-11-01

105

Development of the multi-scale model for urban climate analysis and evaluation of urban greening effects on energy consumption  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is necessary to reduce Greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions drastically to stabilize climate change, and Japan is also required to assess its long-term global warming policy. In achieving the low carbon society and sustainable cities, the numerical evaluation of environmental impacts of the application of different technologies and policies was preliminarily examined by utilizing integrative urban environmental model. This research aims to develop the multi-scale model for urban climate analysis and to evaluate the urban greening effects on energy consumption from household and business sectors. It developed the multi-scale model combined the process-based NIES integrated catchment-based eco-hydrology (NICE) model with the meso-scale meteorological model (Regional Atmospheric Modeling System : RAMS) and urban canopy model to estimate the urban climate mitigation effects by introduction of urban heat environmental mitigation technology and scenario. The numerical simulation conducted with the multi-scale level horizontally consisting regional scale (260×260km with 2km grid) and urban area scale (36×26km with 0.2km grid) against the objective area, Kawasaki city of Japan. The urban canopy model predicts the three dimensional atmospheric conditions including anthropogenic heat effect from household, business and factory sectors. Furthermore the tile method applied into the urban canopy model for the improvement of numerical accuracy and detailed land use information in each grid. The validation of this model was conducted by comparison with the observed air temperature of 29 points in entire Kawasaki area from 1st to 31th of August, 2006. From the quantitative validation of model performance, the coefficient of correlation was 0.72 and the root mean square error was 2.99C. The introduction of patch method into urban canopy model made it possible to calculate the each land use effect, and the accuracy of predicted results was improved against the land use area consisting of mixing urban and natural land covers. The urban greening effect was estimated by comparison with the vertical air temperature difference to derive air-conditioning load change against each building between present condition and urban greening condition. By using this model, it estimated that about 14 MWh/day and 197MWh/day of air conditioning energy consumption energy for the household and business sectors without the effect of building inner load were reduced by introducing the greening regulation of Kawasaki city and ideal maximum greening area during August 2006.

Hamano, H.; Nakayama, T.; Fujita, T.; Hori, H.; Tagami, H.

2009-12-01

106

Introduction: population migration and urbanization in developing countries.  

PubMed

This introductory article discusses the correlation between migration and rapid urbanization and growth in the largest cities of the developing world. The topics include the characteristics of urbanization, government policies toward population migration, the change in absolute size of the rural population, and the problems of maintaining megacities. Other articles in this special issue are devoted to urbanization patterns in China, South Africa, Iran, Korea and Taiwan as newly industrialized economies (NIEs), informal sectors in the Philippines and Thailand, and low-income settlements in Bogota, Colombia, and India. It is argued that increased urbanization is produced by natural population growth, the expansion of the urban administrative area, and the in-migration from rural areas. A comparison of urbanization rates of countries by per capita gross national product (GNP) reveals that countries with per capita GNP of under US$2000 have urbanization rates of 10-60%. Rates are under 30% in Africa, the Middle East, South Asia, China, and Indonesia. Rapid urbanization appears to follow the economic growth curve. The rate of urbanization in Latin America is high enough to be comparable to urbanization in Europe and the US. Taiwan and Korea have high rates of urbanization that surpass the rate of industrialization. Thailand and Malaysia have low rates of urbanization compared to the size of their per capita GNP. Urbanization rates under 20% occur in countries without economic development. Rates between 20% and 50% occur in countries with or without industrialization. East Asian urbanization is progressing along with industrialization. Africa and the Middle East have urbanization without industrialization. In 1990 there were 20 developing countries and 5 developed countries with populations over 5 million. In 10 of 87 developing countries rural population declined in absolute size. The author identifies and discusses four patterns of urban growth. PMID:12292278

Kojima, R

1996-12-01

107

Urban impacts on regional carbonaceous aerosols: investigation of seasonal urban outflow impacts using trajectory analysis, OCEC and absorption parameters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is of high interest to determine the impact of large urban centers on regional aerosol. However, it is difficult to ascertain impact using only chemical or meteorological data. A combination of techniques would enable more accurate assessment of the frequency, magnitude and character of the urban outflow at a background site. The study site is centralized in Texas, and is regularly 12-24h downwind of either the Dallas-Fort Worth metropolitan area (4.2 million) or the Houston metropolitan area (4 million). Back trajectory analysis (BT), chemical characterization (organic and elemental carbon - OCEC), mass absorption cross-section (MAC) and the light attenuation coefficient (ATN) will be presented for a yearlong sampling campaign (May 2011-Apr 2012). Correlations among these factors (BTs, OCEC, MAC and ATN) will be used to begin to assess urban outflow from these two metropolitan centers on the regional receptor site. Seasonal differences in the OCEC, MAC and ATN transported from these urban centers will be explored in greater detail during a summer and winter intensive. Preliminary data (May-Nov 2011) indicates EC to OC ratio of 0.015 with an r2 = 0.75. Summer drought conditions in 2011 resulted in stable air mass movement in the region, with consistent southerly winds and high potential for Houston outflow impacts. Conclusions will be supported with gaseous pollutant data from local monitoring sites including ozone, NOx and CO.

Sheesley, R. J.; Barrett, T. E.; Andersson, A.

2012-04-01

108

Social Justice, Integrated Development Planning and Post apartheid Urban Reconstruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper focuses on the intersection between South African urban reconstruction and the development of social justice debates in urban geography. Drawing on the distributive choices displayed in post apartheid urban planning strategies the paper sketches the general contours of a contemporary understanding of social justice. It is argued that the structuralist and post-structuralist debates that dominate geographical social justice

Gustav Visser

2001-01-01

109

Impact of Urban Growth on Surface Climate: A Case Study in Oran, Algeria  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We develop a land use map discriminating urban surfaces from other cover types over a semiarid region in North Africa and use it in a land surface model to assess the impact of urbanized land on surface energy, water and carbon balances. Unlike in temperate climates where urbanization creates a marked heat island effect, this effect is not strongly marked in semiarid regions. During summer, the urban class results in an additional warming of 1.45 C during daytime and 0.81 C at night compared to that simulated for needleleaf trees under similar climate conditions. Seasonal temperatures show urban areas warmer than their surrounding during summer and slightly cooler in winter. The hydrological cycle is practically "shut down" during summer and characterized by relatively large amount of runoff in winter. We estimate the annual amount of carbon uptake to 1.94 million metric tons with only 11.9% assimilated during the rainy season. However, if urbanization expands to reach 50% of the total area excluding forests, the annual total carbon uptake will decline by 35% and the July mean temperature would increase only 0.10 C, compared to current situation. In contrast, if urbanization expands to 50% of the total land excluding forests and croplands but all short vegetation is replaced by native broadleaf deciduous trees, the annual carbon uptake would increase 39% and the July mean temperature would decrease by 0.9 C, compared to current configuration. These results provide guidelines for urban planners and land use managers and indicate possibilities for mitigating the urban heat.

Bounoua, Lahouari; Safia, Abdelmounaine; Masek, Jeffrey; Peters-Lidars, Christaq; Imhoff, Marc L.

2008-01-01

110

Impact of Urbanization and Climate Change on Aquifer Thermal Regimes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We evaluated the past impacts of urbanization and climate change on groundwater—in particular, aquifer temperature—in the\\u000a Sendai plain, Japan, and further compared with the probable changes due to changing climate in the future. A series of simulations\\u000a were performed and matched with the observed temperature-depth profiles as a preliminary step for parameter calibration. The\\u000a magnitude of ground surface warming estimated

Luminda Niroshana Gunawardhana; So Kazama; Saeki Kawagoe

111

Urban Public Finance in Developing Countries.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Foreword; Acknowledgments; Data Sources and Definitions; Introduction: Why Study Urban Public Finance; Part I A Framework for Analysis; Part II Local Government Taxes; Part III User Charges for Urban Services; Part IV Intergovernmental Fiscal Re...

R. W. Bahl J. F. Linn

1992-01-01

112

Impact of urbanization on water quality and chemical flux in urban streams: implications for management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Contaminant source and biogeochemical processes are altered in urban ecosystems. Given the high impervious cover and altered hydrologic cycle, contaminant mobilization is particularly important during high discharge events. Many urban systems not only receive contaminant loading from stormwater, but also receive sewage contributions from combined sewer overflows (CSOs). Additionally, biogeochemical processes are altered by the changing chemistry and flashier hydrology. Management of contaminant loading often ignores these temporal shifts in speciation as well as the alteration of fate processes within the receiving water body, further compounding the difficult and challenging problem that many municipalities face of assessing ecological impacts. To assess potential changes in loading and chemical speciation we have collected stream water and sediment samples in the Park River sewershed (Hartford, CT) during base flow and events to assess potential for contaminant loading and mobilization. Six events have been collected to date. Trace metal, TSS and DOC concentrations increased with discharge. However, trace metal concentrations and flux values reflected the degree of urbanization and industry present in the watersheds. All samples contained low DOC with the majority of the flux occurring in the particulate phase. Dissolved transport with DOC, particularly for Hg, decreased with urbanization; however, the dominant phase, dissolved versus particulate, varied by storm. The degree of urbanization also increased TN flux as well as the distribution among N chemical species, with urbanized systems increasing in the NOx fraction. The altered watershed processes was also evident in an analysis of dissolved organic matter binding, with stormwater contributions contributing to higher microbial organic matter fractions as determined by EEMs. This shift in DOM quality has been linked to end member source contributions including forest, stormwater and sewage. Particulate fraction collection and analysis during the events have demonstrated the influence of impervious cover on increasing trace metal and mercury flux. However, the association of these metals with these solids compared with forested binding remains uncertain.

Bushey, J. T.; Aragon-jose, A. T.; Perkins, C.; Lancaster, N.; Ulatowski, G.

2012-12-01

113

Nested High Resolution Modeling of the Impact of Urbanization on Regional Climate in Three Vast Urban Agglomerations in China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model coupled to the Urban Canopy Model (UCM) is employed to simulate the impact of urbanization on the regional climate over three vast city agglomerations in China. Based on high resolution land use and land cover data, two scenarios are designed to represent the non-urban and current urban land use distributions. By comparing the results of two nested, high resolution numerical experiments, the spatial and temporal changes on surface air temperature, heat stress index, surface energy budget and precipitation due to urbanization are analyzed and quantified. Urban expansion increases the surface air temperature in urban areas by about 1? and this climatic forcing of urbanization on temperature is more pronounced in summer and nighttime than other seasons and daytime. The heat stress intensity, which reflects the combined effects of temperature and humidity, is enhanced by about 0.5 units in urban areas. The regional incoming solar radiation increases after urban expansion, which may be caused by the reduction of cloud fraction. The increased temperature and roughness of the urban surface lead to enhanced convergence. Meanwhile, the planetary boundary layer is deepened and water vapor is mixed more evenly in the lower atmosphere. The deficit of water vapor leads to less convective available potential energy and more convective inhibition energy. Finally, these combined effects may reduce the rainfall amount over urban area mainly in summer and change the regional precipitation pattern to a certain extent.

Wang, Jun; Feng, Jinming; Yan, Zhongwei; Hu, Yonghong; Jia, Gensuo

2013-04-01

114

Research on the impact assessment of urbanization on air environment with urban environmental entropy model: a case study  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new concept of urban environmental entropy was introduced to investigate the effect of urbanization on air environment considering\\u000a the fact that rapid development of urbanization may have negative influence on the whole air environment system. The urban\\u000a environmental entropies which were built based on the generalized thermodynamic entropy and the generalized statistic entropy,\\u000a respectively. These two entropy models have

Qingsong Wang; Xueliang Yuan; Chunyuan Ma; Zhen Zhang; Jian Zuo

115

Central cogeneration and urban industrial development  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses the goals and results of Chicago's ongoing industrial cogeneration project. One of the objectives of the DOE-sponsored ''Urban Industrial Cogeneration Systems Analysis'' is to determine whether cogeneration can help to preserve existing industry and spur new development in Chicago. Topics considered include the scope of the project, selecting and evaluating suitable sites, technology assessment of cogeneration and alternative fuels in Chicago, and ongoing studies. The criteria for site selection included factors describing various measures of energy consumption, types of facilities located at the site, the amount of vacant land available, the existence of geographical barriers, the accessibility of the site to major transportation thoroughfares, and plans for industrial, commercial or other public development in the area.

Savage, L.A.; Gallagher, P.

1983-01-01

116

Urban growth and environmental impacts in Jing-Jin-Ji, the Yangtze, River Delta and the Pearl River Delta  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study investigates land cover changes, magnitude and speed of urbanization and evaluates possible impacts on the environment by the concepts of landscape metrics and ecosystem services in China's three largest and most important urban agglomerations: Jing-Jin-Ji, the Yangtze River Delta and the Pearl River Delta. Based on the classifications of six Landsat TM and HJ-1A/B remotely sensed space-borne optical satellite image mosaics with a superior random forest decision tree ensemble classifier, a total increase in urban land of about 28,000 km2 could be detected alongside a simultaneous decrease in natural land cover classes and cropland. Two urbanization indices describing both speed and magnitude of urbanization were derived and ecosystem services were calculated with a valuation scheme adapted to the Chinese market based on the classification results from 1990 and 2010 for the predominant land cover classes affected by urbanization: forest, cropland, wetlands, water and aquaculture. The speed and relative urban growth in Jing-Jin-Ji was highest, followed by the Yangtze River Delta and Pearl River Delta, resulting in a continuously fragmented landscape and substantial decreases in ecosystem service values of approximately 18.5 billion CNY with coastal wetlands and agriculture being the largest contributors. The results indicate both similarities and differences in urban–regional development trends implicating adverse effects on the natural and rural landscape, not only in the rural–urban fringe, but also in the cities' important hinterlands as a result of rapid urbanization in China.

Haas, Jan; Ban, Yifang

2014-08-01

117

RIVER QUALITY MODEL FOR URBAN STORMWATER IMPACTS  

EPA Science Inventory

A simplified continuous receiving water quality model has been developed as a planning guide to permit preliminary screening of areawide wastewater management strategies. The model simulates the hypothetical response of the stream or tidal river system to the separate and combine...

118

Nested high-resolution modeling of the impact of urbanization on regional climate in three vast urban agglomerations in China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, the Weather Research and Forecasting Model, coupled to the Urban Canopy Model, is employed to simulate the impact of urbanization on the regional climate over three vast city agglomerations in China. Based on high-resolution land use and land cover data, two scenarios are designed to represent the nonurban and current urban land use distributions. By comparing the results of two nested, high-resolution numerical experiments, the spatial and temporal changes on surface air temperature, heat stress index, surface energy budget, and precipitation due to urbanization are analyzed and quantified. Urban expansion increases the surface air temperature in urban areas by about 1°C, and this climatic forcing of urbanization on temperature is more pronounced in summer and nighttime than other seasons and daytime. The heat stress intensity, which reflects the combined effects of temperature and humidity, is enhanced by about 0.5 units in urban areas. The regional incoming solar radiation increases after urban expansion, which may be caused by the reduction of cloud fraction. The increased temperature and roughness of the urban surface lead to enhanced convergence. Meanwhile, the planetary boundary layer is deepened, and water vapor is mixed more evenly in the lower atmosphere. The deficit of water vapor leads to less convective available potential energy and more convective inhibition energy. Finally, these combined effects may reduce the rainfall amount over urban areas, mainly in summer, and change the regional precipitation pattern to a certain extent.

Wang, Jun; Feng, Jinming; Yan, Zhongwei; Hu, Yonghong; Jia, Gensuo

2011-11-01

119

Nested high-resolution modeling of the impact of urbanization on regional climate in three vast urban agglomerations in China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, the Weather Research and Forecasting Model, coupled to the Urban Canopy Model, is employed to simulate the impact of urbanization on the regional climate over three vast city agglomerations in China. Based on high-resolution land use and land cover data, two scenarios are designed to represent the nonurban and current urban land use distributions. By comparing the results of two nested, high-resolution numerical experiments, the spatial and temporal changes on surface air temperature, heat stress index, surface energy budget, and precipitation due to urbanization are analyzed and quantified. Urban expansion increases the surface air temperature in urban areas by about 1°C, and this climatic forcing of urbanization on temperature is more pronounced in summer and nighttime than other seasons and daytime. The heat stress intensity, which reflects the combined effects of temperature and humidity, is enhanced by about 0.5 units in urban areas. The regional incoming solar radiation increases after urban expansion, which may be caused by the reduction of cloud fraction. The increased temperature and roughness of the urban surface lead to enhanced convergence. Meanwhile, the planetary boundary layer is deepened, and water vapor is mixed more evenly in the lower atmosphere. The deficit of water vapor leads to less convective available potential energy and more convective inhibition energy. Finally, these combined effects may reduce the rainfall amount over urban areas, mainly in summer, and change the regional precipitation pattern to a certain extent.

Wang, Jun; Feng, Jinming; Yan, Zhongwei; Hu, Yonghong; Jia, Gensuo

2012-11-01

120

Regional assessment of urban impacts on landcover and open space finds a smart urban growth policy performs little better than business as usual.  

PubMed

Assessment of landscape change is critical for attainment of regional sustainability goals. Urban growth assessments are needed because over half the global population now lives in cities, which impact biodiversity, ecosystem structure and ecological processes. Open space protection is needed to preserve these attributes, and provide the resources humans need. The San Francisco Bay Area, California, is challenged to accommodate a population increase of 3.07 million while maintaining the region's ecosystems and biodiversity. Our analysis of 9275 km² in the Bay Area links historic trends for three measures: urban growth, protected open space, and landcover types over the last 70 years to future 2050 projections of urban growth and open space. Protected open space totaled 348 km² (3.7% of the area) in 1940, and expanded to 2221 km² (20.2%) currently. An additional 1038 km² of protected open space is targeted (35.1%). Urban area historically increased from 396.5 km² to 2239 km² (24.1% of the area). Urban growth during this time mostly occurred at the expense of agricultural landscapes (62.9%) rather than natural vegetation. Smart Growth development has been advanced as a preferred alternative in many planning circles, but we found that it conserved only marginally more open space than Business-as-usual when using an urban growth model to portray policies for future urban growth. Scenarios to 2050 suggest urban development on non-urban lands of 1091, 956, or 179 km², under Business-as-usual, Smart Growth and Infill policy growth scenarios, respectively. The Smart Growth policy converts 88% of natural lands and agriculture used by Business-as-usual, while Infill used only 40% of those lands. Given the historic rate of urban growth, 0.25%/year, and limited space available, the Infill scenario is recommended. While the data may differ, the use of an historic and future framework to track these three variables can be easily applied to other metropolitan areas. PMID:23755204

Thorne, James H; Santos, Maria J; Bjorkman, Jacquelyn H

2013-01-01

121

Crossing-scale hydrological impacts of urbanization and climate variability in the Greater Chicago Area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper uses past hydrological records in Northeastern Illinois to disentangle the combined effects of urban development and climatic variability at different spatial scales in the Greater Chicago Area. A step increase in annual precipitation occurred in Northeastern Illinois during 1965-1972 according to climate records. Urbanization has occurred as a gradual process over the entire Greater Chicago Area, both before and after the abrupt annual precipitation increase. The analysis of streamflow trends at each gaging station is supplemented by the comparison of the evolution of streamflow indicators in a group of urban and agricultural watersheds, thanks to an original use of the Mann-Whitney test. Results suggest that urban expansion in the Greater Chicago Area has led to widespread increases in a wide variety of streamflow metrics, with the exceptions being spring flows and some of the peak flow indicators. The increases detected in small (<100 km2) urban watersheds are mitigated in large (>200 km2) ones, over which the changes in streamflow are relatively homogeneous. While the impacts of land-use change are identified across a wide range of flow indicators and spatial scales, there are indications that some of these effects are mitigated or made negligible by other factors. For example, while impervious surfaces are found to increase flooding, stormwater management facilities, an adaptation to increased flooding, mitigate their impacts at a wide range of scales. While impervious surfaces are known to reduce infiltration and baseflow, a low flow increase was triggered by water withdrawals from Lake Michigan, as a response to a rising water demand which made on-site groundwater extraction unsustainable. Our analysis thus highlights the impacts of adaptive planning and management of water resources on urban hydrology.

Rougé, Charles; Cai, Ximing

2014-09-01

122

Quenching Urban Thirst: Growing Cities and Their Impacts on Freshwater Ecosystems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This peer-reviewed article from Bioscience journal is on the impacts of urban development on freshwater ecosystems. The development of water resources to satisfy urban water needs has had serious impacts on freshwater ecosystem integrity and on valuable ecosystem services, but positive trends are emerging that point the way toward a solution. We demonstrate this through case studies of water resource development in and around five large urban areas: Los Angeles, Phoenix, New York, San Antonio, and Atlanta. Providing freshwater ecosystems with the water flows necessary to sustain their health, while meeting the other challenges of urban water management, will require greatly increased water productivity in conjunction with improvements in the degree to which planning and management take ecosystem needs into account. There is great potential for improvement in both these areas, but ultimately water planners will also need to set limits on human alterations to river flows in many basins in order to spur greater water productivity and protect ecosystem water allocations before water supplies become overtaxed.

THOMAS W. FITZHUGH and BRIAN D. RICHTER (;)

2004-08-01

123

Spatiotemporal trends of terrestrial vegetation activity along the urban development intensity gradient in China's 32 major cities.  

PubMed

Terrestrial vegetation plays many pivotal roles in urban systems. However, the impacts of urbanization on vegetation are poorly understood. Here we examined the spatiotemporal trends of the vegetation activity measured by MODIS Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) along Urban Development Intensity (UDI) gradient in 32 major Chinese cities from 2000 to 2012. We also proposed to use a new set of concepts (i.e., actual, theoretical, and positive urbanization effects) to better understand and quantify the impacts of urbanization on vegetation activities. Results showed that the EVI decreased significantly along a rising UDI for 28 of 32 cities (p<0.05) in linear, convex or concave form, signifying the urbanization impacts on vegetation varied across cities and UDI zones within a city. Further, the actual urbanization effects were much weaker than the theoretical estimates because of the offsetting positive effects generated by multiple urban environmental and anthropogenic factors. Examining the relative changes of EVI in various UDI zones against that in the rural area (?EVI), which effectively removed the effects of climate variability, demonstrated that ?EVI decreased markedly from 2000 to 2012 for about three-quarters of the cities in the exurban (0.05urban (0.5urban core (0.75urban and urban core of many cities could primarily be attributed to the importance of positive effects derived from the urban environment and the improvement of management and maintenance of urban green space. More work is needed to quantify mechanistically the detailed negative and positive effects of urban environmental factors and management practices on vegetation activities. PMID:24829041

Zhou, Decheng; Zhao, Shuqing; Liu, Shuguang; Zhang, Liangxia

2014-08-01

124

NATIONWIDE ASSESSMENT OF RECEIVING WATER IMPACTS FROM URBAN STORMWATER POLLUTION. VOLUME I: SUMMARY  

EPA Science Inventory

Results of this nationwide search for documented case studies of impacts of urban runoff on receiving waters indicate that well-documented cases are scarce. Impacts previously attributed to urban stormwater runoff may be point source impacts in disguise, or they may be masked by ...

125

Development of a model for urban heat island prediction using neural network techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

The urban heat island (UHI) phenomenon is mainly caused by the differences in the thermal behaviour between urban and rural settlements that are associated with the thermal properties of urban materials, urban geometry, air pollution, and the anthropogenic heat released by the urban activities. The UHI has a serious impact on the energy consumption of buildings, increases smog production, while

K. Gobakis; D. Kolokotsa; A. Synnefa; M. Saliari; K. Giannopoulou; M. Santamouris

2011-01-01

126

A spatially extensive, 25-year time series of urbanization impacts on stream chemistry and biological response  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the past quarter-century, urban expansion has posed an increasingly serious threat to freshwater systems, yet most studies investigating urban impacts rely on space-for-time analysis to characterize chemical and biological responses or infer causal mechanisms. Despite a well-articulated rationale, such inference is often confounded by inability to separate gradients of urbanization from strong spatial covariates and historical legacies. Temporal analysis of monitoring can control for these covariates, but continuous urbanization data have been lacking. Thus, we know relatively little about the chemical and biological trajectories of streams during urbanization, from which to derive expectations following mitigation. We used a newly developed 25-y annual time series of 30m impervious cover (IC) encompassing the DC-Baltimore metropolitan corridor to relate urbanization patterns to long-term stream biota and water quality monitoring data in 50 watersheds from Maryland's core/trend program. We assessed seasonal chemical data (3 month average) for trends in magnitude and variation, as well as the frequency of extreme values. Stream macroinvertebrates were analyzed for taxon-specific changes in abundance and/or occurrence frequency using Threshold Indicator Taxon Analysis (TITAN), and change points were compared with shifts in both impervious surface and stream chemistry. At surprisingly low (0-3% IC) levels of watershed urbanization, we noted marked increases in measures of fall and winter dissolved material and pulses of alkalinity corresponding with increases in impervious cover. At moderate (3-8% IC) levels, we found continued correspondence between increasing impervious cover and both dissolved material and alkalinity in all seasons, and marked changes in macroinvertebrate community composition. Changes in macroinvertebrates appeared more closely associated with pulses of development than changes in monthly water chemistry. However, at higher levels of urbanization (>8% IC), levels of dissolved material and alkalinity stabilized at levels chronically stressful for many sensitive taxa, and often exhibited acute pulses followed by increases in tolerant taxa. Observed temporal changes corroborated some, but not all, differences obtained via more recent space-for-time analysis in the same region. This analysis represents an important step toward more comprehensive understanding of impacts of urbanization on freshwater systems enabled by widespread and long-term stream monitoring programs.

Baker, M. E.; Schley, M. L.; Martin, H. M.; Sexton, J. O.

2011-12-01

127

Examining Urban Students' Constructions of a STEM/Career Development Intervention over Time  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using consensual qualitative research, the study examines urban high school students' reactions to a science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) enrichment/career development program, their resources and barriers, their perspectives on the impact of race and gender on their career development, and their overall views of work and their…

Blustein, David L.; Barnett, Michael; Mark, Sheron; Depot, Mark; Lovering, Meghan; Lee, Youjin; Hu, Qin; Kim, James; Backus, Faedra; Dillon-Lieberman, Kristin; DeBay, Dennis

2013-01-01

128

Agro-tourism enterprises as a form of multi-functional urban agriculture for peri-urban development in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The peri-urban area of fast growing Chinese cities is under great pressure from the land demands of urban expansion, resulting in the loss of arable land, environmental deterioration and social exclusion of village communities. The recent development of agro-tourism enterprises in peri-urban areas, as a form of commercial urban agriculture, offers a means to promote integrated urban and rural development

Zhenshan Yang; Jianming Cai; Richard Sliuzas

2010-01-01

129

76 FR 12788 - Environmental Impact Statement for a Proposed Urban Rail system in Austin, TX  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Environmental Impact Statement for a Proposed Urban Rail system in Austin, TX AGENCY: Federal...Statement (EIS) for the proposed Urban Rail system in Austin, Texas. The EIS will...described more completely within, is an Urban Rail System, similar to Streetcar, that...

2011-03-08

130

Impact of climate change on runoff pollution in urban environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Runoff from urban environments is generally contaminated. These contaminants mostly originate from road traffic and building envelopes. Facade envelopes generate lead, zinc and even biocides, which are used for facade protection. Road traffic produces particles from tires and brakes. The transport of these pollutants to the environment is controlled by rainfall. The interval, duration and intensity of rainfall events are important as the dynamics of the pollutants are often modeled with non-linear buildup/washoff functions. Buildup occurs during dry weather when pollution accumulates, and is subsequently washed-off at the time of the following rainfall, contaminating surface runoff. Climate predictions include modified rainfall distributions, with changes in both number and intensity of events, even if the expected annual rainfall varies little. Consequently, pollutant concentrations in urban runoff driven by buildup/washoff processes will be affected by these changes in rainfall distributions. We investigated to what extent modifications in future rainfall distributions will impact the concentrations of pollutants present in urban surface runoff. The study used the example of Lausanne, Switzerland (temperate climate zone). Three emission scenarios (time horizon 2090), multiple combinations of RCM/GCM and modifications in rain event frequency were used to simulate future rainfall distributions with various characteristics. Simulated rainfall events were used as inputs for four pairs of buildup/washoff models, in order to compare future pollution concentrations in surface runoff. In this way, uncertainty in model structure was also investigated. Future concentrations were estimated to be between ±40% of today's concentrations depending on the season and, importantly, on the choice of the RCM/GCM model. Overall, however, the dominant factor was the uncertainty inherent in buildup/washoff models, which dominated over the uncertainty in future rainfall distributions. Consequently, the choice of a proper buildup/washoff model, with calibrated site-specific coefficients, is a major factor in modeling future runoff concentrations from contaminated urban surfaces.

Coutu, S.; Kramer, S.; Barry, D. A.; Roudier, P.

2012-12-01

131

A Sensitivity Model (SM) approach to analyze urban development in Taiwan based on sustainability indicators  

SciTech Connect

Sustainability indicators have been widely developed to monitor and assess sustainable development. They are expected to guide political decision-making based on their capability to represent states and trends of development. However, using indicators to assess the sustainability of urban strategies and policies has limitations - as they neither reflect the systemic interactions among them, nor provide normative indications in what direction they should be developed. This paper uses a semi-quantitative systematic model tool (Sensitivity Model Tools, SM) to analyze the role of urban development in Taiwan's sustainability. The results indicate that the natural environment in urban area is one of the most critical components and the urban economic production plays a highly active role in affecting Taiwan's sustainable development. The semi-quantitative simulation model integrates sustainability indicators and urban development policy to provide decision-makers with information about the impacts of their decisions on urban development. The system approach incorporated by this paper can be seen as a necessary, but not sufficient, condition for a sustainability assessment. The participatory process of expert participants for providing judgments on the relations between indicator variables is also discussed.

Huang Shuli [Graduate Institute of Urban Planning, National Taipei University, Taipei, 104 Taiwan (China)], E-mail: shuli@mail.ntpu.edu.tw; Yeh Chiatsung [Graduate Institute of Urban Planning, National Taipei University, Taipei, 104 Taiwan (China)], E-mail: alexyeh@url.com.tw; Budd, William W. [Division of Governmental Studies and Services, Washington State University, PO Box 644870, Troy Hall 310, Pullman, WA 99164-4870 (United States)], E-mail: budd@wsu.edu; Chen Liling [Department of Private Participation in Infrastructures, CECI Engineering Consultants, Inc. Taipei, 106 Taiwan (China)], E-mail: lily@ceci.com.tw

2009-02-15

132

Research for High-Quality Urban Teaching: Defining It, Developing It, Assessing It.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the need to increase urban teacher supply and address urban teacher turnover by learning what makes teaching in urban schools fulfilling and offering related policy solutions. The paper looks at defining urban teacher quality, understanding urban teacher learning, developing processes and structures that support urban teacher learning,…

Oakes, Jeannie; Franke, Megan Loef; Quartz, Karen Hunter; Rogers, John

2002-01-01

133

The Integrated WRF/Urban Modeling System: Development, Evaluation, and Applications to Urban Environmental Problems  

EPA Science Inventory

To bridge the gaps between traditional mesoscale modelling and microscale modelling, the National Center for Atmospheric Research, in collaboration with other agencies and research groups, has developed an integrated urban modelling system coupled to the weather research and fore...

134

Impacts of urbanization on the hazard, vulnerability and risk of pluvial disaster  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The design capacity of an urban drainage system is often smaller than that of a fluvial protection facility such as levee. Many metropolises located in lowlands suffer pluvial inundation disaster more than pluvial flood disaster. For improving mitigation strategies, flood risk assessment is an important tool of non-structure flood control measures, especially in the countries suffering tropical cyclones and monsoon with high frequency. Locating in the hot zone of typhoon tracks in the Western Pacific, Taiwan suffers three to five typhoons annually. As results of urbanization in Taiwan, heavy rainfalls cause inundation disaster rising with the increase of population and the demand of land development. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the impacts of urbanization on the hazard, vulnerability and risk of pluvial disaster. This study applies the concept that risk is composed by hazard and vulnerability to assess the flood risk of human life. Two-dimensional overland-flow simulation is performed based on a design extreme rainfall event to calculate the score of pluvial hazard factors for human life, including flood depth, velocity and rising ratio. The score of pluvial vulnerability for human life is carried out according to the factors of resident and environment. The risk matrix is applied to show the risk by composing the inundation hazards and vulnerabilities. Additionally, flood simulations performed are concerned with different stages of drainage channel construction that indicates the progress of the pluvial disaster mitigation for evaluating the impacts of urbanization on inundation hazard. The changes of land use and density of population are concerned with the impacts of urbanization on inundation vulnerability. The Tainan City, one of the earliest cities on Taiwan, is selected as the case study because serious flooding was induced by Typhoon Morakot in 2009. Typhoon Morakot carried intense rain moved from the east slowly as low as 4 km/hr while the southwest monsoon also entered this region at the same time. The combined effect of these was that in the mid-area between typhoon and southwest monsoon, a sharp air-pressure gradient was built which unpredictably brought about heavy rainfall for about 72 hours in the study area to produce a record-breaking rainfall of 625mm in 48 hours. Through the assessing the impacts of urbanization on pluvial inundation risk of the Tainan City in the Typhoon Morakot event, the results show that the inundation hazard is decreased and the vulnerability is increased due to urbanization. Finally, the pluvial inundation risk maps for human life can provide useful information for setting mitigation strategies of flood inundation.

Pan, T.-Y.; Chang, T.-J.; Lai, J.-S.; Chang, H.-K.

2012-04-01

135

Citizen Participation in Urban Development. Volume 2. Cases and Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The successor to a volume on concepts and issues in urban citizen participation, this work documents selected patterns of participation, issues that trigger participation (school decentralization, housing needs, a proposed highway, and other crisis situations), and outside assistance as embodied in urban planning advocates, community development

Spiegel, Hans B.C., Ed.

136

Prioritizing Urban Children, Teachers, and Schools through Professional Development Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

How can we better educate disadvantaged urban students? Drawing on over five years' experience in a broad partnership involving twelve urban professional development schools in five districts, a teachers' union, a comprehensive public university, and several community-based organizations, the contributors to this volume describe how they worked…

Wong, Pia Lindquist, Ed.; Glass, Ronald David, Ed.

2009-01-01

137

Continued Effort and Success: An Urban Professional School Development Program  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The PDS partnership between the Cleveland State University Master of Urban Secondary Teaching (MUST) program and the Cleveland School of Science and Medicine (CSSM) has an established history of preparing educators to teach in urban schools. Recently awarded the NAPDS Award for Exemplary Professional Development School Achievement, this…

Corrigan, Diane G.; Weber, Edward J.; Francis, Kiffany

2013-01-01

138

Two on Planning and Development: Low Impact Development Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These two sites should be useful for urban planners or anyone interested in the issues surrounding development and "sprawl." This second site is home to the Low Impact Development Center (LID), a nonprofit organization dedicated to "research, development and training for water resource and natural resource protection issues" relating to development. Users can download .pdf documents, including information on pilot projects and a LID lit review. The links section of the site is particularly useful as it gives annotated links for a wide range of LID-related sites.

2001-01-01

139

Cities Online: Urban Development and the Internet  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These two reports focus on the role the Internet is playing in the mission of US institutions. The first, from Darrell M. West, Brown University, updates his report for 2000 (discussed in the September 22, 2000 Scout Report) on the electronic delivery of government information and services. The 23-page report looks at the functionality and accessibility of state and government Websites, progress made from last year, and differences among the states. In general, the project found that e-government has made progress in the past year, but privacy, security, and accessibility are still troubled areas. The second report, from the Pew Internet Project (PIP), focuses more closely on community development organizations and their relationship to the Internet. PIP looks at five cities -- Austin, Texas; Cleveland, Ohio; Nashville, Tennessee; Portland, Oregon; and Washington, DC -- and the ways that institutions in these cities are using the Internet to accomplish their goals. In particular, "this research asks whether the Internet is serving as a catalyst to change the 'rules of the game' that shape social capital -- the informal norms and customs that grease the wheels of urban life." Users may download the 66-page report in .pdf format or read it online.

2001-01-01

140

ECOLOGICAL SUSTAINABILITY IN RAPIDLY URBANIZING WATERSHEDS: EVALUATING STRATEGIES DESIGNED TO MITIGATE IMPACTS ON STREAM ECOSYSTEMS  

EPA Science Inventory

Urbanization has profound impacts on the hydrology and ecology of streams via alteration in water temperatures, peak and base flows, and nutrient, sediment, and contaminant inputs. Storm water management (SWM) is commonly used to reduce these impacts; however, comprehensive w...

141

The impact of urban land expansion on soil quality in rapidly urbanizing regions in China: Kunshan as a case study  

Microsoft Academic Search

At a stage of rapid economic development and urbanization in China, most cities are faced with serious problems caused by\\u000a environment deterioration such as pollution, space press, afforestation degradation, and disordering. Kunshan City, one of\\u000a the most economically vigorous regions in China, has suffered a more prominent conflict between urbanization and environmental\\u000a safety. In this paper, urban land expansion in

Jian Zhang; Lijie Pu; Buzhuo Peng; Zhonggui Gao

2011-01-01

142

The impacts of urban landscape pattern on urban land surface temperature: —Taking Urumqi as an Example  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urbanization has become an important contributor for global warming and urban air temperature is rising gradually in all the cities. It means that urban land use and land cover (LULC) changed became critical in determining the urban environment quality. This paper presents an integrated study to investigate and identify landscape pattern which have the influence to increase of land surface

Wang Shanshan; Chen Xi; Bao An-ming; Alishir Kurban

2009-01-01

143

Urban Impact Assessment and Adaptation Strategies to Climate Change in Europe: A Case Study for Antwerp, Berlin and Almada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate change is driven by global processes such as the global ocean circulation and its variability over time leading to changing weather patterns on regional scales as well as changes in the severity and occurrence of extreme events such as heat waves. For example, the summer 2003 European heat wave caused up to 70.000 excess deaths over four months in Central and Western Europe. As around 75% of Europe's population resides in urban areas, it is of particular relevance to examine the impact of seasonal to decadal-scale climate variability on urban areas and their populations. This study aims at downscaling the spatially coarse resolution CMIP5 climate predictions to the local urban scale and investigating the relation between heat waves and the urban-rural temperature increment (urban heat island effect). The resulting heat stress effect is not only driven by climatic variables but also impacted by urban morphology. Moreover, the exposure varies significantly with the geographical location. All this information is coupled with relevant socio-economic datasets such as population density, age structure, etc. focussing on human health. The analyses are conducted in the framework of the NACLIM FP7 project funded by the European Commission involving local stakeholders such as the cities of Antwerp (BE), Berlin (DE) and Almada (PT) represented by different climate and urban characteristics. The end-user needs have been consolidated in a climate services plan including the production of heat risk exposure maps and the analysis of various scenarios considering e.g. the uncertainty of the global climate predictions, urban expansion over time and the impact of mitigation measures such as green roofs. The results of this study will allow urban planners and policy makers facing the challenges of climate change and develop sound strategies for the design and management of climate resilient cities.

Stevens, Catherine; Thomas, Bart

2014-05-01

144

The development and validation of an urbanicity scale in a multi-country study  

PubMed Central

Background Although urban residence is consistently identified as one of the primary correlates of non-communicable disease in low- and middle-income countries, it is not clear why or how urban settings predispose individuals and populations to non-communicable disease (NCD), or how this relationship could be modified to slow the spread of NCD. The urban–rural dichotomy used in most population health research lacks the nuance and specificity necessary to understand the complex relationship between urbanicity and NCD risk. Previous studies have developed and validated quantitative tools to measure urbanicity continuously along several dimensions but all have been isolated to a single country. The purposes of this study were 1) To assess the feasibility and validity of a multi-country urbanicity scale; 2) To report some of the considerations that arise in applying such a scale in different countries; and, 3) To assess how this scale compares with previously validated scales of urbanicity. Methods Household and community-level data from the Young Lives longitudinal study of childhood poverty in 59 communities in Ethiopia, India and Peru collected in 2006/2007 were used. Household-level data include parents’ occupations and education level, household possessions and access to resources. Community-level data include population size, availability of health facilities and types of roads. Variables were selected for inclusion in the urbanicity scale based on inspection of the data and a review of literature on urbanicity and health. Seven domains were constructed within the scale: Population Size, Economic Activity, Built Environment, Communication, Education, Diversity and Health Services. Results The scale ranged from 11 to 61 (mean 35) with significant between country differences in mean urbanicity; Ethiopia (30.7), India (33.2), Peru (39.4). Construct validity was supported by factor analysis and high corrected item-scale correlations suggest good internal consistency. High agreement was observed between this scale and a dichotomized version of the urbanicity scale (Kappa 0.76; Spearman’s rank-correlation coefficient 0.84 (p?urbanicity scale supported construct validity in all three countries (p?urbanicity scale. It is an important step on the path to creating a tool to assess complex processes like urbanization. This scale provides the means to understand which elements of urbanization have the greatest impact on health.

2012-01-01

145

Two on Planning and Development: Development at the Urban Fringe and Beyond  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These two sites should be useful for urban planners or anyone interested in the issues surrounding development and "sprawl." The first, a report from the Economic Research Service (ERS) of the US Department of Agriculture, covers the "forces driving development, its character and impacts on agriculture and rural communities, the means available to channel and control growth, and the pros and cons of potential Federal roles." Users can download each of the report's seven chapters (and references and appendix) separately or as one document in .pdf format.

Anderson, William D.; Heimlich, Ralph E.

2001-01-01

146

Urban Management Curriculum Development Project. Volume II: Appendices 1-5.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Urban Management Curriculum Development Project was a 3 - year program to develop, test, and distribute new curriculum and training materials for urban managers and those training to become urban managers. At the start of the project, a selection comm...

L. Price D. Orem B. Cohn F. Fisher S. Claridy

1978-01-01

147

The urban-rural dimension in national economic development.  

PubMed

Urban growth should be evaluated less as good or bad in itself than in terms of whether it promotes the efficient and equitable performance of vital economic functions within a nation. Much urban growth in developing nations both reflects national growth and promotes it. Cities are sources of economic growth, which is their dominant characteristic. There is a strong tendency for large cities and their surrounding core regions to be the most active, rapidly growing areas of developing nations. Certain economic functions tend to be found only in cities and tend to cluster into certain cities because it is economically efficient. 3 mechanisms which make cities economically efficient are 1) internal economies of scale, 2) localization economies, and 3) agglomeration economies. Urban areas can provide support functions for rural areas and, in turn, their growth depends on the support of an agricultural base. Urban areas also provide alternative employment and income opportunities for the rural surplus population. There are 4 prominent questions often raised about possible negative effects of urbanization on national growth and development. One question is urban growth and urban bias, which the authors argue is overemphasized. Another question is diseconomies of scale in large cities; this, the authors suggest, is not a matter of size as much as operating efficiently. Third is urbanization and regional dualism, which the authors argue can be maintained through a strategy of changing a nation's mix and location of urban activity. Fourth is the question of cities and rural outmigration. The authors argue that although most people who leave rural areas are younger, more motivated, and better educated than those left behind, their departures are economically favorable. Getting economic activity located correctly along an urban-rural spectrum is important to the growth of developing countries. 6 rules that illustrate how to do this are 1) be guided by local circumstances, not theoretical models; 2) promote better management of major urban areas; 3) avoid direct controls on migration and location; 4) understand the reluctance of industry to locate outside core regions; 5) develop secondary cities with an eye to economic eficiency; and 6) be cautious about "new town" developments. The authors conclude that 1) both host governments and those involved in development assistance should realize that urban growth is a natural process; and 2) when they do intervene in the process, they should do so in ways designed to build upon economic forces already at work. PMID:12314419

Egan, M L; Bendick M

1986-01-01

148

Impacts of the impervious surfaces on the water use by urban trees: Hydrogen isotope analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As the urban area is expanding and the populations of cities are growing, the role of urban trees in regulating biogeochemical cycles in urban regions is becoming more important. In particular, impervious surfaces in urban regions greatly disturb water use by trees. Here, we investigate the impacts of the anthropogenic structures on the water use pattern of trees on the Seoul National University campus. We select two types of gingko (Ginko biola L.) : one has been stabilized surrounded by impervious blocks and the other has been grown in natural conditions. To track the source of tree water use, xylem water at stem and soil water at 0-10, 40-50 90-100-cm depth are collected before and after precipitation for all trees. Precipitation is collected just after the rainfall event. Hydrogen isotope ratios of precipitation, soil water and xylem are analyzed to attribute source in tree water use. Finally we discuss the effects of impervious surfaces on root development and water use efficiencies.

Jeong, J.; Ryu, Y.

2013-12-01

149

The impact of the Urban Systemic Initiative on mathematics and science education in the Detroit Public Schools  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of the Urban Systemic Initiative on the improvement of mathematics and science education in Detroit Public Schools. The initiative was examined from six perspectives: the implementation of standards that articulate what is important for students to know and do in mathematics and science; improved delivery systems; professional development; student enhancement

Juanita Clay Chambers

2000-01-01

150

Cities of Consumption: The Impact of Corporate Practices on the Health of Urban Populations  

PubMed Central

The increasing concentration of the world’s population in cities and the growing accumulation of political and economic power by corporations create new threats to health and opportunities for improving global health. By considering the intersection of these two fundamental social determinants of well-being, we elucidate some of the mechanisms by which they influence the health of urban populations. After reviewing the changing historical impact of corporations on cities, we focus on the growth of consumption as a leading cause of mortality and morbidity and describe how the food, tobacco, automobile, and other industries promote unhealthy behaviors and lifestyles in urban settings. Cities are also sites for developing alternatives to unhealthy corporate practices, and we assess strategies used to modify practices that harm health.

Galea, Sandro

2008-01-01

151

Modelling regional climate change and urban planning scenarios and their impacts on the urban environment in two cities with WRF-ACASA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The number of urban metabolism studies has increased in recent years, due to the important impact that energy, water and carbon exchange over urban areas have on climate change. Urban modeling is therefore crucial in the future design and management of cities. This study presents the ACASA model coupled to the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF-ARW) mesoscale model to simulate urban fluxes at a horizontal resolution of 200 meters for urban areas of roughly 100 km^2. As part of the European Project "BRIDGE", these regional simulations were used in combination with remotely sensed data to provide constraints on the land surface types and the exchange of carbon and energy fluxes from urban centers. Surface-atmosphere exchanges of mass and energy were simulated using the Advanced Canopy Atmosphere Soil Algorithm (ACASA). ACASA is a multi-layer high-order closure model, recently modified to work over natural, agricultural as well as urban environments. In particular, improvements were made to account for the anthropogenic contribution to heat and carbon production. For two cities four climate change and four urban planning scenarios were simulated: The climate change scenarios include a base scenario (Sc0: 2008 Commit in IPCC), a medium emission scenario (Sc1: IPCC A2), a worst case emission scenario (Sce2: IPCC A1F1) and finally a best case emission scenario (Sce3: IPCC B1). The urban planning scenarios include different development scenarios such as smart growth. The two cities are a high latitude city, Helsinki (Finland) and an historic city, Florence (Italy). Helsinki is characterized by recent, rapid urbanization that requires a substantial amount of energy for heating, while Florence is representative of cities in lower latitudes, with substantial cultural heritage and a comparatively constant architectural footprint over time. In general, simulated fluxes matched the point observations well and showed consistent improvement in the energy partitioning over urban regions. We present comparisons of observed (EC) tower flux observations from the Florence (Ximeniano) site for 1-9 April, 2008 with results from two sets of high-resolution simulations: the first using dynamically-downscaled input/boundary conditions (Model-0) and the second using fully nested WRF-ACASA (Model-1). In each simulation the model physics are the same; only the WRF domain configuration differs. Preliminary results (Figure 1) indicate a degree of parity (and a slight statistical improvement), in the performances of Model-1 vs. that of Model-0 with respect to observed. Figure 1 (below) shows air temperature values from observed and both model estimates. Additional results indicate that care must be taken to configure the WRF domain, as performance appears to be sensitive to model configuration.

Falk, M.; Pyles, R. D.; Marras, S.; Spano, D.; Paw U, K. T.

2011-12-01

152

Gulf of Mexico Integrated Science - Tampa Bay Study: Examining the Impact of Urbanization on Seafloor Habitats  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Seafloor habitats, such as seagrass beds, provide essential habitat for fish and marine mammals. For many years, the study of seagrass vitality has been a priority for scientists and resource managers working in Tampa Bay. Seafloor habitats are extremely sensitive to changes in water quality. Like a canary in a coal mine, seagrass can serve as an ecological indicator of estuary health. Between the 1940s and the 1970s, seagrass gradually died in Tampa Bay. This loss has been attributed to a rise in urbanization and an increase in nutrient loading into the bay. Better treatment of industrial wastewater and runoff beginning in the 1980s resulted in the continuous recovery of seagrass beds. However, in the mid-1990s, the recovery began to level off in areas where good water quality was expected to support continued seagrass recovery, demonstrating that nutrient loading may be only one factor impacting seagrass health. Researchers now are trying to determine what might be affecting the recovery of seagrass in these areas. Currently, little is understood about the effects that other aspects of urbanization and natural change, such as groundwater and sediment quality, might have on seagrass vitality. This segment of the Tampa Bay integrated science study is intended to identify, quantify, and develop models that illustrate the impact that urbanization may have on seafloor habitat distribution, health, and restoration.

Yates, Kimberly

2005-01-01

153

Hamburg Urban Soil Climate Observatory (HUSCO): A concept to assess the impact of moisture and energy fluxes of urban soils on local climate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil as a storage and transmitter for water and thermal energy is able to influence and modify the local climate. The aim of this research project is a more precise understanding of the interactions between pedosphere and atmosphere in urban environments. HUSCO focuses on the impact of the modified soil hydrology by different typical urban structural units. The local effect of groundwater and soil properties on meteorological variables in the urban environment will be assessed by integrated flux measurements over urban districts with different groundwater table depth and urban land-uses. The results should open up opportunities to make more tangible predictions about the impacts of climate change in urban areas and to develop adaptation strategies to climate change for urban planning. Long-term measurements will start in early summer 2010 in the city of Hamburg, Germany. To quantify the climate-controlling processes, like fluxes of energy and water, two stationary and one temporary and mobile Eddy covariance system will be used, and various soil measurement stations will be mounted to analyze seasonal variations in soil water balance, ground water table and soil thermal properties. To detect the resulting climate effects, namely the heterogeneity of temperature and humidity in urban areas, coupled "Meteo-stations" will be set up to analyze core atmospheric parameters. In addition, data of the weather mast of Hamburg will be used to evaluate the greater meteorological conditions. The measurement sites were selected with regard to the local groundwater table, the type of housing estate, and size and vegetation of the green space. Two measurement sites - i.e. two urban districts - with different groundwater table depths were chosen: a low groundwater table depth of < 2.5 m and a high groundwater table depth of > 5 m. Each site features two measurement stations, one located in a housing estate and one in a green space. Another two stations will be located inside a sealed courtyard, and in a perimeter block development district. The two Eddy covariance stations will be mounted at heights of about 30 - 40 m located in the housing estates, with a supplementary Meteo-station and soil measurement stations. Temporarily, a mobile Eddy covariance station will be set up inside the green spaces to determine the local occurring fluxes. Furthermore, data of existing observational networks throughout Hamburg will be integrated. We will present objectives of the project, the design of experiments and the selection of investigation sites as well as first data of the mounted measurement stations and the analyzed data of an existing observational network. Acknowledgment: The project is founded by DFG as a part of the cluster of excellence "Integrated Climate System Analysis and Prediction (CliSAP)", KlimaCampus Hamburg

Sandoval, S.; Ament, F.; Kutzbach, L.; Eschenbach, A.

2010-09-01

154

Impact of local urban design and traffic restrictions on air quality in a medium-sized town.  

PubMed

Traffic is the major air pollution source in most urban areas. Nowadays, most of the strategies carried out to improve urban air quality are focused on reducing traffic emissions. Nevertheless, acting locally on urban design can also reduce levels of air pollutants. In this paper, both strategies are studied in several scenarios for a medium-sized town of the Basque Country (Spain). Two main actions are analysed in order to reduce traffic emissions: (1) minor extension ofa pre-existing low emission zone (LEZ); (2) substitution of 10% of passenger cars that are older than 5 years by hybrid and electric vehicles. Regarding local urban design, three alternatives for the development of one side of a street canyon are considered: (1) a park with trees; (2) an open space without obstacles; (3) a building. Two different urban traffic dispersion models are used to calculate the air quality scenarios: PROKAS (Gaussian&box) to analyse the reduction of traffic emissions in the whole urban area and WinMISKAM (CFD) to evaluate specific urban designs. The results show the effectiveness of the analysed actions. On one hand, the definition of a small LEZ, as well as the introduction in 2015 of vehicles with new technology (hybrid and electric), results in minor impacts on PM10 and NO2 ambient concentrations. On the other hand, local urban design can cause significant variation in spatial distribution ofpollutant concentrations emitted inside street canyons. Consequently, urban planners should consider all these aspects when dealing with urban air pollution control. PMID:23393990

Acero, J A; Simon, A; Padro, A; Santa Coloma, O

2012-01-01

155

URBAN REMOTE SENSING: NEW DEVELOPMENTS AND TRENDS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to the high spatial resolution requirements for urban information systems, aerial photography has been used as standard imaging input. The advent of new satellites with a resolution of better than 1m (e.g., IKONOS, Quickbird) and digital airborne scanners with excellent geometric fidelity and high spatial resolutions in the cm range (e.g., HRSC, ADS, DMC), however, challenges the analog airphoto

Manfred Ehlers

156

Assessment tools for urban catchments: developing biological indicators based on benthic macroinvertebrates  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Biological indicators, particularly benthic macroinvertebrates, are widely used and effective measures of the impact of urbanization on stream ecosystems. A multimetric biological index of urbanization was developed using a large benthic macroinvertebrate dataset (n = 1,835) from the Baltimore, Maryland, metropolitan area and then validated with datasets from Cleveland, Ohio (n = 79); San Jose, California (n = 85); and a different subset of the Baltimore data (n = 85). The biological metrics used to develop the multimetric index were selected using several criteria and were required to represent ecological attributes of macroinvertebrate assemblages including taxonomic composition and richness (number of taxa in the insect orders of Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera), functional feeding group (number of taxa designated as filterers), and habit (percent of individuals which cling to the substrate). Quantile regression was used to select metrics and characterize the relationship between the final biological index and an urban gradient (composed of population density, road density, and urban land use). Although more complex biological indices exist, this simplified multimetric index showed a consistent relationship between biological indicators and urban conditions (as measured by quantile regression) in three climatic regions of the United States and can serve as an assessment tool for environmental managers to prioritize urban stream sites for restoration and protection.

Purcell, A. H.; Bressler, D. W.; Paul, M. J.; Barbour, M. T.; Rankin, E. T.; Carter, J. L.; Resh, V. H.

2009-01-01

157

Development of river flood model in lower reach of urbanized river basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Japan, with its natural mountainous landscape, has demographic feature that population is concentrated in lower reach of elevation close to the coast, and therefore flood damage with large socio-economic value tends to occur in low-lying region. Modeling of river flood in such low-lying urbanized river basin is complex due to the following reasons. In upstream it has been experienced urbanization, which changed land covers from natural forest or agricultural fields to residential or industrial area. Hence rate of infiltration and runoff are quite different from natural hydrological settings. In downstream, paved covers and construct of sewerage system in urbanized areas affect direct discharges and it enhances higher and faster flood peak arrival. Also tidal effect from river mouth strongly affects water levels in rivers, which must be taken into account. We develop an integrated river flood model in lower reach of urbanized areas to be able to address above described complex feature, by integrating model components: LSM coupled distributed hydrological model that models anthropogenic influence on river discharges to downstream; urban hydrological model that simulates run off response in urbanized areas; Saint Venant's equation approximated river model that integrates upstream and urban hydrological models with considering tidal effect from downstream. These features are integrated in a common modeling framework so that model interaction can be directly performed. The model is applied to the Tsurumi river basin, urbanized low-lying river basin in Yokohama and model results show that it can simulate water levels in rivers with acceptable model errors. Furthermore the model is able to install miscellaneous water planning constructs, such as runoff reduction pond in urbanized area, flood control field along the river channel, levee, etc. This can be a useful tool to investigate cost performance of hypothetical water management plan against impact of climate change in the region.

Yoshimura, Kouhei; Tajima, Yoshimitsu; Sanuki, Hiroshi; Shibuo, Yoshihiro; Sato, Shinji; Lee, SungAe; Furumai, Hiroaki; Koike, Toshio

2014-05-01

158

Development of Computer Program for Linearized Subhydrographs Method for Urban Runoff Determination.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A model for the simulation of urban runoff based on the Linearized Subhydrographs Method of Urban Runoff Determination is developed for the planning and analysis of converging stormwater drainage systems in small and large urban areas. The Model simulates...

S. Sarikelle

1977-01-01

159

Impact of temperature on oxidant photochemistry in urban, polluted rural and remote environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact of temperature on formation of O3 and odd nitrogen photochemistry is investigated using urban-, regional-, and global-scale simulations. Urban and polluted rural environments are explored with a regional simulation derived from a specific episode in the midwestern United States. The simulations predict that O3 increases with temperature in both urban and polluted rural environments. The O3-temperature relation is

Sanford Sillman; Perry J. Samson

1995-01-01

160

Effects of Global Change on U.S. Urban Areas: Vulnerabilities, Impacts, and Adaptation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This slide presentation reviews some of the effects that global change has on urban areas in the United States and how the growth of urban areas will affect the environment. It presents the elements of our Synthesis and Assessment Report (SAP) report that relate to what vulnerabilities and impacts will occur, what adaptation responses may take place, and what possible effects on settlement patterns and characteristics will potentially arise, on human settlements in the U.S. as a result of climate change and climate variability. We will also present some recommendations about what should be done to further research on how climate change and variability will impact human settlements in the U.S., as well as how to engage government officials, policy and decision makers, and the general public in understanding the implications of climate change and variability on the local and regional levels. Additionally, we wish to explore how technology such as remote sensing data coupled with modeling, can be employed as synthesis tools for deriving insight across a spectrum of impacts (e.g. public health, urban planning for mitigation strategies) on how cities can cope and adapt to climate change and variability. This latter point parallels the concepts and ideas presented in the U.S. National Academy of Sciences, Decadal Survey report on "Earth Science Applications from Space: National Imperatives for the Next Decade and Beyond" wherein the analysis of the impacts of climate change and variability, human health, and land use change are listed as key areas for development of future Earth observing remote sensing systems.

Quattrochi, Dale A.; Wilbanks, Thomas J.; Kirshen, Paul; Romero-Lankao, Patricia; Rosenzweig, Cynthia; Ruth, Mattias; Solecki, William; Tarr, Joel

2008-01-01

161

The State of Urban Mass Transportation Research, Development, and Demonstration. Volume III: Bus Transit.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Urban bus systems are described and related to other transportation modes. Market for bus transit and costs are discussed and the impacts of urban bus transit on riders, operators, the public and industry are presented. Area studies include Bus Technology...

E. Stabler H. Margolis S. F. Ugel

1972-01-01

162

Connecting Urban Youth with their Environment: The Impact of an Urban Ecology Course on Student Content Knowledge, Environmental Attitudes and Responsible Behaviors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study explores the impact of an urban ecology program on participating middle school students' understanding of science and pro-environmental attitudes and behaviors. We gathered pre and post survey data from four classes and found significant gains in scientific knowledge, but no significant changes in student beliefs regarding the environment. We interviewed 12 students to better understand their beliefs. Although student responses showed they had learned discrete content knowledge, they lacked any ecological understanding of the environment and had mixed perceptions of the course's relevance in their lives. Students reported doing pro-environmental behaviors, but overwhelmingly contributed such actions to influences other than the urban ecology course. Analyses indicated a disconnect between the course, the environment, and the impact on the students' lives. Consequently, this suggests the importance of recognizing the implications of context, culture, and identity development of urban youth. Perhaps by providing explicit connections and skills in urban environmental programs through engaging students in environmental scientific investigations that stem from their own issues and questions can increase student engagement, motivation, and self-efficacy of environmental issues.

Hashimoto-Martell, Erin A.; McNeill, Katherine L.; Hoffman, Emily M.

2012-10-01

163

Impact assessment of urban wet-weather sewer discharges on the Vernavola river (Northern Italy)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The research concerned the ecological impact assessment of urban wet-weather sewer discharges on the Vernavola river (Pavia, Northern Italy) focusing both on the sewer system and on the receiving natural environment. The complexity of the urban drainage system (combined sewer networks, pumping stations, stormwater storage tanks, etc.) was characterised through in situ inspections, measurements and numerical modelling. Various dry- and

S. Todeschini; S. Papiri; R. Sconfietti

2011-01-01

164

A Review of Quantitative Methods for Evaluating Impacts of Climate Change on Urban Water Infrastructure  

EPA Science Inventory

It is widely accepted that global climate change will impact the regional and local climate and alter some aspects of the hydrologic cycle, which in turn can affect the performance of the urban water supply, wastewater and storm water infrastructur4e. How the urban water infrastr...

165

The impact of urbanization on current and future coastal precipitation: a case study for Houston  

Microsoft Academic Search

The approach of this study was to determine, theoretically, what impact current and future urban land use in the coastal city of Houston, Texas has on the space and time evolution of precipitation on a ‘typical’ summer day. Regional model simulations of a case study for 25 July 2001 were applied to investigate possible effects of urban land cover on precipitation

J Marshall Shepherd; Michael Carter; Michael Manyin; Dmitry Messen; Steve Burian

2010-01-01

166

Urban Sustainable Development, Lower Income Communities, and Transorganizational Public Administration  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article will provide an analysis of the implementation of sustainable development policies in lower-income urban communities. Arguably, sustainable development policies can potentially improve the overall environmental and economic quality of life for people living within such communities. This, however, presents a challenge for public policy and administration on how best to manage and administer sustainable development policies within this

David L. Blumenthal; Edward J. Martin

2007-01-01

167

Resident Involvement and Participation in Urban Tourism Development: A Comparative Study in Maun and Gaborone, Botswana  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports a comparative study of urban tourism development in two areas, Maun and Gaborone, located in northern and\\u000a southeastern Botswana. More specifically, the study evaluated residents’ tourism awareness and its importance in their lives;\\u000a assessed economic benefits and employment derived from tourism; and examined impacts of tourism and development issues as\\u000a perceived by the residents. Data were collected

Naomi Moswete; Brijesh Thapa; Elisha N. Toteng; Joseph E. Mbaiwa

2008-01-01

168

The Impact of Urbanization on Global Surface Temperature Trends  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rapid urbanization over the past half century has contributed to a warming bias in some Global Historical Climatological Network (GHCN) temperature records. The extent to which this urban warming bias contributes to global temperature trends remains largely unquantified both in raw and homogenized datasets, and no clear consensus exists on the need for specific urbanization corrections in global temperature reconstructions. In order to determine the magnitude of urbanization bias in the dataset, and to quantify the extent to which the newly adopted GHCN homogenization procedures correct for it, we examine minimum, maximum, and mean temperature trends from stations classified using numerous proxies for urbanity including MODIS, urban boundaries (GRUMP), satellite nightlights, and impermeable surface area, each created from publicly available high-resolution GIS datasets. These urbanity proxies are used to segment stations into separate urban and rural sets, and temperature differences between the two are calculated using both spatial gridding and station pairing approaches. The analysis is performed on raw and homogenized monthly data derived from the Global Historical Climatology Network (GHCN) Daily dataset that includes approximately 24,000 temperature measurement stations during the period from 1960 to present. Homogenized data that have been further adjusted using NASA GISS's Satellite Nightlight urban correction are also evaluated. The magnitude of the urbanization bias in the raw data and the degree to which this bias is mitigated with homogenization is discussed.

Hausfather, Z.; Mosher, S.; Menne, M. J.; Williams, C. N.; Stokes, N.; Jones, D.

2011-12-01

169

LOW-IMPACT SYSTEMS IN NEIGHBOURHOOD DEVELOPMENTS FOR STORMWATER MANAGEMENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mitigation and prevention of increased storm-generated flows and pollutants as a result of urbanisation is one of the most challenging areas in the environmental engineering field today. Integrated stormwater management involves the development and implementation of a range of low-impact designs (LID) and best management practices (BMPs) to improve the quality of urban stormwater runoff before its discharge into the

Surya Pandey; Peter Nagels; Robert Vale

170

Impact of future urban expansion on hydroclimatology in the Upper Great Lakes Region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Global land cover/land use (LCLU) is changing notably due to expansion of urban areas. The associated reduction in infiltration and runoff lag time have long been the domain of the urban hydrologist, while this landscape transformation also leads to changes in land surface heterogeneities, resulting in alterations of land-atmosphere interactions and convective processes. The integrated impacts of both impervious area and precipitation changes have not been well-represented by existing predictive tools, which often focus at disparate scales. This on-going research project provides an integrated assessment of the multi-scale interaction of urban landcover, hydrology and convective processes, in order to quantify how urbanization has altered the hydroclimatology of urban thunderstorm events, the role of the spatial arrangement and scale of urban landcover and the impact of future land use change trajectories on urban hydrology. We integrated projected LCLUC scenarios for the period of 2005-2030 from the Land Transformation Model (LTM) for the four state region of Wisconsin, Michigan, Indiana and Illinois with the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS). Results suggest that in some cases, urban influence created a convergence zone upstream of the urban area, resulting in precipitation increases both upstream and downstream of the urban influence. Precipitation and air temperature data from the RAMS simulations were used within the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) land surface scheme, with an updated urban component, to simulate the combined impact of urbanization on various hydrologic processes and streamflow indicators. For some watersheds, the convective influence resulted in a significant increase in peak streamflow, relative to impervious influence alone.

Bowling, L.; Cherkauer, K.; Lei, M.; Mishra, V.; Niyogi, D.; Pijanowski, B.; Ray, D.; Yang, G.

2008-12-01

171

The response of runoff generation to urban development: modelling and understanding  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The urbanisation process strongly changes natural catchment by increasing the impervious coverage and by creating a need for efficient drainage systems, resulting in a significant change of catchment hydrology from extreme floods to low flows. Thus, it is becoming important to quantify the impacts of urbanisation on runoff generation and to investigate the possibility of restoring pre-development flows in urban catchments for integrated urban stormwater management. Urban hydrological modelling emphasising on urbanisation effects has received substantial attention. However, the lack of good quality monitoring data in a same developing catchment limits model calibration for many of previous studies. In this concern, this study aims to describe and better understand the effects of urbanisation on catchment hydrology through modelling of a series of scenarios in a developing urban catchment of Saunalahdenranta (SR). The catchment is located at Espoo, southern Finland and has an area of about 13.2 ha. The catchment was developed rapidly from a rural area to a residential area during 2001-2006. Hydrological data were measured in two minutes intervals during the development period, when the imperviousness of the catchment changed from 1.5% to 37%. Precipitation-runoff relationship is simulated using the Stormwater Management Model (SWMM) that is firstly parameterised, calibrated, and validated for the scenario of highly developed residential catchment in 2006. The hydrological impacts of spatial resolution and model parameters, such as the delineation of subcatchment, flow width as well as Manning's roughness are evaluated and discussed. The calibrated model is then used to investigate, how the hydrological response to urbanisation was changing in the scenarios for the previous years (2001-2005) with different levels of urban development (represented by impervious surfaces). The predictions for the several scenarios provide a quantification of the hydrological impacts of urban development. The peak value of runoff rate is increased but with a small temporal occurrence. The key phases of the construction activities from the point of view of their impacts on runoff generation are identified. Based on the modelling outputs, the mitigation against the adverse impacts will also be preliminary explored.

Guan, Mingfu; Sillanpää, Nora; Koivusalo, Harri

2014-05-01

172

Effects of train impacts on urban turnouts: Modelling and validation through measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Train-track interaction at turnouts is a main issue in the design and maintenance of railway systems. Due to the particular geometry of wheel-rail contact and to the sudden variation of track flexibility, severe impact loads may occur during train passage over the turnout. In this paper, two different modelling approaches to reproduce train-turnout interaction are proposed and compared. A first technique, developed by Politecnico di Milano, is based on a detailed multi-body model of the trainset and of wheel-rail contact, whereas for the turnout structure a simplified finite element model is used. The second modelling technique, developed by the National Technical University of Athens, relies on a detailed finite element model of the turnout, while a simplified model is used to compute impact loading due to wheel passage. In this paper the two methods are validated trough comparison with line measurements performed on turnout systems from three different urban railway networks.

Bruni, S.; Anastasopoulos, I.; Alfi, S.; Van Leuven, A.; Gazetas, G.

2009-07-01

173

Combining Satellite Data and Models to Assess the Impacts of Urbanization on the Continental US Surface Climate  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Urbanization is one of the most important and long lasting forms of land transformation. Urbanization affects the surface climate in different ways: (1) by reduction of the vegetation fraction causing subsequent reduction in photosynthesis and plant s water transpiration, (2) by alternation of surface runoff and infiltration and their impacts on soil moisture and the water table, (3) by change in the surface albedo and surface energy partitioning, and (4) by transformation of the surface roughness length and modification of surface fluxes. Land cover and land use change maps including urban areas have been developed and will be used in a suite of land surface models of different complexity to assess the impacts of urbanization on the continental US surface climate. These maps and datasets based on a full range of available satellite data and ground observations will be used to characterize distant-past (pre-urban), recent-past (2001), present (2010), and near future (2020) land cover and land use changes. The main objective of the project is to assess the impacts of these land transformation on past, current and near-future climate and the potential feedbacks from these changes on the atmospheric, hydrologic, biological, and socio-economic properties beyond the immediate metropolitan regions of cities and their near suburbs. The WRF modeling system will be used to explore the nature and the magnitude of the two-way interactions between urban lands and the atmosphere and assess the overall regional dynamic effect of urban expansion on the northeastern US weather and climate

Bounoua, L.; Zhang, P.; Imhoff, M.; Santanello, J.; Kumar, S.; Shepherd, M.; Quattrochi, D.; Silva, J.; Rosenzweigh, C.; Gaffin, S.; Mostovoy, G.

2013-01-01

174

DREDGING IMPACT ON AN URBANIZED FLORIDA BAYOU: EFFECTS ON BENTHOS AND ALGAL-PERIPHYTON.  

EPA Science Inventory

Environmental effects of dredging events have been uncommonly reported for shallow, residential estuaries characteristic of the Gulf of Mexico region. The objective of this study was to determine the impact of hydraulic dredging on an urbanized estuary. Physicochemical quality, ...

175

Fresno in Transition: Urban Impacts of Rural Migration. Working Paper No. 26.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines the social and economic impacts of Mexican immigration on Fresno (California). Since the early 1980s, immigration to California has been dominated by illegal immigrants from rural Mexico seeking agricultural jobs in rural California. This rural migration impacts urban centers in agricultural regions; these impacts lag the…

Mason, Bert; Alvarado, Andrew; Palacio, Robert

176

Data and Information Management: Essential Basis for Sustainable Urban Management and Development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Management of the urban environment and urban development require well organized data and information as a basis for decision making, planning and policy development. Such data and information needs to be up-to-date, reliable and complete, and moreover be available at the time of need. The latter is especially relevant in the case of disasters such as fires, flooding, earthquakes and volcanic eruptions. Current and future impacts of the on-going climate changes increase the need for geo-referenced data and information on environment, biodiversity and public health, in support of preparation, protection, mitigation and reconstruction. It is important that urban authorities devote more attention and resources to data and information management in order to be able to cope with the present and future challenges of ever growing cities with increasing impacts on their surroundings, and moreover to deal with the impacts of environment and biodiversity on the cities, their population and economies. SOD, Woerden has a long and successful track record of certified training and education in the field of data and information management for authorities, including urban government. The courses provided by SOD cover a wide range of subjects from metadata and digitizing, to enterprise content management and geo-information management. While focused on the Netherlands, SOD also has initiated similar training opportunities in Belgium and Surinam, and efforts are under way in other countries. P. Geerders Consultancy has considerable experience as a consultant and trainer in the field of methods and technologies for the provision of information in support of decision-making, planning and policy development related to integrated management and sustainable development of natural resources. Besides in various countries of Europe, he has worked in Latin America and the Caribbean region. Since several years, P. Geerders works as a freelance teacher with SOD. The paper presents a vision on training and education of urban authorities in information handling and management.

Geerders, P.; Kokke, E.

2011-08-01

177

Problems of modern urban drainage in developing countries.  

PubMed

Socio-economic factors in developing countries make it more difficult to solve problems of urban drainage than in countries that are more advanced. Factors inhibiting the adoption of modern solutions include: (1) in matters of urban drainage, 19th-century sanitary philosophy still dominates; (2) both legal and clandestine land settlement limits the space that modern solutions require; (3) contamination of storm runoff by foul sewage, sediment and garbage prevents adoption of developed-country practices; (4) climatic and socio-economic factors favour the growth of epidemics where runoff is retained for flood-avoidance and to increase infiltration; (5) lack of a technological basis for adequate drainage management and design; (6) lack of the interaction between community and city administration that is needed to obtain modern solutions to urban drainage problems. Awareness of these difficulties is fundamental to the search for modern and viable solutions appropriate for developing countries. PMID:11989890

Silveira, A L L

2002-01-01

178

Coupling urban event-based and catchment continuous modelling for combined sewer overflow river impact assessment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since the Water Framework Directive (WFD) was passed in year 2000, the protection of water bodies in the EU must be understood in a completely different way. Regarding to combined sewer overflows (CSOs) from urban drainage networks, the WFD implies that CSOs cannot be accepted because of their intrinsic features, but must be assessed for their impact on the receiving water bodies in agreement with specific environmental aims. Consequently, both, the urban system and the receiving one must be jointly analysed to evaluate their impact. In this context, a coupled scheme is presented in this paper to assess the CSOs impact in a river system in Torrelavega (Spain). First, an urban model is developed to characterise statistically the CSOs frequency, volume and duration. The main feature of this first model is the fact of being event-based: the system is modelled with some built synthetic storms which cover adequately the probability range of the main rainfall descriptors, i.e., rainfall event volume and peak intensity. Thus, CSOs are characterised in terms of their occurrence probability. Secondly, a continuous and distributed basin model is built to assess the river response at different points in the river network. This model was calibrated initially on a daily scale and downscaled later to the hourly scale. The main objective of this second element of the scheme is to provide the most likely state of the receiving river when a CSO occurs. By combining results of both models, CSO and river flows are homogeneously characterised from a statistical point of view. Finally, results from both models were coupled to estimate the final concentration of some analysed pollutants (the biochemical oxygen demand, BOD, and the total ammonium, NH4+), in the river just after the spills.

Andrés-Doménech, I.; Múnera, J. C.; Francés, F.; Marco, J. B.

2010-05-01

179

Coupling urban event-based and catchment continuous modelling for combined sewer overflow river impact assessment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since Water Framework Directive (WFD) was passed in year 2000, the conservation of water bodies in the EU must be understood in a completely different way. Regarding to combined sewer overflows (CSOs) from urban drainage networks, the WFD implies that we cannot accept CSOs because of their intrinsic features, but they must be assessed for their impact on the receiving water bodies in agreement with specific environmental aims. Consequently, both, urban system and the receiving water body must be jointly analysed to evaluate the environmental impact generated on the latter. In this context, a coupled scheme is presented in this paper to assess the CSOs impact on a river system in Torrelavega (Spain). First, a urban model is developed to statistically characterise the CSOs frequency, volume and duration. The main feature of this first model is the fact of being event-based: the system is modelled with some built synthetic storms which cover adequately the probability range of the main rainfall descriptors, i.e., rainfall event volume and peak intensity. Thus, CSOs are characterised in terms of their occurrence probability. Secondly, a continuous and distributed basin model is built to assess river response at different points in the river network. This model was calibrated initially on a daily scale and downscaled later to hourly scale. The main objective of this second element of the scheme is to provide the most likely state of the receiving river when a CSO occurs. By combining results of both models, CSO and river flows are homogeneously characterised from a statistical point of view. Finally, results from both models were coupled to estimate the final concentration of some analysed pollutants (biochemical oxygen demand, BOD, and total ammonium, NH4+), within the river just after the spills.

Andrés-Doménech, I.; Múnera, J. C.; Francés, F.; Marco, J. B.

2010-10-01

180

A Guide for Urban-Teacher Development. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide is intended to serve the information needs of the teacher-development decision maker, that is, of the teacher educator with special reference to urban schools. It is presented as a synthesis of information from a variety of sources and is divided into four sections, each a subdivision of the main subject--teacher development: 1) its…

Rubeck, Robert F.; And Others

181

Critical consciousness and career development among urban youth  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study explored the role of critical consciousness as a key factor in predicting progress in career development among urban high school students. Critical consciousness, or the capacity to recognize and overcome sociopolitical barriers, was operationalized through sociopolitical analysis and sociopolitical control. Canonical correlation analysis indicated a statistically significant relationship between critical consciousness and progress in career development, which was

Matthew A. Diemer; David L. Blustein

2006-01-01

182

Education, Development, and the Rebuilding of Urban Community.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The paper asks what are appropriate policies for urban school reform in the context of global transformations affecting cities in both developed and "Third World" countries. Features of this transformation include growing population diversity, a semi-permanent underclass, and the informal economy. Comprehensive community development (i.e.…

Keith, Novella Z.; Keith, Nelson W.

183

Questionnaires for Urban Development Action Grant (UDAG) Evaluation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Fourth in a series of volumes designed to develop an evaluation design for the Urban Development Action Grant (UDAG) program, this volume consists of a set of data collection instruments to be administered to various public officials, agency staff, and pr...

D. Culp L. Haydon G. Reigeluth N. Rockler J. Tilney

1981-01-01

184

Assessment of patches attributes along the Urban Development Gradient  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The world is increasingly urban. If current trends maintain, by 2050 the global urban population is estimated to be 6.3 billion, nearly doubling the world population in 2010. Consequently, more than 60% of the area projected to be urban in 2030 has yet to be built, replacing the open and agriculture lands with construction and infrastructure. The open green patches (OGP), within the urban matrix, are essential for healthy and wellness of cities by supplying the city's ecological services (Mausback and Seybold, 1998). Regarding future trends, there is a need and obligation to insure the functional and sustainability of the city's OPG. Urban vegetation composition and diversity in the OGP had long been considered as an indication for ecologically functioning systems. Furthermore, urban soil is also essential for the sustainability and function of the urban habitat and ecological services, such as maintaining groundwater restraining urban floods etc. (Lehmann and Stahr 2007). There is no single set of rules to classify a functional urban green patch worth preserving. The aim of this study is to examine the effects of patch properties (including geometry, age, type and location along the urban gradient, connectivity, and urban matrix density) on the presence, abundance and characteristics of vegetation and soil conditions of remnant patches The inspired purpose is to eventually find an assessment for urban open green patches OGP quality by linking, patches attributes, plants indexes and soil quality indexes The research is conducted in the city of Haifa, which is located on the northern part of Mount Carmel in the north-western part of Israel . Mean annual rainfall, 550-800 mm, varies with latitude and the mean temperature is 18.80c. Modern Haifa is a relatively young city which maintains remnant vegetation patches within its municipal boundary. 32 OGP were selected in nine categories (size: small, medium and large, distance from city edge: far, average, near), in which vegetation was surveyed. . All vascular plant species were recorded and identified. The mineral soils (A horizon, depth 10-15 cm) were collected to obtain a constant sample size after removing surface litter and organic matter. The samples were analyzed for mineral and structure properties. Preliminary results of the plant survey and analysis indicated that the patches' vegetation is highly diverse. Within the large patches, regardless of their location along the urban development gradient, higher sub-habitat diversity and plants diversity were observed. The diversity is high for local and exotic species alike. In the medium and small size patches, also regardless of their location, there is a diversity of plant composition that may be connected to different disturbances or matrix related effect not yet considered in the study. Preliminary results of the soil survey and analysis indicated that more than 75% of the soil samples taken from the OGP, regardless of their location in the urban development gradient, exhibited a considerable changes in soil profile, compared to "natural" soils and significant alternations in the physical properties were also observed. The substance that was found in the remnant OGP in Haifa is different from soil, however, links between the urban-soils altered properties and the vegetation composition in those patches, and there relationships are not fully understood.

Kopel, Daniella; Wittenberg, lea; Malkinson, Dan

2014-05-01

185

Effects of Global Change on U.S. Urban Areas: Vulnerabilities, Impacts, and Adaptation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Human settlements, both large and small, are where the vast majority of people on the Earth live. Expansion of cities both in population and areal extent, is a relentless process that will accelerate in the 21st century. As a consequence of urban growth both in the United States and around the globe, it is important to develop an understanding of how urbanization will affect the local and regional environment. Of equal importance, however, is the assessment of how cities will be impacted by the looming prospects of global climate change and climate variability. The potential impacts of climate change and variability has recently been annunciated by the IPCC's "Climate Change 2007" report. Moreover, the U.S. Climate Change Science Program (CCSP) is preparing a series of "Synthesis and Assessment Products" (SAPs) reports to support informed discussion and decision making regarding climate change and variability by policy matters, resource managers, stakeholders, the media, and the general public. We are authors on a SAP describing the effects of global climate change on human settlements. This paper will present the elements of our SAP report that relate to what vulnerabilities and impacts will occur, what adaptation responses may take place, and what possible effects on settlement patterns and characteristics will potentially arise, on human settlements in the U.S. as a result of climate change and climate variability. We will also present some recommendations about what should be done to further research on how climate change and variability will impact human settlements in the U.S., as well as how to engage government officials, policy and decision makers, and the general public in understanding the implications of climate change and variability on the local and regional levels. Additionally, we wish to explore how technology such as remote sensing data coupled with modeling, can be employed as synthesis tools for deriving insight across a spectrum of impacts (e.g. public health, urban planning for mitigation strategies) on how cities can cope and adapt to climate change and variability. This latter point parallels the concepts and ideas presented in the U.S. National Academy of Sciences, Decadal Survey report on "Earth Science Applications from Space: National Imperatives for the Next Decade and Beyond" wherein the analysis of the impacts of climate change and variability, human health, and land use change are listed as key areas for development of future Earth observing remote sensing systems.

Quattrochi, Dale A.; Wilbanks, Thomas J.; Kirshen, Paul; Romero-Lnkao, Patricia; Rosenzweig, Cynthia; Ruth, Matthias; Solecki, William; Tarr, Joel

2007-01-01

186

[Impacts of rail transit in Shanghai on its urban land use change].  

PubMed

By using the land use data interpreted with 1:50,000 color-infrared aerial photos of Shanghai collected in 1989 and 2005, and based on Geographic Information System (GIS) techniques, the impacts of urban rail transit (URT) development in Shanghai on its urban land use change was quantitatively analyzed, and a preliminary prediction of the land use change from 2010 to 2025 was made with Markov probability models. The results showed that the URT accelerated the land use change, particularly from an agricultural dominated natural landscape in 1989 to a high-value man-made urban landscape primarily composed of residence and public facilities. URT increased the land use rate in the study area. From 1989 to 2005, public facility land, green space, agriculture land, land for other uses (primarily used for construction), and water area changed greatly, with the greatest change rate of the land for other uses and the lowest one of water area. From 2010 to 2025, the areas and proportions of agriculture land and water area would keep on decreasing, while those of man-made landscapes including residence and public facilities would increase continuously. From the viewpoints of increasing land use rate and its gain, the present land use structure along Shanghai URT should be further regulated to improve the intensive and sustainable use of land resources. PMID:18839916

Li, Cheng; Li, Jun-Xiang; Li, Rong; Xu, Ming-Ce; Qin, Hai

2008-07-01

187

Impact of urban parameterization on high resolution air quality forecast with the GEM - AQ model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this study is to assess the impact of urban cover on high-resolution air quality forecast simulations with the GEM-AQ (Global Environmental Multiscale and Air Quality) model. The impact of urban area on the ambient atmosphere is non-stationary, and short-term variability of meteorological conditions may result in significant changes of the observed intensity of urban heat island and pollutant concentrations. In this study we used the Town Energy Balance (TEB) parameterization to represent urban effects on modelled meteorological and air quality parameters at the final nesting level with horizontal resolution of ~5 km over Southern Poland. Three one-day cases representing different meteorological conditions were selected and the model was run with and without the TEB parameterization. Three urban cover categories were used in the TEB parameterization: mid-high buildings, very low buildings and low density suburbs. Urban cover layers were constructed based on an area fraction of towns in a grid cell. To analyze the impact of urban parameterization on modelled meteorological and air quality parameters, anomalies in the lowest model layer for the air temperature, wind speed and pollutant concentrations were calculated. Anomalies of the specific humidity fields indicate that the use of the TEB parameterization leads to a systematic reduction of moisture content in the air. Comparison with temperature and wind speed measurements taken at urban background monitoring stations shows that application of urban parameterization improves model results. For primary pollutants the impact of urban areas is most significant in regions characterized with high emissions. In most cases the anomalies of NO2 and CO concentrations were negative. This reduction is most likely caused by an enhanced vertical mixing due to elevated surface temperature and modified vertical stability.

Struzewska, J.; Kaminski, J. W.

2012-11-01

188

U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development: Periodicals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The U.S Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) publishes periodicals aimed towards urban development professionals, policy makers, and scholars. This website brings all of these periodicals together in one place, and visitors can look through current and past issues of "Cityscape", and the quarterly report, "U.S. Housing Market Conditions". For those interested in a more general-interest publication, "Cityscape" is a good bet, as it contains pieces on housing vouchers, ethnically diverse urban neighborhoods, and the legacy of the Fair Housing Act. Finally, the "U.S. Housing Market Conditions" reports consist of statistical data and written reports on the quarterly status of economic and housing market trends for 10 geographical regions.

2006-01-01

189

Assessing the impact of urbanization on storm runoff in a peri-urban catchment using historical change in impervious cover  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper investigates changes in storm runoff resulting from the transformation of previously rural landscapes into peri-urban areas. Two adjacent catchments (?5 km2) located within the town of Swindon in the United Kingdom were monitored during 2011 and 2012 providing continuous records of rainfall, runoff and actual evaporation. One catchment is highly urbanized and the other is a recently developed peri-urban area containing two distinct areas of drainage: one with mixed natural and storm drainage pathways, the other entirely storm drainage. Comparison of observed storm hydrographs showed that the degree of area serviced by storm drainage was a stronger determinant of storm runoff response than either impervious area or development type and that little distinction in hydrological response exists between urban and peri-urban developments of similar impervious cover when no significant hydraulic alteration is present. Historical levels of urbanization and impervious cover were mapped from the 1960s to the 2010s based on digitized historical topographic maps and were combined with a hydrological model to enable backcasting of the present day storm runoff response to that of the catchments in their earlier states. Results from the peri-urban catchment showed an increase in impervious cover from 11% in the 1960s to 44% in 2010s, and introduction of a large-scale storm drainage system in the early 2000s, was accompanied by a 50% reduction in the Muskingum routing parameter k, reducing the characteristic flood duration by over 50% while increasing peak flow by over 400%. Comparisons with changes in storm runoff response in the more urban area suggest that the relative increase in peak flows and reduction in flood duration and response time of a catchment is greatest at low levels of urbanization and that the introduction of storm water conveyance systems significantly increases the flashiness of storm runoff above that attributed to impervious area alone. This study demonstrates that careful consideration is required when using impervious cover data within hydrological models and when designing flood mitigation measures, particularly in peri-urban areas where a widespread loss in pervious surfaces and alteration of drainage pathways can significantly alter the storm runoff response. Recommendations include utilizing more refined urban land use typologies that can better represent physical alteration of hydrological pathways.

Miller, James D.; Kim, Hyeonjun; Kjeldsen, Thomas R.; Packman, John; Grebby, Stephen; Dearden, Rachel

2014-07-01

190

Impacts of urbanization on groundwater quality and recharge in a semi-arid alluvial basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SummaryThe management of groundwater resources is paramount in semi-arid regions experiencing urban development. In the southwestern United States, enhancing recharge of urban storm runoff has been identified as a strategy for augmenting groundwater resources. An understanding of how urbanization may impact the timing of groundwater recharge and its quality is a prerequisite for mitigating water scarcity and identifying vulnerability to contamination. We sampled groundwater wells along the Rillito Creek in southern Arizona that had been previously analyzed for tritium in the late 1980s to early 1990s and analyzed samples for tritium ( 3H) and helium-3 ( 3H/ 3He) to evaluate changes in 3H and age date groundwaters. Groundwater samples were also analyzed for chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and basic water quality metrics. Substantial changes in 3H values from waters sampled in the early 1990s compared to 2009 were identified after accounting for radioactive decay and indicate areas of rapid recharge. 3H- 3He groundwater ages ranged from 22 years before 2009 to modern recharge. CFC-11, -12 and -113 concentrations were anomalously high across the basin, and non-point source pollution in runoff and/or leaky infrastructure was identified as the most plausible source of this contamination. CFCs were strongly and positively correlated to nitrate ( r2 = 0.77) and a mobile trace metal, nickel ( r2 = 0.71), suggesting that solutes were derived from a similar source. Findings from this study suggest new waters from urban non-point sources are contributing to groundwater recharge and adversely affecting water quality. Reducing delivery of contaminants to areas of focused recharge will be critical to protect future groundwater resources.

Carlson, Mark A.; Lohse, Kathleen A.; McIntosh, Jennifer C.; McLain, Jean E. T.

2011-10-01

191

75 FR 36245 - Notice of Funding Availability for the Department of Housing and Urban Development's Community...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...health and the environment, promote equitable development, and help address...housing and urban development programs. This...respect to the environment has been made for...Housing and Urban Development, 451 Seventh...

2010-06-24

192

Meteorological Conditions Favouring Development of Urban Air Pollution Episodes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The causes of urban air pollution episodes are complex and depend on various factors including emissions, meteorological parameters, topography, atmospheric chemical processes and solar radiation. The relative importance of such factors is dependent on the geographical region, its surrounding emission source areas and the related climatic characteristics, as well as the season of the year. The key pollutants are PM10, PM2.5, O3 and NO2, as these cause the worst air quality problems in European cities. The main aim of this study realised within the MEGAPOLI project was to describe and quantify the influence of meteorological patterns on urban air pollution especially high-level concentrations air pollution episodes in megacities. Several European urban agglomerations and megacities, including the Po Valley, Helsinki, London, Paris, Moscow, Vilnius, were considered in the study. The study also carried out analysis of meteorological patterns leading to urban air pollution episodes considered by the development of suitable indicators linking particular meteorological conditions/ parameters to increased air pollution levels in the urban areas. These indicators constitute a useful tool for regulators in suggesting effective policies and mitigation measures. Finally, a combination of modelling and analysis of observations data can allow both the quality assurance of the new parameterisations as well as the verification of input emissions.

Baklanov, Alexander; Kukkonen, Jaakko; Finardi, Sandro; Beekmann, Matthias; Sokhi, Ranjeet; Mahura, Alexander; Ginsburg, Alexander; Mažeikis, Adomas

2013-04-01

193

Urban Heat Island Adaptation Strategies are not created equal: Assessment of Impacts and Tradeoffs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sustainable urban expansion requires an extension of contemporary approaches that focus nearly exclusively on reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. Researchers have proposed biophysical approaches to urban heat island mitigation (e.g., via deployment of cool or green roofs) but little is known how these technologies vary with place and season and what impacts are beyond those of near surface temperature. Using a suite of continuous, multi-year and multi-member continental scale numerical simulations for the United States, we examine hydroclimatic impacts for a variety of U.S. urban expansion (to the year 2100) and urban adaptation futures and compare those to contemporary urban extent. Adaptation approaches include widespread adoption of cool roofs, green roofs, and a hypothetical hybrid approach integrating properties of both cool and green roofs (i.e., reflective green roofs). Widespread adoption of adaptation strategies exhibits hydroclimatic impacts that are regionally and seasonally dependent. For some regions and seasons, urban-induced warming of 3°C can be completely offset by the adaptation approaches examined. For other regions and seasons, widespread adoption of some adaptation strategies can result in significant reduction in precipitation. Finally, implications of large-scale urbanization for seasonal energy demand will be examined.

Georgescu, Matei

2014-05-01

194

Developing Professional Community in New and Restructuring Urban Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports on a longitudinal study of four urban schools that sought to develop professional community as part of a restructuring process. The study focuses on how restructuring affected teachers' work over a 3-year period. It reports that the absence of structural conditions can impede the growth of professional community; however, their…

Kruse, Sharon D.; Louis, Karen Seashore

195

DEVELOPMENT OF AN IMPROVED URBAN AIRSHED MODELING SYSTEM  

EPA Science Inventory

A research and development effort to improve certain physical processes simulated in the Urban Airshed Model (UAM) processor and model programs, and to update the computer software is described. he UAM is an Eulerian photochemical grid model designed to simulate the relevant phys...

196

Professional Development for Urban Principals in Underperforming Schools  

Microsoft Academic Search

Principals in America’s lowest performing urban schools face many challenges, including public scrutiny as a consequence of being identified as such by state and federal legislation. These special circumstances have implications for the professional development of the leaders of these schools. This article chronicles the work of the Connecticut State Department of Education, local districts, faculty from a private university,

Judith C. Houle

2006-01-01

197

Formulating a coastal zone health metric for landuse impact management in urban coastal zones.  

PubMed

The need for ICZM arises often due to inadequate or inappropriate landuse planning practices and policies, especially in urban coastal zones which are more complex due to the larger number of components, their critical dimensions, attributes and interactions. A survey of literature shows that there is no holistic metric for assessing the impacts of landuse planning on the health of a coastal zone. Thus there is a need to define such a metric. The proposed metric, CHI (Coastal zone Health Indicator), developed on the basis of coastal system sustainability, attempts to gauge the health status of any coastal zone. It is formulated and modeled through an expert survey and pertains to the characteristic components of coastal zones, their critical dimensions, and relevant attributes. The proposed metric is applied to two urban coastal zones and validated. It can be used for more coast friendly and sustainable landuse planning/masterplan preparation and thereby for the better management of landuse impacts on coastal zones. PMID:20576347

Anilkumar, P P; Varghese, Koshy; Ganesh, L S

2010-11-01

198

Impediments and constraints in the uptake of water sensitive urban design measures in greenfield and infill developments.  

PubMed

Water sensitive urban developments are designed with integrated urban water management concepts and water sensitive urban design measures. The initiatives that may be included are the substitution of imported drinking water with alternative sources using a fit-for-purpose approach and structural and non-structural measures for the source control of stormwater. A water sensitive approach to urban development can help in achieving sustainability objectives by minimising disturbance to ecological and hydrological processes, and also relieve stress on conventional water systems. Water sensitive urban developments remain novel in comparison with conventional approaches, so the understanding and knowledge of the systems in regards to their planning; design; implementation; operation and maintenance; health impacts and environmental impacts is still developing and thus the mainstream uptake of these approaches faces many challenges. A study has been conducted to understand these challenges through a detailed literature review, investigating a large number of local greenfield and infill developments, and conducting extensive consultation with water professionals. This research has identified the social, economic, political, institutional and technological challenges faced in implementing water sensitive urban design in greenfield and infill developments. The research found in particular that there is the need for long-term monitoring studies of water sensitive urban developments. This monitoring is important to validate the performance of novel approaches implemented and improve associated guidelines, standards, and regulatory and governance frameworks, which can lead to mainstream acceptance of water sensitive urban development approaches. The dissemination of this research will help generate awareness among water professionals, water utilities, developers, planners and regulators of the research challenges to be addressed in order to achieve more mainstream acceptance of water sensitive approaches to urban development. This study is based on existing water sensitive urban developments in Australia, however, the methodology adopted in investigating impediments to the uptake of these developments can be applied globally. It is hoped that insights from this study will benefit water professionals in other countries where there is also a move towards water sensitive urban development. PMID:22233914

Sharma, Ashok K; Cook, Stephen; Tjandraatmadja, Grace; Gregory, Alan

2012-01-01

199

Forecasting the combined effects of urbanization and climate change on stream ecosystems: From impacts to management options  

USGS Publications Warehouse

1. Streams collect runoff, heat, and sediment from their watersheds, making them highly vulnerable to anthropogenic disturbances such as urbanization and climate change. Forecasting the effects of these disturbances using process-based models is critical to identifying the form and magnitude of likely impacts. Here, we integrate a new biotic model with four previously developed physical models (downscaled climate projections, stream hydrology, geomorphology, and water temperature) to predict how stream fish growth and reproduction will most probably respond to shifts in climate and urbanization over the next several decades. 2. The biotic submodel couples dynamics in fish populations and habitat suitability to predict fish assemblage composition, based on readily available biotic information (preferences for habitat, temperature, and food, and characteristics of spawning) and day-to-day variability in stream conditions. 3. We illustrate the model using Piedmont headwater streams in the Chesapeake Bay watershed of the USA, projecting ten scenarios: Baseline (low urbanization; no on-going construction; and present-day climate); one Urbanization scenario (higher impervious surface, lower forest cover, significant construction activity); four future climate change scenarios [Hadley CM3 and Parallel Climate Models under medium-high (A2) and medium-low (B2) emissions scenarios]; and the same four climate change scenarios plus Urbanization. 4. Urbanization alone depressed growth or reproduction of 8 of 39 species, while climate change alone depressed 22 to 29 species. Almost every recreationally important species (i.e. trouts, basses, sunfishes) and six of the ten currently most common species were predicted to be significantly stressed. The combined effect of climate change and urbanization on adult growth was sometimes large compared to the effect of either stressor alone. Thus, the model predicts considerable change in fish assemblage composition, including loss of diversity. 5. Synthesis and applications. The interaction of climate change and urban growth may entail significant reconfiguring of headwater streams, including a loss of ecosystem structure and services, which will be more costly than climate change alone. On local scales, stakeholders cannot control climate drivers but they can mitigate stream impacts via careful land use. Therefore, to conserve stream ecosystems, we recommend that proactive measures be taken to insure against species loss or severe population declines. Delays will inevitably exacerbate the impacts of both climate change and urbanization on headwater systems. ?? 2008 The Authors.

Nelson, K. C.; Palmer, M. A.; Pizzuto, J. E.; Moglen, G. E.; Angermeier, P. L.; Hilderbrand, R. H.; Dettinger, M.; Hayhoe, K.

2009-01-01

200

Development at the wildland-urban interface and the mitigation of forest-fire risk  

PubMed Central

This work addresses the impacts of development at the wildland–urban interface on forest fires that spread to human habitats. Catastrophic fires in the western United States and elsewhere make these impacts a matter of urgency for decision makers, scientists, and the general public. Using a simple fire-spread model, along with housing and vegetation data, we show that fire size probability distributions can be strongly modified by the density and flammability of houses. We highlight a sharp transition zone in the parameter space of vegetation flammability and house density. Many actual fire landscapes in the United States appear to have spreading properties close to this transition. Thus, the density and flammability of buildings should be taken into account when assessing fire risk at the wildland–urban interface. Moreover, our results highlight ways for regulation at this interface to help mitigate fire risk.

Spyratos, Vassilis; Bourgeron, Patrick S.; Ghil, Michael

2007-01-01

201

Impacts of climate change on rainfall extremes and urban drainage systems: a review.  

PubMed

A review is made of current methods for assessing future changes in urban rainfall extremes and their effects on urban drainage systems, due to anthropogenic-induced climate change. The review concludes that in spite of significant advances there are still many limitations in our understanding of how to describe precipitation patterns in a changing climate in order to design and operate urban drainage infrastructure. Climate change may well be the driver that ensures that changes in urban drainage paradigms are identified and suitable solutions implemented. Design and optimization of urban drainage infrastructure considering climate change impacts and co-optimizing these with other objectives will become ever more important to keep our cities habitable into the future. PMID:23823535

Arnbjerg-Nielsen, K; Willems, P; Olsson, J; Beecham, S; Pathirana, A; Bülow Gregersen, I; Madsen, H; Nguyen, V-T-V

2013-01-01

202

Policy Frontiers of Urban Development. Final Project Report for EDA (Economic Development Administration).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The United States Conference of Mayors held a series of policy forums on selected current urban economic development topics: (1) development finance, (2) industrial policy, (3) economic adjustment with a special emphasis on the auto industry, (4) foreign ...

1982-01-01

203

Organizational Development in Urban School Systems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This collection of articles indicates much about the state of organization development (OD) and its application to education. Organization development, as an intervention theory and method, is an iterative process including six sequences of events: entry, data collection, diagnosis, intervention, evaluation, and withdrawal. The articles included…

Derr, C. Brooklyn, Ed.

204

An environmental pressure index proposal for urban development planning based on the analytic network process  

SciTech Connect

This paper introduces a new approach to prioritize urban planning projects according to their environmental pressure in an efficient and reliable way. It is based on the combination of three procedures: (i) the use of environmental pressure indicators, (ii) the aggregation of the indicators in an Environmental Pressure Index by means of the Analytic Network Process method (ANP) and (iii) the interpretation of the information obtained from the experts during the decision-making process. The method has been applied to a proposal for urban development of La Carlota airport in Caracas (Venezuela). There are three options which are currently under evaluation. They include a Health Club, a Residential Area and a Theme Park. After a selection process the experts chose the following environmental pressure indicators as ANP criteria for the project life cycle: used land area, population density, energy consumption, water consumption and waste generation. By using goal-oriented questionnaires designed by the authors, the experts determined the importance of the criteria, the relationships among criteria, and the relationships between the criteria and the urban development alternatives. The resulting data showed that water consumption is the most important environmental pressure factor, and the Theme Park project is by far the urban development alternative which exerts the least environmental pressure on the area. The participating experts coincided in appreciating the technique proposed in this paper is useful and, for ranking ordering these alternatives, an improvement from traditional techniques such as environmental impact studies, life-cycle analysis, etc.

Gomez-Navarro, Tomas, E-mail: tgomez@dpi.upv.e [Departamento de Proyectos de Ingenieria, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Camino de Vera s/n. 46022, Valencia (Spain); Garcia-Melon, Monica, E-mail: mgarciam@dpi.upv.e [Departamento de Proyectos de Ingenieria, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Camino de Vera s/n. 46022, Valencia (Spain); Acuna-Dutra, Silvia, E-mail: sacuna@unimet.edu.v [Departamento de Estudios Ambientales, Universidad Metropolitana, Autopista Guarenas, Sector La Urbina, Distribuidor Metropolitano, Caracas (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Diaz-Martin, Diego, E-mail: ddiaz@unimet.edu.v [Departamento de Estudios Ambientales, Universidad Metropolitana, Autopista Guarenas, Sector La Urbina, Distribuidor Metropolitano, Caracas (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of)

2009-09-15

205

Urban Management Curriculum Development Project. Volume 1.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report evaluates the content, teaching methodology, testing process, and usefulness of 15 different management education curriculums and the management of the Curriculum Development Project. The curriculums cover a variety of technical topics of inte...

S. Clairdy B. Cohn F. Fisher D. Orem L. Price

1978-01-01

206

The Impact of Detailed Urban-Scale Processing on the Aerosol Direct Effect and its Impacts on the Climate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Anthropogenic aerosols directly impact the climate system by scattering and absorbing incoming solar radiation. The vast majority of these anthropogenic aerosols and their precursors are emitted in urban areas. However, at the present time, global scale general circulation models tend to use overly simplified representations of this non-linear urban scale processing, such as dilution of emissions to course grids, and simplified aerosol-climate couplings, such as offline or prognostic aerosols. This work aims to bridge these gaps. A more realistic representation of the fast chemical and physical processing that occurs on the urban scale has been approximated for 251 of the world’s largest urban areas [Cohen and Prinn, 2009, http://globalchange.mit.edu/files/document/MITJPSPGC_Rpt181.pdf]. This urban processing model has been coupled 2-way to a global aerosol-chemical transport model, and has been shown to lead to changes in the global and regional loading of aerosols, AOD, and AAOD [Cohen, 2010, PhD Thesis, http://web.mit.edu/~jasonbc/www/JasonCohenThesis2010.pdf)]. Here, we present the results of using this detailed urban processing model within the framework of an interactive aerosol-climate model [Kim et al, 2008, doi:10.1029/2007JD009756], integrated over a sufficiently long time frame, so as to allow for the effect on the climate system to be quantified. Specifically, the modeling effort analyzed the differences between a reference climate without aerosols, a climate with aerosols and without urban processing, and a climate with aerosols and including urban processing. In all of these cases, only the direct effects of aerosols were considered on the climate system. It has been demonstrated that there are significant errors induced by not including detailed urban processing, thus showing that to better understand the magnitude and distribution of the aerosol direct effect, detailed urban scale processing needs to be considered.

Cohen, J. B.; Wang, C.; Prinn, R. G.

2010-12-01

207

Urban Heat Islands and Their Mitigation vs. Local Impacts of Climate Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urban heat islands and their mitigation take on added significance, both negative and positive, when viewed from a climate-change perspective. In negative terms, urban heat islands can act as local exacerbating factors, or magnifying lenses, to the effects of regional and large-scale climate perturbations and change. They can locally impact meteorology, energy\\/electricity generation and use, thermal environment (comfort and heat

H. Taha

2007-01-01

208

Urban Security Initiative: Earthquake impacts on the urban ``system of systems``  

SciTech Connect

This paper is a discussion of how to address the problems of disasters in a large city, a project titled Urban Security Initiative undertaken by the Los Alamos National Laboratory. The paper first discusses the need to address the problems of disasters in large cities and ten provides a framework that is suitable to address this problem. The paper then provides an overview of the module of the project that deals with assessment of earthquake damage on urban infrastructure in large cities and an internet-based approach for consensus building leading to better coordination in the post-disaster period. Finally, the paper discusses the future direction of the project.

Maheshwari, S.; Jones, E.; Rasmussen, S.

1999-06-01

209

Emerald Cities: Urban Sustainability and Economic Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Here is a refreshing look at how American cities are leading the way toward greener, cleaner, and more sustainable forms of economic development. In Emerald Cities, Joan Fitzgerald shows how in the absence of a comprehensive national policy, cities like Chicago, New York, Portland, San Francisco, and Seattle have taken the lead in addressing the interrelated environmental problems of global

Joan Fitzgerald

210

Impact of rehabilitation of Assiut barrage, Nile River, on groundwater rise in urban areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To make optimum use of the most vital natural resource of Egypt, the River Nile water, a number of regulating structures (in the form of dams and barrages) for control and diversion of the river flow have been constructed in this river since the start of the 20th century. One of these barrages is the Assiut barrage which will require considerable repairs in the near future. The design of the rehabilitation of the barrage includes a headpond with water levels maintained at a level approximately 0.60 m higher than the highest water level in the headpond of the present barrage. This development will cause an increase of the seepage flow from the river towards the adjacent agricultural lands, Assiut Town and villages. The increased head pond level might cause a rise of the groundwater levels and impedance of drainage outflows. The drainage conditions may therefore be adversely affected in the so-called impacted areas which comprise floodplains on both sides of the Nile for about 70 km upstream of the future barrage. A rise in the groundwater table, particularly when high river levels impede drainage, may result in waterlogging and secondary salinization of the soil profile in agricultural areas and increase of groundwater into cellars beneath buildings in the urban areas. In addition, a rise in the groundwater table could have negative impact on existing sanitation facilities, in particular in the areas which are served with septic tanks. The impacts of increasing the headpond level were assessed using a three-dimensional groundwater model. The mechanisms of interactions between the Nile River and the underlying Quaternary aquifer system as they affect the recharge/discharge processes are comprehensively outlined. The model has been calibrated for steady state and transient conditions against historical data from observation wells. The mitigation measures for the groundwater rise in the urban areas have been tested using the calibrated mode.

Dawoud, Mohamed A.; El Arabi, Nahed E.; Khater, Ahmed R.; van Wonderen, Jan

2006-08-01

211

[Changes in urban development: is the globalization era one of urban deconcentration?].  

PubMed

Urbanization patterns in Mexico during the past five decades clearly reflect trends in the country's capitalist development. Accelerated industrialization with protectionism; redistributive policies with unlimited expansion of public expenditures; industrial conversion attended by economic crisis and structural adjustment during the "lost decade" of the 1980s; and indiscriminate opening, currency instability, and anti-inflation measures in the stage of globalization represent four successive phases. This work argues that the commercial opening and application of a neoliberal model are likely to renew tendencies toward concentration of population and economic activity in a few metropolitan areas. There are indications that manufacturing is again tending to concentrate in the older industrial cities, especially Mexico City. The 1995 census suggests that, beginning in 1988, the metropolitan areas again began to attract population growth, after a cycle of outflow from the center city to the metropolitan periphery in the 1970s and 1980s. The trend toward deconcentration, thus, may not represent a linear and long-term tendency. Instead, fluctuations over time are intimately related to macroeconomic forces and regulatory mechanisms that influence the urban system. No consensus has been reached concerning the theoretical explanations of effects on regional or urban systems when international restrictions on commerce are eliminated. The neoclassical perspective predicts a homogenizing effect, assuming that key conditions are met, while a competing theory predicts that increasing competition will inevitably be met by increases in the scale of production. Incentives to focus production in a small number of places would lead to economic and demographic concentration in the urban centers or regions enjoying better infrastructure, more qualified labor forces, and more extensive markets for labor and consumption. A renewed cycle of locus in Mexico's largest metropolitan zones may currently be underway. PMID:12158086

Rivera, S

1997-01-01

212

Impact of Urbanization on Water Quantity and Quality: The Need for an Integrative Watershed Modeling Approach  

EPA Science Inventory

Economic development through natural resource extraction is the primary driver of land use change. Land use change generally occurs as a result of urban development (residential, commercial, and industrial), agriculture (pasture and crop production), forestry (wood for constructi...

213

Impact of Female Enrollment on an Urban Institution.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Computer files containing enrollment data for an urban, multi-campus community college for Fall 1972 and Fall 1978 were examined as part of a longitudinal study to determine: (1) enrollment trends of male and female students; (2) enrollment trends of male and female students for selected curriculum areas (Arts, Business Technology,…

Hunt, W. Kevin; And Others

214

The Impact of State Enterprise Zones on Urban Manufacturing Establishments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since the early 1980s, the vast majority of states have implemented enterprise zones. This paper analyzes urban zones in six states, examining the factors that states use to choose zone locations and the subsequent effect of the zones on business activity and employment. The source of outcome data is the U.S. Bureau of Census' longitudinal…

Greenbaum, Robert T.; Engberg, John B.

2004-01-01

215

Special Issue "Impact of Natural Hazards on Urban Areas and Infrastructure" in the Bulletin of Earthquake Engineering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This special issue includes selected papers on the topic of earthquake impact from the sessions held in 2004 in Nice, France and in 2005 in Vienna, Austria at the first and respectivelly the second European Geosciences Union General Assembly. Since its start in 1999, in the Hague, Netherlands, the hazard of earthquakes has been the most popular of the session. The respective calls in 2004 was for: Nature's forces including earthquakes, floods, landslides, high winds and volcanic eruptions can inflict losses to urban settlements and man-made structures such as infrastructure. In Europe, recent years have seen such significant losses from earthquakes in south and south-eastern Europe, floods in central Europe, and wind storms in western Europe. Meanwhile, significant progress has been made in understanding disasters. Several scientific fields contribute to a holistic approach in the evaluation of capacities, vulnerabilities and hazards, the main factors on mitigating urban disasters due to natural hazards. An important part of the session is devoted to assessment of earthquake shaking and loss scenarios, including both physical damage and human causalities. Early warning and rapid damage evaluation are of utmost importance for addressing the safety of many essential facilities, for emergency management of events and for disaster response. In case of earthquake occurrence strong motion networks, data processing and interpretation lead to preliminary estimation (scenarios) of geographical distribution of damages. Factual information on inflicted damage, like those obtained from shaking maps or aerial imagery permit a confrontation with simulation maps of damage in order to define a more accurate picture of the overall losses. Most recent developments towards quantitative and qualitative simulation of natural hazard impacts on urban areas, which provide decision-making support for urban disaster management, and success stories of and lessons learned from disaster mitigation will be presented. The session includes contributions showing methodological and modelling approaches from scientists in geophysical/seismological, hydrological, remote sensing, civil engineering, insurance, and urbanism, amongst other fields, as well as presentations from practitioners working on specific case studies, regarding analysis of recent events and their impact on cities as well as re-evaluation of past events from the point of view of long-time recovery. In 2005 it was called for: Most strategies for both preparedness and emergency management in case of disaster mitigation are related to urban planning. While natural, engineering and social sciences contribute to the evaluation of the impact of earthquakes and their secondary events (including tsunamis, earthquake triggered landslides, or fire), floods, landslides, high winds, and volcanic eruptions on urban areas, there are the instruments of urban planning which are to be employed for both visualisation as well as development and implementation of strategy concepts for pre- and postdisaster intervention. The evolution of natural systems towards extreme conditions is taken into consideration so far at it concerns the damaging impact on urban areas and infrastructure and the impact on the natural environment of interventions to reduce such damaging impact.

Bostenaru Dan, M.

2009-04-01

216

Impact of Megacity Shanghai on the Urban Heat-Island Effects over the Downstream City Kunshan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The impact of upstream urbanization on the enhanced urban heat-island (UHI) effects between Shanghai and Kunshan is investigated by analyzing seven years of surface observations and results from mesoscale model simulations. The observational analysis indicates that, under easterly and westerly winds, the temperature difference between Shanghai and Kunshan increases with wind speed when the wind speed < 5 m s^{-1} . The Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) numerical model, coupled with a one-layer urban canopy model (UCM), is used to examine the UHI structure and upstream effects by replacing the urban surface of Shanghai and/or Kunshan with cropland. The WRF/UCM modelling system is capable of reproducing the surface temperature and wind field reasonably well. The simulated urban canopy wind speed is a better representation of the near-surface wind speed than is the 10-m wind speed at the centre of Shanghai. Without the urban landscape of Shanghai, the surface air temperature over downstream Kunshan would decrease by 0.2-0.4 ^{circ } C in the afternoon and 0.4-0.6 ^{circ } C in the evening. In the simulation with the urban landscape of Shanghai, a shallow cold layer is found above the UHI, with a minimum temperature of about -0.2 to - 0.5 ^{circ } C during the afternoon hours. Strong horizontal divergence is found in this cold layer. The easterly breeze over Shanghai is strengthened at the surface by strong UHI effects, but weakened at upper levels. With the appearance of the urban landscape specific humidity decreases by 0.5-1 g kg^{-1} within the urban area because of the waterproof property of an urban surface. On the other hand, the upper-level specific humidity is increased because of water vapour transferred by the strong upward vertical motions.

Kang, Han-Qing; Zhu, Bin; Zhu, Tong; Sun, Jia-Li; Ou, Jian-Jun

2014-05-01

217

Conceptual framework for describing selected urban and community impacts of federal energy policies  

SciTech Connect

A conceptual framework is presented for describing selected urban and community impacts of Federal energy policies. The framework depends on a simple causal model. The outputs of the model are impacts, changes in the state of the world of particular interest to policymakers. At any given time, a set of determinants account for the state of the world with respect to an impact category. Application of the model to a particular impact category requires: establishing a definition and measure for the impact category and identifying the determinants of these impacts. Analysis of the impact of a particular policy requires the following: identifying the policy and its effects (as estimated by others), isolating any effects that themselves constitute an urban and community impact, identifying any effects that change the value of determinants, and describing the impact with reference to the new values of determinants. This report provides a framework for these steps. Three impacts addressed are: neighborhood stability, housing availability, and quality and availability of public services. In each chapter, a definition and measure for the impact are specified; its principal determinants are identified; how the causal model can be used to estimate impacts by applying it to three illustrative Federal policies (domestic oil price decontrol, building energy performance standards, and increased Federal aid for mass transit) is demonstrated. (MCW)

Morris, F.A,; Marcus, A.A.; Keller, D.

1980-06-01

218

Research of promoting coordinated development of urban and rural teachers by network teaching platform  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this country, there is a great gap on teacher resources allocation in urban and rural. Aiming at solving the problems of lacking qualified teachers resource and teacher post-training in rural, this paper presents network teaching platform to promote coordinated development of urban and rural areas teachers. It sets up a model for promoting coordinated development of urban and rural

Jinglin Jia; Dan Wu

2009-01-01

219

U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development: Publications  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Each year, the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) makes all of their published research reports, case studies, and guidebooks publicly available on this website. The documents are arranged thematically, and they include everything from "Affordable Housing" to "Zoning". Given the recent interest in building "green", many visitors will want to click on over to the "Housing Production and Technology" area. On the right hand side of the page, visitors will find the "Popular Picks" list. Some of the publications are intended for an audience with a more technical background, but many of the works deal quite broadly with urban policy matters. The site is rounded out by a direct link to "New Publications" area near the bottom of the homepage and social media functionality.

220

Biology Experience Impacts Career Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Evaluates a collaborative program in which high achieving biology students participate in genetics research under the guidance and supervision of a geneticist. Reviews the impact of their participation on college and career choices as well as understanding of science methodology, genetics, agricultural science, and product development. (SOE)

Moore, Mary Jane; Holmes, William R.

2003-01-01

221

Quantifying the Urban Water Supply Impacts of Climate Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

The difference in timing between water supply and urban water demand necessitates water storage. Existing reservoirs were\\u000a designed based upon hydrologic data from a given historical period, and, given recent evidence for climatic change, may be\\u000a insufficient to meet demand under future climate change scenarios. The focus of this study is to present a generally applicable\\u000a methodology to assess the

Jeffrey K. O’Hara; Konstantine P. Georgakakos

2008-01-01

222

A Comparison of Natural and Urban Characteristics and the Development of Urban Intensity Indices Across Six Geographic Settings  

USGS Publications Warehouse

As part of the U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Assessment Program, the effects of urbanization on stream ecosystems have been intensively investigated in six metropolitan areas in the United States. Approximately 30 watersheds in each area, ranging in size from 4 to 560 square kilometers (median is 50 square kilometers), and spanning a development gradient from very low to very high urbanization, were examined near Atlanta, Georgia; Raleigh, North Carolina; Denver, Colorado; Dallas-Fort Worth, Texas; Portland, Oregon; and Milwaukee-Green Bay, Wisconsin. These six studies are a continuation of three previous studies in Boston, Massachusetts; Birmingham, Alabama; and Salt Lake City, Utah. In each study, geographic information system data for approximately 300 variables were assembled to (a) characterize the environmental settings of the areas and (b) establish a consistent multimetric urban intensity index based on locally important land-cover, infrastructure, and socioeconomic variables. This paper describes the key features of urbanization and the urban intensity index for the study watersheds within each area, how they differ across study areas, and the relation between the environmental setting and the characteristics of urbanization. A number of features of urbanization were identified that correlated very strongly to population density in every study area. Of these, road density had the least variability across diverse geographic settings and most closely matched the multimetric nature of the urban intensity index. A common urban intensity index was derived that ranks watersheds across all six study areas. Differences in local natural settings and urban geography were challenging in (a) identifying consistent urban gradients in individual study areas and (b) creating a common urban intensity index that matched the site scores of the local urban intensity index in all areas. It is intended that the descriptions of the similarities and differences in urbanization and environmental settings across these study areas will provide a foundation for understanding and interpreting the effects of urbanization on stream ecosystems in the studies being conducted as part of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program.

Falcone, James; Stewart, Jana; Sobieszczyk, Steven; Dupree, Jean; McMahon, Gerard; Buell, Gary

2007-01-01

223

Nutrient Input and Dynamics in a Restored Urban Stream Impacted by Mixed Sewer Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Export and retention of nutrients in urban watersheds remains poorly constrained. Available data is often based on studies conducted on large-scale, forested and mixed use watersheds rather than small urbanized systems. Additionally, there is a lack of data on the amount and impact of nutrients introduced into urban waterways as the result of stream-sewer interactions and a varied flow regime. In order to address this knowledge gap, water was sampled during baseflow (bi-weekly from April 2007 to present) and stormflow from a restored urban stream in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (USA) impacted by both Sanitary Sewer and Combined Sewer Overflow (SSO and CSO, respectively) networks. Nine Mile Run (NMR), a restored urban stream, drains a 1600 hectare urban watershed characterized as 38% impervious. Analysis of post-restoration water quality data suggests that atmospheric deposition and sewage both contribute nutrient pollution to the stream. We estimate input of atmospheric nitrate deposition to the watershed is 18.96 kg NO3- ha-1yr-1, yet a preliminary nitrogen budget suggests that nitrate export from the basin is consistently higher (~30 kg NO3- ha-1yr-1). Mean baseflow nitrate concentrations are substantially higher during the wetter portions of 2008 (12.07 mg NO3 -/L) as compared to the drier 2007 year (7.3 mg NO3 -/L). This suggests increased stream/sewer interactions during wetter periods. These results document the effect of Sanitary Sewer systems on an urban stream and highlight the challenges inherent in improving urban water quality through physical stream restorations.

Sikora, M. T.; Elliott, E. M.; Bain, D. J.

2008-12-01

224

A Multi-scale Method of Mapping Urban Influence  

EPA Science Inventory

Urban development can impact environmental quality and ecosystem services well beyond urban extent. Many methods to map urban areas have been developed and used in the past, but most have simply tried to map existing extent of urban development, and all have been single-scale t...

225

A Numerical Study of the Urban Heat Island in the Coastal Tropical City of San Juan, Puerto Rico: Model Validation and Impacts of LCLU Changes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Urban sprawls in tropical locations are rapidly accelerating and it is more evident in islands where a large percentage of the population resides along the coasts. This paper focuses on the analysis of the impacts of land use and land cover for urbanization in the tropical coastal city of San Juan, in the tropical island of Puerto Rico. A mesoscale numerical model, the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS), is used to study specific characteristics and patterns of the urban heat island in the San Juan Metropolitan Area (SJMA), the most noticeable urban core of the Caribbean. The research present in this paper makes use of the observations obtained during the airborne San Juan Atlas Mission in two ways. First, surface and rawinsonde data are used to validate the atmospheric model yielding satisfactory results. Second, airborne remote sensing information is used to update the model's surface characteristics to obtain a detailed configuration of the SJMA in order to perform the LCLU changes impact analysis. This analysis showed that the presence of San Juan has an impact reflected in higher air temperatures over the area occupied by the city, with positive values of up to 2.5 C, for the simulations that have specified urban LCLU indexes in the bottom boundary. One interesting result of the impact analysis was the finding of a precipitation disturbance shown as a difference in total accumulated rainfall between simulation with the city and with a potential natural vegetation induced by the presence of the urban area. Model results indicate that the urban-induced cloud formation and precipitation development occur mainly downwind of the city, including the accumulated precipitation. This spatial pattern can be explained by the presence of a-larger urbanized area in the southwest sector of the city, and of the approaching northeasterly trade winds.

Comarazamy, Daniel E.; Gonzalez, Jorge E.; Luvall, Jeff; Rickman, Douglas L.

2007-01-01

226

Preparation for Teaching in Urban Schools: Perceptions of the Impact of Traditional Preparation Programs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

During 2 decades of debate about teacher preparation education practitioners and policymakers have called for a more skilled professional teaching force (Darling-Hammond, 2010). Of particular concern has been poverty's impact on education--specifically in struggling urban schools--prompting legislation such as the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB),…

Timmons, Crystal

2010-01-01

227

Urban Uses and Social Impact of New Communication Technology: A Critical and Philosophical Perspective.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The impact of the new communication technology is analyzed in this paper in the context of cities and urbanization. The paper explores the concurrent decline of central cities and that of the mass media, as well as the rise of decentralization and "suburbanization" and the rise in media specialization. It suggests that the increase in multiple…

Burd, Gene

228

Coupling urban event-based and catchment continuous modelling for combined sewer overflow river impact assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since Water Framework Directive (WFD) was passed in year 2000, the conservation of water bodies in the EU must be understood in a completely different way. Regarding to combined sewer overflows (CSOs) from urban drainage networks, the WFD implies that we cannot accept CSOs because of their intrinsic features, but they must be assessed for their impact on the receiving

I. Andrés-Doménech; J. C. Múnera; F. Francés; J. B. Marco

2010-01-01

229

Coupling urban event-based and catchment continuous modelling for combined sewer overflow river impact assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the Water Framework Directive (WFD) was passed in year 2000, the protection of water bodies in the EU must be understood in a completely different way. Regarding to combined sewer overflows (CSOs) from urban drainage networks, the WFD implies that CSOs cannot be accepted because of their intrinsic features, but must be assessed for their impact on the receiving

I. Andrés-Doménech; J. C. Múnera; F. Francés; J. B. Marco

2010-01-01

230

IMPERVIOUS SURFACE AREA AND BENTHIC MACROINVERTEBRATE RESPONSE AS INDEX OF IMPACT FROM URBANIZATION ON FRESHWATER WETLANDS  

EPA Science Inventory

The use of benthic macroinvertebrates to monitor water quality and ecological integrity is not as well established for wetlands as it is for rivers, streams and lakes where this form of biomonitoring is now a formalized procedure. he impact to wetlands from urbanization (as measu...

231

Impact of age-paced parenting newsletters on urban families with at-risk children  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of age-paced parenting newsletters on families with children at-risk for developmental delay. The families were recruited at two urban pediatric clinics when the children were between 3 and 18 months of age. Sixty families were randomly assigned to the intervention group (n = 30) and the control group ( n

Wendy Tineo

2002-01-01

232

Combating Deforestation? - Impacts of Improved Stove Dissemination on Charcoal Consumption in Urban Senegal  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dissemination of improved cooking stoves (ICS) is frequently considered an effective instrument to combat deforestation. This paper evaluates the impacts of an ICS dissemination project in urban Senegal implemented by Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (German Agency for International Cooperation, or GIZ). Based on a survey among 624 households, we examine the effects of the intervention on charcoal consumption.

Gunther Bensch; Jörg Peters

2011-01-01

233

Revolution at the Margins: The Impact of Competition on Urban School Systems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book examines the impact of school vouchers and charter schools on three urban school districts, exploring the causes of behaviors observed and explaining how the structure of competition will likely shape the future of public education. The book draws on case studies from three districts at the center of the school choice debate: Milwaukee,…

Hess, Frederick M.

234

Gender Differences in the Longitudinal Impact of Exposure to Violence on Mental Health in Urban Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is evidence of gender differences in psychopathology during adolescence, but little research has investigated gender differences in trauma-related symptoms. Exposure to violence is a commonly experienced potentially traumatic event among urban adolescents, and the few studies examining gender differences in its mental health impact have…

Zona, Kate; Milan, Stephanie

2011-01-01

235

Quality characterization and impact assessment of highway runoff in urban and rural area of Guangzhou, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accurate knowledge of the quality and environmental impact of the highway runoff in Pear River Delta, South China is required\\u000a to assess this important non-point pollution source. This paper presents the quality characterization and environmental impact\\u000a assessment of rainfall runoff from highways in urban and rural area of Guangzhou, the largest city of Pear River Delta over\\u000a 1 year’s investigation. Multiple

Huayang Gan; Muning Zhuo; Dingqiang Li; Yongzhang Zhou

2008-01-01

236

IMPACT OF CORRIDOR STRUCTURE ON URBAN HEAT ISLAND IN BEIJING, CHINA  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper focuses on examining the impact of corridor structure on urban heat island using the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) data. To analyze the impact of the three corridor structures, i.e., road, greenbelt and water body, on surrounding temperatures, some of representative regions of road?greenbelt?water were chosen, and several surrounding regions were also chosen as comparative

Mingyi DU; Weixian SUN; Yurong CHEN

237

The impact of urban planning on land use and land cover in Pudong of Shanghai, China.  

PubMed

Functional zones in cities constitute the most conspicuous components of newly developed urban area, and have been a hot spot for domestic and foreign investors in China, which not only show the expanse of urban space accompanied by the shifts both in landscape (from rural to urban) and land use (from less extensive to extensive), but also display the transformation of regional ecological functions. By using the theories and methods of landscape ecology, the structure of landscape and landscape ecological planning can be analyzed and evaluated for studying the urban functional zones' layout. In 1990, the Central Government of China declared to develop and open up Pudong New Area so as to promote economic development in Shanghai. Benefited from the advantages of Shanghai's location and economy, the government of Pudong New Area has successively built up 7 different functional zones over the past decade according to their functions and strategic goals. Based on the multi-spectral satellite imageries taken in 1990, 1997 and 2000, a landscape ecology analysis was carried out for Pudong New Area of Shanghai, supported by GIS technology. Green space (including croplands) and built-up area are the major factors considered in developing urban landscape. This paper was mainly concerned with the different spatial patterns and dynamic of green space, built-up areas and new buildings in different functional zones, influenced by different functional layouts and development strategies. The rapid urbanization in Pudong New Area resulted in a more homogeneous landscape. Agricultural landscape and suburban landscape were gradually replaced by urban landscape as the degree of urbanization increased. As consequence of urbanization in Pudong, not only built-up patches, but also newly-built patches and green patches merged into one large patch, which should be attributed to the construction policy of extensive green space as the urban development process in Pudong New Area. The shape of green area of 7 functional zones became more and more regular because of the horticultural needs in Shanghai urban planning. Some suggestions were finally made for the study of future urban planning and layout. PMID:12765263

Zhao, Bin; Nakagoshi, Nobukazu; Chen, Jia-kuan; Kong, Ling-yi

2003-03-01

238

Biodiversity and Residential Development Beyond the Urban Fringe  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This chapter describes the impacts of rural exurban development on the abundance and variety of plants and animals in North\\u000a American ecosystems. The principles of landscape ecology provide a framework for considering the ways that exurban development\\u000a can impact biodiversity. We survey the literature and describe the responses of varying components of biodiversity to rural\\u000a exurban development in North America.

Carl E. Bock; Jane H. Bock

239

The Importance of Team Leadership Development to the Urban University's Mission.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Perspectives on the role of the urban university and the development and implementation of team leadership programs are presented. It is suggested that the urban metropolis is a part of the university's mission, and is an extremely complex network of institutional structures, and human resources. The university can respond to urban needs by…

Maio, Eugene A.; Buchtel, Foster S.

240

Research on reform and development model for rural urbanization of Xiamen suburbs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rural urbanization is a relief for the thirst for urban construction land in the course of existing urban expansion and, on the other hand, unavoidably results in the expropriation of massive farmers' land, this will definitely shake the public stability and unity if the farmers' legal rights are left unprotected, and only reasonably-designed reform and development model as well as

Li-yun Wang

2010-01-01

241

Impact of different urban structures on the microclimate in the city of Dresden, Germany  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Heat island intensity of cities and, therefore, urban warming mainly depends on the density of urban structures and sealing of urban areas. Against the background of a probable increase of summer temperature in Central Europe, actual urban planning strategies should consider the importance of open areas and vegetation in the centre of cities for the urban microclimate. This study deals with the interaction between open areas and vegetation structures in the urban micro climate of Dresden. Investigations are embedded in the project "city nature and open area structures under climate change" of the German Federal Agency for Nature Conservation which aims to demonstrate impacts of different urban structures based on climatic factors and to identify their capability for adaptation. Main topic of this research is the determination of the capabilities of given and potentially vegetated areas and open areas in the inner city of Dresden to attenuate microclimatic extremes. The diversity of impacts of vegetated and open areas on the urban microclimate is presented by mobile bicycle measurements and model simulations. Simulations were carried out with the coupled vegetation-boundary layer model HIRVAC-2D and the three-dimensional microclimate model ENVI-met. Model output was compared to measurements of air temperature and air humidity on sunny days in the year 2009 to quantify cooling effects of vegetated areas for summer heat periods. ENVI-met is designed to simulate the surface-plant-atmosphere interactions in urban environment and allows the derivation of bioclimatic factors like Predicted Mean Vote (PMV) for different urban structures. PMV describes the thermal perception of a human body which can result in cold or heat stress. Simulations with ENVI-met were carried out to define the cooling effects of urban areas and to estimate microclimate effects on humans. HIRVAC quantifies the interactions of urban structures with the atmospheric boundary layer depending on area and volume density of vegetation considering the weighted urban surface types in the investigated area (e.g. grass covered areas, forested and sealed surfaces). Model results of HIRVAC were used to derive an easy manageable analytic function which shows the interactions between urban structure parameters and microclimatic quantities. Interactions of different urban structures and microclimate were determined by temperature differences to a reference area and by the distribution of PMV. Model output of temperature and PMV showed clearly the effects of vegetated areas in Dresden and therewith the impact to the thermal environment of humans. For example, the largest park of the city indicated a temperature drop of about 4°C compared to the surrounding with less vegetation. PMV inside the park showed distinct lower values (pleasant thermal environment for humans) compared to the sealed areas in the vicinity. The measurement campaign confirms the model results and verifies the cooling effects of vegetated areas.

Kurbjuhn, Cornelia; Goldberg, Valeri; Westbeld, Anna; Bernhofer, Christian

2010-05-01

242

Mitigation of urban heat islands: meteorology, energy, and airquality impacts  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents results from energy, meteorological andphotochemical (air quality) modeling for the Los Angeles Basin, one ofthe largest and smoggiest urban regions in the U.S. and the world. Oursimulations suggest that by mitigating urban heat islands, savings of 5to 10 percent peak utility load may be possible. In addition, heat islandmitigation can reduce smog formation by 10-20 percent. in summer, whichis as effective as controlling emissions from all mobile sources in theregion. For a typical late-August episode, our simulations suggest thatimplementing cool cities in the Los Angeles Basin would have a net effectof reducing ozone concentrations. Peak concentrations at 3 pm decrease byup to 7 percent (from 220 down to 205 ppb) while the total ozone mass inthe mixed layer decreases by up to 640 metric tons (a decrease of 4.7percent). Largest reductions in concentrations at 3 pm are on the orderof 50 ppb whereas the largest increases are on the order of 20 ppb. Withrespect to the National Ambient Air Quality Standard, domain widepopulation weighted exceedance exposure to ozone decreases by up to 20percent during peak afternoon hours and by up to 10 percent during thedaytime.

Taha, Haider; Meier, Alan; Gao, Weijun; Ojima, Toshio

1999-09-30

243

Economic Impact of Dyspepsia in Rural and Urban Malaysia: A Population-Based Study  

PubMed Central

Background/Aims The economic impact of dyspepsia in regions with a diverse healthcare system remains uncertain. This study aimed to estimate the costs of dyspepsia in a rural and urban population in Malaysia. Methods Economic evaluation was performed based on the cost-of-illness method. Resource utilization and quality of life data over a specific time frame, were collected to determine direct, indirect and intangible costs related to dyspepsia. Results The prevalences of dyspepsia in the rural (n = 2,000) and urban (n = 2,039) populations were 14.6% and 24.3% respectively. Differences in socioeconomic status and healthcare utilisation between both populations were considerable. The cost of dyspepsia per 1,000 population per year was estimated at USD14,816.10 and USD59,282.20 in the rural and urban populations respectively. The cost per quality adjusted life year for dyspepsia in rural and urban adults was USD16.30 and USD69.75, respectively. Conclusions The economic impact of dyspepsia is greater in an urban compared to a rural setting. Differences in socioeconomic status and healthcare utilisation between populations are thought to contribute to this difference.

Yadav, Hematram; Everett, Simon M; Goh, Khean-Lee

2012-01-01

244

Environmental management of a highly impacted, urbanized tropical estuary: rehabilitation and restoration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The principles of the dynamics and interrelationships within the dominant subtropical and tropical Caribbean seagrass community have been studied previously before, during, and after impact. From these and scores of observations of damage and recovery patterns in Thalassia ecosystems, a sense of management recovery strategy has emerged. Artificial restoring of Thalassia testudinum seeds into areas cut off from stock (fruit, seeds) appeared feasible on a large scale after the Turkey Point (Biscayne Bay, Miami, Florida) restoration and test sampling throughout North Biscayne Bay. Two large-scale seeding attempts were made; after 11 months they compared favorably with Turkey Point specimens with regard to growth parameters, despite the turbidity and other persistent pollution. Thus, the possible areas in which Thalassia seed restoration can be used has increased to include estuaries of multiple impact still in various stages of recovery after physical and sewage pollution. This technique should be especially useful to “developing” nations where important nearshore fisheries nurseries based on Thalassia ecosystems have been heavily damaged and now lie barren. Man's impact on the estuary where seed restoration was attempted includes the following activities: 50% of the bay bottom directly dredged or filled (leaving much unconsolidated sediment); 50 million gallons of domestic waste dumped directly into a low flushing part of the bay for 20 years; seven major causeways transecting the bay, restricting circulation and flushing; two artificial inlets made into navigational channels; freshwater sheet flow drastically changed due to channelization by flood-control canals; urban runoff from a million people entering the bay. Most of the impacts have now abated; however, their long-term effects remain.

Thorhaug, A.

1980-03-01

245

Development of a geospatial model to quantify, describe and map urban growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the United States, there is widespread concern about understanding and curbing urban sprawl, which has been cited for its negative impacts on natural resources, economic health, and community character. There is not, however, a universally accepted definition of urban sprawl. It has been described using quantitative measures, qualitative terms, attitudinal explanations, and landscape patterns. To help local, regional and

Emily Hoffhine Wilson; James D. Hurd; Daniel L. Civco; Michael P. Prisloe; Chester Arnold

2003-01-01

246

The Impact of Drainage Network Structure on Flooding in a Small Urban Watershed in Metropolitan Baltimore, MD  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The impact of urban development on watershed-scale hydrology is examined in a small urban watershed in the Metropolitan Baltimore area. Analyses focus on Dead Run, a 14.3 km2 tributary of the Gwynns Falls, which is the principal study watershed of the Baltimore Ecosystem Study. Field observations of rainfall and discharge have been collected for storms occurring in the 2003, 2004, and 2005 warm seasons including the flood of record for the USGS Dead Run at Franklintown gage (7 July 2004), in which 5 inches of rain fell in less than 4 hours. Dead Run has stream gages at 6 locations with drainage areas ranging from 1.2 to 14.3 km2. Hydrologic response to storm events varies greatly in each of the subwatersheds due to the diverse development types located there. These subwatersheds range in land use from medium-density residential, with and without stormwater management control, to commercial/light industrial with large impervious lots and an extensive network of stormwater management ponds. The unique response of each subwatershed is captured using field observations in conjunction with the EPA Stormwater Management Model (SWMM), which routes storm runoff over the land surface and through the drainage network of a watershed. Of particular importance to flood response is the structure of the drainage network (both surface channels and storm drain network) and its connectivity to preferential flow paths within the watershed. The Dead Run drainage network has been delineated using geospatial data derived from aerial photography and engineering planning drawings. Model analyses are used to examine the characteristics of flow paths that control flood response in urban watersheds. These analyses aim to identify patterns in urban flow pathways and use those patterns to predict response in other urban watersheds.

Meierdiercks, K. L.; Smith, J. A.; Miller, A. J.

2006-12-01

247

Urban tourism and small tourism enterprise development in Johannesburg: The case of township tourism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urban tourism is a focus of vibrant research in developed countries. In this paper the focus is upon an element of urban tourism\\u000a in a developing world city, viz., Johannesburg. Specific attention centers on an analysis of the role of small enterprise development in urban tourism. The\\u000a major issues surrounding the development of small tourism businesses in two of Johannesburg's

Christian M. Rogerson

2004-01-01

248

Impact of urban stormwater runoff on estuarine environmental quality  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Urban stormwater runoff could contribute to the deterioration of water quality of a receiving water body. In this research, field studies and laboratory experiments were conducted to assess the microbial contamination resulting from urban stormwater runoff into the Lake Pontchartrain estuary. Fecal coliform, Escherichia coli and enterococci were used as indicator organisms. The specific objectives of the research were to examine the distribution of the indicator organisms in different environmental elements (water column, suspended particles and sediment) and to further investigate the mechanisms related to their fate. Results of the research indicated satisfactory water quality at the study sites during dry weather periods. However, a significant increase was observed in the concentrations of the indicator organisms in the water columns and sediment at specific study sites following a given stormwater event. Three to seven days were needed for the elevated indicator organisms to return back to their background levels in the water column and sediment, respectively. The mechanism of sedimentation contributed to a reduction in the microbial concentration in the water column, as the indicator organisms were found to attach to the suspended particles in the stormwater. The percentage of fecal coliform, E. coli and enterococci attached to the suspended particles was found to be within the range of 9.8-27.5%, 21.8-30.4%, and 8.4-11.5% of the total indicator organisms in the stormwater loaded into the estuary, respectively. About 75-80% of the total indicator organisms remained free-floating for some distance in the water column before dying off.

Jeng, Hueiwang Anna C.; Englande, Andrew J.; Bakeer, Reda M.; Bradford, Henry B.

2005-06-01

249

Urban surface modeling and the meso-scale impact of cities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  New developments of the international community in modeling the urban canopy surface energy balance are presented and classified\\u000a into five main categories: (i) models statistically fit to observations, (ii) and (iii) modified vegetation schemes with or\\u000a without drag terms in the canopy, and (iv) and (v), new urban canopy schemes, that present both horizontal and vertical surfaces,\\u000a again with or

V. Masson

2006-01-01

250

Developing Successful Runoff Control Programs for Urbanized Areas.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The manual describes ways that local governments can approach the issues surrounding the implementation of urban runoff retrofit technology even when the control options are limited. It reviews appropriate 'ultra-urban' technologies for situations where m...

R. Iosco

1994-01-01

251

Urban impact on air quality in RegCM/CAMx couple for MEGAPOLI project - high resolution sensitivity study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent studies show considerable effect of atmospheric chemistry and aerosols on climate on regional and local scale. For the purpose of qualifying and quantifying the magnitude of climate forcing due to atmospheric chemistry/aerosols on regional scale, the development of coupling of regional climate model and chemistry/aerosol model was started on the Department of Meteorology and Environmental Protection, Charles University, Prague, for the EC FP6 Project QUANTIFY and EC FP6 Project CECILIA. For this coupling, existing regional climate model and chemistry transport model have been used at very high resolution of 10km grid. Climate is calculated using RegCM while chemistry is solved by CAMx. The experiments with the couple have been prepared for EC FP7 project MEGAPOLI assessing the impact of the megacities and industrialized areas on climate. Meteorological fields generated by RCM drive CAMx transport, chemistry and a dry/wet deposition. A preprocessor utility was developed for transforming RegCM provided fields to CAMx input fields and format. New domain have been settled for MEGAPOLI purpose in 10km resolution including all the European "megacities" regions, i.e. London metropolitan area, Paris region, industrialized Ruhr area, Po valley etc. There is critical issue of the emission inventories available for 10km resolution including the urban hot-spots, TNO emissions are adopted for this sensitivity study in 10km resolution for comparison of the results with the simulation based on merged TNO emissions, i.e. basically original EMEP emissions at 50 km grid. The sensitivity test to switch on/off Paris area emissions is analysed as well. Preliminary results for year 2005 are presented and discussed to reveal whether the concept of effective emission indices could help to parameterize the urban plume effects in lower resolution models. Interactive coupling is compared to study the potential of possible impact of urban air-pollution to the urban area climate.

Halenka, T.; Huszar, P.; Belda, M.

2010-09-01

252

DEVELOPMENT OF METHODS TO DEFINE WATER QUALITY EFFECTS OF URBAN RUNOFF  

EPA Science Inventory

The projected costs for treating combined sewer overflows and urban runoff nationwide are extremely large, and therefore necessitate that methods be available to quantitatively evaluate the receiving water impacts associated with these discharges. This report summarizes the resul...

253

Green Infrastructure and Low-Impact Development Technologies  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students are introduced to innovative stormwater management strategies that are being used to restore the hydrology and water quality of urbanized areas to pre-development conditions. Collectively called green infrastructure (GI) and low-impact development (LID) technologies, they include green roofs and vegetative walls, bioretention or rain gardens, bioswales, planter boxes, permeable pavement, urban tree canopy, rainwater harvesting, downspout disconnection, green streets and alleys, and green parking. These approaches differ from the traditional centralized stormwater collection system with the idea of handling stormwater at its sources, resulting in many environmental, economic and societal benefits. A PowerPoint® presentation provides photographic examples, and a companion file gives students the opportunity to sketch in their ideas for using the technologies to make improvements to 10 real-world design scenarios.

Water Awareness Research and Education (WARE) Research Experience for Teachers (RET),

254

Eye exercises of acupoints: their impact on refractive error and visual symptoms in Chinese urban children  

PubMed Central

Background Traditional Chinese eye exercises of acupoints involve acupoint self-massage. These have been advocated as a compulsory measure to reduce ocular fatigue, as well as to retard the development of myopia, among Chinese school children. This study evaluated the impact of these eye exercises among Chinese urban children. Methods 409 children (195 males, 47.7%), aged 11.1?±?3.2 (range 6–17) years, from the Beijing Myopia Progression Study (BMPS) were recruited. All had completed the eye exercise questionnaire, the convergence insufficiency symptom survey (CISS), and a cycloplegic autorefraction. Among these, 395 (96.6%) performed the eye exercises of acupoints. Multiple logistic regressions for myopia and multiple linear regressions for the CISS score (after adjusting for age, gender, average parental refractive error, and time spent doing near work and outdoor activity) for the different items of the eye exercises questionnaire were performed. Results Only the univariate odds ratio (95% confidence interval) for “seriousness of attitude” towards performing the eye exercises of acupoints (0.51, 0.33-0.78) showed a protective effect towards myopia. However, none of the odds ratios were significant after adjusting for the confounding factors. The univariate and multiple ? coefficients for the CISS score were -2.47 (p?=?0.002) and -1.65 (p?=?0.039), -3.57 (p?=?0.002) and -2.35 (p?=?0.042), and -2.40 (p?=?0.003) and -2.29 (p?=?0.004), for attitude, speed of exercise, and acquaintance with acupoints, respectively, which were all significant. Conclusions The traditional Chinese eye exercises of acupoints appeared to have a modest effect on relieving near vision symptoms among Chinese urban children aged 6 to 17 years. However, no remarkable effect on reducing myopia was observed.

2013-01-01

255

Assessing the relative impact of urban expansion and climate change on high flows in a small catchment in Flanders (Belgium)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Flood risk is in Belgium, as well as in other European countries, of considerable importance because of the dense population and high industrialisation along the river banks. During the last decades it has become evident that global climate change has the potential to produce changes in the temporal and spatial distribution of precipitation and potential evapotranspiration and as a consequence will bring along changes in hydrological extremes (floods and low flows). In addition, land use change can significantly affect the catchment hydrology by altering several hydrological processes such as infiltration, evapotranspiration and surface runoff. Examining the sensitivity of hydrologic responses to these human-induced climate and land use changes is essential in order to formulate solid water management policies that effectively deal with the changing conditions. Hydrological models provide a framework for analysing the complex impacts on catchment hydrology. The overall objective of this study is to evaluate the relative impact of urban expansion and climate change on the catchment hydrology. The Molenbeek catchment (48 km²) in central Belgium is taken as an example application. The streamflow in the selected catchment was simulated by coupling a simplified runoff model (SRM) to a complex hydrodynamic model, implemented in the InfoWorks RS modelling system. The model was calibrated and validated using observed land cover maps of 1988 and 2000 and a 15-min series of water depths, measured at the catchment outlet. Preliminary results show that the calibrated model is able to predict both the peak flows and the total flow volumes relatively well for a selection of summer and winter rainfall events. Finally, a sensitivity analysis was carried out to assess possible future high flows in the catchment under different scenarios of urban expansion and climate change. In a first step, the impacts of climate change and urban expansion were evaluated separately. Next, the combined impact and the relative importance of both were evaluated. Three different urban expansion scenarios (low - medium - high change) for 2050 that varied in terms of quantity of urban expansion were developed and were used as an input layer in the hydrological model. Furthermore, low, mean and high climate change scenarios, that were based on a combined dynamical-statistical downscaling method, were used to generate possible future rainfall and potential evapotranspiration series that could be used as input variables in the hydrological model. The model application shows that it is possible to estimate the combined and individual effects on high flows induced by both a changing climate and by a changing land cover.

Poelmans, Lien; van Rompaey, Anton; Ntegeka, Victor; Willems, Patrick

2010-05-01

256

Impact of urban WWTP and CSO fluxes on river peak flow extremes under current and future climate conditions.  

PubMed

The impact of urban water fluxes on the river system outflow of the Grote Nete catchment (Belgium) was studied. First the impact of the Waste Water Treatment Plant (WWTP) and the Combined Sewer Overflow (CSO) outflows on the river system for the current climatic conditions was determined by simulating the urban fluxes as point sources in a detailed, hydrodynamic river model. Comparison was made of the simulation results on peak flow extremes with and without the urban point sources. In a second step, the impact of climate change scenarios on the urban fluxes and the consequent impacts on the river flow extremes were studied. It is shown that the change in the 10-year return period hourly peak flow discharge due to climate change (-14% to +45%) was in the same order of magnitude as the change due to the urban fluxes (+5%) in current climate conditions. Different climate change scenarios do not change the impact of the urban fluxes much except for the climate scenario that involves a strong increase in rainfall extremes in summer. This scenario leads to a strong increase of the impact of the urban fluxes on the river system. PMID:23787302

Keupers, Ingrid; Willems, Patrick

2013-01-01

257

Urban Quality Development and Management: Capacity Development and Continued Education for the Sustainable City  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to describe and discuss the development and the structure of a new international master on the subject of urban quality development and management (UQDM), and explore the potential of the process and the outcome in serving as models adoptable by faculty at other universities. Design/methodology/approach: The…

Lehmann, Martin; Fryd, Ole

2008-01-01

258

Research and Development and the Role of the Urban University in Strategic Economic Development Planning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Urban universities have a definite role to play within the context of strategic economic development. Coordination between state and local government, the private sector, and the academic community can lead to effective partnerships to formulate and implement economic development plans. Declining university enrollments and fewer dollars available…

Sheppard, Ronald J.

259

Predicting the Social Impacts of Restoration in an Urban Park  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analysis of potential impacts of a proposed salt marsh restoration in West River Memorial Park (New Haven, Connecticut) on surrounding human communities was conducted using resident surveys and behavioral sampling along the West River, a literature survey of recreational trends and behavior, and a geographic information system (GIS) of biophysical and demographic features. Current and potential use and perceptions of

Christina G. Page

260

Numerical study on the impacts of heterogeneous reactions on ozone formation in the Beijing urban area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The air quality model CMAQ-MADRID (Community Multiscale Air Quality-Model of Aerosol Dynamics, Reaction, Ionization and Dissolution) was employed to simulate summer O3 formation in Beijing China, in order to explore the impacts of four heterogeneous reactions on O3 formation in an urban area. The results showed that the impacts were obvious and exhibited the characteristics of a typical response of a VOC-limited regime in the urban area. For the four heterogeneous reactions considered, the NO2 and HO2 heterogeneous reactions have the most severe impacts on O3 formation. During the O3 formation period, the NO2 heterogeneous reaction increased new radical creation by 30%, raising the atmospheric activity as more NO?NO2 conversion occurred, thus causing the O3 to rise. The increase of O3 peak concentration reached a maximum value of 67 ppb in the urban area. In the morning hours, high NO titration reduced the effect of the photolysis of HONO, which was produced heterogeneously at night in the surface layer. The NO2 heterogeneous reaction in the daytime is likely one of the major reasons causing the O3 increase in the Beijing urban area. The HO2 heterogeneous reaction accelerated radical termination, resulting in a decrease of the radical concentration by 44% at the most. O3 peak concentration decreased by a maximum amount of 24 ppb in the urban area. The simulation results were improved when the heterogeneous reactions were included, with the O3 and HONO model results close to the observations.

Xu, Jun; Zhang, Yuanhang; Wang, Wei

2006-12-01

261

Potential Impact of Rainfall on the Air-Surface Exchange of Total Gaseous Mercury from Two Common Urban Ground Surfaces  

EPA Science Inventory

The impact of rainfall on total gaseous mercury (TGM) flux from pavement and street dirt surfaces was investigated in an effort to determine the influence of wet weather events on mercury transport in urban watersheds. Street dirt and pavement are common urban ground surfaces tha...

262

Assessing the Impact of Urban Runoff in Recreational Beaches in South Carolina and Florida Using Culturable and QPCR Fecal Indicator  

EPA Science Inventory

Urban/suburban runoff carries a variety of pollutants that often includes bacterial pathogens and indicators of fecal contamination. The objective of this study was to assess the microbial water quality of recreational beaches impacted solely by urban runoff through the use of cu...

263

Impact of urban cover fraction on SMOS and SMAP surface soil moisture retrieval  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

L-band (~1.4 GHz) microwave radiometry has been widely acknowledged as the most promising technique for surface (top ~5cm) soil moisture observation at regional and global scales, due to its all weather capability, direct relationship to soil moisture, and reduced sensitivity to surface roughness and vegetation. Radiometer observations of microwave emission from the soil surface are used to estimate soil moisture through a radiative transfer model using ancillary information including land cover and soil properties etc. This technique has been applied to the ESA's (European Space Agency) Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) satellite, the first soil moisture dedicated space mission, launched on 2nd Nov. 2009. Similarly, radiometer techniques will be employed by NASA's (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) Soil Moisture Active and Passive (SMAP) mission, in both the passive and active-passive products. However, passive microwave soil moisture retrieval suffers from land surface heterogeneity at coarse scales; with the radiometer footprints of both missions being ~40 km, which is the best spatial resolution currently achievable using current satellite antenna technology. In order to achieve the ~0.04 m3/m3 target volumetric soil moisture accuracies at such scales, microwave contributions of non-soil targets (such as urban areas) within the sensors' field-of-view needs to be considered in the retrieval algorithm error budget and implementation, since the impact could potentially be significant if ignored. Currently there is a lack of knowledge on the microwave behaviour of non-soil targets, with little assessment of their microwave emissions and impact on satellite scale footprints. Therefore, the objectives of this study are to 1) investigate the relationship between urban induced brightness temperature uncertainties and urban fraction, 2) extract urban fraction thresholds for negligible brightness temperature impact by urban areas based on the SMOS and SMAP error budgets, and 3) use these thresholds to identify SMOS and SMAP pixels with likely non-negligible urban impacts world-wide. In this work, airborne datasets from three field campaigns in the Murrumbidgee catchment, in southeast of Australia, were used: i) the NAFE'06 (National Airborne Field Experiment in 2006), ii) the AACES-1 (Australian Airborne Cal/val Experiment for SMOS), and iii) the AACES-2. During these campaigns, brightness temperature observations were made at 1-km resolution across 20 independent SMOS/SMAP sized footprints of which a number contain urban areas of different size. The NSW (New South Wales, Australia) Land use map with 50 m resolution was used to distinguish brightness temperature observations of the urban area and surrounding natural land surface, from which urban fraction thresholds for SMOS and SMAP were derived. These thresholds were then applied globally based on an urban fraction map calculated using the MODIS Urban Land Cover 500-m product.

Ye, N.; Walker, J. P.; Rudiger, C.; Ryu, D.; Gurney, R.

2011-12-01

264

Development and Application of a New Grey Dynamic Hierarchy Analysis System (GDHAS) for Evaluating Urban Ecological Security  

PubMed Central

Selecting indicators based on the characteristics and development trends of a given study area is essential for building a framework for assessing urban ecological security. However, few studies have focused on how to select the representative indicators systematically, and quantitative research is lacking. We developed an innovative quantitative modeling approach called the grey dynamic hierarchy analytic system (GDHAS) for both the procedures of indicator selection and quantitative assessment of urban ecological security. Next, a systematic methodology based on the GDHAS is developed to assess urban ecological security comprehensively and dynamically. This assessment includes indicator selection, driving force-pressure-state-impact-response (DPSIR) framework building, and quantitative evaluation. We applied this systematic methodology to assess the urban ecological security of Tianjin, which is a typical coastal super megalopolis and the industry base in China. This case study highlights the key features of our approach. First, 39 representative indicators are selected for the evaluation index system from 62 alternative ones available through the GDHAS. Second, the DPSIR framework is established based on the indicators selected, and the quantitative assessment of the eco-security of Tianjin is conducted. The results illustrate the following: urban ecological security of Tianjin in 2008 was in alert level but not very stable; the driving force and pressure subsystems were in good condition, but the eco-security levels of the remainder of the subsystems were relatively low; the pressure subsystem was the key to urban ecological security; and 10 indicators are defined as the key indicators for five subsystems. These results can be used as the basis for urban eco-environmental management.

Shao, Chaofeng; Tian, Xiaogang; Guan, Yang; Ju, Meiting; Xie, Qiang

2013-01-01

265

Urban Development Resources: Economic Development Programs Around the United States.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Economic development program components are discussed and illustrated with descriptions of programs operating in communities around the Nation. These components include organizational options, subsidy devices, loan mechanisms, land assembly tools, and Fed...

1980-01-01

266

GARDEN SHOWS: THE DRIVING FORCE FOR LANDSCAPE MANAGEMENT, URBAN DEVELOPMENT AND INDUSTRY  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of international, federal, state and regional garden shows in the promotion of landscape management, urban development, and industry within Germany is reviewed and discussed.Since the post Second World War period, Germany has developed a tradition of garden shows as the impetus for ecological, cultural and economic development of urban areas and their environs. Initially, garden shows were used

Luise Preisler-Holl

2004-01-01

267

Human impacts in an urban port: The carbonate budget, Otago Harbour, New Zealand  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Otago Harbour is a long (23 km), narrow (mean width = 2 km), shallow (mean water depth = 4.5 m) tidal inlet covering 46 km 2 on the southeast coast of South Island, New Zealand (45°50'S, 170°35'E). Development of the City of Dunedin (pop. 125,000) and its associated port at Port Chalmers has been associated with extensive dredging, land reclamation, and shoreline construction. Here we develop a carbonate sediment budget for Otago Harbour, with limits defined at Mean High Water Spring and the harbour entrance; from the water-air interface to a few cm below the sediment-water interface. Carbonate is added to this system primarily by in-situ production (˜10,000 tonnes CaCO 3 y -1) and by transport though the harbour entrance from the longshore system (˜24,000 tonnes CaCO 3 y -1). Shellfishing (˜2 tonnes CaCO 3 y -1), dredging (˜18,000 tonnes CaCO 3 y -1), and early sea-floor processes such as abrasion and dissolution (˜2000 tonnes CaCO 3 y -1) remove carbonate from the system. The present-day carbonate budget results in ˜14,000 tonnes CaCO 3 y -1 sediment storage, equivalent to ˜0.14 mm y -1 accumulation. Two thousand years ago, the budget would have had nearly the same inputs but many fewer outputs, potentially resulting in storage twice what it is today; projected increases in human impacts suggest that carbonate storage may end within 100 years. Carbonate storage in sediments has a role in preserving environmental information and sequestering carbon, but the major value of a budget model is in clarifying the importance of human impacts. Urban harbours are not in a 'natural' state, and increasing human activity, both locally and globally, affects their overall health.

Smith, Abigail M.; Wood, Anna C. L.; Liddy, Michelle F. A.; Shears, Amy E.; Fraser, Ceridwen I.

2010-12-01

268

Elemental composition of airborne particulate matter in the multi-impacted urban area of Thessaloniki, Greece  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ambient concentrations of PM10 and their elemental composition in the multi-impacted area of Thessaloniki, N. Greece is presented in this study. High concentrations of PM10 were observed, with 80% exceedances of the proposed daily limit of 50?gm?3. The elemental concentrations were similar to the levels observed in moderately polluted urban areas. Spatial and temporal variation of particle mass and elemental

D Voutsa; C Samara; Th Kouimtzis; K Ochsenkühn

2002-01-01

269

Development of Gridded Fields of Urban Canopy Parameters for Advanced Urban Meteorological and Air Quality Models  

EPA Science Inventory

Urban dispersion and air quality simulation models applied at various horizontal scales require different levels of fidelity for specifying the characteristics of the underlying surfaces. As the modeling scales approach the neighborhood level (~1 km horizontal grid spacing), the...

270

Impact of urbanization on the concentrations and distribution of organic contaminants in boreal lake sediments.  

PubMed

The main goal of this study was to evaluate the impacts of a middle-sized Finnish urban area on the quality of sediments in an adjacent boreal lake. We investigated the sources and distribution of organic pollutants (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)) in the sediments from urban stormwater traps and from Lake Vesijärvi. Grab surface sediment samples were taken from Lake Vesijärvi at various distances (25-2,000 m) from four major stormwater drainage outlets and at 15 urban stormwater traps in areas with different degrees of urbanization. These samples were analysed for 16 PAHs and 28 PCBs with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The concentrations of pollutants in the lake sediments were elevated in the vicinity of the urban shore (?PAH 3-16, ?PCB up to 0.02-0.3 mg/kg dw) and decreased as a function of distance (?PAH 0.1-2.5, ?PCB 0.01-0.3 mg/kg dw at a distance of more than 500 m from the shore), whereas contamination levels in suburban areas were notably lower (?PAH 0.1-3, ?PCB < LOQ-0.03 mg/kg dw; did not decline with distance). Possible sources and pathways of contamination were also investigated. The majority of stormwater trap sediments contained predominantly asphalt-derived PAHs due to pulverized pavement. PAHs in lake sediments were of pyrogenic origin, including the combustion of gasoline, diesel and coal. Suggested pathways of lake contamination are urban runoff discharge, boat traffic and atmospheric deposition. PMID:22527470

Honkonen, Olga; Rantalainen, Anna-Lea

2013-02-01

271

The Impact of Growth Management Policies on Urban Form: Evidence from U.S. Metropolitan Areas with Growth Management Policies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The contemporary urban development pattern in the United States is characterized by land consumptive nature of development, such as a sprawled development pattern. Out of concern that the social and environmental costs of this development pattern outweigh their benefits, cities, counties and states have created a wide range of policy instruments designed to manage urban growth and to protect open

Muhammed Islam

2008-01-01

272

Science Curriculum Development as Teacher Development: A Descriptive Study of Urban School Change.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to describe the curriculum development process in a large mid-western urban school district as it was perceived by the teachers involved in this project over a four year period. This study was conducted using qualitative methods, particularly participant observation, semi-structured interviews and written surveys.…

Keiffer-Barone, Susan; McCollum, Terry; Rowe, John; Blackwell, Barbara

273

WRF\\/CHEM modeling of impacts of weather conditions modified by urban expansion on secondary organic aerosol formation over Pearl River Delta  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the online Weather Research and Forecasting and Chemistry (WRF\\/CHEM) model, coupled with urban canopy (UCM) and biogenic-emission models, is used to explore impacts of urban expansion on secondary organic aerosols (SOA) formation. Two scenarios of urban maps are used in WRF\\/CHEM to represent early 1990s (pre-urbanization) and current urban distribution in the Pearl River Delta (PRD). Month-long

Xuemei Wang; Zhiyong Wu; Guixiong Liang

2009-01-01

274

An Auxiliary Method To Reduce Potential Adverse Impacts Of Projected Land Developments: Subwatershed Prioritization  

EPA Science Inventory

An index based method is developed that ranks the subwatersheds of a watershed based on their relative impacts on watershed response to anticipated land developments, and then applied to an urbanizing watershed in Eastern Pennsylvania. Simulations with a semi-distributed hydrolo...

275

Between markets and partnerships: urban solid waste management and contributions to sustainable development?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper considers the extent to which new ways of delivering urban services contribute to urban sustainable development. Sustainable development is conceptualised in economic, social and environmental components. Market-led provision and public sector-civil society partnerships are examined, comparing Hyderabad, India with Nairobi, Kenya. Results show that strong variations in the strength of local government lead to contrasting results in the

J. Post; I. Baud

2003-01-01

276

Study on the development of urban low-carbon economy based on unascertained measure model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on unascertained theory, the paper introduced the modeling process of unascertained measure evaluation. According to the development of urban low-carbon economy, the paper constructs the model of development of urban low-carbon economy applying the unascertained measure model. The model verified its scientific, feasibility and practicality by applying the actual case.

Ma Ji-bin; Pang Na

2010-01-01

277

Modeled Impacts of Development Type on Runoff Volume and Infiltration Performance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Development type has emerged as an important focal point for addressing a wide range of social, cultural, and environmental concerns related to urban growth. Low impact development techniques that rely heavily on infiltration practices are increasingly being used to manage storm water. In this study, four development types (conventional curvilinear, urban cluster, coving, and new urbanism) were modeled both with and without infiltration practices to determine their relative effects on urban runoff. Modeling was performed with a modified version of the Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) runoff method that enables evaluation of infiltration practices. Model results indicate that urban cluster developments produce the smallest volume of runoff due to the large portion of land kept in a natural condition. Infiltration practices are most effective for small storms and in developments with Hydrologic Group A soils. Significant reductions in runoff can be achieved in all four development types if infiltration practices treat many impervious surfaces. As more infiltration practices are implemented, the differences in runoff among development types diminish. With a strategic combination of site layout and infiltration design, any development type can reduce hydrologic impacts, allowing developers to consider other factors, such as convenience, marketability, community needs, and aesthetics.

Brander, Kent E.; Owen, Katherine E.; Potter, Kenneth W.

2004-08-01

278

Dynamic modeling of Tampa Bay urban development using parallel computing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Urban land use and land cover has changed significantly in the environs of Tampa Bay, Florida, over the past 50 years. Extensive urbanization has created substantial change to the region's landscape and ecosystems. This paper uses a dynamic urban-growth model, SLEUTH, which applies six geospatial data themes (slope, land use, exclusion, urban extent, transportation, hillside), to study the process of urbanization and associated land use and land cover change in the Tampa Bay area. To reduce processing time and complete the modeling process within an acceptable period, the model is recoded and ported to a Beowulf cluster. The parallel-processing computer system accomplishes the massive amount of computation the modeling simulation requires. SLEUTH calibration process for the Tampa Bay urban growth simulation spends only 10 h CPU time. The model predicts future land use/cover change trends for Tampa Bay from 1992 to 2025. Urban extent is predicted to double in the Tampa Bay watershed between 1992 and 2025. Results show an upward trend of urbanization at the expense of a decline of 58% and 80% in agriculture and forested lands, respectively.

Xian, George; Crane, Mike; Steinwand, Dan

2005-08-01

279

Debt and the Built Urban Environment: Examining the Growth of Urban Slums in the Less Developed Countries, 1990–2010  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study examines the influence of external debt on the change in the proportion of the total population living in urban slum conditions in the less developed countries between 1990 and 2010, drawing from a political economy of the world-system theoretical perspective. Ordinary least squares panel regression illustrates external debt as a percent of gross national income has a

James Rice; Julie Steinkopf Rice

2012-01-01

280

Assessing the relative and cumulative impacts of future urbanisation and climate change on storm runoff in a peri-urban catchment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Urbanisation brings with it a range of impacts upon the urban water cycle, particularly during storm events where a loss of pervious surfaces (and increase in impervious surfaces) coupled with increased artificial drainage result in decreased infiltration and more rapid runoff - leading to an increased likelihood and magnitude of flooding. Such impacts are especially pronounced in peri-urban catchments where the rapid progression from rural to urban significantly alters storm runoff response, and could be further affected by climate change. This study provides a comparative analysis between the impacts of urbanisation (and associated change in impervious cover) and climate change within a rapidly developing peri-urban catchment in the south of England over a 50 year period. A new methodology for mapping long-term change in historical urban land-use from topographic maps was applied to derive decadal changes in impervious cover. Catchment monitoring was undertaken to provide observed flow and rainfall for indicative hydrological response and hydrological model calibration. The successive impacts of decadal increases in urbanisation on storm runoff were assessed using a hydrological model suited to representing the impacts of change in impervious cover and by applying design summer and winter storm events at both 5 year and 100 year return periods. Both the comparative and cumulative impacts of climate change upon generation of storm runoff were assessed by comparing scenarios of: i) no increase in urbanisation with climate change, and ii) urbanisation with climate change, with the baseline scenario of iii) urbanisation without climate change. Predicted future changes in monthly precipitation and potential evaporation were derived from a downscaled ensemble of climate change scenarios (2070-2099) from the UK Climate Projections (UKCP09) Regional Climate Model (RCM) under A1B emissions scenario. Results are discussed in relation to projections of future growth and climate change for developing peri-urban areas within localised catchments and for the regional Thames basin. The uncertainties in the applied modelling strategy are discussed in relation to the limitations of climate change data and the associated perturbation of design storm events in urban areas.

Miller, James; Kim, Hyeonjun; Kjeldsen, Thomas; Grebby, Stephen

2014-05-01

281

Evaluation of the spatial impacts of improved connectivity from urban transport investments. A GIS (Geographic Information System) application of the ICON indicator for urban areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

A well-designed urban public transport policy provides significant benefits: reduces congestion and costs, and decreases the number of accidents and environment impacts. Accessibility indicators are used by planners to assess the spatial effects of their proposals and to identify those areas requiring actions to ensure minimum conditions of service. They are also used in decision making on the implementation of

Hector Tapia

2011-01-01

282

Simulating Hydrologic and Water Quality Impacts in an Urbanizing Watershed  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Hydrologic Simulation Program-Fortran (HSPF) was calibrated and used to assess the future effects of various land development scenarios on water quality in the Polecat Creek watershed in Caroline County, Virginia. Model parameters related to hydrology and water quality were calibrated and validated using observed streamflow and water quality data collected at the watershed outlet and the outlets of two

Sangjun Im; Kevin M. Brannan; Saied Mostaghimi

2003-01-01

283

Flood risk management for the riverside urban areas of Hanoi : The need for synergy in urban development and risk management policies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate the reasons for an unusual over-development of flood-prone areas outside the river dyke in Hanoi, while analysing the urban development and disaster management policies, and to suggest policy measures for regulating the rapid urbanization incorporating catastrophic flood risk planning. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Urban development and disaster management policies were analyzed and

Hoang Vinh Hung; Rajib Shaw; Masami Kobayashi

2010-01-01

284

Impact of rainfall temporal resolution on urban water quality modelling performance and uncertainties.  

PubMed

A key control on the response of an urban drainage model is how well the observed rainfall records represent the real rainfall variability. Particularly in urban catchments with fast response flow regimes, the selection of temporal resolution in rainfall data collection is critical. Furthermore, the impact of the rainfall variability on the model response is amplified for water quality estimates, as uncertainty in rainfall intensity affects both the rainfall-runoff and pollutant wash-off sub-models, thus compounding uncertainties. A modelling study was designed to investigate the impact of altering rainfall temporal resolution on the magnitude and behaviour of uncertainties associated with the hydrological modelling compared with water quality modelling. The case study was an 85-ha combined sewer sub-catchment in Bogotá (Colombia). Water quality estimates showed greater sensitivity to the inter-event variability in rainfall hyetograph characteristics than to changes in the rainfall input temporal resolution. Overall, uncertainties from the water quality model were two- to five-fold those of the hydrological model. However, owing to the intrinsic scarcity of observations in urban water quality modelling, total model output uncertainties, especially from the water quality model, were too large to make recommendations for particular model structures or parameter values with respect to rainfall temporal resolution. PMID:23823541

Manz, Bastian Johann; Rodríguez, Juan Pablo; Maksimovi?, Cedo; McIntyre, Neil

2013-01-01

285

Linking infrastructure and urban economy: simulation of water-disruption impacts in earthquakes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper a simulation approach to modeling the linkages between physical infrastructure systems and the urban economy is developed. A simulation approach based on probabilistically specifying the key model relationships is effective for situations that involve substantial uncertainty, and is particularly suited to assessing risk from natural hazards. In this paper, a model of economic losses from earthquakes is

Stephanie E Chang; Walter D Svekla; Masanobu Shinozuka

2002-01-01

286

A Competitive Evaluation of Urban Energy Systems from viewpoints of Energy Conservation and Mitigating Environmental Impact  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although various energy system alternatives for business, commercial and residential customers have been recently developed in order to reduce energy consumption and CO2 emission, it is important to evaluate competitive characteristics among such new energy system alternatives quantitatively, in consideration of tradeoff relation among economic cost, energy consumption and CO2 emission. In this paper, using multi-objective optimization model for urban

Hideharu Sugihara; Hajime Tomioka; Kiichiro Tsuji

2005-01-01

287

Effects of Global Change on U.S. Urban Areas: Vulnerabilities, Impacts, and Adaptation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human settlements, both large and small, are where the vast majority of people on the Earth live. Expansion of cities both in population and areal extent, is a relentless process that will accelerate in the 21st century. As a consequence of urban growth both in the United States and around the globe, it is important to develop an understanding of

D. A. Quattrochi; T. J. Wilbanks; P. H. Kirshen; P. Romero-Lankao; C. E. Rosenzweig; M. Ruth; W. Solecki; J. A. Tarr

2007-01-01

288

Hydrological criteria to assess changes of flow dynamic in urban impacted catchments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With regards to the implementation of the EU Water Framework Directive various assessment thresholds exist for morphological, biochemical and hydro-morphological parameters for sustainable water management. Besides the knowledge about the importance of hydrology for habitat conditions and biota respectively, there exists still a lack in consideration of changes of flow dynamics due to human impacts in current water protection. Natural flow variability maintains the integrity of aquatic ecosystems. In general alteration of flow dynamics result in changes of duration, magnitude and frequency of flows. Especially urban rivers can be crucial impacted by a rapid and short-term runoff response, mainly due to the impact of combined sewer and storm water overflows. The variability in flow dynamics makes the definition of fixed hydrological assessment indices difficult. There is the need of further knowledge in which ways flow dynamic is changed by human impacts and which hydrological parameters are suitable to capture these changes. In this study the hydrological assessment criteria flow acceleration, peak discharge and discharge dosage are determined with the focus to assess the quantitative impact on urban rivers. Dependencies of these hydrological parameters are studied within comprehensive statistical analyses with long-term data sets. The hydrological parameters were compared on impacted and un-impacted sites. The influence of land use, influences of discharge data resolution and scale dependencies respectively were investigated. Additionally, probability analyses and calculations of recurrence intervals were conducted for all three parameters. Using those three, sensitive hydrological parameters a hydrological approach is given, which considers the natural hydrograph as target value for a hydrological assessment and captures the whole spectrum of possible changes of the flood hydrograph. Furthermore, the suggested parameters are easily to determine from discharge time series and hence, widely available for management decisions. The study is a contribution for an improved implementation of hydrological assessment indices and capturing flow dynamic variability additionally to qualitative aspects within an ecologically meaningful assessment according to the EU Water Framework Directive.

Tetzlaff, D.; Grottker, M.; Leibundgut, Ch.

289

Enviro-HIRLAM in Studies of Urban and Aerosol Impacts on Metropolitan Areas: Science-Education Approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To attract more perspective young scientists (and especially, MSc and PhD students) for advanced research and development of complex and modern modelling systems, a specific approach is required. It should allow within a short period of time to evaluate personal background levels, skills, capabilities, etc. To learn more about new potential science-oriented developers of the models, it is often not enough to look into the personal resume. Thus, a special event such as Young Scientist Summer School (YSSS) can be organized, where young researchers could have an opportunity to attend not only relevant lectures, but also participate in practical exercises allowing to solidify lecture materials. Here, the practical exercises are presented as independent small-scale (having duration of up to a week) research projects or studies oriented on specific topics of YSSS. Developed approach was tested and realized during 2008 and 2011 YSSS events held and organized in Zelenogorsk, Russia (by NetFAM et al.; http://netfam.fmi.fi/YSSS08) and Odessa, Ukraine (by MUSCATEN et al.; http://atmos.physic.ut.ee/~muscaten/YSSS/1info.html), respectively. It has been refined for the new YSSS (Jul 2014) to be organized by the COST Action EuMetChem. The main focus of all these YSSSs was/is on the integrated modelling of meteorological and chemical transport processes and impact of chemical weather on numerical weather prediction and climate modelling. During previous YSSSs some of such projects - "URBAN: The Influence of Metropolitan Areas on Meteorology", "AEROSOL: The Impact of Aerosols Effects on Meteorology", and "COASTAL: The Coastal & Cities Effects on Meteorology" - were focused on evaluation of influence of metropolitan areas on formation of meteorological and chemical fields above urban areas (such as Paris, France; Copenhagen, Denmark, and Bilbao, Spain) and surroundings. The Environment - HIgh Resolution Limited Area Model (Enviro-HIRLAM) was used and modifications were made taking into account urban (anthropogenic heat flux, roughness, buildings and their characteristics), chemical species/ aerosol (feedback mechanisms) effects with further analysis of temporal and spatial variability of diurnal cycle for meteorological variables of key importance. Main items of listed above YSSS small-scale research projects include the following: • Introduction with background discussions (with brainstorming to outline research and technical tasks planned including main goal, specific objectives, etc.) in groups; • Analysis of meteorological situations (selecting specific cases/ dates using surface maps, diagrams of vertical sounding, and surface meteorological measurements); • Learning practical technical steps (in order to make necessary changes in the model and implementing urban and aerosol effects, compiling executables, making test runs); • Performing model runs/simulations at different options (dates, control vs. modified urban and aerosol runs, forecast lengths, spatial and temporal resolutions, etc.); • Visualization/ plotting of results obtained (in a form of graphs, tables, animations); • Evaluation of possible impact on urban areas (estimating differences between the control and modified runs through temporal and spatial variability of simulated meteorological (air temperature, wind speed, relative humidity, sensible and latent heat fluxes, etc.) and chemical pollutants (concentration and deposition) fields/ patterns; • Team's oral presentation of the project about results and findings and following guidelines (including aim and specific objectives, methodology and approaches, results and discussions with examples, conclusions, acknowledgements, references). Outline and detailed description of the developed approach, key items of the research projects and their schedules, preparatory steps including team of students' familiarization with general information on planned exercises and literature list (composed of required, recommended, and additional readings), requirements for successful completi

Mahura, Alexander; Nuterman, Roman; Mazeikis, Adomas; Gonzalez-Aparicio, Iratxe; Ivanov, Sergey; Palamarchuk, Julia

2014-05-01

290

On the impact of temperature on tropospheric ozone concentration levels in urban environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The influence of temperature on tropospheric ozone (O3) concentrations in urban and photochemically polluted areas in the greater Athens region are investigated in the present study. Hourly values of the ambient air temperature used for studying the urban heat island effect in Athens were recorded at twenty-three experimental stations while ozone concentration values were measured at three of the above-mentioned stations and for a period of two years (1996-1997). The linear correlation between ozone concentration and air temperature values as well as the temporal variation of temperature and ozone concentration, for the above-mentioned experimental stations, were calculated and analysed. Moreover, a neural network approach was used for investigating the impact of temperature on the ozone concentration values over the greater Athens area. The neural network model used ambient air temperature as one of its input parameters and it was found that temperature is a predominant parameter, affecting considerably the ozone concentration values.

Stathopoulou, E.; Mihalakakou, G.; Santamouris, M.; Bagiorgas, H. S.

2008-06-01

291

Pollutant impacts to Cape Hatteras National Seashore from urban runoff and septic leachate.  

PubMed

The sandy barrier islands of Cape Hatteras National Seashore, USA, attract large seasonal influxes of tourists, and are host to numerous motels, rentals and second homes. To investigate the impacts of nearby urbanization on public trust waters, sampling was conducted in nine brackish water bodies within this coastal national park. A large tidal urban ditch delivered runoff-driven fecal-contaminated water directly into public beach waters. At all sites except the control, ammonium, phosphorus and fecal bacteria concentrations were high, strongly seasonal and significantly correlated with community water usage, indicating that increased septic tank usage led to increased pollutant concentrations in area waterways. Nutrients from septic systems caused ecosystem-level problems from algal blooms, BOD, and hypoxia while fecal microbes created potential human health problems. Septic system usage is widespread in sensitive coastal areas with high water tables and sandy soils and alternatives to standard septic systems must be required to protect human health and the environment. PMID:22647645

Mallin, Michael A; McIver, Matthew R

2012-07-01

292

Cumulative impacts of human activities on urban garden soils: origin and accumulation of metals.  

PubMed

The concentration of heavy metals and soil properties in fifty urban garden soils of Szeged (SE Hungary) were determined to evaluate the cumulative impacts of urbanization and cultivation on these soils. Using two enrichment factors (EFs) (based on reference horizon; Ti as reference element) and multivariate statistical analysis (PCA), the origin of the studied elements was defined. According to statistical coincidence of EFs confirmed by t-test, anthropogenic enrichment of Cu (EF = 4), Zn (EF = 2.7) and Pb (EF = 2.5) was significant in topsoils. Moreover, PCA also revealed the geogenic origin of Ni, Co, Cr and As and differentiated two groups of the anthropogenic metals [Pb, Zn] [Cu]. Spatial distribution of the metals visualized by GIS reflected the traffic origin of Pb; while based on ANOVA, the anthropogenic source of Cu is relevant (mainly pesticides) and there is a statistically significant difference in its concentration depending on land use. PMID:23500047

Szolnoki, Zs; Farsang, A; Puskás, I

2013-06-01

293

Geochemical Indicators of Urban Development in Tributaries and Springs along the Bull Creek Watershed, Austin, TX  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Urbanization can cause significant changes to both flow and water quality in streams and tributaries. In the Austin, Texas, area, previous studies have demonstrated that streamwater strontium isotope compositions (87Sr/86Sr) correlate with measures of urbanization when comparing non-urbanized streams to their urban counterparts. The inclusion of municipal water into natural surface water is inferred from the mean 87Sr/86Sr value found in urbanized streams, which falls between the high value in treated municipal water and the lower values found in local surface streams sourcing from non-urbanized catchments. Fluoride is added to municipal tap water in the treatment process, and a correlation between 87Sr/86Sr and fluoride is observed in streamwater sampled from the watersheds around Austin. These relationships represent some of the principal findings reported in Christian et al. (2011). Current research is testing the hypothesis that municipal water influx in urban areas is a primary modifier of stream- and spring-water chemistry in a single watershed that contains a strong gradient in land use. We compare 87Sr/86Sr and other chemical constituents with potential contributing endmembers, such as municipal tap water and wastewater, local soil and rock leachates, and land use within the Bull Creek watershed. As a consequence of the history of land development, some Bull Creek tributaries are sourced and flow almost entirely in fully-developed areas, whereas others are located in protected natural areas. Thirteen tributaries were monitored and classified as either urbanized or non-urbanized based upon land use within the tributary catchment. Springs in the Bull Creek watershed were also sampled and are similarly classified. The Bull Creek watershed is composed of Lower Cretaceous limestone with significantly lower 87Sr/86Sr than that of municipal water taken from the Lower Colorado River, which is underlain in part by Precambrian rocks upstream of Austin. There are notable differences in urbanized vs. non-urbanized watersheds in mean concentrations of fluoride (urbanized: 0.27 ± 0.08 vs. non-urbanized: 0.19 ± 0.01 ppm), sodium (34.7 ± 17.3 vs. 8.4 ± 1.0 ppm), and potassium (2.9 ± 0.8 vs. 1.2 ± 0.2 ppm), consistent with higher concentrations in municipal water contributing to the urbanized tributaries. Springwater demonstrates similar divergences for these ions. 87Sr/86Sr for the springs falls within a narrow range for non-urbanized springs (0.7079-0.7081), similar to Cretaceous limestone values, whereas urbanized springs contain a larger range (0.7077-0.7087). These results are consistent with urbanization effects in the Bull Creek watershed.

Senison, J. J.; Banner, J. L.; Reyes, D.; Sharp, J. M.

2012-12-01

294

The urban environment and health in a world of increasing globalization: issues for developing countries.  

PubMed Central

Urban living is the keystone of modern human ecology. Cities have multiplied and expanded rapidly worldwide over the past two centuries. Cities are sources of creativity and technology, and they are the engines for economic growth. However, they are also sources of poverty, inequality, and health hazards from the environment. Urban populations have long been incubators and gateways for infectious diseases. The early industrializing period of unplanned growth and laissez-faire economic activity in cities in industrialized countries has been superseded by the rise of collective management of the urban environment. This occurred in response to environmental blight, increasing literacy, the development of democratic government, and the collective accrual of wealth. In many low-income countries, this process is being slowed by the pressures and priorities of economic globalization. Beyond the traditional risks of diarrhoeal disease and respiratory infections in the urban poor and the adaptation of various vector-borne infections to urbanization, the urban environment poses various physicochemical hazards. These include exposure to lead, air pollution, traffic hazards, and the "urban heat island" amplification of heatwaves. As the number of urban consumers and their material expectations rise and as the use of fossil fuels increases, cities contribute to the large-scale pressures on the biosphere including climate change. We must develop policies that ameliorate the existing, and usually unequally distributed, urban environmental health hazards and larger-scale environmental problems.

McMichael, A. J.

2000-01-01

295

Characterization and estimation of urban heat island at Toronto: impact of the choice of rural sites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, the urban heat island of Toronto was characterized and estimated in order to examine the impact of the selection of rural sites on the estimation of urban heat island (UHI) intensity (? T u-r). Three rural stations, King Smoke Tree (KST), Albion Hill, and Millgrove, were used for the analysis of UHI intensity for two urban stations, Toronto downtown (Toronto) and Toronto Pearson (Pearson) using data from 1970 to 2000. The UHI intensity was characterized as winter dominating and summer dominating, depending on the choice of the rural station. The analyses of annual and seasonal trends of ? T u-r suggested that urban heat island clearly appears in winter at both Toronto and Pearson. However, due to the mitigating effect on temperature from Lake Ontario, the estimated trend of UHI intensity was found to be less at Toronto compared to that at Pearson which has no direct lake effect. In terms of the impacts of the rural stations, for both KST and Millgrove, the trends in UHI intensity were found to be statistically significant and also were in good agreement with the estimates of UHI intensities reported for other large cities in the USA. Depending on the choice of the rural station, the estimated trend for the UHI intensity at Toronto ranges from 0.01°C/decade to 0.02°C/decade, and that at Pearson ranges from 0.03°C/decade to 0.035°C/decade during 1970-2000. From the analysis of the seasonal distribution of ? T u-r, the UHI intensity was found to be higher at Toronto in winter than that at Pearson for all three rural stations. This was likely accounted for by the lower amount of anthropogenic heat flux at Pearson. Considering the results from the statistical analysis with respect to the geographic and surface features for each rural station, KST was suggested to be a better choice to estimate UHI intensity at Toronto compared to the other rural stations. The analysis from the current study suggests that the selection of a unique urban-rural pair to estimate UHI intensity for a city like Toronto is a critical task, as it will be for any city, and it is imperative to consider some key features such as the physiography, surface characteristics of the urban and rural stations, the climatology such as the trends in annual and seasonal variation of UHI with respect to the physical characteristics of the stations, and also more importantly the objectives of a particular study in the context of UHI effect.

Mohsin, Tanzina; Gough, William A.

2012-04-01

296

Assessment of Urban Infrastructure Impact on New York City Neighborhoods Thermal Variations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New York City (NYC) is a highly urbanized city with most of the population living in tall buildings. Despite technological improvements and stricter regulations, cities still show increasing signs of environmental stress such as traffic congestion, noise and air quality degradation. Rethinking the current models of city planning could enable to limit these detrimental effects of urbanization. In addition, the built environment creates a new climatic regime which needs a better understanding. Building density, height and emission has a major impact on local temperature and other air quality indicators. Studies have shown that during extreme weather conditions and heat waves the mortality rate in urban areas increases. Cities are comprised of a wide variety of urban settings and various neighborhoods have different physical responses to meteorological events, so it is expected that the temperature and heat stress across a given city to fluctuate sharply. Therefore, this research has focused on neighborhood-scale field campaigns to downscale temperature and air quality predictions from city to neighborhood scale in NYC. In order to assess the temperature variability within the city at street level, during the hottest part of the day, this project used eight mobile units bearing temperature and relative humidity sensors, as well as ten weather stations mounted on light poles in various NYC neighborhoods. This study also looks at fine scale structures in the urban heat island of Manhattan at street level through an infrared camera with the spectral range of 7.5-13 ?m in order to relate heat and emissions from building surfaces to land surface characteristics such as building density, vegetation coverage, proximity to water, and albedo. LandSat TM5 images were used (with 30 m resolution) for land surface classification. During the summer and early fall of 2011, 2012 and 2013 extensive field campaigns were performed, the results of which show some persistent patterns that could be related to surface characteristics. This work is a collaboration between the health component of the Consortium for Climate Risk in the Urban Northeast (CCRUN), funded by NOAA Regional Integrated Science Assessment (RISA), and New York University Center for Urban Science and Progress (CUSP).

Nazari, R.; Ghandehari, M.; Karimi, M.; Vant-hull, B.; Khanbilvardi, R.

2013-12-01

297

Rakennetun Ympariston Kestavan Kehityksen Kriteerit ja Indikaattorit (Sustainable Development Criteria and Indicators for Urban Design).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This publication presents a review of sustainable development indicators, summarizes the main results of the European TISSUE research project and introduces the VTT draft proposal for sustainable development criteria for target setting in urban design. Th...

T. Hakkinen K. Rauhala P. Huovila

2006-01-01

298

Development of ball impact test system  

Microsoft Academic Search

We introduce in this paper background and development of the high-speed ball shear test systems, in particular a specific ball impact test system. Measured impact force profiles and corresponding structural dynamics calibrations are provided for the understanding of characteristics of this particular package-level test methodology as well as transient structural responses of solder joints subjected to impact loads. A design

Chang-Lin Yeh; Yi-Shao Lai

2006-01-01

299

US Urban Teachers' Perspectives of Culturally Competent Professional Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Health disparities related to food choices, nutrition behaviours and smoking habits in urban communities in the United States signal the importance of health education (HE) in schools, yet educators in urban communities face unique cultural challenges often unaddressed in professional development (PD). The purpose of this study was to use a…

Flory, Sara B.; McCaughtry, Nate; Martin, Jeffrey J.; Murphy, Anne; Blum, Barbara; Wisdom, Kimberlydawn

2014-01-01

300

LAI based trees selection for mid latitude urban developments: A microclimatic study in Cairo, Egypt  

Microsoft Academic Search

To study the leaf area index, LAI, based thermal performance in distinguishing trees for Cairo's urban developments, ENVI-met plants database was used as platform for a foliage modeling parameter, the leaf area density, LAD. Two Egyptian trees; Ficus elastica, and Peltophorum pterocarpum were simulated in 2 urban sites with one having no trees, whilst the second is having Ficus nitida

Mohamad Fahmy; Stephen Sharples; Mahmoud Yahiya

2010-01-01

301

Overview of the General Atomics Low Speed Urban Maglev Technology Development Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

The overall objective of this program is to develop magnetic levitation technology that is a cost effective, reliable, and environmentally friendly option for urban mass transportation in the United States. Maglev is a revolutionary approach in which trains are supported by magnetic forces without any wheels contacting the rail surfaces. The Urban Maglev Program is sponsored by the Federal Transit

Sam Gurol; Bob Baldi; General Atomics; Richard F. Post

2002-01-01

302

Developing a Data Collection System for Urban Freeways.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The need for large quantities of timely and comprehensive data on traffic and travel conditions on urban freeways is increasing. Data are needed for planning, design, operations and maintenance activities. Automatic systems for the collection, recording a...

W. R. McCasland

1983-01-01

303

24 CFR 1000.42 - Are the requirements of section 3 of the Housing and Urban Development Act of 1968 applicable?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT NATIVE AMERICAN HOUSING...of the Housing and Urban Development Act of 1968 applicable...of the Housing and Urban Development Act of 1968 (12 U...Self-Determination and Education Assistance Act (25...

2013-04-01

304

MITIGATING THE IMPACTS OF COMBINED SEWER OVERFLOW TO AN URBAN RIVER SYSTEM VIA WEB-BASED SHARE-VISION MODELING  

Microsoft Academic Search

Storm water overflow from the combined sewer system might result in a sudden devastating impact to the local ecosystem in an urban river environment. In order to assess overflow pollution load during tropical rainfall, a web-based share vision modelling system is organized and designed in this study to investigate the resultant water quality impacts from both spatial and temporal aspects

Jeng-Chung Chen; Ni-Bin Chang; Y. C. Chang; M. T. Lee

305

Benefits trickling away: The health impact of extending access to piped water and sanitation in urban Yemen  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article investigates the impact of piped water supply and sanitation on health outcomes in urban Yemen using a combination of quasi-experimental methods and results from microbiological water tests. Variations in project roll-out allow separate identification of water and sanitation impacts. Results indicate that access to piped water supply worsens health outcomes when water rationing is frequent, which appears to

Stephan Klasen; Tobias Lechtenfeld; Kristina Meier; Johannes Rieckmann

2012-01-01

306

Restoring the hydrologic response to pre-developed conditions in an urbanized headwater catchment: Reality or utopia?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The conversion of forested areas to impervious surfaces, lawns and pastures alters the natural hydrology of an area by increasing the flashiness of stormwater generated runoff, resulting in increased streamflow peaks and volumes. Currently, most of the stormwater from developed areas in the Puget Sound region remains uncontrolled. The lack of adequate stormwater facilities along with increasing urbanization and population growth illustrates the importance of understanding urban watershed behavior and best management practices (BMPs) that improve changes in hydrology. In this study, we developed a lumped urban ecohydrology model that represents vegetation dynamics, connects pervious and impervious surfaces and implements various BMP scenarios. The model is implemented in an urban headwater subcatchment located in the Newaukum Creek Basin. We evaluate the hydrologic impact of controlling runoff at the source and disconnecting impervious surfaces from the storm drain using rain barrels and bioretention cells. BMP scenarios consider the basin's land use/land coverage, the response of different impervious surface types, the potential for BMP placement, the size and drainage area for BMPs, and the mitigation needs to meet in-stream flow goals.

Wright, O.; Istanbulluoglu, E.

2012-12-01

307

76 FR 73989 - Redelegation of Authority Under Section 3 of the Housing and Urban Development Act of 1968  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT [Docket No. FR-5544-D-09...Authority Under Section 3 of the Housing and Urban Development Act of 1968 AGENCY: Office of the...authority under Section 3 of the Housing and Urban Development Act of 1968 and HUD's...

2011-11-29

308

Tourism Real Estate Development as a Policy Tool for Urban Tourism: A Case Study of Dali and Lijiang, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tourist towns are a new and extraordinary form of urbanization in the peripheral regions of China, especially for regions where distinctive tourist attractions are located. Tourism urbanization is occurring in China due to high pressure for urbanization and because real estate has become a major development force. This article investigates the interconnected consequences of tourism development, tourism-related leisure property development,

Honggang Xu; Yuefang Wu; Geoffrey Wall

2012-01-01

309

Development and urbanization: a revisit of Chenery–Syrquin’s patterns of development  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides updates on the stylized facts regarding the relationship between urbanization progress and per capita\\u000a GDP. Our empirical strategy is based on the econometric specification and estimation by using a new cross-country dataset\\u000a and measured in 1999-priced per capita GDP. While our results corroborate previous findings on the general patterns of development\\u000a by Chenery and Syrquin (Patterns of

Min Zhao; Ying Zhang

2009-01-01

310

The impact of the Urban Systemic Initiative on mathematics and science education in the Detroit Public Schools  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of the Urban Systemic Initiative on the improvement of mathematics and science education in Detroit Public Schools. The initiative was examined from six perspectives: the implementation of standards that articulate what is important for students to know and do in mathematics and science; improved delivery systems; professional development; student enhancement activities; parental involvement and policy alignment. The study identified factors that influence the development of an infrastructure for change. The effectiveness of the initiative was analyzed across three tiers (cohorts) of schools. Quantitative and qualitative data were gathered to provide both process and outcome data to examine the impact of the implementation efforts. Surveys were conducted from two primary stakeholder groups (teachers and students) over four years of the initiative. Comparisons were made using students and teachers before and after they experienced the Detroit USI Program. Students and teachers completing the program were compared to those beginning the program. Data from the surveys were analyzed over the life of the initiative to determine progress. Findings revealed that the initiative has demonstrated an impact on both student and teacher measures in mathematics and science. Notable progress has been made on the state and district assessments in mathematics and science, and implementation of standards-based instruction. An infrastructure has been created through professional development and restructured learning environments to sustain the improvement efforts.

Chambers, Juanita Clay

311

Impact of different urban structures on the microclimate in the city of Dresden, Germany  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heat island intensity of cities and, therefore, urban warming mainly depends on the density of urban structures and sealing of urban areas. Against the background of a probable increase of summer temperature in Central Europe, actual urban planning strategies should consider the importance of open areas and vegetation in the centre of cities for the urban microclimate. This study deals

Cornelia Kurbjuhn; Valeri Goldberg; Anna Westbeld; Christian Bernhofer

2010-01-01

312

The Impact of Temporal Aggregation of Land Surface Temperature Data for Urban Heat Island Monitoring  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Temporally composited remote sensing products are widely used in monitoring the urban heat island (UHI). In order to quantify the impact of temporal aggregation for assessing the UHI, we examined MODIS land surface temperature (LST) products for 11 years focusing on Houston, Texas and its surroundings. By using the daily LST from 2000 to 2010, the urban and rural daily LST were presented for the 8-day period and annual comparisons for both day and night. Statistics based on the rural-urban LST differences show that the 8-day composite mean UHI effects are generally more intensive than that calculated by daily UHI images. Moreover, the seasonal pattern shows that the summer daytime UHI has the largest magnitude and variation while nighttime UHI magnitudes are much smaller and less variable. Regression analyses enhance the results showing an apparently higher UHI derived from 8-day composite dataset. The summer mean UHI maps were compared, indicating a land cover related pattern. We introduced yearly MODIS land cover type product to explore the spatial differences caused by temporal aggression of LST product. The mean bias caused by land cover types are calculated about 0.5 ~ 0.7K during the daytime, and less than 0.1K at night. The potential causes of the higher UHI are discussed. The analysis shows that the land-atmosphere interactions, which result in the regional cloud formation, are the primary reason.

Hu, L.; Brunsell, N. A.

2012-12-01

313

Urban Fluxes Monitoring and Development of Planning Strategies to Reduce Ghg Emissions in AN European City  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cities and human settlements in general are a primary source of emissions that contribute to human-induced climate change. To investigate the impact of an urbanized area on urban metabolism components, an eddy covariance (EC) tower will be set up in a city (Sassari) located in the center of the Mediterranean basin (Sardinia, Italy). The EC tower, as well as a meteorological station and radiometers, will be set up to monitor energy, water, and carbon fluxes in the city center. A GHG emissions inventory will be also compiled to identify the main emission sources. In addition, a modeling framework will be used to study the impact of different urban planning strategies on carbon emission rates. The modeling framework consists of four models to analyze fluxes both at local and municipality scale: (i) a land surface model ACASA (Advanced Canopy-Atmosphere-Soil Algorithm, ACASA) to simulate the urban metabolism components at local scale; (ii) a Cellular Automata model to simulate the urban land-use dynamics in the near future (20-30 years); (iii) a transportation model to estimate the variation of the transportation network load, and (iv) the coupled model WRF-ACASA will be finally used to simulate the urban metabolism components at municipality scale. The participation of local stakeholders will allow the definition of future planning strategies with the aim to identify low carbon emissions strategies. The projects activities, methodologies applied, as well as the preliminary results will be reported here.

Marras, S.; Sirca, C.; Bellucco, V.; Falk, M.; Pyles, R. D.; Snyder, R. L.; Paw U, K.; Duce, P.; Blecic, I.; Trunfio, G. A.; Cecchini, A.; Spano, D.

2013-12-01

314

Environmental impacts of dispersed development from federal infrastructure projects.  

PubMed

Dispersed development, also referred to as urban growth or sprawl, is a pattern of low-density development spread over previously rural landscapes. Such growth can result in adverse impacts to air quality, water quality, human health, aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems, agricultural land, military training areas, water supply and wastewater treatment, recreational resources, viewscapes, and cultural resources. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) is charged with protecting public health and the environment, which includes consideration of impacts from dispersed development. Specifically, because federal infrastructure projects can affect the progress of dispersed development, the secondary impacts resulting from it must be assessed in documents prepared under the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). The Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) has oversight for NEPA and Section 309 of the Clean Air Act requires that U.S. EPA review and comment on federal agency NEPA documents. The adverse effects of dispersed development can be induced by federal infrastructure projects including transportation, built infrastructure, modifications in natural infrastructure, public land conversion and redevelopment of properties, construction of federal facilities, and large traffic or major growth generation developments requiring federal permits. This paper presents an approach that U.S. EPA reviewers and NEPA practitioners can use to provide accurate, realistic, and consistent analysis of secondary impacts of dispersed development resulting from federal infrastructure projects. It also presents 24 measures that can be used to mitigate adverse impacts from dispersed development by modifying project location and design, participating in preservation or restoration activities, or informing and supporting local communities in planning. PMID:15141453

Southerland, Mark T

2004-06-01

315

Realities of weather extremes on daily life in urban India - How quantified impacts infer sensible adaptation options  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Emerging and developing economies are currently undergoing one of the profoundest socio-spatial transitions in their history, with strong urbanization and weather extremes bringing about changes in the economy, forms of living and living conditions, but also increasing risks and altered social divides. The impacts of heat waves and strong rain events are therefore differently perceived among urban residents. Addressing the social differences of climate change impacts1 and expanding targeted adaptation options have emerged as urgent policy priorities, particularly for developing and emerging economies2. This paper discusses the perceived impacts of weather-related extreme events on different social groups in New Delhi and Hyderabad, India. Using network statistics and scenario analysis on Fuzzy Cognitive Maps (FCMs) as part of a vulnerability analysis, the investigation provides quantitative and qualitative measures to compare impacts and adaptation strategies for different social groups. Impacts of rain events are stronger than those of heat in both cities and affect the lower income classes particularly. Interestingly, the scenario analysis (comparing altered networks in which the alteration represents a possible adaptation measure) shows that investments in the water infrastructure would be most meaningful and more effective than investments in, e.g., the traffic infrastructure, despite the stronger burden from traffic disruptions and the resulting concentration of planning and policy on traffic ease and investments. The method of Fuzzy Cognitive Mapping offers a link between perception and modeling, and the possibility to aggregate and analyze the views of a large number of stakeholders. Our research has shown that planners and politicians often know about many of the problems, but are often overwhelmed by the problems in their respective cities and look for a prioritization of adaptation options. FCM provides this need and identifies priority adaptation options when resources are scarce. 1 Parry ML, Canziani OF, Palutikof JP, van der Linden PJ, Hanson CE (eds) (2007) Contribution of Working Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge New York. 2 TERI (2007) Adaptation to Climate Change in the context of Sustainable Development. Background Paper to the conference ''Climate Change and Sustainable Development: An international workshop to strengthen research and understanding'', 7-8 April 2006, The Energy and Resources Institute, New Delhi.

Reckien, D.

2012-12-01

316

Research on the impact of impervious surface area on urban heat island in Jiangsu Province  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Land surface temperature (LST), vegetation index, and other surface characteristics that obtained from remote sensing data have been widely used to describe urban heat island (UHI) phenomenon, but through impervious surface area (ISA) to describe the phenomenon has only used in a few study areas in our country. In a high urbanization and high population density region like Jiangsu Province, a wide range of extraction of ISA to study its relationship with UHI is less. In this paper, we use multi-temporal remote sensing images as data sources, and extract ISA from it in a large-scale by using decision tree classifier (DTC) and linear spectral mixture analysis (LSMA). Then combine the average surface temperature from the sixth band of Landsat TM by mono-window algorithm for spatial analysis, to assess the change of the urban heat island temperature amplitude and its relationship with the urban development density, size and ecological environment. Finally we use statistical methods to analyze the relationship between ISA, LST and UHI. The results show that ISA has a positive correlation with surface temperature. The ratio of ISA is higher and the difference value of the temperature is larger, thus the UHI will be more obvious.

Yang, Yingbao; Pan, Ping

2011-06-01

317

Adaptation of Land-Use Demands to the Impact of Climate Change on the Hydrological Processes of an Urbanized Watershed  

PubMed Central

The adaptation of land-use patterns is an essential aspect of minimizing the inevitable impact of climate change at regional and local scales; for example, adapting watershed land-use patterns to mitigate the impact of climate change on a region’s hydrology. The objective of this study is to simulate and assess a region’s ability to adapt to hydrological changes by modifying land-use patterns in the Wu-Du watershed in northern Taiwan. A hydrological GWLF (Generalized Watershed Loading Functions) model is used to simulate three hydrological components, namely, runoff, groundwater and streamflow, based on various land-use scenarios under six global climate models. The land-use allocations are simulated by the CLUE-s model for the various development scenarios. The simulation results show that runoff and streamflow are strongly related to the precipitation levels predicted by different global climate models for the wet and dry seasons, but groundwater cycles are more related to land-use. The effects of climate change on groundwater and runoff can be mitigated by modifying current land-use patterns; and slowing the rate of urbanization would also reduce the impact of climate change on hydrological components. Thus, land-use adaptation on a local/regional scale provides an alternative way to reduce the impacts of global climate change on local hydrology.

Lin, Yu-Pin; Hong, Nien-Ming; Chiang, Li-Chi; Liu, Yen-Lan; Chu, Hone-Jay

2012-01-01

318

QuikSCAT response to urban developments and seasonal cycles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We explore azimuthal variations in the 25-km resolution QuikSCAT L1B Ku-band satellite radar data in urban areas. The normalized microwave radar backscatter (?0) increases from rural to urban regions suggesting that an anthropogenic influences from buildings and other infrastructure. A seasonal signal is also identified over all azimuthal angles in multiple global regions. Potential influencing factors of changes in the observed ?0 over land-use types from uninhabited to urban areas are explored including building and road orientation, precipitation, and vegetation. Buildings, roads, and curbs act as dihedral corner reflectors and enhance ?0 for azimuthal observation angles normal to the structure face. Azimuthal variations in the ?0 signal appear in urban areas with highly organized gridded street systems such as Beijing, China and Phoenix, Arizona; azimuthal variation is much less in cities with less organized streets such as Sao Paulo, Brazil. Changes in seasonal precipitation cannot be used to directly predict seasonal changes in ?0; however, changes in vegetation appear closely associated with a seasonal signal of ?0 in urban and rural areas.

Paget, A. C.; Long, D. G.

2013-12-01

319

Economic Development Impacts of 20% Wind (Poster)  

SciTech Connect

Meeting 20% of the nation's electricity demand with wind energy will require enourmous investment in wind farms, manufacturing, and infrastructure. This investment will create substantial economic development impacts on local, regional, and national levels. This conference poster for Windpower 2007 outlines the various economic development impacts from a 20% wind scenario.

Kelly, M.; Tegen, S.

2007-06-01

320

Cumulative impacts of urban runoff and municipal wastewater effluents on wild freshwater mussels (Lasmigona costata).  

PubMed

Aquatic biota living in urban watersheds, are chronically exposed to a complex mixture of contaminants from various sources, including municipal wastewater effluents and road runoff. This study examined the general condition, immune function and contaminant load of wild freshwater mussels collected from a large urbanized river over three consecutive field seasons. Four study sites along the Grand River (ON) were selected to represent an incremental contaminant exposure, such that mussels collected from the final downstream site were exposed to the cumulative inputs from 11 municipal wastewater treatment plants and road runoff from four cities. Wild mussels collected downstream of the urban area had significantly lower (p<0.05) condition factor and did not live as long (significantly reduced mean age) as the mussels collected upstream of the cities. There appears to be a trend of increasing proportions of gravid females at the downstream sites, but whether this trend indicates feminization of the mussel population or is simply an artifact of sampling effort is unclear. An examination of hemocyte phagocytosis revealed a pattern of increasing immune activity at the downstream sites, but only in one of the years sampled. The significant and cumulative increase in Cu, Pb, Zn, Al, Cr, and Ni in the gills of downstream mussels indicates that metals are bioavailable in this ecosystem and that tissue concentrations increase with multiple urban inputs. While the complex nature of the exposure prevents identification of the cause(s) of the observed effects, some contaminants such as ammonia and chloride reach levels known to be toxic to freshwater mussels at the downstream sites. These results indicate that chronic exposure to multiple contaminants negatively impacts mussel health and longevity and corroborates previous assumptions that waterborne contaminants contributed to the decline of the freshwater mussel populations in this watershed. PMID:22705870

Gillis, Patricia L

2012-08-01

321

Effects of urban development in the Puget Lowland, Washington, on interannual streamflow patterns: Consequences for channel form and streambed disturbance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recovery and protection of streams in urban areas depend on a comprehensive understanding of how human activities affect stream ecosystems. The hydrologic effects of urban development and the consequences for stream channel form and streambed stability were examined in 16 streams in the Puget Lowland, Washington, using three streamflow metrics that integrate storm-scale effects of urban development over annual to

Christopher P. Konrad; Derek B. Booth; Stephen J. Burges

2005-01-01

322

Impact of rural to urban labour migration and the remittances on sending household welfare: a Sri Lankan case study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Migration is the oldest action against poverty. Thus, temporary labour migration from rural to urban areas is a common phenomenon in the developing world. Since 1977, with more open economic policies, there has been a huge trend of young people migrating from rural to urban for industrial employment in Sri Lanka. Export Processing Zones (EPZ) are the main attraction for

Seetha P. B. Ranathunga

2011-01-01

323

MIT OpenCourseWare: Introduction to Urban Design and Development, Fall 2003  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Part of MIT's innovative OpenCourseWare Project, that provides materials from MIT classes to the public on the web, the site provides materials from a course that examined the forces that act upon urban areas, and how the areas develop in response. Topics include public participation in development, redevelopment, urban design, the art of cities, the environmental and social effects of cities, and the ideal visions we have of urban areas. The site provides extensive recommended readings and samples of student work on Boston and New Delhi.

Frenchman, Dennis; Morrow, Greg

2007-04-06

324

Remote Sensing of Urban Land Cover/Land Use Change, Surface Thermal Responses, and Potential Meteorological and Climate Change Impacts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

City growth influences the development of the urban heat island (UHI), but the effect that local meteorology has on the UHI is less well known. This paper presents some preliminary findings from a study that uses multitemporal Landsat TM and ASTER data to evaluate land cover/land use change (LULCC) over the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MFSC) and its Huntsville, AL metropolitan area. Landsat NLCD data for 1992 and 2001 have been used to evaluate LULCC for MSFC and the surrounding urban area. Land surface temperature (LST) and emissivity derived from NLCD data have also been analyzed to assess changes in these parameters in relation to LULCC. Additionally, LULCC, LST, and emissivity have been identified from ASTER data from 2001 and 2011 to provide a comparison with the 2001 NLCD and as a measure of current conditions within the study area. As anticipated, the multi-temporal NLCD and ASTER data show that significant changes have occurred in land covers, LST, and emissivity within and around MSFC. The patterns and arrangement of these changes, however, is significant because the juxtaposition of urban land covers within and outside of MSFC provides insight on what impacts at a local to regional scale, the inter-linkage of these changes potentially have on meteorology. To further analyze these interactions between LULCC, LST, and emissivity with the lower atmosphere, a network of eleven weather stations has been established across the MSFC property. These weather stations provide data at a 10 minute interval, and these data are uplinked for use by MSFC facilities operations and the National Weather Service. The weather data are also integrated within a larger network of meteorological stations across north Alabama. Given that the MSFC weather stations will operate for an extended period of time, they can be used to evaluate how the building of new structures, and changes in roadways, and green spaces as identified in the MSFC master plan for the future, will potentially affect land cover LSTs across the Center. Moreover, the weather stations will also provide baseline data for developing a better understanding of how localized weather factors, such as extreme rainfall and heat events, affect micrometeorology. These data can also be used to model the interrelationships between LSTs and meteorology on a longer term basis to help evaluate how changes in these parameters can be quantified from satellite data collected in the future. In turn, the overall integration of multi-temporal meteorological information with LULCC, and LST data for MSFC proper and the surrounding Huntsville urbanized area can provide a perspective on how urban land surface types affect the meteorology in the boundary layer and ultimately, the UHI. Additionally, data such as this can be used as a foundation for modeling how climate change will potentially impact local and regional meteorology and conversely, how urban LULCC can or will influence changes on climate over the north Alabama area.

Quattrochi, D. A.; Jedlovec, G.; Meyer, P. J.

2011-12-01

325

Comparative study of climate and human impacts on seasonal baseflow in urban and agricultural watersheds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study explores the long-term trends of low flow magnitude and the slopes and shapes of the recession curves during winter and summer seasons under climatic and human factors. Four watersheds in the American Midwest are selected for the analysis, including two urban watersheds (Salt Creek and Des Plaines) and two agricultural watersheds (Embarras and Kankakee). The results show that the long-term baseflow recession slope trends in all the watersheds are primarily induced by human interferences. In the urban watersheds, the recession slopes decrease over time in both winter and summer due to effluent discharges. In the Kankakee watershed with irrigation, the recession slopes decrease in winter but increase in summer, and the opposite winter and summer trends are caused by the seasonal water use regime of irrigated agriculture. In the Embarras watershed with rainfed agriculture, the recession slopes decrease over time in winter but display no change in summer. Sources of water withdrawal (groundwater versus surface water) also have different impacts on the recession process. This long-term analysis of recession rates, in conjunction with the changes in low flow magnitude, offers valuable insight on human interferences to hydrologic processes. Beyond the specific case studies, this paper documents how a scientific approach based on existing streamflow observation can be applied to improving our understanding of the impact of human and climatic influences on baseflow and low flow processes.

Wang, Dingbao; Cai, Ximing

2010-03-01

326

Developing Signal Processing Algorithms for Weak GPS Signal Acquisition in Urban Environment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes project progress on developing signal processing algorithms for weak GPS signal acquisition in typical urban environment where no more than three satellites are in direct view of a receiver. To successfully determine a user position,...

Y. T. Jade Morton

2004-01-01

327

Rural and urban population changes and the stages of economic development: a unified approach.  

PubMed

The long-term aspects of the process of economic development and urbanization are examined. A model is presented that shows the dynamics of economic development from the earliest to the more advanced stages. "The model is able to explain not only the occurrence of a downturn in the rural population after the initial phase of population growth both in rural and urban areas, but also the delayed occurrence of such a downturn in many present-day developing countries. The author then focuses [on] the later stages of economic development and explains two alternative courses of urbanization, namely, the reversal process and the continual-growth process, as special cases of the general model; which of the courses occurs depends on the value of the elasticity of urban agglomeration-economies." PMID:12339077

Miyao, T

1983-09-01

328

75 FR 38514 - Notice of Funding Availability for the Department of Housing and Urban Development's Community...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Department of Housing and Urban Development's Community Challenge Planning Grants and the Department of Transportation's TIGER II Planning Grants Correction In notice document 2010-15353 beginning on page 36246 in the issue of Thursday, June 24,...

2010-07-02

329

The impact of new developments on river water quality from an integrated system modelling perspective.  

PubMed

New housing areas are a ubiquitous feature of modern life in the developing and developed world alike built in response to rising social, demographic and economic pressures. Inevitably, these new developments will have an impact on the environment around them. Empirical evidence confirms the close relationship between urbanisation and ambient water quality. However, what is lacking so far is a detailed and more generalised analysis of environmental impact at a relatively small scale. The aim of this paper is to quantify the impact of new developments on river water quality within an integrated system modelling perspective. To conduct the impact analyses, an existing integrated urban wastewater model was used to predict water flow and quality in the sewer system, treatment plant and receiving water body. The impact on combined sewer overflow (CSO) discharges, treatment plant effluent, and within the river at various reaches is analysed by 'locating' a new development on a semi-hypothetical urban catchment. River water quality is used as feedback to constrain the scale of the new development within different thresholds in compliance with water quality standards. Further, the regional sensitivity analysis (RSA) method is applied to reveal the parameters with the greatest impact on water quality. These analyses will help to inform town planners and water specialists who advise them, how to minimise the impact of such developments given the specific context. PMID:19036407

Fu, Guangtao; Butler, David; Khu, Soon-Thiam

2009-02-01

330

Numerical Study of Urban Impact on Boundary Layer Structure: Sensitivity to Wind Speed, Urban Morphology, and Rural Soil Moisture.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A mesoscale model with a detailed urban surface exchange parameterization is used to study urban influences on boundary layer structure. The parameterization takes into account thermal and mechanical factors, and it is able to reproduce the most important observed urban boundary layer features. A series of simulations is carried out on a 2D idealized domain to analyze the urban boundary layer sensitivity to wind speed, urban morphology, and rural soil moisture. The results show that, during the night, wind speed is correlated with inversion height, inversion depth, and inversion strength and that mean building height and street-canyon height-to-width ratio are correlated with inversion height but are anticorrelated with inversion depth and inversion strength. A reduction in rural soil moisture reduces inversion height and increases inversion strength. During daytime, differences between urban and rural boundary layers are strongly linked with wind speed and rural soil moisture. A factor analysis technique is used to evaluate the relative importance of thermal and mechanical urban factors in terms of their effects on boundary layer structure. The results show that, during the night, thermal factors are more important in the lower part of the urban boundary layer and mechanical factors are dominant in the upper part. Interactions between thermal and mechanical factors act to increase nocturnal boundary layer height. During the day, thermal factors play the most important role in modulating the PBL height evolution above the city. Interactions between thermal and mechanical factors act to reduce the daytime boundary layer height. Mechanical factors become important in the evening, when the turbulent kinetic energy produced by interactions between the airflow and buildings causes a delay in the decrease of PBL height.

Martilli, Alberto

2002-12-01

331

The Development of an Urban University: Glasgow, 1860-1914.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigates the effects of urbanization on the University of Glasgow, Scotland, by examining the origins, university courses, and subsequent careers of Glasgow students between 1860 and 1914. Illuminates the educational patterns of working and middle class youth. Concludes that the University provided a channel from industry and commerce into the…

Robertson, Paul L.

1990-01-01

332

Effects of Continuing Professional Development on Urban Elementary Students' Knowledge  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this investigation was to examine one urban school district's attempt to revise their elementary school physical education offerings to promote student gains in healthy living knowledge. Specifically, the authors sought to determine if children's physical activity/fitness knowledge increased when taught by teachers engaged in a…

Kulinna, Pamela Hodges; McCaughtry, Nathan; Martin, Jeffrey; Cothran, Donetta

2011-01-01

333

Development and Learning of Children and Youth in Urban America.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The chapters in this collection, distributed to conference participants as a springboard for conference discussions, consider sustainable models for school-family-community collaboration, partnerships in education, and other ways to improve learning for urban youth. The contributions are: (1) "The Empowerment Zone and Enterprise Community"…

Wang, Margaret C., Ed.; Reynolds, Maynard C., Ed.

334

Addressing the Complexities of Literacy and Urban Teaching in the USA: Strategic Professional Development as Intervention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Teaching quality impacts classroom instruction. Teaching is difficult, demanding and draining work; teaching in urban environs exacerbates the difficulties, the demands and the complexities of teaching. Through the eyes of an assistant superintendent, charged with implementing a new vision for literacy teaching and learning, this manuscript…

Sulentic Dowell, Margaret-Mary

2012-01-01

335

Modeling low impact development potential with hydrological response units.  

PubMed

Evaluations of benefits of implementing low impact development (LID) stormwater management techniques can extend up to a watershed scale. This presents a challenge for representing them in watershed models, since they are typically orders of magnitude smaller in size. This paper presents an approach that is focused on trying to evaluate the benefits of implementing LIDs on a lot level. The methodology uses the concept of urban hydrological response Unit and results in developing and applying performance curves that are a function of lot properties to estimate the potential benefit of large-scale LID implementation. Lot properties are determined using a municipal geographic information system database and processed to determine groups of lots with similar properties. A representative lot from each group is modeled over a typical rainfall year using USEPA Stormwater Management Model to develop performance functions that relate the lot properties and the change in annual runoff volume and corresponding phosphorus loading with different LIDs implemented. The results of applying performance functions on all urban areas provide the potential locations, benefit and cost of implementation of all LID techniques, guiding future decisions for LID implementation by watershed area municipalities. PMID:24334886

Eric, Marija; Fan, Celia; Joksimovic, Darko; Li, James Y

2013-01-01

336

Probabilistic environmental risk assessment of urban wet-weather discharges: an approach developed for Switzerland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Technical solutions aimed at limiting the impacts of urban wet-weather discharges are historically based on an end-of-pipe approach. The characteristics of wet-weather discharges, e.g. intermittent pollution loads, high variations in pollutant concentrations, effects in the receiving waters, etc., are generally not considered. This study presents a new probabilistic approach that links the characteristics of wet-weather discharges to their potential impacts

L. Rossi; N. Chèvre; R. Fankhauser; V. Krejci

2009-01-01

337

Effects of urban development on stream ecosystems in nine metropolitan study areas across the United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Urban development is an important agent of environmental change in the United States. The urban footprint on the American landscape has expanded during a century and a half of almost continuous development. Eighty percent of Americans now live in metropolitan areas, and the advantages and challenges of living in these developed areas—convenience, congestion, employment, pollution—are part of the day-to-day realities of most Americans. Nowhere are the environmental changes associated with urban development more evident than in urban streams. Contaminants, habitat destruction, and increasing streamflow flashiness resulting from urban development have been associated with the disruption of biological communities, particularly the loss of sensitive aquatic species. Every stream is connected downstream to larger water bodies, including rivers, reservoirs, and ultimately coastal waters. Inputs of chemical contaminants or sediments at any point along the stream can cause degradation downstream with adverse effects on biological communities and on economically valuable resources, such as fisheries and tourism. In response to general concerns about the degradation of urban streams, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted a national-scale, scientific investigation of the effects of urban development on stream ecosystems. Nine metropolitan study areas of the United States were selected—Portland, Oregon; Salt Lake City, Utah; Birmingham, Alabama; Atlanta, Georgia; Raleigh, North Carolina; Boston, Massachusetts; Denver, Colorado; Dallas, Texas; and Milwaukee, Wisconsin. The studies were conducted in Salt Lake City, Birmingham, and Boston in 1999–2000; in Atlanta, Raleigh, and Denver in 2002–2003; and in Portland, Dallas, and Milwaukee in 2003–2004. The comprehensive investigation of all nine studies focused on three broad questions of interest to decision makers: 1. What are the primary effects of urban development on stream ecosystems? 2. How do the effects of urban development on stream ecosystems vary regionally across the country? 3. Which urban-related stressors are most closely linked to biological community degradation, and how can multiple stressors be managed to protect stream health as a watershed becomes increasingly urbanized?

Coles, James F.; McMahon, Gerard; Bell, Amanda H.; Brown, Larry R.; Fitzpatrick, Faith A.; Scudder Eikenberry, Barbara C.; Woodside, Michael D.; Cuffney, Thomas F.; Bryant, Wade L.; Cappiella, Karen; Fraley-McNeal, Lisa; Stack, William P.

2012-01-01

338

Evaluating the Impact of Human Resource Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These four papers are from a symposium on evaluating the impact of human resource development (HRD). "Pre-Job Training and the Earnings of High-Tech Employees in Taiwan" (Tung-Chun Huang) reports on a study that concludes that public training programs have no impact on participants' earnings in later jobs, but participation in private training…

1999

339

Evaluating the impact of HIA on urban reconstruction decision-making. Who manages whose risks?  

SciTech Connect

Practitioners and academic researchers increasingly look to evaluation of health impact assessment (HIA) to improve its practice, its efficiency and its legitimacy. Evaluation is also used to account to policy-makers, who express doubts that the benefits of HIA justify its costs. Until recently evaluation of HIA focused on instrument design and procedures but now the focus needs to shift to analysis of the interaction of HIA and decision-making. Multiple case studies have been applied to identify the conditions in which HIA produces the desired benefits. These studies used analytical concepts derived from the literature on evaluation, knowledge utilization, science of sociology and knowledge management. This paper describes a case study in which the strategic motives of the decision-makers affected the impact of an HIA. This HIA comprised of a quantitative environmental model 'City and Environment' that was used to assess environmental health impacts of an urban reconstruction plan in a Dutch city. The evaluation of the HIA shows that the decision to follow the recommendations of the HIA was part of a damage control strategy. The more HIA goals deviate from the policy problem and the less HIA is embedded in institutional procedures, then the more HIA impact will be subject to strategic decision-making behaviour. Appropriate cognitive and social strategies are needed to avoid 'negative learning' in those the HIA seeks to influence.

Bekker, Marleen P.M. [Institute of Health Policy and Management, Erasmus Medical Centre, Rotterdam (Netherlands)]. E-mail: m.bekker@erasmusmc.nl; Putters, Kim [Department of Law, Administration and Informatisation, University of Tilburg (Netherlands); Grinten, Tom E.D. van der [Institute of Health Policy and Management, Erasmus Medical Centre, Rotterdam (Netherlands)

2005-10-15

340

Developing an Ecosystem Services Online Decision Support Tool to Assess the Impacts of Climate Change and Urban Growth in the Santa Cruz Watershed: Where We Live, Work, and Play  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Using respective strengths of the biological, physical, and social sciences, we are developing an online decision support tool, the Santa Cruz Watershed Ecosystem Portfolio Model (SCWEPM), to help promote the use of information relevant to water allocation and land management in a binational watershed along the U.S.-Mexico border. The SCWEPM will include an ES valuation system within a suite of linked regional driver-response models and will use a multicriteria scenario-evaluation framework that builds on GIS analysis and spatially-explicit models that characterize important ecological, economic, and societal endpoints and consequences that are sensitive to climate patterns, regional water budgets, and regional LULC change in the SCW.

Norman, Laura; Tallent-Halsell, Nita; Labiosa, William; Weber, Matt; McCoy, Amy; Hirschboeck, Katie; Callegary, James; van Riper, Charles III; Gray, Floyd

2010-01-01

341

Prevalence of otitis media, hearing impairment and cerumen impaction among school children in rural and urban Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.  

PubMed

Eight hundred and two (802) primary school children in rural and urban Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, were examined to determine the prevalence of otitis media, hearing impairment and cerumen impaction by otoscopy and pure tone audiometry. Ear disease was found in 222 (27.7%) of the children. One hundred and twenty six (15.7%) had cerumen impaction, 70 (8.7%) had sensorineural hearing loss and 21 (2.6%) had chronic suppurative otitis media. Cerumen impaction was found in 20.45% of the rural school children and in 14.8% of the urban school children. This difference in prevalence between the two groups was not statistically significant. The prevalence of chronic suppurative otitis media (COM) was 9.44% among the rural school children and 1.3% among the urban school children, the difference being statistically significant (P < 0.001). Sensorineural hearing impairment was found in 14.1% of the rural school children and in 7.7% of the urban children, this also being statistically significant (P < 0.05). The low prevalence of chronic suppurative otitis media among the urban school children is ascribed to better medical services which facilitate early diagnosis and treatment of acute otitis media. This emphasizes the need to improve the health services in the rural areas so that acute otitis media is diagnosed and treated at the primary level of health care. This will in turn prevent hearing impairment due to chronic suppurative otitis media. PMID:8884404

Minja, B M; Machemba, A

1996-09-01

342

Diurnal and seasonal impacts of urbanization on the urban thermal environment: A case study of Beijing using MODIS data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Beijing has experienced rapid urbanization and associated urban heat island effects and air pollution. In this study, a contribution index was proposed to explore the effect of urbanization on land surface temperature (LST) using Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS)-derived data with high temporal resolution. The analysis indicated that different zones and landscapes make diurnally and seasonally different contributions to the regional thermal environment. The differences in contributions by the three main functional zones resulted from differences in their landscape compositions. The roles of landscapes in this process varied diurnally and seasonally. Urban land was the most important contributor to increases in regional LSTs. The contributions of cropland and forest varied distinctly between daytime and nighttime owing to differences in their thermal inertias. Vegetation had a notable cooling effect as the normalized vegetation difference index (NDVI) increased during summer. However, when the NDVI reached a certain value, the nighttime LST shifted markedly in other seasons. The results suggest that urban design based on vegetation partitions would be effective for regulating the thermal environment.

Qiao, Zhi; Tian, Guangjin; Xiao, Lin

2013-11-01

343

Impact of urbanization on high-salinity estuaries in the southeastern United States  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To assess the impact of urbanization on small high-salinity estuaries, studies were initiated which had a broad temporal and spatial base. These studies utilize a geographic information system and a global positioning system technology, as well as new data collection and analytical techniques to characterize the relationship between land-use patterns, nutrient loading, water quality, chemical contaminants, bacteriology, toxicology, hydrodynamics, and primary and secondary production. Thirty monitoring stations at both an urbanized estuary (Murrells Inlet, South Carolina, U.S.A.) and a nearby, similar-sized, relatively pristine estuary (North Inlet, SC) were established. Results indicate the following trends. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) levels in seawater and oyster tissue were higher in Murrells Inlet, and the specific PAHs found in higher concentrations in seawater are similar to the PAH composition in urban air. Copper concentrations were higher in Murrells Inlet with the highest concentrations found in oysters located near human habitation. Although total coliform levels in surface waters at both estuaries were not different, faecal coliform levels in Murrells Inlet were generally higher, particularly in oysters. Nitrate and phosphate concentrations were higher in water from Murrells Inlet but, in contrast, ammonium concentrations when significantly different were higher at North Inlet landward stations. The variability in dissolved oxygen was much greater in North Inlet and may be due to the greater marsh/creek drainage in North Inlet. Chlorophyll a values tended to be higher and more variable for North Inlet water samples but no significant differences were observed between the two estuaries during the peak of the growing season. Lower biomass was observed in Murrells Inlet when similar creeks from the two estuaries were sampled by seines.

John Vernberg, F.; Vernberg, W. B.; Blood, E.; Fortner, A.; Fulton, M.; McKellar, H.; Michener, W.; Scott, G.; Siewicki, T.; El Figi, K.

344

Special Issue "Natural Hazards' Impact on Urban Areas and Infrastructure" in Natural Hazards  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 2006 and 2007, at the 3rd and 4th General Assembly of the European Geosciences Union respectivelly, the session on "Natural Hazards' Impact on Urban Areas and Infrastructure" was convened by Maria Bostenaru Dan, then at the Istituto Universitario di Studi Superiori di Pavia, ROSE School, Italy, who conducts research on earthquake management and Heidi Kreibich from the GFZ Potsdam, Germany, who conducts research on flood hazards, in 2007 being co-convened also by Agostino Goretti from the Civil Protection in Rome, Italy. The session initially started from an idea of Friedemann Wenzel from the Universität Karlsruhe (TH), Germany, the former speaker of the SFB 461 "Strong earthquakes", the university where also Maria Bostenaru graduated and worked and which runs together with the GFZ Potsdam the CEDIM, the Center for Disaster Management and Risk Reduction Technology. Selected papers from these two sessions as well as invited papers from other specialists were gathered for a special issue to be published in the journal "Natural Hazards" under the guest editorship of Heidi Kreibich and Maria Bostenaru Dan. Unlike the former special issue, this one contains a well balanced mixture of many hazards: climate change, floods, mountain hazards like avalanches, volcanoes, earthquakes. Aim of the issue was to enlarge the co-operation prospects between geosciences and other professions in field of natural hazards. Earthquake engineering and engineering seismology are seen more frequently co-operating, but in field of natural hazards there is a need to co-operate with urban planners, and, looking to the future, also in the field of integrated conservation, which implies co-operation between architecture and urban planning for the preservation of our environment. Integrated conservation is stipulated since the 1970s, which are the years when the participatism, and so the involvment of social sciences started.

Bostenaru Dan, M.

2009-04-01

345

Impact of an Urban Effluent on Antibiotic Resistance of Riverine Enterobacteriaceae and Aeromonas spp.  

PubMed Central

In order to evaluate the impact of an urban effluent on antibiotic resistance of freshwater bacterial populations, water samples were collected from the Arga river (Spain), upstream and downstream from the wastewater discharge of the city of Pamplona. Strains of Enterobacteriaceae (representative of the human and animal commensal flora) (110 isolates) and Aeromonas (typically waterborne bacteria) (118 isolates) were selected for antibiotic susceptibility testing. Most of the Aeromonas strains (72%) and many of the Enterobacteriaceae (20%) were resistant to nalidixic acid. Singly nalidixic acid-resistant strains were frequent regardless of the sampling site for Aeromonas, whereas they were more common upstream from the discharge for enterobacteria. The most common resistances to antibiotics other than quinolones were to tetracycline (24.3%) and beta-lactams (20.5%) for Enterobacteriaceae and to tetracycline (27.5%) and co-trimoxazole (26.6%) for Aeromonas. The rates of these antibiotic resistances increased downstream from the discharge at similar degrees for the two bacterial groups; it remained at high levels for enterobacteria but decreased along the 30-km study zone for Aeromonas. Genetic analysis of representative strains demonstrated that these resistances were mostly (enterobacteria) or exclusively (Aeromonas) chromosomally mediated. Moreover, a reference strain of Aeromonas caviae (CIP 7616) could not be transformed with conjugative R plasmids of enterobacteria. Thus, the urban effluent resulted in an increase of the rates of resistance to antibiotics other than quinolones in the riverine bacterial populations, despite limited genetic exchanges between enterobacteria and Aeromonas. Quinolone resistance probably was selected by heavy antibiotic discharges of unknown origin upstream from the urban effluent.

Goni-Urriza, Marisol; Capdepuy, Michele; Arpin, Corinne; Raymond, Nathalie; Caumette, Pierre; Quentin, Claudine

2000-01-01

346

Strategic environmental assessment can help solve environmental impact assessment failures in developing countries  

SciTech Connect

The current trend of industrialization and urbanization in developing nations has a huge impact on anthropogenic and natural ecosystems. Pollution sources increase with the expansion of cities and cause contamination of water, air and soil. The absence of urban environmental planning and management strategies has resulted in greater concern for future urban development. This paper advocates the adoption of strategic environmental assessment (SEA) as a means to achieve sustainable development in developing countries. It investigates project-level environmental impact assessment (EIA) and its limitations. The exploration of SEA and its features are addressed. The effective implementation of SEA can create a roadmap for sustainable development. In many developing countries, the lack of transparency and accountability and ineffective public participation in the development of the policy, plan and program (PPP) would be mitigated by the SEA process. Moreover, the proactive and broadly based characteristics of SEA would benefit the institutional development of the PPP process, which is rarely experienced in many developing countries. The paper also explores the prospects for SEA and its guiding principles in developing countries. Finally, the paper calls for a coordinated effort between all government, nongovernment and international organizations involved with PPPs to enable developing countries to pursue a path of sustainable development through the development and application of strategic environmental assessment.

Alshuwaikhat, Habib M. [Department of City and Regional Planning, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, PO Box 1632, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia)]. E-mail: habibms@kfupm.edu.sa

2005-05-15

347

Climate Change or Urbanization? Impacts on a Traditional Coffee Production System in East Africa over the Last 80 Years  

PubMed Central

Global environmental changes (GEC) such as climate change (CC) and climate variability have serious impacts in the tropics, particularly in Africa. These are compounded by changes in land use/land cover, which in turn are driven mainly by economic and population growth, and urbanization. These factors create a feedback loop, which affects ecosystems and particularly ecosystem services, for example plant-insect interactions, and by consequence agricultural productivity. We studied effects of GEC at a local level, using a traditional coffee production area in greater Nairobi, Kenya. We chose coffee, the most valuable agricultural commodity worldwide, as it generates income for 100 million people, mainly in the developing world. Using the coffee berry borer, the most serious biotic threat to global coffee production, we show how environmental changes and different production systems (shaded and sun-grown coffee) can affect the crop. We combined detailed entomological assessments with historic climate records (from 1929–2011), and spatial and demographic data, to assess GEC's impact on coffee at a local scale. Additionally, we tested the utility of an adaptation strategy that is simple and easy to implement. Our results show that while interactions between CC and migration/urbanization, with its resultant landscape modifications, create a feedback loop whereby agroecosystems such as coffee are adversely affected, bio-diverse shaded coffee proved far more resilient and productive than coffee grown in monoculture, and was significantly less harmed by its insect pest. Thus, a relatively simple strategy such as shading coffee can tremendously improve resilience of agro-ecosystems, providing small-scale farmers in Africa with an easily implemented tool to safeguard their livelihoods in a changing climate.

Jaramillo, Juliana; Setamou, Mamoudou; Muchugu, Eric; Chabi-Olaye, Adenirin; Jaramillo, Alvaro; Mukabana, Joseph; Maina, Johnson; Gathara, Simon; Borgemeister, Christian

2013-01-01

348

Assessment of Climate Change Impact: Use of a Groundwater and Surface Water Model in a Highly-Urbanized Catchment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is currently great interest in quantifying the impact of anticipated climate change on groundwater volumes and flow dynamics. Several studies have assessed the impact of future climatic conditions on groundwater but only a few have investigated the concurrent potential impact of future urbanization. The main objective of our research project is to assess the impact of future climatic conditions and urban development on groundwater resources by focusing on the highly-urbanized catchment of the Saint-Charles River, in Quebec City, Canada. The methodology proposed to reach this objective is divided in two steps. The first step is to develop and calibrate a numerical model that simulates the surface water and groundwater flow dynamics for the catchment, using the physically-based, fully integrated, variably-saturated 3-D surface-subsurface simulator HydroGeoSphere (HGS). In addition, this model includes functions for simulating snow accumulation (during winter), snow melting (during spring) and freezing/thawing dynamic of pore water near the surface, which have been applied to the catchment. The second step is to identify climate projections from general circulation models (GCMs) and downscale their input to the catchment scale, as well as to propose urbanisation scenarios. Using the calibrated model as a starting point, the output of the GCMs and urbanisation scenarios will then be used as boundary conditions in the numerical model for predictive simulations and to assess their effect on groundwater flow dynamics. This presentation mainly reports on the first step of the project, which is the development of the calibrated model. The geology of the catchment is complex because of successions of quaternary deposits, with highly-variable hydrogeological properties and a complex spatial distribution that lie on fractured bedrock. A 3D Quaternary geological model is available but due to its complex geometry, the integration of this model into the 3-D hydrogeological model was complicated and required developing a specific methodology. A complex 2-D mesh of the catchment area with refinement near lakes, rivers and high-slope relief is first developed and a 3-D mesh is then constructed using vertical duplication of the 2-D mesh with refinement near the surface. Physical properties from the geological model are then interpolated into the 3D hydrogeological model. The model calibration was challenging because of a large number of calibration parameters (22) and boundary conditions (3) and long computational times. The model represents the subsurface with 144'000 finite elements and 78'096 nodes, and the surface with 6'296 elements and 3'254 nodes and the computational time (with a 3.40 GHz Intel Core desktop machine equipped with 4 Gb RAM) reaches 10 days for a 30 year simulation. The presentation will focus on the model development and calibration to highlight the associated challenges for a catchment-scale surface-subsurface model. The novel application of the snow accumulation and snow melt functions of the model will also be addressed. Predictive scenarios for climate change and preliminary results will also be discussed.

Cochand, F.; Therrien, R.

2013-12-01

349

Development of a GIS-based decision support system for urban air quality management in the city of Istanbul  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A decision support system has been developed for urban air quality management in the metropolitan area of Istanbul. The system is based on CALMET/CALPUFF dispersion modeling system, digital maps, and related databases to estimate the emissions and spatial distribution of air pollutants with the help of a GIS software. The system estimates ambient air pollution levels at high temporal and spatial resolutions and enables mapping of emissions and air quality levels. Mapping and scenario results can be compared with air quality limits. Impact assessment of air pollution abatement measures can also be carried out.

Elbir, Tolga; Mangir, Nizamettin; Kara, Melik; Simsir, Sedef; Eren, Tuba; Ozdemir, Seda

2010-02-01

350

Accessing resources for identity development by urban students and teachers: foregrounding context  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many attempt to address the documented achievement gap between urban and suburban students by offering special programs to enrich urban students' academic experiences and proficiencies. Such was the case in the study described by DeGennaro and Brown in which urban students participated in an after-school technology course intended to address the "digital divide" by giving these youth supported experiences as technology users. However, also like the initial situation described in this study, instructional design that does not capitalize on what we know about urban education or informal learning contexts can actually further damage urban youths' identities as learners by positioning them as powerless and passive recipients instead of meaningful contributors to their own learning. The analysis presented in this forum is intended to further the conversation begun by DeGennaro and Brown by explicitly complexifying our consideration of context (activity structures and setting) so as to support the development of contexts that afford rich learning potential for both the urban students and their learning facilitators, positioned in the role of teachers. Carefully constructed contexts can afford participants as learners (urban students and teachers) opportunities to access rich identity resources (not typically available in traditional school contexts) including, but not limited to, the opportunity to exercise agency that allows participants to reorganize their learning context and enacted culture as needed.

Luehmann, April Lynn

2009-03-01

351

Development of a Three-Dimensional Urban Energy Model for Predicting and Understanding Surface Temperature Distribution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Model for Urban Surface Temperature, a three-dimensional approach, is developed for a realistically complex city with considerations of the energy exchange processes at the urban surface. The discrete transfer method and Gebhart absorption factor method are used for the shape factor estimation and multiple reflection calculation, respectively. The surface energy balance model is evaluated against existing field measurements that pertain to idealized urban geometry. It performs well in terms of predicting surface temperature and heat fluxes by allowing for detailed urban surface properties and meteorological conditions. The compressed row storage scheme is applied to calculate the transfer of surface thermal radiation, which dramatically reduces the computational requirements. This strategy permits the rigorous consideration of multiple reflections in a realistic urban area with hundreds of buildings. The result illustrates that considering only the first reflection is a good approach when the urban area is comprised of typical urban materials, e.g. materials with high emissivity and low albedo, because relatively accurate computational results can be obtained rapidly by avoiding the multiple reflection calculation.

Yang, Xinyan; Li, Yuguo

2013-11-01

352

Opportunities and Alternatives for Enhancing Urban Forests in Compact Cities in Developing Countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

That cities need to be greened is almost a foregone conclusion, if not de rigueur, for any plans for urban development or redevelopment. A green city is an ideal with a universal appeal that traverses temporal,\\u000a spatial, and cultural divides (Hestmark, 2000). For many people, the greening of urbanized areas conjures up a deep innate\\u000a desire to connect with the

C. Y. Jim

353

Rapidly Growing African Cities Need to Adopt Smart Growth Policies to Solve Urban Development Concerns  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study reviews the smart growth concept- and identity-specific principles that could be adopted by rapidly growing African cities. Given the macroeconomic\\u000a reform changes over the last two decades and given the persistently high natural population growth and continuous influx of\\u000a rural residents to urban areas, the application of these principles may ensure sustainable urban development. The main assertion\\u000a of

Godwin Arku

2009-01-01

354

Spatial database for the management of urban geology geothematic information: the case of Drama City, Greece  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aggregation of population in big cities leads to the concentration of human activities, economic wealth, over consumption of natural resources and urban growth without planning and sustainable management. As a result, urban societies are exposed to various dangers and threats with economical, social, ecological - environmental impacts on the urban surroundings. Problems associated with urban development are related to

Eustathios Pantelias; Alexandra D. Zervakou; Panagiotis I. Tsombos; Konstantinos G. Nikolakopoulos

2008-01-01

355

The mineral aerosol and its impact on urban pollution aerosols over Beijing, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A campaign of sampling total suspended particles (TSP) and fine particles ( PM2.5) in Beijing from 2001 to 2004 were carried out to investigate the mineral aerosol and its impact on urban pollution aerosols, mainly sulfate, nitrate, and ammonium. In urban Beijing, mineral aerosol accounted for 32-67% of TSP, 10-70% of PM2.5 in normal four seasons, and as high as 74% of TSP and 90% of PM2.5 in dust storm period. The sources from outside Beijing accounted for 62% of the total mineral aerosols in TSP, and 76% in PM2.5 in spring, 69% and 45% in TSP and PM2.5, respectively, in winter, ˜20% of both TSP and PM2.5 in summer and autumn; and it reached as high as 97% of TSP in dust storm days. Mineral aerosol has an important positive influence on formations of sulfate, nitrate, and ammonium, as there was a positive correlation between sulfate/nitrate/ammonium and mineral aerosol under appropriate meteorological conditions. Sulfate, and ammonium mainly existed in fine particles, PM2.5. Sulfate might mostly derive from the formation on the pathways of the long-range transport by the reactions of their precursors SO2 on the surfaces of dust particles, while nitrate was mostly derived by the homogeneous reaction and the neutralization of their precursors NO2 on surfaces of mineral aerosol. Nitrate and ammonium mostly derived from the local pollution sources.

Han, Lihui; Zhuang, Guoshun; Cheng, Shuiyuan; Li, Juan

356

Gender differences in the longitudinal impact of exposure to violence on mental health in urban youth.  

PubMed

There is evidence of gender differences in psychopathology during adolescence, but little research has investigated gender differences in trauma-related symptoms. Exposure to violence is a commonly experienced potentially traumatic event among urban adolescents, and the few studies examining gender differences in its mental health impact have produced inconsistent findings. The present study examines the moderating effects of gender on the longitudinal association between exposure to violence and a variety of mental health symptoms (externalizing, internalizing, PTSD, dissociation) in a racially diverse urban adolescent sample (N = 615; 50.6% female; Time 1 mean age = 14.15; Time 2 mean age = 16.70). For both genders, exposure to violence prospectively predicted increases in all types of symptoms. Although boys reported more exposure to violence on average, girls experiencing violence were more likely to experience dissociative (but not PTSD, internalizing, or externalizing) symptoms. The results suggest that adolescent girls exposed to potentially traumatic events may be especially vulnerable to experiencing certain trauma-related symptoms and imply gender-specific pathways to trauma-related psychopathology. PMID:21400207

Zona, Kate; Milan, Stephanie

2011-12-01

357

Investigation of the impact of low cost traffic engineering measures on road safety in urban areas.  

PubMed

This paper investigates the impact of low cost traffic engineering measures (LCTEMs) on the improvement of road safety in urban areas. A number of such measures were considered, such as speed humps, woonerfs, raised intersections and other traffic calming measures, which have been implemented on one-way, one-lane roads in the Municipality of Neo Psychiko in the Greater Athens Area. Data were analysed using the before-and-after safety analysis methodology with large control group. The selected control group comprised of two Municipalities in the Athens Greater Area, which present similar road network and land use characteristics with the area considered. The application of the methodology showed that the total number of crashes presented a statistically significant reduction, which can be possibly attributed to the introduction of LCTEMs. This reduction concerns passenger cars and single-vehicle crashes and is possibly due to the behavioural improvement of drivers of 25 years old or more. The results of this research are very useful for the identification of the appropriate low cost traffic engineering countermeasures for road safety problems in urban areas. PMID:23651448

Yannis, George; Kondyli, Alexandra; Georgopoulou, Xenia

2014-06-01

358

Developments in Impact Assessment in North America  

EPA Science Inventory

Beginning with a background of recent global developments in this area, this presentation will focus on how global research has impacted North America and how North America is providing additional developments to address the issues of the global economy. Recent developments inc...

359

Development of Honeycomb Impact Limiters.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

General Atomics (GA), has a contract with DOE's Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) to develop two legal weight truck casks to transport spent fuel. The GA-4 and GA-9 Casks transport four pressurized-water-reactor (PWR) and nine boilin...

M. A. Koploy C. Taylor

1989-01-01

360

A 24 h investigation of the hydrogeochemistry of baseflow and stormwater in an urban area impacted by mining: Butte, Montana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changes in water quality during a storm event were continuously monitored over a 24 h period at a single location along an urban stormwater drain in Butte, Montana. The Butte Metro Storm Drain (MSD) collects groundwater baseflow and stormwater draining Butte Hill, a densely populated site that has been severely impacted by 130 years of mining, milling, and smelting of

Christopher H. Gammons; Christopher L. Shope; Terence E. Duaime

2005-01-01

361

Weighted Student Formula (WSF): What Is It and How Does It Impact Educational Programs in Large Urban Districts? NEA Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper partially fulfills the charge set out by New Business Item (NBI) 18, passed at the 2004 NEA Representative Assembly requiring that NEA conduct an analysis of "weighted student formula" (also known as "student-based budgeting") and how it impacts educational programs in large urban districts. The funding system known as "weighted student…

Petko, Mike

2005-01-01

362

INTEGRATED MEASURES FOR THE REDUCTION OF STORM WATER AND COMBINED SEWER OVERFLOW IMPACT ON AN URBAN LAKE  

Microsoft Academic Search

For two years an intensive monitoring programme was carried out in order to establish a basis for a wastewater management plan for the city of Viborg, Denmark. In this plan special attention is paid to reducing the impact of stormwater runoff (SWR) and combined sewer overflows (CSO) from the 506 ha paved drainage area of the city on an urban

Thorkild Hvitved-Jacobsen

363

Impact of Family Abuse on Running Away, Deviance, and Street Victimization among Homeless Rural and Urban Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Problem: Various demographic and familial risk factors have been linked to runaway behavior. To date, there has not been a systematic investigation of the impact of size of community on runaway behavior. This study will compare runaways from smaller cities and rural areas to their urban counterparts. Methods: A convenience sample of 602…

Thrane, Lisa E.; Hoyt, Danny R.; Whitbeck, Les B.; Yoder, Kevin A.

2006-01-01

364

Impact of the Clean Water Act on the levels of toxic metals in urban estuaries: The Hudson River estuary revisited  

Microsoft Academic Search

To establish the impact of the Clean Water Act on the water quality of urban estuaries, dissolved trace metals and phosphate concentrations were determined in surface waters collected along the Hudson River estuary between 1995 and 1997 and compared with samples collected in the mid-1970s by Klinkhammer and Bender. The median concentrations along the estuary have apparently declined 36--56% for

S. A. Sanudo-Wilhelmy; Gary A. Gill

1999-01-01

365

The Impact of the State Four-Year-Old Program on Urban/Minority School Districts' Enrollment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report presents an evaluation of a state implemented prekindergarten program for disadvantaged 4-year-old children in Texas in light of the program's impact on the largest urban school districts. The purpose of the program was to break the cycle of school failure and underachievement of disadvantaged and limited English proficient children.…

Garza, Elizabeth Pompa

1991-01-01

366

Landscape heterogeneity and ecohydrologic modeling in semi-arid urban ecosystems: how does impervious surface impact vegetation water use?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Urban areas are characterized by significant amounts of impervious surface cover and a high degree of fine scale spatial heterogeneity. For ecohydrologic modelers, these characteristics present a challenge, as these fine scale spatial characteristics may be ecologically important but are computationally intensive to model at the catchment scale. In the case of impervious surface, a large body of research has documented the effects of increased impervious surface on runoff response. Studies also show that areas where impervious surface is highly connected to the stream network show a different runoff response to areas where there are fewer connections between impervious surfaces and the stream. These findings suggest that fine scale impervious surface patterns may be as important as total impervious surface area in determining catchment response to urbanization. While the effects of increased impervious surface and basin connectivity on runoff are well documented, impacts on the delivery of water to vegetated areas are less studied. In water-stressed semi-arid areas, the potential for impervious surface arrangements to increase or decrease water delivery to plants is of particular interest from both a purely ecological and a more modeling oriented standpoint: what effect does the connectivity of impervious surface to either vegetation or the stream network have on vegetation in semi-arid urban areas, and how would accounting for this effect change ecohydrologic model output at the catchment scale? We use an ecohydrologic model, RHESSys, to quanitfy the sensitivity of vegetation water use and net primary productivity to fine scale impervious surface connections in a semi arid region. We simulate a series of fine scale, spatially explicit impervious surface scenarios on a small (0.009 km2) theoretical hillslope under semi-arid Mediterranean climate conditions. We analyze the influence of impervious surface arrangements on modeled vegetation water use and photosynthesis, and extrapolate our findings to the catchment scale to develop a first-order approximation of the potential impact of accounting for fine scale impervious connections on aggregate watershed ecohydrologic flux estimates. Results indicate that large increases in any kind of impervious surfaces will have a negative effect on transpiration and photosynthesis, due to the sheer loss of vegetated area. However, if effective impervious area is kept to a minimum, the effect of decreased vegetated area can be partially or in some cases even completely offset by increased transpiration and productivity in the remaining vegetation that occurs when water is routed from impervious to vegetated areas.

Shields, C. A.; Tague, C.

2012-12-01

367

Remote Sensing of the Urban Heat Island Effect: Assessment of Risks to Human Health and Development of Mitigation Strategies for Sustainable Cities  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The growth of cities, both in population and in areal extent, appears as an inexorable process. Urbanization continues at a rapid rate, and it is estimated that by the year 2025, 80% of the world's population will live in cities. One of the more egregious side effects of urbanization is the deterioration in air quality as a result of increased vehicular traffic, industrialization and related activities. In the United States alone, under the more stringent air quality guidelines established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in 1997, nearly 300 counties in 34 states will not meet the new air quality standards for ground level ozone. The mitigation of one the physical/environmental characteristics of urbanization known as the urban heat island (UHI) effect, is now being looked at more closely as a possible way to bring down ground level ozone levels in cities and assist states in improving air quality. The UHI results from the replacement of "natural" land covers (e.g., trees, grass) with urban land surface types, such as pavement and buildings. Heat stored in these surfaces is released into the air and results in a "dome" of elevated air temperatures that presides over cities. The effect of this dome of elevated air temperatures is known as the UHI, which is most prevalent about 2-3 hours after sunset on days with intense solar radiation and calm winds. Given the local and regional impacts of the UHI, there are significant potential affects on human health, particularly as related to heat stress and ozone on body temperature regulation and on the cardiovascular and respiratory systems. In this study we are using airborne and satellite remote sensing data to analyze how differences in the urban landscape influence or drive the development of the UHI over four U.S. cities. Additionally, we are assessing what the potential impact is on risks to human health, and developing mitigation strategies to make urban areas more environmentally sustainable.

Quattrochi, Dale A.; Luvall, Jeffrey C.; Rickman, Douglas L.; Estes, Maurice G., Jr.; Laymon, Charles A.; Crosson, William; Howell, Burgess F.; Gillani, Noor V.; Arnold, James E. (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

368

High Spatial Resolution Thermal Remote Sensing of the Urban Heat Island Effect: Assessment of Risks to Human Health and Development of Mitigation Strategies for Sustainable Cities  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The growth of cities, both in population and in areal extent, appears as an inexorable process. Urbanization continues at a rapid rate, and it is estimated that by the year 2025, 80% of the world's population will live in cities. One of the more egregious side effects of urbanization is the deterioration in air quality as a result of increased vehicular traffic, industrialization and related activities. In the United States alone, under the more stringent air quality guidelines established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in 1997, nearly 300 counties in 34 states will not meet the new air quality standards for ground level ozone. The mitigation of one the physical/environmental characteristics of urbanization known as the urban heat island (UHI) effect, is now being looked at more closely as a possible way to bring down ground level ozone levels in cities and assist states in improving air quality. The UHI results from the replacement of "natural" land covers (e.g., trees, grass) with urban land surface types, such as pavement and buildings. Heat stored in these surfaces is released into the air and results in a "dome" of elevated air temperatures that presides over cities. The effect of this dome of elevated air temperatures is known as the UHI, which is most prevalent about 2-3 hours after sunset on days with intense solar radiation and calm winds. Given the local and regional impacts of the UHI, there are significant potential affects on human health, particularly as related to heat stress and ozone on body temperature regulation and on the cardiovascular and respiratory systems. In this study we are using airborne and satellite remote sensing data to analyze how differences in the urban landscape influence or drive the development of the UHI over four U.S. cities. Additionally, we are assessing what the potential impact is on risks to human health, and developing mitigation strategies to make urban areas more environmentally sustainable.

Quattrochi, Dale A.; Luvall, Jeffrey C.; Rickman, Douglas L.; Estes, Maurice G., Jr.; Laymon, Charles A.; Crosson, William; Howell, Burgess F.; Gillani, Noor V.; Arnold, James E. (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

369

An approach to evaluate the intra-urban thermal variability in summer using an urban indicator.  

PubMed

Urban planners and managers need tools to evaluate the performance of the present state and future development of cities in terms of comfort and quality of life. In this paper, an approach to analyse the intra-urban summer thermal variability, using an urban planning indicator, is presented. The proportion of buildings and concrete surfaces in a specific buffer area are calculated. Besides, the relationship between urban and temperature indicators is investigated and used to produce thermal maps of the city. This approach is applied to the analysis of intra-urban variability in Florence (Italy), of two thermal indices (heat index and cooling degree days) used to evaluate impacts on thermal comfort and energy consumption for indoor cooling. Our results suggest that urban planning indicators can describe intra-urban thermal variability in a way that can easily be used by urban planners for evaluating the effects of future urbanization scenarios on human health. PMID:24845237

Massetti, Luciano; Petralli, Martina; Brandani, Giada; Orlandini, Simone

2014-09-01

370

Impact of Urbanization on Heavy Convective Precipitation under Strong Large-Scale Forcing: A Case Study over the Milwaukee-Lake Michigan Region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, observational and numerical modeling studies based on the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model are used to investigate the impact of urbanization on heavy rainfall over the Milwaukee-Lake Michigan region. We examine urban modification of rainfall for a storm system with continental-scale moisture transport, strong large-scale forcing, and extreme rainfall over a large area of the upper Midwest of the US. WRF simulations were carried out to examine the sensitivity of the rainfall distribution in and around the urban area to different urban land surface model representations and urban land-use scenarios. Simulation results suggest that the urbanization plays an important role in precipitation distribution, even in settings characterized by strong large-scale forcing. For the Milwaukee-Lake Michigan region, the thermodynamic perturbations produced by urbanization on temperature and surface pressure fields enhance the intrusion of the Lake Breeze and facilitate the formation of a convergence zone, which create favorable conditions for deep convection over the city. Analyses of model and observed vertical profiles of reflectivity using contoured frequency by altitude displays (CFADs), suggest that cloud dynamics over the city do not change significantly with urbanization. Simulation results also suggest that the large scale rainfall pattern is not sensitive to different urban representations in the model. Both urban representations (Noah land surface model with urban land categories and the Urban Canopy Model) adequately capture the dominant features of this storm over the urban region.

Yang, Long; Smith, James; Baeck, Mary Lynn; Bou-Zeid, Elie; Jessup, Stephen; Tian, Fuqiang; Hu, Heping

2013-04-01

371

TRESIS: A transportation, land use and environmental strategy impact simulator for urban areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Institute of Transport Studies has developed a Transportation and Environment Strategy Impact Simulator (TRESIS) as a decision support system to assist planners to predict the impact of transport strategies and to make recommendations based on those predictions. A key focus of the simulator is the richness of policy instruments such as new public transport, new toll roads, congestion pricing,

David A. Hensher; Tu Ton

2002-01-01

372

Characterizing the impact of urban emissions on regional aerosol particles; airborne measurements during the MEGAPOLI experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The MEGAPOLI experiment took place in July 2009. The aim of this campaign was to study the aging and reactions of aerosol and gas-phase emissions in the city of Paris. Three ground-based measurement sites and several mobile platforms including instrument equipped vehicles and the ATR-42 aircraft were involved. We present here the variations in particle- and gas-phase species over the city of Paris using a combination of high-time resolution measurements aboard the ATR-42 aircraft. Particle chemical composition was measured using a compact time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (C-ToF-AMS) giving detailed information of the non-refractory submicron aerosol species. The mass concentration of BC, measured by a particle absorption soot photometer (PSAP), was used as a marker to identify the urban pollution plume boundaries. Aerosol mass concentrations and composition were affected by air-mass history, with air masses that spent longest time over land having highest fractions of organic aerosol and higher total mass concentrations. The Paris plume is mainly composed of organic aerosol (OA), black carbon and nitrate aerosol, as well as high concentrations of anthropogenic gas-phase species such as toluene, benzene, and NOx. Using BC and CO as tracers for air-mass dilution, we observe the ratio of ?OA / ?BC and ?OA / ?CO increase with increasing photochemical age (-log(NOx / NOy). Plotting the equivalent ratios for the Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) resolved species (LV-OOA, SV-OOA, and HOA) illustrate that the increase in OA is a result of secondary organic aerosol (SOA). Within Paris the changes in the ?OA / ?CO are similar to those observed during other studies in Mexico city, Mexico and in New England, USA. Using the measured VOCs species together with recent organic aerosol formation yields we predicted ~ 50% of the measured organics. These airborne measurements during the MEGAPOLI experiment show that urban emissions contribute to the formation of OA, and have an impact on aerosol composition on a regional scale. They provide a quantitative measure of this impact in terms of urban plume composition and evolution relative to background aerosol composition.

Freney, E. J.; Sellegri, K.; Canonaco, F.; Colomb, A.; Borbon, A.; Michoud, V.; Doussin, J.-F.; Crumeyrolle, S.; Amarouch, N.; Pichon, J.-M.; Prévôt, A. S. H.; Beekmann, M.; Schwarzenböeck, A.

2013-09-01

373

Nineteenth Century Harbors: Accounting for Coastal Urban Development in Hydrologic Change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Harbors complicate the analytical framework of quantifying nineteenth-century hydrologic change in the northeastern United States. The hydrology of the region was fundamentally altered by the growth of water engineering such as canals as well as by land cover changes as deforestation in the region peaked and urban centers grew. Urban coastal growth epitomized nineteenth-century development as northeastern colonial ports evolved into manufacturing and industrial centers. Coastal urban industrial development concentrated tanneries, machineries, and paper processing companies along cities’ trading rivers. Additionally, the populations of cities such as Boston, New Haven, New York, Newark, and Baltimore reached unprecedented numbers, forcing urban municipalities to confront sewerage and drinking water infrastructure in the face of shortages and waterborne disease. We discuss how the concentration of industry and population at river mouths complicates the process of quantifying the effects of municipal drinking water and sewage infrastructure on regional hydrology and how the growth of nineteenth-century urban centers shaped regional hydrologic hinterlands. Additionally, harbors oblige a reconsideration of hydrologic boundaries by forcing hydrologists and environmental historians to account for fisheries and harbor engineering alongside population and industry as factors in changes to water quality and quantity in and human response to urban nineteenth-century hydrologic change.

Schlichting, K. M.; Ruffing, C. M.; McCormack, S. M.; Urbanova, T.; Powell, L. J.; Hermans, C. M.

2009-12-01

374

Determining the impact of urban components on land surface temperature of Istanbul by using remote sensing indices.  

PubMed

For the past 60 years, Istanbul has been experiencing an accelerated urban expansion. This urban expansion is leading to the replacement of natural surfaces by various artificial materials. This situation has a critical impact on the environment due to the alteration of heat energy balance. In this study, the effect upon the urban heat island (UHI) of Istanbul was analyzed using 2009 dated Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper (TM) data. An Index Based Built-up Index (IBI) was used to derive artificial surfaces in the study area. To produce the IBI index, Soil-Adjusted Vegetation Index, Normalized Difference Built-up Index, and Modified Normalized Difference Water Index were calculated. Land surface temperature (LST) distribution was derived from Landsat 5 TM images using a mono-window algorithm. In addition, 24 transects were selected, and different regression models were applied to explore the correlation between LST and IBI index. The results show that artificial surfaces have a positive exponential relationship with LST rather than a simple linear one. An ecological evaluation index of the region was calculated to explore the impact of both the vegetated land and the artificial surfaces on the UHI. Therefore, the quantitative relationship of urban components (artificial surfaces, vegetation, and water) and LST was examined using multivariate statistical analysis, and the correlation coefficient was obtained as 0.829. This suggested that the areas with a high rate of urbanization will accelerate the rise of LST and UHI in Istanbul. PMID:24043606

Bekta? Balçik, Filiz

2014-02-01

375

Effects of Urban Development on Water-Quality in the Piedmont of North Carolina-- The NAWQA Urban Land-Use Gradient Study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A study of urban basins located in the Piedmont of North Carolina is underway as part of the U. S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) to determine the relation between level of urban development and water quality. Data were collected from 30 basins on water chemistry (nutrient, pesticide, and ion concentrations), geomorphic and habitat characteristics, hydrologic stage, discharge, water temperature, pH, dissolved-oxygen concentration, specific conductance, benthic algae, invertebrate communities, and fish communities. Collection frequency for water chemistry ranged from 2 samples (at 20 sites) to 6 samples (at 10 sites). Biological data were collected in each basin twice. Investigation of the effects of urbanization on water quality must control for the effects of natural factors, while varying the degree of urbanization between study basins. A regional framework was used to control variability in natural factors that influence water-quality. The urban intensity in each basin was measured by using an index to integrate information on human influences. The Urban Index includes information about land cover, infrastructure, population, and socioeconomic characteristics. Sites were selected to represent the full gradient of undeveloped to fully urbanized basins. A preliminary review of the stream water-chemistry data indicates distinct relations between ionic composition and the Urban Index. Mean specific conductance was positively correlated with the Urban Index (Spearman correlation coefficient (r) = 0.77; 95-percent confidence limits (95CL) 0.61 - 0.93; probability (pr) <0.0001; N=30). Specific conductance ranged from 56 microsiemens (uS) at the least developed site to 607 uS at the most developed site. Dissolved sulfate (r=0.74; 95CL 0.57 - 0.91; pr <0.0001) and chloride (r=0.71; 95CL 0.52 - 0.90; pr <0.0001) were also positively correlated with the Urban Index. Sulfate ranged from 2.3 to 66 milligrams per liter (mg/L), and chloride ranged from 3.5 to 96 mg/L. Urban sources of sulfate include domestic sewage and emissions from the combustion of automotive and diesel fuels. Sources of chloride include sewage and road salting. pH was positively correlated with the Urban Index (r=0.60; 95CL 0.38 - 0.84; pr= 0.0005) with a range from 6.5 at the least urban site to 7.5 at the most urban site. The increase in pH may be due in part to conversion of organic forest soils to less acidic soils of urban lawns. The overall trend of increasing total dissolved nitrogen (r=0.46; 95CL 0.12 - 0.80; pr=0.0103) and nitrite plus nitrate (r=0.46; 95CL 0.09 - 0.83; pr=0.0109) concentrations, with increasing Urban Index may reflect sources such as sewage and lawn fertilizer use in the more urban basins. However, some of the least urban basins also had elevated nitrogen concentrations reflecting possible agricultural influences such as fertilizer use and animal waste. Total nitrogen concentration ranged from 0.31 to 14 mg/L. Unit-area stream discharge during low-flow periods was negatively correlated with the Urban Index (r= -0.56; 95CL -0.74 - -0.37; pr=0.0014). Reduced discharge with greater urban development may be a result of reduced infiltration caused by impervious surfaces. Unit discharge ranged from 0.47 to 2.27 cubic feet per second per square mile of drainage area.

Harned, D. A.; Cuffney, T. F.; Giddings, E. M.; McMahon, G.

2004-12-01

376

Understanding and Managing Staff Development in an Urban School System. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study is reported that examined the way staff development functions in schools, the effects of staff development, and the interaction between staff development and other activities and conditions in school systems. The study took place in a large urban school district (in the Southeast) that is heavily committed to and involved in staff…

Schlechty, Phillip; And Others

377

Urban Seismic Risk Perception and its Impact on Seismic Vulnerability in Unauthorized Housing Settlements of Istanbul, Turkey  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Unauthorized housing is a primary means of shelter in urban centers throughout the industrializing world. These homes, often built on squatted land or by self builders, are frequently un-engineered multi-story concrete apartment buildings that are highly vulnerable to natural disasters. Yet, the production of unauthorized housing and its relationship to seismic risk is often overlooked in global efforts to improve building codes and develop regional disaster management strategies. Istanbul, Turkey, like many rapidly industrializing cities of the developing world, is a city with over 50 percent illegal housing. It is also located on one of the world's most active fault lines with a high probability of a large earthquake in the near future. A recent study of risk perception conducted in four diverse districts of Istanbul indicates that risk perception is critical to understanding patterns of vulnerability across legal and illegal districts. However, contrary to assumptions that the most vulnerable residents are those least able to make risk decisions, this study shows that residents of unauthorized housing districts, while being exposed to elevated seismic risk, are most likely to take actions that impact their risk. These actions include choosing rental apartments and self-designing and building homes based on risk perception. Yet, despite considerable effort to reduce exposure to seismic risk, a lack of knowledge regarding the components of hazard and vulnerability often results in actions that are ineffective or have created heightened vulnerability. There is a critical need for members of the scientific and engineering community to engage with residents living in unauthorized housing districts. It is these residents that can quickly turn knowledge about hazard and vulnerability into actions that can reduce their own risk and in aggregate the overall risk that urban centers face.

Green, R.

2005-12-01

378

RAINFALL-RUNOFF MECHANICS FOR DEVELOPED URBAN BASINS, SOUTH FLORIDA.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Rainfall-runoff data, collected by the US Geological Survey as part of an urban hydrology study in south Florida, were analyzed to find relations between depths of rainfall and basin runoff. Data were collected for about 300 runoff events on four different urban land-use basins - commercial, highway, single-family residential, and apartment. These data were collected from sewers that carried only stormwater runoff. In analyzing the rainfall-runoff data, three types of relations were found. A one-curve, linear relation occurred for the commercial basin that has 98 percent of the basin as hydraulically effective impervious area. A two-curve, intercepted relation occurred for the highway basin - a linear curve for the low and medium events observed and a second-degree curve for high events observed. A two-curve, disjointed relation occurred for the remaining two basins - the residential basin and the apartment basin. This relation also contained a linear curve for low and medium events and a second-degree curve for the high events. However, the two curves do not intersect, but are disjointed.

Miller, Robert, A.

1984-01-01

379

Present and Future Impacts of Tropical Cyclones on Urban Flooding in the Eastern United States  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The climatology of flooding in urbanized watersheds in the eastern United States is largely the result of tropical cyclones and organized thunderstorm systems. Extreme rainfall from tropical storms drives the upper tail of flood risk in watersheds larger than about 25 km2. In this study, we couple a flood hazard assessment framework known as Stochastic Storm Transposition (SST) with a ten-year record of high-resolution (15-minute, 1 km2) radar rainfall fields developed using the Hydro-NEXRAD system to look at the frequency of intense rainfall from tropical storms and organized thunderstorms in Charlotte, North Carolina. Using the physics-based Gridded Surface Subsurface Hydrologic Analysis (GSSHA) modeling system, we have developed a detailed representation of the highly urbanized Little Sugar Creek watershed, including detailed land surface, subsurface, and drainage network properties. We use GSSHA to examine the frequency and intensity of extreme flooding resulting from tropical storms and organized thunderstorms at different spatial scales. In addition, we combine this flood hazard assessment framework with downscaled projections of future hurricane-season rainfall from the Zetac regional climate model to examine how projected changes in flood risk due to tropical storm rainfall may change in Charlotte and along the east coast of the United States throughout the 21st century. We demonstrate that the frequency of landfalling tropical storms in the eastern United States is not projected to change significantly from present conditions, but that the intensity of rainfall from these storms will increase by the late 21st century, with important implications for flooding in urban areas. Significant challenges remain, however, with the simulation of rainfall from landfalling tropical storms in climate models. Annual frequency of modeled tropical storm tracks passing within 500 km of a given point during the control period (1980-2006) and the CMIP5 late 21st century climate scenario.

Wright, D. B.; Smith, J. A.; Knutson, T. R.; Baeck, M. L.

2013-12-01

380

Planning for sustainability in China's urban development: status and challenges for Dongtan eco-city project.  

PubMed

With the rapid urbanization in China, the country faces significant challenges in sustainable urban development and actively explores novel ways to expand urban areas while conserving natural resources. Radical changes in city planning are being made to switch to sustainable development, with new cities being designed to be ecologically friendly guided by principles like carbon neutrality and self-sufficiency. This paper introduces the development of the Dongtan eco-city project on Chongming Island, Shanghai and describes how it addresses issues including energy, water, waste, transportation, ecosystem, and social and economic development in its design. The lessons and challenges of eco-city development based on the Dongtan experience are also discussed. If the vision of a zero-carbon emissions sustainable city is successfully realized, Dongtan will serve as a model for developing similar cities across China and the rest of the developing world. Currently, the development of this project is behind schedule and whether the eco-city plan will materialize or not is in question. Even though the project remains mostly on the drawing boards, the planning and preliminary development of Dongtan eco-city have generated significant enthusiasm for green buildings and influenced plans for other sustainable urban development projects in China. PMID:20082005

Cheng, Hefa; Hu, Yuanan

2010-01-01

381

Linking the management of urban watersheds with the impacts on the receiving water bodies: the use of flow duration curves.  

PubMed

There is growing evidence that changes in the current hydrological behaviour of urbanising catchments are a major source of impacts on the downstream water bodies. However, current flow-rates are rarely considered in studies on urban stormwater management, usually focused on extreme flow-rates. We argue that taking into account receiving water bodies is possible with relatively small modifications in current practices of urban stormwater modelling, through the use of Flow duration curves (FDCs). In this paper, we discuss advantages and requirements of the use of FDCs. Then, we present an example of application comparing source control regulations over an urbanised catchment (178 ha) in Nantes, France. PMID:25026590

Petrucci, Guido; Rodriguez, Fabrice; Deroubaix, José-Frédéric; Tassin, Bruno

2014-01-01

382

Making Sense of Staff Development: An Analysis of Staff Development Programs and Their Costs in Three Urban School Districts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To increase understanding of teacher staff development in the United States, a research study of staff development programs and their associated costs was undertaken in three large urban school districts. These districts were selected as having, respectively, high, medium and low apparent levels of staff development activity. The study was…

Moore, Donald R.; Hyde, Arthur A.

383

Development of a 3-D urbanization index using digital terrain models for surface urban heat island effects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study assesses surface urban heat island (SUHI) effects during heat waves in subtropical areas. Two cities in northern Taiwan, Taipei metropolis and its adjacent medium-sized city, Yilan, were selected for this empirical study. Daytime and night time surface temperature and SUHI intensity of both cities in five heat wave cases were obtained from MODIS Land-Surface Temperature (LST) and compared. In order to assess SUHI in finer spatial scale, an innovated three-dimensional Urbanization Index (3DUI) with a 5-m spatial resolution was developed to quantify urbanization from a 3-D perspective using Digital Terrain Models (DTMs). The correlation between 3DUI and surface temperatures were also assessed. The results obtained showed that the highest SUHI intensity in daytime was 10.2 °C in Taipei and 7.5 °C in Yilan. The SUHI intensity was also higher than that in non-heat-wave days (about 5 °C) in Taipei. The difference in SUHI intensity of both cities could be as small as only 1.0 °C, suggesting that SUHI intensity was enhanced in both large and medium-sized cities during heat waves. Moreover, the surface temperatures of rural areas in Taipei and Yilan were elevated in the intense heat wave cases, suggesting that the SUHI may reach a plateau when the heat waves get stronger and last longer. In addition, the correlation coefficient between 3DUI and surface temperature was greater than 0.6. The innovative 3DUI can be employed to assess the spatial variation of temperatures and SUHI intensity in much finer spatial resolutions than measurements obtained from remote sensing and weather stations. In summary, the empirical results demonstrated intensified SUHI in large and medium-sized cities in subtropical areas during heat waves which could result in heat stress risks of residents. The innovative 3DUI can be employed to identify vulnerable areas in fine spatial resolutions for formulation of heat wave adaptation strategies.

Wu, Chih-Da; Lung, Shih-Chun Candice; Jan, Jihn-Fa

2013-07-01

384

Managing urban trees and their soil envelopes in a contiguously developed city environment.  

PubMed

Urban Hong Kong is covered by high building, road, and population densities. Its urban morphology is inherently not conducive to extensive or high-grade greening. Recent renewal of old areas has squeezed out some limited interstitial plantable space, although in new development areas modest spaces have been earmarked for greenery. The study aims at evaluating the major constraints to urban trees and their companion urban soil envelopes and at providing specific recommendations to improve tree management in the city. The analysis covers the above-ground confinements that dampen tree performance, the less tangible but rather difficult institutional restrictions that impose a somewhat unnecessary lid on tree planting, the multiplicity of players and stakeholders involved in urban-tree management that militates against coordination and cooperation, the widespread occupation of underground space by utility lines often to the exclusion of trees, and the extremely poor quality of urban soils that are often used without amelioration to support tree growth. The management recommendations furnish practical suggestions and hints to improve the short- and long-term welfare of trees in terms of quality, quantity, and spatial distribution. The conclusion enumerates some concrete measures for consideration by decision-makers to upgrade the city's greenery to close the gap between science and policy. PMID:11915969

Jim, C Y

2001-12-01

385

Managing Urban Trees and Their Soil Envelopes in a Contiguously Developed City Environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Urban Hong Kong is covered by high building, road, and population densities. Its urban morphology is inherently not conducive to extensive or high-grade greening. Recent renewal of old areas has squeezed out some limited interstitial plantable space, although in new development areas modest spaces have been earmarked for greenery. The study aims at evaluating the major constraints to urban trees and their companion urban soil envelopes and at providing specific recommendations to improve tree management in the city. The analysis covers the above-ground confinements that dampen tree performance, the less tangible but rather difficult institutional restrictions that impose a somewhat unnecessary lid on tree planting, the multiplicity of players and stakeholders involved in urban-tree management that militates against coordination and cooperation, the widespread occupation of underground space by utility lines often to the exclusion of trees, and the extremely poor quality of urban soils that are often used without amelioration to support tree growth. The management recommendations furnish practical suggestions and hints to improve the short- and long-term welfare of trees in terms of quality, quantity, and spatial distribution. The conclusion enumerates some concrete measures for consideration by decision-makers to upgrade the city's greenery to close the gap between science and policy.

Jim, C. Y.

2001-12-01

386

Environmental impact of submerged anaerobic MBR (SAnMBR) technology used to treat urban wastewater at different temperatures.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to assess the environmental impact of a submerged anaerobic MBR (SAnMBR) system in the treatment of urban wastewater at different temperatures: ambient temperature (20 and 33°C), and a controlled temperature (33°C). To this end, an overall energy balance (OEB) and life cycle assessment (LCA), both based on real process data, were carried out. Four factors were considered in this study: (1) energy consumption during wastewater treatment; (2) energy recovered from biogas capture; (3) potential recovery of nutrients from the final effluent; and (4) sludge disposal. The OEB and LCA showed SAnMBR to be a promising technology for treating urban wastewater at ambient temperature (OEB=0.19 kW h m(-3)). LCA results reinforce the importance of maximising the recovery of nutrients (environmental impact in eutrophication can be reduced up to 45%) and dissolved methane (positive environmental impact can be obtained) from SAnMBR effluent. PMID:24119499

Pretel, R; Robles, A; Ruano, M V; Seco, A; Ferrer, J

2013-12-01

387

Impacts of Human Activities on Urban Wetland Water Quality in the East of Nanjing City, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urban wetland as a semi-natural ecosystem plays significant roles in flood storage and regulation, climatic regulation, water conservation and purification, maintenance of biological diversity. At the same time, wetlands in urban areas are prone to be influenced by human activities compared to nature wetlands. In this study, we collected 40 urban wetlands, and monitored their water qualities monthly from September

Jingfeng Hao; Hongyu Liu; Hebing Hu; Jing An

2011-01-01

388

NATIONWIDE EVALUATION OF COMBINED SEWER OVERFLOWS AND URBAN STORMWATER DISCHARGES. VOLUME II. COST ASSESSMENT AND IMPACTS  

EPA Science Inventory

A nationwide assessment has been made of the quantity and quality of urban storm flow emanating from combined sewers, storm sewers, and unsewered portions of all 248 urbanized areas and other urban areas in the United States. Available control alternatives and their associated co...

389

Impact of the 2009 Attica wild fires on the air quality in urban Athens  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At the end of August 2009, wild fires ravaged the north-eastern fringes of Athens destroying invaluable forest wealth of the Greek capital. In this work, the impact of these fires on the air quality of Athens and surface radiation levels is examined. Satellite imagery, smoke dispersion modeling and meteorological data confirm the advection of smoke under cloud-free conditions over the city of Athens. Lidar measurements showed that the smoke plume dispersed in the free troposphere and lofted over the city reaching heights between 2 and 4 km. Ground-based sunphotometric measurements showed extreme aerosol optical depth, reaching nearly 6 in the UV wavelength range, accompanied by a reduction up to 70% of solar irradiance at ground. The intensive aerosol optical properties, namely the Ångström exponent, the lidar ratio, and the single scattering albedo, showed typical values for highly absorbing fresh smoke particles. In-situ air quality measurements revealed the impact of the smoke plume down to the surface with a slight delay on both the particulate and gaseous phase. Surface aerosols increase was encountered mainly in the fine mode with prominent elevation of OC and EC levels. Photochemical processes, studied via NO x titration of O 3, were also shown to be different compared to typical urban photochemistry.

Amiridis, V.; Zerefos, C.; Kazadzis, S.; Gerasopoulos, E.; Eleftheratos, K.; Vrekoussis, M.; Stohl, A.; Mamouri, R. E.; Kokkalis, P.; Papayannis, A.; Eleftheriadis, K.; Diapouli, E.; Keramitsoglou, I.; Kontoes, C.; Kotroni, V.; Lagouvardos, K.; Marinou, E.; Giannakaki, E.; Kostopoulou, E.; Giannakopoulos, C.; Richter, A.; Burrows, J. P.; Mihalopoulos, N.

2012-01-01

390

Local economic development and urban poverty alleviation: the experience of post-apartheid South Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urban poverty is a policy issue of growing significance in post-apartheid South Africa. In terms of the new Constitution the developmental role of local governments is given considerable attention. Against a background analysis of the best practice of local anti-poverty strategies in the developing world, this paper reviews the experience of eight case studies of local economic development (LED) initiatives.

C. M Rogerson

1999-01-01

391

Planning urban development with a change of sovereignty in mind: a Hong Kong case study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urban development planning in Hong Kong has failed to adequately address issues related to the reintegration of Hong Kong with mainland China, in spite of earlier significant achievements, such as the construction of a new airport. Regional transport links critical to Hong Kong's future as a Chinese city are missing. The development of the New Territories adjacent to the Chinese

Andrew Marshall Hamer

1997-01-01

392

Developing a Life Skills Diploma Program in an Urban Setting--A Model for Replication.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The External High School Diploma (EHSD) Program is a specially developed program to grant credits to urban adults for skills developed through life experiences. This District of Columbia program is designed to grant credit for life experiences and career-related skills by documenting the levels of knowledge and skills adults have attained by…

Rawlings, Lyngrid S.; Davison, Jean B.

393

Team Sports Achievement and Self-Esteem Development among Urban Adolescent Girls  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study we investigate the contribution of achievement in team sports to adolescent girls' self-esteem development. Adolescent girls (N = 247) from racially and ethnically diverse backgrounds were surveyed as part of a larger study investigating the development of poor urban youth. Participants responded to items tapping global self-esteem,…

Pedersen, Sara; Seidman, Edward

2004-01-01

394

Managing urban water supplies in developing countries – Climate change and water scarcity scenarios  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urban areas of developing countries are facing increasing water scarcity and it is possible that this problem may be further aggravated due to rapid changes in the hydro-environment at different scales, like those of climate and land-cover. Due to water scarcity and limitations to the development of new water resources, it is prudent to shift from the traditional ‘supply based

Kala Vairavamoorthy; Sunil D. Gorantiwar; Assela Pathirana

2008-01-01

395

Urban Tourism in Developing Countries: in the Case of Melaka (Malacca) City, Malaysia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the context that provides understanding of the building blocks of the urban tourism concept in developing countries. This is based on the geographical and historical position of Melaka City as an example of such phenomena in developing countries. The themes focus on several considerations and issues from the perspective of geographical and historical position. The first is