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1

THE IMPACTS OF URBANIZATION/URBAN DEVELOPMENT IN THE CLIMATE OF PUERTO RICO  

E-print Network

THE IMPACTS OF URBANIZATION/URBAN DEVELOPMENT IN THE CLIMATE OF PUERTO RICO Angel R. Torres Valcarcel MPH Ph.D José R. Acosta #380 Roosevelt, Hato Rey Puerto Rico atorresv09@gmail.com A detailed analysis of century-scale climate change for Puerto Rico was done to assess the degree to which some

Gilbes, Fernando

2

Simplifying impact of urban development on sewer systems.  

PubMed

Linking urban development and urban drainage models is a more and more popular approach when impacts of pavement of urban areas on sewer system performance are evaluated. As such an approach is a difficult task, this is not a feasible procedure for everyday engineering practice. We propose an alternative method, based on a developed simple near-quadratic relationship, which directly translates change (increase or decrease) of paved area into a change in the return period (RP) of the design rainfall event or design rainfall intensity. This formula is simple to use and compatible with existing design guidelines. A further advantage is that the calculated design RP can also be used to communicate the impact of a change in impervious areas to stakeholders or the public community. The method is developed using a set of 250 virtual and two real-world case studies and hydrodynamic simulations. It is validated on a small catchment for which we compare system performance and redesigned pipe diameters. Of course such a simplification contains different uncertainties. But these uncertainties have to be seen in the context of overall uncertainties when trying to predict city development into the future. Hence it still is a significant advantage compared to today's engineering practice. PMID:25500470

Kleidorfer, Manfred; Sitzenfrei, Robert; Rauch, Wolfgang

2014-01-01

3

Development of a Tool for Siting Low Impact Development in Urban Watersheds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Low impact development (LID) -- a comprehensive land use planning and design approach with the goal of mitigating development impacts on hydrologic/nutrient cycles and ecosystems -- is increasingly being touted as an effective approach to lessen overland runoff and pollutant loadings. Examples of LIDs include riparian buffers, grassed swales, detention/retention ponds, rain gardens, green roofs and rain barrels. Broad-scale decision support tools for siting LIDs have been developed for agricultural watersheds, but are rare for urban watersheds, largely due to greater land use complexity and lack of necessary high-resolution geospatial data. Here, we develop a framework to assist city planners and water quality managers in siting LIDs in urban watersheds. One key component of this research is a framework accessible to those interested in using it. Hence, development of the framework has centered around 1) determining optimal data requirements for siting LID in an urban watershed and 2) developing a tool compatible with both open-source and commercial GIS software. We employ a wide variety of landscape metrics to evaluate the tool. A case study of the Lake Thunderbird Watershed, an urbanized watershed southeast of Oklahoma City, illustrates the effectiveness of a tool that is capable of siting LID in an urban watershed.

Martin-Mikle, C.; de Beurs, K.; Julian, J.

2013-12-01

4

Water localisation and reclamation: Steps towards low impact urban design and development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerous drivers are providing stimulus for increased water cycle localisation within urban neighbourhoods. This paper uses predominantly Australasian case studies to highlight trends, successes and challenges in the transition to neighbourhood centred water-based services using ‘Low Impact’ and ‘Water Sensitive’ design and development techniques. Major steps towards urban sustainability are demonstrated, for example, up to 70% reduction in the demand

Marjorie van Roon

2007-01-01

5

Climate variability effects on urban recharge beneath low impact development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Groundwater resources in urban and coastal environments are highly vulnerable to human pressures and climate variability and change, and many communities face water shortages and need to find alternative water supplies. Therefore, understanding how low impact development (LID) site planning and integrated/best management practices (BMPs) affect recharge rates and volumes is important because of the increasing use of LID and BMP to reduce stormwater runoff and improve surface-water quality. Often considered a secondary management benefit, many BMPs may also enhance recharge to local aquifers; however these hypothesized benefits have not been thoroughly tested or quantified. In this study, we quantify stormwater capture and recharge enhancement beneath a BMP infiltration trench of the LID research network at San Francisco State University, San Francisco, California. Stormwater capture and retention was analyzed using the SCS TR-55 curve number method and in-situ infiltration rates to assess LID storage. Recharge was quantified using vadose zone monitoring equipment, a detailed water budget analysis, and a Hydrus-2D model. Additionally, the effects of historical and predicted future precipitation on recharge rates were examined using precipitation from the Geophysical Fluid Dynamic Laboratory (GFDL) A1F1 climate scenario. Observed recharge rates beneath the infiltration trench range from 1,600 to 3,700 mm/year and are an order of magnitude greater than recharge beneath an irrigated grass lawn and a natural setting. The Hydrus-2D model results indicate increased recharge under the GFDL A1F1 scenario compared with historical and GFDL modeled 20th century rates because of the higher frequency of large precipitation events that induce runoff into the infiltration trench. However, under a simulated A1F1 El Niño year, recharge calculated by a water budget does not increase compared with current El Niño recharge rates. In comparison, simulated recharge rates were considerably lower beneath the grass lawn for historical and future precipitation years. This work highlights the potential management strategy of using LID to capture excess runoff during El Niño years that can be recharged and stored as groundwater. An additional benefit of LID in coastal aquifer systems is the ability to capture and redirect precipitation from runoff to recharge that may help mitigate the negative effects from groundwater pumping and sea-water intrusion.

Newcomer, M. E.; Gurdak, J. J.

2012-12-01

6

The urban economic development impacts of ethnic entrepreneurship : a case study of Dominican entrepreneurs in Lawrence, Massachusetts  

E-print Network

This thesis examines the process through which ethnic entrepreneurship impacts urban economic development. In many urban places across the United States, demographic change has led to the rise of ethnic communities and the ...

Cheigh, Brian Chaneung

2005-01-01

7

Monitoring trends of urban development and environmental impact of Beijing, 1999–2006  

Microsoft Academic Search

The high rates of environmental change and accelerated species loss in the urban development process should be quantified to rebalance the social and environmental dimensions of sustainability. In this study, an emergy-based environmental impact assessment model is designed according to the framework of the Eco-Indicator 99 for monitoring the negative effects on human well-being and ecosystem integrity in the urban

Gengyuan Liu; Zhifeng Yang; Bin Chen; Sergio Ulgiati

2011-01-01

8

Phosphorous Attenuation in Urban Best Management (BMP) and Low Impact Development (LID) Practices  

EPA Science Inventory

While all living organisms require phosphorous (P) to live and grow, adding too much P to the environment can cause unintended and undesirable effects, such as eutrophication of surface waters and harmful algal blooms. Urban best management (BMP) and low impact development (LI...

9

Importance of anthropogenic climate impact, sampling error and urban development in sewer system design.  

PubMed

Urban drainage design relying on observed precipitation series neglects the uncertainties associated with current and indeed future climate variability. Urban drainage design is further affected by the large stochastic variability of precipitation extremes and sampling errors arising from the short observation periods of extreme precipitation. Stochastic downscaling addresses anthropogenic climate impact by allowing relevant precipitation characteristics to be derived from local observations and an ensemble of climate models. This multi-climate model approach seeks to reflect the uncertainties in the data due to structural errors of the climate models. An ensemble of outcomes from stochastic downscaling allows for addressing the sampling uncertainty. These uncertainties are clearly reflected in the precipitation-runoff predictions of three urban drainage systems. They were mostly due to the sampling uncertainty. The contribution of climate model uncertainty was found to be of minor importance. Under the applied greenhouse gas emission scenario (A1B) and within the period 2036-2065, the potential for urban flooding in our Swiss case study is slightly reduced on average compared to the reference period 1981-2010. Scenario planning was applied to consider urban development associated with future socio-economic factors affecting urban drainage. The impact of scenario uncertainty was to a large extent found to be case-specific, thus emphasizing the need for scenario planning in every individual case. The results represent a valuable basis for discussions of new drainage design standards aiming specifically to include considerations of uncertainty. PMID:25644630

Egger, C; Maurer, M

2015-04-15

10

Rural to Urban Migration Is an Unforeseen Impact of Development Intervention in Ethiopia  

PubMed Central

Rural development initiatives across the developing world are designed to improve community well-being and livelihoods. However they may also have unforeseen consequences, in some cases placing further demands on stretched public services. In this paper we use data from a longitudinal study of five Ethiopian villages to investigate the impact of a recent rural development initiative, installing village-level water taps, on rural to urban migration of young adults. Our previous research has identified that tap stands dramatically reduced child mortality, but were also associated with increased fertility. We demonstrate that the installation of taps is associated with increased rural-urban migration of young adults (15–30 years) over a 15 year period (15.5% migrate out, n?=?1912 from 1280 rural households). Young adults with access to this rural development intervention had three times the relative risk of migrating to urban centres compared to those without the development. We also identify that family dynamics, specifically sibling competition for limited household resources (e.g. food, heritable land and marriage opportunities), are key to understanding the timing of out-migration. Birth of a younger sibling doubled the odds of out-migration and starting married life reduced it. Rural out-migration appears to be a response to increasing rural resource scarcity, principally competition for agricultural land. Strategies for livelihood diversification include education and off-farm casual wage-labour. However, jobs and services are limited in urban centres, few migrants send large cash remittances back to their families, and most return to their villages within one year without advanced qualifications. One benefit for returning migrants may be through enhanced social prestige and mate-acquisition on return to rural areas. These findings have wide implications for current understanding of the processes which initiate rural-to-urban migration and transitions to low fertility, as well as for the design and implementation of development intervention across the rural and urban developing world. PMID:23155400

Gibson, Mhairi A.; Gurmu, Eshetu

2012-01-01

11

Rural to urban migration is an unforeseen impact of development intervention in Ethiopia.  

PubMed

Rural development initiatives across the developing world are designed to improve community well-being and livelihoods. However they may also have unforeseen consequences, in some cases placing further demands on stretched public services. In this paper we use data from a longitudinal study of five Ethiopian villages to investigate the impact of a recent rural development initiative, installing village-level water taps, on rural to urban migration of young adults. Our previous research has identified that tap stands dramatically reduced child mortality, but were also associated with increased fertility. We demonstrate that the installation of taps is associated with increased rural-urban migration of young adults (15-30 years) over a 15 year period (15.5% migrate out, n?=?1912 from 1280 rural households). Young adults with access to this rural development intervention had three times the relative risk of migrating to urban centres compared to those without the development. We also identify that family dynamics, specifically sibling competition for limited household resources (e.g. food, heritable land and marriage opportunities), are key to understanding the timing of out-migration. Birth of a younger sibling doubled the odds of out-migration and starting married life reduced it. Rural out-migration appears to be a response to increasing rural resource scarcity, principally competition for agricultural land. Strategies for livelihood diversification include education and off-farm casual wage-labour. However, jobs and services are limited in urban centres, few migrants send large cash remittances back to their families, and most return to their villages within one year without advanced qualifications. One benefit for returning migrants may be through enhanced social prestige and mate-acquisition on return to rural areas. These findings have wide implications for current understanding of the processes which initiate rural-to-urban migration and transitions to low fertility, as well as for the design and implementation of development intervention across the rural and urban developing world. PMID:23155400

Gibson, Mhairi A; Gurmu, Eshetu

2012-01-01

12

Analytical tool for risk assessment of landscape and urban planning: Spatial development impact assessment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article covers the issue of preventive protection of population, technical infrastructure, and the environment against adverse impacts of careless spatial development. In the first section, we describe the relationship between sustainable development and spatial development. This discussion is followed by a review of the current state of spatial development security, primarily at a national level in the Czech Republic. The remainder of the paper features our original contribution which is a tool for risk assessment in landscape and urban planning, the Spatial Development Impact Assessment (SDIA) tool. We briefly review the most significant semi-quantitative methods of risk analysis that were used as a starting point in implementing the tool, and we discuss several of SDIA's salient features, namely, the assessment process algorithm, the catalogue of hazard and asset groups, and the spatial development impact matrix.

Rehak, David; Senovsky, Michail; Balog, Karol; Dvorak, Jiri

2011-06-01

13

An analysis of urban development and its environmental impact on the Tampa Bay watershed  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Urbanization has transformed natural landscapes into anthropogenic impervious surfaces. Urban land use has become a major driving force for land cover and land use change in the Tampa Bay watershed of west-central Florida. This study investigates urban land use change and its impact on the watershed. The spatial and temporal changes, as well as the development density of urban land use are determined by analyzing the impervious surface distribution using Landsat satellite imagery. Population distribution and density are extracted from the 2000 census data. Non-point source pollution parameters used for measuring water quality are analyzed for the sub-drainage basins of Hillsborough County. The relationships between 2002 urban land use, population distribution and their environmental influences are explored using regression analysis against various non-point source pollutant loadings in these sub-drainage basins. The results suggest that strong associations existed between most pollutant loadings and the extent of impervious surface within each sub-drainage basin in 2002. Population density also exhibits apparent correlations with loading rates of several pollutants. Spatial variations of selected non-point source pollutant loadings are also assessed. ?? 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Xian, G.; Crane, M.; Su, J.

2007-01-01

14

The effects of low impact development on urban flooding under different rainfall characteristics.  

PubMed

Low impact development (LID) is generally regarded as a more sustainable solution for urban stormwater management than conventional urban drainage systems. However, its effects on urban flooding at a scale of urban drainage systems have not been fully understood particularly when different rainfall characteristics are considered. In this paper, using an urbanizing catchment in China as a case study, the effects of three LID techniques (swale, permeable pavement and green roof) on urban flooding are analyzed and compared with the conventional drainage system design. A range of storm events with different rainfall amounts, durations and locations of peak intensity are considered for holistic assessment of the LID techniques. The effects are measured by the total flood volume reduction during a storm event compared to the conventional drainage system design. The results obtained indicate that all three LID scenarios are more effective in flood reduction during heavier and shorter storm events. Their performance, however, varies significantly according to the location of peak intensity. That is, swales perform best during a storm event with an early peak, permeable pavements perform best with a middle peak, and green roofs perform best with a late peak, respectively. The trends of flood reduction can be explained using a newly proposed water balance method, i.e., by comparing the effective storage depth of the LID designs with the accumulative rainfall amounts at the beginning and end of flooding in the conventional drainage system. This paper provides an insight into the performance of LID designs under different rainfall characteristics, which is essential for effective urban flood management. PMID:24029461

Qin, Hua-peng; Li, Zhuo-xi; Fu, Guangtao

2013-11-15

15

Urban Health in Developing Countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The world is becoming more urbanized. This trend is now particularly pronounced in the developing world, where the urban population\\u000a is expected to double in the next 30 years. The impact of urbanization on the health of citizens in developing countries has\\u000a received increasing attention recently. Urban residents in developing countries, especially the poor, are exposed to the health\\u000a hazards

Siddharth Agarwal; Aradhana Srivastava; Sanjeev Kumar

16

Urban impacts on precipitation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Weather and climate changes caused by human activities (e.g., greenhouse gas emissions, deforestation, and urbanization) have received much attention because of their impacts on human lives as well as scientific interests. The detection, understanding, and future projection of weather and climate changes due to urbanization are important subjects in the discipline of urban meteorology and climatology. This article reviews urban impacts on precipitation. Observational studies of changes in convective phenomena over and around cities are reviewed, with focus on precipitation enhancement downwind of cities. The proposed causative factors (urban heat island, large surface roughness, and higher aerosol concentration) and mechanisms of urban-induced and/or urban-modified precipitation are then reviewed and discussed, with focus on downwind precipitation enhancement. A universal mechanism of urban-induced precipitation is made through a thorough literature review and is as follows. The urban heat island produces updrafts on the leeward or downwind side of cities, and the urban heat island-induced updrafts initiate moist convection under favorable thermodynamic conditions, thus leading to surface precipitation. Surface precipitation is likely to further increase under higher aerosol concentrations if the air humidity is high and deep and strong convection occurs. It is not likely that larger urban surface roughness plays a major role in urbaninduced precipitation. Larger urban surface roughness can, however, disrupt or bifurcate precipitating convective systems formed outside cities while passing over the cities. Such urban-modified precipitating systems can either increase or decrease precipitation over and/or downwind of cities. Much effort is needed for in-depth or new understanding of urban precipitation anomalies, which includes local and regional modeling studies using advanced numerical models and analysis studies of long-term radar data.

Han, Ji-Young; Baik, Jong-Jin; Lee, Hyunho

2014-01-01

17

Evaluation of the impacts of urban development on groundwater storage at the regional scale  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Urban development results in a myriad of changes to the natural environment; these changes can give rise to a range of effects on the groundwater system. We have used the integrated subsurface - surface - land surface hydrologic model ParFlow.CLM to evaluate and isolate the impacts of urban development on groundwater storage at the regional scale. We have applied the model to the 13,216 sq km Baltimore metropolitan area at a 500 m horizontal and 5 m vertical discretization, incorporating realistic estimates of anthropogenic fluxes (lawn watering, leakage from water supply pipes, infiltration into sewer pipes, withdrawals for water supply) as well as any available hydrogeologic data. We developed a base-case model, where all urban fluxes and features are incorporated, followed by model scenarios in which urban features were modified one-at-a time to evaluate the effects of each feature. The scenarios presented are: (1) the vegetated city, in which urban land is represented as natural vegetation mosaic in the land surface model; (2) the pervious city, in which low hydraulic conductivity values representing impervious surfaces are replaced with higher soil hydraulic conductivities; (3) the intact-sewer scenario, in which infiltration and inflow (I/I) of groundwater and stormwater into wastewater sewer pipes is removed; and (4) the no-anthropogenic- discharge-and-recharge scenario, in which all anthropogenic input and output fluxes are removed. We compared the subsurface storage of these scenarios to the base case model. We found that the pervious city subsurface storage was slightly greater than the subsurface storage in the base case, which is expected due to additional infiltration associated higher hydraulic conductivity values. The magnitude of this increase in subsurface storage was surprisingly small compared to changes found in other scenarios. The intact-sewer scenario eliminated the large quantity of groundwater infiltrating into wastewater pipes in the separate sanitary and storm sewer system of Baltimore. This led to an increase and the largest change in subsurface storage of all scenarios. The no anthropogenic-recharge-or-discharge scenario removed lawn irrigation and water supply pipe leakage as well as infiltration into wastewater pipes and all human-induced discharges. The subsurface storage for this scenario was less than that for the intact sewer scenario because the total recharge removed (lawn irrigation and pipe leakage) outweighed the net effect of the discharge removed. The vegetated city scenario led to less subsurface storage during high evapotranspirative periods compared to the base case. Future work includes modeling the impacts of scenarios of urban growth.

Bhaskar, A. S.; Welty, C.; Maxwell, R. M.; Miller, A. J.

2013-12-01

18

Ozone Air Quality Impacts of Shale Gas Development in South Texas Urban Areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent technological advances, mainly horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing, and continued drilling in shale, have increased domestic production of oil and gas in the United State (U.S.). However, shale gas developments could also affect the environment and human health, particularly in areas where oil and gas developments are new activities. This study is focused on the impacts of shale gas developing activities on summertime ozone air quality in South Texas urban areas since many of them are already ozone nonattainment areas. We use an integrated approach to investigate the ozone air quality impact of the shale gas development in South Texas urban areas. They are: (1) satellite measurement of precursors, (2) observations of ground-level ozone concentrations, and (3) air mass trajectory modeling. Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) is an important precursor to ozone formation, and summertime average tropospheric nitrogen dioxide (NO2) column densities measured by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Ozone Monitoring Instrument increased in the South Texas shale area (i.e., the Eagle Ford Shale area) in 2011 and 2012 as compared to 2008-2010. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's ground-level observations showed summertime average and peak ozone (i.e., the 4th highest daily maximum 8-hour average ozone) concentrations slightly increased from 2010 to 2012 in Austin and San Antonio. However, the frequencies of peak ozone concentrations above the 75ppb ozone standard have been significantly increasing since 2011 in Austin and San Antonio. It is expected to increase the possibilities of violating the ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) for South Texas urban areas in the future. The results of trajectory modeling showed air masses transported from the southeastern Texas could reach Austin and San Antonio and confirmed that emissions from the Eagle Ford Shale area could affect ozone air quality in South Texas urban areas in 2011 and 2012. Overall, emissions associated with shale gas activities in South Texas have been affecting ozone air quality in neighboring urban areas. Developing effective control strategies for reducing emissions from shale gas activities and improving ozone air quality is an important issue in Texas and other states in the U.S..Changes in percentage of summertime 4th highest ozone daily maximum as comparing to previous year

Chang, C.; Liao, K.

2013-12-01

19

Urban traffic-related determinants of health questionnaire (UTDHQ): an instrument developed for health impact assessments  

PubMed Central

Background: Traffic and transport is a substantial part of a range of economic, social and environmental factors distinguished to have impact on human health. This paper is a report on a preliminary section of a Health Impact Assessment (HIA) on urban traffic and transport initiatives, being conducted in Sanandaj, Iran. In this preliminary study, the psychometric properties of Urban Traffic related Determinants of Health Questionnaire (UTDHQ) were investigated. Methods: Multistage cluster sampling was employed to recruit 476 key informants in Sanandaj from April to June 2013 to participate in the study. The development of UTDHQ began with a comprehensive review of the literature. Then face, content and construct validity as well as reliability were determined. Results: Exploratory Factor Analysis showed optimal reduced solution including 40 items and 8 factors. Three of the factors identified were Physical Environment, Social Environment, Public Services Delivery and Accessibility. UTDHQ demonstrated an appropriate validity, reliability, functionality and simplicity. Conclusion: Despite the need for further studies on UTDHQ, this study showed that it can be a practical and useful tool for conducting HIAs in order to inform decision makers and stakeholders about the health influences of their decisions and measures. PMID:25664285

Nadrian, Haidar; Nedjat, Saharnaz; Taghdisi, Mohammad Hossein; Shojaeizadeh, Davoud

2014-01-01

20

Urban Development in Costa Rica: The Direct and Indirect Impacts on Local and Regional Avian Assemblages  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Urban development, the pinnacle of human land use, has drastic effects on native ecosystems and the species they contain. For the first time in recorded history there are more people living in cities than in the rural areas surrounding them. Furthermore, the global rate of urbanization continues increasing; raising serious concerns for…

Norris, Jeff L.

2012-01-01

21

A comparison of the extent and impacts of sewage contamination on urban groundwater in developed and developing countries.  

PubMed

In much of the world urban groundwater is an important resource for domestic and industrial use. In many developing countries, groundwater taken directly (untreated) from individual springs and wells is the only option available to communities where comprehensive, reliable reticulated supply systems are absent. A common feature of urban groundwater in both developing and developed countries is contamination by sewage. Current and recent research is presented that shows sewer leakage impacts groundwater in developed countries whilst on-site sanitation contaminates groundwater in developing countries. In the latter case, the competing demands of sanitation and groundwater protection must be addressed. Limitations on the usefulness of accepted standard sewage indicator species in groundwater are also highlighted. As sewage contamination of groundwater is usually addressed only if an actual health risk is posed, it is vital both to developed and developing countries to understand the movement of actual pathogens in groundwater in the context of groundwater management. Further research is required on microbial survival and health risks posed by sewage contamination. PMID:10842812

Barrett, M; Howard, G; Pedley, S; Taylor, R; Nalubega, M

2000-01-01

22

Quito's Urban Watersheds: Applications of Low Impact Development and Sustainable Watershed Management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quito, Ecuador sits high in an Interandean valley (elevation ~2,830 meters) at the foot of Pichincha volcano. Above the city, mountain streams descend from high-altitude Andean páramo grasslands down steep slopes through quebradas (ravines) to the Machángara River. Quito's rapid urban growth, while indicative of the city's economic vitality, has led to the city's expansion along the valley floor, settlements along precarious hillslopes and ravines, disappearance of wetlands, and loss of páramo. The upper reaches of the watersheds are being rapidly settled by migrants whose land-use practices result in contamination of waters. In the densely-settled downstream reaches, urban encroachment has resulted in filling and narrowing of quebradas with garbage and other poor-quality fill. These practices have dramatically altered natural drainage patterns, reduced the flood conveyance capacity of the channels (increasing the flood risk to surrounding communities), and further deteriorated water quality. The city's stormwater, wastewater, and surface waters suffer from untreated pollutant loads, aging pipes, and sewer overflows. In response to environmental degradation of the quebradas, awareness is increasing, at both local community and municipal levels, of the importance of stream corridors for water quality, wildlife, and recreation for nearby residents. Citizen groups have organized volunteer river cleanups, and municipal agencies have committed to implementing ';green infrastructure' solutions to make Quito a healthier habitat for humans and other species. City leaders are evaluating innovative low impact development (LID) methods to help decontaminate surface waters, mitigate urban flooding, and promote sustainable water systems. Quito's municipal water agency, EPMAPS, invited faculty and students from Quito and Berkeley to collaborate with agency staff and citizen groups to analyze opportunities and to develop plans and designs for sustainable infrastructure. To facilitate the evaluation of LID potential in Quito, we conducted field observations and measurements, completed archival research, analyzed available geographic and hydrologic data, and developed plans and designs for the Quebrada Ortega from its steep headwater reaches down through the densely-populated valley floor. We identified opportunities and constraints for LID, along with strategies from international LID precedent cities that can be applied in the context of Quito's unique physical and climatic characteristics, urban planning practices, and institutional structures. Using remote sensing techniques to determine permeable versus impermeable surface areas, we calculated that basins of at least 1% of the Ortega subwatershed's surface area would be needed to mitigate peak flows from most design storm scenarios. Rainwater harvesting can provide approximately 30% of average daily water needs based on current Quito consumption rates for the subwatershed's residents. By implementing LID strategies while also addressing other water management priorities, Quito provides a unique case study of a city that could bypass prohibitively expensive models used in industrialized countries (e.g., end-of-pipe treatments), and serve as a model for other Latin American cities seeking to resolve similar water management problems.

Marzion, R.; Serra-Llobet, A.; Ward Simons, C.; Kondolf, G. M.

2013-12-01

23

Impact of a Fragmented Regulatory Environment on Sustainable Urban Development Design Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

The building project development approval process is increasingly complex and fraught with conflict due to the rise of the sustainable urban development movement and inclusive decision making. Coupled with this, government decision-making decentralization has resulted in a fragmented and over-regulated compliance system. Problems arising from the process include wasted resources, excessive time delays, increased holding and litigation costs, inadequate planning

Kerry Anne London; Katie Cadman

2009-01-01

24

UVQ: A tool for assessing the water and contaminant balance impacts of urban development scenarios  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the water and contaminant daily simulation model of the total water cycle, called UVQ. The model has been developed to provide a means for rapidly assessing conventional and non-conventional approaches to providing water supply, stormwater and wastewater services to urban allotments, neighbourhoods and study areas. The model is placed the context of other such models developed internationally

V G Mitchell; C Diaper

25

Stormwater management impacts on urban stream water quality and quantity during and after development in Clarksburg, MD  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Urbanization and urban land use leads to degradation of local stream habitat and 'urban stream syndrome.' Best Management Practices (BMPs) are often used in an attempt to mitigate the impact of urban land use on stream water quality and quantity. Traditional development has employed stormwater BMPs that were placed in a centralized manner located either in the stream channel or near the riparian zone to treat stormwater runoff from large drainage areas; however, urban streams have largely remained impaired. Recently, distributed placement of BMPs throughout the landscape has been implemented in an attempt to detain, treat, and infiltrate stormwater runoff from smaller drainage areas near its source. Despite increasing implementation of distributed BMPs, little has been reported on the catchment-scale (1-10 km^2) performance of distributed BMPs and how they compare to centralized BMPs. The Clarksburg Special Protection Area (CSPA), located in the Washington, DC exurbs within the larger Chesapeake Bay watershed, is undergoing rapid urbanization and employs distributed BMPs on the landscape that treat small drainage areas with the goal of preserving high-quality stream resources in the area. In addition, the presence of a nearby traditionally developed (centralized BMPs) catchment and an undeveloped forested catchment makes the CSPA an ideal setting to understand how the best available stormwater management technology implemented during and after development affects stream water quality and quantity through a comparative watershed analysis. The Clarksburg Integrated Monitoring Partnership is a consortium of local and federal agencies and universities that conducts research in the CSPA including: monitoring of stream water quality, geomorphology, and biology; analysis of stream hydrological and water quality data; and GIS mapping and analysis of land cover, elevation change and BMP implementation data. Here, the impacts of urbanization on stream water quantity, geomorphology, and biology during development while implementing advanced sediment and erosion control BMPs are discussed. Also, effects of centralized versus distributed stormwater BMPs and land cover on stream water quantity and quality following suburban development are presented. This includes stream response to precipitation events, baseflow and stormflow export of water, and water chemistry data. Results from this work have informed land use planning at the local level and are being incorporated through adaptive management to maintain the high-quality stream resources in the CSPA. More generally, results from this work could inform urban development stakeholders on effective strategies to curtail urban stream syndrome.

Loperfido, J. V.; Noe, G. B.; Jarnagin, S.; Mohamoud, Y. M.; Van Ness, K.; Hogan, D. M.

2012-12-01

26

Urban Heat Island Effect and its Impact on Boundary Layer Development and Land-Sea Circulation over Northern Taiwan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The impact of the urban heat island (UHI) effect on environmental phenomena and regional climate has been receiving wide attention in recent decades. Taiwan, especially Taipei (located in northern Taiwan), is experiencing a significant urban heat island effect due to its high population density and the uniqueness of the geographic structure. In order to evaluate the impacts of urbanization and UHI effect over northern Taiwan, a next generation mesoscale model, Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model coupled with the Noah land surface model and Urban canopy model (UCM), was used to study this issue. By using the WRF-Noah-UCM model, it has significantly improved our simulation results for the prediction of the UHI effect, boundary layer development, and land sea breeze. Observations of weather stations and Lidar showed that the near surface air temperature was nearly 34 -35¢XC and the boundary layer height was nearly 1500 m around noon in Taipei on 17 June 2006. Around midnight, the air temperature ranged from 26 to 28°C. Our model can predict well for boundary layer develop during the daytime and the urban heat island effect in northern Taiwan. Sensitivity tests indicate that the anthropogenic heat (AH) plays an important role for the boundary layer to develop and UHI intensity in the Taipei area, especially during night time and early morning. When we increase AH by 100 W/m2 in the model, the average surface temperature could increase nearly 0.3°C in Taipei. Furthermore, we found the UHI effect also has a significant impact on land sea circulation. It could enhance the sea breeze in the daytime and weaken the land breeze during the night time and thus had a significant impact on the air pollution diffusion in northern Taiwan.

Lin, C.; Chen, F.; Huang, J.; Liou, Y.; Chen, W.

2007-12-01

27

Urban recharge beneath low impact development and effects of climate variability and change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

low impact development (LID) planning and best management practices (BMPs) effects on recharge is important because of the increasing use of LID BMPs to reduce storm water runoff and improve surface-water quality. LID BMPs are microscale, decentralized management techniques such as vegetated systems, pervious pavement, and infiltration trenches to capture, reduce, filter, and slow storm water runoff. Some BMPs may enhance recharge, which has often been considered a secondary management benefit. Here we report results of a field and HYDRUS-2D modeling study in San Francisco, California, USA to quantify urban recharge rates, volumes, and efficiency beneath a LID BMP infiltration trench and irrigated lawn considering historical El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) variability and future climate change using simulated precipitation from the Geophysical Fluid Dynamic Laboratory (GFDL) A1F1 climate scenario. We find that in situ and modeling methods are complementary, particularly for simulating historical and future recharge scenarios, and the in situ data are critical for accurately estimating recharge under current conditions. Observed (2011-2012) and future (2099-2100) recharge rates beneath the infiltration trench (1750-3710 mm yr-1) were an order of magnitude greater than beneath the irrigated lawn (130-730 mm yr-1). Beneath the infiltration trench, recharge rates ranged from 1390 to 5840 mm yr-1 and averaged 3410 mm yr-1 for El Niño years (1954-2012) and from 1540 to 3330 mm yr-1 and averaged 2430 mm yr-1 for La Niña years. We demonstrate a clear benefit for recharge and local groundwater resources using LID BMPs.

Newcomer, Michelle E.; Gurdak, Jason J.; Sklar, Leonard S.; Nanus, Leora

2014-02-01

28

A Suite of GIS-Based Tools for Siting Low Impact Development in an Urban Watershed  

EPA Science Inventory

Low impact development (LID) -- a comprehensive land use planning and design approach with the goal of mitigating development impacts on hydrologic/nutrient cycles and ecosystems -- is increasingly being touted as an effective approach to lessen overland runoff and pollutant load...

29

Urban heat island effect and its impact on boundary layer development and land-sea circulation over northern Taiwan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The impact of the urban heat island (UHI) effect on environmental and regional climate has been receiving wide attention in recent decades. Taiwan, especially Taipei (located in northern Taiwan), is experiencing a significant UHI effect due to its high population density and the uniqueness of the geographic structure. In order to evaluate the impacts of urbanization and UHI effect over northern Taiwan, a next generation mesoscale model, Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model coupled with the Noah land surface model and Urban Canopy model (UCM), was used to study this issue. By using the WRF-Noah-UCM model, it has significantly improved our simulation results for the prediction of the UHI effect, boundary layer development, and land sea breeze. Observations of weather stations and Lidar showed that the near surface air temperature was nearly 34-35 °C and the boundary layer height was nearly 1500 m around noon in Taipei on 17 June 2006. Around midnight, the air temperature ranged from 26 to 28 °C. Our model can predict well for boundary layer development during the daytime and the UHI effect in northern Taiwan. Sensitivity tests indicate that the anthropogenic heat (AH) plays an important role for the boundary layer development and UHI intensity in the Taipei area, especially during nighttime and early morning. When we increase AH by 100 W m -2 in the model, the average surface temperature could increase nearly 0.3 °C in Taipei. Furthermore, we found the UHI effect also has a significant impact on land sea circulation. It could enhance the sea breeze in the daytime and weaken the land breeze during the nighttime and hence had a significant impact on the air pollution diffusion in northern Taiwan.

Lin, Chuan-Yao; Chen, Fei; Huang, J. C.; Chen, W.-C.; Liou, Y.-A.; Chen, W.-N.; Liu, Shaw-C.

30

Sustainable urban development and geophysics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The new millennium has seen a fresh wave of world economic development especially in the Asian-Pacific region. This has contributed to further rapid urban expansion, creating shortages of energy and resources, degradation of the environment, and changes to climatic patterns. Large-scale, new urbanization is mostly seen in developing countries but urban sprawl is also a major social problem for developed nations. Urbanization has been accelerating at a tremendous rate. According to data collected by the United Nations [1], 50 years ago less than 30% of the world population lived in cities. Now, more than 50% are living in urban settings which occupy only about 1% of the Earth's surface. During the period from 1950 to 1995, the number of cities with a population higher than one million increased from 83 to 325. By 2025 it is estimated that more than 60% of 8.3 billion people (the projected world population [1]) will be city dwellers. Urbanization and urban sprawl can affect our living quality both positively and negatively. In recent years geophysics has found significant and new applications in highly urbanized settings. Such applications are conducive to the understanding of the changes and impacts on the physical environment and play a role in developing sustainable urban infrastructure systems. We would like to refer to this field of study as 'urban geophysics'. Urban geophysics is not simply the application of geophysical exploration in the cities. Urbanization has brought about major changes to the geophysical fields of cities, including those associated with electricity, magnetism, electromagnetism and heat. An example is the increased use of electromagnetic waves in wireless communication, transportation, office automation, and computer equipment. How such an increased intensity of electromagnetic radiation affects the behaviour of charged particles in the atmosphere, the equilibrium of ecological systems, or human health, are new research frontiers to be investigated [2]. The first objective of urban geophysics is to study systematically the geophysical fields in cities, searching for principles and processes governing the intensity and patterns of variation of the geophysical properties, as well as the potential consequences on the biosphere. Secondly, geophysics has already been found to be a useful tool for subsurface detection and investigation, hazard mitigation, and assessment of environmental contamination. Geophysicists have documented numerous cases of successful applications of geophysical techniques to solve problems related to hazard mitigation, safeguarding of lifeline infrastructure and urban gateways (air- and sea-ports, railway and highway terminals), archaeological and heritage surveys, homeland security, urban noise control, water supplies, sanitation and solid waste management etc. In contrast to conventional geophysical exploration, the undertaking of geophysical surveys in an urban setting faces many new challenges and difficulties. First of all, the ambient cultural noise in cities caused by traffic, electromagnetic radiation and electrical currents often produce undesirably strong interference with geophysical measurements. Secondly, subsurface surveys in an urban area are often targeted at the uppermost several metres of the ground, which are the most heterogeneous layers with many man-made objects. Thirdly, unlike conventional geophysical exploration which requires resolution in the order of metres, many urban geophysical surveys demand a resolution and precision in the order of centimetres or even millimetres. Finally restricted site access and limited time for conducting geophysical surveys, regulatory constraints, requirements for traffic management and special logistical arrangements impose additional difficulties. All of these factors point to the need for developing innovative research methods and geophysical instruments suitable for use in urban settings. This special issue on 'Sustainable urban development and geophysics' in Journal of Geophysics and Engineering is a response to th

Liu, Lanbo; Chan, L. S.

2007-09-01

31

A Review of the Urban Development and Transport Impacts on Public Health with Particular Reference to Australia: Trans-Disciplinary Research Teams and Some Research Gaps  

PubMed Central

Urbanization and transport have a direct effect on public health. A transdisciplinary approach is proposed and illustrated to tackle the general problem of these environmental stressors and public health. Processes driving urban development and environmental stressors are identified. Urbanization, transport and public health literature is reviewed and environmental stressors are classified into their impacts and which group is affected, the geographical scale and potential inventions. Climate change and health impacts are identified as a research theme. From an Australian perspective, further areas for research are identified. PMID:19543407

Black, Deborah; Black, John

2009-01-01

32

The Impact of Urban Development on the Water Quality in the Las Vegas Watershed  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Las Vegas, one of the fastest growing cities in the nation, must have its water strictly monitored for quality as well as degree of pollution. Samples at various sites were collected to analyze the current pollution status of our water bodies (in both residential and urban settings) in the Las Vegas watershed. These gathered samples (sediment and water) were collected and analyzed for measuring total phosphorus, total organic carbon, trace metal contents, i.e., selenium, arsenic, mercury and lead, as well as pathogens, i.e., E-coli and total coliform counts. The concentrations of various pollutions will be compared among different sites as well as natural local sites (due to the natural occurrence of a few trace metals and normal levels of other measurements) and analyzed for spatial distribution for source identification and for elucidating the cause and consequence. Preliminary analyses of the results indicate that nonpoint source pollutions (golf courses, construction sites, etc.) have larger impacts than point source pollutions such as wastewater treatment effluents. This study will help understand and evaluate the degradation of the water quality caused by the increase of human actions in recent years in Las Vegas.

Yu, A.; Simmons, C.; Acharya, K.

2009-12-01

33

Casinos in context : the impacts of stand-alone casino development on urban neighborhoods  

E-print Network

As the stigma of gambling fades and governments seek more sources of revenue the urban casino is becoming more common. Many of these are legalized to operate with limited competition in their state, standing alone in their ...

Schray, Luke J. (Luke Joseph)

2007-01-01

34

MOST Urban Issues: Urban Development and Governance  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

UNESCO's Management of Social Transformations Programme (MOST) hosts this Website dedicated to urban issues in global development. Included here is a substantial array of academic and professional publications, including working papers and project reports; Internet sites; and MOST programme descriptions and conference information relating to issues of transforming the development of urban areas in ways that maximize democracy, economic equality, and quality of life. Current postings include a report on MOST's recently completed project Industrial Decentralization and Urban Development in India with consideration of SouthEast and East Asian States, and related working papers. Most of the publications offered on the Website are in .pdf format.

35

ECOSYSTEM IMPACTS OF URBANIZATION ASSESSMENT METHODOLOGY  

EPA Science Inventory

A methodology is developed to use space-time analysis and ecosystem modeling to assess the secondary impacts of wastewater treatment facilities (i.e., urbanization) on the ecosystem. The existing state of the ecosystem is described with emphasis on the dynamic, periodic, trend, a...

36

Early Impacts of Residential Development on Wood Thrushes in an Urbanizing Forest1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmental protection policies sometimes protect forests along an advancing suburban front although many of the forests may be brought into close prox- imity to residential housing. Research suggests that even when forests are physically preserved, their bird communities are simplified as the surroundings be- come urbanized. However, little is known of the time required for these changes to appear or

L. E. Friesen; E. D. Cheskey; M. D. Cadman; V. E. Martin; R. J. MacKay

37

Energy, economic and urban impacts of United States postindustrial development: A critique of the postindustrial paradigm  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Postindustrial theory has become the mainstream model of social progress in the Western world during the latter half of the twentieth century. It is a technoeconomic vision of change which argues that society is transforming from the industrial order to new social forms and functions that are anchored in services and information rather than materials and manufacturing. Observable shifts cited as evidence of postindustrialization include the movement from blue-collar to white-collar occupations, the increasing scale of economic activities, and the widespread adoption of electricity-based technology. This dissertation identifies three primary principles which define postindustrial theory: abundance, or expanding wealth and productivity; technological and economic efficiency; and adaptation to technological and economic forces. In the United States, postindustrialism has been challenged by the national urban crisis of the 1960s and the energy crises of the 1970s. The apparent contradictions to social well-being prompted a theoretical reconceptualization which defined the "crises" as "transition costs." Empirical implications are defined and appropriate indicators identified to assess the validity of postindustrialism as an explanation of current phenomena and a guide for future development. The time frame for the analysis is 1967--1997, which encompasses the culmination of post-World War II growth, the periods of crisis, and present manifestations. It is concluded that postindustrial theory is less an explanation of contemporary social change than a presumption that change is progressive. The period of "transition" is critically examined as one in which rapid increases in inequality, decreases in social health and growth in trends of unsustainable resource use occur. The future orientation of postindustrialism, and its appeal to aggregate trends as evidence of progress, ignores the existence of problems experienced by a majority of Americans and mounting threats to the natural environment, It is argued that a new theory of political economy is needed which explains current conditions, provides an understanding of progress that incorporates the roles of politics and social valuation, and embraces the goals of equity, sustainability and social justice.

Wykoff, Rebecca J.

38

Front-loading urban stormwater management for success ? a perspective incorporating current studies on the implementation of retrofit low-impact development  

EPA Science Inventory

Recent work into the implementation of low-impact development and green infrastructure suggests that a decentralized, source-control approach has the potential to significantly reduce urban stormwater runoff quantity. We posit that the factors of increasing public participation i...

39

Developing Spatial Urban Planning Guidance for Achieving Sustainable Urban Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sustainable urban planning guides are being developed to direct spatial urban planning both at the local and regional levels towards sustainability. However, due to the multifaceted nature of spatial planning, different guides do focus on different aspects of planning and tend to overlook or lay little emphasis on other aspects. The goal of achieving sustainability through spatial urban planning requires

Habib M. Alshuwaikhat

40

Climate change risks to United States infrastructure: impacts on coastal development, roads, bridges, and urban drainage  

EPA Science Inventory

Changes in temperature, precipitation, sea level, and coastal storms will likely increase the vulnerability of infrastructure across the United States. Using four models of vulnerability, impacts, and adaptation of infrastructure, its deployment, and its role in protecting econom...

41

The International Urban Development Association  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Established in 1974 in Paris, The International Urban Development Association (INTA) is an international network that "encourages the exchange of information, experiences and best practices on urban development and renewal across the world." The site's homepage offers access to the three sections that will be of greatest interest to most visitors, namely "Forum", "Services", and "Institute". In the "Forum" area, visitors can review documents from various meetings and congresses that have looked at the redevelopment of public urban spaces, heritage development, and cross-border cooperation in the Caucasian region. The "Services" area contains commentaries by urban experts on proposed urban development plans, such as the proposed master plan for two sport sites in northeastern Paris and a regeneration scheme for the city of Nador in Morocco. Finally, the "Institute" section brings together documents from seminars and conferences held by INTA, such as those that have dealt with urban-based sports complexes and the competitive advantages of urban regions.

42

PREDICTING THE RELATIVE IMPACTS OF URBAN DEVELOPMENT POLICIES AND ON-ROAD VEHICLE TECHNOLOGIES ON AIR QUALITY IN THE UNITED STATES: MODELING AND ANALYSIS OF A CASE STUDY IN AUSTIN, TEXAS  

EPA Science Inventory

Urban development results in changes to land use and land cover and, consequently, to biogenic and anthropogenic emissions, meteorological processes, and processes such as dry deposition that influence future predictions of air quality. This study examines the impacts of alter...

43

Education, Urban Development and Local Initiatives.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Innovative practices in education and local development in Western Europe, Australia, and the United States are described and analyzed in this report. Part One reviews urban problems, their impact on education, and the need for a new approach. Part Two explores how schools and institutes of adult education can provide information about the local…

Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France). Centre for Educational Research and Innovation.

44

Strategic environmental assessment for sustainable urban development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Strategic environmental assessment (SEA) evaluates the environmental impacts of policies, plans, and programs. This article examines the use of SEA for sustainable urban development. We first explore opportunities for SEA to promote sustainability principles. Then, we analyze case studies that have applied SEA to comprehensive planning. Our results indicate that SEA can effectively weave sustainability principles into the fabric of

Leonard Ortolano

1996-01-01

45

Assessing urbanization impacts on catchment transit times  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stable isotopes have potential for assessing the hydrologic impacts of urbanization, although it is unclear whether established methods of isotope modeling translate to such disturbed environments. We tested two transit time modeling approaches (using a gamma distribution and a two-parallel linear reservoir (TPLR) model) in a rapidly urbanizing catchment. Isotopic variability in precipitation was damped in streams with attenuation inversely correlated with urban cover. The models captured this reasonably well, although the TPLR better represented the integrated dual response of urban and nonurban areas with reduced uncertainty. Percent urban cover influenced the shape of the catchment transit time distribution. Total urban cover reduced the mean transit time to <10 days compared with ~1 year and ~2-3 years with 63% and 13% urbanization, respectively, while it was at >4 years for nonurban sites.

Soulsby, Chris; Birkel, Christian; Tetzlaff, Doerthe

2014-01-01

46

Heat waves in urban heat islands: interactions, impacts, and mitigation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Urbanization rates and the intensity of anthropogenic global warming are both on the rise. By the middle of this century, climate change impacts on humans will be largely manifested in urban regions and will result from a combination of global to regional impacts related to greenhouse gas emissions, as well as regional to local impacts related to land-cover changes associated with urbanization. Alarmingly, our understanding of how these two distinct impacts will interact remains very poor. One example, which is the focus of this study, is the interaction of urban heat islands and heat waves. Urban heat islands (UHIs) are spatial anomalies consisting of higher temperatures over built terrain; while their intensity varies with many factors, it consistently increases with city size. UHIs will hence intensify in the future as cities expand. Heat waves are temporal anomalies in the regional temperatures that affect both urban and rural areas; there is high certainty that the frequency and intensity of such waves will increase as a result global warming. However, whether urban and rural temperatures respond in the same way to heat waves remains a critical unanswered question. In this study, a combination of observational and modeling analyses of a heat wave event over the Baltimore-Washington urban corridor reveals synergistic interactions between urban heat islands and heat waves. Not only do heat waves increase the regional temperatures, but they also intensify the difference between urban and rural temperatures. That is, their impact is stronger in cities and the urban heat stress during such waves is larger than the sum of the background urban heat island effect and the heat wave effect. We also develop a simple analytical model of this interaction that suggests that this exacerbated impact in urban areas is primarily to the lack of surface moisture, with low wind speeds also playing a smaller role. Finally, the effectiveness of cool and green roofs as UHI mitigation strategies during intense heat waves are evaluated at city scales. These strategies are shown to reduce urban surface temperatures in the Baltimore-Washington corridor by about 5 K and urban air temperatures by about 1 K. These reductions are most significant in the dense urban cores of the two cities, but they are not sufficient to fully offset the UHI effect.

Bou-Zeid, E.; Li, D.

2013-12-01

47

The Conundrum of Impacts of Climate Change on Urbanization and the Urban Heat Island Effect  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The twenty-first century is the first urban century according to the United Nations Development Program. The focus on cities reflects awareness of the growing percentage of the world's population that lives in urban areas. In 2000, approximately 3 billion people representing about 40% of the global population resided in urban areas. The United Nations estimates that by 2025, 60% of the world s population will live in urban areas. As a consequence, the number of megacities (those cities with populations of 10 million inhabitants or more) will increase by 100 by 2025. Thus, there is a critical need to understand the spatial growth of urban areas and what the impacts are on the environment. Moreover, there is a critical need to assess how under global climate change, cities will affect the local, regional, and even global climate. As urban areas increase in size, it is anticipated there will be a concomitant growth of the Urban Heat Island effect (UHI), and the attributes that are related to its spatial and temporal dynamics. Therefore, how climate change, including the dynamics of the UHI, will affect the urban environment, must be explored to help mitigate potential impacts on the environment (e.g., air quality, heat stress, vectorborne disease) and on human health and well being, to develop adaptation schemes to cope with these impacts.

Quattrochi, Dale A.

2011-01-01

48

Urbanization and Water Quantity: Impacts and Mitigation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Urban and suburban development adversely impacts both surface and ground water resources by profoundly altering the hydrologic cycle. Conventional storm water management practices rely on storage to reduce runoff peaks and trap pollutants, but do not address impacts due to changes in the partitioning of water. The introduction of impervious surfaces increases the amount of storm runoff and decreases the amount of ground water recharge. Ground water pumping reduces the amount of ground water. Increased storm runoff causes channel enlargement and increased flood peaks, even when mitigation storage is employed. Reduced ground water results in decreased ground water discharges to aquatic systems. Enhancing the infiltration of storm runoff appears to be a feasible way to address the hydrologic alterations that usually accompany urban and suburban development. Practices that focus infiltration, such as rain gardens and bioretention facilities, appear to be particularly effective. Modeling indicates that a properly designed bioretention facility can preserve natural runoff amounts and increase ground water recharge amounts well above natural levels, perhaps even compensating for ground water pumping. Remaining research issues involve subsoil characterization, vegetation selection, ground water contamination, regulatory strategies, and long-term performance.

Potter, K. W.

2005-05-01

49

Effects of urban information and communication technology on sustainable development  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the urban information and communication technology and its impacts on sustainable development. The findings are based on the views represented in literature and the relationship between information and communication technology and sustainability in urban development. Therefore, information and communication technology as the main component of the information society should be taken into consideration in sustainable development. In

M. Navabakhsh; M. Motlaq

2009-01-01

50

Urbanization Impacts on Mammals across Urban-Forest Edges and a Predictive Model of Edge Effects  

PubMed Central

With accelerating rates of urbanization worldwide, a better understanding of ecological processes at the wildland-urban interface is critical to conserve biodiversity. We explored the effects of high and low-density housing developments on forest-dwelling mammals. Based on habitat characteristics, we expected a gradual decline in species abundance across forest-urban edges and an increased decline rate in higher contrast edges. We surveyed arboreal mammals in sites of high and low housing density along 600 m transects that spanned urban areas and areas turn on adjacent native forest. We also surveyed forest controls to test whether edge effects extended beyond our edge transects. We fitted models describing richness, total abundance and individual species abundance. Low-density housing developments provided suitable habitat for most arboreal mammals. In contrast, high-density housing developments had lower species richness, total abundance and individual species abundance, but supported the highest abundances of an urban adapter (Trichosurus vulpecula). We did not find the predicted gradual decline in species abundance. Of four species analysed, three exhibited no response to the proximity of urban boundaries, but spilled over into adjacent urban habitat to differing extents. One species (Petaurus australis) had an extended negative response to urban boundaries, suggesting that urban development has impacts beyond 300 m into adjacent forest. Our empirical work demonstrates that high-density housing developments have negative effects on both community and species level responses, except for one urban adapter. We developed a new predictive model of edge effects based on our results and the literature. To predict animal responses across edges, our framework integrates for first time: (1) habitat quality/preference, (2) species response with the proximity to the adjacent habitat, and (3) spillover extent/sensitivity to adjacent habitat boundaries. This framework will allow scientists, managers and planners better understand and predict both species responses across edges and impacts of development in mosaic landscapes. PMID:24810286

Villaseñor, Nélida R.; Driscoll, Don A.; Escobar, Martín A. H.; Gibbons, Philip; Lindenmayer, David B.

2014-01-01

51

The Impact of Professional Development on Elementary Teachers' Strategies for Teaching Science with Diverse Student Groups in Urban Elementary Schools  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study examined elementary teachers' instructional strategies for promoting scientific understanding and inquiry and supporting English language development with diverse student groups including English language learners. The study was part of a 5-year research and development project consisting of reform-based science curriculum units and teacher workshops aimed at providing effective science instruction to promote students' science and literacy achievement in urban elementary schools. Data consisted of 213 post-observation interviews with third, fourth, and fifth grade teachers. The teachers reported using instructional strategies to promote scientific understanding, but generally did not employ more sophisticated inquiry-based strategies. They also reported using instructional strategies to support English language development. There were significant differences among grade levels and by years of teacher participation.

Adamson, Karen; Santau, Alexandra; Lee, Okhee

2013-04-01

52

Integrated urban microclimate assessment method as a sustainable urban development and urban design tool  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the past decades, urban heat island (UHI) phenomenon in the city and its corresponding issues including the mitigation methods have become the main research topics in the area of urban climatology. Researchers have conducted various investigations and measurements in the urban environment. Prediction models such as impact mitigation strategies, urban air temperature predictions, improved weather forecasting and air quality

Nyuk Hien Wong; Steve Kardinal Jusuf; Chun Liang Tan

2011-01-01

53

Impacts of urbanization on the carbon cycle (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Urban areas are expanding rapidly in population and land area. The impact of urban areas on carbon budgets is especially profound. Cities consume nearly 80% of total global energy use and produce approximately 70% of CO2 emissions. Expansion of urban areas in the coming decades is expected to outpace urban population growth, making urban land use change and associated impacts on regional C dynamics a critical element of the global C cycle. Despite the rapid urban expansion, the trajectories of carbon losses and gains following urban development remain poorly quantified, particularly at the urban-rural interface. This is the zone where land use change and C stocks are most dynamic, but least well quantified. While a growing body of research has allowed us to better quantify biomass in forested areas and within the boundaries of major cities, comparatively little work has addressed C stocks and dynamics in the 'middle ground' where the majority of land use change is occurring. Existing spatially-explicit regional and continental scale biomass estimates exclude urban developed areas or presume that they contain little or no biomass. Data on urban C fluxes to and from the atmosphere are likewise very sparse. Our existing network of surface CO2 observation sites intentionally avoids cities. We describe a multidisciplinary study across the greater Boston metropolitan region to characterize the sources and sinks of CO2 across urban-to-rural gradients including the development of new emissions inventories, assessment of land cover change, and process-level studies of variations in ecosystem productivity.

Hutyra, L.; Raciti, S. M.; Dunn, A. L.; Gately, C.; Sue Wing, I.; Woodcock, C.; Olofsson, P.; Friedl, M. A.

2013-12-01

54

Early urban impact on Mediterranean coastal environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A common belief is that, unlike today, ancient urban areas developed in a sustainable way within the environmental limits of local natural resources and the ecosystem's capacity to respond. This long-held paradigm is based on a weak knowledge of the processes underpinning the emergence of urban life and the rise of an urban-adapted environment in and beyond city boundaries. Here, we report a 6000-year record of environmental changes around the port city of Akko (Acre), Israel, to analyse ecological processes and patterns stemming from the emergence and growth of urban life. We show that early urban development deeply transformed pre-existing ecosystems, swiftly leading to an urban environment already governed by its own ecological rules and this, since the emergence of the cities.

Kaniewski, David; van Campo, Elise; Morhange, Christophe; Guiot, Joël; Zviely, Dov; Shaked, Idan; Otto, Thierry; Artzy, Michal

2013-12-01

55

Early urban impact on Mediterranean coastal environments  

PubMed Central

A common belief is that, unlike today, ancient urban areas developed in a sustainable way within the environmental limits of local natural resources and the ecosystem's capacity to respond. This long-held paradigm is based on a weak knowledge of the processes underpinning the emergence of urban life and the rise of an urban-adapted environment in and beyond city boundaries. Here, we report a 6000-year record of environmental changes around the port city of Akko (Acre), Israel, to analyse ecological processes and patterns stemming from the emergence and growth of urban life. We show that early urban development deeply transformed pre-existing ecosystems, swiftly leading to an urban environment already governed by its own ecological rules and this, since the emergence of the cities. PMID:24345820

Kaniewski, David; Van Campo, Elise; Morhange, Christophe; Guiot, Joël; Zviely, Dov; Shaked, Idan; Otto, Thierry; Artzy, Michal

2013-01-01

56

IMPACTS OF URBANIZATION ON WATERSHED HYDROLOGIC FUNCTION  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Although urbanization has a major impact on watershed hydrology, there have not been studies to quantify basic hydrological relationships are altered by the addition of impervious surfaces. The USDA-ARS and USEPA-ORD-NRMRL have initiated a pilot program to study the impacts of different extents and...

57

IMPACTS OF URBANIZATION ON WATERSHED HYDROLOGIC FUNCTION  

EPA Science Inventory

Although urbanization has a major impact on watershed hydrology, there have not been studies to quantify basic hydrological relationships that are altered by the addition of impervious surfaces. The USDA-ARS and USEPA-ORD-NRMRL have initiated a pilot program to study the impacts...

58

Development and Validation of a Predictive Model to Assess the Impact of Coastal Emissions on Urban Scale Air Quality  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many of the urban areas classified as non-attainment for ambient air pollutants are located in coastal areas. While much of the uncertainty in developing an understanding of the causes of reduced air quality in these areas is due to uncertainty in the emissions inventories, along the coast the situation is confounded by the complex meteorology associated with the land/sea interface. Traditional approaches to address this problem have included the application of Lagrangian, and Eulerian models. Each of these models has distinct advantages and disadvantages. Typical Lagrangian air quality models treat the dispersion of plumes better than Eulerian models but the chemical interactions induced by the mixing of intersecting plumes is ignored. In contrast, Eulerian models treat the emissions as well mixed within each grid box. To address these limitations, we developed an air quality model with in-line chemistry and meteorology that combines the advantages of the Eulerian and Lagrangian approach to air quality modeling. In order to evaluate the model, simulation results of ozone concentrations were compared against a commonly used photochemical model (CAMx) and with airborne data from a field study made in the San Diego area of southwestern California. This paper describes the development and validation of the hybrid model

Gertler, A.; Koracin, D.; Koracin, J.; Luria, M.; Stockwell, W.; Weinroth, E.

2008-12-01

59

Urbanization and climate change impacts on future urban flood risk in Can Tho city, Vietnam  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Urban development increases flood risk in cities due to local changes in hydrological and hydrometeorological conditions that increase flood hazard, and also to urban concentrations that increase the vulnerability. The relationship between the increasing urban runoff and flooding due to increased imperviousness better perceived than that between the cyclic impact of urban growth and the urban rainfall via microclimatic changes. The large-scale, global impacts due to climate variability and change could compound these risks. We present the case of a typical third world city - Can Tho (the biggest city in Mekong River Delta, Vietnam) - faced with multiple future challenges, namely: (i) climate change-driven sea-level rise and tidal effect, (ii) increase river runoff due to climate change, (iii) increased urban runoff driven by imperviousness, and (iv) enhancement of extreme rainfall due to urban growth-driven micro-climatic change (urban heat islands). A set of model simulations were used to assess the future impact of the combination of these influences. Urban growth of the city was projected up to year 2100 based on historical growth patterns, using a land-use simulation model (Dinamica-EGO). A dynamic limited-area atmospheric model (WRF), coupled with a detailed land-surface model with vegetation parameterization (Noah LSM), was employed in controlled numerical experiments to estimate the anticipated changes in extreme rainfall patterns due to urban heat island effect. Finally, a 1-D/2-D coupled urban-drainage/flooding model (SWMM-Brezo) was used to simulate storm-sewer surcharge and surface inundation to establish the increase in the flood risk resulting from the changes. The results show that, if the city develops as predicted, the maximum of inundation depth and area in Can Tho will increase by about 20%. The impact of climate change on inundation is more serious than that of urbanization. The worse case may occur if the sea level rises 100 cm and the flow from upstream happen in the high-development scenarios. The relative contribution of causes of flooding are significantly different at various locations; therefore, detailed research on adaptation are necessary for the future investments to be effective.

Huong, H. T. L.; Pathirana, A.

2011-12-01

60

Urban Problems and Community Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The essays in this collection promote a conception of community development that entails building practical capacities to improve the quality of life among residents of targeted neighborhoods. The causes, consequences, and potential solutions of urban problems that lie both inside and outside neighborhood borders are emphasized. The chapters are:…

Ferguson, Ronald F., Ed.; Dickens, William T., Ed.

61

Climate change and urban development in Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyses the relationship between climate change and urban development in Africa, especially in sub?Saharan Africa, and discusses potential adaptation policies for moderating the consequences of climatic changes on urban development in the region.

Kempe Ronald Hope Sr

2009-01-01

62

Curriculum Development in Urbanization.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is a brief overview of Project Canada West, initiated in April 1970 to develop relevant curriculum for Canadian education. Events and activities leading to the formation of the Project are discussed, including the influence of the publication WHAT CULTURE? WHAT HERITAGE? by A. B. Hodgetts. Problems in the organization of knowledge for the…

Sabey, R. H.

63

Urban greening impacts on tropospheric ozone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cities are characterized by elevated air temperatures as well as high anthropogenic emissions of air pollutants. Cities' greening in form of urban parks, street trees, and vegetation on roofs and walls of buildings is supposed to generally mitigate negative impacts on human health and well-being. However, high emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC) from certain popular urban plants in combination with the elevated concentrations of NOx have the potential to increase ground-level ozone concentrations - with negative impacts on health, agriculture, and climate. Policies targeting reduction of ground-level ozone in urban and suburban areas therefore must consider limiting BVOC emissions along with measures for decreasing NOx and VOC from anthropogenic sources. For this, integrated climate/ chemistry models are needed that take into account the species-specific physiological responses of urban plants which in turn drive their emission behavior. Current models of urban climate and air quality 1) do not account for the feedback between ozone concentrations, productivity, and BVOC emission and 2) do not distinguish different physiological properties of urban tree species. Instead environmental factors such as light, temperature, carbon dioxide, and water supply are applied disregarding interactions between such influences. Thus we may not yet be able to represent the impacts of air pollution under multiple changed conditions such as climate change, altered anthropogenic emission patterns, and new urban structures. We present here the implementation of the new BVOC emission model (Morfopolous et al., in press) that derives BVOC emissions directly from the electron production potential and consumption from photosynthesis calculation that is already supplied by the CLM land surface model. The new approach has the advantage that many environmental drivers of BVOC emissions are implicitly considered in the description of plant photosynthesis and phenology. We investigate the tradeoff between vegetation driven ozone -reduction and -formation processes in dependence on temperature, radiation, CO2 and O3 concentrations. We have parameterized suitable plant functional types for different urban greening structures, currently focusing on central European vegetation. The modified CLM model is applied in a global (CESM) and a regional climate/ air quality model (WRF-Chem) to calculate realistic ozone concentrations in the influence zones of urban conglomerations. BVOC emissions and their impacts are also calculated with the standard MEGAN2.1 approach for comparison. The simulation results are analyzed and discussed in view of the models suitability for air quality scenario estimates under simultaneously changing climate, anthropogenic emissions and plant species composition. References Morfopoulos, C., Prentice, I.C., Keenan T.F., Friedlingstein, P., Medlyn, B., Penuelas, J., Possel, M. (in press): A unifying conceptual model for the environmental responses of isoprene emission by plants. Annals of Botany

Grote, R.; Churkina, G.; Butler, T. M.; Morfopoulos, C.

2013-12-01

64

Development policy and water services in South Africa: an urban poverty perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores the impact of overall macroeconomic development policy on water service delivery policy and urban poverty in South Africa. It scrutinises ambiguous definitions of 'urban' in the literature, which tend to obscure the extent of urban poverty in this country. This is crucial given that a large proportion of the urban poor live in informal settlements, which are

Ndodana Nleya

2008-01-01

65

Investigating the climatic impact of urban planning strategies through the use of regional climate modelling: a case study for Melbourne, Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urban planning is a useful method for improving local climate and human health in cities through purposefully modifying urban land surface characteristics. This can reduce the potential risks of elevated city temperatures due to the urban heat island (UHI). Unfortunately, simple tools are not readily available for urban planners to assess the climatological impacts of various urban development scenarios. Urban

Andrew M. Coutts; Jason Beringer; Nigel J. Tapper

2008-01-01

66

Modeling Approaches for Sustainable Urban Development  

E-print Network

Modeling Approaches for Sustainable Urban Development Tuesday, March 5, 2013 12:00 - 1:30 p-term sustainable development choices for urban regions is a huge challenge. Complex-systems modeling, based complex-systems modeling has been adapted and used for urban systems. Michel Morvan is a chief scientist

Hall, Sharon J.

67

Urbanization and climate change impacts on future urban flooding in Can Tho city, Vietnam  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Urban development increases flood risk in cities due to local changes in hydrological and hydrometeorological conditions that increase flood hazard, as well as to urban concentrations that increase the vulnerability. The relationship between the increasing urban runoff and flooding due to increased imperviousness is better perceived than that between the cyclic impact of urban growth and the urban rainfall via microclimatic changes. The large-scale, global impacts due to climate variability and change could compound these risks. We present the case of a typical third world city - Can Tho (the biggest city in Mekong River Delta, Vietnam) - faced with multiple future challenges, namely: (i) the likely effect of climate change-driven sea level rise, (ii) an expected increase of river runoff due to climate change as estimated by the Vietnamese government, (iii) increased urban runoff driven by imperviousness, and (iv) enhancement of extreme rainfall due to urban growth-driven, microclimatic change (urban heat islands). A set of model simulations were used to construct future scenarios, combining these influences. Urban growth of the city was projected up to year 2100 based on historical growth patterns, using a land use simulation model (Dinamica EGO). A dynamic limited-area atmospheric model (WRF), coupled with a detailed land surface model with vegetation parameterization (Noah LSM), was employed in controlled numerical experiments to estimate the anticipated changes in extreme rainfall patterns due to urban heat island effect. Finally, a 1-D/2-D coupled urban-drainage/flooding model (SWMM-Brezo) was used to simulate storm-sewer surcharge and surface inundation to establish the increase in the flood hazard resulting from the changes. The results show that under the combined scenario of significant change in river level (due to climate-driven sea level rise and increase of flow in the Mekong) and "business as usual" urbanization, the flooding of Can Tho could increase significantly. The worst case may occur if a sea level rise of 100 cm and the flow from upstream happen together with high-development scenarios. The relative contribution of causes of flooding are significantly different at various locations; therefore, detailed research on adaptation are necessary for future investments to be effective.

Huong, H. T. L.; Pathirana, A.

2013-01-01

68

Urbanization and watershed sustainability: Collaborative simulation modeling of future development states  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Urbanization has a significant impact on water resources and requires a watershed-based approach to evaluate impacts of land use and urban development on watershed processes. This study uses a simulation with urban policy scenarios to model and strategize transferable recommendations for municipalities and cities to guide urban decisions using watershed ecohydrologic principles. The watershed simulation model is used to evaluation intensive (policy in existing built regions) and extensive (policy outside existing build regions) urban development scenarios with and without implementation of Best Management practices (BMPs). Water quantity and quality changes are simulated to assess effectiveness of five urban development scenarios. It is observed that optimal combination of intensive and extensive strategies can be used to sustain urban ecosystems. BMPs are found critical to reduce storm water and water quality impacts on urban development. Conservation zoning and incentives for voluntary adoption of BMPs can be used in sustaining urbanizing watersheds.

Randhir, Timothy O.; Raposa, Sarah

2014-11-01

69

URBAN LEADERSHIP DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM SUPPLEMENTAL PROGRAM APPLICATION  

E-print Network

URBAN LEADERSHIP DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM SUPPLEMENTAL PROGRAM APPLICATION as part of your Graduate College application to the Urban Leadership Program/Supervisor: #12;Part 3: LEADERSHIP EXPERIENCES: Identify any educational leadership experiences

Walker, Lawrence R.

70

A landscape based, systems dynamic model for assessing impacts of urban development on water quality for sustainable seagrass growth in Tampa Bay, Florida  

EPA Science Inventory

We present an integrated assessment model to predict potential unintended consequences of urban development on the sustainability of seagrasses and preservation of ecosystem services, such as catchable fish, in Tampa Bay. Ecosystem services are those ecological functions and pro...

71

Development of sustainable urban green areas in Egyptian new cities: The case of El-Sadat City  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sustainable urban development is essential to enhance the quality of life of the citizens and to decrease the impact of cities upon resources outside the urban context. Redeveloping and planning green spaces and urban structure become the fundamentals of the sustainable urban planning of a city. An effective urban planning using recent technology is required to contribute to the physical

Ayman Hassaan Ahmed Mahmoud; Marwa Adel El-Sayed

2011-01-01

72

Global forecasts of urban expansion to 2030 and direct impacts on biodiversity and carbon pools  

PubMed Central

Urban land-cover change threatens biodiversity and affects ecosystem productivity through loss of habitat, biomass, and carbon storage. However, despite projections that world urban populations will increase to nearly 5 billion by 2030, little is known about future locations, magnitudes, and rates of urban expansion. Here we develop spatially explicit probabilistic forecasts of global urban land-cover change and explore the direct impacts on biodiversity hotspots and tropical carbon biomass. If current trends in population density continue and all areas with high probabilities of urban expansion undergo change, then by 2030, urban land cover will increase by 1.2 million km2, nearly tripling the global urban land area circa 2000. This increase would result in considerable loss of habitats in key biodiversity hotspots, with the highest rates of forecasted urban growth to take place in regions that were relatively undisturbed by urban development in 2000: the Eastern Afromontane, the Guinean Forests of West Africa, and the Western Ghats and Sri Lanka hotspots. Within the pan-tropics, loss in vegetation biomass from areas with high probability of urban expansion is estimated to be 1.38 PgC (0.05 PgC yr?1), equal to ?5% of emissions from tropical deforestation and land-use change. Although urbanization is often considered a local issue, the aggregate global impacts of projected urban expansion will require significant policy changes to affect future growth trajectories to minimize global biodiversity and vegetation carbon losses. PMID:22988086

Seto, Karen C.; Güneralp, Burak; Hutyra, Lucy R.

2012-01-01

73

Development and validation of a macroinvertebrate index of biotic integrity (IBI) for assessing urban impacts to Northern California freshwater wetlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite California policies requiring assessment of ambient wetland condition and compensatory wetland mitigations, no intensive\\u000a monitoring tools have been developed to evaluate freshwater wetlands within the state. Therefore, we developed standardized,\\u000a wadeable field methods to sample macroinvertebrate communities and evaluated 40 wetlands across Northern California to develop\\u000a a macroinvertebrate index of biotic integrity (IBI). A priori reference sites were selected

Kevin B. Lunde; Vincent H. Resh

74

in development and the urban environment  

E-print Network

Thecase fortrees in development and the urban environment #12;Foreword Trees are important about the important role trees play in our urban as well as the rural environment. It has long been their local and ­ hopefully ­ green environment. The development of the space in which we live and work

75

Impacts of urbanization on hydrology in the Yangtze River Delta, China.  

PubMed

The Yangtze River Delta is one of the most developed regions in China and the rapid development of urbanization have greatly influenced regional hydrology and water resources. Taking several typical urbanizing areas in the Yangtze River Delta as examples, this paper probes into the impacts of urbanization on hydrologic cycle and hydrological process with the support of RS, GIS and hydrological model. The research centers on the impacts of urbanization on precipitation, hydrological process, river networks, and water environment in some typical cities. The results show that: (1) Urban rain island effect is not evident when the process of urbanization is slow, while the differences of annual precipitation and flood season precipitation between urban and suburban areas increased to a certain extent in the booming stage of urbanization. (2) The annual runoff depth and the runoff coefficient increased with the development of urbanization, and the effect will be more notable when the urban areas expand to a certain size; (3) River network systems, especially low-grade rivers have been greatly destroyed in the process of urbanization, which increases the risk of flood and water degradation, so it is very important to protect natural river systems. Based on the results, some proposals of sustainable utilization and protection of water resources is also addressed. PMID:20861534

Youpeng, Xu; Jintao, Xu; Jinjia, Ding; Ying, Chen; Yixing, Yin; Xingqi, Zhang

2010-01-01

76

An exploratory study of the impact of an inquiry-based professional development course on the beliefs and instructional practices of urban inservice teachers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five urban teachers completed a total of 50 contact hours of professional development in which they: participated in authentic, inquiry-based experiences facilitated by a scientist; learned new science content related to the nature of science and scientific inquiry; developed inquiry-based lesson plans to implement in their classrooms; and developed science-specific strategies to mentor novice and experienced teachers. The focus of

Leslie Ann Suters

2004-01-01

77

Methodologies for Analyzing Impact of Urbanization on Irrigation Districts  

E-print Network

and structural image information. By overlapping urbanization maps to the water distribution network, we identified critical areas of impact. This impact was expressed as density of network fragments per unit area, or Network Fragmentation Index (NFI). A...

Bonaiti, G.; Fipps, G.

78

Modeling impact of urban air pollution on health  

E-print Network

Modeling impact of urban air pollution on health: Preliminary results and testing a methodology with hospitals for the study of air pollution impact on specific deceases (old people admitted in emergency morbidity data and pollutants concentrations at the regional/urban scale Health and air quality in France

Menut, Laurent

79

Impacts of urbanization on Florida Key deer behavior and population dynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rapid human population growth and urbanization have had a negative impact on species biodiversity. As competition for resources between man and wildlife continues, it is impor- tant to understand the effects of urbanization on species. Endangered Key deer (Odocoileus virginianus clavium) are endemic to the Florida Keys which have undergone rapid human population growth and development over the past 30

Patricia M. Harveson; Roel R. Lopez; Bret A. Collier; Nova J. Silvy

2006-01-01

80

The Impact of Urban Freight Transport: A Definition of Sustainability from an Actor's Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a definition of sustainable urban freight transport (SUFT), based on the existing theories and concepts, and develops an indicator set that describes SUFT. The definition of SUFT makes a categorisation of actions possible which enables actors to select effective strategies towards SUFT. The indicator set consists of two levels: impact indicators – which describe how the urban

Sönke Behrends; Maria Lindholm; Johan Woxenius

2008-01-01

81

Restructuring for growth in urban China: Transitional institutions, urban development, and spatial transformation  

E-print Network

, including globalization, tourism, industrial development, and urban development, in the context of shiftingRestructuring for growth in urban China: Transitional institutions, urban development, and spatial: Globalization Rescaling Development zones Urban development Hangzhou China a b s t r a c t This research

Wei, Yehua Dennis

82

Impacts of Exurban Development on Water Quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This chapter details the impacts of exurban development on water quantity and quality in the United States. The chapter begins\\u000a by reviewing studies that document the consequences of urbanization on water quality, with emphasis on exurban development.\\u000a We show how watersheds are contaminated by a range of organic and inorganic compounds as land use along the rural-to-urban\\u000a gradient intensifies. These

Kathleen A. Lohse; Adina M. Merenlender

83

Impacts of new highways and subsequent landscape urbanization on stream habitat and biota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

New highways are pervasive, pernicious threats to stream ecosystems because of their short- and long-term physical, chemical, and biological impacts. Unfortunately, standard environmental impact statements (EISs) and environmental assessments (EAs) focus narrowly on the initial direct impacts of construction and ignore other long-term indirect impacts. More thorough consideration of highway impacts, and, ultimately, better land use decisions may be facilitated by conceptualizing highway development in three stages: initial highway construction, highway presence, and eventual landscape urbanization. Highway construction is characterized by localized physical disturbances, which generally subside through time. In contrast, highway presence and landscape urbanization are characterized by physical and chemical impacts that are temporally persistent. Although the impacts of highway presence and landscape urbanization are of similar natures, the impacts are of a greater magnitude and more widespread in the urbanization phase. Our review reveals that the landscape urbanization stage is clearly the greatest threat to stream habitat and biota, as stream ecosystems are sensitive to even low levels (<10%) of watershed urban development. Although highway construction is ongoing, pervasive, and has severe biological consequences, we found few published investigations of its impacts on streams. Researchers know little about the occurrence, loading rates, and biotic responses to specific contaminants in highway runoff. Also needed is a detailed understanding of how highway crossings, especially culverts, affect fish populations via constraints on movement and how highway networks alter natural regimes (e.g., streamflow, temperature). Urbanization research topics that may yield especially useful results include a) the relative importance and biological effects of specific components of urban development - e.g., commercial or residential; b) the scenarios under which impacts are reversible; and c) the efficacy of mitigation measures - e.g., stormwater retention or treatment and forested buffers. Copyright ?? Taylor & Francis Inc.

Wheeler, A.P.; Angermeier, P.L.; Rosenberger, A.E.

2005-01-01

84

Impacts of Urbanization in the Coastal Tropical City of San Juan, Puerto Rico  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Urban sprawl in tropical locations is rapidly accelerating and it is more evident in islands where a large percentage of the population resides along the coasts. This paper focuses on the analysis of the impacts of land use and land cover for urbanization in the tropical coastal city of San Juan, in the Caribbean island of Puerto Rico. A mesoscale numerical model, the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS), is used to study the impacts of land use for urbanization in the environment including specific characteristics of the urban heat island in the San Juan Metropolitan Area (SJMA), one of the most noticeable urban cores of the Caribbean. The research also makes use of the observations obtained during the airborne San Juan Atlas Mission. Surface and raw insonde data from the mission are used to validate the atmospheric model yielding satisfactory results. Airborne high resolution remote sensing data are used to update the model's surface characteristics in order to obtain a more accurate and detailed configuration of the SJMA and perform a climate impact analysis based on land cover/land use (LCLU) changes. The impact analysis showed that the presence of the urban landscape of San Juan has an impact reflected in higher air temperatures over the area occupied by the city, with positive values of up to 2.5 degrees C, for the simulations that have specified urban LCLU indexes in the model's bottom boundary. One interesting result of the impact analysis was the finding of a precipitation disturbance shown as a difference in total accumulated rainfall between the present urban landscape and with a potential natural vegetation, apparently induced by the presence of the urban area. Results indicate that the urban-enhanced cloud formation and precipitation development occur mainly downwind of the city, including the accumulated precipitation. This spatial pattern can be explained by the presence of a larger urbanized area in the southwest sector of the city, and of the approaching northeasterly trade winds.

Comarazamy, Daniel E.; Gonzalez, Jorge E.; Luvall, Jeffrey C.; Rickman, Douglass

2007-01-01

85

Impact of urbanization on boundary layer structure in Beijing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Beijing meteorological tower is located in an area of Beijing, China, which has developed from a suburban to an inner city setting over the past 30 years. The impacts of this urbanization process on both the vertical profile and diurnal cycles of air temperature are investigated using hourly data collected from a series of monitoring levels (up to 325 m high) on the Beijing meteorological tower since 1984. We find that the inter-decadal temperature has increased gradually, and that a more significant increase occurred during the 1980s and 1990s due to the effects of urbanization. A well-defined change in temperature stratification was also observed over this period. The height of the temperature inversion layer decreased from the 1980s to the 2000s. A well-defined nighttime temperature inversion developed below 50 m during the summer in the 1980s, but this near-surface inversion is not seen in data from the 1990s and 2000s. This change can be related to an increase in turbulent mixing caused by urban roughness and surface heat storage that disturbs the near-surface temperature inversion layer. In addition, the diurnal change in temperature in the city in summer shows a maximum increase from sunrise to the early afternoon, which is mainly caused by the nature variability and global warming in both the summer and winter. The urbanization mainly contributes to the temperature increase in the afternoon and nighttime. Moreover the urbanization dominates the increase in daily mean near-surface temperature.

Liu, Y.; Yu, M.; Dai, Y.

2013-12-01

86

Hydro-meteorological and micro-climatic impacts of urbanization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Urbanization is one of the important drivers of micro and regional climate change. However, urban modeling still faces significant challenges mainly due to difficulties in representing small-scale physical processes occurring in urban canopies and in parameterizing the highly heterogeneous urban surfaces at regional scales. The Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model can be a powerful tool in overcoming these challenges due to its nesting and large-eddy simulation capabilities. In this study, we use the WRF model to study the impact of urbanization on urban hydrology (particularly rainfall) and the urban microclimate (i.e., the urban heat island) along the Baltimore-Washington Corridor. Two periods are simulated using WRF, one includes a heavy rainfall event and the other includes a heat wave event. The simulation results are compared to a variety of measurements, including radar rainfall estimates; vertical profiles of wind, water vapor and potential temperature; surface meteorological observations; and remotely-observed land surface temperature. The findings indicate that changing urban surface representations in the WRF model leads to significant changes in the rainfall pattern and amount, due to the modification of the surface energy budgets and the canopy effect. The sensitivity of urban rainfall modeling to urban surface models is comparable to the sensitivity to the microphysics schemes. The urban canopy model (UCM) is critical for capturing the surface energy partitioning and the land surface temperature. We also observe that the default single-layer urban canopy model (UCM) in WRF overestimates the surface temperatures along Washington-Baltimore Corridor when compared to the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellite observations. To improve the model performance, a new urban canopy model, calibrated using field observations, with two surface types for the roofs (conventional roof and green roof) and three for the ground (asphalt, concrete and grass) is implemented into WRF. The new urban canopy model significantly reduces the errors in land surface temperature over urban areas and can simulate the urban heat island effect reasonably well.

Li, D.; Bou-Zeid, E.; Baeck, M. L.; Jessup, S.; Smith, J. A.

2012-12-01

87

Department of Urban and Rural Development Division of Rural Development  

E-print Network

Department of Urban and Rural Development Division of Rural Development Curriculum Vitae Johanna Bergman Lodin Curriculum Vitae Name: Johanna BERGMAN LODIN johanna.bergman.lodin@slu.se Born: 26 August 2013.11 ­ present Postdoctoral Fellow. Division of Rural Development, Dept. of Urban and Rural

88

The influence of urban development and social mobility on socioeconomic level: The application of GIS on urban ecosystems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Specifically, the integration between social sciences and natural science are fundamental in our understanding of the economic, social and technological transformations that have drastically changed the society. This study will be based on the municipality of Sungai Petani, Kedah as it has been most influenced by urbanization and urban development. Urban development in Sungai Petani is closely associated with a tremendous increase in demand for land, which is highly related to population growth, human movement and their social mobility. The qualitative case study taken will rely on the visual interpretation technique that would allow the researcher to develop a map of urban changes detection. The potential application of GIS information to estimate socioeconomic indicators and the modelling of socio-economic activities that are explored in this study is hoped to increase further our understanding of the impacts of development and urbanization on social life.

Suhaili Mansor, Nur; Zulhaidi Mohd Shafri, Helmi; Mansor, Shattri; Paradhan, Biswajeet

2014-06-01

89

Urban tourism in the developing world: The case of Johannesburg  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urban tourism has attracted a growing literature in the context of cities in the developed world. In this article, the role of urban tourism is explored in the developing world setting of Johannesburg. As in the case of the developed world, in Johannesburg the promotion of urban tourism is linked to economic regeneration and urban economic development. Johannesburg's tourism economy

Christian Rogerson

2002-01-01

90

Application of the ACASA model for urban development studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since urban population is growing fast and urban areas are recognized as the major source of CO2 emissions, more attention has being dedicated to the topic of urban sustainability and its connection with the climate. Urban flows of energy, water and carbon have an important impact on climate change and their quantification is pivotal in the city design and management. Large effort has been devoted to quantitative estimates of the urban metabolism components, and several advanced models have been developed and used at different spatial and temporal scales for this purpose. However, it is necessary to develop suitable tools and indicators to effectively support urban planning and management with the goal of achieving a more sustainable metabolism in the urban environment. In this study, the multilayer model ACASA (Advanced Canopy-Atmosphere-Soil Algorithm) was chosen to simulate the exchanges of heat, water vapour and CO2 within and above urban canopy. After several calibration and evaluation tests over natural and agricultural ecosystems, the model was recently modified for application in urban and peri-urban areas. New equations to account for the anthropogenic contribution to heat exchange and carbon production, as well as key parameterizations of leaf-facet scale interactions to separate both biogenic and anthropogenic flux sources and sinks, were added to test changes in land use or urban planning strategies. The analysis was based on the evaluation of the ACASA model performance in estimating urban metabolism components at local scale. Simulated sensible heat, latent heat, and carbon fluxes were compared with in situ Eddy Covariance measurements collected in the city centre of Florence (Italy). Statistical analysis was performed to test the model accuracy and reliability. Model sensitivity to soil types and increased population density values was conducted to investigate the potential use of ACASA for evaluating the impact of planning alternative scenarios. In this contest, an in progress application of ACASA for estimating carbon exchanges alternative scenarios is represented by its integration in a software framework composed by: (i) a Cellular Automata model to simulate the urban land-use dynamics; (ii) a transportation model, able to estimate the variation of the transportation network load; (iii) the ACASA model, and (iv) the mesoscale weather model WRF for the estimation of the relevant urban metabolism components at regional scale. The CA module is able to produce future land use maps, which represent a spatial distribution of the aggregate land-use demand consistent with the main rules governing the functioning of an urban system. Such future land use maps, together with the street network including the current traffic data, are used by the transportation module for estimating future traffic data coherent with the assumed land uses trends. All these information are then used by the coupled model WRF-ACASA for estimating future maps of CO2 fluxes in the urban area under consideration, allowing to estimate the impact of future planning strategies in reducing C emissions. The in-progress application of this system to the city of Florence is presented here.

Marras, S.; Pyles, R. D.; Falk, M.; Snyder, R. L.; Paw U, K. T.; Blecic, I.; Trunfio, G. A.; Cecchini, A.; Spano, D.

2012-04-01

91

Hydrometeorologic impacts of urban expansion and the role of spatial arrangement (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Global land cover/land use is changing notably due to expansion of urban areas, resulting in the conversion of natural landscapes to roads, industrial areas, and buildings. The associated reduction in infiltration and runoff lag time have long been the domain of the urban hydrologist, while this landscape transformation also leads to changes in land surface heterogeneities, resulting in alterations of land-atmosphere interactions and convective processes. The integrated impacts of both impervious area and precipitation changes to flood risk in urban environments have not been well-represented by existing predictive tools, which often focus at disparate scales. This presentation attempts an integrated assessment of the multi-scale interaction of urban landcover, hydrology and convective processes, in order to investigate how urbanization has altered the hydrometeorology of urban thunderstorm events, and the role of the spatial arrangement and scale of urban landcover on urban flood frequency. Studies suggest that in some cases, urban influence creates a convergence zone upstream of the urban area, resulting in precipitation increases both upstream and downstream of the urban influence. Total runoff increases consistently with urbanization by restricting infiltration on the land surface, but this is coupled with high uncertainty in the spatial pattern of precipitation change. For some watersheds, the convective influence can result in a significant increase in peak streamflow, relative to impervious influence alone. The spatial pattern of urban development can further affect the hydrologic regime by influencing the hydrologic connectivity of urban areas at the catchment scale, while at the river basin scale the travel time from urban centers to the watershed outlet controls flood magnitudes.

Bowling, L. C.

2013-12-01

92

EVALUATION OF SECONDARY ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS OF URBAN RUNOFF POLLUTION CONTROL  

EPA Science Inventory

This report presents a generalized evaluation of the impacts associated with different urban stormwater runoff (UR) treatment techniques. The report addresses the definition of the problem, estimates the volume and characteristics of the UR and the sludges expected, evaluates six...

93

Modeling environmental impacts of urban expansion: a systematic method for dealing with uncertainties.  

PubMed

In a rapidly transitioning China, urban land use has changed dramatically, both spatially and in terms of magnitude; these changes have significantly affected the natural environment. This paper reports the development of an Integrated Environmental Assessment of Urban Land Use Change (IEA-ULUC) model, which combines cellular automata, scenario analysis, and stochastic spatial sampling with the goal of exploring urban land-use change, related environmental impacts, and various uncertainties. By applying the IEA-ULUC model to a new urban development area in Dalian in northeastern China, the evolution of spatial patterns from 1986 to 2005 was examined to identify key driving forces affecting the changing trajectories of local land use. Using these results, future urban land use in the period 2005-2020 was projected for four scenarios of economic development and land-use planning regulation. A stochastic sampling process was implemented to generate industrial land distributions for each land expansion scenario. Finally, domestic and industrial water pollution loads to the ocean were estimated, and the environmental impacts of each scenario are discussed. The results showed that the four urban expansion scenarios could lead to considerable differences in environmental responses. In principle, urban expansion scenarios along the intercity transportation rail/roadways could have higher negative environmental impacts than cluster-developing scenarios, while faster economic growth could more intensely aggravate the environment than in the moderate growth scenarios. PMID:22775401

Liu, Yi; Yang, Sheng; Chen, Jining

2012-08-01

94

Health impact assessment of urban waterway decisions.  

PubMed

Health impact assessments (HIA) promote the consideration of health in a wide range of public decisions. Although each HIA is different, common pathways, evidence bases, and strategies for community engagement tend to emerge in certain sectors, such as urban redevelopment, natural resource extraction, or transportation planning. To date, a limited number of HIAs have been conducted on decisions affecting water resources and waterfronts. This review presents four recent HIAs of water-related decisions in the United States and Puerto Rico. Although the four cases are topically and geographically diverse, several common themes emerged from the consideration of health in water-related decisions. Water resource decisions are characterized by multiple competing uses, inter-institutional and inter-jurisdictional complexity, scientific uncertainty, long time scales for environmental change, diverse cultural and historical human values, and tradeoffs between private use and public access. These four case studies reveal challenges and opportunities of examining waterfront decisions through a "health lens". This review analyzes these cases, common themes, and lessons learned for the future practice of HIA in the waterfront zone and beyond. PMID:25547399

Korfmacher, Katrina Smith; Aviles, Katia; Cummings, B J; Daniell, William; Erdmann, Jared; Garrison, Valerie

2015-01-01

95

Global urbanization and impact on health.  

PubMed

Nearly half the world's population now lives in urban settlements. Cities offer the lure of better employment, education, health care, and culture; and they contribute disproportionately to national economies. However, rapid and often unplanned urban growth is often associated with poverty, environmental degradation and population demands that outstrip service capacity. These conditions place human health at risk. Reliable urban health statistics are largely unavailable throughout the world. Disaggregated intra-urban health data, i.e., for different areas within a city, are even more rare. Data that are available indicate a range of urban health hazards and associated health risks: substandard housing, crowding, air pollution, insufficient or contaminated drinking water, inadequate sanitation and solid waste disposal services, vector-borne diseases, industrial waste, increased motor vehicle traffic, stress associated with poverty and unemployment, among others. Local and national governments and multilateral organizations are all grappling with the challenges of urbanization. Urban health risks and concerns involve many different sectors, including health, environment, housing, energy, transportation, urban planning, and others. Two main policy implications are highlighted: the need for systematic and useful urban health statistics on a disaggregated, i.e., intra-urban, basis, and the need for more effective partnering across sectors. The humanitarian and economic imperative to create livable and sustainable cities must drive us to seek and successfully overcome challenges and capitalize on opportunities. Good urban planning and governance, exchange of best practice models and the determination and leadership of stakeholders across disciplines, sectors, communities and countries will be critical elements of success. PMID:12971682

Moore, Melinda; Gould, Philip; Keary, Barbara S

2003-08-01

96

Global Forecasts of Urban Expansion to 2030 and Direct Impacts on Biodiversity and Carbon Pools  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Urban land cover change threatens biodiversity and affects ecosystem productivity through loss of habitat, biomass, and carbon storage. Yet, despite projections that world urban populations will increase to 4.3 billion by 2030, little is known about future locations, magnitudes, and rates of urban expansion. Here we develop the first global probabilistic forecasts of urban land cover change and explore the impacts on biodiversity hotspots and tropical carbon biomass. If current trends in population density continue, then by 2030, urban land cover will expand between 800,000 and 3.3 million km2, representing a doubling to five-fold increase from the global urban land cover in 2000. This would result in considerable loss of habitats in key biodiversity hotspots, including the Guinean forests of West Africa, Tropical Andes, Western Ghats and Sri Lanka. Within the pan-tropics, loss in forest biomass from urban expansion is estimated to be 1.38 PgC (0.05 PgC yr-1), equal to approximately 5% of emissions from tropical land use change. Although urbanization is often considered a local issue, the aggregate global impacts of projected urban expansion will require significant policy changes to affect future growth trajectories to minimize global biodiversity and forest carbon losses.

Seto, K. C.; Guneralp, B.; Hutyra, L.

2012-12-01

97

Impacts of urbanization on Indian summer monsoon rainfall extremes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

areas have different climatology with respect to their rural surroundings. Though urbanization is a worldwide phenomenon, it is especially prevalent in India, where urban areas have experienced an unprecedented rate of growth over the last 30 years. Here we take up an observational study to understand the influence of urbanization on the characteristics of precipitation (specifically extremes) in India. We identify 42 urban regions and compare their extreme rainfall characteristics with those of surrounding rural areas. We observe that, on an overall scale, the urban signatures on extreme rainfall are not prominently and consistently visible, but they are spatially nonuniform. Zonal analysis reveals significant impacts of urbanization on extreme rainfall in central and western regions of India. An additional examination, to understand the influences of urbanization on heavy rainfall climatology, is carried with station level data using a statistical method, quantile regression. This is performed for the most populated city of India, Mumbai, in pair with a nearby nonurban area, Alibaug; both having similar geographic location. The derived extreme rainfall regression quantiles reveal the sensitivity of extreme rainfall events to the increased urbanization. Overall the study identifies the climatological zones in India, where increased urbanization affects regional rainfall pattern and extremes, with a detailed case study of Mumbai. This also calls attention to the need of further experimental investigation, for the identification of the key climatological processes, in different regions of India, affected by increased urbanization.

Shastri, Hiteshri; Paul, Supantha; Ghosh, Subimal; Karmakar, Subhankar

2015-01-01

98

Mayan urbanism: impact on a tropical karst environment.  

PubMed

From the first millennium B.C. through the 9th-century A.D. Classic Maya collapse, nonurban populations grew exponentially, doubling every 408 years, in the twin-lake (Yaxha-Sacnab) basin that contained the Classic urban center of Yaxha. Pollen data show that forests were essentially cleared by Early Classic time. Sharply accelerated slopewash and colluviation, amplified in the Yaxha subbasin by urban construction, transferred nutrients plus calcareous, silty clay to both lakes. Except for the urban silt, colluvium appearing as lake sediments has a mean total phosphorus concentration close to that of basin soils. From this fact, from abundance and distribution of soil phosphorus, and from continuing post-Maya influxes (80 to 86 milligrams of phosphorus per square meter each year), which have no other apparent source, we conclude that riparian soils are anthrosols and that the mechanism of long-term phosphorus loading in lakes is mass transport of soil. Per capita deliveries of phosphorus match physiological outputs, approximately 0.5 kilogram of phosphorus per capita per year. Smaller apparent deliveries reflect the nonphosphatic composition of urban silt; larger societal outputs, expressing excess phosphorus from deforestation and from food waste and mortuary disposal, are probable but cannot be evaluated from our data. Eutrophication is not demonstrable and was probably impeded, even in less-impacted lakes, by suspended Maya silt. Environmental strain, the product of accelerating agroengineering demand and sequestering of nutrients in colluvium, developed too slowly to act as a servomechanism, damping population growth, at least until Late Classic time. PMID:17733669

Deevey, E S; Rice, D S; Rice, P M; Vaughan, H H; Brenner, M; Flannery, M S

1979-10-19

99

Introduction to Urban Design and Development  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Part of MIT's innovative OpenCourseWare Project, that provides materials from MIT classes to the public on the web, the site provides materials introducing how urban areas change over time, and the future of urban development. This course examines the evolving structure of cities and the way that cities, suburbs, and metropolitan areas can be designed and developed. Boston and other American cities are studied to see how physical, social, political and economic forces interact to shape and reshape cities over time.

Silberberg, Susan

100

Achieving accurate simulations of urban impacts on ozone at high resolution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effects of urbanization on ozone levels have been widely investigated over cities primarily located in temperate and/or humid regions. In this study, nested WRF-Chem simulations with a finest grid resolution of 1 km are conducted to investigate ozone concentrations [O3] due to urbanization within cities in arid/semi-arid environments. First, a method based on a shape preserving Monotonic Cubic Interpolation (MCI) is developed and used to downscale anthropogenic emissions from the 4 km resolution 2005 National Emissions Inventory (NEI05) to the finest model resolution of 1 km. Using the rapidly expanding Phoenix metropolitan region as the area of focus, we demonstrate the proposed MCI method achieves ozone simulation results with appreciably improved correspondence to observations relative to the default interpolation method of the WRF-Chem system. Next, two additional sets of experiments are conducted, with the recommended MCI approach, to examine impacts of urbanization on ozone production: (1) the urban land cover is included (i.e., urbanization experiments) and, (2) the urban land cover is replaced with the region’s native shrubland. Impacts due to the presence of the built environment on [O3] are highly heterogeneous across the metropolitan area. Increased near surface [O3] due to urbanization of 10–20 ppb is predominantly a nighttime phenomenon while simulated impacts during daytime are negligible. Urbanization narrows the daily [O3] range (by virtue of increasing nighttime minima), an impact largely due to the region’s urban heat island. Our results demonstrate the importance of the MCI method for accurate representation of the diurnal profile of ozone, and highlight its utility for high-resolution air quality simulations for urban areas.

Li, J.; Georgescu, M.; Hyde, P.; Mahalov, A.; Moustaoui, M.

2014-11-01

101

Urban areas impact on surface water quality during rainfall events  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Increasing population and welfare puts water management under stress, especially in what concerns water quality. Surface water properties are strongly linked with hydrological processes and are affected by stream flow variability. Changes in some chemical substances concentrations can be ascribed to different water sources. Runoff generated in urban areas is considered the main responsible for water quality degradation inside catchments. This poster presents the methodology and first results of a study that is being developed to assess the impact of urbanization on surface water quality, during rainfall events. It focuses on the Ribeira dos Covões catchment (620 ha) located in central Portugal. Due to its proximity to the Coimbra city in central region, the urban areas sprawled during the last decades. In 2008, urban areas represented 32% of the area. Recently a highway was constructed crossing the catchment and a technological industrial park is being build-up in the headwaters. Several water samples were collected at four different locations: the catchment outlet and in three sub-catchments with distinct urbanization patterns - Espírito Santo that represents a highly urbanized area (45%) located over sandstone, Porto do Bordalo with 30% of urbanized area located over limestone, and IParque, mainly forest and just downstream the disturbed technological industrial park construction area. The samples were collected at different times during rainfall events to monitor the variability along the hydrograph. Six monitoring campaigns were performed: two in April 2011, at the end of the winter period, and the others between October and November 2011, after the dry summer. The number of samples collected per monitoring campaign is variable according with rainfall pattern. Parameters such as pH, conductivity, turbidity and total suspended sediments were immediately analyzed. The samples were then preserved, after filtered (0.45µm), and later analyzed for dissolved chemical oxygen demand, total phosphorous, nitrogen (Kjeldahl, nitrate and ammonium), some cations and heavy metals, according with standard methods. In each monitored location there is a continuous-recording water-level that provides flow data. The rainfall data is monitored with a raingauge located at the catchment outlet. The results show that surface runoff affects stream water quality according with rainfall pattern. During rainfall events the rising limb flow is associated with an increase in suspended sediment concentration and turbidity, particularly at Iparque. In this sub-catchment, the deforestation and the topsoil removal associated with the technological industrial park construction, promotes suspended sediments growth ranging from 395% to 1645%, corresponding to peak concentrations of 1049mg/L and 3621mg/L, for similar rainfall amounts but with distinct intensities (0.4mm/5minutes and 1.2mm/5minutes, respectively). As regards to the monitored dissolved chemical properties, despite the variability, related with the hydrograph, the increase is much lower comparing with the suspended sediments. Generally, the values are higher at the catchment outlet, which can indicate that the contact time between rainfall and the surfaces before reach the water line affects water quality. This should be considered during urban planning to improve water quality and reduce environmental impacts with low investment.

Ferreira, C. S. S.; Soares, D.; Ferreira, A. J. D.; Costa, M. L.; Steenhuis, T. S.; Coelho, C. O. A.; Walsh, R. P. D.

2012-04-01

102

Impact of radio advertisements on buying behaviour of urban commuters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This study aims to analyze the impact of radio advertisements on urban commuters towards buying behaviour in retail stores and attempts to determine the role of radio advertising on dissemination of information on the sales promotions. The impact of radio advertisements on the store choice and buying preferences are analyzed based on empirical investigation. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – This study

Rajagopal

2011-01-01

103

The impact of urbanization on family structure: the experience of Sarawak, Malaysia.  

PubMed

This paper argues that women and men encounter the processes of migration and urbanization in very gendered ways. It examines state development policies and their role in accelerating the pace of urbanization, Using material from a recently concluded study on single mothers in the lower socio-economic strata, this paper explores the impact of these wider processes on the structure of the family and women from this strata specifically. PMID:21853623

Sim, Hew Cheng

2003-01-01

104

Remote Detection of Urban Intensity for Climate Change Impact Assessments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Integration of human and earth system models for climate change impact assessments requires consistent projections of urban extent and accurate representation of urban intensity. In this study, a map of urban extent created for the Community Land Model (CLM) from LandScan 2004 population densities is compared to a map of percent impervious surface area (IMPSA) and satellite-derived normalized difference built-up index (NDBI), land surface temperature (LST), and impervious surface area derived from the fractional vegetation cover (Fr). São Paulo, Brazil and surrounding areas are selected for initial evaluation of four categories of urban intensity, including Tall Building District, High Density, Medium Density, and Low Density. Indices derived from MODIS may provide a more rapid and reliable way to map urban and periurban areas for global climate modeling.

Cochran, F. V.; Brunsell, N. A.

2013-12-01

105

On the urban land-surface impact on climate over Central Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For the purpose of qualifying and quantifying the impact of cities and in general the urban surfaces on climate over central Europe, the surface parameterization in regional climate model RegCM4 has been extended with the Single Layer Urban Canopy Model (SLUCM) for urban and suburban land surface. This can be used both in dynamic scale within BATS scheme and in a more detailed SUBBATS scale to treat the surface processes on a higher resolution subgrid. A set of experiments was performed over the period of 2005-2009 over central Europe, either without considering urban surfaces and with the SLUCM treatment. Results show a statistically significant impact of urbanized surfaces on temperature (up to 1.5 K increase in summer), on the boundary layer height (ZPBL, increases up to 50 m). Urbanization further influences surface wind with a winter decrease up to -0,6 m s-1 and both increases and decreases in summer depending the location with respect to cities and daytime (changes up to 0.3 ms-1). Urban surfaces significantly reduce evaporation and thus the humidity over the surface. This impacts in our simulations the summer precipitation rate showing decrease over cities up to - 2 mm day-1. We further showed, that significant temperature increases are not limited to the urban canopy layer but spawn the whole boundary layer. Above that, a small but statistically significant temperature decrease is modeled. The comparison with observational data showed significant improvement in modeling the monthly surface temperatures in summer and the models better describe the diurnal temperature variation reducing the afternoon and evening bias due to the UHI development, which was not captured by the model if one does not apply the urban parameterization. Sensitivity experiments were carried out as well to quantify the response of the meteorological conditions to changes in the parameters specific to the urban environment such as street width, building height, albedo of the roofs, anthropogenic heat release etc. and showed that the results are rather robust and the choice of the key SLUCM parameters impacts the results only slightly (mainly temperature, ZPBL and wind velocity). Further, the important conclusion is that statistically significant impacts are modeled not only over large urbanized areas (cities), but the influence of cities is evident over remote rural areas as well with minor or without any urban surfaces. We show that this is the result of the combined effect of the distant influence of surrounding cities and the influence of the minor local urban surface coverage.

Huszar, Peter; Halenka, Tomas; Belda, Michal; Zemankova, Katerina; Zak, Michal

2014-05-01

106

Satellite remote sensing data for urban heat waves assessment and human health impacts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Remote sensing is a key application in global-change science and urban climatology. Urbanization, the conversion of other types of land to uses associated with growth of populations and economy has a great impact on both micro-climate as well as macro-climate. By integrating high-resolution and medium-resolution satellite imagery with other geospatial information, have been investigated several land surface parameters including impervious surfaces and land surface temperatures for Bucharest metropolitan area in Romania. The aim of this study is to examine the changes in land use/cover pattern in a rapidly changing area of Bucharest in relation to urbanization since the 1990s till 2011 and then to investigate the impact of such changes on the intensity and spatial pattern of the UHI (Urban Heat Island) effect in the region in relation with heat waves assessment. Investigation of radiative properties, energy balance, heat fluxes and NDVI, EVI is based on satellite data provided by various sensors Landsat TM/ETM, ASTER, MODIS and IKONOS. A detailed analysis was done for summer 2003, 2007 and 2010 years heat wave events in and related impacts on human health. So called effect of "urban heat island" must be considered mostly for summer periods conditions and large European scale heat waves. As future climate trends have been predicted to increase the magnitude and negative impacts of urban heat waves in Bucharest metropolitan area, there is an urgent need to be developed adequate strategies for societal vulnerability reducing.

Zoran, M. A.; Dida, M. R.

2012-10-01

107

Developing a framework to assess the water quality and quantity impacts of climate change, shifting land use, and urbanization in a Midwestern agricultural landscape  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dynamic hydrological processes play a critical role in the structure and functioning of agricultural watersheds undergoing urbanization. Developing a predictive understanding of the complex interaction between agricultural productivity, ecosystem health, water quality, urban development, and public policy requires an interdisciplinary effort that investigates the important biophysical and social processes of the system. Our research group has initiated such a framework that includes a coordinated program of integrated scenarios, model experiments to assess the effects of changing drivers on a broad set of ecosystem services, evaluations of governance and leverage points, outreach and public engagement, and information management. Our geographic focus is the Yahara River watershed in south-central Wisconsin, which is an exemplar of water-related issues in the Upper Midwest. This research addresses three specific questions. 1) How do different patterns of land use, land cover, land management, and water resources engineering practices affect the resilience and sensitivity of ecosystem services under a changing climate? 2) How can regional governance systems for water and land use be made more resilient and adaptive to meet diverse human needs? 3) In what ways are regional human-environment systems resilient and in what ways are they vulnerable to potential changes in climate and water resources? A comprehensive program of model experiments and biophysical measurements will be utilized to evaluate changes in five freshwater ecosystem services (flood regulation, groundwater recharge, surface water quality, groundwater quality, and lake recreation) and five related ecosystem services (food crop yields, bioenergy crop yields, carbon storage in soil, albedo, and terrestrial recreation). Novel additions to existing biophysical models will allow us to simulate all components of the hydrological cycle as well as agricultural productivity, nitrogen and phosphorus transport, and lake water quality. The integrated model will be validated using a comprehensive observational database that includes soil moisture, evapotranspiration, stomatal conductance, streamflow, stream and lake water quality, and crop yields and productivity. Integrated scenarios will be developed to synthesize decision-maker perspectives, alternative approaches to resource governance, plausible trends in demographic and economic drivers, and model projections under alternate climate and land use regimes to understand future conditions of the watershed and its ecosystem services. The quantitative data and integrated scenarios will then be linked to evaluate governance of water and land use.

Loheide, S. P.; Booth, E. G.; Kucharik, C. J.; Carpenter, S. R.; Gries, C.; Katt-Reinders, E.; Rissman, A. R.; Turner, M. G.

2011-12-01

108

Urban water infrastructure optimization to reduce environmental impacts and costs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urban water planning and policy have been focusing on environmentally benign and economically viable water management. The objective of this study is to develop a mathematical model to integrate and optimize urban water infrastructures for supply-side planning and policy: freshwater resources and treated wastewater are allocated to various water demand categories in order to reduce contaminants in the influents supplied for

Seong-Rin Lim; Sangwon Suh; Jung-Hoon Kim; Hung Suck Park

2010-01-01

109

Urban development partnerships challenges for leadership and management  

E-print Network

'Partnership' is a term which is used very liberally in the context of large scale urban development. Mixed-use, brownfield projects, transit-oriented development, urban regeneration: all these projects require partnerships ...

Khong, Daniel

2011-01-01

110

Impacts of Urbanization in the Coastal Tropical City of San Juan, Puerto Rico  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Urban sprawl in tropical locations is rapidly accelerating and it is more evident in islands where a large percentage of the population resides along the coasts. This paper focuses on the analysis of the impacts of land use and land cover for urbanization in the tropical coastal city of San Juan, in the Caribbean island of Puerto Rico. A mesoscale numerical model, the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS), is used to study the impacts of land use for urbanization in the environment including specific characteristics of the urban heat island in the San Juan Metropolitan Area (SJMA), one of the most noticeable urban cores of the Caribbean. The research also makes use of the observations obtained during the airborne San Juan Atlas Mission. Surface and rawinsonde data from the mission are used to validate the atmospheric model yielding satisfactory results. Airborne high resolution remote sensing data are used to update the model's surface characteristics in order to obtain a more accurate and detailed configuration of the SJMA and perform a climate impact analysis based on land cover/land use (LCLU) changes. The impact analysis showed that the presence of the urban landscape of San Juan has an impact reflected in higher air temperatures over the area occupied by the city, with positive values of up to 2.5 C, for the simulations that have specified urban LCLU indexes in the model's bottom boundary. One interesting result of the impact analysis was the finding of a precipitation disturbance shown as a difference in total accumulated rainfall between the present urban landscape and with a potential natural vegetation, apparently induced by the presence of the urban area. Results indicate that the urban enhanced cloud formation and precipitation development occur mainly downwind of the city, including the accumulated precipitation. This spatial pattern can be explained by the presence of a larger urbanized area in the southwest sector of the city, and of the approaching northeasterly trade winds. No significant impacts were found in the sea breeze patterns of the city.

Comarazamy, Daniel E.; Gonzalez, Jorge E.; Luvall, Jeffrey C.; Rickman, Douglas L.; Mulero, Pedro J.

2007-01-01

111

The compactness of urban areas in Vietnam. Sustainable urban development and local mobility nodes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents significant results of an urban sustainability assessment research into housing policies at the urban planning level in Ho Chi Minh City (HCM City), Vietnam. The objective is to develop an integrated approach to the sustainable development of housing and settlement structures to balance urban growth and redevelopment in HCM City. The aim of this paper is to

Harry Storch; Ronald Eckert; Paul Pfaffenbichler

2008-01-01

112

Urban settlement issues : observations from 181 surveys of urban dwelling environments in developing countries  

E-print Network

Observations and summaries were made on 181 surveys of urban dwelling environments in developing countries, carried out by members of the Urban Settlement Design Program (U.S.D.P.), at MIT. The focus of this study is in ...

Wang, Chih-chien, M.S. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

1982-01-01

113

DISSOLVED OXYGEN IMPACT FROM URBAN STORM RUNOFF  

EPA Science Inventory

The primary objective of the research reported here is to determine if on a national basis a correlation exists between strength of dissolved oxygen (DO) deficits and the presence of rainfall and/or storm runoff downstream of urban areas. A secondary objective is to estimate the ...

114

UN-Habitat: Sustainable Urban Development Network  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The United Nations Human Settlements Programme, or UN-HABITAT, is the organizationââ?¬â?¢s agency for human settlements. The groupââ?¬â?¢s main objective is to ââ?¬Å?promote socially and environmentally sustainable towns and cities with the goal of providing adequate shelter for all.ââ?¬Â More specifically, the Sustainable Urban Development Network, or SUD-NET, works to reduce poverty and encourage the creation and development of ââ?¬Å?livable, productive and inclusive cities.ââ?¬Â Those interested in globalization and urban development worldwide will find much of interest here, including the groupââ?¬â?¢s key activities, thematic focus areas, partnerships, and reports. ââ?¬Å?Cities and Climate Change Initiative,ââ?¬Â a 2009 report, is currently featured on the website, and is available for download as a PDF.

115

Development and validation of the Noah-Urban Canopy Model for two distinct urban climates in the Los Angeles basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Increasing population in urban areas over the last 50 years has elevated the interest in urban climate processes and land-atmosphere interactions. Altered land cover in urban areas has significant impacts on surface properties, including albedo, thermal capacity, heat conductivity and soil moisture. Changes in these properties impact the heat, mass, momentum, and energy budgets of a city and ultimately results in distinct urban climates that include the urban heat island (UHI), urban-induced wind, increased precipitation downwind from urban areas, and air pollution. The focus of this study is on understanding the spatial and temporal patterns in heat and moisture fluxes in semi-arid metropolitan regions. A high resolution modeling framework using the Noah-LSM (Land Surface Model) coupled with an Urban Canopy Model (UCM) is used to simulate surface energy fluxes at a 300-m resolution over two distinct semi-arid metropolises, downtown Los Angeles and Santa Monica, CA. The model is initialized, calibrated and validated using traditional ground-based data and then with a suite of remotely sensed land surface and atmospheric variables. The differences in building type (urban type), land cover, and land surface 'greenness' between these densely urbanized regions are identified and corresponding sensible and latent heat fluxes are compared. Influence of the coastal maritime climate on energy fluxes is also evaluated. Statistical measures are used to evaluate model performance against both traditional ground-based as well as remote sensing products. Surface temperature is evaluated against MODIS and Landsat products as well as traditional ground-based observations. A previously developed high-resolution remotely-sensed evapotranspiration product is also used to validate modeled latent heat fluxes.

Vahmani, P.; Hogue, T. S.; Kim, J.

2011-12-01

116

STORMWATER MANAGEMENT AND LOW IMPACT DEVELOPMENT PRESENTATION DESCRIPTION  

EPA Science Inventory

Low Impact Development (LID) is the general term typically used to characterize a comprehensive array of site planning, design and pollution prevention strategies that when combined create a more economically sustainable and ecologically functional urban landscape. LID uses a dec...

117

The Relationship between Urban Development and Housing Prices in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article analyzes the relationship between urban development and housing prices in China. When comparing data from three recent consecutive years, with some exceptions, the result shows that in general, housing price is determined by urban development in most urban regions. The article summarizes strategies for affordable housing development and housing policy in China, and analyzes the implications of this

XIAOXIAO WANG; MINJIE XU

2009-01-01

118

Planning for Sustainable Urban Development Using Alternative Energy Solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concept of sustainable development has recently generated significant attention within urban governments. What is sustainable development? What aspects of “sustainable development” agendas have implications for urban areas and for planning? Can energy conservation and energy efficiency be tools to implement sustainable activities in urban areas? By what means might they be achieved? There is an active debate concerning the

Stephen A. Roosa

2004-01-01

119

An urban-rural spatial development planning platform using GIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past ten years, the development of urban planning support systems has made remarkable progress, yet most of urban planning support systems based on GIS do not readily fit the changing professional requirements of the urban-rural spatial development planning because they are far too generic, complex, inflexible and incompatible with most spatial development planning tasks. Accordingly, how to effectively

Feng Mao; Wencheng Yu; Wensheng Zhou; Gaohua He

2008-01-01

120

The Impacts of Urbanization on the Spatial Patterns of Alien Plants in Yunnan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urbanization is one of the most concerned trends in the world. But until now, the impacts of urbanization on the spatial patterns of alien plants remain little known. In this paper, the impacts of urbanization on the spatial patterns of alien plants in Yunnan were investigated. The results indicated that urban population, transportation mileage and their density all significantly correlated

Feng Jianmeng; Xu Chengdong

2011-01-01

121

Urbanization impacts on severe weather dynamical processes and climatology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rainfall changes are a complex manifestation of multi-scale processes that are influenced by both natural and anthropogenic activities. This dissertation focuses on understanding the relationship between rainfall climatology and urbanization. Even though there is a long-term increase in the rainfall amounts under a global warming background, the land use / land cover change can also be an additional factor contributing to regional climate change. This research study investigates the urbanization effect on rainfall at regional scales: (i) Multidecadal large scale: by investigating the eastern US urban rainfall climatology from 1958-2008; (ii) Decadal mesoscale summer-time thunderstorm climatology over central Indiana from 2000- 2009, and high resolution model studies for representative thunderstorms. For the multi-decadal rainfall climatology over eastern US, we examined the relationship between rainfall characteristics and urbanization by analyzing data from 4593 surface stations over the last 50 years (1958-2008), Parameter-elevation Regressions on Independent Slopes Model (PRISM) data in last two decades, North America Regional Reanalysis (NARR) winds, and a proxy for urbanization through gridded human population data. Results indicate that the summer monthly rainfall amount shows an increasing trend under the influence of urbanization changes. The frequency of heavy rainfall events shows a preferential positive bias towards urbanized regions. Most notably, consistent with case studies for individual cities, the frequency of rainfall amounts downwind of urban-rural boundaries shows a climatologically increasing trend. Analysis of heavy (top 2 percentile) and extreme (top 0.5 percentile) rainfall events indicates decreasing trends of heavy (top 10 percentile) rainfall event frequency and possible increasing trends of extreme rainfall event frequency over urban areas. Spatially the urbanization impact on rainfall was more pronounced in the North and the Central US with an increase in rainfall amounts, while the southern region showed mixed results. For the mesoscale thunderstorm climatology, we used both subjective and objective methods to analyze the summertime thunderstorm behavior over Indianapolis from 2000 to 2009. Results indicate that the intensity of thunderstorm is relatively lower over urban center and higher over upwind and downwind direction. Observations indicate that thunderstorm often split into smaller cells over the urban region and reintensify as larger, merged cells downwind. This splitting or morphology change in the thunderstorm characteristics was noted for nearly 30% of the daytime storms, with a bias for daytime cold fronts. Mesoscale model studies suggest that the urban-rural heterogeneity aids the formation of a mesoscale convergence zone which can alter the thunderstorm characteristics. Overall, this study highlights the important role of land use /land cover and urbanization for understanding the mesoscale rainfall changes as part of regional climate change.

Lei, Ming

122

Evaluation of the impact of the surrounding urban morphology on building energy consumption  

SciTech Connect

Empirical models of minimum (T{sub min}), average (T{sub avg}) and maximum (T{sub max}) air temperature for Singapore estate have been developed and validated based on a long-tem field measurement. There are three major urban elements, which influence the urban temperature at the local scale. Essentially, they are buildings, greenery and pavement. Other related parameters identified for the study, such as green plot ratio (GnPR), sky view factor (SVF), surrounding building density, the wall surface area, pavement area, albedo are also evaluated to give a better understanding on the likely impact of the modified urban morphology on energy consumption. The objective of this research is to assess and to compare how the air temperature variation of urban condition can affect the building energy consumption in tropical climate of Singapore. In order to achieve this goal, a series of numerical calculation and building simulation are utilized. A total of 32 cases, considering different urban morphologies, are identified and evaluated to give better a understanding on the implication of urban forms, with the reference to the effect of varying density, height and greenery density. The results show that GnPR, which related to the present of greenery, have the most significant impact on the energy consumption by reducing the temperature by up to 2 C. The results also strongly indicate an energy saving of 4.5% if the urban elements are addressed effectively. (author)

Wong, Nyuk Hien; Chen, Yixing; Hajadi, Norwin; Sathyanarayanan, Haripriya; Manickavasagam, Yamini Vidya [Department of Building, National University of Singapore (Singapore); Jusuf, Steve Kardinal [Center for Sustainable Asian Cities, National University of Singapore (Singapore); Syafii, Nedyomukti Imam [Institute of High Performance Computing (Singapore)

2011-01-15

123

The College and Community Development. A Socioeconomic Analysis for Urban and Regional Growth.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Colleges established in urban and rural areas can aid in community and regional development. The purpose of this study is twofold: first, to describe the social and economic impact of the college on various communities, and second, to predict institution-related inputs that are basic to this impact. Important factors in community development…

Laub, Julian Martin

124

Impacts of Urbanization on Indian Summer Monsoon Rainfall  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rapid urbanisation all around the world is a matter of concern to the scientific community. The fast growing urban areas carries out huge anthropogenic activities that burdens natural environment and its resources like air-water quality and space, thus have different climatology to their rural surroundings. World Urbanization Prospects 2005 annual report described 20th century as witnessing a rapid urbanization of the world's population. Though urbanization is a worldwide phenomenon, it is especially prevalent in India, where urban areas have experienced an unprecedented rate of growth with level of urbanization increased from 17.23 % to 31.16% in year 1951 to 2011and the number of cities with population more than one million has grown from 5 to 53 over the same time. We take up an observational study to understand influence of urbanisation on mesoscale circulations and resulting convection, thus nature of precipitation around urban areas. The spatially distributed analysis of gridded daily precipitation data over the country is carried out to identify nature of trends in selected statistics of Indian summer monsoon precipitation and examine its association with urban land cover to have an impact on precipitation statistics. We evaluate explicit changes around urban land use in context of 40 large Indian urban areas. Further we assess local-urban climatic signals in the point level rainfall observations with model based analysis of two nearby locations under similar climatic conditions but differing largely in terms of urbanisation. The results of gridded data analysis indicate an overall tendency towards decrease in mean precipitation however, rainfall activities are enhanced around urban areas across different climate zones of the country. Though trends observed in selected climatic parameters revealed great degree of spatial inter variability in selected precipitation statistics over the country, they accounts a greater degree of inclination for occurrence under regions of urban influence. Examination of urbanization influence on heavy rainfall climatology carried out through point scale experiment with statistical framework of quantile based regression for the most populated city of India Mumbai, in pair with a nearby non-urban area Alibaug also point toward sensitivity of extreme rainfall events to the local land use under urbanisation. Overall the study indicate influence of urbanisation over amendments in conventional regional rainfall pattern to a convinced extent and illustrate that even if only a small percentage of land covers urban areas they may play a key role to alter the hydrology at local and regional scales. The study highlights need of further investigation in terms of quantifying the impact and estimation of associated uncertainties in form of detailed theoretical and numerical studies for India to more clearly highlight the role that urbanisation plays in precipitation enhancement of Indian monsoon rainfall in order to make better assessment of urban planning, water resources management and urban flooding.

Shastri, H. K.; Ghosh, S.; Karmakar, S.

2013-12-01

125

Evaluation of urban sprawl and urban landscape pattern in a rapidly developing region.  

PubMed

Urban sprawl is a worldwide phenomenon happening particularly in rapidly developing regions. A study on the spatiotemporal characteristics of urban sprawl and urban pattern is useful for the sustainable management of land management and urban land planning. The present research explores the spatiotemporal dynamics of urban sprawl in the context of a rapid urbanization process in a booming economic region of southern China from 1979 to 2005. Three urban sprawl types are distinguished by analyzing overlaid urban area maps of two adjacent study years which originated from the interpretation of remote sensed images and vector land use maps. Landscape metrics are used to analyze the spatiotemporal pattern of urban sprawl for each study period. Study results show that urban areas have expanded dramatically, and the spatiotemporal landscape pattern configured by the three sprawl types changed obviously. The different sprawl type patterns in five study periods have transformed significantly, with their proportions altered both in terms of quantity and of location. The present research proves that urban sprawl quantification and pattern analysis can provide a clear perspective of the urbanization process during a long time period. Particularly, the present study on urban sprawl and sprawl patterns can be used by land use and urban planners. PMID:22095203

Lv, Zhi-Qiang; Dai, Fu-Qiang; Sun, Cheng

2012-10-01

126

Urban, Regional and Global Impacts of Biomass Burning Emissions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biomass burning is a major regional and global driver for atmospheric composition. Its effects in regional and global climate are very significant, but still difficult to assess. Even in large urban areas in Latin America such as Mexico City, Sao Paulo and Santiago, and in developed areas such as Paris and Californian cities it is possible to observe significant biomass burning effects air quality. The wood burning components as well as inner city and vicinities burning if agricultural residues impact heavily the concentration of organic aerosol, carbon monoxide and ozone in urban areas. Regionally, regions such as Amazonia and Central America show large plumes of smoke that extend their impact over continental areas, with changes in the radiation balance, air quality and climate. The deforestation rate in Amazonia have dropped strongly from 27,000 Km2 in 2004 to 6,200 Km2 in 2011, a very significant reduction, but this reduction was not observed in Africa and Southeast Asia. Health effects of biomass burning emissions are very significant, and observed in several key regions. Remote sensing techniques for fire detection have progressed significantly and long time series (10-15 years) are now feasible. The black carbon associated with biomass burning has important impacts in formation and development of clouds in Amazonia and other regions. The organic component of biomass burning emissions scatter light and increase diffuse radiation that alters carbon uptake in large regions of Amazonia and certainly other forested areas. Increase of up to 30% in carbon uptake associated with biomass burning emissions was observed in Amazonia, as part of the LBA Experiment. New analytical methods that quantify the absorption angstrom exponent of biomass burning and fossil fuel black carbon (BC) can differentiate BC from different burning sources. In addition, the hygroscopic properties of particles with a core shell of BC coated with organic compounds can be measured and shows very significant cloud nucleation properties of these complex particles that can change cloud formation and development mechanisms. Recent papers on the radiative forcing of black carbon estimate that BC can have a very high positive forcing of +0.5 watts/m2, and at the same time the organic compounds associated with BC emissions can bring the total radiative forcing to zero. This would imply that policies to reduce BC emissions as a strategy to quickly reduce global warming could not be that much effective. BC continues to be a critically important global driver of climate change, but its effects are still quite unknown.

Artaxo, P.; Ferreira De Brito, J.; Barbosa, H. M.; Rizzo, L. V.; Setzer, A.; Cirino, G.

2013-05-01

127

Development of Prototype UrbanSim Models Zachary Patterson  

E-print Network

. This reputation makes many potential users think twice before developing an UrbanSim model. We believe the onlyDevelopment of Prototype UrbanSim Models Zachary Patterson Michel Bierlaire 18 August 2008 Report Engineering Ecole Polytechnique F´ed´erale de Lausanne transp-or.epfl.ch Abstract UrbanSim is an integrated

Bierlaire, Michel

128

Slums and Urban Development: Questions on Society and Globalisation  

E-print Network

is not only a manifestation of mismanaged urban planning in the countries of the South. The existence of slums of material, natural and socio-economic indicators on developing countries, spatial and demographic urbanSlums and Urban Development: Questions on Society and Globalisation JEAN-CLAUDE BOLAY The slum

129

Stadium development and urban renewal : a look at Washington, DC  

E-print Network

This thesis investigates the factors, related to urban stadium development, that act as a catalyst for subsequent local urban renewal. Over the recent decades there has been substantial debate related to stadium or arena ...

Rizzo, James W. (James Watson)

2008-01-01

130

IMPACT OF URBANIZATION ON THE HYDROLOGY OF THE POCONO CREEK WATERSHED: A MODEL STUDY  

EPA Science Inventory

The Pocono Creek watershed located in Monroe County, PA, is threatened by high population growth and urbanization. Of concern specifically is the potential impact of future developments in the watershed on the reduction of base flow and the consequent risk of degradation of wild ...

131

Social Approaches in Environmental Impact Assessment: Urban Planning for Areas of Environmental Interest  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary This paper presents social impact assessment approaches to evaluate individuals' preferences over planning alternatives for an urban site of environmental interest. Since such projects involve some uncertainty and irreversibility, a special attention is devoted to the estimation of the quasi-option values which are associated to project development. The case study: the Poetto Seafront in Cagliari, Sardinia , Two distinct

Lina Ahmad Hiyari

132

EVALUATION OF URBANIZATION IMPACTS ON HYDROLOGY - LABORATORY AND FIELD APPROACHES  

EPA Science Inventory

Although urbanization has a major impact on watershed hydrology, there have not been many studies to quantify how basic hydrological relationships are altered by the addition of impervious surface under controlled conditions. In addition, few studies have been conducted to quanti...

133

Hindutva Meets Globalization: The Impact on Hindu Urban Media Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the impact of globalization and religious nationalism on the personal and professional lives of urban Hindu middle class media women. The research demonstrates how newly strengthened forces of globalization and Hindutva shape Indian womanhood. The research rests on various data that reveal how Indian women interpret and negotiate constructed identities. The study seeks to give voice to

Monalisa Gangopadhyay

2010-01-01

134

Hindutva meets globalization: The impact on Hindu urban media women  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the impact of globalization and religious nationalism on the personal and professional lives of urban Hindu middle class media women. The research demonstrates how newly strengthened forces of globalization and Hindutva shape Indian womanhood. The research rests on various data that reveal how Indian women interpret and negotiate constructed identities. The study seeks to give voice to

Monalisa Gangopadhyay

2010-01-01

135

Factors Contributing to Urban Heat Island Development: A Global Perspective  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Urban heat islands (UHIs) are the result of the urban core of a city encountering temperatures that are warmer than the surrounding rural areas. Temperature in the urban core can be 2-5°C warmer during the day and as much as 10°C warmer at night compared to outlying areas. This modification of the local climate can contribute to significant health-related impacts during heat waves, increased energy consumption, a decrease in air quality, deteriorating urban ecosystems, and enhancing the thermal pollution into urban water bodies. To understand the mechanisms contributing to the formation of UHIs and to identify sound mitigation strategies requires examining the UHIs of cities around the world to look for factors that enhance or minimize the heat island effect. Numerous factors influence the strength of the UHI, and vary from city to city. Population size and density influence the magnitude and spatial extent of the UHI. The ecosystem in which the city resides affects the rural climatology. Regional weather patterns can also influence the development of UHIs, with the frequency of certain types of weather conducive to the development of strong UHIs. Local geography such as proximity to water bodies and topography can influence UHI development. Cultural and regional influences such as the use of certain types of building materials, architecture, and the density of vegetation can all contribute towards the strength of a city's UHI. To better understand how UHIs develop and to understand the factors that influence them, we have undertaken the Islands in the Sun project, which includes an analysis of the UHIs of the largest cities in the world. In this study we examine how different factors have influenced the structure of the UHI and to identify factors that can mitigate and minimize their impact. Here we present a preliminary analysis of four metropolitan areas: Minneapolis-St. Paul, Buenos Aires, Riyadh, and Jakarta. In this study we investigate how various factors define a city's UHI. The cities presented here include some of the factors that can influence the UHI signal. The magnitude, diurnal and seasonal variability of the UHI is examined in each city through temperature records and satellite imagery. The UHIs are analyzed to assess the influences of the local geography and meteorology, the ecosystem in which the city resides, and the nature of the built environment. Because the Minneapolis-St. Paul region contains numerous water bodies, special emphasis is placed on the impact of its UHI on thermal pollution.

Hertel, W.; Snyder, P. K.; Twine, T. E.

2012-12-01

136

The Impact of Urbanization on the Precipitation Component of the Water Cycle: A New Perspective  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is estimated that by the year 2025, 60% of the world s population will live in cities (UNFP, 1999). As cities continue to grow, urban sprawl (e.g., the expansion of urban surfaces outward into rural surroundings) creates unique problems related to land use, transportation, agriculture, housing, pollution, and development. Urban expansion also has measurable impacts on environmental processes. Urban areas modify boundary layer processes through the creation of an urban heat island (UHI). The literature indicates that the signature of the urban heat island effect may be resolvable in rainfall patterns over and downwind of metropolitan areas. However, a recent U.S. Weather Research Program panel concluded that more observational and modeling research is needed in this area (Dabberdt et al. 2000). NASA and other agencies initiated programs such as the Atlanta Land-use Analysis: Temperature and Air Quality Project (ATLANTA) (Quattrochi et al. 1998) which aimed to identify and understand how urban heat islands impact the environment. However, a comprehensive assessment of the role of urban-induced rainfall in the global water and energy cycle (GWEC) and cycling of freshwater was not a primary focus of these efforts. NASA's Earth Science Enterprise (ESE) seeks to develop a scientific understanding of the Earth system and its response to natural or human-induced changes to enable improved prediction capability for climate, weather, and natural hazards (NASA, 2000). Within this mission, the ESE has three basic thrusts: science research to increase Earth system knowledge; an applications program to transfer science knowledge to practical use in society; and a technology program to enable new, better, and cheaper capabilities for observing the earth. Within this framework, a research program is underway to further address the co-relationship between land cover use and change (e.g. urban development) and its impact on key components of the GWEC (e.g., precipitation). This presentation discusses the feasibility of using the TRMM or GPM satellite to identify precipitation anomalies likely caused by urbanization (Shepherd et al. 2002). Recent results from analyses of TRMM data around several major U.S. cities (e.g. Dallas, Atlanta, Houston) will be discussed. The presentation also summarizes a NASA-funded research effort to investigate the phenomenon of urban-induced precipitation anomalies using TRMM (future GPM) satellite-based remote sensing, an intensive ground observation/validation effort near Atlanta, and coupled atmosphere-land numerical modeling techniques.

Shephard, J. Marshal

2002-01-01

137

The impact of urban growth and long-term climatic variations on the sustainable development of the City of Niamey, Niger  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study uses remote sensing and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) technologies to examine the combine effects of urban expansion and climatic variability on the physical environment in and around the city of Niamey. The results revealed a notable increase in the built up areas in the city between 1973 and 2001.While the city's population was increasing, prime agricultural lands were

Yaw A. Twumasi; Andrew Manu; Tommy L. Coleman; I. A. Maiga

2005-01-01

138

Assessing the impact of urbanization on regional net primary productivity in Jiangyin County, China.  

PubMed

Urbanization is one of the most important aspects of global change. The process of urbanization has a significant impact on the terrestrial ecosystem carbon cycle. The Yangtze Delta region has one of the highest rates of urbanization in China. In this study, carried out in Jiangyin County as a representative region within the Yangtze Delta, land use and land cover changes were estimated using Landsat TM and ETM+ imagery. With these satellite data and the BEPS process model (Boreal Ecosystem Productivity Simulator), the impacts of urbanization on regional net primary productivity (NPP) and annual net primary production were assessed for 1991 and 2002. Landsat-based land cover maps in 1991 and 2002 showed that urban development encroached large areas of cropland and forest. Expansion of residential areas and reduction of vegetated areas were the major forms of land transformation in Jiangyin County during this period. Mean NPP of the total area decreased from 818 to 699 gCm(-2)yr(-1) during the period of 1991 to 2002. NPP of cropland was only reduced by 2.7% while forest NPP was reduced by 9.3%. Regional annual primary production decreased from 808 GgC in 1991 to 691 GgC in 2002, a reduction of 14.5%. Land cover changes reduced regional NPP directly, and the increasing intensity and frequency of human-induced disturbance in the urbanized areas could be the main reason for the decrease in forest NPP. PMID:17234324

Xu, C; Liu, M; An, S; Chen, J M; Yan, P

2007-11-01

139

An IHS-based change detection approach for assessment of urban expansion impact on arable land loss in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

China is experiencing a drastic loss of arable land as a result of the continuing process of rapid urbanization. This loss could have an adverse impact not only on China's sustainable development but also on the world food market. To provide a robust and economical tool for evaluating the impact of this process, we developed an IHS (Intensity, Hue, Saturation)-based

Zhijun Chen; Jin Chen; Peijun Shi; Masayuki Tamura

2003-01-01

140

Sustainable urban development in Brisbane City--the Holy Grail?  

PubMed

Impacts from urban stormwater runoff on receiving environments have been well documented, particularly through specific regional scientific studies. Using various local government planning and management elements, urban developments in Brisbane City are now able to address stormwater management in an increasingly holistic context. One key initiative includes facilitating Water Sensitive Urban Design (WSUD) components within an Integrated Water Management Strategy that looks at policy formation, planning strategies, design option, community marketing and acceptance, maintenance programs and finally evaluation of various WSUD approaches. These can include the use of Natural Channel Designs, grassed swales, bio-filtration systems, porous pavements and roofwater tanks in several economic combinations. By linking with the Cooperative Research Centre for Catchment Hydrology, Brisbane City Council has influenced the design of WSUD planning tools and benefited the city with academic inputs into extensive evaluation programs. As well, it has also contributed to the Cooperative Research Centre's research outcomes. These evaluation programs are increasingly providing better understanding of various stormwater quality best management practices throughout Australia. As part of the overall implementation process, active involvement by a range of stakeholders has been crucial. These stakeholders have included internal planning, development assessment and design staff, external consultants, developers, and other local and state government agencies. The latter two groups are assisting in the important task of "regionalisation" of Brisbane City Council's policies and guidelines. Implementation of WSUD initiatives and stormwater re-use strategies under Council's new "Integrated Water Management" agenda are showing some excellent results, suggesting that sustainable urban development is no longer like the search for the Holy Grail. PMID:12793664

Rahman, K; Weber, T

2003-01-01

141

The Influence of Google on Urban Policy in Developing Countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

'Google's mission is to organize the world's information and make it universally accessible and useful.' In the case of urban policy in developing countries, Google not only provides information, e.g. the size of a city's population, but also knowledge, e.g. analyses of urban issues and policies. Based on research conducted between January and May 2008, we argue that googling urban

RICHARD TOMLINSON; ANDREA RIZVI; RENE SALINAS; STEFANIE GARRY; JENNIFER PEHR; FRANCISCO RODRIGUEZ

2010-01-01

142

Development of the multi-scale model for urban climate analysis and evaluation of urban greening effects on energy consumption  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is necessary to reduce Greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions drastically to stabilize climate change, and Japan is also required to assess its long-term global warming policy. In achieving the low carbon society and sustainable cities, the numerical evaluation of environmental impacts of the application of different technologies and policies was preliminarily examined by utilizing integrative urban environmental model. This research aims to develop the multi-scale model for urban climate analysis and to evaluate the urban greening effects on energy consumption from household and business sectors. It developed the multi-scale model combined the process-based NIES integrated catchment-based eco-hydrology (NICE) model with the meso-scale meteorological model (Regional Atmospheric Modeling System : RAMS) and urban canopy model to estimate the urban climate mitigation effects by introduction of urban heat environmental mitigation technology and scenario. The numerical simulation conducted with the multi-scale level horizontally consisting regional scale (260×260km with 2km grid) and urban area scale (36×26km with 0.2km grid) against the objective area, Kawasaki city of Japan. The urban canopy model predicts the three dimensional atmospheric conditions including anthropogenic heat effect from household, business and factory sectors. Furthermore the tile method applied into the urban canopy model for the improvement of numerical accuracy and detailed land use information in each grid. The validation of this model was conducted by comparison with the observed air temperature of 29 points in entire Kawasaki area from 1st to 31th of August, 2006. From the quantitative validation of model performance, the coefficient of correlation was 0.72 and the root mean square error was 2.99C. The introduction of patch method into urban canopy model made it possible to calculate the each land use effect, and the accuracy of predicted results was improved against the land use area consisting of mixing urban and natural land covers. The urban greening effect was estimated by comparison with the vertical air temperature difference to derive air-conditioning load change against each building between present condition and urban greening condition. By using this model, it estimated that about 14 MWh/day and 197MWh/day of air conditioning energy consumption energy for the household and business sectors without the effect of building inner load were reduced by introducing the greening regulation of Kawasaki city and ideal maximum greening area during August 2006.

Hamano, H.; Nakayama, T.; Fujita, T.; Hori, H.; Tagami, H.

2009-12-01

143

Migration and its implications for urban development.  

PubMed

Four theoretical concepts frequently found in the migration literature are critically analyzed by applying them to the study of migration and urbanization patterns in Bangladesh. The theoretical concepts considered include the socioeconomic approach, the rural development approach, an approach based on the sexually selective nature of migration flows, and the primary event approach. The restricted validity of these theories for explaining migration patterns in Bangladesh is demonstrated, and a case is made for taking a broader approach to migration analysis. Comments by Jacques Ledent (pp. 82-4), Ingvar Holmberg (pp. 85-8), and Frans J. Willekens (p. 89) are included. PMID:12312867

Choguill, C L

1983-01-01

144

Development at the wildland urban interface and the mitigation of forest-fire risk  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work addresses the impacts of development at the wildland- urban interface on forest fires that spread to human habitats. Catastrophic fires in the western United States and elsewhere make these impacts a matter of urgency for decision makers, scientists, and the general public. Using a simple fire-spread model, along with housing and vegetation data, we show that fire size

Vassilis Spyratos; P. S. Bourgeron; Michael Ghil

2007-01-01

145

Evaluation of the environmental impact of the urban energy lifecycle based on lifecycle assessment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Energy resources have environmental impact through their entire lifecycle. The evaluation of the environmental impacts of the energy lifecycle can contribute to decision making regarding energy management. In this paper, the lifecycle assessment (LCA) method is introduced to calculate the environmental impact loads of different types of energy resources (including coal, oil, natural gas, and electricity) used in urban regions. The scope of LCA includes the production, transportation, and consumption processes. The pollutant emission inventory is listed, and the environmental impact loads are acquired through the calculation of environmental impact potentials, normalization, and weighted assessment. The evaluation method is applied to Beijing, China, revealing that photochemical oxidant formation and acidification are the primary impact factors in the lifecycle of all energy resources and that the total environmental impact load increased steadily from 132.69 million person equivalents (PE) in 1996 to 208.97 million PE in 2010. Among the energy types, coal contributes most to the environmental impact, while the impacts caused by oil, natural gas, and electricity have been growing. The evaluation of the environmental impact of the urban energy lifecycle is useful for regulating energy structures and reducing pollution, which could help achieve sustainable energetic and environmental development.

Chen, Chen; Su, Meirong; Yang, Zhifeng; Liu, Gengyuan

2014-03-01

146

Using MODIS observations to assess the impact of urban growth in semi arid regions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A land use map discriminating urban surfaces from other cover types is developed over a semiarid region in North Africa and used in a land surface model to assess the impact of urbanized land on surface energy, water and carbon balances. Unlike in temperate climates where urbanization creates a marked heat island effect, this effect is not strongly marked in semiarid regions. During summer, the urban class results in an additional warming of 1.45oC during daytime and 0.81oC at night compared to that simulated for needleleaf trees under similar climate conditions. Seasonal temperatures show urban areas warmer than their surrounding during summer and slightly cooler in winter. The hydrological cycle is practically “shut down” during summer and characterized by relatively large amount of runoff in winter. We estimate the annual amount of carbon uptake to 1.94 million metric tons with only 11.9% assimilated during the rainy season. However, if urbanization expands to reach 50% of the total area excluding forests, the annual total carbon uptake will decline by 35% and the July mean temperature would increase only 0.10oC, compared to current situation. In contrast, if urbanization expands to 50% of the total land excluding forests and croplands and all short vegetation is replaced by native broadleaf deciduous trees, the annual carbon uptake would increase 39% and the July mean temperature would decrease by 0.9 oC, compared to current configuration. These results provide guidelines for urban planners and land use managers and indicate possibilities for mitigating the urban heat.

Bounoua, L.; Imhoff, M. L.

2009-12-01

147

Impact of Urban Growth on Surface Climate: A Case Study in Oran, Algeria  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We develop a land use map discriminating urban surfaces from other cover types over a semiarid region in North Africa and use it in a land surface model to assess the impact of urbanized land on surface energy, water and carbon balances. Unlike in temperate climates where urbanization creates a marked heat island effect, this effect is not strongly marked in semiarid regions. During summer, the urban class results in an additional warming of 1.45 C during daytime and 0.81 C at night compared to that simulated for needleleaf trees under similar climate conditions. Seasonal temperatures show urban areas warmer than their surrounding during summer and slightly cooler in winter. The hydrological cycle is practically "shut down" during summer and characterized by relatively large amount of runoff in winter. We estimate the annual amount of carbon uptake to 1.94 million metric tons with only 11.9% assimilated during the rainy season. However, if urbanization expands to reach 50% of the total area excluding forests, the annual total carbon uptake will decline by 35% and the July mean temperature would increase only 0.10 C, compared to current situation. In contrast, if urbanization expands to 50% of the total land excluding forests and croplands but all short vegetation is replaced by native broadleaf deciduous trees, the annual carbon uptake would increase 39% and the July mean temperature would decrease by 0.9 C, compared to current configuration. These results provide guidelines for urban planners and land use managers and indicate possibilities for mitigating the urban heat.

Bounoua, Lahouari; Safia, Abdelmounaine; Masek, Jeffrey; Peters-Lidars, Christaq; Imhoff, Marc L.

2008-01-01

148

Urbanization and warming of Phoenix (Arizona, USA): Impacts, feedbacks and mitigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the impacts, feedbacks, and mitigation of the urban heat island in Phoenix, Arizona (USA). At Sky Harbor Airport, urbanization has increased the nighttime minimum temperature by 5°C and the average daily temperatures by 3.1°C. Urban warming has increased the number of “misery hours per day” for humans, which may have important social consequences. Other impacts include (1)

Lawrence A. Baker; Anthony J. Brazel; Nancy Selover; Chris Martin; Nancy McIntyre; Frederick R. Steiner; Amy Nelson; Laura Musacchio

2002-01-01

149

Modelling the impact of high-rise buildings in urban areas on precipitation initiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact of urban areas upon precipitation distribution has been studied for many years. However, the relative importance of the distribution and type of surface morphology and urban heating remains unclear. A simple model of the surface sensible heat flux is used to explore the impact of urban heterogeneity. Sensitivity experiments are carried out to test the validity of the

M. G. D. Carraça; C. G. Collier

2007-01-01

150

Impact of Urban Growth and Urbanization on the Environmental Degradation of Lakes in Hyderabad City, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lakes are a vital part of urban ecosystems which perform important ecological and environmental functions to safeguard local climate, groundwater and habitat. The incessant population growth coupled with low urban planning is causing severe damage to urban ecosystems throughout the world. Hyderabad is one of the largest growing metropolitan cities of India covering an area of 65000 ha situated on the banks of Musi River in the northern part of the Deccan Plateau. The city had a population of 1.25 million in 1961 which increased to 6.8 million in 2011 with a metropolitan population of 7.75 million, making it India's fourth most populous city and sixth most populous urban agglomeration. Hyderabad is popularly known as 'City of Lakes' which occupies the top position in India in terms of Urban Lakes. In 20th century, the number of lakes were around 925 which are now reduced to 521 and most of these lakes are facing extinction. The water spread area of these lakes has been considerably reduced due to steady urban growth and the carrying capacity and ecological status of these urban lakes are in real danger. Many of these lakes have shrunk in size while the waters of several lakes got polluted with the discharge of untreated domestic and industrial effluents. Taking into consideration the environmental degradation of urban lakes, an attempt was made to study the current status, loss of water bodies and water spread using remote sensing and GIS techniques. Time-series satellite images of MSS, IRS and RESOURCESAT and Survey of India maps of 1:50,000 and 1:25,000 were used for this study. Analysis of these together with other data sets was accomplished through integrated use of ERDAS Imagine Arc view and ArcGIS software packages. It is estimated that there were 925 lakes in 1982 in erstwhile Hyderabad Urban Development Authority (HUDA) area which came down to 521 in 2012. A total number of 404 lakes disappeared during the last 30 years period. Consequently the water spread area of these lakes got reduced from 14005 ha. to 11066 ha. The area covered under water bodies has come down from 21.53 per cent of the geographical area in 1982 to 17.02 per cent in 2012. The decline during 2002-2012 period was severe which can be directly related to the highest urban growth (87.2%) during the same period. The study indicates that, immediate attention be drawn towards conservation and management of these lakes for the protection of urban systems.

Nandan, M. J.; Sen, M. K.; Harini, P.; Sekhar, B. M.; Balaji, T.

2013-12-01

151

Impact of urbanization on water quality and chemical flux in urban streams: implications for management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Contaminant source and biogeochemical processes are altered in urban ecosystems. Given the high impervious cover and altered hydrologic cycle, contaminant mobilization is particularly important during high discharge events. Many urban systems not only receive contaminant loading from stormwater, but also receive sewage contributions from combined sewer overflows (CSOs). Additionally, biogeochemical processes are altered by the changing chemistry and flashier hydrology. Management of contaminant loading often ignores these temporal shifts in speciation as well as the alteration of fate processes within the receiving water body, further compounding the difficult and challenging problem that many municipalities face of assessing ecological impacts. To assess potential changes in loading and chemical speciation we have collected stream water and sediment samples in the Park River sewershed (Hartford, CT) during base flow and events to assess potential for contaminant loading and mobilization. Six events have been collected to date. Trace metal, TSS and DOC concentrations increased with discharge. However, trace metal concentrations and flux values reflected the degree of urbanization and industry present in the watersheds. All samples contained low DOC with the majority of the flux occurring in the particulate phase. Dissolved transport with DOC, particularly for Hg, decreased with urbanization; however, the dominant phase, dissolved versus particulate, varied by storm. The degree of urbanization also increased TN flux as well as the distribution among N chemical species, with urbanized systems increasing in the NOx fraction. The altered watershed processes was also evident in an analysis of dissolved organic matter binding, with stormwater contributions contributing to higher microbial organic matter fractions as determined by EEMs. This shift in DOM quality has been linked to end member source contributions including forest, stormwater and sewage. Particulate fraction collection and analysis during the events have demonstrated the influence of impervious cover on increasing trace metal and mercury flux. However, the association of these metals with these solids compared with forested binding remains uncertain.

Bushey, J. T.; Aragon-jose, A. T.; Perkins, C.; Lancaster, N.; Ulatowski, G.

2012-12-01

152

Evaluation of the impact of planning alternative strategies on urban metabolism with the ACASA model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A crucial point in urban sustainable development is to evaluate the impact that future planning alternatives has on the main factors affecting the citizens liveableness, as the development of the urban heat island or the carbon emissions level. Recent advances in bio-physical sciences have led to new methods and models to estimate energy, water, and carbon fluxes. Also, several studies have addressed urban metabolism issues, but few have integrated the development of numerical tools and methodologies for the analysis of fluxes between a city and its environment with its validation and application in terms of future development alternatives. Over the past several years and most recently within the European Project "BRIDGE", CMCC tested the ACASA (Advanced-Canopy-Atmosphere-Soil Algorithm) land-surface model over agricultural ecosystems (grapes), wild vegetation (forests and Mediterranean maquis), and urban (Florence) or mixed urban/vegetated land (Helsinki). Preliminary results show success in adapting the model to mixed urban systems in each of the main fluxes of interest. The model was improved to adapt it for urban environment, and key parameterizations of leaf-facet scale interactions permit separate accounting of both biogenic and anthropogenic flux sources and sinks, and allow for easy scenario building for simulations designed to test changes in land use or urban planning. In this way, sustainable planning strategies are proposed based on quantitative assessments of energy, water, and carbon fluxes. In this research, three planning alternatives accounting for an increase in urbanization intensity were tested by ACASA in Helsinki (Finland) for the year 2008. Helsinki is located at a high latitude and is characterized by a rapid urbanization that requires a substantial amount of energy for heating. The model behavior for the baseline and alternatives scenarios (i.e., urban classes with low, mid, and high residential intensity) during the entire year was investigated and the model results were compared with in situ Eddy Covariance energy and mass flux measurements. Model sensitivity to land use change and increased population density values was tested individually first. Then, the impact of the three urban classes was evaluated by analyzing energy and mass fluxes produced by combining soil type classes, varying from silty-clay-loam to sand and bedrock, to increased population density values, respectively. Preliminary results are shown and statistical analysis was performed in order to evaluate the model performance for each scenario. From this first analysis, it appeared that ACASA model was able to adequately reproduce the increase in urban heat island and carbon emissions related to rapid urbanization. Also, the model could be used to simulate urban fluxes at both local and regional scale (when coupled to the mesoscale model WRF) and help local administration in planning future sustainable development strategies.

Marras, S.; Casula, M.; Pyles, R. D.; Paw U, K. T.; Spano, D.

2011-12-01

153

Are urban children really healthier? Evidence from 47 developing countries.  

PubMed

On average, child health outcomes are better in urban than in rural areas of developing countries. Understanding the nature and the causes of this rural-urban disparity is essential in contemplating the health consequences of the rapid urbanization taking place throughout the developing world and in targeting resources appropriately to raise population health. Using micro-data on child health taken from the most recent Demographic and Health Surveys for 47 developing countries, the purpose of this paper is threefold. First, we document the magnitude of rural-urban disparities in child nutritional status and under-5 mortality across all 47 developing countries. Second, we adjust these disparities for differences in population characteristics across urban and rural settings. Third, we examine rural-urban differences in the degree of socioeconomic inequality in these health outcomes. The results demonstrate that there are considerable rural-urban differences in mean child health outcomes in the entire developing world. The rural-urban gap in stunting does not entirely mirror the gap in under-5 mortality. The most striking difference between the two is in the Latin American and Caribbean region, where the gap in growth stunting is more than 1.5 times higher than that in mortality. On average, the rural-urban risk ratios of stunting and under-5 mortality fall by, respectively, 53% and 59% after controlling for household wealth. Controlling thereafter for socio-demographic factors reduces the risk ratios by another 22% and 25%. We confirm earlier findings of higher socioeconomic inequality in stunting in urban areas and demonstrate that this also holds for under-5 mortality. In a considerable number of countries, the urban poor actually have higher rates of stunting and mortality than their rural counterparts. The findings imply that there is a need for programs that target the urban poor, and that this is becoming more necessary as the size of the urban population grows. PMID:17698272

Van de Poel, Ellen; O'Donnell, Owen; Van Doorslaer, Eddy

2007-11-01

154

RIVER QUALITY MODEL FOR URBAN STORMWATER IMPACTS  

EPA Science Inventory

A simplified continuous receiving water quality model has been developed as a planning guide to permit preliminary screening of areawide wastewater management strategies. The model simulates the hypothetical response of the stream or tidal river system to the separate and combine...

155

Urban growth and environmental impacts in Jing-Jin-Ji, the Yangtze, River Delta and the Pearl River Delta  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study investigates land cover changes, magnitude and speed of urbanization and evaluates possible impacts on the environment by the concepts of landscape metrics and ecosystem services in China's three largest and most important urban agglomerations: Jing-Jin-Ji, the Yangtze River Delta and the Pearl River Delta. Based on the classifications of six Landsat TM and HJ-1A/B remotely sensed space-borne optical satellite image mosaics with a superior random forest decision tree ensemble classifier, a total increase in urban land of about 28,000 km2 could be detected alongside a simultaneous decrease in natural land cover classes and cropland. Two urbanization indices describing both speed and magnitude of urbanization were derived and ecosystem services were calculated with a valuation scheme adapted to the Chinese market based on the classification results from 1990 and 2010 for the predominant land cover classes affected by urbanization: forest, cropland, wetlands, water and aquaculture. The speed and relative urban growth in Jing-Jin-Ji was highest, followed by the Yangtze River Delta and Pearl River Delta, resulting in a continuously fragmented landscape and substantial decreases in ecosystem service values of approximately 18.5 billion CNY with coastal wetlands and agriculture being the largest contributors. The results indicate both similarities and differences in urban-regional development trends implicating adverse effects on the natural and rural landscape, not only in the rural-urban fringe, but also in the cities' important hinterlands as a result of rapid urbanization in China.

Haas, Jan; Ban, Yifang

2014-08-01

156

Houston Low Impact Development Competition  

E-print Network

Facilities Meador Library, Transtar Parking City of Houston Facilities Kingwood Community Center, Kendall Library Schools HISD Mark Twain Elementary, BISD High School, Rice University Master Planned Community Springwoods Urban Townhouse Residential... Architects HOUSTON/GULF COAST SECTION A i G C HLWSF Steering Committee Those with a ?Vested Interest? in development ? Costs of traditional development are soaring...

Adair, R.

2011-01-01

157

Examining Urban Students' Constructions of a STEM/Career Development Intervention over Time  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using consensual qualitative research, the study examines urban high school students' reactions to a science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) enrichment/career development program, their resources and barriers, their perspectives on the impact of race and gender on their career development, and their overall views of work and their…

Blustein, David L.; Barnett, Michael; Mark, Sheron; Depot, Mark; Lovering, Meghan; Lee, Youjin; Hu, Qin; Kim, James; Backus, Faedra; Dillon-Lieberman, Kristin; DeBay, Dennis

2013-01-01

158

Urban Planning Regulations for Ecologically Sustainable Development (ESD) in Victoria: Beyond Building Controls  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urban development has a significant role to play within the broader context of achieving ecologically sustainable development (ESD). In particular, adverse impacts caused by buildings are a major component of the overall ecological footprints of cities. The Australian state of Victoria does not have statutory planning instruments in which ESD assessment requirements for buildings are embedded, relying on building regulations

Christina Collia; Alan March

2012-01-01

159

Crossing-scale hydrological impacts of urbanization and climate variability in the Greater Chicago Area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper uses past hydrological records in Northeastern Illinois to disentangle the combined effects of urban development and climatic variability at different spatial scales in the Greater Chicago Area. A step increase in annual precipitation occurred in Northeastern Illinois during 1965-1972 according to climate records. Urbanization has occurred as a gradual process over the entire Greater Chicago Area, both before and after the abrupt annual precipitation increase. The analysis of streamflow trends at each gaging station is supplemented by the comparison of the evolution of streamflow indicators in a group of urban and agricultural watersheds, thanks to an original use of the Mann-Whitney test. Results suggest that urban expansion in the Greater Chicago Area has led to widespread increases in a wide variety of streamflow metrics, with the exceptions being spring flows and some of the peak flow indicators. The increases detected in small (<100 km2) urban watersheds are mitigated in large (>200 km2) ones, over which the changes in streamflow are relatively homogeneous. While the impacts of land-use change are identified across a wide range of flow indicators and spatial scales, there are indications that some of these effects are mitigated or made negligible by other factors. For example, while impervious surfaces are found to increase flooding, stormwater management facilities, an adaptation to increased flooding, mitigate their impacts at a wide range of scales. While impervious surfaces are known to reduce infiltration and baseflow, a low flow increase was triggered by water withdrawals from Lake Michigan, as a response to a rising water demand which made on-site groundwater extraction unsustainable. Our analysis thus highlights the impacts of adaptive planning and management of water resources on urban hydrology.

Rougé, Charles; Cai, Ximing

2014-09-01

160

Regional assessment of urban impacts on landcover and open space finds a smart urban growth policy performs little better than business as usual.  

PubMed

Assessment of landscape change is critical for attainment of regional sustainability goals. Urban growth assessments are needed because over half the global population now lives in cities, which impact biodiversity, ecosystem structure and ecological processes. Open space protection is needed to preserve these attributes, and provide the resources humans need. The San Francisco Bay Area, California, is challenged to accommodate a population increase of 3.07 million while maintaining the region's ecosystems and biodiversity. Our analysis of 9275 km² in the Bay Area links historic trends for three measures: urban growth, protected open space, and landcover types over the last 70 years to future 2050 projections of urban growth and open space. Protected open space totaled 348 km² (3.7% of the area) in 1940, and expanded to 2221 km² (20.2%) currently. An additional 1038 km² of protected open space is targeted (35.1%). Urban area historically increased from 396.5 km² to 2239 km² (24.1% of the area). Urban growth during this time mostly occurred at the expense of agricultural landscapes (62.9%) rather than natural vegetation. Smart Growth development has been advanced as a preferred alternative in many planning circles, but we found that it conserved only marginally more open space than Business-as-usual when using an urban growth model to portray policies for future urban growth. Scenarios to 2050 suggest urban development on non-urban lands of 1091, 956, or 179 km², under Business-as-usual, Smart Growth and Infill policy growth scenarios, respectively. The Smart Growth policy converts 88% of natural lands and agriculture used by Business-as-usual, while Infill used only 40% of those lands. Given the historic rate of urban growth, 0.25%/year, and limited space available, the Infill scenario is recommended. While the data may differ, the use of an historic and future framework to track these three variables can be easily applied to other metropolitan areas. PMID:23755204

Thorne, James H; Santos, Maria J; Bjorkman, Jacquelyn H

2013-01-01

161

The Department of Housing and Urban Development and Cooperative Extension: A Case for Urban Collaboration.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

U.S. Department of Agriculture-sponsored cooperative extension systems and university programs offered through the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development may find themselves in collaboration or conflict as both expand urban outreach activities. A case study in Des Moines, Iowa, illustrates how collaboration can occur and redundancy…

Borich, Timothy O.

2001-01-01

162

Urban Migration and Koineization in the Development of the Berlin Urban Vernacular  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The development of the Berlin urban vernacular during the late Early Modern and Industrial Period has been described in the literature in two primary ways: The first describes it as the result of the wholesale adoption of an autochthonous Upper Saxon dialect by a small and mobile urban elite in Berlin, who in turn imparted this newly-acquired…

Ehresmann, Todd M.

2012-01-01

163

Guidelines for urban development in Louisiana's coastal wetlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coastal Louisiana is currently experiencing extensive urban growth as its natural resources are exploited. Such growth is projected to continue for the foreseeable future. This article examines problems encountered in developing wetland areas for community use. The urban development process in the coastal zone is examined using a problem?identification methodology. This methodology consists of examining each of the stages of

Anthony J. Mumphrey Jr; Jane Schleichardt Brooks

1978-01-01

164

Green TODs: marrying transit-oriented development and green urbanism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transit-oriented development (TOD) and green urbanism have gained attention as development models for charting a more sustainable urban future. These two built forms, however, are often dealt with separately, as distinct topics. This paper explores synergies that are created when neighbourhoods are designed as both green and transit-oriented and how ‘Green TOD’ can reduce a project's environmental footprint more than

Robert Cervero; Cathleen Sullivan

2011-01-01

165

Developing sustainability criteria for urban infrastructure systems1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research in the area of sustainable urban infrastructure reflects the need to design and manage engineering systems in light of both environmental and socioeconomic considerations. A principal challenge for the engineer is the development of practical tools for measuring and enhancing the sustainability of urban infrastructure over its life cycle. The present study develops such a framework for the sustainability

Halla R. Sahel; Christopher A. Kennedy; Barry J. Adams

166

Smart Growth and Urban Development Pattern: A Comparative Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article evaluates the efficacy of smart growth instruments in bringing forth compact urban development and neotraditional neighborhood design. The article first sets forth a set of quantitative measures that operationalize five dimensions of compact urban development and neotraditional neighborhood design: street network connectivity, density, land use mix, accessibility, and pedestrian walkability. Using these measures, three study areas are evaluated

Yan Song

2005-01-01

167

A Sensitivity Model (SM) approach to analyze urban development in Taiwan based on sustainability indicators  

SciTech Connect

Sustainability indicators have been widely developed to monitor and assess sustainable development. They are expected to guide political decision-making based on their capability to represent states and trends of development. However, using indicators to assess the sustainability of urban strategies and policies has limitations - as they neither reflect the systemic interactions among them, nor provide normative indications in what direction they should be developed. This paper uses a semi-quantitative systematic model tool (Sensitivity Model Tools, SM) to analyze the role of urban development in Taiwan's sustainability. The results indicate that the natural environment in urban area is one of the most critical components and the urban economic production plays a highly active role in affecting Taiwan's sustainable development. The semi-quantitative simulation model integrates sustainability indicators and urban development policy to provide decision-makers with information about the impacts of their decisions on urban development. The system approach incorporated by this paper can be seen as a necessary, but not sufficient, condition for a sustainability assessment. The participatory process of expert participants for providing judgments on the relations between indicator variables is also discussed.

Huang Shuli [Graduate Institute of Urban Planning, National Taipei University, Taipei, 104 Taiwan (China)], E-mail: shuli@mail.ntpu.edu.tw; Yeh Chiatsung [Graduate Institute of Urban Planning, National Taipei University, Taipei, 104 Taiwan (China)], E-mail: alexyeh@url.com.tw; Budd, William W. [Division of Governmental Studies and Services, Washington State University, PO Box 644870, Troy Hall 310, Pullman, WA 99164-4870 (United States)], E-mail: budd@wsu.edu; Chen Liling [Department of Private Participation in Infrastructures, CECI Engineering Consultants, Inc. Taipei, 106 Taiwan (China)], E-mail: lily@ceci.com.tw

2009-02-15

168

Built cultural heritage and sustainable urban development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current debates about urban sustainability tend to focus on technical issues, such as carbon emissions, energy consumption and waste management, or on the economic aspects of urban regeneration and growth. Increasingly, however, governments recognise the contribution that built cultural heritage makes to the social well-being of different groups living within increasingly cosmopolitan towns and cities. Heritage is seen as a

Christopher Tweed; Margaret Sutherland

2007-01-01

169

Urban waterfront rehabilitation: can it contribute to environmental improvements in the developing world?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper examines urban waterfront rehabilitation as a sustainable development strategy in Chinese cities. Though waterfront rehabilitation is increasingly being employed in developed world cities, the environmental benefits are not always clear. Nonetheless, China, like other developing countries, has shown interest in this strategy, for improving its local water quality, upgrading environmental management, and improving quality of life for urban residents. As developing world cities struggle to break from the traditional model of 'pollute first, clean up later', it is critical that they employ strategies which minimize or remediate environmental impacts while still promoting economic development. This paper analyzes three such projects: the Qinhuai River Environmental Improvement Project in Nanjing, the Suzhou Creek Rehabilitation in Shanghai, and the Wuli Lake Rehabilitation in Wuxi. A critical analysis indicates that these projects have served numerous purposes which contribute to the cities' sustainable development. Though waterways may not be restored to pristine conditions, the incremental improvements appear to be a necessary catalyst for sustainable urban development.

Vollmer, Derek

2009-04-01

170

Simulation of Urbanization Development Using Cellular Automata Model to Inform Urban Planning Policy in Zhangjiagang Region, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the world is becoming increasingly urbanized, there are growing concerns on the urbanization. In this study, a common Cellular Automata (CA) model incorporating macroscaled contribution factors and an innovative acquisition method of the initial state was performed in Zhangjiagang Region to simulate the local urbanization development. Using Land Use Urbanization Level (LUUL) layer and recursive threshold procedure to extract

Qi Yang; Xiaoyu Gan; Jianlong Li; Feng Yang

2009-01-01

171

Evaluating the impact of urban morphology configurations on the accuracy of urban canopy model temperature simulations with MODIS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Simulations of the urban environment contribute to assessments of current and future urban vulnerabilities to extreme heat events. The accuracy of simulations of the urban canopy can be degraded by inaccurate or oversimplified representations of the urban-built environment within models. Using a 10 year (2003-2012) series of offline 1 km simulations over Greater Houston with the High-Resolution Land Data Assimilation System (HRLDAS), this study explores the model accuracy gained by progressively increasing the complexity of the urban morphology representation in an urban canopy model. The fidelity of the simulations is primarily assessed by a spatiotemporally consistent comparison of a newly developed HRLDAS radiative temperature variable with remotely sensed estimates of land surface temperature from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer. The most accurate urban simulations of radiative temperature are yielded from experiments that (1) explicitly specify the urban fraction in each pixel and (2) include irrigation. The former modification yields a gain in accuracy that is larger than for other changes, such as increasing the number of urban land use types. The latter modification (irrigation) substantially reduces simulated temperature biases and increases model precision compared to model configurations that lack irrigation, presumably because watering of lawns, parks, etc. is a common activity that should be represented in urban canopy models (although it is generally not). Ongoing and future efforts to improve urban canopy model simulations may achieve important gains through better representations of urban morphology, as well as processes that affect near-surface energy partitioning within cities, such as irrigation.

Monaghan, Andrew J.; Hu, Leiqiu; Brunsell, Nathaniel A.; Barlage, Michael; Wilhelmi, Olga V.

2014-06-01

172

76 FR 12788 - Environmental Impact Statement for a Proposed Urban Rail system in Austin, TX  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Environmental Impact Statement for a Proposed Urban Rail system in Austin, TX AGENCY: Federal...Statement (EIS) for the proposed Urban Rail system in Austin, Texas. The EIS will...described more completely within, is an Urban Rail System, similar to Streetcar, that...

2011-03-08

173

The Integrated WRF/Urban Modeling System: Development, Evaluation, and Applications to Urban Environmental Problems  

EPA Science Inventory

To bridge the gaps between traditional mesoscale modelling and microscale modelling, the National Center for Atmospheric Research, in collaboration with other agencies and research groups, has developed an integrated urban modelling system coupled to the weather research and fore...

174

Impacts of rainfall weather on urban traffic in beijing: analysis and modeling  

E-print Network

Recently an increasing number of researches have been focused on the influence of rainfall intensity on traffic flow. Conclusions have been reached that inclement weather does have negative impacts on key traffic parameters. However, due to lack of data, limited work has been implemented in China. In this paper, the impacts of rainfall intensity on urban road traffic flow characteristics are quantified, based on the historical traffic data and weather data in Beijing, capital of China. The reductions of road capacity and operating speed are obtained by statistical estimation for different rainfall intensity categories against clear weather. Then the modified speed-density function and speed-flow function are calibrated at different rainfall levels, from which the reductions of free-flow speed can be calculated. Finally, a generalized continuous speed-flow-rainfall model is developed and calibrated. The validation results show a good accuracy, indicating the new model can be used for urban traffic management u...

Jia, Yuhan; Du, Yiman; Qi, Geqi

2014-01-01

175

Forest bird communities across a gradient of urban development  

E-print Network

Forest bird communities across a gradient of urban development Emily Minor & Dean Urban # Springer Science + Business Media, LLC 2009 Abstract This study examined native bird communities in forest patches the effects of landscape context, roads, traffic noise, and vegetation characteristics on bird community

Illinois at Chicago, University of

176

Continued Effort and Success: An Urban Professional School Development Program  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The PDS partnership between the Cleveland State University Master of Urban Secondary Teaching (MUST) program and the Cleveland School of Science and Medicine (CSSM) has an established history of preparing educators to teach in urban schools. Recently awarded the NAPDS Award for Exemplary Professional Development School Achievement, this…

Corrigan, Diane G.; Weber, Edward J.; Francis, Kiffany

2013-01-01

177

The Urban Education Network: Documentation and Commentary on Its Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report presents descriptive and evaluative materials on the development of the Urban Education Network, an organization that joined 20 school districts, 11 state departments of education, and the Central Midwestern Regional Educational Lab (CEMREL), for the purpose of improving urban education. Part I of the report written by Kenneth Pickens…

Pickens, Kenneth R.; And Others

178

Resilience Development of Preservice Teachers in Urban Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Retention of teachers in urban schools continues to plague public schools. Could universities increase the likelihood that teachers will stay in urban schools longer by preparing them for some of the adversities they may face and helping them develop resilience in relation to these challenges? Could we produce resilient educators before they…

Roselle, Rene

2007-01-01

179

Workshop Report On Sustainable Urban Development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The key workshop goal was to explore and document how NASA technologies, such as remote sensing, climate modeling, and high-end computing and visualization along with NASA assets such as Earth Observing Satellites (EOS) and Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) can contribute to creating and managing a sustainable urban environment. The focus was on the greater Bay Area, but many aspects of the workshop were applicable to urban management at the local, regional and global scales. A secondary goal was to help NASA better understand the problems facing urban managers and to make city leaders in the Bay Area more aware of NASA's capabilities. By bringing members of these two groups together we hope to see the beginnings of new collaborations between NASA and those faced with instituting sustainable urban management in Bay Area cities.

Langhoff, Stephanie; Martin, Gary; Barone, Larry; Wagener, Wolfgang

2010-01-01

180

1. INTRODUCTION Urbanization is occurring rapidly in semi-arid areas and has far reaching, but largely unquantified, impacts on the water budget of cities. Urbanization  

E-print Network

of an engineered urban ecosystem. Thus, to establish the effects of urbanization and future climate stressors, but largely unquantified, impacts on the water budget of cities. Urbanization affects the partitioning to pre-urbanized conditions (Figure 1). These effects are most dramatic in arid cities. Modifications

Hall, Sharon J.

181

Cities Online: Urban Development and the Internet  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These two reports focus on the role the Internet is playing in the mission of US institutions. The first, from Darrell M. West, Brown University, updates his report for 2000 (discussed in the September 22, 2000 Scout Report) on the electronic delivery of government information and services. The 23-page report looks at the functionality and accessibility of state and government Websites, progress made from last year, and differences among the states. In general, the project found that e-government has made progress in the past year, but privacy, security, and accessibility are still troubled areas. The second report, from the Pew Internet Project (PIP), focuses more closely on community development organizations and their relationship to the Internet. PIP looks at five cities -- Austin, Texas; Cleveland, Ohio; Nashville, Tennessee; Portland, Oregon; and Washington, DC -- and the ways that institutions in these cities are using the Internet to accomplish their goals. In particular, "this research asks whether the Internet is serving as a catalyst to change the 'rules of the game' that shape social capital -- the informal norms and customs that grease the wheels of urban life." Users may download the 66-page report in .pdf format or read it online.

2001-01-01

182

Impact of urbanization and tourism on coastal environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Turkey has been affected by urbanization like other Mediterranean countries since its very first years of development, with a rate increasing from 18.5% in 1950 to about 62% after 2000 (?stanbul ve Göç Konferans? Bildiri Kitab?, Bo?aziçi ve Mimar Sinan Üniversitesi, 1995, p.1.). Cities with already inadequate infrastructure facilities have to face congested population problems coupled with illegal settlements due

S. Burak

2004-01-01

183

The CLUVA project: Climate-change scenarios and their impact on urban areas in Africa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

CLUVA (CLimate change and Urban Vulnerability in Africa; http://www.cluva.eu/) is a 3 years project, funded by the European Commission in 2010. Its main objective is the estimate of the impacts of climate changes in the next 40 years at urban scale in Africa. The mission of CLUVA is to develop methods and knowledge to assess risks cascading from climate-changes. It downscales IPCC climate projections to evaluate threats to selected African test cities; mainly floods, sea-level rise, droughts, heat waves and desertification. The project evaluates and links: social vulnerability; vulnerability of in-town ecosystems and urban-rural interfaces; vulnerability of urban built environment and lifelines; and related institutional and governance dimensions of adaptation. A multi-scale and multi-disciplinary quantitative, probabilistic, modelling is applied. CLUVA brings together climate experts, risk management experts, urban planners and social scientists with their African counterparts in an integrated research effort focusing on the improvement of the capacity of scientific institutions, local councils and civil society to cope with climate change. The CLUVA approach was set-up in the first year of the project and developed as follows: an ensemble of eight global projections of climate changes is produced for east and west Africa until 2050 considering the new IPCC (International Panel on Climate Changes; http://www.ipcc.ch/) scenarios. These are then downscaled to urban level, where territorial modeling is required to compute hazard effects on the vulnerable physical system (urban ecosystems, informal settlements, lifelines such as transportation and sewer networks) as well as on the social context, in defined time frames, and risk analysis is then employed to assess expected consequences. An investigation of the existing urban planning and governance systems and its interface with climate risks is performed. With the aid of the African partners, the developed approach is currently being applied to selected African case studies: Addis Ababa - Ethiopia; Dar es Salaam - Tanzania, Douala - Cameroun; Ouagadougou - Burkina Faso, St. Louis - Senegal. The poster will illustrate the CLUVA's framework to assess climate-change-related risks at an urban scale in Africa, and will report on the progresses of selected case studies to demonstrate feasibility of a multi-scale and multi-risk quantitative approach for risk management.

Di Ruocco, Angela; Weets, Guy; Gasparini, Paolo; Jørgensen, Gertrud; Lindley, Sarah; Pauleit, Stephan; Vahed, Anwar; Schiano, Pasquale; Kabisch, Sigrun; Vedeld, Trond; Coly, Adrien; Tonye, Emmanuel; Touré, Hamidou; Kombe, Wilbard; Yeshitela, Kumelachew

2013-04-01

184

Impacts of urbanization on the hazard, vulnerability and risk of pluvial disaster  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The design capacity of an urban drainage system is often smaller than that of a fluvial protection facility such as levee. Many metropolises located in lowlands suffer pluvial inundation disaster more than pluvial flood disaster. For improving mitigation strategies, flood risk assessment is an important tool of non-structure flood control measures, especially in the countries suffering tropical cyclones and monsoon with high frequency. Locating in the hot zone of typhoon tracks in the Western Pacific, Taiwan suffers three to five typhoons annually. As results of urbanization in Taiwan, heavy rainfalls cause inundation disaster rising with the increase of population and the demand of land development. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the impacts of urbanization on the hazard, vulnerability and risk of pluvial disaster. This study applies the concept that risk is composed by hazard and vulnerability to assess the flood risk of human life. Two-dimensional overland-flow simulation is performed based on a design extreme rainfall event to calculate the score of pluvial hazard factors for human life, including flood depth, velocity and rising ratio. The score of pluvial vulnerability for human life is carried out according to the factors of resident and environment. The risk matrix is applied to show the risk by composing the inundation hazards and vulnerabilities. Additionally, flood simulations performed are concerned with different stages of drainage channel construction that indicates the progress of the pluvial disaster mitigation for evaluating the impacts of urbanization on inundation hazard. The changes of land use and density of population are concerned with the impacts of urbanization on inundation vulnerability. The Tainan City, one of the earliest cities on Taiwan, is selected as the case study because serious flooding was induced by Typhoon Morakot in 2009. Typhoon Morakot carried intense rain moved from the east slowly as low as 4 km/hr while the southwest monsoon also entered this region at the same time. The combined effect of these was that in the mid-area between typhoon and southwest monsoon, a sharp air-pressure gradient was built which unpredictably brought about heavy rainfall for about 72 hours in the study area to produce a record-breaking rainfall of 625mm in 48 hours. Through the assessing the impacts of urbanization on pluvial inundation risk of the Tainan City in the Typhoon Morakot event, the results show that the inundation hazard is decreased and the vulnerability is increased due to urbanization. Finally, the pluvial inundation risk maps for human life can provide useful information for setting mitigation strategies of flood inundation.

Pan, T.-Y.; Chang, T.-J.; Lai, J.-S.; Chang, H.-K.

2012-04-01

185

The impact of meteorological parameters on urban air quality  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Previous studies have shown that global climate change will have a significant impact on both regional and urban air quality. As air temperatures continue to rise and mid-latitude cyclone frequencies decrease, the overall air quality is expected to degrade. Climate models are currently predicting an increased frequency of record setting heat and drought for Oklahoma during the summer months. A statistical analysis was thus performed on ozone and meteorological data to evaluate the potential effect of increasing surface temperatures and stagnation patterns on urban air quality in the Oklahoma City Metropolitan area. Compared to the climatological normal, the years 2011 and 2012 were exceptionally warm and dry, and were therefore used as case study years for determining the impact of hot, dry conditions on air quality. These results were then compared to cooler, wetter summers to show how urban air quality is affected by a change in meteorological parameters. It was found that an increase in summertime heat and a decrease in summertime precipitation will lead to a substantial increase in both the minimum and maximum ozone concentrations as well as an increase in the total number of exceedance days. During the hotter, drier years, the number of days with ozone concentrations above the legal regulatory limit increased nearly threefold. The length of time in which humans and crops are exposed to these unsafe levels was also doubled. Furthermore, a significant increase was noted in the overnight minimum ozone concentrations. This in turn can lead to significant, adverse affects on both health and agriculture statewide.

Ramsey, Nicole R.; Klein, Petra M.; Moore, Berrien

2014-04-01

186

Impact of Stream Channel Urbanization on Dissolved Oxygen Concentrations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dissolved oxygen concentration in freshwater streams is an important regulator of ecosystem processes and indicator of stream health. This study attempts to investigate the impacts of urbanization and temperature on dissolved oxygen fluctuations in streams. Field measurements, laboratory experiments, and analysis of diurnal cycles of dissolved oxygen are evaluated in eight streams of the Baltimore and Anacostia watersheds along an urban to rural gradient. Temperature and dissolved oxygen measurements were taken from 8 long-term monitoring sites (5 Baltimore Long Term Ecological Research sites and 3 Anacostia branch sites monitored by the U.S. Geological Survey) in order to characterize fluctuations in dissolved oxygen influenced by changes in land use and temperature. Laboratory experiments investigating changes in 5-day biochemical oxygen demand across 3 different temperatures (4, 15, and 20 degrees Celsius) across land use were conducted using a temperature controlled incubator. Biochemical oxygen demand typically increased with increasing temperature and varied with land use. There were strong relationships between routine dissolved oxygen and temperature seasonally in streams of the Baltimore Long-Term Ecological Research site and Anacostia watershed. Land use and temperature may influence biochemical oxygen demand in streams and impact seasonal dynamics of dissolved oxygen.

Van Orden, E. T.

2011-12-01

187

Article Urban and Peri-Urban Agriculture in Developing Countries Studied using Remote Sensing and In Situ Methods  

E-print Network

Abstract: Urban farming, practiced by about 800 million people globally, has contributed significantly to food security and food safety. The practice has sustained livelihood of the urban and peri-urban low income dwellers in developing countries for many years. Its popularity among the urban low income is largely due to lack of formal jobs and as a means of adding up to household income. There is increasing need to sustainably manage urban farming in developing nations in recent times. Population increase due to rural-urban migration and natural, coupled with infrastructure developments are competing with urban farming for available space and scarce resources such as water for irrigation. Lack of reliable data on the extent of urban/peri-urban areas being used for farming has affected developing sustainable policies to manage urban farming in Accra. Using ground based survey methods to map the urban farmlands are inherently problematic and prohibitively expensive. This has influenced accurate assessment of the future role of urban farming in enhancing food security. Remote sensing, however, allows areas being used as urban farmlands to be rapidly established at relatively low cost. This paper will review advances in the use of remote sensing technology to develop an integrated monitoring technique for urban farmlands in Accra.

unknown authors

2010-01-01

188

ECOLOGICAL SUSTAINABILITY IN RAPIDLY URBANIZING WATERSHEDS: EVALUATING STRATEGIES DESIGNED TO MITIGATE IMPACTS ON STREAM ECOSYSTEMS  

EPA Science Inventory

Urbanization has profound impacts on the hydrology and ecology of streams via alteration in water temperatures, peak and base flows, and nutrient, sediment, and contaminant inputs. Storm water management (SWM) is commonly used to reduce these impacts; however, comprehensive w...

189

The Impact of Urban Form and Housing Characteristics on Residential Energy Use  

E-print Network

Cities and their characteristics of energy use play an important role in climate change. While there is abundant research about the impact of energy use on transportation the impact of urban form and housing characteristics on residential energy use...

Kim, Jong Yon

2012-11-29

190

`Perfect ventilation, good sewerage and effective water closets': Urban factors in the development  

E-print Network

`Perfect ventilation, good sewerage and effective water closets': Urban factors in the development sanitation ``Perfect ventilation, good sewerage and effective water closets': Urban factors ventilation, good sewerage and effective water closets': Urban factors in the development of modern nursing

191

Urban Impact Assessment and Adaptation Strategies to Climate Change in Europe: A Case Study for Antwerp, Berlin and Almada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate change is driven by global processes such as the global ocean circulation and its variability over time leading to changing weather patterns on regional scales as well as changes in the severity and occurrence of extreme events such as heat waves. For example, the summer 2003 European heat wave caused up to 70.000 excess deaths over four months in Central and Western Europe. As around 75% of Europe's population resides in urban areas, it is of particular relevance to examine the impact of seasonal to decadal-scale climate variability on urban areas and their populations. This study aims at downscaling the spatially coarse resolution CMIP5 climate predictions to the local urban scale and investigating the relation between heat waves and the urban-rural temperature increment (urban heat island effect). The resulting heat stress effect is not only driven by climatic variables but also impacted by urban morphology. Moreover, the exposure varies significantly with the geographical location. All this information is coupled with relevant socio-economic datasets such as population density, age structure, etc. focussing on human health. The analyses are conducted in the framework of the NACLIM FP7 project funded by the European Commission involving local stakeholders such as the cities of Antwerp (BE), Berlin (DE) and Almada (PT) represented by different climate and urban characteristics. The end-user needs have been consolidated in a climate services plan including the production of heat risk exposure maps and the analysis of various scenarios considering e.g. the uncertainty of the global climate predictions, urban expansion over time and the impact of mitigation measures such as green roofs. The results of this study will allow urban planners and policy makers facing the challenges of climate change and develop sound strategies for the design and management of climate resilient cities.

Stevens, Catherine; Thomas, Bart

2014-05-01

192

Estimating Water Quality Pollution Impacts Based on Economic Loss Models in Urbanization Process  

E-print Network

Estimating Water Quality Pollution Impacts Based on Economic Loss Models in Urbanization Process Abstract: The study investigates water quality pollution impacts on urbanization by analyzing temporal the greatest contributors of surface water quality pollution from 1996 to 2003. High values existed

Yu, Qian

193

Investing (in) equity : how can urban development internalize social cost?  

E-print Network

This thesis recognizes the social costs created by privately driven urban development while also acknowledging cities' fiscal dependence on local property taxes. This study is based on the premise that equitable spatial ...

Xypolia, Aspasia, 1976-

2011-01-01

194

Functional Zoning and Urban Development Tendencies of Bucharest City/Romania  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Any form of urban development policy for environmental management should be based on the differentiation of the structure of a territory that can be found in the shape of functional zoning. Identifying the patterns of morphological structure of the urban space can provide essential clues concerning the proper measures to take into consideration during the activity of urban planning. In this sense, the Bucharest municipality study case provides the example of a dynamic urban space with a complex and distinctive evolutionary structure. The aim of the study is to set out the main events that shaped the Bucharest city space and the patterns resulted from their impact at the functional level of the Romanian capital. In order to identify the development tendencies of the Bucharest municipality, a series of aspects concerning urban morphology should be highlighted that reveal the impact of the socio-economical policies at the structural level of the territory. In this sense, three images of the urban space stand out, representative for the period when they materialized: the Post-Byzantine (XV-XVIII), the Fanariot (XVIII) and the Modern periods (XIX-XX). The corresponding cartographic documents analyzed are: the Franz Purcel Plan (dated 1789), the Romanian Guide Print Plan and, respectively, the AGC Busman Print Plan. The analysis reveals three distinctive morphological types: radial-concentric in the 17th century, polynuclear in the 18th century, leading to the mixed character in the Modern period. The latest trait of the urban territory is based on the concentric character of the street network (three circles were identified at the level of the capital city that point out the evolution of the urban space: Dacia bv-Mircea Vulcanescu, Stefan cel Mare bv-Iancu de Hunedoara and the last circle outlined by the ring road) and the presence of multiple nuclei that accumulate the commercial, administrative and business functions of the city.

Armas, Iuliana; Dumitrascu, Silvia

2010-05-01

195

The urban-rural dimension in national economic development.  

PubMed

Urban growth should be evaluated less as good or bad in itself than in terms of whether it promotes the efficient and equitable performance of vital economic functions within a nation. Much urban growth in developing nations both reflects national growth and promotes it. Cities are sources of economic growth, which is their dominant characteristic. There is a strong tendency for large cities and their surrounding core regions to be the most active, rapidly growing areas of developing nations. Certain economic functions tend to be found only in cities and tend to cluster into certain cities because it is economically efficient. 3 mechanisms which make cities economically efficient are 1) internal economies of scale, 2) localization economies, and 3) agglomeration economies. Urban areas can provide support functions for rural areas and, in turn, their growth depends on the support of an agricultural base. Urban areas also provide alternative employment and income opportunities for the rural surplus population. There are 4 prominent questions often raised about possible negative effects of urbanization on national growth and development. One question is urban growth and urban bias, which the authors argue is overemphasized. Another question is diseconomies of scale in large cities; this, the authors suggest, is not a matter of size as much as operating efficiently. Third is urbanization and regional dualism, which the authors argue can be maintained through a strategy of changing a nation's mix and location of urban activity. Fourth is the question of cities and rural outmigration. The authors argue that although most people who leave rural areas are younger, more motivated, and better educated than those left behind, their departures are economically favorable. Getting economic activity located correctly along an urban-rural spectrum is important to the growth of developing countries. 6 rules that illustrate how to do this are 1) be guided by local circumstances, not theoretical models; 2) promote better management of major urban areas; 3) avoid direct controls on migration and location; 4) understand the reluctance of industry to locate outside core regions; 5) develop secondary cities with an eye to economic eficiency; and 6) be cautious about "new town" developments. The authors conclude that 1) both host governments and those involved in development assistance should realize that urban growth is a natural process; and 2) when they do intervene in the process, they should do so in ways designed to build upon economic forces already at work. PMID:12314419

Egan, M L; Bendick M

1986-01-01

196

The impact of land development regulation on residential tree cover: An empirical evaluation using high-resolution IKONOS imagery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Public sector policies regulating land development can have a major influence on the environmental impacts of urban development, yet few empirical studies have examined the impact of these policies. Our study attempted to address this gap by examining the relationship between a land development code associated with the protection of trees and the extent of urban tree cover on residential

Shawn Landry; Ruiliang Pu

2010-01-01

197

Urban governance in relation to the operation of urban services in developing countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urbanisation has become a powerful force in developing countries and is a development which has taken place quickly and comparatively recently in Asia, Africa and Latin America. However, a review funded by the Ford Foundation, concluded that this phenomenon of urban growth has not been recognised adequately in research and policy, or in the development programmes of international assistance agencies.

Trudy Harpham; Kwasi A. Boateng

1997-01-01

198

Impact of urban growth-driven landuse change on microclimate and extreme precipitation - A sensitivity study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

More than half of the humanity lives in cities and many cities are growing in size at a phenomenal rate. Urbanisation-driven landuse change influences the local hydrometeorological processes, changes the urban micro-climate and sometimes affects the precipitation significantly. Understanding the feedback of urbanisation driven micro-climatic changes on the rainfall process is a timely challenge. In this study we attempt to investigate the impact of urban growth driven landuse change on the changes in the extreme rainfall in and around cities, by means of sensitivity studies. We conduct three sets of controlled numerical experiments using a mesoscale atmospheric model coupled with a land surface model to investigate the hypothesis that the increasing urbanisation causes a significant increase of extreme rainfall values. First we conduct an ensemble of purely idealised simulations where we show that there is a significant increase of high intensity rainfall with the increase of urban landuse. Then four selected extreme rainfall events of different tropical cities were simulated with first current level of urbanisation and then (ideally) expanded urban areas. Three out of the four cases show a significant increase of local extreme rainfall when the urban area is increased. Finally, we conducted a focused study on the city of Mumbai, India: A landscape dynamics model Dinamica-EGO was used to develop a future urban growth scenario based on past trends. The predicted future landuse changes, with current landuse as control, were used as an input to the atmospheric model. The model was integrated for four historical cases which showed that, had these events occurred with the future landuse, the extreme rainfall outcome would have been significantly more severe. An analysis of extreme rainfall showed that hourly 10-year and 50-year rainfall would increase in frequency to 3-year and 22-year respectively.

Pathirana, Assela; Denekew, Hailu B.; Veerbeek, William; Zevenbergen, Chris; Banda, Allan T.

2014-03-01

199

Developing Self-Esteem in urban youth  

Microsoft Academic Search

A group of Black, urban, teenage males from the Central Detroit catchment area were certified through the Comprehensive Employment and Training Act's (CETA) Summer Youth Employment Program to participate in a Youth and Self-Esteem project. The project's objective was to expose the participants to older Black males who have made significant contributions to community. Through research and direct interviews, we

M. B. Susan Sells

1984-01-01

200

Forecasting the combined effects of urbanization and climate change on stream ecosystems: from impacts to management options  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary 1. Streams collect runoff, heat, and sediment from their watersheds, making them highly vulnerable to anthropogenic disturbances such as urbanization and climate change. Forecasting the effects of these disturbances using process-based models is critical to identifying the form and magnitude of likely impacts. Here, we integrate a new biotic model with four previously developed physical models (downscaled climate projections,

Kären C. Nelson; Margaret A. Palmer; James E. Pizzuto; Glenn E. Moglen; Paul L. Angermeier; Robert H. Hilderbrand; Michael Dettinger; Katharine Hayhoe

2009-01-01

201

Joint impact of physical activity and family history on the development of diabetes among urban adults in mainland china: a pooled analysis of community-based prospective cohort studies.  

PubMed

To examine the joint influences of physical activity (PA) and family history (FH) of diabetes on subsequent type 2 diabetes (T2D), the authors pooled and analyzed data from 2 community-based urban adult prospective cohort studies in 2011 in Nanjing, China. Among 4550 urban participants, the 3-year cumulative incidence of T2D was 5.1%. After adjustment for potential confounders, compared with those with FH+ and insufficient PA, the adjusted odds ratio (95% confidence interval) of developing T2D was 0.42 (0.18, 0.98) for participants with sufficient PA and FH+, 0.32 (0.22, 0.46) for participants with insufficient PA and FH-, and 0.15 (0.08, 0.28) for participants with sufficient PA and FH-. Such significant graduated associations between PA/FH and risk of developing T2D were also identified in either men or women, separately. Sufficient PA and FH- may jointly reduce the risk of developing T2D in urban Chinese adults. PMID:22535551

Xu, Fei; Wang, Youfa; Ware, Robert S; Tse, Lap Ah; Wang, Zhiyong; Hong, Xin; Dunstan, David W; Owen, Neville

2015-03-01

202

Impacts of urban transportation mode split on CO{sub 2} emissions in Jinan, China.  

SciTech Connect

As the world's largest developing country, China currently is undergoing rapid urbanization and motorization, which will result in far-reaching impacts on energy and the environment. According to estimates, energy use and carbon emissions in the transportation sector will comprise roughly 30% of total emissions by 2030. Since the late 1990s, transportation-related issues such as energy, consumption, and carbon emissions have become a policy focus in China. To date, most research and policies have centered on vehicle technologies that promote vehicle efficiency and reduced emissions. Limited research exists on the control of greenhouse gases through mode shifts in urban transportation - in particular, through the promotion of public transit. The purpose of this study is to establish a methodology to analyze carbon emissions from the urban transportation sector at the Chinese city level. By using Jinan, the capital of China's Shandong Province, as an example, we have developed an analytical model to simulate energy consumption and carbon emissions based on the number of trips, the transportation mode split, and the trip distance. This model has enabled us to assess the impacts of the transportation mode split on energy consumption and carbon emissions. Furthermore, this paper reviews a set of methods for data collection, estimation, and processing for situations where statistical data are scarce in China. This paper also describes the simulation of three transportation system development scenarios. The results of this study illustrate that if no policy intervention is implemented for the transportation mode split (the business-as-usual (BAU) case), then emissions from Chinese urban transportation systems will quadruple by 2030. However, a dense, mixed land-use pattern, as well as transportation policies that encourage public transportation, would result in the elimination of 1.93 million tons of carbon emissions - approximately 50% of the BAU scenario emissions.

He, D.; Meng, F.; Wang, M.; He, K. (Energy Systems); (Energy Foundation); (Tsinghua Univ.)

2011-04-01

203

Impacts of the impervious surfaces on the water use by urban trees: Hydrogen isotope analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As the urban area is expanding and the populations of cities are growing, the role of urban trees in regulating biogeochemical cycles in urban regions is becoming more important. In particular, impervious surfaces in urban regions greatly disturb water use by trees. Here, we investigate the impacts of the anthropogenic structures on the water use pattern of trees on the Seoul National University campus. We select two types of gingko (Ginko biola L.) : one has been stabilized surrounded by impervious blocks and the other has been grown in natural conditions. To track the source of tree water use, xylem water at stem and soil water at 0-10, 40-50 90-100-cm depth are collected before and after precipitation for all trees. Precipitation is collected just after the rainfall event. Hydrogen isotope ratios of precipitation, soil water and xylem are analyzed to attribute source in tree water use. Finally we discuss the effects of impervious surfaces on root development and water use efficiencies.

Jeong, J.; Ryu, Y.

2013-12-01

204

Health Impacts from Urban Air Pollution in China: The Burden to the Economy and the Benefits of Policy  

E-print Network

Health Impacts from Urban Air Pollution in China: The Burden to the Economy and the Benefits and Policy Program #12;2 #12;Health Impacts from Urban Air Pollution in China: The Burden to the Economy, elevated levels of urban air pollution result in significant adverse health impacts for its large

205

Status of NASA Satellite, Field Observations, and Numerical Modeling Addressing the Impact of Urbanization on Short and Long Term Precipitation Variability  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Howard (1833a) made the first documented observation of a temperature difference between an urban area and its rural environment. Manley (1958) termed this contrast the "urban heat island (UHI)". The UHI has now become a widely acknowledged, observed, and researched phenomenon because of its broad implications. It is estimated that by the year 2025, 60% of the world's population will live in cities (UNFP, 1999). In the United States, the current urban growth rate is approximately 12.5%, with 80% currently living in urban areas. As cities continue to grow, urban sprawl creates unique problems related to land use, transportation, agriculture, housing, pollution, and development for policymakers. Urban expansion and its associated urban heat islands also have measurable impacts on weather and climate processes.

Shepherd, J. Marshall; Manyin, Michael; Burian, Steve; Garza, Carlos

2004-01-01

206

Assessment tools for urban catchments: developing biological indicators based on benthic macroinvertebrates  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Biological indicators, particularly benthic macroinvertebrates, are widely used and effective measures of the impact of urbanization on stream ecosystems. A multimetric biological index of urbanization was developed using a large benthic macroinvertebrate dataset (n = 1,835) from the Baltimore, Maryland, metropolitan area and then validated with datasets from Cleveland, Ohio (n = 79); San Jose, California (n = 85); and a different subset of the Baltimore data (n = 85). The biological metrics used to develop the multimetric index were selected using several criteria and were required to represent ecological attributes of macroinvertebrate assemblages including taxonomic composition and richness (number of taxa in the insect orders of Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera), functional feeding group (number of taxa designated as filterers), and habit (percent of individuals which cling to the substrate). Quantile regression was used to select metrics and characterize the relationship between the final biological index and an urban gradient (composed of population density, road density, and urban land use). Although more complex biological indices exist, this simplified multimetric index showed a consistent relationship between biological indicators and urban conditions (as measured by quantile regression) in three climatic regions of the United States and can serve as an assessment tool for environmental managers to prioritize urban stream sites for restoration and protection.

Purcell, A.H.; Bressler, D.W.; Paul, M.J.; Barbour, M.T.; Rankin, E.T.; Carter, J.L.; Resh, V.H.

2009-01-01

207

Cities of Consumption: The Impact of Corporate Practices on the Health of Urban Populations  

PubMed Central

The increasing concentration of the world’s population in cities and the growing accumulation of political and economic power by corporations create new threats to health and opportunities for improving global health. By considering the intersection of these two fundamental social determinants of well-being, we elucidate some of the mechanisms by which they influence the health of urban populations. After reviewing the changing historical impact of corporations on cities, we focus on the growth of consumption as a leading cause of mortality and morbidity and describe how the food, tobacco, automobile, and other industries promote unhealthy behaviors and lifestyles in urban settings. Cities are also sites for developing alternatives to unhealthy corporate practices, and we assess strategies used to modify practices that harm health. PMID:18437582

Galea, Sandro

2008-01-01

208

The Health of Urban Populations in Developing Countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although our sketch of urban health in developing countries cannot substitute for the full treatment that the issues deserve,\\u000a we hope that at least it may at least suggest the unexploited potential of social epidemiological research to illuminate urban\\u000a health risks and behavior in these countries. The compartmentalization of health research to which we referred at the outset\\u000a is both

Mark R. Montgomery; Alex C. Ezeh

209

Community Violence Exposure and Positive Youth Development in Urban Youth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Youth in urban environments are exposed to community violence, yet some do well and continue on a positive developmental trajectory.\\u000a This study investigated the relationships between lifetime community violence exposure (including total, hearing about, witnessing,\\u000a and victimization), family functioning, and positive youth development (PYD) among 110 urban youth ages 10–16 years (54% female)\\u000a using a paper and pen self-report survey. This

Catherine C. McDonaldJanet; Janet A. Deatrick; Nancy Kassam-Adams; Therese S. Richmond

210

Gulf of Mexico Integrated Science - Tampa Bay Study: Examining the Impact of Urbanization on Seafloor Habitats  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Seafloor habitats, such as seagrass beds, provide essential habitat for fish and marine mammals. For many years, the study of seagrass vitality has been a priority for scientists and resource managers working in Tampa Bay. Seafloor habitats are extremely sensitive to changes in water quality. Like a canary in a coal mine, seagrass can serve as an ecological indicator of estuary health. Between the 1940s and the 1970s, seagrass gradually died in Tampa Bay. This loss has been attributed to a rise in urbanization and an increase in nutrient loading into the bay. Better treatment of industrial wastewater and runoff beginning in the 1980s resulted in the continuous recovery of seagrass beds. However, in the mid-1990s, the recovery began to level off in areas where good water quality was expected to support continued seagrass recovery, demonstrating that nutrient loading may be only one factor impacting seagrass health. Researchers now are trying to determine what might be affecting the recovery of seagrass in these areas. Currently, little is understood about the effects that other aspects of urbanization and natural change, such as groundwater and sediment quality, might have on seagrass vitality. This segment of the Tampa Bay integrated science study is intended to identify, quantify, and develop models that illustrate the impact that urbanization may have on seafloor habitat distribution, health, and restoration.

Yates, Kimberly

2005-01-01

211

Environ. Impact Asses. Rev., Vol. 38, Jan. 2013, p. 35-43. Developing an indicator for the chronic health impact  

E-print Network

by traffic. This indicator must make it possible to compare different situations, for example different UrbanEnviron. Impact Asses. Rev., Vol. 38, Jan. 2013, p. 35-43. Developing an indicator for the chronic of this study is to develop an emission based indicator for the health impact of the air pollution caused

Boyer, Edmond

212

Development of river flood model in lower reach of urbanized river basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Japan, with its natural mountainous landscape, has demographic feature that population is concentrated in lower reach of elevation close to the coast, and therefore flood damage with large socio-economic value tends to occur in low-lying region. Modeling of river flood in such low-lying urbanized river basin is complex due to the following reasons. In upstream it has been experienced urbanization, which changed land covers from natural forest or agricultural fields to residential or industrial area. Hence rate of infiltration and runoff are quite different from natural hydrological settings. In downstream, paved covers and construct of sewerage system in urbanized areas affect direct discharges and it enhances higher and faster flood peak arrival. Also tidal effect from river mouth strongly affects water levels in rivers, which must be taken into account. We develop an integrated river flood model in lower reach of urbanized areas to be able to address above described complex feature, by integrating model components: LSM coupled distributed hydrological model that models anthropogenic influence on river discharges to downstream; urban hydrological model that simulates run off response in urbanized areas; Saint Venant's equation approximated river model that integrates upstream and urban hydrological models with considering tidal effect from downstream. These features are integrated in a common modeling framework so that model interaction can be directly performed. The model is applied to the Tsurumi river basin, urbanized low-lying river basin in Yokohama and model results show that it can simulate water levels in rivers with acceptable model errors. Furthermore the model is able to install miscellaneous water planning constructs, such as runoff reduction pond in urbanized area, flood control field along the river channel, levee, etc. This can be a useful tool to investigate cost performance of hypothetical water management plan against impact of climate change in the region.

Yoshimura, Kouhei; Tajima, Yoshimitsu; Sanuki, Hiroshi; Shibuo, Yoshihiro; Sato, Shinji; Lee, SungAe; Furumai, Hiroaki; Koike, Toshio

2014-05-01

213

Conservation in metropolitan regions: assessing trends and threats of urban development and climate change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two global challenges to successful conservation are urban expansion and climate change. Rapid urban growth threatens biodiversity and associated ecosystem services, while climate change may make currently protected areas unsuitable for species that exist within them. We examined three measures of landscape change for 8800 km2 of the San Francisco Bay metropolitan region over 80 years past and future: urban growth, protected area establishment, and natural vegetation type extents. The Bay Area is a good test bed for conservation assessment of the impacts of temporal and spatial of urban growth and land cover change. The region is geographically rather small, with over 40% of its lands already dedicated to protected park and open space lands, they are well-documented, and, the area has had extensive population growth in the past and is projected to continue to grow. The ten-county region within which our study area is a subset has grown from 1.78 million people in 1930, to 6.97 million in 2000 and is estimated to grow to 10.94 million by 2050. With such an influx of people into a small geographic area, it is imperative to both examine the past urban expansion and estimate how the future population will be accommodated into the landscape. We quantify these trends to assess conservation 'success' through time. We used historical and current landcover maps to assess trend, and a GIS-based urban modeling (UPlan) to assess future urban growth impacts in the region, under three policy scenarios- business as usual, smart growth, and urban redevelopment. Impacts are measured by the amount of open space targeted by conservation planners in the region that will be urbanized under each urban growth policy. Impacts are also measured by estimates of the energy consumption projected for each of the scenarios on household and business unit level. The 'business as usual' and 'smart growth' scenarios differed little in their impacts to targeted conservation lands, because so little open space remains to accommodate the expected population growth. Redevelopment conserved more naturally vegetated open space. The redevelopment scenario also permits the lowest increase in energy demand because buildings taken out in the process are reconfigured to higher levels of energy efficiency. However, redevelopment requires substantial increases in residential densities to confine the spatial footprint of the expected future urban growth. These three urban growth scenario footprints differ in their impact to natural vegetation and open space. To incorporate the influence of climate change on remaining natural ecosystems in this urbanizing landscape, we projected the stability of existing, mapped, vegetation types in the region under future climates by examining where projected ranges of the dominant plant species comprising each California Wildlife Habitat Relationship type will all remain together, and where they will begin to dis-associate due to biogeographic response to changing climate. This permits identification of stable and unstable zones of vegetation. The combination of climate stable, high conservation priority and likelihood of urban development provides a way to prioritize conservation land acquisitions.

Thorne, J. H.; Santos, M. J.; Bjorkman, J.

2011-12-01

214

Integrating impact assessment and conflict management in urban planning: Experiences from Finland  

SciTech Connect

The article examines the interlinkages between recent developments in conflict management and impact assessment procedures in the context of urban planning in Finland. It sets out by introducing the fields of impact assessment and conflict mediation. It then proceeds to discuss the development of impact assessment practices and the status of conflict mediation in Finnish land use planning. The case of Korteniitty infill development plan in Jyvaeskylae is used to demonstrate how the Finnish planning system operates in conflict situations - and how social impact assessment can contribute to managing planning conflicts. The authors ask how the processes of impact assessment contribute to conflict management. Based on the Finnish experience, it is argued that social impact assessment of land use plans can contribute to conflict management, especially in the absence of institutionalised conflict mediation processes. In addition, SIA may acquire features of conflict mediation, depending on extent and intensity of stakeholder participation in the process, and the quality of linkages it between knowledge production and decision-making. Simultaneously, conflict mediation practices and theoretical insights can inform the application of SIA to help it address land use conflicts more consciously.

Peltonen, Lasse, E-mail: lasse.peltonen@tkk.f [Centre for Urban and Regional Studies, School of Science and Technology, Aalto University, P.O. Box 12200, 00076 AALTO (Finland); Sairinen, Rauno, E-mail: rauno.sairinen@joensuu.f [Centre of Competence for Forest, Environment and Society, University of Eastern Finland, P.O. Box 111, 80101 Joensuu (Finland)

2010-09-15

215

Resident Involvement and Participation in Urban Tourism Development: A Comparative Study in Maun and Gaborone, Botswana  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports a comparative study of urban tourism development in two areas, Maun and Gaborone, located in northern and\\u000a southeastern Botswana. More specifically, the study evaluated residents’ tourism awareness and its importance in their lives;\\u000a assessed economic benefits and employment derived from tourism; and examined impacts of tourism and development issues as\\u000a perceived by the residents. Data were collected

Naomi Moswete; Brijesh Thapa; Elisha N. Toteng; Joseph E. Mbaiwa

2008-01-01

216

RAPID URBAN SECTOR PROFILING FOR SUSTAINABILITY STUDIES (RUSPS) IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES: IMPLICATIONS FOR URBAN PLANNING IN ONDO STATE, NIGERIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores the application of rapid urban profiling for sustainability studies (RUSPS) in articulating city strategic plans in developing countries with the aim of determining its implications for urban planning in Ondo State, Nigeria. Ondo State is one of the 36 states of Nigeria where urban planning is undertaken by the state government. It discusses the usefulness of the

Johnson Bade FALADE; Afolabi ARIBIGBOLA

2010-01-01

217

Urban Sustainable Development, Lower Income Communities, and Transorganizational Public Administration  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article will provide an analysis of the implementation of sustainable development policies in lower-income urban communities. Arguably, sustainable development policies can potentially improve the overall environmental and economic quality of life for people living within such communities. This, however, presents a challenge for public policy and administration on how best to manage and administer sustainable development policies within this

David L. Blumenthal; Edward J. Martin

2007-01-01

218

The impact of urban geometry on cognitive maps  

E-print Network

This thesis investigates the relationship between urban geometry and cognitive maps. It is focused on the question of how human cognition of the built environment is affected by urban geometry. Building on the foundations ...

Mohsenin, Mahsan (SeyedehMahsan)

2011-01-01

219

Impact of local urban design and traffic restrictions on air quality in a medium-sized town.  

PubMed

Traffic is the major air pollution source in most urban areas. Nowadays, most of the strategies carried out to improve urban air quality are focused on reducing traffic emissions. Nevertheless, acting locally on urban design can also reduce levels of air pollutants. In this paper, both strategies are studied in several scenarios for a medium-sized town of the Basque Country (Spain). Two main actions are analysed in order to reduce traffic emissions: (1) minor extension ofa pre-existing low emission zone (LEZ); (2) substitution of 10% of passenger cars that are older than 5 years by hybrid and electric vehicles. Regarding local urban design, three alternatives for the development of one side of a street canyon are considered: (1) a park with trees; (2) an open space without obstacles; (3) a building. Two different urban traffic dispersion models are used to calculate the air quality scenarios: PROKAS (Gaussian&box) to analyse the reduction of traffic emissions in the whole urban area and WinMISKAM (CFD) to evaluate specific urban designs. The results show the effectiveness of the analysed actions. On one hand, the definition of a small LEZ, as well as the introduction in 2015 of vehicles with new technology (hybrid and electric), results in minor impacts on PM10 and NO2 ambient concentrations. On the other hand, local urban design can cause significant variation in spatial distribution ofpollutant concentrations emitted inside street canyons. Consequently, urban planners should consider all these aspects when dealing with urban air pollution control. PMID:23393990

Acero, J A; Simon, A; Padro, A; Santa Coloma, O

2012-01-01

220

Modelling regional climate change and urban planning scenarios and their impacts on the urban environment in two cities with WRF-ACASA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The number of urban metabolism studies has increased in recent years, due to the important impact that energy, water and carbon exchange over urban areas have on climate change. Urban modeling is therefore crucial in the future design and management of cities. This study presents the ACASA model coupled to the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF-ARW) mesoscale model to simulate urban fluxes at a horizontal resolution of 200 meters for urban areas of roughly 100 km^2. As part of the European Project "BRIDGE", these regional simulations were used in combination with remotely sensed data to provide constraints on the land surface types and the exchange of carbon and energy fluxes from urban centers. Surface-atmosphere exchanges of mass and energy were simulated using the Advanced Canopy Atmosphere Soil Algorithm (ACASA). ACASA is a multi-layer high-order closure model, recently modified to work over natural, agricultural as well as urban environments. In particular, improvements were made to account for the anthropogenic contribution to heat and carbon production. For two cities four climate change and four urban planning scenarios were simulated: The climate change scenarios include a base scenario (Sc0: 2008 Commit in IPCC), a medium emission scenario (Sc1: IPCC A2), a worst case emission scenario (Sce2: IPCC A1F1) and finally a best case emission scenario (Sce3: IPCC B1). The urban planning scenarios include different development scenarios such as smart growth. The two cities are a high latitude city, Helsinki (Finland) and an historic city, Florence (Italy). Helsinki is characterized by recent, rapid urbanization that requires a substantial amount of energy for heating, while Florence is representative of cities in lower latitudes, with substantial cultural heritage and a comparatively constant architectural footprint over time. In general, simulated fluxes matched the point observations well and showed consistent improvement in the energy partitioning over urban regions. We present comparisons of observed (EC) tower flux observations from the Florence (Ximeniano) site for 1-9 April, 2008 with results from two sets of high-resolution simulations: the first using dynamically-downscaled input/boundary conditions (Model-0) and the second using fully nested WRF-ACASA (Model-1). In each simulation the model physics are the same; only the WRF domain configuration differs. Preliminary results (Figure 1) indicate a degree of parity (and a slight statistical improvement), in the performances of Model-1 vs. that of Model-0 with respect to observed. Figure 1 (below) shows air temperature values from observed and both model estimates. Additional results indicate that care must be taken to configure the WRF domain, as performance appears to be sensitive to model configuration.

Falk, M.; Pyles, R. D.; Marras, S.; Spano, D.; Paw U, K. T.

2011-12-01

221

Modelling the catchment-scale environmental impacts of wastewater treatment in an urban sewage system for CO? emission assessment.  

PubMed

Water shortages and water pollution are a global problem. Increases in population can have further acute effects on water cycles and on the availability of water resources. Thus, wastewater management plays an important role in mitigating negative impacts on natural ecosystems and human environments and is an important area of research. In this study, we modelled catchment-scale hydrology, including water balances, rainfall, contamination, and urban wastewater treatment. The entire water resource system of a basin, including a forest catchment and an urban city area, was evaluated synthetically from a spatial distribution perspective with respect to water quantity and quality; the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) technique was applied to optimize wastewater treatment management with the aim of improving water quality and reducing CO? emissions. A numerical model was developed to predict the water cycle and contamination in the catchment and city; the effect of a wastewater treatment system on the urban region was evaluated; pollution loads were evaluated quantitatively; and the effects of excluding rainwater from the treatment system during flooding and of urban rainwater control on water quality were examined. Analysis indicated that controlling the amount of rainwater inflow to a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) in an urban area with a combined sewer system has a large impact on reducing CO? emissions because of the load reduction on the urban sewage system. PMID:20729603

Mouri, Goro; Oki, Taikan

2010-01-01

222

Water, City and Urban Planning: Assessing the Role of Groundwater in Urban Development and Planning in Delhi  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper examines the stages and patterns of urban evolution in the Delhi metropolis and its peri-urban areas and links the role of groundwater in urban development from the past to the present. With the help of a case study -‘Dwarka sub-city’ within the immediate urban extensions in NCT Delhi, the paper establishes the systemic role that groundwater plays in

Suresh Kumar Rohilla

2012-01-01

223

Effects of Chinese Urban Development on the Fog  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since China adopted the reform and opening-up policy in late 1978, the national economy as well as urbanization have developed rapidly, causing urban growth and population growth. In consequence, the urban heat islands strengthen and air pollution increase but the vegetation cover decreases, leading to the relative humidity decreases. These changes led directly to the city's foggy day reduction, fog liquid water content (LWC) and droplet-scale decreases, droplet number concentration increases, visibility degradation sharply in fog, fog-ion concentration and acidity larger, which increase the traffic hazard and endanger human health seriously. In this paper, a large number of observations and numerical simulations have been done to demonstrate these conclusions. Suggestions that air pollution controlling, virescence and improving the urban ecological environment was given at the end of the particle.

Li, Z. H.; Yang, J.; Shi, C. E.; Pu, M. J.; Liu, D. Y.

2010-07-01

224

Effects of Global Change on U.S. Urban Areas: Vulnerabilities, Impacts, and Adaptation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This slide presentation reviews some of the effects that global change has on urban areas in the United States and how the growth of urban areas will affect the environment. It presents the elements of our Synthesis and Assessment Report (SAP) report that relate to what vulnerabilities and impacts will occur, what adaptation responses may take place, and what possible effects on settlement patterns and characteristics will potentially arise, on human settlements in the U.S. as a result of climate change and climate variability. We will also present some recommendations about what should be done to further research on how climate change and variability will impact human settlements in the U.S., as well as how to engage government officials, policy and decision makers, and the general public in understanding the implications of climate change and variability on the local and regional levels. Additionally, we wish to explore how technology such as remote sensing data coupled with modeling, can be employed as synthesis tools for deriving insight across a spectrum of impacts (e.g. public health, urban planning for mitigation strategies) on how cities can cope and adapt to climate change and variability. This latter point parallels the concepts and ideas presented in the U.S. National Academy of Sciences, Decadal Survey report on "Earth Science Applications from Space: National Imperatives for the Next Decade and Beyond" wherein the analysis of the impacts of climate change and variability, human health, and land use change are listed as key areas for development of future Earth observing remote sensing systems.

Quattrochi, Dale A.; Wilbanks, Thomas J.; Kirshen, Paul; Romero-Lankao, Patricia; Rosenzweig, Cynthia; Ruth, Mattias; Solecki, William; Tarr, Joel

2008-01-01

225

Regional Assessment of Urban Impacts on Landcover and Open Space Finds a Smart Urban Growth Policy Performs Little Better than Business as Usual  

PubMed Central

Assessment of landscape change is critical for attainment of regional sustainability goals. Urban growth assessments are needed because over half the global population now lives in cities, which impact biodiversity, ecosystem structure and ecological processes. Open space protection is needed to preserve these attributes, and provide the resources humans need. The San Francisco Bay Area, California, is challenged to accommodate a population increase of 3.07 million while maintaining the region’s ecosystems and biodiversity. Our analysis of 9275 km2 in the Bay Area links historic trends for three measures: urban growth, protected open space, and landcover types over the last 70 years to future 2050 projections of urban growth and open space. Protected open space totaled 348 km2 (3.7% of the area) in 1940, and expanded to 2221 km2 (20.2%) currently. An additional 1038 km2 of protected open space is targeted (35.1%). Urban area historically increased from 396.5 km2 to 2239 km2 (24.1% of the area). Urban growth during this time mostly occurred at the expense of agricultural landscapes (62.9%) rather than natural vegetation. Smart Growth development has been advanced as a preferred alternative in many planning circles, but we found that it conserved only marginally more open space than Business-as-usual when using an urban growth model to portray policies for future urban growth. Scenarios to 2050 suggest urban development on non-urban lands of 1091, 956, or 179 km2, under Business-as-usual, Smart Growth and Infill policy growth scenarios, respectively. The Smart Growth policy converts 88% of natural lands and agriculture used by Business-as-usual, while Infill used only 40% of those lands. Given the historic rate of urban growth, 0.25%/year, and limited space available, the Infill scenario is recommended. While the data may differ, the use of an historic and future framework to track these three variables can be easily applied to other metropolitan areas. PMID:23755204

Thorne, James H.; Santos, Maria J.; Bjorkman, Jacquelyn H.

2013-01-01

226

Impacts of Urbanization on Groundwater Quality and Recharge in a Semi-arid Alluvial Basin  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The management of groundwater resources is paramount in semi-arid regions experiencing urban development. In the southwestern United States, enhancing recharge of urban storm runoff has been identified as a strategy for augmenting groundwater resources. An understanding of how urbanization may impac...

227

Urbanization and its impacts on water environment in tumen river basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The trans-boundary scope of the Tumen River Basin (TRB) going through China, Russia and DPRK has been defined, and on the\\u000a basis of this, status of urbanization and its impacts on water environment in recent 20 years in TRB have been analyzed. Urbanization\\u000a in TRB can be characterized as: 1) There is medium level of overall urbanization in TRB. Certain

Shi-jun Wang; Dan Wang; Xiang-hua Yang

2002-01-01

228

Connecting Urban Youth with their Environment: The Impact of an Urban Ecology Course on Student Content Knowledge, Environmental Attitudes and Responsible Behaviors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study explores the impact of an urban ecology program on participating middle school students' understanding of science and pro-environmental attitudes and behaviors. We gathered pre and post survey data from four classes and found significant gains in scientific knowledge, but no significant changes in student beliefs regarding the environment. We interviewed 12 students to better understand their beliefs. Although student responses showed they had learned discrete content knowledge, they lacked any ecological understanding of the environment and had mixed perceptions of the course's relevance in their lives. Students reported doing pro-environmental behaviors, but overwhelmingly contributed such actions to influences other than the urban ecology course. Analyses indicated a disconnect between the course, the environment, and the impact on the students' lives. Consequently, this suggests the importance of recognizing the implications of context, culture, and identity development of urban youth. Perhaps by providing explicit connections and skills in urban environmental programs through engaging students in environmental scientific investigations that stem from their own issues and questions can increase student engagement, motivation, and self-efficacy of environmental issues.

Hashimoto-Martell, Erin A.; McNeill, Katherine L.; Hoffman, Emily M.

2012-10-01

229

Data and Information Management: Essential Basis for Sustainable Urban Management and Development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Management of the urban environment and urban development require well organized data and information as a basis for decision making, planning and policy development. Such data and information needs to be up-to-date, reliable and complete, and moreover be available at the time of need. The latter is especially relevant in the case of disasters such as fires, flooding, earthquakes and volcanic eruptions. Current and future impacts of the on-going climate changes increase the need for geo-referenced data and information on environment, biodiversity and public health, in support of preparation, protection, mitigation and reconstruction. It is important that urban authorities devote more attention and resources to data and information management in order to be able to cope with the present and future challenges of ever growing cities with increasing impacts on their surroundings, and moreover to deal with the impacts of environment and biodiversity on the cities, their population and economies. SOD, Woerden has a long and successful track record of certified training and education in the field of data and information management for authorities, including urban government. The courses provided by SOD cover a wide range of subjects from metadata and digitizing, to enterprise content management and geo-information management. While focused on the Netherlands, SOD also has initiated similar training opportunities in Belgium and Surinam, and efforts are under way in other countries. P. Geerders Consultancy has considerable experience as a consultant and trainer in the field of methods and technologies for the provision of information in support of decision-making, planning and policy development related to integrated management and sustainable development of natural resources. Besides in various countries of Europe, he has worked in Latin America and the Caribbean region. Since several years, P. Geerders works as a freelance teacher with SOD. The paper presents a vision on training and education of urban authorities in information handling and management.

Geerders, P.; Kokke, E.

2011-08-01

230

Tourism & Urban Development: Building Local Economies & Sense of Place  

E-print Network

Tourism & Urban Development: Building Local Economies & Sense of Place - Eden Valley - Simon Milne, tourism must sustain and enhance local quality of life ­ "Communities will work for tourism if tourism and regional marketing and development (top-down) need to be supported by local content, information

231

Tourism & Urban Development: Building Local Economies & Sense of Place  

E-print Network

Tourism & Urban Development: Building Local Economies & Sense of Place - Mt Eden Village - Simon, tourism must sustain and enhance local quality of life ­ "Communities will work for tourism if tourism and regional marketing and development (top-down) need to be supported by local content, information

232

Tourism & Urban Development: Building Local Economies & Sense of Place  

E-print Network

Tourism & Urban Development: Building Local Economies & Sense of Place - Greenwoods Corner - Simon, tourism must sustain and enhance local quality of life ­ "Communities will work for tourism if tourism and regional marketing and development (top-down) need to be supported by local content, information

233

Developing a Sustained Interest in Science among Urban Minority Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study draws upon qualitative case study to investigate the connections between the "funds of knowledge" that urban, high-poverty students bring to science learning and the development of a sustained interest in science. We found that youth developed a sustained interest in science when: (1) their science experiences connected with how they…

Basu, Sreyashi Jhumki; Barton, Angela Calabrese

2007-01-01

234

Modeling impacts of increased urban vegetation on ozone air quality in the South Coast Air Basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyzes the possible effects of increased urban vegetation on the ozone air quality in California's South Coast Air Basin (SoCAB). Air quality impacts are accounted for through mesoscale meteorological and photochemical modeling of a late-August period. The simulations indicate that the net effect of increased urban vegetation is a decrease in ozone concentrations if the additional vegetation (trees)

Haider Taha

1996-01-01

235

Distance decay of similarity among European urban floras: the impact of anthropogenic activities on ? ? ? ? diversity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim We e xamine how two categories of non-native species (archaeophyte and neophyte, introduced before and after ?? 1500, respectively) have had different impacts on ? diversity across European urban floras. Our goal is to use the unique biological perspective provided by urban areas, and the contrasting historical and geographical perspectives provided by archaeophytes and neophytes, to infer how non-native

Frank A. La Sorte; Michael L. McKinney; Petr Py ß ek; Stefan Klotz; G. L. Rapson; Laura Celesti-Grapow; Ken Thompson

2008-01-01

236

Impact of Sequestration on the Nation's Urban Public Schools. Research Brief  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The nation's urban public school districts have been bracing for the fiscal impact that would result from a sequestration of federal funds, a financial provision in the Budget Control Act of 2011. The result of this across-the-board cut would be felt most severely by programs serving poor urban students, students with disabilities, and English…

Council of the Great City Schools, 2012

2012-01-01

237

A Review of Quantitative Methods for Evaluating Impacts of Climate Change on Urban Water Infrastructure  

EPA Science Inventory

It is widely accepted that global climate change will impact the regional and local climate and alter some aspects of the hydrologic cycle, which in turn can affect the performance of the urban water supply, wastewater and storm water infrastructur4e. How the urban water infrastr...

238

Combining Satellite Data and Models to Assess the Impacts of Urbanization on the Continental US Surface Climate  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Urbanization is one of the most important and long lasting forms of land transformation. Urbanization affects the surface climate in different ways: (1) by reduction of the vegetation fraction causing subsequent reduction in photosynthesis and plant s water transpiration, (2) by alternation of surface runoff and infiltration and their impacts on soil moisture and the water table, (3) by change in the surface albedo and surface energy partitioning, and (4) by transformation of the surface roughness length and modification of surface fluxes. Land cover and land use change maps including urban areas have been developed and will be used in a suite of land surface models of different complexity to assess the impacts of urbanization on the continental US surface climate. These maps and datasets based on a full range of available satellite data and ground observations will be used to characterize distant-past (pre-urban), recent-past (2001), present (2010), and near future (2020) land cover and land use changes. The main objective of the project is to assess the impacts of these land transformation on past, current and near-future climate and the potential feedbacks from these changes on the atmospheric, hydrologic, biological, and socio-economic properties beyond the immediate metropolitan regions of cities and their near suburbs. The WRF modeling system will be used to explore the nature and the magnitude of the two-way interactions between urban lands and the atmosphere and assess the overall regional dynamic effect of urban expansion on the northeastern US weather and climate

Bounoua, L.; Zhang, P.; Imhoff, M.; Santanello, J.; Kumar, S.; Shepherd, M.; Quattrochi, D.; Silva, J.; Rosenzweigh, C.; Gaffin, S.; Mostovoy, G.

2013-01-01

239

77 FR 26025 - Notice of Intent To Prepare a Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the HOPE SF Development at...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT [Docket No. FR-5637-N-01...Impact Statement (EIS) for the HOPE SF Development at Potrero Terrace and Potrero Annex Public Housing Development, San Francisco, CA AGENCY:...

2012-05-02

240

75 FR 76481 - Notice of Intent To Prepare Environmental Impact Statement for the HOPE SF Development at Alice...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT [Docket No. FR-5467-N-01] Notice...Environmental Impact Statement for the HOPE SF Development at Alice Griffith Public Housing Development, San Francisco, CA AGENCY: Office...

2010-12-08

241

77 FR 68803 - Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for the HOPE SF Development at...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT [Docket No. FR-5670-N-01] Notice...Environmental Impact Statement for the HOPE SF Development at Sunnydale and Velasco Public Housing Developments, San Francisco, CA AGENCY:...

2012-11-16

242

Assessment of patches attributes along the Urban Development Gradient  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The world is increasingly urban. If current trends maintain, by 2050 the global urban population is estimated to be 6.3 billion, nearly doubling the world population in 2010. Consequently, more than 60% of the area projected to be urban in 2030 has yet to be built, replacing the open and agriculture lands with construction and infrastructure. The open green patches (OGP), within the urban matrix, are essential for healthy and wellness of cities by supplying the city's ecological services (Mausback and Seybold, 1998). Regarding future trends, there is a need and obligation to insure the functional and sustainability of the city's OPG. Urban vegetation composition and diversity in the OGP had long been considered as an indication for ecologically functioning systems. Furthermore, urban soil is also essential for the sustainability and function of the urban habitat and ecological services, such as maintaining groundwater restraining urban floods etc. (Lehmann and Stahr 2007). There is no single set of rules to classify a functional urban green patch worth preserving. The aim of this study is to examine the effects of patch properties (including geometry, age, type and location along the urban gradient, connectivity, and urban matrix density) on the presence, abundance and characteristics of vegetation and soil conditions of remnant patches The inspired purpose is to eventually find an assessment for urban open green patches OGP quality by linking, patches attributes, plants indexes and soil quality indexes The research is conducted in the city of Haifa, which is located on the northern part of Mount Carmel in the north-western part of Israel . Mean annual rainfall, 550-800 mm, varies with latitude and the mean temperature is 18.80c. Modern Haifa is a relatively young city which maintains remnant vegetation patches within its municipal boundary. 32 OGP were selected in nine categories (size: small, medium and large, distance from city edge: far, average, near), in which vegetation was surveyed. . All vascular plant species were recorded and identified. The mineral soils (A horizon, depth 10-15 cm) were collected to obtain a constant sample size after removing surface litter and organic matter. The samples were analyzed for mineral and structure properties. Preliminary results of the plant survey and analysis indicated that the patches' vegetation is highly diverse. Within the large patches, regardless of their location along the urban development gradient, higher sub-habitat diversity and plants diversity were observed. The diversity is high for local and exotic species alike. In the medium and small size patches, also regardless of their location, there is a diversity of plant composition that may be connected to different disturbances or matrix related effect not yet considered in the study. Preliminary results of the soil survey and analysis indicated that more than 75% of the soil samples taken from the OGP, regardless of their location in the urban development gradient, exhibited a considerable changes in soil profile, compared to "natural" soils and significant alternations in the physical properties were also observed. The substance that was found in the remnant OGP in Haifa is different from soil, however, links between the urban-soils altered properties and the vegetation composition in those patches, and there relationships are not fully understood.

Kopel, Daniella; Wittenberg, lea; Malkinson, Dan

2014-05-01

243

Impacts of Climate Policy on Urban Air Pollution: Implications for Policy Design for Integrating Air-quality Co-benefits  

E-print Network

Impacts of Climate Policy on Urban Air Pollution: Implications for Policy Design for Integrating, Technology and Policy Program #12;#12;3 Impacts of Climate Policy on Urban Air Pollution: Implications climate change and urban air pollution and imply that opportunities exist to simultaneously deal

244

Urban Aerosol Impacts on Downwind Convective Storms SUSAN C. VAN DEN HEEVER AND WILLIAM R. COTTON  

E-print Network

Urban Aerosol Impacts on Downwind Convective Storms SUSAN C. VAN DEN HEEVER AND WILLIAM R. COTTON. 2004; Givati and Rosenfeld 2004; Molders and Olson 2004; Jirak and Cotton 2006); 2) increased surface

Collett Jr., Jeffrey L.

245

DREDGING IMPACT ON AN URBANIZED FLORIDA BAYOU: EFFECTS ON BENTHOS AND ALGAL-PERIPHYTON.  

EPA Science Inventory

Environmental effects of dredging events have been uncommonly reported for shallow, residential estuaries characteristic of the Gulf of Mexico region. The objective of this study was to determine the impact of hydraulic dredging on an urbanized estuary. Physicochemical quality, ...

246

Effects of Global Change on U.S. Urban Areas: Vulnerabilities, Impacts, and Adaptation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Human settlements, both large and small, are where the vast majority of people on the Earth live. Expansion of cities both in population and areal extent, is a relentless process that will accelerate in the 21st century. As a consequence of urban growth both in the United States and around the globe, it is important to develop an understanding of how urbanization will affect the local and regional environment. Of equal importance, however, is the assessment of how cities will be impacted by the looming prospects of global climate change and climate variability. The potential impacts of climate change and variability has recently been annunciated by the IPCC's "Climate Change 2007" report. Moreover, the U.S. Climate Change Science Program (CCSP) is preparing a series of "Synthesis and Assessment Products" (SAPs) reports to support informed discussion and decision making regarding climate change and variability by policy matters, resource managers, stakeholders, the media, and the general public. We are authors on a SAP describing the effects of global climate change on human settlements. This paper will present the elements of our SAP report that relate to what vulnerabilities and impacts will occur, what adaptation responses may take place, and what possible effects on settlement patterns and characteristics will potentially arise, on human settlements in the U.S. as a result of climate change and climate variability. We will also present some recommendations about what should be done to further research on how climate change and variability will impact human settlements in the U.S., as well as how to engage government officials, policy and decision makers, and the general public in understanding the implications of climate change and variability on the local and regional levels. Additionally, we wish to explore how technology such as remote sensing data coupled with modeling, can be employed as synthesis tools for deriving insight across a spectrum of impacts (e.g. public health, urban planning for mitigation strategies) on how cities can cope and adapt to climate change and variability. This latter point parallels the concepts and ideas presented in the U.S. National Academy of Sciences, Decadal Survey report on "Earth Science Applications from Space: National Imperatives for the Next Decade and Beyond" wherein the analysis of the impacts of climate change and variability, human health, and land use change are listed as key areas for development of future Earth observing remote sensing systems.

Quattrochi, Dale A.; Wilbanks, Thomas J.; Kirshen, Paul; Romero-Lnkao, Patricia; Rosenzweig, Cynthia; Ruth, Matthias; Solecki, William; Tarr, Joel

2007-01-01

247

Management mitigates the impact of urbanization on meadow vegetation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urban regions often contain remnants of ecologically valuable habitats. Whilst meadow habitats have been recognized as ecologically\\u000a important and much studied, little attention has been given to meadow assemblages of urban locations. We studied the effects\\u000a of meadow type, urbanization level, and management on vascular plant species richness, field layer diversity and soil chemistry\\u000a in 18 grassland sites in the

Sirkku Manninen; Sonja Forss; Stephen Venn

2010-01-01

248

Mass balance-based regression modeling of PAHs accumulation in urban soils, role of urban development.  

PubMed

We investigated the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) contents in 68 soils samples collected at housing developments that represent different length of development periods across Beijing. Based on the data, we derived a mass balanced mathematical model to simulate the dynamics of PAH accumulations in urban soils as affected by the urban developments. The key parameters were estimated by fitting the modified mass balance model to the data of PAH concentrations vs. building age of the sampling green area. The total PAH concentrations would increase from the baseline of 267 ng g(-1) to 3631 ng g(-1) during the period of 1978-2048. It showed that the dynamic changes in the rates of accumulations of light and heavy PAH species were related to the shifting of sources of fuels, combustion efficiencies, and amounts of energy consumed during the course of development. PMID:25489746

Peng, Chi; Wang, Meie; Chen, Weiping; Chang, Andrew C

2015-02-01

249

IMPACTS OF URBAN COYOTES ON PEOPLE AND PETS IN NEW YORK STATE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract: Coyotes ,(Canis latrans) are currently common ,in most ,of New ,York State with an apparent increase of coyotes,in urban areas. Coyotes can potentially cause a variety of effects and impacts. Urban ,coyotes can impact the general public by causing ,safety concerns for children and pets and by causing,feelings of grief for attacked and missing pets. Politicians and government,agencies can

Louis T. Berchielli

250

Urban impacts on mean and trend of surface incident solar radiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Anthropogenic aerosols over urban areas may have important effects on surface incident solar radiation (Rs). Studies have claimed that Rs decreased significantly more in urban areas than in rural areas from 1964 to 1989. However, these estimates have substantial biases because they ignored the spatial inhomogeneity of Rs measurements. To address this issue, we selected urban-rural station pairs collocated within 2° × 2° and found 105 such pairs based on the Global Energy Balance Archive (GEBA). On average, the impact of urban aerosols on mean and trend of Rs is 0.2(0.7, median) ± 11.2 W m-2 and 0.1(-0.7, median) ± 6.6 W m-2 per decade from 1961 to 1990, respectively. Hence, the averaged urban impacts on the mean and trend of Rs over Europe, China and Japan from 1961 to 1990 are small although they may be significant at specific sites.

Wang, Kaicun; Ma, Qian; Wang, XiaoYan; Wild, Martin

2014-07-01

251

Health impacts from urban air pollution in China : the burden to the economy and the benefits of policy  

E-print Network

In China, elevated levels of urban air pollution result in significant adverse health impacts for its large and rapidly growing urban population. An expanded version of the Emissions Prediction and Policy Analysis (EPPA), ...

Matus, Kira J. (Kira Jen)

2005-01-01

252

Predictive Modeling of Urbanization Impacts on Flow Regimes in a Semi-arid Watershed in Southern California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In semi-arid southern California, large areas of vegetative land cover are disappearing due to rapid and extensive urbanization. The anthropogenic process paves natural land surfaces, altering the partitioning of precipitation, and subsequently affecting regional hydrologic processes and water supply. This research aims to improve the understanding of the impacts of urbanization in semi-arid watersheds. We focus our efforts on the Upper Santa Clara River basin in northern Los Angeles County which is undergoing rapid transition from a natural state to an urbanized state. The Hydrologic Simulation Program-Fortran (HSPF) model has been parameterized with the land use, soil, and channel characteristics of the study watershed. Model parameters related to hydrologic processes are calibrated at the daily time-step using both lumped and distributed precipitation inputs, respectively, over a six-year period. Calibration results from lumped inputs indicate that model performance is reasonable during wet years and wet seasons, but is less satisfactory in dry years and dry seasons. Model calibration with distributed inputs is ongoing. Potential urbanization scenarios are generated by assigning various percentages of developed area in the watershed. Hydrologic processes under each scenario are simulated via the calibrated model. Simulation results and discussion on the hydrologic impacts of urbanization in this rapidly expanding watershed will be presented.

He, M.; Hogue, T. S.

2007-12-01

253

Impact of urban parameterization on high resolution air quality forecast with the GEM - AQ model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this study is to assess the impact of urban cover on high-resolution air quality forecast simulations with the GEM-AQ (Global Environmental Multiscale and Air Quality) model. The impact of urban area on the ambient atmosphere is non-stationary, and short-term variability of meteorological conditions may result in significant changes of the observed intensity of urban heat island and pollutant concentrations. In this study we used the Town Energy Balance (TEB) parameterization to represent urban effects on modelled meteorological and air quality parameters at the final nesting level with horizontal resolution of ~5 km over Southern Poland. Three one-day cases representing different meteorological conditions were selected and the model was run with and without the TEB parameterization. Three urban cover categories were used in the TEB parameterization: mid-high buildings, very low buildings and low density suburbs. Urban cover layers were constructed based on an area fraction of towns in a grid cell. To analyze the impact of urban parameterization on modelled meteorological and air quality parameters, anomalies in the lowest model layer for the air temperature, wind speed and pollutant concentrations were calculated. Anomalies of the specific humidity fields indicate that the use of the TEB parameterization leads to a systematic reduction of moisture content in the air. Comparison with temperature and wind speed measurements taken at urban background monitoring stations shows that application of urban parameterization improves model results. For primary pollutants the impact of urban areas is most significant in regions characterized with high emissions. In most cases the anomalies of NO2 and CO concentrations were negative. This reduction is most likely caused by an enhanced vertical mixing due to elevated surface temperature and modified vertical stability.

Struzewska, J.; Kaminski, J. W.

2012-11-01

254

High Spatial Resolution Thermal Infrared Remote Sensing Data for Analysis of the Atlanta, Georgia, Urban Heat Island Effect and Its Impacts on the Environment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The twenty-first century is the first "urban century" according to the United Nations Development Program. The focus of cities reflects awareness of the growing percentage of the world's population that lives in urban areas. In environmental terms, cities are the original producers of many of the global problems related to waste disposal, air and water pollution, and associated environmental and ecological challenges. Expansion of cities, both in population and areal extent, is a relentless process. In 2000, approximately 3 billion people representing about 40% of the global population, resided in urban areas. Urban population will continue to rise substantially over the next several decades according to UN estimates, and most of this growth will Occur in developing countries. The UN estimates that by 2025, 60% of the world's population will live in urban areas. As a consequence, the number of"megacities" (those cities with populations of 10 million inhabitants or more) will increase by 100 by 2025. Thus, there is a critical need to understand urban areas and what their impacts are on environmental, ecological and hydrologic resources, as well as on the local, regional, and even global climate. One of the more egregious side effects of urbanization is the increase in surface and air temperatures that lead to deterioration in air quality. In the United States, under the more stringent air quality guidelines established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in 1997, nearly 300 counties in 34 states will not meet these new air quality standards for ground level ozone. Mitigation of the urban heat island (UHI) effect is actively being evaluated as a possible way to reduce ground ozone levels in cities and assist states in improving air quality. Foremost in the analysis of how the UHI affects air quality and other environmental factors is the use of remote sensing technology and data to characterize urban land covers in sufficient detail to quantifiably measure the impact of increased urban heating on air quality. The urban landscape impacts surface thermal energy exchanges that determine development of the UHI. This paper will illustrate how we are using high spatial remote sensing data collected over the Atlanta, Georgia metropolitan area in conjunction with other geographic information, to perform a detailed urban land cover classification and to determine the contribution of these land covers to the urban heat island effect. Also, the spatial arrangement of the land covers and the impact on urban heating from these selected patterns of development are evaluated. Additionally, this paper will show how these data are being used as inputs to improve air quality modeling for Atlanta, including potential benefits from UHI mitigation.

Quattrochi, Dale A.

2007-01-01

255

UrbanSolutionsCenter Breeding and Development of Ornamental Plants  

E-print Network

UrbanSolutionsCenter Breeding and Development of Ornamental Plants Background Ornamental plants and increases in human activity, ornamental plants sometimes lose their natural resistance to abiotic and biotic stresses. Although ornamental plants have adaptation mechanisms via natural selection, artificial selection

256

DEVELOPMENT OF AN IMPROVED URBAN AIRSHED MODELING SYSTEM  

EPA Science Inventory

A research and development effort to improve certain physical processes simulated in the Urban Airshed Model (UAM) processor and model programs, and to update the computer software is described. he UAM is an Eulerian photochemical grid model designed to simulate the relevant phys...

257

Self-Concept Development in Rural and Urban Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using the Self-Descriptive Inventory, compares development of self-concept, self-esteem, self-ideal in physical maturity, peer relations, academic success, school adaptiveness in 50 rural children (Hatch, New Mexico) and 50 urban children (Las Cruces New Mexico). Finds negative patterns in academic success and school adaptiveness more pronounced…

Velasco-Barraza, Carlos; Muller, Douglas

1982-01-01

258

Tourism & Urban Development: Building Local Economies & Sense of Place  

E-print Network

Tourism & Urban Development: Building Local Economies & Sense of Place - Mt Albert - Simon Milne is essential, tourism must sustain and enhance local quality of life ­ "Communities will work for tourism if tourism works for communities" #12;Source: areeweb.polito.it/didattica/chimica/images #12;#12;A

259

Tourism & Urban Development: Building Local Economies & Sense of Place  

E-print Network

Tourism & Urban Development: Building Local Economies & Sense of Place - Sandringham - Simon Milne" Community support and engagement is essential, tourism must sustain and enhance local quality of life ­ "Communities will work for tourism if tourism works for communities" `Slow travel' ­ Enhance opportunities

260

Tourism & Urban Development: Building Local Economies & Sense of Place  

E-print Network

Tourism & Urban Development: Building Local Economies & Sense of Place - Kingsland - Simon Milne is essential, tourism must sustain and enhance local quality of life ­ "Communities will work for tourism if tourism works for communities" #12;Source: areeweb.polito.it/didattica/chimica/images #12;#12;A

261

Urban and Community Development Technology: A Paraprofessional Pilot Training Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A pilot paraprofessional training program in urban and community development for local government technicians was taught by Midlands Technical Education Center for 1 quarter, with 6 weeks of concentrated academic instruction and 6 weeks internship. The academic and internship phases of the pilot program are described and summarized. The program…

Walter, Todd

262

New urban developments in Safavid Isfahan continuity or disjuncture?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some historians and critics have claimed that the generation and the evolution of traditional pre-modern urbanism and architecture were based on a deep understanding of the natural and man-made environment; they present its achievements as an integrated structure in which a clear sense of continuity and integrity exists. But the new Safavid developments of seventeenth century Isfahan, a city that

Somaiyeh Falahat; M. Reza Shirazi

2012-01-01

263

Effects of Global Change on U.S. Urban Areas: Vulnerabilities, Impacts, and Adaptation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Human settlements, both large and small, are where the vast majority of people on the Earth live. Expansion of cities both in population and areal extent, is a relentless process that will accelerate in the 21st century. As a consequence of urban growth both in the United States and around the globe, it is important to develop an understanding of how urbanization will affect the local and regional environment. Of equal importance, however, is the assessment of how cities will be impacted by the looming prospects of global climate change and climate variability. The potential impacts of climate change and variability has recently been enunciated by the IPCC's "Climate Change 2007" report. Moreover, the U.S. Climate Change Science Program (CCSP) is preparing a series of "Synthesis and Assessment Products" (SAP) reports to support informed discussion and decision making regarding climate change and variability by policy makers, resource managers, stakeholders, the media, and the general public. We are working on a chapter of SAP 4.6 ("Analysis of the Effects of Global Chance on Human Health and Welfare and Human Systems") wherein we wish to describe the effects of global climate change on human settlements. This paper will present the thoughts and ideas that are being formulated for our SAP report that relate to what vulnerabilities and impacts will occur, what adaptation responses may take place, and what possible effects on settlement patterns and characteristics will potentially arise, on human settlements in the U.S. as a result of climate change and climate variability. We wish to present these ideas and concepts as a "work in progress" that are subject to several rounds of review, and we invite comments from listeners at this session on the rationale and veracity of our thoughts. Additionally, we wish to explore how technology such as remote sensing data coupled with modeling, can be employed as synthesis tools for deriving insight across a spectrum of impacts (e.g. public health, urban planning for mitigation strategies) on how cities can cope and adapt to climate change and variability. This latter point parallels the concepts and ideas presented in the U.S. National Academy of Sciences, Decadal Survey report on "Earth Science Applications from Space: National Imperatives for the Next Decade and Beyond" wherein the analysis of the impacts of climate change and variability, human health, and land use change are listed as key areas for development of future Earth observing remote sensing systems.

Quattrochi, D. A.; Wilbanks, T. J.; Kirshen, P. H.; Romero-Lankao, P.; Rosenzweig, C. E.; Ruth, M.; Solecki, W.; Tarr, J. A.

2007-05-01

264

Assessing the impact of urbanization on storm runoff in a peri-urban catchment using historical change in impervious cover  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper investigates changes in storm runoff resulting from the transformation of previously rural landscapes into peri-urban areas. Two adjacent catchments (?5 km2) located within the town of Swindon in the United Kingdom were monitored during 2011 and 2012 providing continuous records of rainfall, runoff and actual evaporation. One catchment is highly urbanized and the other is a recently developed peri-urban area containing two distinct areas of drainage: one with mixed natural and storm drainage pathways, the other entirely storm drainage. Comparison of observed storm hydrographs showed that the degree of area serviced by storm drainage was a stronger determinant of storm runoff response than either impervious area or development type and that little distinction in hydrological response exists between urban and peri-urban developments of similar impervious cover when no significant hydraulic alteration is present. Historical levels of urbanization and impervious cover were mapped from the 1960s to the 2010s based on digitized historical topographic maps and were combined with a hydrological model to enable backcasting of the present day storm runoff response to that of the catchments in their earlier states. Results from the peri-urban catchment showed an increase in impervious cover from 11% in the 1960s to 44% in 2010s, and introduction of a large-scale storm drainage system in the early 2000s, was accompanied by a 50% reduction in the Muskingum routing parameter k, reducing the characteristic flood duration by over 50% while increasing peak flow by over 400%. Comparisons with changes in storm runoff response in the more urban area suggest that the relative increase in peak flows and reduction in flood duration and response time of a catchment is greatest at low levels of urbanization and that the introduction of storm water conveyance systems significantly increases the flashiness of storm runoff above that attributed to impervious area alone. This study demonstrates that careful consideration is required when using impervious cover data within hydrological models and when designing flood mitigation measures, particularly in peri-urban areas where a widespread loss in pervious surfaces and alteration of drainage pathways can significantly alter the storm runoff response. Recommendations include utilizing more refined urban land use typologies that can better represent physical alteration of hydrological pathways.

Miller, James D.; Kim, Hyeonjun; Kjeldsen, Thomas R.; Packman, John; Grebby, Stephen; Dearden, Rachel

2014-07-01

265

The regional impacts of urban land use change and anthropogenic heat release on climate change over China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Along with the economic development and the accelerated urbanization, urban population in China has been increasing rapidly, while anthropogenic heat release produced by the large-scale energy consumption in cities will be a vital factor to the climate change. The facts are found in the results of two years simulations of WRF coupled with UCM without nested domain in former paper including that after considering the combined function of the urban land use change and the anthropogenic heat release, the surface temperature increased in most areas of China, especially in Yangtze River delta; The precipitation increased in some areas especially in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei area, while which decreased in the other areas, the notable place was the Yangtze River delta; The latent heat flux has opposite changes while there was an increased sensible heat flux. In this paper, NCAR Advanced Research WRF (ARW) model coupled with Urban Canopy Model (UCM) is used as a nested regional climate model to simulate the regional impacts of urban land use change and the anthropogenic heat release on climate change, and three types of experiments with the land use classifications of USGS-24 without urban type and USGS-33 with three urban are adopted from December 2006 to December 2008, the horizontal resolution in the outer domain is 30km with 179×161 grid points, and The 3:1 grid ratio between the outer and nest domains is typical for WRF. So the horizontal resolution of innermost nest domain is 3.3km with 151×157 grid points over Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei area and the other domain is over the Yangtze River delta with 145×151 grid points. The summer surface temperature increased in all of China, but the added magnitude is less than the results without nested domain. That maybe the nesting have an unknown impact on the simulations. The other results are coming up in the few days.

Yongli, W.; Jinming, F.

2011-12-01

266

Assessing climate impacts of planning policies-An estimation for the urban region of Leipzig (Germany)  

SciTech Connect

Local climate regulation by urban green areas is an important urban ecosystem service, as it reduces the extent of the urban heat island and therefore enhances quality of life. Local and regional planning policies can control land use changes in an urban region, which in turn alter local climate regulation. Thus, this paper describes a method for estimating the impacts of current land uses as well as local and regional planning policies on local climate regulation, using evapotranspiration and land surface emissivity as indicators. This method can be used by practitioners to evaluate their policies. An application of this method is demonstrated for the case study Leipzig (Germany). Results for six selected planning policies in Leipzig indicate their distinct impacts on climate regulation and especially the role of their spatial extent. The proposed method was found to easily produce a qualitative assessment of impacts of planning policies on climate regulation.

Schwarz, Nina, E-mail: nina.schwarz@ufz.de; Bauer, Annette, E-mail: annette.bauer@ufz.de; Haase, Dagmar, E-mail: dagmar.haase@ufz.d

2011-03-15

267

Development at the wildland-urban interface and the mitigation of forest-fire risk.  

PubMed

This work addresses the impacts of development at the wildland-urban interface on forest fires that spread to human habitats. Catastrophic fires in the western United States and elsewhere make these impacts a matter of urgency for decision makers, scientists, and the general public. Using a simple fire-spread model, along with housing and vegetation data, we show that fire size probability distributions can be strongly modified by the density and flammability of houses. We highlight a sharp transition zone in the parameter space of vegetation flammability and house density. Many actual fire landscapes in the United States appear to have spreading properties close to this transition. Thus, the density and flammability of buildings should be taken into account when assessing fire risk at the wildland-urban interface. Moreover, our results highlight ways for regulation at this interface to help mitigate fire risk. PMID:17717082

Spyratos, Vassilis; Bourgeron, Patrick S; Ghil, Michael

2007-09-01

268

Development at the wildland–urban interface and the mitigation of forest-fire risk  

PubMed Central

This work addresses the impacts of development at the wildland–urban interface on forest fires that spread to human habitats. Catastrophic fires in the western United States and elsewhere make these impacts a matter of urgency for decision makers, scientists, and the general public. Using a simple fire-spread model, along with housing and vegetation data, we show that fire size probability distributions can be strongly modified by the density and flammability of houses. We highlight a sharp transition zone in the parameter space of vegetation flammability and house density. Many actual fire landscapes in the United States appear to have spreading properties close to this transition. Thus, the density and flammability of buildings should be taken into account when assessing fire risk at the wildland–urban interface. Moreover, our results highlight ways for regulation at this interface to help mitigate fire risk. PMID:17717082

Spyratos, Vassilis; Bourgeron, Patrick S.; Ghil, Michael

2007-01-01

269

Stochastic cellular automata modeling of urban land use dynamics: empirical development  

E-print Network

of urban land use change. This indicates the relevance of the approach for generating forecasts of growth'; Cellular automata; Urban growth; Urban planning 1. Introduction: cell-space models of land use changeStochastic cellular automata modeling of urban land use dynamics: empirical development

Camara, Gilberto

270

Impacts of urban land-surface forcing on ozone air quality in the Seoul metropolitan area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Modified local meteorology owing to heterogeneities in the urban-rural surface can affect urban air quality. In this study, the impacts of urban land-surface forcing on ozone air quality during a high ozone (O3) episode in the Seoul metropolitan area, South Korea, are investigated using a high-resolution chemical transport model (CMAQ). Under fair weather conditions, the temperature excess (urban heat island) significantly modifies boundary layer characteristics/structures and local circulations. The modified boundary layer and local circulations result in an increase in O3 levels in the urban area of 16 ppb in the nighttime and 13 ppb in the daytime. Enhanced turbulence in the deep urban boundary layer dilutes pollutants such as NOx, and this contributes to the elevated O3 levels through the reduced O3 destruction by NO in the NOx-rich environment. The advection of O3 precursors over the mountains near Seoul by the prevailing valley-breeze circulation in the mid- to late morning results in the build-up of O3 over the mountains in conjunction with biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) emissions there. As the prevailing local circulation in the afternoon changes to urban-breeze circulation, the O3-rich air masses over the mountains are advected over the urban area. The urban-breeze circulation exerts significant influences on not only the advection of O3 but also the chemical production of O3 under the circumstances in which both anthropogenic and biogenic (natural) emissions play important roles in O3 formation. As the air masses that are characterized by low NOx and high BVOC levels and long OH chain length are advected over the urban area from the surroundings, the ozone production efficiency increases in the urban area. The relatively strong vertical mixing in the urban boundary layer embedded in the sea-breeze inflow layer reduces NOx levels, thus contributing to the elevated O3 levels in the urban area.

Ryu, Y.-H.; Baik, J.-J.; Kwak, K.-H.; Kim, S.; Moon, N.

2013-02-01

271

Biology Experience Impacts Career Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Evaluates a collaborative program in which high achieving biology students participate in genetics research under the guidance and supervision of a geneticist. Reviews the impact of their participation on college and career choices as well as understanding of science methodology, genetics, agricultural science, and product development. (SOE)

Moore, Mary Jane; Holmes, William R.

2003-01-01

272

Are Urban Heat Island Adaptation Strategies Created Equal? Hydroclimatic Impact Assessment for U.S. 2100 Urban Expansion (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With population projections ranging from 380 to 690 million inhabitants for U.S. 2100, considerable conversion of landscapes will be necessary to meet increased demand for the built environment. Incorporating Integrated Climate and Land Use Scenarios (ICLUS) urban expansion data for 2100 as surface boundary conditions within the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) modeling system, we examine hydroclimatic consequences owing to built environment expansion scenarios across the conterminous U.S. Continuous, multi-year and multi-member continental scale numerical simulations are performed for a modern day urban representation (Control), a worst-case (A2) and a best-case (B1) urban expansion scenario. Three adaptation approaches are explored to assess the potential offset of urban-induced warming to growth of the built environment: (i) widespread adoption of cool roofs, (ii) a simple representation of green roofs, and a (iii) hypothetical hybrid approach integrating properties of both cool and green roofs (i.e., reflective green roofs).Widespread adoption of adaptation strategies exhibit hydroclimatic impacts that are regionally and seasonally dependant. To help prioritize region-specific adaptation strategies, the potential to offset urban-induced warming by each of the trio of strategies is examined and contrasted across the various hydrometeorological environments.

Georgescu, M.; Bierwagen, B. G.; Morefield, P.; Weaver, C. P.

2013-12-01

273

A Collaborative Model for Developing Classroom Management Skills in Urban Professional Development School Settings  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes a school-university partnership that focuses on the development of classroom management skills for preservice teachers in an urban setting, through collaboration between mentors, principals, and a university supervisor. To prepare preservice teachers for the unique challenges of urban schools, three key elements were…

Dobler, Elizabeth; Kesner, Cathy; Kramer, Rebecca; Resnik, Marilyn; Devin, Libby

2009-01-01

274

Research on the development of new energy and government behavior under the new eco-urbanization  

Microsoft Academic Search

the development of new energy is a complicated systematic project, and the government is the strong guarantee for the development of new energy under the eco- urbanization. This paper analyze eco-urbanization, new energy development and government behavior, establish the quartet game model of new energy development under the eco-urbanization, and study the content and innovation of government behaviour toward new

Dajin Yu

2011-01-01

275

Situating Technology Professional Development in Urban Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Center for Technology and School Change (CTSC) is a research and development center specializing in professional development, evaluation and technology integration research. The goal of the qualitative research reported in this article was to identify factors that strengthen the integration of technology in classrooms in ways that are…

Meier, Ellen B.

2005-01-01

276

Impact of Low-Carbon Urban Rapid Rail Transit to Land Use: A Case Study of Wuhan City  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chinese cities are now at a stage of rapid development and the problems of transportation, environment and land use are increasingly serious. Urban rapid rail transit is wholly a convenient, fast, effective, low-carbon, environment-friendly urban infrastructure system, which providing an effective way for the sustainable development of urban transit and land use. In this paper, the effect mechanism of urban

Jie Dong; Chunpeng Wu; Wei Zhao

2010-01-01

277

An environmental pressure index proposal for urban development planning based on the analytic network process  

SciTech Connect

This paper introduces a new approach to prioritize urban planning projects according to their environmental pressure in an efficient and reliable way. It is based on the combination of three procedures: (i) the use of environmental pressure indicators, (ii) the aggregation of the indicators in an Environmental Pressure Index by means of the Analytic Network Process method (ANP) and (iii) the interpretation of the information obtained from the experts during the decision-making process. The method has been applied to a proposal for urban development of La Carlota airport in Caracas (Venezuela). There are three options which are currently under evaluation. They include a Health Club, a Residential Area and a Theme Park. After a selection process the experts chose the following environmental pressure indicators as ANP criteria for the project life cycle: used land area, population density, energy consumption, water consumption and waste generation. By using goal-oriented questionnaires designed by the authors, the experts determined the importance of the criteria, the relationships among criteria, and the relationships between the criteria and the urban development alternatives. The resulting data showed that water consumption is the most important environmental pressure factor, and the Theme Park project is by far the urban development alternative which exerts the least environmental pressure on the area. The participating experts coincided in appreciating the technique proposed in this paper is useful and, for ranking ordering these alternatives, an improvement from traditional techniques such as environmental impact studies, life-cycle analysis, etc.

Gomez-Navarro, Tomas, E-mail: tgomez@dpi.upv.e [Departamento de Proyectos de Ingenieria, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Camino de Vera s/n. 46022, Valencia (Spain); Garcia-Melon, Monica, E-mail: mgarciam@dpi.upv.e [Departamento de Proyectos de Ingenieria, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Camino de Vera s/n. 46022, Valencia (Spain); Acuna-Dutra, Silvia, E-mail: sacuna@unimet.edu.v [Departamento de Estudios Ambientales, Universidad Metropolitana, Autopista Guarenas, Sector La Urbina, Distribuidor Metropolitano, Caracas (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Diaz-Martin, Diego, E-mail: ddiaz@unimet.edu.v [Departamento de Estudios Ambientales, Universidad Metropolitana, Autopista Guarenas, Sector La Urbina, Distribuidor Metropolitano, Caracas (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of)

2009-09-15

278

Urban Heat Island Adaptation Strategies are not created equal: Assessment of Impacts and Tradeoffs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sustainable urban expansion requires an extension of contemporary approaches that focus nearly exclusively on reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. Researchers have proposed biophysical approaches to urban heat island mitigation (e.g., via deployment of cool or green roofs) but little is known how these technologies vary with place and season and what impacts are beyond those of near surface temperature. Using a suite of continuous, multi-year and multi-member continental scale numerical simulations for the United States, we examine hydroclimatic impacts for a variety of U.S. urban expansion (to the year 2100) and urban adaptation futures and compare those to contemporary urban extent. Adaptation approaches include widespread adoption of cool roofs, green roofs, and a hypothetical hybrid approach integrating properties of both cool and green roofs (i.e., reflective green roofs). Widespread adoption of adaptation strategies exhibits hydroclimatic impacts that are regionally and seasonally dependent. For some regions and seasons, urban-induced warming of 3°C can be completely offset by the adaptation approaches examined. For other regions and seasons, widespread adoption of some adaptation strategies can result in significant reduction in precipitation. Finally, implications of large-scale urbanization for seasonal energy demand will be examined.

Georgescu, Matei

2014-05-01

279

Forecasting the combined effects of urbanization and climate change on stream ecosystems: From impacts to management options  

USGS Publications Warehouse

1. Streams collect runoff, heat, and sediment from their watersheds, making them highly vulnerable to anthropogenic disturbances such as urbanization and climate change. Forecasting the effects of these disturbances using process-based models is critical to identifying the form and magnitude of likely impacts. Here, we integrate a new biotic model with four previously developed physical models (downscaled climate projections, stream hydrology, geomorphology, and water temperature) to predict how stream fish growth and reproduction will most probably respond to shifts in climate and urbanization over the next several decades. 2. The biotic submodel couples dynamics in fish populations and habitat suitability to predict fish assemblage composition, based on readily available biotic information (preferences for habitat, temperature, and food, and characteristics of spawning) and day-to-day variability in stream conditions. 3. We illustrate the model using Piedmont headwater streams in the Chesapeake Bay watershed of the USA, projecting ten scenarios: Baseline (low urbanization; no on-going construction; and present-day climate); one Urbanization scenario (higher impervious surface, lower forest cover, significant construction activity); four future climate change scenarios [Hadley CM3 and Parallel Climate Models under medium-high (A2) and medium-low (B2) emissions scenarios]; and the same four climate change scenarios plus Urbanization. 4. Urbanization alone depressed growth or reproduction of 8 of 39 species, while climate change alone depressed 22 to 29 species. Almost every recreationally important species (i.e. trouts, basses, sunfishes) and six of the ten currently most common species were predicted to be significantly stressed. The combined effect of climate change and urbanization on adult growth was sometimes large compared to the effect of either stressor alone. Thus, the model predicts considerable change in fish assemblage composition, including loss of diversity. 5. Synthesis and applications. The interaction of climate change and urban growth may entail significant reconfiguring of headwater streams, including a loss of ecosystem structure and services, which will be more costly than climate change alone. On local scales, stakeholders cannot control climate drivers but they can mitigate stream impacts via careful land use. Therefore, to conserve stream ecosystems, we recommend that proactive measures be taken to insure against species loss or severe population declines. Delays will inevitably exacerbate the impacts of both climate change and urbanization on headwater systems. ?? 2008 The Authors.

Nelson, K.C.; Palmer, M.A.; Pizzuto, J.E.; Moglen, G.E.; Angermeier, P.L.; Hilderbrand, R.H.; Dettinger, M.; Hayhoe, K.

2009-01-01

280

Forecasting the combined effects of urbanization and climate change on stream ecosystems: from impacts to management options  

PubMed Central

Streams collect runoff, heat, and sediment from their watersheds, making them highly vulnerable to anthropogenic disturbances such as urbanization and climate change. Forecasting the effects of these disturbances using process-based models is critical to identifying the form and magnitude of likely impacts. Here, we integrate a new biotic model with four previously developed physical models (downscaled climate projections, stream hydrology, geomorphology, and water temperature) to predict how stream fish growth and reproduction will most probably respond to shifts in climate and urbanization over the next several decades. The biotic submodel couples dynamics in fish populations and habitat suitability to predict fish assemblage composition, based on readily available biotic information (preferences for habitat, temperature, and food, and characteristics of spawning) and day-to-day variability in stream conditions. We illustrate the model using Piedmont headwater streams in the Chesapeake Bay watershed of the USA, projecting ten scenarios: Baseline (low urbanization; no on-going construction; and present-day climate); one Urbanization scenario (higher impervious surface, lower forest cover, significant construction activity); four future climate change scenarios [Hadley CM3 and Parallel Climate Models under medium-high (A2) and medium-low (B2) emissions scenarios]; and the same four climate change scenarios plus Urbanization. Urbanization alone depressed growth or reproduction of 8 of 39 species, while climate change alone depressed 22 to 29 species. Almost every recreationally important species (i.e. trouts, basses, sunfishes) and six of the ten currently most common species were predicted to be significantly stressed. The combined effect of climate change and urbanization on adult growth was sometimes large compared to the effect of either stressor alone. Thus, the model predicts considerable change in fish assemblage composition, including loss of diversity. Synthesis and applications. The interaction of climate change and urban growth may entail significant reconfiguring of headwater streams, including a loss of ecosystem structure and services, which will be more costly than climate change alone. On local scales, stakeholders cannot control climate drivers but they can mitigate stream impacts via careful land use. Therefore, to conserve stream ecosystems, we recommend that proactive measures be taken to insure against species loss or severe population declines. Delays will inevitably exacerbate the impacts of both climate change and urbanization on headwater systems. PMID:19536343

Nelson, Kären C; Palmer, Margaret A; Pizzuto, James E; Moglen, Glenn E; Angermeier, Paul L; Hilderbrand, Robert H; Dettinger, Michael; Hayhoe, Katharine

2009-01-01

281

Impacts of urban environmental elements on residential housing prices in Guangzhou (China)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The amenity value provided by urban green spaces, water bodies and good environmental quality is difficult to assess and incorporate into urban planning and development. Developers and governments in China hitherto have seldom objectively factored these attributes into property pricing and associated decisions. The hedonic pricing method offers an appropriate approach to gauge such external benefits which contribute to real-estate

C. Y. Jim; Wendy Y. Chen

2006-01-01

282

Impact of Urban Expansion on Summer Heat Wave in Beijing  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is increasing evidence that rapid urbanization in China has intensified summer heat wave in recent decades in the background of global warming. This study implements two land-cover classification from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) in the Weather Research and Forecast model (WRF), version 2.2, and investigates the regional effect of urban expansion

Hongyun Ma; Jie Song; Pinwen Guo

2009-01-01

283

Mayan Urbanism: Impact on a Tropical Karst Environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

From the first millennium B.C. through the 9th-century A.D. Classic Maya collapse, nonurban populations grew exponentially, doubling every 408 years, in the twin-lake (Yaxha-Sacnab) basin that contained the Classic urban center of Yaxha. Pollen data show that forests were essentially cleared by Early Classic time. Sharply accelerated slopewash and colluviation, amplified in the Yaxha subbasin by urban construction, transferred nutrients

E. S. Deevey; Don S. Rice; Prudence M. Rice; H. H. Vaughan; Mark Brenner; M. S. Flannery

1979-01-01

284

One Hundred Years of New York City's "Urban Heat Island": Temperature Trends and Public Health Impacts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we examine the relationship between the historical development of New York City and its effect on the urban climate. Urban "heat islands" (UHI) are created principally by man-made surfaces, including concrete, dark roofs, asphalt lots and roads, which absorb most of the sunlight falling on them and reradiate that energy as heat. Many urban streets have fewer trees and other vegetation to shade buildings, block solar radiation and cool the air by evapotranspiration. The historical development of the NYC heat island effect was assessed in terms of average temperature differences of the city center relative to its surrounding 31-county metropolitan region, comprised of parts of New York State, New Jersey, and Connecticut. Monthly maximum and minimum temperatures for 1900-1997 were obtained from NOAA's National Climatic Data Center, the NASA-Goddard Institute for Space Studies, and the Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory of Columbia University for 24 weather stations within the region that are part of the U.S. Historical Climatology Network. Analysis of annual mean temperatures shows an increasing difference between NYC (Central Park weather station) and its surrounding region over the twentieth century. Analysis of the temperature differences over time between NY Central Park (NYCP) station and 23 regional weather stations classified according to distance and level of urbanization show a heat island effect existing in NYC, with mean temperatures in the NYCP Station generally higher than the surrounding stations, ranging from 1.20\\deg C to 3.02\\deg C. A difference of at least 1\\deg C already existed at the beginning of the 20th century between the mean temperature in NYC and its surrounding rural areas, and this difference increased over the twentieth century. There was a significant decrease in the monthly and seasonal variability of the UHI effect over the century. Temperature extremes and summertime heat can create heat stress and other health consequences for urban residents. Public health impacts are assessed as the proportion of heat-related regional mortality estimated to be attributable to New York City's heat island effect during an average 1990's summer. Concentration-response functions describing the temperature-mortality relationship in NYC derived from the epidemiological literature are used to estimate numbers of deaths in a typical 1990s summer and those attributable to the city's heat island effect. The techniques and potential public health benefits of a pilot project to mitigate the heat island effect in NYC will be discussed.

Rosenthal, J. E.; Knowlton, K. M.; Rosenzweig, C.; Goldberg, R.; Kinney, P. L.

2003-12-01

285

The impact of projected increases in urbanization on ecosystem services  

PubMed Central

Alteration in land use is likely to be a major driver of changes in the distribution of ecosystem services before 2050. In Europe, urbanization will probably be the main cause of land-use change. This increase in urbanization will result in spatial shifts in both supplies of ecosystem services and the beneficiaries of those services; the net outcome of such shifts remains to be determined. Here, we model changes in urban land cover in Britain based on large (16%) projected increases in the human population by 2031, and the consequences for three different services—flood mitigation, agricultural production and carbon storage. We show that under a scenario of densification of urban areas, the combined effect of increasing population and loss of permeable surfaces is likely to result in 1.7 million people living within 1 km of rivers with at least 10 per cent increases in projected peak flows, but that increasing suburban ‘sprawl’ will have little effect on flood mitigation services. Conversely, losses of stored carbon and agricultural production are over three times as high under the sprawl as under the ‘densification’ urban growth scenarios. Our results illustrate the challenges of meeting, but also of predicting, future demands and patterns of ecosystem services in the face of increasing urbanization. PMID:21389035

Eigenbrod, F.; Bell, V. A.; Davies, H. N.; Heinemeyer, A.; Armsworth, P. R.; Gaston, K. J.

2011-01-01

286

The impact of projected increases in urbanization on ecosystem services.  

PubMed

Alteration in land use is likely to be a major driver of changes in the distribution of ecosystem services before 2050. In Europe, urbanization will probably be the main cause of land-use change. This increase in urbanization will result in spatial shifts in both supplies of ecosystem services and the beneficiaries of those services; the net outcome of such shifts remains to be determined. Here, we model changes in urban land cover in Britain based on large (16%) projected increases in the human population by 2031, and the consequences for three different services--flood mitigation, agricultural production and carbon storage. We show that under a scenario of densification of urban areas, the combined effect of increasing population and loss of permeable surfaces is likely to result in 1.7 million people living within 1 km of rivers with at least 10 per cent increases in projected peak flows, but that increasing suburban 'sprawl' will have little effect on flood mitigation services. Conversely, losses of stored carbon and agricultural production are over three times as high under the sprawl as under the 'densification' urban growth scenarios. Our results illustrate the challenges of meeting, but also of predicting, future demands and patterns of ecosystem services in the face of increasing urbanization. PMID:21389035

Eigenbrod, F; Bell, V A; Davies, H N; Heinemeyer, A; Armsworth, P R; Gaston, K J

2011-11-01

287

Impacts of urban land-surface forcing on air quality in the Seoul metropolitan area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Modified local meteorology owing to heterogeneities in the urban-rural surface can affect urban air quality. In this study, the impacts of urban land-surface forcing on air quality during a high ozone (O3) episode in the Seoul metropolitan area, South Korea, are investigated using a high-resolution chemical transport model (CMAQ). Under a fair weather condition, the temperature excess (urban heat island) significantly modifies boundary layer characteristics/structures and local circulations. The modified boundary layer and local circulations result in an increase in O3 levels in the urban area of 16 ppb in the nighttime and 13 ppb in the daytime. Enhanced turbulence in the deepened urban boundary layer dilutes pollutants such as NOx, and this contributes to the elevated O3 levels through the less O3 destruction by NO in the NOx-rich environment. The advection of O3 precursors over the mountains near Seoul by the prevailing valley-breeze circulation in the mid- to late morning results in the build-up of O3 over the mountains in conjunction with biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) emissions there. As the prevailing local circulation in the afternoon changes to urban-breeze circulation, the O3-rich air masses over the mountains are advected over the urban area. The urban-breeze circulation exerts significant influences on not only the advection process but also the chemical process under the circumstances in which both anthropogenic and biogenic (natural) emissions play important roles in forming O3. The intrusion of the air masses, characterized by low NOx and high BVOC levels and long OH chain length, from surroundings increases ozone production efficiency in the urban area, thus leading to more O3 production. The relatively strong vertical mixing in the urban boundary layer embedded in the sea-breeze inflow layer reduces NOx levels, thus contributing to the elevated O3 levels in the urban area.

Ryu, Y.-H.; Baik, J.-J.; Kwak, K.-H.; Kim, S.; Moon, N.

2012-09-01

288

Interactive Urban Development Control with Collaborative Virtual Environments  

E-print Network

, not only in terms of its visual and communicative impact, but also its impact on the decision are DIVE, MASSIVE, dVS, COVEN etc. [3,4,5,8,9,13]. This research focuses on how CVEs can be used to aid are first analysed by the planning officers who determine the possible impact that the new development may

Taylor, Hamish

289

Environmental impact assessment modeling in an urban man-made lake using fuzzy logic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmental impact assessment essentially depends on diverse closely connected components and variables. For this purpose, identification of the whole components is fundamentally required. This study aims to investigate environmental impact assessment of an urban man-made lake in the western part of Tehran, based on recognition of affecting components and their reciprocal effects. Since the components are not constant during the

J. Jassbi; J. Nouri; M. Abbaspour; K. Varshosaz; N. Jafarzadeh

290

Climate change impacts on rainfall extremes and urban drainage: state-of-the-art review  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Under the umbrella of the IWA/IAHR Joint Committee on Urban Drainage, the International Working Group on Urban Rainfall (IGUR) has reviewed existing methodologies for the analysis of long-term historical and future trends in urban rainfall extremes and their effects on urban drainage systems, due to anthropogenic climate change. Current practises have several limitations and pitfalls, which are important to be considered by trend or climate change impact modellers and users of trend/impact results. The review considers the following aspects: Analysis of long-term historical trends due to anthropogenic climate change: influence of data limitation, instrumental or environmental changes, interannual variations and longer term climate oscillations on trend testing results. Analysis of long-term future trends due to anthropogenic climate change: by complementing empirical historical data with the results from physically-based climate models, dynamic downscaling to the urban scale by means of Limited Area Models (LAMs) including explicitly small-scale cloud processes; validation of RCM/GCM results for local conditions accounting for natural variability, limited length of the available time series, difference in spatial scales, and influence of climate oscillations; statistical downscaling methods combined with bias correction; uncertainties associated with the climate forcing scenarios, the climate models, the initial states and the statistical downscaling step; uncertainties in the impact models (e.g. runoff peak flows, flood or surcharge frequencies, and CSO frequencies and volumes), including the impacts of more extreme conditions than considered during impact model calibration and validation. Implications for urban drainage infrastructure design and management: upgrading of the urban drainage system as part of a program of routine and scheduled replacement and renewal of aging infrastructure; how to account for the uncertainties; flexible and sustainable solutions; adaptive approach that provides inherent flexibility and reversibility and avoids closing off options; importance of active learning. References: Willems, P., Olsson, J., Arnbjerg-Nielsen, K., Beecham, S., Pathirana, A., Bülow Gregersen, I., Madsen, H., Nguyen, V-T-V. (2012). Impacts of climate change on rainfall extremes and urban drainage. IWA Publishing, 252 p., Paperback Print ISBN 9781780401256; Ebook ISBN 9781780401263 Willems, P., Arnbjerg-Nielsen, K., Olsson, J., Nguyen, V.T.V. (2012), 'Climate change impact assessment on urban rainfall extremes and urban drainage: methods and shortcomings', Atmospheric Research, 103, 106-118

Willems, Patrick; Olsson, Jonas; Arnbjerg-Nielsen, Karsten; Beecham, Simon; Pathirana, Assela; Bülow Gregersen, Ida; Madsen, Henrik; Nguyen, Van-Thanh-Van

2013-04-01

291

Floodplain Management in Urban Developing Areas. Part II. GIS-Based Flood Analysis and Urban Growth Modelling  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Part I of this article the very dynamic nature of floodplain management was discussed and the need for modelling the urban growth processes and formulating scenarios of urban development was emphasised. In this second part, the use of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) for addressing those problems is presented. GIS have been recognised as a powerful means to integrate and

Francisco Nunes Correia; Maria Da graça saraiva; Fernando Nunes Da Silva; Isabel Ramos

1999-01-01

292

Untangling the effects of urban development on subsurface storage in Baltimore  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The impact of urban development on surface flow has been studied extensively over the last half century, but effects on groundwater systems are still poorly understood. Previous studies of the influence of urban development on subsurface storage have not revealed any consistent pattern, with results showing increases, decreases, and negligible change in groundwater levels. In this paper, we investigated the effects of four key features that impact subsurface storage in urban landscapes. These include reduced vegetative cover, impervious surface cover, infiltration and inflow (I&I) of groundwater and storm water into wastewater pipes, and other anthropogenic recharge and discharge fluxes including water supply pipe leakage and well and reservoir withdrawals. We applied the integrated groundwater-surface water-land surface model ParFlow.CLM to the Baltimore metropolitan area. We compared the base case (all four features) to simulations in which an individual urban feature was removed. For the Baltimore region, the effect of infiltration of groundwater into wastewater pipes had the greatest effect on subsurface storage (I&I decreased subsurface storage 11.1% relative to precipitation minus evapotranspiration after 1 year), followed by the impact of water supply pipe leakage and lawn irrigation (combined anthropogenic discharges and recharges led to a 7.4% decrease) and reduced vegetation (1.9% increase). Impervious surface cover led to a small increase in subsurface storage (0.56% increase) associated with decreased groundwater discharge as base flow. The change in subsurface storage due to infiltration of groundwater into wastewater pipes was largest despite the smaller spatial extent of surface flux modifications, compared to other features.

Bhaskar, Aditi S.; Welty, Claire; Maxwell, Reed M.; Miller, Andrew J.

2015-02-01

293

The impact of urbanization and geographical dispersion on the linguistic russification of soviet nationalities  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper tests a set of hypotheses about the impact of urbanization and geographical mobility on the linguistic Russification\\u000a of 46 Soviet nationalities. The hypotheses are based on theoretical literature regarding the differing career aspirations\\u000a of urban and rural residents, Soviet policies of providing native-language cultural facilities to non-Russian groups, and\\u000a the probable levels of contact between non-Russians and Russians

Brian Silver

1974-01-01

294

Impact of Urbanization on Water Quantity and Quality: The Need for an Integrative Watershed Modeling Approach  

EPA Science Inventory

Economic development through natural resource extraction is the primary driver of land use change. Land use change generally occurs as a result of urban development (residential, commercial, and industrial), agriculture (pasture and crop production), forestry (wood for constructi...

295

Impact of rehabilitation of Assiut barrage, Nile River, on groundwater rise in urban areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To make optimum use of the most vital natural resource of Egypt, the River Nile water, a number of regulating structures (in the form of dams and barrages) for control and diversion of the river flow have been constructed in this river since the start of the 20th century. One of these barrages is the Assiut barrage which will require considerable repairs in the near future. The design of the rehabilitation of the barrage includes a headpond with water levels maintained at a level approximately 0.60 m higher than the highest water level in the headpond of the present barrage. This development will cause an increase of the seepage flow from the river towards the adjacent agricultural lands, Assiut Town and villages. The increased head pond level might cause a rise of the groundwater levels and impedance of drainage outflows. The drainage conditions may therefore be adversely affected in the so-called impacted areas which comprise floodplains on both sides of the Nile for about 70 km upstream of the future barrage. A rise in the groundwater table, particularly when high river levels impede drainage, may result in waterlogging and secondary salinization of the soil profile in agricultural areas and increase of groundwater into cellars beneath buildings in the urban areas. In addition, a rise in the groundwater table could have negative impact on existing sanitation facilities, in particular in the areas which are served with septic tanks. The impacts of increasing the headpond level were assessed using a three-dimensional groundwater model. The mechanisms of interactions between the Nile River and the underlying Quaternary aquifer system as they affect the recharge/discharge processes are comprehensively outlined. The model has been calibrated for steady state and transient conditions against historical data from observation wells. The mitigation measures for the groundwater rise in the urban areas have been tested using the calibrated mode.

Dawoud, Mohamed A.; El Arabi, Nahed E.; Khater, Ahmed R.; van Wonderen, Jan

2006-08-01

296

Impact of urban parameterization on high resolution air quality forecast with the GEM - AQ model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this study is to assess the impact of urban cover on high-resolution air quality forecast simulations with the GEM-AQ model. The impact of urban area on the ambient atmosphere is non-stationary and short-term variability of meteorological conditions may result in significant changes of the observed intensity of urban heat island and pollutant concentrations. In this study we used the Town Energy Balance (TEB) parameterization to represent urban effects on modelled meteorological and air quality parameters at the final nesting level with horizontal resolution of ~5 km over Southern Poland. Three one-day cases representing different meteorological conditions were selected and the model was run with and without the TEB parameterization. Three urban cover categories were used in the TEB parameterization: mid-high buildings, sparse buildings and a mix of buildings and nature. Urban cover layers were constructed based on an area fraction of towns in a grid cell. To analyze the impact of urban parameterization on modelled meteorological and air quality parameters, anomalies in the lowest model layer for the temperature, wind speed and pollutant concentrations were calculated. Anomalies of the specific humidity fields indicate that the use of the TEB parameterization leads to a systematic reduction of moisture content in the air. Comparison with temperature and wind speed measurements taken at urban background monitoring stations shows that application of urban parameterization improves model results. For primary pollutants the impact of urban areas is most significant in regions characterized with high emissions. In most cases the anomalies of NO2 and CO concentrations are negative. This reduction is most likely caused by an enhanced vertical mixing due to elevated surface temperature and modified vertical stability. Although the outcome from this study is promising, it does not give an answer concerning the benefits of using TEB in the GEM-AQ model in an operational configuration. Additional long term evaluation would be required to better estimate the anthropogenic heat flux and to assess the urban impact in longer time scales (seasonal and annual average).

Struzewska, J.; Kaminski, J. W.

2012-04-01

297

Sustainable development of urban underground space for utilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors examine the uses of multi-purpose utility tunnel systems in urban areas as a technique for solving problems of congestion in the shallow underground. Several underground developments in Europe are mentioned. The Utility Tunnels European Research Group (U.T.E.R.G.), founded by the National Institute for Unrban Engineering of France and the Polytechnic University of Valencie in Span, was established to

J. J. Cano-Hurtado; J. Canto-Perello

1999-01-01

298

Brownfields Remediation and Reuse: An Opportunity for Urban Sustainable Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This paper focuses on brownfields remediation and reuse strategies as opportunities to favour environmental protection, improvement\\u000a of economic and social conditions and enhancement of human health and safety. The reuse of brownfield sites can also promote\\u000a and encourage urban sustainable development practices. Land management and soil protection are common priorities for all the\\u000a modern Governments and the experience achieved by

Margherita Turvani; Stefania Tonin

299

Impact of Supermarkets on Traditional Markets and Retailers in Indonesia's Urban Centers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study measures the impact of supermarkets on traditional markets in urban centers in Indonesia quantitatively using difference-in-difference and econometric methods as well as qualitatively using in-depth interviews. The quantitative methods find no statistically significant impact on earnings and profit but a statistically significant impact of supermarkets on the number of employees in traditional markets. The qualitative findings suggest that

Daniel Suryadarma; Adri Poesoro; Sri Budiyati; Akhmadi; Meuthia Rosfadhila

2007-01-01

300

Urban Security Initiative: Earthquake impacts on the urban ``system of systems``  

SciTech Connect

This paper is a discussion of how to address the problems of disasters in a large city, a project titled Urban Security Initiative undertaken by the Los Alamos National Laboratory. The paper first discusses the need to address the problems of disasters in large cities and ten provides a framework that is suitable to address this problem. The paper then provides an overview of the module of the project that deals with assessment of earthquake damage on urban infrastructure in large cities and an internet-based approach for consensus building leading to better coordination in the post-disaster period. Finally, the paper discusses the future direction of the project.

Maheshwari, S.; Jones, E.; Rasmussen, S.

1999-06-01

301

Applications of Decision-making Model in Progress Management of Urban Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Schedule arrangement is a key to success in urban development. In conventional practice, however, schedule arrangement in urban development is merely taken into account at the conceptual level. This study efficiently and effectively investigates and discusses the urban planning process based on the theory of systems engineering by an integral approach of quality and quantity, theory and practice, and government

Wei LI; Zhong-you SU; Min CHEN

2009-01-01

302

Impacts of Mixing Processes in Nocturnal Atmospheric Boundary Layer on Urban Ozone Concentrations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A number of open questions remain regarding the role of low-level jets (LLJs) and nocturnal mixing processes in the buildup of tropospheric ozone. The prevalence of southerly winds and LLJs in the U.S. Southern Great Plains during summer makes this region an ideal site for investigating the structure of the nocturnal boundary layer and its impacts on urban air quality. Ozone and nitrogen oxide concentrations measured at regulatory monitoring sites in the Oklahoma City (OKC) area and simulations with the Weather Research and Forecasting with Chemistry (WRF/Chem) model were analyzed to show how the nocturnal LLJ moderates boundary-layer mixing processes and air quality. Datasets collected during the Joint Urban 2003 campaign, which took place in July 2003 in OKC, provided detailed information about nocturnal boundary-layer structure and dynamics. In general, time series show the expected behavior that urban concentrations decrease at night due to nitrogen oxide titration reactions, but elevated concentrations and secondary peaks are also seen quite frequently after sunset. LLJs developed on most nights during the study period and were associated with strong vertical wind shear, which affected the boundary-layer stability and structure. Near-surface concentrations are higher during less stable nights when active mixing persists throughout the night. The WRF/Chem model results agree well with the observations and further demonstrate the role of LLJs in moderating nocturnal mixing processes and air quality. The highest nocturnal concentrations are linked to a strong LLJ that promotes both nocturnal long-range transport and persistent downward mixing of from the residual layer to the surface.

Klein, Petra M.; Hu, Xiao-Ming; Xue, Ming

2014-01-01

303

Borrowing from the past to sustain the present and the future: indigenous African urban forms, architecture, and sustainable urban development in contemporary Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urban spatial expansion resulting from urbanization in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) is not going to stop or stabilize in the near future. Efforts should therefore be concentrated on accommodating this phenomenon through the promotion of sustainable urban planning and development. Relying on secondary data, this paper examines models of indigenous African urban forms and architecture to understand these forms and their

Raymond Asomani-Boateng

2011-01-01

304

Hemeroby, urbanity and ruderality: bioindicators of disturbance and human impact  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary 1. Species vary according to whether they benefit from or are harmed by disturbance and intensive human activity. This variation can be quantified by indices of disturbance and unnaturalness. 2. An urban flora was characterized by comparing quadrat data from cities with several large data sets from the countryside. Existing scales of species response to disturbance and unnaturalness, ruderality

M. O. HILL; D. B. ROY; Ken Thompson

2002-01-01

305

The Impact of State Enterprise Zones on Urban Manufacturing Establishments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since the early 1980s, the vast majority of states have implemented enterprise zones. This paper analyzes urban zones in six states, examining the factors that states use to choose zone locations and the subsequent effect of the zones on business activity and employment. The source of outcome data is the U.S. Bureau of Census' longitudinal…

Greenbaum, Robert T.; Engberg, John B.

2004-01-01

306

Low Impact Development (LID) Technologies for Sustainable Water Management: Studies from a Green Roof  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anthropogenic induced landscape alterations, such as urbanization, can cause drastic alterations to predevelopment hydrologic conditions and the systems linked to these cycles. Low impact development (LID) technologies, such as green roofs, can help to minimize these impacts given their ability to retain and detain stormwater and subsequently evapotranspire or infiltrate excess water. An innovative technique for simultaneously monitoring stormwater retention,

K. A. Digiovanni; F. A. Montalto; S. Gaffin

2009-01-01

307

U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development: Publications  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Each year, the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) makes all of their published research reports, case studies, and guidebooks publicly available on this website. The documents are arranged thematically, and they include everything from "Affordable Housing" to "Zoning". Given the recent interest in building "green", many visitors will want to click on over to the "Housing Production and Technology" area. On the right hand side of the page, visitors will find the "Popular Picks" list. Some of the publications are intended for an audience with a more technical background, but many of the works deal quite broadly with urban policy matters. The site is rounded out by a direct link to "New Publications" area near the bottom of the homepage and social media functionality.

308

Impact of Megacity Shanghai on the Urban Heat-Island Effects over the Downstream City Kunshan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The impact of upstream urbanization on the enhanced urban heat-island (UHI) effects between Shanghai and Kunshan is investigated by analyzing seven years of surface observations and results from mesoscale model simulations. The observational analysis indicates that, under easterly and westerly winds, the temperature difference between Shanghai and Kunshan increases with wind speed when the wind speed 5 m s. The Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) numerical model, coupled with a one-layer urban canopy model (UCM), is used to examine the UHI structure and upstream effects by replacing the urban surface of Shanghai and/or Kunshan with cropland. The WRF/UCM modelling system is capable of reproducing the surface temperature and wind field reasonably well. The simulated urban canopy wind speed is a better representation of the near-surface wind speed than is the 10-m wind speed at the centre of Shanghai. Without the urban landscape of Shanghai, the surface air temperature over downstream Kunshan would decrease by 0.2-0.4 C in the afternoon and 0.4-0.6 C in the evening. In the simulation with the urban landscape of Shanghai, a shallow cold layer is found above the UHI, with a minimum temperature of about to 0.5 C during the afternoon hours. Strong horizontal divergence is found in this cold layer. The easterly breeze over Shanghai is strengthened at the surface by strong UHI effects, but weakened at upper levels. With the appearance of the urban landscape specific humidity decreases by 0.5-1 g kg within the urban area because of the waterproof property of an urban surface. On the other hand, the upper-level specific humidity is increased because of water vapour transferred by the strong upward vertical motions.

Kang, Han-Qing; Zhu, Bin; Zhu, Tong; Sun, Jia-Li; Ou, Jian-Jun

2014-09-01

309

Conceptual framework for describing selected urban and community impacts of federal energy policies  

SciTech Connect

A conceptual framework is presented for describing selected urban and community impacts of Federal energy policies. The framework depends on a simple causal model. The outputs of the model are impacts, changes in the state of the world of particular interest to policymakers. At any given time, a set of determinants account for the state of the world with respect to an impact category. Application of the model to a particular impact category requires: establishing a definition and measure for the impact category and identifying the determinants of these impacts. Analysis of the impact of a particular policy requires the following: identifying the policy and its effects (as estimated by others), isolating any effects that themselves constitute an urban and community impact, identifying any effects that change the value of determinants, and describing the impact with reference to the new values of determinants. This report provides a framework for these steps. Three impacts addressed are: neighborhood stability, housing availability, and quality and availability of public services. In each chapter, a definition and measure for the impact are specified; its principal determinants are identified; how the causal model can be used to estimate impacts by applying it to three illustrative Federal policies (domestic oil price decontrol, building energy performance standards, and increased Federal aid for mass transit) is demonstrated. (MCW)

Morris, F.A,; Marcus, A.A.; Keller, D.

1980-06-01

310

Biodiversity and Residential Development Beyond the Urban Fringe  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This chapter describes the impacts of rural exurban development on the abundance and variety of plants and animals in North\\u000a American ecosystems. The principles of landscape ecology provide a framework for considering the ways that exurban development\\u000a can impact biodiversity. We survey the literature and describe the responses of varying components of biodiversity to rural\\u000a exurban development in North America.

Carl E. Bock; Jane H. Bock

311

Impacts of urbanization on palustrine (depressional freshwater) wetlands—research and management in the Puget Sound region  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper summarizes the results of the Puget Sound Wetlands and Stormwater Management Research Program, which examined the impacts of urban stormwater on wetlands. Results are presented for data collected between 1988 and 1995 for 19 wetlands, showing changes in wetland hydrology resulting from urban conversion and the subsequent impacts on plant and amphibian communities. The amount of watershed imperviousness,

Lorin Reinelt; Richard Horner; Amanda Azous

1998-01-01

312

Green Infrastructure and Low-Impact Development Technologies  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students are introduced to innovative stormwater management strategies that are being used to restore the hydrology and water quality of urbanized areas to pre-development conditions. Collectively called green infrastructure (GI) and low-impact development (LID) technologies, they include green roofs and vegetative walls, bioretention or rain gardens, bioswales, planter boxes, permeable pavement, urban tree canopy, rainwater harvesting, downspout disconnection, green streets and alleys, and green parking. These approaches differ from the traditional centralized stormwater collection system with the idea of handling stormwater at its sources, resulting in many environmental, economic and societal benefits. A PowerPoint® presentation provides photographic examples, and a companion file gives students the opportunity to sketch in their ideas for using the technologies to make improvements to 10 real-world design scenarios.

2014-09-18

313

A Comparison of Natural and Urban Characteristics and the Development of Urban Intensity Indices Across Six Geographic Settings  

USGS Publications Warehouse

As part of the U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Assessment Program, the effects of urbanization on stream ecosystems have been intensively investigated in six metropolitan areas in the United States. Approximately 30 watersheds in each area, ranging in size from 4 to 560 square kilometers (median is 50 square kilometers), and spanning a development gradient from very low to very high urbanization, were examined near Atlanta, Georgia; Raleigh, North Carolina; Denver, Colorado; Dallas-Fort Worth, Texas; Portland, Oregon; and Milwaukee-Green Bay, Wisconsin. These six studies are a continuation of three previous studies in Boston, Massachusetts; Birmingham, Alabama; and Salt Lake City, Utah. In each study, geographic information system data for approximately 300 variables were assembled to (a) characterize the environmental settings of the areas and (b) establish a consistent multimetric urban intensity index based on locally important land-cover, infrastructure, and socioeconomic variables. This paper describes the key features of urbanization and the urban intensity index for the study watersheds within each area, how they differ across study areas, and the relation between the environmental setting and the characteristics of urbanization. A number of features of urbanization were identified that correlated very strongly to population density in every study area. Of these, road density had the least variability across diverse geographic settings and most closely matched the multimetric nature of the urban intensity index. A common urban intensity index was derived that ranks watersheds across all six study areas. Differences in local natural settings and urban geography were challenging in (a) identifying consistent urban gradients in individual study areas and (b) creating a common urban intensity index that matched the site scores of the local urban intensity index in all areas. It is intended that the descriptions of the similarities and differences in urbanization and environmental settings across these study areas will provide a foundation for understanding and interpreting the effects of urbanization on stream ecosystems in the studies being conducted as part of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program.

Falcone, James; Stewart, Jana; Sobieszczyk, Steven; Dupree, Jean; McMahon, Gerard; Buell, Gary

2007-01-01

314

A Numerical Study of the Urban Heat Island in the Coastal Tropical City of San Juan, Puerto Rico: Model Validation and Impacts of LCLU Changes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Urban sprawls in tropical locations are rapidly accelerating and it is more evident in islands where a large percentage of the population resides along the coasts. This paper focuses on the analysis of the impacts of land use and land cover for urbanization in the tropical coastal city of San Juan, in the tropical island of Puerto Rico. A mesoscale numerical model, the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS), is used to study specific characteristics and patterns of the urban heat island in the San Juan Metropolitan Area (SJMA), the most noticeable urban core of the Caribbean. The research present in this paper makes use of the observations obtained during the airborne San Juan Atlas Mission in two ways. First, surface and rawinsonde data are used to validate the atmospheric model yielding satisfactory results. Second, airborne remote sensing information is used to update the model's surface characteristics to obtain a detailed configuration of the SJMA in order to perform the LCLU changes impact analysis. This analysis showed that the presence of San Juan has an impact reflected in higher air temperatures over the area occupied by the city, with positive values of up to 2.5 C, for the simulations that have specified urban LCLU indexes in the bottom boundary. One interesting result of the impact analysis was the finding of a precipitation disturbance shown as a difference in total accumulated rainfall between simulation with the city and with a potential natural vegetation induced by the presence of the urban area. Model results indicate that the urban-induced cloud formation and precipitation development occur mainly downwind of the city, including the accumulated precipitation. This spatial pattern can be explained by the presence of a-larger urbanized area in the southwest sector of the city, and of the approaching northeasterly trade winds.

Comarazamy, Daniel E.; Gonzalez, Jorge E.; Luvall, Jeff; Rickman, Douglas L.

2007-01-01

315

An analysis of freeway impact on urban neighborhoods  

E-print Network

of socioeconomic level as an indicator and to help accouni: for unexplained variations. Three null hypotheses were advanced. The first suggested that no associ ation exists between the socioecoromic level ot urban neighborhoods arid the rates cr geographic... statistical procedure invo'Ived the use of product moment correlation coefficients to determ1ne the relationships between the socioeconomic level of neighborhoods and geographic mob111ty rates. The second procedure was a "step-down" multiple regress1on...

Guseman, Patricia Knight

1971-01-01

316

Urban Sodicity in a Humid Subtropical Climate: Impact on Biogeochemical Cycling  

E-print Network

Understanding the mechanisms of non-point source carbon and nutrients in urban watersheds will help to develop policies to maintain surface water quality and prevention of eutrophication. The purpose of this dissertation is to investigate...

Steele, Meredith Kate

2012-10-19

317

Development of the multi-scale model for urban climate analysis and evaluation of urban greening effects on energy consumption  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is necessary to reduce Greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions drastically to stabilize climate change, and Japan is also required to assess its long-term global warming policy. In achieving the low carbon society and sustainable cities, the numerical evaluation of environmental impacts of the application of different technologies and policies was preliminarily examined by utilizing integrative urban environmental model. This research

H. Hamano; T. Nakayama; T. Fujita; H. Hori; H. Tagami

2009-01-01

318

Nutrient Input and Dynamics in a Restored Urban Stream Impacted by Mixed Sewer Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Export and retention of nutrients in urban watersheds remains poorly constrained. Available data is often based on studies conducted on large-scale, forested and mixed use watersheds rather than small urbanized systems. Additionally, there is a lack of data on the amount and impact of nutrients introduced into urban waterways as the result of stream-sewer interactions and a varied flow regime. In order to address this knowledge gap, water was sampled during baseflow (bi-weekly from April 2007 to present) and stormflow from a restored urban stream in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (USA) impacted by both Sanitary Sewer and Combined Sewer Overflow (SSO and CSO, respectively) networks. Nine Mile Run (NMR), a restored urban stream, drains a 1600 hectare urban watershed characterized as 38% impervious. Analysis of post-restoration water quality data suggests that atmospheric deposition and sewage both contribute nutrient pollution to the stream. We estimate input of atmospheric nitrate deposition to the watershed is 18.96 kg NO3- ha-1yr-1, yet a preliminary nitrogen budget suggests that nitrate export from the basin is consistently higher (~30 kg NO3- ha-1yr-1). Mean baseflow nitrate concentrations are substantially higher during the wetter portions of 2008 (12.07 mg NO3 -/L) as compared to the drier 2007 year (7.3 mg NO3 -/L). This suggests increased stream/sewer interactions during wetter periods. These results document the effect of Sanitary Sewer systems on an urban stream and highlight the challenges inherent in improving urban water quality through physical stream restorations.

Sikora, M. T.; Elliott, E. M.; Bain, D. J.

2008-12-01

319

Development of a comprehensive air quality modeling framework for a coastal urban airshed in south Texas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tropospheric ozone is one of the major air pollution problems affecting urban areas of United States as well as other countries in the world. Analysis of surface observed ozone levels in south and central Texas revealed several days exceeding 8-hour average ozone National Ambient of Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) over the past decade. Two major high ozone episodes were identified during September of 1999 and 2002. A photochemical modeling framework for the high ozone episodes in 1999 and 2002 were developed for the Corpus Christi urban airshed. The photochemical model was evaluated as per U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) recommended statistical methods and the models performed within the limits set by EPA. An emission impact assessment of various sources within the urban airshed was conducted using the modeling framework. It was noted that by nudging MM5 with surface observed meteorological parameters and sea-surface temperature, the coastal meteorological predictions improved. Consequently, refined meteorology helped the photochemical model to better predict peak ozone levels in urban airsheds along the coastal margins of Texas including in Corpus Christi. The emissions assessment analysis revealed that Austin and San Antonio areas were significantly affected by on-road mobile emissions from light-duty gasoline and heavy-duty diesel vehicles. The urban areas of San Antonio, Austin, and Victoria areas were estimated to be NOx sensitive. Victoria was heavily influenced by point sources in the region while Corpus Christi was influenced by both point and non-road mobile sources and was identified to be sensitive to VOC emissions. A rise in atmospheric temperature due to climate change potentially increase ozone exceedances and the peak ozone levels within the study region and this will be a major concern for air quality planners. This study noted that any future increase in ambient temperature would result in a significant increase in the urban and regional ozone levels within the modeling domain and it would also enhance the transported levels of ozone across the region. Overall, the photochemical modeling framework helped in evaluating the impact of various parameters affecting ozone air quality; and, it has the potential to be a tool for policy-makers to develop effective emissions control strategies under various regulatory and climate conditions.

Farooqui, Mohmmed Zuber

320

Quantification of urban metabolism through coupling with the life cycle assessment framework: concept development and case study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cities now consume resources and produce waste in amounts that are incommensurate with the populations they contain. Quantifying and benchmarking the environmental impacts of cities is essential if urbanization of the world’s growing population is to occur sustainably. Urban metabolism (UM) is a promising assessment form in that it provides the annual sum material and energy inputs, and the resultant emissions of the emergent infrastructural needs of a city’s sociotechnical subsystems. By fusing UM and life cycle assessment (UM-LCA) this study advances the ability to quantify environmental impacts of cities by modeling pressures embedded in the flows upstream (entering) and downstream (leaving) of the actual urban systems studied, and by introducing an advanced suite of indicators. Applied to five global cities, the developed UM-LCA model provided enhanced quantification of mass and energy flows through cities over earlier UM methods. The hybrid model approach also enabled the dominant sources of a city’s different environmental footprints to be identified, making UM-LCA a novel and potentially powerful tool for policy makers in developing and monitoring urban development policies. Combining outputs with socioeconomic data hinted at how these forces influenced the footprints of the case cities, with wealthier ones more associated with personal consumption related impacts and poorer ones more affected by local burdens from archaic infrastructure.

Goldstein, Benjamin; Birkved, Morten; Quitzau, Maj-Britt; Hauschild, Michael

2013-09-01

321

Mitigating the effects of landscape development on streams in urbanizing watersheds  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This collaborative study examined urbanization and impacts on area streams while using the best available sediment and erosion control (S&EC) practices in developing watersheds in Maryland, United States. During conversion of the agricultural and forested watersheds to urban land use, land surface topography was graded and vegetation was removed creating a high potential for sediment generation and release during storm events. The currently best available S&EC facilities were used during the development process to mitigate storm runoff water quality, quantity, and timing before entering area streams. Detailed Geographic Information System (GIS) maps were created to visualize changing land use and S&EC practices, five temporal collections of LiDAR (light detection and ranging) imagery were used to map the changing landscape topography, and streamflow, physical geomorphology, and habitat data were used to assess the ability of the S&EC facilities to protect receiving streams during development. Despite the use of the best available S&EC facilities, receiving streams experienced altered flow, geomorphology, and decreased biotic community health. These impacts on small streams during watershed development affect sediment and nutrient loads to larger downstream aquatic ecosystems such as the Chesapeake Bay.

Hogan, Dianna M.; Jarnagin, S. Taylor; Loperfido, John V.; Van Ness, Keith

2013-01-01

322

The Arts and Urban Development: Critical Comment and Discussion. Monograph Series in Public and International Affairs No. 12.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is a collection of essays on the arts and urban development. Included are the following articles: (1) "The Arts and Urban Development" by James L. Shanahan; (2) "Cultural Policy and Intra-Urban Development" by Richard Raymond and Michael Sesnowitz; (3) "The Vague World of the Arts and Urban Development," by Bruce Seaman; (4) "Business…

Hendon, William S., Ed.

323

The Importance of Team Leadership Development to the Urban University's Mission.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Perspectives on the role of the urban university and the development and implementation of team leadership programs are presented. It is suggested that the urban metropolis is a part of the university's mission, and is an extremely complex network of institutional structures, and human resources. The university can respond to urban needs by…

Maio, Eugene A.; Buchtel, Foster S.

324

The deployment of urban logistics solutions from research, development and pilot results  

E-print Network

The deployment of urban logistics solutions from research, development and pilot results Lessons logistics solutions is one of the main pending questions in the field of urban goods transport research demonstration project, this paper presents the main issues related to the deployment of urban logistics

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

325

Impacts of urbanization on river flow frequency: A controlled experimental modeling-based evaluation approach  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Changes in land use are likely to cause a non-linear response in watershed hydrology. Specifically, small increases in urban expansion may greatly increase surface runoff while decreasing infiltration, impacting aquifer recharge and changing streamflow regimes. Quantifying the effects of urbanizatio...

326

Monitoring impact of urban settlements on nearby protected areas from space  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present a satellite based approach to monitor impacts of urban settlements on nearby protected areas worldwide. The footprint of human occupation is uniquely visible from space in the form of artificial night lighting, ranging from the burning of the rainforest to massive offshore fisheries to the omnipresent lights of cities and towns and related connecting road

Christoph Aubrecht; Malanding Jaiteh; Alexander de Sherbinin; Travis Longcore; Chris Elvidge

2010-01-01

327

Gender Differences in the Longitudinal Impact of Exposure to Violence on Mental Health in Urban Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is evidence of gender differences in psychopathology during adolescence, but little research has investigated gender differences in trauma-related symptoms. Exposure to violence is a commonly experienced potentially traumatic event among urban adolescents, and the few studies examining gender differences in its mental health impact have…

Zona, Kate; Milan, Stephanie

2011-01-01

328

SUSTAINABLE SOLUTIONS IN LANDSCAPE CONSTRUCTION TO MINIMIZE ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS ON URBAN EXPANSION AREAS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The population growth and the need to occupy available land brought bad consequences to the environment, e.g. habitats degradation and reduction of animal species. The urban expansion of the cities through actions that can mitigate environmental impacts in suburb areas is crucial to guarantee natural resources preservation. Identifying homebuyers' behavior, this article aims to recognize, from its conception and

Fernando Bontorim

329

Impact of Onsite Wastewater Treatment Systems on Nitrogen and Baseflow in Urban Watersheds of Metropolitan Atlanta  

E-print Network

Impact of Onsite Wastewater Treatment Systems on Nitrogen and Baseflow in Urban Watersheds 2401, Miller Plant Sciences Building Onsite wastewater treatment systems (OWTS) are widely used Septic Wastewater-Treatment Systems on Base Flow in Selected Watersheds in Gwinnett County, Georgia

Arnold, Jonathan

330

Does the invasive species Reynoutria japonica have an impact on soil and flora in urban wastelands?  

E-print Network

cuspidatum hal-00493972,version1-3Aug2010 Author manuscript, published in "Biological Invasions 12, 6 (2010) and are leading to global biotic homogenisation (McKinney and Lockwood 1999; Olden 2006). Biological invasionsDoes the invasive species Reynoutria japonica have an impact on soil and flora in urban wastelands

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

331

Impact of Urbanization on the Proteome of Birch Pollen and Its Chemotactic Activity on Human Granulocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Epidemiologic studies reveal a dramatic increase in allergies in the last decades. Air pollution is considered to be one of the factors responsible for this augmentation. The aim of this study was to analyze the impact of urbanization on birch pollen. The birch pollen proteome was investigated in order to identify differences in protein abundance between pollen from rural

M. Bryce; O. Drews; M. F. Schenk; A. Menzel; N. Estrella; I. Weichenmeier; M. J. M. Smulders; J. Buters; J. Ring; A. Görg; H. Behrendt; C. Traidl-Hoffmann

2010-01-01

332

IMPACT OF THE URBAN POLLUTION ON THE INDOOR ENVIRONMENT -EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON A MECHANICAL  

E-print Network

IMPACT OF THE URBAN POLLUTION ON THE INDOOR ENVIRONMENT - EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON A MECHANICAL Bâtiment (CSTB), Nantes, France ABSTRACT This study aims to assess the transfer of outdoor air pollution) compared to outdoors. INDEX TERMS Pollution transfer, Outdoor pollution, Chemical reactivity, Ventilation

Boyer, Edmond

333

Figliozzi Page 1 Modeling the Impact of Technological Changes on Urban Commercial Trips by  

E-print Network

Figliozzi Page 1 Modeling the Impact of Technological Changes on Urban Commercial Trips and importance that distribution network size, and information and communication technology have on the truck of the information and communication technology (ICT) revolution has not improved the status quo. An array

334

Impact of an Urban Effluent on Antibiotic Resistance of Riverine Enterobacteriaceae and Aeromonas spp  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to evaluate the impact of an urban effluent on antibiotic resistance of freshwater bacterial populations, water samples were collected from the Arga river (Spain), upstream and downstream from the wastewater discharge of the city of Pamplona. Strains of Enterobacteriaceae (representative of the human and animal commensal flora) (110 isolates) and Aeromonas (typically waterborne bacteria) (118 isolates) were selected

MARISOL GONI-URRIZA; MICHELE CAPDEPUY; CORINNE ARPIN; NATHALIE RAYMOND; PIERRE CAUMETTE; CLAUDINE QUENTIN

2000-01-01

335

The Impact Of End-Use Dynamics On Urban Water System Design Criteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Demand reduction strategies such as source substitution (rainwater tanks\\/water reuse) and the use of water efficient appliances has the potential to significantly impact on urban water system design criteria, such as average and peak demands\\/wastewater flows. To quantify this impact requires knowledge of the dynamics of household end-uses (shower, toilet, washing machine, tap and outdoor use). This study utilised high-quality

M. Thyer; M. Hardy; P. Coombes; C. Patterson

336

Urban Water Management vs. Climate Change: Impacts on Cold Region Waste Water Inflows  

Microsoft Academic Search

Failure to account for non-climatic changes to water systems, such as design and operation, within climate change impact assessments\\u000a leads to misconceptions because these activities buffer the human built enviroment from bio-physical impacts. Urban drainage\\u000a in cold regions, which is dominated by snowmelt, is especially vulnerable to climate change and is investigated in this paper\\u000a within the context of future

Annette Semadeni-Davies

2004-01-01

337

The session series on “Natural Hazards’ impact on urban areas and infrastructure”  

Microsoft Academic Search

The series started as sessions on “Natural hazards impact on large cities and on infrastructure” 1999 within the European\\u000a Geophysical Society XXIV General Assembly held in The Hague, The Netherlands. The series were continued as Session “Natural\\u000a Hazards Impact on Urban Areas and Infrastructure” at the EGS XXV, XXVI and XXVII General Assemblies held in 2000–2002 in Nice\\u000a (France). The

Maria Bostenaru Dan

2011-01-01

338

Urban tourism and small tourism enterprise development in Johannesburg: The case of township tourism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urban tourism is a focus of vibrant research in developed countries. In this paper the focus is upon an element of urban tourism\\u000a in a developing world city, viz., Johannesburg. Specific attention centers on an analysis of the role of small enterprise development in urban tourism. The\\u000a major issues surrounding the development of small tourism businesses in two of Johannesburg's

Christian M. Rogerson

2004-01-01

339

Shopping the City: Real Estate Finance and Urban Retail Development  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Beginning in the early 1990s, the urban cores of many American cities experienced a building renaissance, with the construction of new commercial buildings and tourist-themed facilities continuing apace for over a decade. Despite this development, inner city retail development has generally stagnated over the past few years, with the exception of a few cities. In this 32-page report released in July 2003, Kenneth T. Rosen, Grace J. Kim, and Avani A. Patel examines "the major changes in the real estate finance marketplace, the implications of those changes on development decisions, and public policy actions that could facilitate projects in these markets." In the paper, the authors note that despite the strong economy of the 1990s, most corporations dealing in institutional real estate projects have elected to work on projects in smaller suburban markets, and in a select few cities that have robust downtown areas. Overall, this paper is a compelling look at the nature of the retail markets in urban areas, and what type of public policy interventions might encourage increased investment in these areas.

Kim, Grace J.

2003-01-01

340

Effects of urban development on floods in northern Virginia  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Graphical and mathematical relations are presented to estimate the flood-peak magnitudes having recurrence intervals ranging up to 100 years for drainage basins with various degrees of urban or suburban development. Five independent variables are required for use of the relations. They are the size, length, and slope of the basin, which may be measured from maps, and the percentage of impervious surface and type of drainage system, which may be evaluated by a basin inspection but in actual practice will usually be estimated for future developed conditions. Based upon analysis of flood information for 81 sites, 59 of which are in the Washington, D.C., metropolitan area, the relations should be useful for design of drainage systems and for definition of good limits. The relations presented are applicable only to the Washington, D.C., area, but the method of analysis is general and may be used for any .area where the major floods result from rainfall. Urban and suburban development are shown .to affect floodflows to a significant degree. Improvements of the drainage system may reduce the lag time to one-eighth that of the natural channels. This lag-time reduction, combined with an increased storm runoff resulting from impervious surfaces, increases the flood peaks by a factor that ranges from two to nearly eight. The flood-peak increase depends upon the drainage-basin characteristics and the flood recurrence interval.

Anderson, Daniel G.

1970-01-01

341

Cloud Impacts on Photolysis and Ozone Production Rates in Urban Southeast Texas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With reductions in the 8-hour NAAQS ozone standard to 75 ppbv or lower, periods other than the traditional summer/fall ozone season will become increasingly important as policy makers work to develop regional control strategies and State Implementation Plans to comply with the new standards. In April & May of 2009 an intensive measurement campaign, the Study of Houston Atmospheric and Radical Precursors (SHARP) was conducted in the greater Houston, TX area. A primary goal of the campaign was to examine the processes involved in the spring time ozone exceedances in southeast Texas. The work presented here examines the impact of clouds on ozone production and loss rates calculated using the NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) 0-D photochemical box model. To assess the impacts of changes in actinic flux on ozone production and loss rates, the LaRC model was run with photolysis rates from both measured and modeled actinic fluxes. Measured actinic fluxes were made using a Scanning Actinic Flux Spectroradiometer and modeled actinic fluxes were calculated using the Tropospheric Ultraviolet and Visible (TUV) radiative transfer model. During this study net ozone production rates peak mid-morning and consequently cloudy conditions during this time period have greater impacts on peak ozone levels. Several case studies will be examined when meteorological models incorrectly forecasted cloud formation and the subsequent poor simulation of peak ozone mixing ratios. Similarly, our results show that changes in UV levels due to clouds also impact steady-state mixing ratios of HONO and HCHO, the primary OH radical sources during the morning rapid ozone formation period. These results are also compared to results from other urban air quality studies conducted in recent years.

Flynn, J. H.; Lefer, B. L.; Rappenglueck, B.; Luke, W. T.; Huey, L. G.; Dibb, J. E.; Jobson, B. T.

2010-12-01

342

Environmental management of a highly impacted, urbanized tropical estuary: rehabilitation and restoration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The principles of the dynamics and interrelationships within the dominant subtropical and tropical Caribbean seagrass community have been studied previously before, during, and after impact. From these and scores of observations of damage and recovery patterns in Thalassia ecosystems, a sense of management recovery strategy has emerged. Artificial restoring of Thalassia testudinum seeds into areas cut off from stock (fruit, seeds) appeared feasible on a large scale after the Turkey Point (Biscayne Bay, Miami, Florida) restoration and test sampling throughout North Biscayne Bay. Two large-scale seeding attempts were made; after 11 months they compared favorably with Turkey Point specimens with regard to growth parameters, despite the turbidity and other persistent pollution. Thus, the possible areas in which Thalassia seed restoration can be used has increased to include estuaries of multiple impact still in various stages of recovery after physical and sewage pollution. This technique should be especially useful to “developing” nations where important nearshore fisheries nurseries based on Thalassia ecosystems have been heavily damaged and now lie barren. Man's impact on the estuary where seed restoration was attempted includes the following activities: 50% of the bay bottom directly dredged or filled (leaving much unconsolidated sediment); 50 million gallons of domestic waste dumped directly into a low flushing part of the bay for 20 years; seven major causeways transecting the bay, restricting circulation and flushing; two artificial inlets made into navigational channels; freshwater sheet flow drastically changed due to channelization by flood-control canals; urban runoff from a million people entering the bay. Most of the impacts have now abated; however, their long-term effects remain.

Thorhaug, A.

1980-03-01

343

Aboriginal Economic Development in Urban Areas: A Framework for Comparative Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The globalizing and urbanizing contexts of Western societies impact Indigenous communities in a variety of ways. This paper deals with the complex definitions that arise in work with urban Indigenous communities, the historical differences between Indigenous experiences in the United States and Australia, and the interplay between Indigenous cultures and the economy. The final section of the paper draws these

Peter L. Morris

344

Economic Impact of Dyspepsia in Rural and Urban Malaysia: A Population-Based Study  

PubMed Central

Background/Aims The economic impact of dyspepsia in regions with a diverse healthcare system remains uncertain. This study aimed to estimate the costs of dyspepsia in a rural and urban population in Malaysia. Methods Economic evaluation was performed based on the cost-of-illness method. Resource utilization and quality of life data over a specific time frame, were collected to determine direct, indirect and intangible costs related to dyspepsia. Results The prevalences of dyspepsia in the rural (n = 2,000) and urban (n = 2,039) populations were 14.6% and 24.3% respectively. Differences in socioeconomic status and healthcare utilisation between both populations were considerable. The cost of dyspepsia per 1,000 population per year was estimated at USD14,816.10 and USD59,282.20 in the rural and urban populations respectively. The cost per quality adjusted life year for dyspepsia in rural and urban adults was USD16.30 and USD69.75, respectively. Conclusions The economic impact of dyspepsia is greater in an urban compared to a rural setting. Differences in socioeconomic status and healthcare utilisation between populations are thought to contribute to this difference. PMID:22323987

Yadav, Hematram; Everett, Simon M; Goh, Khean-Lee

2012-01-01

345

Mitigation of urban heat islands: meteorology, energy, and airquality impacts  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents results from energy, meteorological andphotochemical (air quality) modeling for the Los Angeles Basin, one ofthe largest and smoggiest urban regions in the U.S. and the world. Oursimulations suggest that by mitigating urban heat islands, savings of 5to 10 percent peak utility load may be possible. In addition, heat islandmitigation can reduce smog formation by 10-20 percent. in summer, whichis as effective as controlling emissions from all mobile sources in theregion. For a typical late-August episode, our simulations suggest thatimplementing cool cities in the Los Angeles Basin would have a net effectof reducing ozone concentrations. Peak concentrations at 3 pm decrease byup to 7 percent (from 220 down to 205 ppb) while the total ozone mass inthe mixed layer decreases by up to 640 metric tons (a decrease of 4.7percent). Largest reductions in concentrations at 3 pm are on the orderof 50 ppb whereas the largest increases are on the order of 20 ppb. Withrespect to the National Ambient Air Quality Standard, domain widepopulation weighted exceedance exposure to ozone decreases by up to 20percent during peak afternoon hours and by up to 10 percent during thedaytime.

Taha, Haider; Meier, Alan; Gao, Weijun; Ojima, Toshio

1999-09-30

346

Making an Impact: The Importance of Urban Schools in Improving Diversity in Geoscience  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Urban areas are considered to be demographically homogenous with significant proportions of the population consisting of African American and Hispanic students. This demographic is particularly true for New Orleans, LA. However, it is uncommon for urban schools, especially at the high school level, to offer geoscience-based courses. Reform-based classes in geoscience at urban schools can have a dramatic impact on increasing diversity at the professional level. McDonogh 35 Senior High School and Warren Easton Senior High School are urban schools within the Orleans Parish school district that have student populations of more than 95 percent African American. These schools offer courses in Geology and Environmental Science, respectively, that prepare students in geoscience-based curricula. Through collaboration with the University of New Orleans, many of these students have participated in the summer field program and gone on to major in geology or geophysics. In fact, the majority of minority students enrolled at UNO came from these two high schools. These graduates have gone on to exemplary careers in geoscience industry, especially the petroleum industry, and in professional societies. Two graduates from these high schools have recently received Ph.D. in geoscience and two had been elected president of the National Association of Black Geologists and Geophysicists. Clearly, urban schools play an important role in increasing diversity in geoscience. However, collaboration between urban schools and universities is a key element in increasing the participation of underrepresented minorities in geoscience.

Walker, A.; LaFleur, L.; Hall, F. R.; Serpa, L.

2001-05-01

347

Research and Development and the Role of the Urban University in Strategic Economic Development Planning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Urban universities have a definite role to play within the context of strategic economic development. Coordination between state and local government, the private sector, and the academic community can lead to effective partnerships to formulate and implement economic development plans. Declining university enrollments and fewer dollars available…

Sheppard, Ronald J.

348

Urban Quality Development and Management: Capacity Development and Continued Education for the Sustainable City  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to describe and discuss the development and the structure of a new international master on the subject of urban quality development and management (UQDM), and explore the potential of the process and the outcome in serving as models adoptable by faculty at other universities. Design/methodology/approach: The…

Lehmann, Martin; Fryd, Ole

2008-01-01

349

Urban Heat Islands and Their Mitigation vs. Local Impacts of Climate Change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Urban heat islands and their mitigation take on added significance, both negative and positive, when viewed from a climate-change perspective. In negative terms, urban heat islands can act as local exacerbating factors, or magnifying lenses, to the effects of regional and large-scale climate perturbations and change. They can locally impact meteorology, energy/electricity generation and use, thermal environment (comfort and heat waves), emissions of air pollutants, photochemistry, and air quality. In positive terms, on the other hand, mitigation of urban heat islands (via urban surface modifications and control of man-made heat, for example) can potentially have a beneficial effect of mitigating the local negative impacts of climate change. In addition, mitigation of urban heat islands can, in itself, contribute to preventing regional and global climate change, even if modestly, by helping reduce CO2 emissions from power plants and other sources as a result of decreased energy use for cooling (both direct and indirect) and reducing the rates of meteorology-dependent emissions of air pollutants. This presentation will highlight aspects and characteristics of heat islands, their mitigation, their modeling and quantification techniques, and recent advances in meso-urban modeling of California (funded by the California Energy Commission). In particular, the presentation will focus on results from quantitative, modeling-based analyses of the potential benefits of heat island mitigation in 1) reducing point- and area-source emissions of CO2, NOx, and VOC as a result of reduced cooling energy demand and ambient/surface temperatures, 2) reducing evaporative and fugitive hydrocarbon emissions as a result of lowered temperatures, 3) reducing biogenic hydrocarbon emissions from existing vegetative cover, 4) slowing the rates of tropospheric/ground-level ozone formation and/or accumulation in the urban boundary layer, and 5) helping improve air quality. Quantitative estimates of the above will be presented based on recent and earlier meteorological, energy, thermal environmental, emissions, and photochemical modeling studies for California and Texas.

Taha, H.

2007-12-01

350

Upstream urbanization exacerbates urban heat island effects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Urban Heat Island (UHI) effects adversely impact weather, air quality, and climate. Previous studies have attributed UHI effects to localized, surface processes. Based on an observational and modeling study of an extreme UHI (heat wave) episode in the Baltimore metropolitan region, we find that upstream urbanization exacerbates UHI effects and that meteorological consequences of extra-urban development can cascade well downwind. Under southwesterly wind, Baltimore, MD, experienced higher peak surface temperatures and higher pollution concentrations than did the larger urban area of Washington, DC. Ultra-high resolution numerical simulations with National Land Cover Data (NLCD) of 2001 show a nonlocal, dynamical contribution to UHI effects; when the upstream urban area is replaced by natural vegetation (in the model) the UHI effects could be reduced by more than 25%. These findings suggest that judicious land-use and urban planning, especially in rapidly developing countries, could help alleviate UHI consequences including heat stress and smog.

Zhang, Da-Lin; Shou, Yi-Xuan; Dickerson, Russell R.

2009-12-01

351

Development and demonstration of autonomous behaviors for urban environment exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Under the Urban Environment Exploration project, the Space and Naval Warfare Systems Center Pacic (SSC- PAC) is maturing technologies and sensor payloads that enable man-portable robots to operate autonomously within the challenging conditions of urban environments. Previously, SSC-PAC has demonstrated robotic capabilities to navigate and localize without GPS and map the ground oors of various building sizes.1 SSC-PAC has since extended those capabilities to localize and map multiple multi-story buildings within a specied area. To facilitate these capabilities, SSC-PAC developed technologies that enable the robot to detect stairs/stairwells, maintain localization across multiple environments (e.g. in a 3D world, on stairs, with/without GPS), visualize data in 3D, plan paths between any two points within the specied area, and avoid 3D obstacles. These technologies have been developed as independent behaviors under the Autonomous Capabilities Suite, a behavior architecture, and demonstrated at a MOUT site at Camp Pendleton. This paper describes the perceptions and behaviors used to produce these capabilities, as well as an example demonstration scenario.

Ahuja, Gaurav; Fellars, Donald; Kogut, Gregory; Pacis Rius, Estrellina; Schoolov, Misha; Xydes, Alexander

2012-06-01

352

DEVELOPMENT OF METHODS TO DEFINE WATER QUALITY EFFECTS OF URBAN RUNOFF  

EPA Science Inventory

The projected costs for treating combined sewer overflows and urban runoff nationwide are extremely large, and therefore necessitate that methods be available to quantitatively evaluate the receiving water impacts associated with these discharges. This report summarizes the resul...

353

Urban impact on air quality in RegCM/CAMx couple for MEGAPOLI project - high resolution sensitivity study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent studies show considerable effect of atmospheric chemistry and aerosols on climate on regional and local scale. For the purpose of qualifying and quantifying the magnitude of climate forcing due to atmospheric chemistry/aerosols on regional scale, the development of coupling of regional climate model and chemistry/aerosol model was started on the Department of Meteorology and Environmental Protection, Charles University, Prague, for the EC FP6 Project QUANTIFY and EC FP6 Project CECILIA. For this coupling, existing regional climate model and chemistry transport model have been used at very high resolution of 10km grid. Climate is calculated using RegCM while chemistry is solved by CAMx. The experiments with the couple have been prepared for EC FP7 project MEGAPOLI assessing the impact of the megacities and industrialized areas on climate. Meteorological fields generated by RCM drive CAMx transport, chemistry and a dry/wet deposition. A preprocessor utility was developed for transforming RegCM provided fields to CAMx input fields and format. New domain have been settled for MEGAPOLI purpose in 10km resolution including all the European "megacities" regions, i.e. London metropolitan area, Paris region, industrialized Ruhr area, Po valley etc. There is critical issue of the emission inventories available for 10km resolution including the urban hot-spots, TNO emissions are adopted for this sensitivity study in 10km resolution for comparison of the results with the simulation based on merged TNO emissions, i.e. basically original EMEP emissions at 50 km grid. The sensitivity test to switch on/off Paris area emissions is analysed as well. Preliminary results for year 2005 are presented and discussed to reveal whether the concept of effective emission indices could help to parameterize the urban plume effects in lower resolution models. Interactive coupling is compared to study the potential of possible impact of urban air-pollution to the urban area climate.

Halenka, T.; Huszar, P.; Belda, M.

2010-09-01

354

Towards understanding the impacts of congestion pricing on urban trucking  

E-print Network

Understanding policy impacts on freight is essential for planners who have overlooked this transport group in the past and must evaluate new congestion alleviation policies with respect to regional economic and social ...

Waliszewski, Janine M

2005-01-01

355

An Auxiliary Method To Reduce Potential Adverse Impacts Of Projected Land Developments: Subwatershed Prioritization  

EPA Science Inventory

An index based method is developed that ranks the subwatersheds of a watershed based on their relative impacts on watershed response to anticipated land developments, and then applied to an urbanizing watershed in Eastern Pennsylvania. Simulations with a semi-distributed hydrolo...

356

Financing Transport Infrastructure in Developing Country Cities: Evaluation of and Lessons from Nascent Use of Impact Fees in Santiago de Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores the potentials for and limitations to the use of impact fees to finance urban transport infrastructure in developing country cities, drawing from the specific case of Santiago de Chile. The paper first assesses the current state of urban transport infrastructure financing and some of the inherent complications. The paper then overviews the growth of impact fee use

Christopher Zegras

2003-01-01

357

Blogging the Field: An Emergent Continuum for Urban Teacher Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Preparing teachers to work in urban settings poses unique challenges, as urban communities are complex and require systemic understanding of students and their families, culture, and community. Pre-service teachers often harbor misconceptions about what it means to work in urban settings and many bring to their teacher education program minimal…

Domine, Vanessa

2012-01-01

358

Approaches and actors in urban food security in developing countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

While much has been written concerning rural food security, associations and predictive models, work on urban food security remains fragmented with research mostly on epidemiological nutrition or on consumption economics. The paper divides factors affecting urban food security into supply, access, choice, health and social organisation. Some of the policy options available for improving food security for the urban poor

Sarah J. Atkinson

1995-01-01

359

Impact of organic nitrates on urban ozone production  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Urban O3 is produced by photochemical chain reactions that amplify background O3 in mixtures of gaseous nitrogen oxides (NOx) and organic molecules. Current thinking treats NOx and organics as independent variables that limit O3 production depending on the NOx to organic ratio; in this paradigm, reducing organics either has no effect or reduces O3. We describe a theoretical counterexample where NOx and organics are strongly coupled and reducing organics increases O3 production, and illustrate the example with observations from Mexico City. This effect arises from chain termination in the HOx and NOx cycles via organic nitrate production. We show that emission reductions that inadvertently reduce organic nitrate production rates will be counterproductive without concurrent reductions in NOx or other organics.

Farmer, D. K.; Perring, A. E.; Wooldridge, P. J.; Blake, D. R.; Baker, A.; Meinardi, S.; Huey, L. G.; Tanner, D.; Vargas, O.; Cohen, R. C.

2010-10-01

360

Impact of organic nitrates on urban ozone production  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Urban O3 is produced by photochemical chain reactions that amplify background O3 in mixtures of gaseous nitrogen oxides (NOx) and organic molecules. Current thinking treats NOx and organics as independent variables that limit O3 production depending on the NOx to organic ratio; in this paradigm, reducing organics either has no effect or reduces O3. We describe a theoretical counterexample where NOx and organics are strongly coupled and reducing organics increases O3 production, and illustrate the example with observations from Mexico City. This effect arises from chain termination in the HOx and NOx cycles via organic nitrate production. We show that reductions in VOC reactivity that inadvertently reduce organic nitrate production rates will be counterproductive without concurrent reductions in NOx or other organics.

Farmer, D. K.; Perring, A. E.; Wooldridge, P. J.; Blake, D. R.; Baker, A.; Meinardi, S.; Huey, L. G.; Tanner, D.; Vargas, O.; Cohen, R. C.

2011-05-01

361

Impact of Urban Disaster on a University Trauma Center  

PubMed Central

On the eve of the 1984 Summer Olympics, a deranged man drove his car at high speed onto a pedestriancrowded sidewalk in a suburb of Los Angeles. The UCLA Medical Center, located two blocks from the scene, received 17 of 51 casualties. One patient arrived in full cardiac arrest and could not be resuscitated. Six had minor injuries or temporary hysteria and did not require admission to hospital. The mean injury severity score of the 10 patients who were admitted was 13.6 (range 3 to 48). Three patients required immediate surgical procedures, and two had delayed orthopedic operations. Specialty consultations were needed in orthopedics, neurosurgery, plastic surgery, otolaryngology, pediatric surgery, and pediatric intensive care. There were no subsequent deaths, although two patients had substantial residual neurologic disability. This episode of unexpected urban violence underscores the need for dedicated trauma services in university centers. Functions of such services include disaster planning, deploying surgical personnel, managing injured patients, and analyzing outcomes. PMID:3348038

Hiatt, Jonathan R.; Larmon, Baxter

1988-01-01

362

Impact of dropout of female volunteer community health workers: An exploration in Dhaka urban slums  

PubMed Central

Background The model of volunteer community health workers (CHWs) is a common approach to serving the poor communities in developing countries. BRAC, a large NGO in Bangladesh, is a pioneer in this area, has been using female CHWs as core workers in its community-based health programs since 1977. After 25?years of implementing of the CHW model in rural areas, BRAC has begun using female CHWs in urban slums through a community-based maternal health intervention. However, BRAC experiences high dropout rates among CHWs suggesting a need to better understand the impact of their dropout which would help to reduce dropout and increase program sustainability. The main objective of the study was to estimate impact of dropout of volunteer CHWs from both BRAC and community perspectives. Also, we estimated cost of possible strategies to reduce dropout and compared whether these costs were more or less than the costs borne by BRAC and the community. Methods We used the ‘ingredient approach’ to estimate the cost of recruiting and training of CHWs and the so-called ‘friction cost approach’ to estimate the cost of replacement of CHWs after adapting. Finally, we estimated forgone services in the community due to CHW dropout applying the concept of the friction period. Results In 2009, average cost per regular CHW was US$ 59.28 which was US$ 60.04 for an ad-hoc CHW if a CHW participated a three-week basic training, a one-day refresher training, one incentive day and worked for a month in the community after recruitment. One month absence of a CHW with standard performance in the community meant substantial forgone health services like health education, antenatal visits, deliveries, referrals of complicated cases, and distribution of drugs and health commodities. However, with an additional investment of US$ 121 yearly per CHW BRAC could save another US$ 60 invested an ad-hoc CHW plus forgone services in the community. Conclusion Although CHWs work as volunteers in Dhaka urban slums impact of their dropout is immense both in financial term and forgone services. High cost of dropout makes the program less sustainable. However, simple and financially competitive strategies can improve the sustainability of the program. PMID:22897922

2012-01-01

363

Eye exercises of acupoints: their impact on refractive error and visual symptoms in Chinese urban children  

PubMed Central

Background Traditional Chinese eye exercises of acupoints involve acupoint self-massage. These have been advocated as a compulsory measure to reduce ocular fatigue, as well as to retard the development of myopia, among Chinese school children. This study evaluated the impact of these eye exercises among Chinese urban children. Methods 409 children (195 males, 47.7%), aged 11.1?±?3.2 (range 6–17) years, from the Beijing Myopia Progression Study (BMPS) were recruited. All had completed the eye exercise questionnaire, the convergence insufficiency symptom survey (CISS), and a cycloplegic autorefraction. Among these, 395 (96.6%) performed the eye exercises of acupoints. Multiple logistic regressions for myopia and multiple linear regressions for the CISS score (after adjusting for age, gender, average parental refractive error, and time spent doing near work and outdoor activity) for the different items of the eye exercises questionnaire were performed. Results Only the univariate odds ratio (95% confidence interval) for “seriousness of attitude” towards performing the eye exercises of acupoints (0.51, 0.33-0.78) showed a protective effect towards myopia. However, none of the odds ratios were significant after adjusting for the confounding factors. The univariate and multiple ? coefficients for the CISS score were -2.47 (p?=?0.002) and -1.65 (p?=?0.039), -3.57 (p?=?0.002) and -2.35 (p?=?0.042), and -2.40 (p?=?0.003) and -2.29 (p?=?0.004), for attitude, speed of exercise, and acquaintance with acupoints, respectively, which were all significant. Conclusions The traditional Chinese eye exercises of acupoints appeared to have a modest effect on relieving near vision symptoms among Chinese urban children aged 6 to 17 years. However, no remarkable effect on reducing myopia was observed. PMID:24195652

2013-01-01

364

Impact of urbanization on obesity, anthropometric profile and blood pressure in the Igbos of Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background: Hypertension in developing setting is often attributed to westernization of life style and stresses of urbanization, some of these increases have been noted in Nigeria. Aim: This is a study on rural-urban differences on the blood pressure, obesity and anthropometrics among a major ethnic group in Nigeria. Patients and Method: A total of 325 men and 242 women aged 20 to 80 years, of the Igbo ethnicity were selected for this study. The samples were selected from the rural and urban subgroups of the Igbo population. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure, body mass index, waist- hip ratio, waist-height ratio, waist circumference, triceps, subscapular, calf and sum of the three skin fold thicknesses and other anthropometric measurements were obtained using standard procedures. Result: Blood pressure correlated with age and most of the anthropometric parameters (p< 0.05 ). All adiposity and blood pressure indicators were higher in the urban than in the rural sample. Women showed higher predisposition to both general and abdominal obesities in both samples. High blood pressure occurred more often in the urban sample than the rural. Urban men had the highest mean blood pressure (p< 0.05). High blood pressure appeared much connected with the pressures of city life. Regression formulae were derived for all the adiposity measures of Igbos in both rural and urban locations. Conclusion: High rates of obesity and hypertension are noted among Igbos in both rural and urban areas. This is especially in the urban setting. The finding is indicative of a low level of attention on hypertension and obesity in the Igbos. The data reported here call for intervention programs on the risks, preventions and management of obesity and obesity related conditions. PMID:22558602

Ekezie, Jervase; Anyanwu, Emeka G; Danborno, Barnabas; Anthony, Ugochukwu

2011-01-01

365

Development and Application of a New Grey Dynamic Hierarchy Analysis System (GDHAS) for Evaluating Urban Ecological Security  

PubMed Central

Selecting indicators based on the characteristics and development trends of a given study area is essential for building a framework for assessing urban ecological security. However, few studies have focused on how to select the representative indicators systematically, and quantitative research is lacking. We developed an innovative quantitative modeling approach called the grey dynamic hierarchy analytic system (GDHAS) for both the procedures of indicator selection and quantitative assessment of urban ecological security. Next, a systematic methodology based on the GDHAS is developed to assess urban ecological security comprehensively and dynamically. This assessment includes indicator selection, driving force-pressure-state-impact-response (DPSIR) framework building, and quantitative evaluation. We applied this systematic methodology to assess the urban ecological security of Tianjin, which is a typical coastal super megalopolis and the industry base in China. This case study highlights the key features of our approach. First, 39 representative indicators are selected for the evaluation index system from 62 alternative ones available through the GDHAS. Second, the DPSIR framework is established based on the indicators selected, and the quantitative assessment of the eco-security of Tianjin is conducted. The results illustrate the following: urban ecological security of Tianjin in 2008 was in alert level but not very stable; the driving force and pressure subsystems were in good condition, but the eco-security levels of the remainder of the subsystems were relatively low; the pressure subsystem was the key to urban ecological security; and 10 indicators are defined as the key indicators for five subsystems. These results can be used as the basis for urban eco-environmental management. PMID:23698700

Shao, Chaofeng; Tian, Xiaogang; Guan, Yang; Ju, Meiting; Xie, Qiang

2013-01-01

366

Rail + Property Development: A model of sustainable transit finance and urbanism  

E-print Network

Rail + Property Development: A model of sustainable transit finance and urbanism Robert Cervero and Jin Murakami WORKING PAPER May 2008 #12; #12;#12; Rail + Property Development A Model 21 2.1 TransitOriented Development and Sustainable Urbanism 21 2.2 TOD in a Regional Context 22

California at Berkeley, University of

367

Informing the Decision Process to Improve the Sustainability of an Urban Greenfield Development Water System  

Microsoft Academic Search

The provision of water supply, sanitation and drainage services is an essential part of an urban greenfield development. The Brazil Development Study is a joint project initiated by CSIRO Urban Water, Brisbane City Council, Pike Mirls McKnoulty Pty Ltd and Brazil Enterprises, with the objective of providing water services to the Heathwood residential and industrial development site that is more

V. G. Mitchell

368

Lessons from recent immigrant, minority place of worship development for urban planning amidst cultural diversity  

Microsoft Academic Search

What can we learn from religious development to better understand issues of cultural diversity in urban development? Using recent research findings on the place of worship development of minority religious communities, this article explores religious diversity, cultural difference, and urban planning. It examines the challenges faced by religious communities and municipal planners. It recommends municipalities recognize religious communities as municipal

Heidi Hoernig

369

Impact of Alternative Programs on an Urban School District.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The number of secondary alternative programs in the school district of Philadelphia has grown to 75 giving it one of the largest networks of alternative programs in the country. The object of this paper is to report on the impact of those programs. The programs are divided into four categories: (1) disruptive/ truant programs, (2) career programs,…

Vincenzi, Harry; Fishman, Roger J.

370

Human impacts in an urban port: The carbonate budget, Otago Harbour, New Zealand  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Otago Harbour is a long (23 km), narrow (mean width = 2 km), shallow (mean water depth = 4.5 m) tidal inlet covering 46 km 2 on the southeast coast of South Island, New Zealand (45°50'S, 170°35'E). Development of the City of Dunedin (pop. 125,000) and its associated port at Port Chalmers has been associated with extensive dredging, land reclamation, and shoreline construction. Here we develop a carbonate sediment budget for Otago Harbour, with limits defined at Mean High Water Spring and the harbour entrance; from the water-air interface to a few cm below the sediment-water interface. Carbonate is added to this system primarily by in-situ production (˜10,000 tonnes CaCO 3 y -1) and by transport though the harbour entrance from the longshore system (˜24,000 tonnes CaCO 3 y -1). Shellfishing (˜2 tonnes CaCO 3 y -1), dredging (˜18,000 tonnes CaCO 3 y -1), and early sea-floor processes such as abrasion and dissolution (˜2000 tonnes CaCO 3 y -1) remove carbonate from the system. The present-day carbonate budget results in ˜14,000 tonnes CaCO 3 y -1 sediment storage, equivalent to ˜0.14 mm y -1 accumulation. Two thousand years ago, the budget would have had nearly the same inputs but many fewer outputs, potentially resulting in storage twice what it is today; projected increases in human impacts suggest that carbonate storage may end within 100 years. Carbonate storage in sediments has a role in preserving environmental information and sequestering carbon, but the major value of a budget model is in clarifying the importance of human impacts. Urban harbours are not in a 'natural' state, and increasing human activity, both locally and globally, affects their overall health.

Smith, Abigail M.; Wood, Anna C. L.; Liddy, Michelle F. A.; Shears, Amy E.; Fraser, Ceridwen I.

2010-12-01

371

Urban sprawl impact assessment on the agricultural land in Egypt using remote sensing and GIS: a case study, Qalubiya Governorate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urban sprawl is one of the main problems that threaten the limited highly fertile land in the Nile Delta of Egypt. In this research, satellite images of Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) 1992, Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM+) 2001 and Egypt Sat-1 2009 have been used to study the urban sprawl and its impact on agricultural land in Qalubiya Governorate. Maximum

Adel. A. Shalaby; R. R. Ali; A. Gad

2011-01-01

372

Urban sprawl impact assessment on the agricultural land in Egypt using remote sensing and GIS: a case study, Qalubiya Governorate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urban sprawl is one of the main problems that threaten the limited highly fertile land in the Nile Delta of Egypt. In this research, satellite images of Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) 1992, Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM+) 2001 and Egypt Sat-1 2009 have been used to study the urban sprawl and its impact on agricultural land in Qalubiya Governorate. Maximum

Adel. A. Shalaby; R. R. Ali; A. Gad

2012-01-01

373

Assessing the Impact of Urban Runoff in Recreational Beaches in South Carolina and Florida Using Culturable and QPCR Fecal Indicator  

EPA Science Inventory

Urban/suburban runoff carries a variety of pollutants that often includes bacterial pathogens and indicators of fecal contamination. The objective of this study was to assess the microbial water quality of recreational beaches impacted solely by urban runoff through the use of cu...

374

Assessing the Impact of Land Conversion to Urban Use on Soils with Different Productivity Levels in the USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

especially in Africa and Asia (Brown, 1995). The world's population is estimated to reach 8 billion by the year There has been increased public concern in the USA over the long- 2025, a 38% increase from its current population. Yet, term impact of urbanization on the available land used to produce food, feed, and fiber. Concern that urban use of

Egide L. Nizeyimana; G. W. Petersen; M. L. Imhoff; H. R. Sinclair; S. W. Waltman; D. S. Reed-Margetan; E. R. Levine; J. M. Russo

2001-01-01

375

How the location of urban consolidation and logistics facility has an impact on the delivery costs? An accessibility analysis  

E-print Network

How the location of urban consolidation and logistics facility has an impact on the delivery costs of Research and Technology Hellas, Tessaloniki, Greece Abstract Urban consolidation is a popular subject the interaction between their land-use choices and the transformations in trip behaviour, for both personal

Boyer, Edmond

376

Impacts of flooding and climate change on urban transportation: A systemwide performance assessment of the Boston Metro Area  

Microsoft Academic Search

Global climate change is likely to affect urban infrastructure through sea level rise and increased frequency of extreme events. This paper assesses the potential impact of climate change on the system-wide performance of transportation networks using the Boston Metro Area as a case study. The methodology integrates projected changes in land use, demographic and climatic conditions into the urban transportation

Pablo Suarez; William Anderson; Vijay Mahal; T. R. Lakshmanan

2005-01-01

377

A simplified approach to evaluating and assessing waste impacts in urban African communities  

SciTech Connect

The region of Africa has been experiencing a fast growing urbanization. This paper is therefore being prepared to provide a simplified approach to be used by city planners, environmental planners, local municipal managers, nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) and local African Community Action Groups, to use in assessing the waste impact of this immense urbanization within their communities and jurisdiction. The prescription for the African urban communities for the years ahead is that the inhabitants of urban communities and villages have to undertake the simplest evaluation and assessment to safeguard its environmental protection. A simplified approach to such schemes in assessing and evaluating ecological and human health impacts associated with environmental pollution in Africa is presented in this document. This approach utilizes historical information and visible indicators of pollution in lieu of conducting an extensive and detailed risk assessment studies. The primary sources of hazardous waste, increasingly so as economies grow, are: small to medium-sized industries and commercial enterprises; households; large manufacturing sectors such as mining, chemical, textiles, rubber, plastics, petroleum, food processing, paper, printing and construction; and agricultural activities.

Sam, P.A. [African Environmental Research and Consulting Group, Merriam, KS (United States)

1995-12-31

378

Developing the urban blue: Comparative health responses to blue and green urban open spaces in Germany.  

PubMed

Recently, new perspectives upon healthy urban open spaces propose that open spaces can be regarded as urban green or blue spaces. However, there has so far been very little research into blue environments and their benefits for mental well-being. Our article focuses on the effects of water in cities, "urban blue" (as compared to "urban green"), on human health and well-being. To assess the mental well-being of visitors, we conducted qualitative semi-standardised interviews (n=113), asking which differences in well-being occur when visiting urban green and blue spaces in high-density areas of the inner city in Dusseldorf and Cologne, Germany. Although we found many similarities, some health-enhancing effects for users turned out to be prominent for urban blue in the four conceptual therapeutic landscape dimensions: experienced, symbolic, social and activity space. These effects include enhanced contemplation, emotional bonding, participation, and physical activity. The results suggest that urban blue as a health-promoting factor needs more detailed and accurate determination and examination of its general and local health-enhancing effects. PMID:25475835

Völker, Sebastian; Kistemann, Thomas

2014-12-01

379

Community-Initiated Urban Development: An Ecological Intervention  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neglected urban environments have been linked to social isolation, depression, and other health problems. In Portland, OR\\u000a in 2003, an intervention was implemented and evaluated in three neighborhoods with the objective of promoting community participation\\u000a in urban renewal and engaging residents in the construction of attractive urban places. Municipal officials approved and permitted\\u000a community-designed street murals, public benches, planter boxes,

Jan C. Semenza; Tanya L. March; Brian D. Bontempo

2007-01-01

380

Synthetic analysis of urban landscape pattern and environmental impact based on Remote Sensing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Taking Xuzhou City as a case, the studies of landscape classification, pattern analysis and eco-environmental impacts evaluation are made using Landsat TM\\/ETM+ images in this paper. For this purpose, firstly urban landscape information is extracted from Landsat TM\\/ETM+ images using C5.0 decision tree classification method based on spectral features, texture features and shape information. The results prove that the classification

Pan Chen; Du Peijun; Lin Yi; Chen Yingying

2009-01-01

381

Effects of biologically-active chemical mixtures on fish in a wastewater-impacted urban stream  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stream flow in urban aquatic ecosystems often is maintained by water-reclamation plant (WRP) effluents that contain mixtures of natural and anthropogenic chemicals that persist through the treatment processes. In effluent-impacted streams, aquatic organisms such as fish are continuously exposed to biologically-active chemicals throughout their life cycles. The North Shore Channel of the Chicago River (Chicago, Illinois) is part of an

Larry B. Barber; Gregory K. Brown; Todd G. Nettesheim; Elizabeth W. Murphy; Stephen E. Bartell; Heiko L. Schoenfuss

2011-01-01

382

The Prevalence, Symptom Characteristics, and Impact of Irritable Bowel Syndrome in an Asian Urban Community  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE:To study the epidemiology, symptom characteristics and impact of IBS in an urban Asian population.METHODS:A validated bowel symptom questionnaire was administered at face-to-face interviews to a random sample of 3,000 households in Singapore.RESULTS:The response rate was 78.2% (n = 2,276, 1,143 males and 1,133 females). The age, sex, and racial distribution of our respondents were similar to the general population

Kok-Ann Gwee; Sharon Wee; Mee-Lian Wong; Damian J C Png

2004-01-01

383

Water quality assessment of river Hindon at Ghaziabad, India: impact of industrial and urban wastewater  

Microsoft Academic Search

River Hindon is a major source of water to the highly populated and predominantly rural population of western Uttar Pradesh,\\u000a India. The main goal of the present study was to assess the impact of urban and industrial activities on the water quality\\u000a of river Hindon at the Ghaziabad. For this, river water samples were collected from six different sites all

Surindra Suthar; Jitender Sharma; Mayuri Chabukdhara; Arvind K. Nema

2010-01-01

384

Estimating Land Use Impacts on Regional Scale Urban Water Balance and Groundwater Recharge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anthropogenic activities have exerted increasingly large-scale influences on terrestrial ecological systems from the past\\u000a century, primarily through agriculture; however, the impact of such changes on the hydrologic cycle is poorly understood.\\u000a As one of the important land use (LU) in the coastal Dogo Plain of the Seto Inland Sea, Japan, paddy fields have been decreasing\\u000a with the increase in urbanization

Bin He; Yi Wang; Keiji Takase; Goro Mouri; Bam H. N. Razafindrabe

2009-01-01

385

Predicted health impacts of urban air quality management  

PubMed Central

Study objective: The 1995 UK Environment Act required local authorities to review air quality and, where UK National Air Quality Strategy objectives (except ozone) are likely to be exceeded in 2005, to declare local air quality management areas and prepare action plans. This study modelled the impacts on health of reductions from current levels of PM10 to these objectives. Design: The framework for conducting quantified health impact assessment assessed causality, then, if appropriate, examined the shape and magnitude of the exposure-response relations. The study modelled declines in pollution to achieve the objectives, then modelled the numbers of deaths and admissions affected if air pollution declined from existing levels to meet the objectives, using routine data. Setting: Westminster, central London. Main results: Attaining the 2004 PM10 24 hour objective in Westminster results in 1–21 lives no longer shortened in one year (annual deaths 1363). Reducing exceedences from 35 to seven almost doubles the estimates. The 2009 objective for the annual mean requires a substantial reduction in PM10, which would delay 8–20 deaths. About 20 respiratory and 14–20 circulatory admissions would be affected and around 5% of emergency hospital attendances for asthma by attaining the lower annual mean target. The effects of long term exposure to particulates may be an order of magnitude higher: models predict about 24 deaths are delayed by reaching the 2004 annual target (40 µg/m3[gravimetric]) and a hundred deaths by reducing annual mean PM10 to 20 µg/m3[gravimetric]. Conclusions: Modelling can be used to estimate the potential health impacts of air quality management programmes. PMID:14729886

Mindell, J; Joffe, M

2004-01-01

386

Using Natural Channels for School Improvement: A Report on Four Years of Urban Development Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Urban Development Component at Research for Better Schools, Inc., attempted to attack problems facing urban secondary schools in Delaware, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania by using the "natural channels" of educational and civic associations to disseminate research and development information and to work collaboratively toward improving schools.…

Corcoran, Thomas B.; Rouk, Ullik

387

A Strategic Approach to Urban Research and Development: Social and Behavioral Science Considerations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Committee on Social and Behavioral Urban Research was asked to advise the Housing and Urban Development Department (HUD) on elements of its long-range research and development program (R & D). Federal, state, and local governments have had access to only small amounts of relevant social and behavioral science knowledge or small numbers of…

National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC.

388

Solution to Urban Traffic Problem Based on Low-Carbon Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low-carbon development will not only provide a solution to urban traffic problems, but also generate other effects, which are energy saving, emission reduction and industrial structure adjustment. These effects are of great significance as to atmospheric environment improvement and national economic development. Therefore, we must take actions, in aspects of acknowledge, urban planning, the factors of traffic supply and demand

Zhang Yao; Cui Jinrong

2010-01-01

389

Economic Development Impacts of 20% Wind (Poster)  

SciTech Connect

Meeting 20% of the nation's electricity demand with wind energy will require enourmous investment in wind farms, manufacturing, and infrastructure. This investment will create substantial economic development impacts on local, regional, and national levels. This conference poster for Windpower 2007 outlines the various economic development impacts from a 20% wind scenario.

Kelly, M.; Tegen, S.

2007-06-01

390

Development, Impact Assessment and the Praise Culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article uses the concept of discourse to analyse an assessment of the impacts of a development project. Impact assessment can never achieve the objectivity that development practitioners seek. The truth is not something ‘out there’ waiting to be documented, but rather a story to be written by those performing the assessment. Moreover, the resistance and negotiation strategies used by

Sue Phillips; Richard Edwards

2000-01-01

391

Development of Gridded Fields of Urban Canopy Parameters for Advanced Urban Meteorological and Air Quality Models  

EPA Science Inventory

Urban dispersion and air quality simulation models applied at various horizontal scales require different levels of fidelity for specifying the characteristics of the underlying surfaces. As the modeling scales approach the neighborhood level (~1 km horizontal grid spacing), the...

392

The impact of internet crime on development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The global wave of information and communication technologies (ICT) development has become a strong driving force in almost every aspect of development. This paper aims to explore the impact of internet crime on individuals, organisations, businesses and government agencies in both developed and developing countries with special reference to developing countries. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The analysis in this paper

Adam Salifu

2008-01-01

393

Impact of utilizing 3D digital urban models on the design content of urban design plans in US cities  

E-print Network

Some experts suggest that urban design plans in US cities may lack adequate coverage of the essential design aspects, particularly three-dimensional design aspects of the physical environment. Digital urban models and information technology tools...

Al-Douri, Firas A. Salman

2006-10-30

394

INFRASTRUCTURE ECOLOGY: AN EVOLVING PARADIGM FOR SUSTAINABLE URBAN DEVELOPMENT  

E-print Network

-EAST ASIA WORKSHOP ON BIG DATAANALYTICS FOR INFRASTRUCTURE AND BUILDING SUSTAINABILITYAND RESILIENCE (IBSR the current US population. · To cater to this massive urban population, an enormous infrastructure investment, 2014, the Chinese central government published its first official National New-type Urbanization Plan

Das, Suman

395

Dynamic modeling of Tampa Bay urban development using parallel computing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Urban land use and land cover has changed significantly in the environs of Tampa Bay, Florida, over the past 50 years. Extensive urbanization has created substantial change to the region's landscape and ecosystems. This paper uses a dynamic urban-growth model, SLEUTH, which applies six geospatial data themes (slope, land use, exclusion, urban extent, transportation, hillside), to study the process of urbanization and associated land use and land cover change in the Tampa Bay area. To reduce processing time and complete the modeling process within an acceptable period, the model is recoded and ported to a Beowulf cluster. The parallel-processing computer system accomplishes the massive amount of computation the modeling simulation requires. SLEUTH calibration process for the Tampa Bay urban growth simulation spends only 10 h CPU time. The model predicts future land use/cover change trends for Tampa Bay from 1992 to 2025. Urban extent is predicted to double in the Tampa Bay watershed between 1992 and 2025. Results show an upward trend of urbanization at the expense of a decline of 58% and 80% in agriculture and forested lands, respectively.

Xian, George; Crane, Mike; Steinwand, Dan

2005-08-01

396

Dynamic modeling of Tampa Bay urban development using parallel computing  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Urban land use and land cover has changed significantly in the environs of Tampa Bay, Florida, over the past 50 years. Extensive urbanization has created substantial change to the region's landscape and ecosystems. This paper uses a dynamic urban-growth model, SLEUTH, which applies six geospatial data themes (slope, land use, exclusion, urban extent, transportation, hillside), to study the process of urbanization and associated land use and land cover change in the Tampa Bay area. To reduce processing time and complete the modeling process within an acceptable period, the model is recoded and ported to a Beowulf cluster. The parallel-processing computer system accomplishes the massive amount of computation the modeling simulation requires. SLEUTH calibration process for the Tampa Bay urban growth simulation spends only 10 h CPU time. The model predicts future land use/cover change trends for Tampa Bay from 1992 to 2025. Urban extent is predicted to double in the Tampa Bay watershed between 1992 and 2025. Results show an upward trend of urbanization at the expense of a decline of 58% and 80% in agriculture and forested lands, respectively. ?? 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Xian, G.; Crane, M.; Steinwand, D.

2005-01-01

397

Urban Missions Mini-Grants as Faculty Development Tools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes how "Implementing Urban Missions" mini-grants proved successful in encouraging personnel at Ohio Dominican College in Columbus to forge learning partnerships with community agencies and residents; the grants also served to identify future leaders in the ongoing implementation of the college's urban mission and leveraged support for the…

Butler, Christina

2002-01-01

398

The artistic dividend: Urban artistic specialisation and economic development implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary. Over the past two decades, urban and regional policy-makers have increasingly looked to the arts and culture as an economic panacea, especially for the older urban core. The arts' regional economic contribution is generally measured by totalling the revenue of larger arts organisations, associated expenditures by patrons and multiplier effects. This approach underestimates the contributions of creative artists to

Ann Markusen; Greg Schrock

2006-01-01

399

Health impact assessment of traffic-related air pollution at the urban project scale: influence of variability and uncertainty.  

PubMed

This paper develops and then demonstrates a new approach for quantifying health impacts of traffic-related particulate matter air pollution at the urban project scale that includes variability and uncertainty in the analysis. We focus on primary particulate matter having a diameter less than 2.5 ?m (PM2.5). The new approach accounts for variability in vehicle emissions due to temperature, road grade, and traffic behavior variability; seasonal variability in concentration-response coefficients; demographic variability at a fine spatial scale; uncertainty in air quality model accuracy; and uncertainty in concentration-response coefficients. We demonstrate the approach for a case study roadway corridor with a population of 16,000, where a new extension of the University of North Carolina (UNC) at Chapel Hill campus is slated for construction. The results indicate that at this case study site, health impact estimates increased by factors of 4-9, depending on the health impact considered, compared to using a conventional health impact assessment approach that overlooks these variability and uncertainty sources. In addition, we demonstrate how the method can be used to assess health disparities. For example, in the case study corridor, our method demonstrates the existence of statistically significant racial disparities in exposure to traffic-related PM2.5 under present-day traffic conditions: the correlation between percent black and annual attributable deaths in each census block is 0.37 (t(114)=4.2, p<0.0001). Overall, our results show that the proposed new campus will cause only a small incremental increase in health risks (annual risk 6×10(-10); lifetime risk 4×10(-8)), compared to if the campus is not built. Nonetheless, the approach we illustrate could be useful for improving the quality of information to support decision-making for other urban development projects. PMID:25437759

Chart-Asa, Chidsanuphong; Gibson, Jacqueline MacDonald

2015-02-15

400

Impacts of Roadway Emissions on Urban Fine Particle Exposures: the Nairobi Area Traffic Contribution to Air Pollution (NATCAP) Study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Air quality is a serious and worsening problem in the rapidly growing cities of sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), due to rapid urbanization, growing vehicle fleets, changing life styles, limited road infrastructure and land use planning, and high per-vehicle emissions. However, the absence of ambient monitoring data, and particularly urban roadside concentrations of particulate matter in SSA cities, severely limits our ability to assess the real extent of air quality problems. Emitted fine particles by on-road vehicles may be particularly important in SSA cities because large concentrations of poorly maintained vehicles operate in close proximity to commercial and other activities of low-income urban residents. This scenario provokes major air quality concerns and its investigation should be of priority interest to policy makers, city planners and managers, and the affected population. As part of collaboration between Columbia University and the University of Nairobi, a PM2.5 air monitoring study was carried out over two weeks in July 2009. The objectives of the study were 1) to assess average daytime PM2.5 concentrations on a range of Nairobi streets that represent important hot-spots in terms of the joint distribution of traffic, commercial, and resident pedestrian activities, 2) to relate those concentrations to motor vehicle counts, 3) to compare urban street concentrations to urban and rural background levels, and 4) to assess vertical and horizontal dispersion of PM2.5 near roadways. Portable, battery-operated PM2.5 samplers were carried by field teams at each of the five sites (three urban, one commuter highway, and one rural site), each of which operated from 7 AM to 7 PM during 10 weekdays in July 2009. Urban background monitoring took place on a rooftop at the University of Nairobi. Preliminary findings suggest highly elevated PM2.5 concentrations at the urban sites where the greatest pedestrian traffic was observed. These findings underscore the need for air quality and transportation planning and management directed at mitigating roadway pollution. Reducing PM emissions from motor vehicles would have direct health benefits for residents of Nairobi and other SSA cities. However, further studies are required to depict the seasonal variations, include gaseous pollution aspect, and strengthen the knowledge on air quality in the region as well as improving the data base for health impact assessment. Acknowledgement This study was initiated and funded by Columbia University's Earth Institute's Center for Sustainable Urban Development (CSUD). CSUD is a Volvo Research and Educational Foundations Center of Excellence for Future Urban Transport. International Science Programs (ISP), Uppsala University, Sweden is recognized for its research support to Institute of Nuclear Science & Technology. Additional technical support for air monitoring and analysis was provided by the Exposure Assessment Facility Core of the Center for Environmental Health in Northern Manhattan (NIEHS P30 ES09089).

Gatari, Michael; Ngo, Nicole; Ndiba, Peter; Kinney, Patrick

2010-05-01

401

Three decades of urbanization: Estimating the impact of land-cover change on stream salamander populations  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Urbanization has become the dominant form of landscape disturbance in parts of the United States. Small streams in the Piedmont region of the eastern United States support high densities of salamanders and are often the first habitats to be affected by landscape-altering factors such as urbanization. We used US Geological Survey land cover data from 1972 to 2000 and a relation between stream salamanders and land cover, established from recent research, to estimate the impact of contemporary land-cover change on the abundance of stream salamanders near Davidson, North Carolina, a Piedmont locale that has experienced rapid urbanization during this time. Our analysis indicates that southern two-lined salamander (Eurycea cirrigera) populations have decreased from 32% to 44% while northern dusky salamanders (Desmognathus fuscus) have decreased from 21% to 30% over the last three decades. Our results suggest that the widespread conversion of forest to urban land in small catchments has likely resulted in a substantial decline of populations of stream salamanders and could have serious effects on stream ecosystems. ?? 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Price, S.J.; Dorcas, M.E.; Gallant, A.L.; Klaver, R.W.; Willson, J.D.

2006-01-01

402

Impact of anthropogenic heat release on regional climate in three vast urban agglomerations in China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We simulated the impact of anthropogenic heat release (AHR) on the regional climate in three vast city agglomerations in China using the Weather Research and Forecasting model with nested high-resolution modeling. Based on energy consumption and high-quality land use data, we designed two scenarios to represent no-AHR and current-AHR conditions. By comparing the results of the two numerical experiments, changes of surface air temperature and precipitation due to AHR were quantified and analyzed. We concluded that AHR increases the temperature in these urbanized areas by about 0.5°C—1°C, and this increase is more pronounced in winter than in other seasons. The inclusion of AHR enhances the convergence of water vapor over urbanized areas. Together with the warming of the lower troposphere and the enhancement of ascending motions caused by AHR, the average convective available potential energy in urbanized areas is increased. Rainfall amounts in summer over urbanized areas are likely to increase and regional precipitation patterns to be altered to some extent.

Feng, Jinming; Wang, Jun; Yan, Zhongwei

2014-03-01

403

Enabling and inhibiting urban development : a case study of Lahore Improvement Trust as a late colonial institution  

E-print Network

This thesis examines the Lahore Improvement Trust in relation to the urban development of the city of Lahore in mid-twentieth century. LIT was responsible for most major urban development in the city from 1936 up until ...

Malik, Hala Bashir

2014-01-01

404

The impacts of urbanization on endangered florida key deer  

E-print Network

years of development on the Key deer population. My results suggest that increased habitat fragmentation and increased road traffic have created areas of varying habitat quality and mortality risk and have resulted in a source-sink system for Key deer...

Harveson, Patricia Moody

2006-04-12

405

Physical activity and the rejuvenation of Connswater (PARC study): protocol for a natural experiment investigating the impact of urban regeneration on public health  

PubMed Central

Background There is a dearth of evidence regarding the impact of urban regeneration projects on public health, particularly the nature and degree to which urban regeneration impacts upon health-related behaviour change. Natural experiment methodology enables comprehensive large-scale evaluations of such interventions. The Connswater Community Greenway in Belfast is a major urban regeneration project involving the development of a 9 km linear park, including the provision of new cycle paths and walkways. In addition to the environmental improvements, this complex intervention involves a number of programmes to promote physical activity in the regenerated area. The project affords a unique opportunity to investigate the public health impact of urban regeneration. Methods/Design The evaluation framework was informed by the socio-ecological model and guided by the RE-AIM Framework. Key components include: (1) a quasi-experimental before-and-after survey of the Greenway population (repeated cross-sectional design), in tandem with data from a parallel Northern Ireland-wide survey for comparison; (2) an assessment of changes in the local built environment and of walkability using geographic information systems; (3) semi-structured interviews with a purposive sample of survey respondents, and a range of community stakeholders, before and after the regeneration project; and (4) a cost-effectiveness analysis. The primary outcome is change in proportion of individuals identified as being regularly physically active, according to the current UK recommendations. The RE-AIM Framework will be used to make an overall assessment of the impact of the Greenway on the physical activity behaviour of local residents. Discussion The Connswater Community Greenway provides a significant opportunity to achieve long-term, population level behaviour change. We argue that urban regeneration may be conceptualised meaningfully as a complex intervention comprising multiple components with the potential, individually and interactively, to affect the behaviour of a diverse population. The development and implementation of our comprehensive evaluation framework reflects this complexity and illuminates an approach to the empirical, rigorous evaluation of urban regeneration. More specifically, this study will add to the much needed evidence-base about the impact of urban regeneration on public health as well as having important implications for the development of natural experiment methodology. PMID:24103381

2013-01-01

406

Climate change impacts on urban wildfire and flooding policy in Idaho: a comparative policy network perspective  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Numerous frameworks and models exist for understanding the dynamics of the public policy process. A policy network approach considers how and why stakeholders and interests pay attention to and engage in policy problems, such as flood control or developing resilient and fire resistant landscapes. Variables considered in this approach include what the relationships are between these stakeholders, how they influence the process and outcomes, communication patterns within and between policy networks, and how networks change as a result of new information, science, or public interest and involvement with the problem. This approach is useful in understanding the creation of natural hazards policy as new information or situations, such as projected climate change impacts, influence and disrupt the policy process and networks. Two significant natural hazard policy networks exist in the semi-arid Treasure Valley region of Southwest Idaho, which includes the capitol city of Boise and the surrounding metropolitan area. Boise is situated along the Boise River and adjacent to steep foothills; this physiographic setting makes Boise vulnerable to both wildfires at the wildland-urban interface (WUI) and flooding. Both of these natural hazards have devastated the community in the past and floods and fires are projected to occur with more frequency in the future as a result of projected climate change impacts in the region. While both hazards are fairly well defined problems, there are stark differences lending themselves to comparisons across their respective networks. The WUI wildfire network is large and well developed, includes stakeholders from all levels of government, the private sector and property owner organizations, has well defined objectives, and conducts promotional and educational activities as part of its interaction with the public in order to increase awareness and garner support for its policies. The flood control policy network, however, is less defined, dominated by a few historically strong interests and is constrained (and supported) by the complex legal and management foundations of Western water rights, as well as federal and state regulatory practices for flood control and water provision. Overlap between these networks does occur as many of the stakeholders are the same, adding another dimension to the comparative approach presented here. It is the physical and natural sciences that bind these two networks, however, and create opportunities for convergence as hydrological inputs (snowmelt and rain) and summer drought simultaneously inform and impact efforts to increase resilience and reduce vulnerability and risk from both fire and flood. For example, early spring snowmelt can both increase risks of flooding and contribute to later severe fire conditions, and fires greatly increase the risk of catastrophic floods and debris flows in burned basins. Contributing to both of these potential hazards are changes in the climate in the region. This paper will present findings from a comparative study of these two policy networks and discuss the implications from how climate change is defined, understood, accepted, and integrated in both networks and the policy processes associated with these urban hazards.

Lindquist, E.; Pierce, J. L.

2013-12-01

407

Effects of Urban Sprawl on the Vulnerability to a Significant Tornado Impact in Northeastern Illinois  

Microsoft Academic Search

A sprawling U.S. population continues to spread into the fringes of urban development placing both populations and property in areas that were once largely unoccupied. Population tallies, housing unit totals, and housing values for 1990 and 2000 are examined to determine the extent to which this growth has affected the tornado hazard in northeastern Illinois. The growing town of Plainfield,

Soren G. Hall; Walker S. Ashley

2008-01-01

408

24 CFR 1000.42 - Are the requirements of section 3 of the Housing and Urban Development Act of 1968 applicable?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01...section 3 of the Housing and Urban Development Act of 1968 applicable? 1000...Section 1000.42 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to...

2010-04-01

409

24 CFR 1000.42 - Are the requirements of section 3 of the Housing and Urban Development Act of 1968 applicable?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01...section 3 of the Housing and Urban Development Act of 1968 applicable? 1000...Section 1000.42 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO...

2011-04-01

410

Geochemical Indicators of Urban Development in Tributaries and Springs along the Bull Creek Watershed, Austin, TX  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Urbanization can cause significant changes to both flow and water quality in streams and tributaries. In the Austin, Texas, area, previous studies have demonstrated that streamwater strontium isotope compositions (87Sr/86Sr) correlate with measures of urbanization when comparing non-urbanized streams to their urban counterparts. The inclusion of municipal water into natural surface water is inferred from the mean 87Sr/86Sr value found in urbanized streams, which falls between the high value in treated municipal water and the lower values found in local surface streams sourcing from non-urbanized catchments. Fluoride is added to municipal tap water in the treatment process, and a correlation between 87Sr/86Sr and fluoride is observed in streamwater sampled from the watersheds around Austin. These relationships represent some of the principal findings reported in Christian et al. (2011). Current research is testing the hypothesis that municipal water influx in urban areas is a primary modifier of stream- and spring-water chemistry in a single watershed that contains a strong gradient in land use. We compare 87Sr/86Sr and other chemical constituents with potential contributing endmembers, such as municipal tap water and wastewater, local soil and rock leachates, and land use within the Bull Creek watershed. As a consequence of the history of land development, some Bull Creek tributaries are sourced and flow almost entirely in fully-developed areas, whereas others are located in protected natural areas. Thirteen tributaries were monitored and classified as either urbanized or non-urbanized based upon land use within the tributary catchment. Springs in the Bull Creek watershed were also sampled and are similarly classified. The Bull Creek watershed is composed of Lower Cretaceous limestone with significantly lower 87Sr/86Sr than that of municipal water taken from the Lower Colorado River, which is underlain in part by Precambrian rocks upstream of Austin. There are notable differences in urbanized vs. non-urbanized watersheds in mean concentrations of fluoride (urbanized: 0.27 ± 0.08 vs. non-urbanized: 0.19 ± 0.01 ppm), sodium (34.7 ± 17.3 vs. 8.4 ± 1.0 ppm), and potassium (2.9 ± 0.8 vs. 1.2 ± 0.2 ppm), consistent with higher concentrations in municipal water contributing to the urbanized tributaries. Springwater demonstrates similar divergences for these ions. 87Sr/86Sr for the springs falls within a narrow range for non-urbanized springs (0.7079-0.7081), similar to Cretaceous limestone values, whereas urbanized springs contain a larger range (0.7077-0.7087). These results are consistent with urbanization effects in the Bull Creek watershed.

Senison, J. J.; Banner, J. L.; Reyes, D.; Sharp, J. M.

2012-12-01

411

Enviro-HIRLAM in Studies of Urban and Aerosol Impacts on Metropolitan Areas: Science-Education Approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To attract more perspective young scientists (and especially, MSc and PhD students) for advanced research and development of complex and modern modelling systems, a specific approach is required. It should allow within a short period of time to evaluate personal background levels, skills, capabilities, etc. To learn more about new potential science-oriented developers of the models, it is often not enough to look into the personal resume. Thus, a special event such as Young Scientist Summer School (YSSS) can be organized, where young researchers could have an opportunity to attend not only relevant lectures, but also participate in practical exercises allowing to solidify lecture materials. Here, the practical exercises are presented as independent small-scale (having duration of up to a week) research projects or studies oriented on specific topics of YSSS. Developed approach was tested and realized during 2008 and 2011 YSSS events held and organized in Zelenogorsk, Russia (by NetFAM et al.; http://netfam.fmi.fi/YSSS08) and Odessa, Ukraine (by MUSCATEN et al.; http://atmos.physic.ut.ee/~muscaten/YSSS/1info.html), respectively. It has been refined for the new YSSS (Jul 2014) to be organized by the COST Action EuMetChem. The main focus of all these YSSSs was/is on the integrated modelling of meteorological and chemical transport processes and impact of chemical weather on numerical weather prediction and climate modelling. During previous YSSSs some of such projects - "URBAN: The Influence of Metropolitan Areas on Meteorology", "AEROSOL: The Impact of Aerosols Effects on Meteorology", and "COASTAL: The Coastal & Cities Effects on Meteorology" - were focused on evaluation of influence of metropolitan areas on formation of meteorological and chemical fields above urban areas (such as Paris, France; Copenhagen, Denmark, and Bilbao, Spain) and surroundings. The Environment - HIgh Resolution Limited Area Model (Enviro-HIRLAM) was used and modifications were made taking into account urban (anthropogenic heat flux, roughness, buildings and their characteristics), chemical species/ aerosol (feedback mechanisms) effects with further analysis of temporal and spatial variability of diurnal cycle for meteorological variables of key importance. Main items of listed above YSSS small-scale research projects include the following: • Introduction with background discussions (with brainstorming to outline research and technical tasks planned including main goal, specific objectives, etc.) in groups; • Analysis of meteorological situations (selecting specific cases/ dates using surface maps, diagrams of vertical sounding, and surface meteorological measurements); • Learning practical technical steps (in order to make necessary changes in the model and implementing urban and aerosol effects, compiling executables, making test runs); • Performing model runs/simulations at different options (dates, control vs. modified urban and aerosol runs, forecast lengths, spatial and temporal resolutions, etc.); • Visualization/ plotting of results obtained (in a form of graphs, tables, animations); • Evaluation of possible impact on urban areas (estimating differences between the control and modified runs through temporal and spatial variability of simulated meteorological (air temperature, wind speed, relative humidity, sensible and latent heat fluxes, etc.) and chemical pollutants (concentration and deposition) fields/ patterns; • Team's oral presentation of the project about results and findings and following guidelines (including aim and specific objectives, methodology and approaches, results and discussions with examples, conclusions, acknowledgements, references). Outline and detailed description of the developed approach, key items of the research projects and their schedules, preparatory steps including team of students' familiarization with general information on planned exercises and literature list (composed of required, recommended, and additional readings), requirements for successful completi

Mahura, Alexander; Nuterman, Roman; Mazeikis, Adomas; Gonzalez-Aparicio, Iratxe; Ivanov, Sergey; Palamarchuk, Julia

2014-05-01

412

The urban environment and health in a world of increasing globalization: issues for developing countries.  

PubMed Central

Urban living is the keystone of modern human ecology. Cities have multiplied and expanded rapidly worldwide over the past two centuries. Cities are sources of creativity and technology, and they are the engines for economic growth. However, they are also sources of poverty, inequality, and health hazards from the environment. Urban populations have long been incubators and gateways for infectious diseases. The early industrializing period of unplanned growth and laissez-faire economic activity in cities in industrialized countries has been superseded by the rise of collective management of the urban environment. This occurred in response to environmental blight, increasing literacy, the development of democratic government, and the collective accrual of wealth. In many low-income countries, this process is being slowed by the pressures and priorities of economic globalization. Beyond the traditional risks of diarrhoeal disease and respiratory infections in the urban poor and the adaptation of various vector-borne infections to urbanization, the urban environment poses various physicochemical hazards. These include exposure to lead, air pollution, traffic hazards, and the "urban heat island" amplification of heatwaves. As the number of urban consumers and their material expectations rise and as the use of fossil fuels increases, cities contribute to the large-scale pressures on the biosphere including climate change. We must develop policies that ameliorate the existing, and usually unequally distributed, urban environmental health hazards and larger-scale environmental problems. PMID:11019460

McMichael, A. J.

2000-01-01

413

Impact of rainfall temporal resolution on urban water quality modelling performance and uncertainties.  

PubMed

A key control on the response of an urban drainage model is how well the observed rainfall records represent the real rainfall variability. Particularly in urban catchments with fast response flow regimes, the selection of temporal resolution in rainfall data collection is critical. Furthermore, the impact of the rainfall variability on the model response is amplified for water quality estimates, as uncertainty in rainfall intensity affects both the rainfall-runoff and pollutant wash-off sub-models, thus compounding uncertainties. A modelling study was designed to investigate the impact of altering rainfall temporal resolution on the magnitude and behaviour of uncertainties associated with the hydrological modelling compared with water quality modelling. The case study was an 85-ha combined sewer sub-catchment in Bogotá (Colombia). Water quality estimates showed greater sensitivity to the inter-event variability in rainfall hyetograph characteristics than to changes in the rainfall input temporal resolution. Overall, uncertainties from the water quality model were two- to five-fold those of the hydrological model. However, owing to the intrinsic scarcity of observations in urban water quality modelling, total model output uncertainties, especially from the water quality model, were too large to make recommendations for particular model structures or parameter values with respect to rainfall temporal resolution. PMID:23823541

Manz, Bastian Johann; Rodríguez, Juan Pablo; Maksimovi?, Cedo; McIntyre, Neil

2013-01-01

414

Evaluation of impacts of trees on PM2.5 dispersion in urban streets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reducing airborne particulate matter (PM), especially PM2.5 (PM with aerodynamic diameters of 2.5 ?m or less), in urban street canyons is critical to the health of central city population. Tree-planting in urban street canyons is a double-edged sword, providing landscape benefits while inevitably resulting in PM2.5 concentrating at street level, thus showing negative environmental effects. Thereby, it is necessary to quantify the impact of trees on PM2.5 dispersion and obtain the optimum structure of street trees for minimizing the PM2.5 concentration in street canyons. However, most of the previous findings in this field were derived from wind tunnel or numerical simulation rather than on-site measuring data. In this study, a seasonal investigation was performed in six typical street canyons in the residential area of central Shanghai, which has been suffering from haze pollution while having large numbers of green streets. We monitored and measured PM2.5 concentrations at five heights, structural parameters of street trees and weather. For tree-free street canyons, declining PM2.5 concentrations were found with increasing height. However, in presence of trees the reduction rate of PM2.5 concentrations was less pronounced, and for some cases, the concentrations even increased at the top of street canyons, indicating tree canopies are trapping PM2.5. To quantify the decrease of PM2.5 reduction rate, we developed the attenuation coefficient of PM2.5 (PMAC). The wind speed was significantly lower in street canyons with trees than in tree-free ones. A mixed-effects model indicated that canopy density (CD), leaf area index (LAI), rate of change of wind speed were the most significant predictors influencing PMAC. Further regression analysis showed that in order to balance both environmental and landscape benefits of green streets, the optimum range of CD and LAI was 50%-60% and 1.5-2.0 respectively. We concluded by suggesting an optimized tree-planting pattern and discussing strategies for a better green streets planning and pruning.

Jin, Sijia; Guo, Jiankang; Wheeler, Stephen; Kan, Liyan; Che, Shengquan

2014-12-01

415

Rural Development and Urban Migration: Can We Keep Them Down on the Farm?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides evidence from migration theories and empirical research for rejecting the belief that rural development interventions reduce rural to urban migration. Suggests that rural to urban migration may be reduced through programs that increase cultivable land, equalize land or income distribution, or decrease fertility. (Author/MJL)

Rhoda, Richard

1983-01-01

416

A new paradigm for low-cost urban water supplies and sanitation in developing countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract To achieve the Millennium Development Goals for urban water supply and sanitation , 300,000 and , 400,000 people will have to be provided with an adequate water supply and adequate sanitation, respectively, every day during 2001– 2015. The provision of urban water supply and sanitation services for these numbers,of people necessitates action not only on an unprecedented scale, but

Duncan Mara; Graham Alabaster

2008-01-01

417

Urbanization in developing countries: Current trends, future projections, and key challenges for sustainability  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper is to provide a broad overview of the recent patterns and trends of urban growth in developing countries. Over the last 20 years many urban areas have experienced dramatic growth, as a result of rapid population growth and as the world's economy has been transformed by a combination of rapid technological and political change. Around

Barney Cohen

2006-01-01

418

Development of an Interdisciplinary Workshop in Urban Transportation. Final Substantive Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This project has developed an interdisciplinary graduate workshop in transportation engineering to acquaint students with problems of urban transportation and the role of various disciplines in dealing with these problems. It provides an opportunity for students from the fields of engineering, urban and regional planning, and economics to interact…

Foa, Joseph V.