Sample records for urban land-use intensity

  1. Effects of land use intensity on the natural attenuation capacity of urban soils in Beijing, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Meie; Faber, Jack H; Chen, Weiping; Li, Xiaoma; Markert, Bernd

    2015-07-01

    Urban soils are major sinks that provide the services of attenuating and detoxifying environmental pollutants. This significant ecosystem service of urban soil can be evaluated by the natural attenuation capacity (NAC). In this research, we develop a method to calculate the natural pollutant attenuation capacity of urban soils on the basis of 5 chemical and physical measurements. By selecting municipal parks soils for reference, we assessed the spatial and temporal changes of NAC in Beijing city soils under influences of rapid urbanization. Results indicated that NAC was increasingly impacted by land use in the order: parksurban soil NAC. However, their roles are opposite. It would take dozens of years to reach the maximum soil NAC by soil self-recovery. The spatial distribution of NAC in Beijing built-up area resembled the age of urbanization. Regional hot spots of NAC corresponded to the land use distribution and the urbanization progress in Beijing city. The developed index can be used to assess the impacts of urbanization on soil ecosystem services of natural attenuation of contaminants. PMID:25841064

  2. Urban Land Use and Transportation Center University of California, Davis

    E-print Network

    California at Davis, University of

    Urban Land Use and Transportation Center University of California, Davis The Urban Land Use. The mission of ULTRANS is to refocus transportation and land use planning to create livable communities to the people who make policy decisions. As another step in building a strong research foundation for land use

  3. Improving urban land use and land cover classification from

    E-print Network

    Du, Jenny (Qian)

    Improving urban land use and land cover classification from high-spatial-resolution hyperspectral Library on 02 Sep 2010 to 130.18.64.144. Terms of Use: http://spiedl.org/terms #12;Improving urban land use and land cover classification from high-spatial-resolution hyperspectral imagery using contextual

  4. Cities and Urban Land Use in Advanced Placement Human Geography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Larry R.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the cities and urban land use section of the Advanced Placement (AP) human geography course, focusing on the: (1) definitions of urbanism; (2) origin and evolution of cities; (3) functional character of contemporary cities; (4) built environment and social space; and (5) responses to urban growth. (CMK)

  5. Procedural Modeling of Urban Land Use Tom Lechner1

    E-print Network

    Wilensky, Uri

    1 Procedural Modeling of Urban Land Use Tom Lechner1 , Benjamin Watson2 Dept. EECS, Dept. CS Dept. CS, Prog. LS Northwestern Univ. Abstract Cities are widely used as content in digital productions not model land use, meaning artists must arrange the buildings in the cities they create manually. We

  6. Influences of different land use spatial control schemes on farmland conversion and urban development.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Min; Tan, Shukui; Zhang, Lu

    2015-01-01

    Land use planning is always officially implemented as an effective tool to control urban development and protect farmland. However, its impact on land use change remains untested in China. Using a case study of Hang-Jia-Hu region, the main objective of this paper was to investigate the influence of different land use spatial control schemes on farmland conversion and urban development. Comparisons of farmland conversion and urban development patterns between the urban planning area and the non-urban planning area were characterized by using remote sensing, geographical information systems, and landscape metrics. Results indicated that farmland conversion in the non-urban planning area was more intensive than that in the urban planning area, and that farmland patterns was more fragmented in the non-urban planning area. Built-up land patterns in the non-urban planning area showed a trend of aggregation, while those in the urban planning area had a dual trend of fragmentation and aggregation. Existing built-up areas had less influence on built-up land sprawl in the non-urban planning area than that in the urban planning area. Built-up land sprawl in the form of continuous development in the urban planning area led to farmland conversion; and in the non-urban planning area, built-up land sprawl in the form of leapfrogging development resulted in farmland areal declines and fragmentation. We argued that it is a basic requirement to integrate land use plans in urban and non-urban planning areas for land use planning and management. PMID:25915897

  7. Impact of urbanization and land-use change on climate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eugenia Kalnay; Ming Cai

    2003-01-01

    The most important anthropogenic influences on climate are the emission of greenhouse gases and changes in land use, such as urbanization and agriculture. But it has been difficult to separate these two influences because both tend to increase the daily mean surface temperature. The impact of urbanization has been estimated by comparing observations in cities with those in surrounding rural

  8. Urban Transportation, Land Use, and the Environment

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Zegras, P. Christopher

    Part of MIT's innovative OpenCourseWare Project, that provides materials from MIT classes to the public on the web, the site contains materials from a seminar studying the interactions of urban systems and the environment. Along with general topics, the seminar provides in-depth case studies of three Central and South American urban areas: Mexico City, Curitiba, and Santiago. The site provides a syllabus, calendar, references for readings, assignments, project ideas, in-depth lecture presentations, and class assignments.

  9. International Symposium on Urban Land Policies and Land Use Systems Center for Urban Studies

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 International Symposium on Urban Land Policies and Land Use Systems Center for Urban Studies original land-use tools, such as the Legal Density Ceiling, a kind of land tax that the Brazilian. Furthermore, the strong land-use control policy enforced after the second World War in France has enabled

  10. Impacts of land use on riparian forest along an urban – rural gradient in southern Manitoba

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. F. Moffatt; S. M. McLachlan; N. C. Kenkel

    2004-01-01

    Extensive landscape modification by humans has led to the fragmentation of riparian forests across North America. We compared\\u000a the vegetation of extant riparian forest along an urban-rural disturbance gradient. In 1999, twenty-five sites along Assiniboine\\u000a River in Manitoba, Canada were categorized according to land use: urban, suburban, high intensity rural, low intensity rural,\\u000a and relatively high quality reference forest. Differences

  11. Airborne lidar intensity calibration and application for land use classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Dong; Wang, Cheng; Luo, She-Zhou; Zuo, Zheng-Li

    2014-11-01

    Airborne Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) is an active remote sensing technology which can acquire the topographic information efficiently. It can record the accurate 3D coordinates of the targets and also the signal intensity (the amplitude of backscattered echoes) which represents reflectance characteristics of targets. The intensity data has been used in land use classification, vegetation fractional cover and leaf area index (LAI) estimation. Apart from the reflectance characteristics of the targets, the intensity data can also be influenced by many other factors, such as flying height, incident angle, atmospheric attenuation, laser pulse power and laser beam width. It is therefore necessary to calibrate intensity values before further applications. In this study, we analyze the factors affecting LiDAR intensity based on radar range equation firstly, and then applying the intensity calibration method, which includes the sensor-to-target distance and incident angle, to the laser intensity data over the study area. Finally the raw LiDAR intensity and normalized intensity data are used for land use classification along with LiDAR elevation data respectively. The results show that the classification accuracy from the normalized intensity data is higher than that from raw LiDAR intensity data and also indicate that the calibration of LiDAR intensity data is necessary in the application of land use classification.

  12. [Impacts of rail transit in Shanghai on its urban land use change].

    PubMed

    Li, Cheng; Li, Jun-Xiang; Li, Rong; Xu, Ming-Ce; Qin, Hai

    2008-07-01

    By using the land use data interpreted with 1:50,000 color-infrared aerial photos of Shanghai collected in 1989 and 2005, and based on Geographic Information System (GIS) techniques, the impacts of urban rail transit (URT) development in Shanghai on its urban land use change was quantitatively analyzed, and a preliminary prediction of the land use change from 2010 to 2025 was made with Markov probability models. The results showed that the URT accelerated the land use change, particularly from an agricultural dominated natural landscape in 1989 to a high-value man-made urban landscape primarily composed of residence and public facilities. URT increased the land use rate in the study area. From 1989 to 2005, public facility land, green space, agriculture land, land for other uses (primarily used for construction), and water area changed greatly, with the greatest change rate of the land for other uses and the lowest one of water area. From 2010 to 2025, the areas and proportions of agriculture land and water area would keep on decreasing, while those of man-made landscapes including residence and public facilities would increase continuously. From the viewpoints of increasing land use rate and its gain, the present land use structure along Shanghai URT should be further regulated to improve the intensive and sustainable use of land resources. PMID:18839916

  13. Urban land use classification using synthetic aperture radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryan, M. L.

    1983-01-01

    Several approaches to the use of radar imagery for land use classification of urban and near-urban areas are presented. The use of L band, horizontal transmit, and horizontal receive data is emphasized because of their general availability. For urban area studies using imaging radar, the effects of processing in an off-zero Doppler or squint mode, of the presence of large diffuse scatters, and of the possibility of height measurements are discussed. Data from the Los Angeles area are illustratively used.

  14. Mapping urban environmental noise: a land use regression method.

    PubMed

    Xie, Dan; Liu, Yi; Chen, Jining

    2011-09-01

    Forecasting and preventing urban noise pollution are major challenges in urban environmental management. Most existing efforts, including experiment-based models, statistical models, and noise mapping, however, have limited capacity to explain the association between urban growth and corresponding noise change. Therefore, these conventional methods can hardly forecast urban noise at a given outlook of development layout. This paper, for the first time, introduces a land use regression method, which has been applied for simulating urban air quality for a decade, to construct an urban noise model (LUNOS) in Dalian Municipality, Northwest China. The LUNOS model describes noise as a dependent variable of surrounding various land areas via a regressive function. The results suggest that a linear model performs better in fitting monitoring data, and there is no significant difference of the LUNOS's outputs when applied to different spatial scales. As the LUNOS facilitates a better understanding of the association between land use and urban environmental noise in comparison to conventional methods, it can be regarded as a promising tool for noise prediction for planning purposes and aid smart decision-making. PMID:21770380

  15. A Tale of Two Watersheds: Land Use, Topography, and the Potential for Urban Land use patterns are often highly correlated with geographic variables such as slope and

    E-print Network

    A Tale of Two Watersheds: Land Use, Topography, and the Potential for Urban Expansion Land use centers, transportation systems and stream networks. In this project, we use census, land use, elevation communities outside of urban areas) development which is converting land use from non-urban (such

  16. RESEARCH ARTICLE A novel index of land use intensity for organic

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    RESEARCH ARTICLE A novel index of land use intensity for organic and conventional farming is closely related to land use. Intensive land use is considered to be a major cause of biodiversity loss. Most studies addressing the effect of land use intensity on biodiversity have compared organic

  17. Monitoring farmland loss and projecting the future land use of an urbanized watershed in Yogyakarta, Indonesia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Partoyo; Rajendra Prasad Shrestha

    2011-01-01

    This study analyzes land use changes in Yogyakarta, Indonesia, specifically farmland loss, which has occurred as a result of rapid urbanization by employing remote sensing, GIS, and land use modeling techniques. Landsat images from 1992 and 2004 and ASTER Terralook images from 2009 were classified using a supervised classification to generate land use maps. Land use change was detected using

  18. Are agricultural land-use models able to predict changes in land-use intensity?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. F. Lambin; M. D. A Rounsevell; H. J Geist

    2000-01-01

    Land-use and land-cover change research needs to pay more attention to processes of land-cover modification, and especially to agricultural land intensification. The objective of this paper is to review the different modelling approaches that have been used in land-use\\/land-cover change research from the perspective of their utility for the study and prediction of changes in land-use intensification. After clarifying the

  19. The ERTS-1 investigation (ER-600). Volume 5: ERTS-1 urban land use analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erb, R. B.

    1974-01-01

    The Urban Land Use Team conducted a year's investigation of ERTS-1 MSS data to determine the number of Land Use categories in the Houston, Texas, area. They discovered unusually low classification accuracies occurred when a spectrally complex urban scene was classified with extensive rural areas containing spectrally homogeneous features. Separate computer processing of only data in the urbanized area increased classification accuracies of certain urban land use categories. Even so, accuracies of urban landscape were in the 40-70 percent range compared to 70-90 percent for the land use categories containing more homogeneous features (agriculture, forest, water, etc.) in the nonurban areas.

  20. Urban land use limits regional bumble bee gene flow.

    PubMed

    Jha, Shalene; Kremen, C

    2013-05-01

    Potential declines in native pollinator communities and increased reliance on pollinator-dependent crops have raised concerns about native pollinator conservation and dispersal across human-altered landscapes. Bumble bees are one of the most effective native pollinators and are often the first to be extirpated in human-altered habitats, yet little is known about how bumble bees move across fine spatial scales and what landscapes promote or limit their gene flow. In this study, we examine regional genetic differentiation and fine-scale relatedness patterns of the yellow-faced bumble bee, Bombus vosnesenskii, to investigate how current and historic habitat composition impact gene flow. We conducted our study across a landscape mosaic of natural, agricultural and urban/suburban habitats, and we show that B. vosnesenskii exhibits low but significant levels of differentiation across the study system (F(ST) = 0.019, D(est) = 0.049). Most importantly, we reveal significant relationships between pairwise F(ST) and resistance models created from contemporary land use maps. Specifically, B. vosnesenskii gene flow is most limited by commercial, industrial and transportation-related impervious cover. Finally, our fine-scale analysis reveals significant but declining relatedness between individuals at the 1-9 km spatial scale, most likely due to local queen dispersal. Overall, our results indicate that B. vosnesenskii exhibits considerable local dispersal and that regional gene flow is significantly limited by impervious cover associated with urbanization. PMID:23495763

  1. Urban Land Use Decouples Plant-Herbivore-Parasitoid Interactions at Multiple Spatial Scales

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Amanda E.; Forbes, Andrew A.

    2014-01-01

    Intense urban and agricultural development alters habitats, increases fragmentation, and may decouple trophic interactions if plants or animals cannot disperse to needed resources. Specialist insects represent a substantial proportion of global biodiversity and their fidelity to discrete microhabitats provides a powerful framework for investigating organismal responses to human land use. We sampled site occupancy and densities for two plant-herbivore-parasitoid systems from 250 sites across a 360 km2 urban/agricultural landscape to ask whether and how human development decouples interactions between trophic levels. We compared patterns of site occupancy, host plant density, herbivory and parasitism rates of insects at two trophic levels with respect to landcover at multiple spatial scales. Geospatial analyses were used to identify landcover characters predictive of insect distributions. We found that herbivorous insect densities were decoupled from host tree densities in urban landcover types at several spatial scales. This effect was amplified for the third trophic level in one of the two insect systems: despite being abundant regionally, a parasitoid species was absent from all urban/suburban landcover even where its herbivore host was common. Our results indicate that human land use patterns limit distributions of specialist insects. Dispersal constraints associated with urban built development are specifically implicated as a limiting factor. PMID:25019962

  2. Urban Studies, Vol. 41, No. 2, 000000, February 2004 Local Land-use Controls and Demographic

    E-print Network

    Sekhon, Jasjeet S.

    Urban Studies, Vol. 41, No. 2, 000­000, February 2004 Local Land-use Controls and Demographic] Summary. The article analyses the link between autarchic land-use policies adopted by local governments accounts for the potential endogeneity of contemporaneous land-use policies by relying upon exogenous

  3. Regional soil erosion in response to land use and increased typhoon frequency and intensity, Taiwan

    E-print Network

    Montgomery, David R.

    Regional soil erosion in response to land use and increased typhoon frequency and intensity, Taiwan: Received 27 April 2013 Available online 15 November 2013 Keywords: Erosion Sedimentation Land use Typhoon in response to both 20th century changes in land use and a more recent increase in typhoon frequency

  4. Quantifying uncertainty in urban flooding analysis caused by the combined effect of climate and land use change scenarios

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I.-W. Jung; H. Chang; H. Moradkhani

    2010-01-01

    How will the combined impacts of land use change and climate change influence changes in urban flood frequency and what is the main uncertainty source of the results? We attempt to answer to these questions in two catchments with different degrees of urbanization, the Fanno catchment with 84% urban land use and the Johnson catchment with 36% urban land use,

  5. A conceptual framework for analysing and measuring land-use intensity?

    PubMed Central

    Erb, Karl-Heinz; Haberl, Helmut; Jepsen, Martin Rudbeck; Kuemmerle, Tobias; Lindner, Marcus; Müller, Daniel; Verburg, Peter H; Reenberg, Anette

    2013-01-01

    Large knowledge gaps currently exist that limit our ability to understand and characterise dynamics and patterns of land-use intensity: in particular, a comprehensive conceptual framework and a system of measurement are lacking. This situation hampers the development of a sound understanding of the mechanisms, determinants, and constraints underlying changes in land-use intensity. On the basis of a review of approaches for studying land-use intensity, we propose a conceptual framework to quantify and analyse land-use intensity. This framework integrates three dimensions: (a) input intensity, (b) output intensity, and (c) the associated system-level impacts of land-based production (e.g. changes in carbon storage or biodiversity). The systematic development of indicators across these dimensions would provide opportunities for the systematic analyses of the trade-offs, synergies and opportunity costs of land-use intensification strategies. PMID:24143156

  6. Green Infrastructure & Sustainable Urban Land Use Decision Analysis Workshop

    EPA Science Inventory

    Introduce green infrastructure, concepts and land use alternatives, to City of Cleveland operations staff. Discuss potential of green alternatives to impact daily operations and routine maintenance activities. Tie in sustainability concepts to long-term City planning and discu...

  7. UrbanSim: Modeling Urban Development for Land Use, Transportation and Environmental Planning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul Waddell

    2002-01-01

    Metropolitan areas have come under intense pressure to respond to federal mandates to link planningof land use, transportation, and environmental quality; and from citizen concerns about managing theside effects of growth such as sprawl, congestion, housing affordability, and loss of open space. Theplanning models used by Metropolitan Planning Organizations (MPOs) were generally not designedto address these questions, creating a gap

  8. The impact study of urban heat island effect caused by surface land use changes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tien-Yin Chou; Lung-Shih Yang; Chih-Hung Liu; Yuanling Chang

    2009-01-01

    Urban heat island (UHI) effect can be characterized by increasing surface and atmospheric temperature and decreasing rainfall amount in urban area. This research detected the impact of urban land use changes to UHI effect in Taichung city at Taiwan by temporal ASTER and MODIS satellite images and measured data from ground thermometer stations. From spatially analyzed data output, the results

  9. Multifunctional Urban Agriculture for Sustainable Land Use Planning in the United States

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sarah Taylor Lovell

    2010-01-01

    Urban agriculture offers an alternative land use for integrating multiple functions in densely populated areas. While urban agriculture has historically been an important element of cities in many developing countries, recent concerns about economic and food security have resulted in a growing movement to produce food in cities of developed countries including the United States. In these regions, urban agriculture

  10. Remote sensing in Arizona. [for land use and urban development planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winikka, C. C.; Adams, R. E.

    1975-01-01

    Orthophotoquads prepared from high altitude photography and LANDSAT imagery were utilized for land use mapping and urban development planning. LANDSAT imagery of rough terrains were evaluated by photographic projection on a viewer screen for enlargement of details.

  11. Determining urban land uses through building-associated element attributes derived from lidar and aerial photographs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Xuelian

    Urban land-use research is a key component in analyzing the interactions between human activities and environmental change. Researchers have conducted many experiments to classify urban or built-up land, forest, water, agriculture, and other land-use and land-cover types. Separating residential land uses from other land uses within urban areas, however, has proven to be surprisingly troublesome. Although high-resolution images have recently become more available for land-use classification, an increase in spatial resolution does not guarantee improved classification accuracy by traditional classifiers due to the increase of class complexity. This research presents an approach to detect and separate residential land uses on a building scale directly from remotely sensed imagery to enhance urban land-use analysis. Specifically, the proposed methodology applies a multi-directional ground filter to generate a bare ground surface from lidar data, then utilizes a morphology-based building detection algorithm to identify buildings from lidar and aerial photographs, and finally separates residential buildings using a supervised C4.5 decision tree analysis based on the seven selected building land-use indicators. Successful execution of this study produces three independent methods, each corresponding to the steps of the methodology: lidar ground filtering, building detection, and building-based object-oriented land-use classification. Furthermore, this research provides a prototype as one of the few early explorations of building-based land-use analysis and successful separation of more than 85% of residential buildings based on an experiment on an 8.25-km2 study site located in Austin, Texas.

  12. Riparian woody plant traits across an urban–rural land use gradient and implications for watershed function with urbanization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michele L. Burton; Lisa J. Samuelson; Mark D. Mackenzie

    2009-01-01

    Worldwide riparian forests are increasingly threatened by urbanization and land use change. Plant trait-based analyses provide a useful approach for comparing and describing distinct plant communities and may offer a more general understanding of the influences and consequences of disturbance associated with land use on riparian vegetation. This research addressed two primary questions focusing on nine plant traits that may

  13. LAND USE CHANGE DUE TO URBANIZATION FOR THE NEUSE RIVER BASIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Urban Growth Model (UGM) was applied to analysis of land use change in the Neuse River Basin as part of a larger project for estimating the regional and broader impact of urbanization. UGM is based on cellular automation (CA) simulation techniques developed at the University...

  14. Butterfly diversity and human land use: Species assemblages along an urban grandient

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert B. Blair; Alan E. Launer

    1997-01-01

    We examined the distribution and abundance of butterfly species across an urban gradient and concomitant changes in community structure by censusing the butterfly and skipper populations at 48 points within six sites near Palo Alto, California, USA (all former oak woodlands). These sites represent a gradient of urban land use running from relatively undisturbed to highly developed and include a

  15. Urban Land Use and Surface Cover: Effects on Soil Temperatures

    E-print Network

    Hall, Sharon J.

    C higher than soil temperatures not associated with asphalt (Halverson, 1981), these temperatures were monitored at urban sites. HortScience. 22(4):613-614. Halverson, G.H. and G.M. Heisler. 1981. Soil

  16. Monitoring the effects of land use/landcover changes on urban heat island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gee, Ong K.; Sarker, Md Latifur Rahman

    2013-10-01

    Urban heat island effects are well known nowadays and observed in cities throughout the World. The main reason behind the effects of urban heat island (UHI) is the transformation of land use/ land cover, and this transformation is associated with UHI through different actions: i) removal of vegetated areas, ii) land reclamation from sea/river, iii) construction of new building as well as other concrete structures, and iv) industrial and domestic activity. In rapidly developing cities, urban heat island effects increases very hastily with the transformation of vegetated/ other types of areas into urban surface because of the increasing population as well as for economical activities. In this research the effect of land use/ land cover on urban heat island was investigated in two growing cities in Asia i.e. Singapore and Johor Bahru, (Malaysia) using 10 years data (from 1997 to 2010) from Landsat TM/ETM+. Multispectral visible band along with indices such as Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), Normalized Difference Build Index (NDBI), and Normalized Difference Bareness Index (NDBaI) were used for the classification of major land use/land cover types using Maximum Likelihood Classifiers. On the other hand, land surface temperature (LST) was estimated from thermal image using Land Surface Temperature algorithm. Emissivity correction was applied to the LST map using the emissivity values from the major land use/ land cover types, and validation of the UHI map was carried out using in situ data. Results of this research indicate that there is a strong relationship between the land use/land cover changes and UHI. Over this 10 years period, significant percentage of non-urban surface was decreased but urban heat surface was increased because of the rapid urbanization. With the increase of UHI effect it is expected that local urban climate has been modified and some heat related health problem has been exposed, so appropriate measure should be taken in order to reduce UHI effects as soon as possible.

  17. Simulating the Response of Urban Water Quality to Climate and Land Use Change in Partially Urbanized Basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, N.; Yearsley, J. R.; Nijssen, B.; Lettenmaier, D. P.

    2014-12-01

    Urban stream quality is particularly susceptible to extreme precipitation events and land use change. Although the projected effects of extreme events and land use change on hydrology have been resonably well studied, the impacts on urban water quality have not been widely examined due in part to the scale mismatch between global climate models and the spatial scales required to represent urban hydrology and water quality signals. Here we describe a grid-based modeling system that integrates the Distributed Hydrology Soil Vegetation Model (DHSVM) and urban water quality module adpated from EPA's Storm Water Management Model (SWMM) and Soil and water assessment tool (SWAT). Using the model system, we evaluate, for four partially urbanized catchments within the Puget Sound basin, urban water quality under current climate conditions, and projected potential changes in urban water quality associated with future changes in climate and land use. We examine in particular total suspended solids, toal nitrogen, total phosphorous, and coliform bacteria, with catchment representations at the 150-meter spatial resolution and the sub-daily timestep. We report long-term streamflow and water quality predictions in response to extreme precipitation events of varying magnitudes in the four partially urbanized catchments. Our simulations show that urban water quality is highly sensitive to both climatic and land use change.

  18. Urban-field land use in southern New England: A first look

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simpson, R. B. (principal investigator)

    1972-01-01

    There are no author-identified significant results in this report. First look evaluation of ERTS-1 multiband imagery for urban-field land use applications revealed a great deal of potentially valuable information. The amount of land use detail which can be extracted confidently from ERTS imagery is encouraging, and the objectives of the proposed project are considered feasible providing timely cloud-free coverage is available.

  19. Assigning land use to supply wells for the statistical characterization of regional groundwater quality: Correlating urban land use and VOC occurrence

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, T.D.; Belitz, K.

    2009-01-01

    Many national and regional groundwater studies have correlated land use "near" a well, often using a 500 m radius circle, with water quality. However, the use of a 500 m circle may seem counterintuitive given that contributing areas are expected to extend up-gradient from wells, and not be circular in shape. The objective of this study was to evaluate if a 500 m circle is adequate for assigning land use to a well for the statistical correlation between urban land use and the occurrence of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Land use and VOC data came from 277 supply wells in four study areas in California. Land use was computed using ten different-sized circles and wedges (250 m to 10 km in radius), and three different-sized "searchlights" (1-2 km in length). We define these shapes as contributing area surrogates (CASs), recognizing that a simple shape is at best a surrogate for the actual contributing area. The presence or absence of correlation between land use and the occurrence of VOCs was evaluated using Kendall's tau (??). Values of ?? were within 10% of one another for wedges and circles ranging in size from 500 m to 2 km, with correlations remaining statistically significant (p < 0.05) for all CAS sizes and shapes, suggesting that a 500 m circular CAS is adequate for assigning land use to a well. Additional evaluation indicated that urban land use is autocorrelated at distances ranging from 8 to 36 km. Thus, urban land use in a 500 m CAS is likely to be predictive of urban land use in the actual contributing area.

  20. A zone-based approach to identifying urban land uses using nationally-available data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falcone, James A.

    Accurate identification of urban land use is essential for many applications in environmental study, ecological assessment, and urban planning, among other fields. However, because physical surfaces of land cover types are not necessarily related to their use and economic function, differentiating among thematically-detailed urban land uses (single-family residential, multi-family residential, commercial, industrial, etc.) using remotely-sensed imagery is a challenging task, particularly over large areas. Because the process requires an interpretation of tone/color, size, shape, pattern, and neighborhood association elements within a scene, it has traditionally been accomplished via manual interpretation of aerial photography or high-resolution satellite imagery. Although success has been achieved for localized areas using various automated techniques based on high-spatial or high-spectral resolution data, few detailed (Anderson Level II equivalent or greater) urban land use mapping products have successfully been created via automated means for broad (multi-county or larger) areas, and no such product exists today for the United States. In this study I argue that by employing a zone-based approach it is feasible to map thematically-detailed urban land use classes over large areas using appropriate combinations of non-image based predictor data which are nationally and publicly available. The approach presented here uses U.S. Census block groups as the basic unit of geography, and predicts the percent of each of ten land use types---nine of them urban---for each block group based on a number of data sources, to include census data, nationally-available point locations of features from the USGS Geographic Names Information System, historical land cover, and metrics which characterize spatial pattern, context (e.g. distance to city centers or other features), and measures of spatial autocorrelation. The method was demonstrated over a four-county area surrounding the city of Boston. A generalized version of the method (six land use classes) was also developed and cross-validated among additional geographic settings: Atlanta, Los Angeles, and Providence. The results suggest that even with the thematically-detailed ten-class structure, it is feasible to map most urban land uses with reasonable accuracy at the block group scale, and results improve with class aggregation. When classified by predicted majority land use, 79% of block groups correctly matched the actual majority land use with the ten-class models. Six-class models typically performed well for the geographic area they were developed from, however models had mixed performance when transported to other geographic settings. Contextual variables, which characterized a block group's spatial relationship to city centers, transportation routes, and other amenities, were consistently strong predictors of most land uses, a result which corresponds to classic urban land use theory. The method and metrics derived here provide a prototype for mapping urban land uses from readily-available data over broader geographic areas than is generally practiced today using current image-based solutions.

  1. Agricultural land use intensity and its determinants: A case study in Taibus Banner, Inner Mongolia, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Haiguang; Li, Xiubin; Tan, Minghong; Zhang, Jiping; Zhang, Huiyuan

    2015-06-01

    Based on rural household survey data from Taibus Banner, in the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, China, this study separately categorizes agricultural land use intensity into labor intensity, capital intensity, the intensity of labor-saving inputs, and the intensity of yield-increasing inputs, and then analyzes their determinants at the household level. The findings reveal that within the study area: (1) labor intensity is higher and capital intensity is lower than in the major grain-producing and economically developed areas of eastern and central China; (2) the most widely planted crops are those with the lowest labor intensity (oats) and capital intensity (benne); (3) there are marked differences in agricultural land use intensity among households; a major factor affecting land use decision-making is the reduced need for labor intensity for those households with high opportunity costs, such as those with income earned from non-farming activities which alleviates financial constraints and allows for increased capital intensity. As a result, these households invest more in labor-saving inputs; (4) households with a larger number of workers will allocate adequate time to manage their land and thus they will not necessarily invest more in labor-saving inputs. Those households with more land to manage tend to adopt an extensive cultivation strategy. Total income has a positive impact on capital intensity and a negative impact on labor intensity. Households that derive a higher proportion of their total income through farming are more reliant upon agriculture, which necessitates significant labor and yield-increasing inputs. Finally, the authors contend that policy makers should clearly recognize the impacts of non-farming employment on agricultural land use intensity. In order to ensure long-term food security and sustainable agricultural development in China, income streams from both farming and non-farming employment should be balanced.

  2. The use of constrained cellular automata for high-resolution modelling of urban land-use dynamics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R White; G Engelen; I Uljee

    1997-01-01

    A cellular automaton is specified to give a spatially detailed represenation of the evolution of urban land-use patterns. Cell states represent land uses, and transition rules express the likelihood of a change from one state to another as a function both of existing land use in the 113-cell neighbourhood of the cell and of the inherent suitability of the cell

  3. LAND USE AND SEASONAL EFFECTS ON URBAN STORMWATER RUNOFF MICROORGANISM CONCENTRATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Stormwater samples collected from storm sewers draining small municipal separate storm sewer systems shown to be free of cross connections within an urban watershed dominated by a single land use were analyzed for pathogens (Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus) and i...

  4. Water, energy, land use, transportation and socioeconomic nexus: A blue print for more sustainable urban systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elizabeth A. Minne; John C. Crittenden; Arka Pandit; Hyunju Jeong; Jean-Ann James; Zhongming Lu; Ming Xu; Steve French; Muthukumar Subrahmanyam; Douglas Noonan; Lin-Han Chiang Hsieh; Marilyn Brown; Joy Wang; Reginald Desroches; Bert Bras; Jeff Yen; Miroslav Begovic; Insu Kim; Ke Li; Preethi Rao

    2011-01-01

    Preparation for global movement to urban regions requires a holistic study of infrastructure interactions. The impact of water and energy on one another has been studied to show how they are dependent upon one another. Other infrastructure interactions also are vital to designing more sustainable cities. The primary infrastructures are: water, energy, land use, and transportation. Creating more sustainable cities

  5. The Major Environmentally-Based Land Use Issues on the Urban Fringe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hordon, Robert M.

    Types of land-use issues which form current problems in urban areas are discussed in this paper. The majority of these environmentally based issues revolve around the management of water. The five most often encountered water-oriented issues are denoted in rank order of importance. First, an ample water supply which is free from contamination must…

  6. Urban travel CO 2 emissions and land use: A case study for Quebec City

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Philippe Barla; Luis F. Miranda-Moreno; Martin Lee-Gosselin

    2011-01-01

    The paper examines the determinants of urban travel greenhouse gas emissions. Specifically, we examine the impact of individual and household socio-economic characteristics as well as the effect of land use and transit supply characteristics around the residence and work place. The analysis uses an activity-based longitudinal panel survey in the Quebec City region of Canada. We find that emissions vary

  7. Interactive Effects of Urban Land Use and Climate Change on Biogeochemical Cycles (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pouyat, R. V.

    2009-12-01

    Urban land-use change can affect biogeochemical cycles through altered disturbance regimes, landscape management practices (e.g., irrigation and fertilization), built structures, and altered environments (heat island effect, pollution, introduction of non-native species, loss of native species). As a result, the conversion of native to urban ecological systems has been shown to significantly affect carbon, nitrogen, and water cycles at local, regional, and global scales. These changes have created novel habitats and ecosystems, which have no analogue in the history of life. Nonetheless, some of the environmental changes occurring in urban areas are analogous to the changes expected in climate by the end of the century, e.g. atmospheric increase in CO2 and an increase in air temperatures, which can be utilized as a “natural experiment” to investigate global change effects on large scale ecosystem processes. Moreover, as analogues of expected future environments, urban ecological systems may act as reservoirs of plant and animal species for adjoining landscapes that are expected to undergo relatively rapid climate changes in the next 100 years. Urban land-use change by itself may contribute to changes in regional weather patterns and long-term changes in global climate, which will depend on the net effect of converting native systems to urban systems and the comparison of per capita “footprints” between urban, suburban, and rural inhabitants. My objectives are to 1) assess the impact of changes in urban land-use on climate change and in turn how climate change may affect urban biogeochemical cycles and 2) discuss the potential for urban ecosystems to mitigate green house gas emissions.

  8. Adjusting measured peak discharges from an urbanizing watershed to reflect a stationary land use signal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beighley, R. Edward; Moglen, Glenn E.

    2003-04-01

    A procedure to adjust gauged streamflow data from watersheds urbanized during or after their gauging period is presented. The procedure adjusts streamflow to be representative of a fixed land use condition, which may reflect current or future development conditions. Our intent is to determine what an event resulting in a peak discharge in, for example, 1950 (i.e., before urbanization) would produce on the current urban watershed. While past approaches assumed uniform spatial and temporal changes in urbanization, this study focuses on the use of geographic information systems (GIS) based methodologies for precisely locating in space and time where land use change has occurred. This information is incorporated into a hydrologic model to simulate the change in discharge as a result of changing land use conditions. In this paper, we use historical aerial photographs, GIS linked tax-map data, and recent land use/land cover data to recreate the spatial development history of eight gauged watersheds in the Baltimore-Washington, D. C., metropolitan area. Using our procedure to determine discharge series representative of the current urban watersheds, we found that the increase of the adjusted 2-year discharge ranged from 16 to 70 percent compared with the measured annual maximum discharge series. For the 100-year discharge the adjusted values ranged from 0 to 47 percent greater than the measured values. Additionally, relationships between the increase in flood flows and four measures of urbanization (increase in urban land, decrease in forested land, increase in high-density development, and the spatial development pattern) are investigated for predicting the increase in flood flows for ungauged watersheds. Watersheds with the largest increases in flood flows typically had more extensive development in the areas far removed from the outlet. In contrast, watersheds with development located nearer to the outlet typically had the smallest increases in peak discharge.

  9. Ecological traits affect the response of tropical forest bird species to land-use intensity

    PubMed Central

    Newbold, Tim; Scharlemann, Jörn P. W.; Butchart, Stuart H. M.; ?ekercio?lu, Ça?an H.; Alkemade, Rob; Booth, Hollie; Purves, Drew W.

    2013-01-01

    Land-use change is one of the main drivers of current and likely future biodiversity loss. Therefore, understanding how species are affected by it is crucial to guide conservation decisions. Species respond differently to land-use change, possibly related to their traits. Using pan-tropical data on bird occurrence and abundance across a human land-use intensity gradient, we tested the effects of seven traits on observed responses. A likelihood-based approach allowed us to quantify uncertainty in modelled responses, essential for applying the model to project future change. Compared with undisturbed habitats, the average probability of occurrence of bird species was 7.8 per cent and 31.4 per cent lower, and abundance declined by 3.7 per cent and 19.2 per cent in habitats with low and high human land-use intensity, respectively. Five of the seven traits tested affected the observed responses significantly: long-lived, large, non-migratory, primarily frugivorous or insectivorous forest specialists were both less likely to occur and less abundant in more intensively used habitats than short-lived, small, migratory, non-frugivorous/insectivorous habitat generalists. The finding that species responses to land use depend on their traits is important for understanding ecosystem functioning, because species' traits determine their contribution to ecosystem processes. Furthermore, the loss of species with particular traits might have implications for the delivery of ecosystem services. PMID:23173205

  10. Urban land-use study plan for the National Water-Quality Assessment Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Squillace, P.J.; Price, C.V.

    1996-01-01

    This study plan is for Urban Land-Use Studies initiated as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program. There are two Urban Land-Use Study objectives: (1) Define the water quality in recharge areas of shallow aquifers underlying areas of new residential and commercial land use in large metropolitan areas, and (2) determine which natural and human factors most strongly affect the occurrence of contaminants in these shallow aquifers. To meet objective 1, each NAWQA Study Unit will install and collect water samples from at least 30 randomly located monitoring wells in a metropolitan area. To meet objective 2, aquifer characteristics and land-use information will be documented. This includes particle-size analysis of each major lithologic unit both in the unsaturated zone and in the aquifer near the water table. The percentage of organic carbon also will be determined for each lithologic unit. Geographic information system coverages will be created that document existing land use around the wells. These data will aid NAWQA personnel in relating natural and human factors to the occurrence of contaminants. Water samples for age dating also will be collected from all monitoring wells, but the samples will be stored until the occurrence of contaminants has been determined. Age-date analysis will be done only on those samples that have no detectable concentrations of anthropogenic contaminants.

  11. Preparation of urban land use inventories by machine-processing of ERTS MSS data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Todd, W.; Mausel, P. E.; Wenner, K. A.

    1973-01-01

    Spectral classes of urban phenomena identified from ERTS multispectral scanner data in Milwaukee included Surburban, Inner City, Industry, Grassy (open area), Road, Wooded Suburb, Water, Cloud, and Shadow. The Milwaukee spectral class statistics were used to classify the Chicago area, within the same ERTS frame, and similar results were achieved. In another ERTS frame, Marion County (Indianapolis) data were classified into similar classes. The Marion County ERTS study was supported by a land use classification of an area near downtown Indianapolis that utilized 12-band MSS data collected by aircraft from 3000 feet. The results of the ERTS analyses suggest that satellite data will be a useful tool for the urban planner for monitoring urban land use.

  12. The emergence of urban land use patterns driven by dispersion and aggregation mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Decraene, James; Monterola, Christopher; Lee, Gary Kee Khoon; Hung, Terence Gih Guang; Batty, Michael

    2013-01-01

    We employ a cellular-automata to reconstruct the land use patterns of cities that we characterize by two measures of spatial heterogeneity: (a) a variant of spatial entropy, which measures the spread of residential, business, and industrial activity sectors, and (b) an index of dissimilarity, which quantifies the degree of spatial mixing of these land use activity parcels. A minimalist and bottom-up approach is adopted that utilizes a limited set of three parameters which represent the forces which determine the extent to which each of these sectors spatially aggregate into clusters. The dispersion degrees of the land uses are governed by a fixed pre-specified power-law distribution based on empirical observations in other cities. Our method is then used to reconstruct land use patterns for the city state of Singapore and a selection of North American cities. We demonstrate the emergence of land use patterns that exhibit comparable visual features to the actual city maps defining our case studies whilst sharing similar spatial characteristics. Our work provides a complementary approach to other measures of urban spatial structure that differentiate cities by their land use patterns resulting from bottom-up dispersion and aggregation processes. PMID:24386078

  13. Water-Urban Land Use: Neglected Link in the Climate Change Triadic Relationship among Water-Energy-Land Use in California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanco, H. J.

    2014-12-01

    Efforts to reduce the magnitude of climate change due to GHG emissions has focused attention on how different sectors contribute to GHG emitting energy use. California has been a leader in climate change mitigation policy across the nation with its passage of the Global Warming Act of 2006, with a major focus on the energy sector. Directly linked to climate change, the Energy-Travel-Urban Land Use Nexus in California is well recognized and the density/compactness of land use is subject of 2008 state policy (Sustainable Communities and Climate Protection Act, SB 375). The Water-Energy Nexus is also well-recognized, given that about 19% of electricity use in State is water-related, and water scarcity in the State has led to increasing policy guidelines, e.g., the 2009 water conservation plan, with a target of reducing urban water use by 20% by 2020. Since 40-50% of urban water in California is consumed by outdoor water use, the character of urban land use, its compactness and density, have important effects on water use and resulting energy impacts. However, direct policy attention to the water-urban land use nexus has focused primarily on water-conserving outdoor watering devices, and landscapes. Direct policy on the character of development itself has yet to emerge, and adequate recognition of the interrelationships among energy, water use and the character of urban development has yet to occur. This paper reviews the research and policies on the water-urban land use link, as well as on the larger triadic relation. It identifies research questions, and policy issues that this neglected link poses to California and the nation.

  14. Landscaping practices, land use patterns and stormwater quantity and quality in urban watersheds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miles, B.; Band, L. E.

    2011-12-01

    Increasing quantity and decreasing quality of urban stormwater threatens biodiversity in local streams and reservoirs, jeopardizes water supplies, and ultimately contributes to estuarine eutrophication. To estimate the effects that present and alternative landscaping practices and land use patterns may have on urban stormwater quantity and quality, simulations of existing land use/land cover using the Regional Hydro-Ecologic Simulation System (RHESSys), a process-based surface hydrology and biogeochemistry model, were developed for watersheds in Baltimore, MD (as part of the Baltimore Ecosystem Study (BES) NSF Long-Term Ecological Research (LTER) site) and Durham, NC (as part of the NSF Urban Long-Term Research Area (ULTRA) program). The influence of land use patterns and landscaping practices on nutrient export in urban watersheds has been explored as part of the BES; this work has focused on improving our understanding of how residential landscaping practices (i.e. lawn fertilization rates) vary across land use and socioeconomic gradients. Elsewhere, others have explored the political ecology of residential landscaping practices - seeking to understand the economic, political, and cultural influences on the practice of high-input residential turf-grass management. Going forward, my research will synthesize and extend this prior work. Rather than pre-supposing predominant residential land use patterns and landscaping practices (i.e. lower-density periphery development incorporating high-input turf landscapes) alternate land use and landscaping scenarios (e.g. higher-density/transit-oriented development, rain gardens, vegetable gardens, native plant/xeriscaping) will be developed through interviews/focus groups with stakeholders (citizens, public officials, developers, non-profits). These scenarios will then be applied to the RHESSys models already developed for catchments in Baltimore and Durham. The modeled scenario results will be used to identify alternate land use patterns and landscaping practices that would: (1) help to reduce non-point sources of nutrient pollution in urban watersheds; and (2) be likely to gain public support. This research will inform sustainable development policy while furthering interdisciplinary research in the fields of planning and water resource management.

  15. The development and application of land use\\/land use intensity data from SPOT\\/VEGETATION and Census of Agriculture data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeremy T. Kerr; Josef Cihlar

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this research is to develop the first Canada-wide, integrated land use\\/land cover database with supplemental land use intensity data within agricultural regions. We combined the 1998 growing season composite of Canada from processed SPOT4\\/Vegetation (VGT) data with thematically detailed, coarse resolution Census of Agriculture data from 1996. An enhanced, unsupervised classification procedure was applied to the VGT

  16. ICCLP: An Inexact Chance-Constrained Linear Programming Model for Land-Use Management of Lake Areas in Urban Fringes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yong; Qin, Xiaosheng; Guo, Huaicheng; Zhou, Feng; Wang, Jinfeng; Lv, Xiaojian; Mao, Guozhu

    2007-12-01

    Lake areas in urban fringes are under increasing urbanization pressure. Consequently, the conflict between rapid urban development and the maintenance of water bodies in such areas urgently needs to be addressed. An inexact chance-constrained linear programming (ICCLP) model for optimal land-use management of lake areas in urban fringes was developed. The ICCLP model was based on land-use suitability assessment and land evaluation. The maximum net economic benefit (NEB) was selected as the objective of land-use allocation. The total environmental capacity (TEC) of water systems and the public financial investment (PFI) at different probability levels were considered key constraints. Other constraints included in the model were land-use suitability, governmental requirements on the ratios of various land-use types, and technical constraints. A case study implementing the system was performed for the lake area of Hanyang at the urban fringe of Wuhan, central China, based on our previous study on land-use suitability assessment. The Hanyang lake area is under significant urbanization pressure. A 15-year optimal model for land-use allocation is proposed during 2006 to 2020 to better protect the water system and to gain the maximum benefits of development. Sixteen constraints were set for the optimal model. The model results indicated that NEB was between 1.48 × 109 and 8.76 × 109 or between 3.98 × 109 and 16.7 × 109, depending on the different urban-expansion patterns and land demands. The changes in total developed area and the land-use structure were analyzed under different probabilities ( q i ) of TEC. Changes in q i resulted in different urban expansion patterns and demands on land, which were the direct result of the constraints imposed by TEC and PFI. The ICCLP model might help local authorities better understand and address complex land-use systems and develop optimal land-use management strategies that better balance urban expansion and grassland conservation.

  17. Exploiting Volunteered Geographic Information to Ease Land Use Mapping of AN Urban Landscape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jokar Arsanjani, J.; Helbich, M.; Bakillah, M.

    2013-05-01

    Remote sensing techniques have eased land use/cover mapping substantially by observing the earth remotely through diminishing field surveying and in-site data collection. However, field measurement is still required to identify training sites for defining the existing land use classes, which requires visiting the study area. This paper is intended to utilize volunteered geographic information (VGI) contributions to the OpenStreetMap (OSM) project as an alternative data source instead of gathering training sites through insite visits and to evaluate how accurate land use patterns can be mapped. High resolution imagery of RapidEye with 5 meter spatial resolution is selected to derive land use patterns of Koblenz, Germany through a maximum likelihood classification technique. The achieved land use map is compared with the Global Monitoring for Environment and Security Urban Atlas (GMESUA) and a Kappa Index of 89% is achieved. The outcomes prove that VGI can be integrated within remote sensing processes to facilitate the process of earth observation and monitoring.

  18. Variations of Soil Lead in Different Land Uses Along the Urbanization Gradient in the Beijing Metropolitan Area

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Qizheng; Huang, Ganlin; Ma, Keming; Sun, Zexiang

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the spatial pattern of soil lead (Pb) levels is essential to protecting human health. Most previous studies have examined soil Pb distributions by either urbanization gradient or land-use type. Few studies, however, have examined both factors together. It remains unclear whether the impacts of land use on soil Pb levels are consistent along the urbanization gradient. To fill this gap, we investigated variations in soil Pb level under different land-use types along the urbanization gradient in Beijing, China. We classified the degree of urbanization as the urban core, transitional zone, or suburban area and the land-use type as industrial area, roadside, residential area, institutional area, road greenbelt, park, or forest. Our results showed that the range of soil Pb levels in Beijing is <1 mg/kg–292 mg/kg, with a mean of 22 mg/kg. Along the urbanization gradient, the mean soil Pb level increased from the suburban area to the urban core. Land-use types have an impact on soil Pb levels, however, when the degree of urbanization is considered, the impact from land use on soil Pb level was only significant in the transitional zone. Parks and road greenbelts were found to have lower soil Pb, primarily due to soil restoration. Roadside and residential areas were found to have higher soil Pb because of traffic emissions, leaded paint, and previous industrial contamination. In the urban core and suburban area, the soil Pb level showed no significant differences among various land-use types. Given the results of soil Pb in various land-use types, we suggest that future studies consider the urbanization gradient in which different land-use samples are located. PMID:24646863

  19. Graph-Based Urban Land Use Mapping from High Resolution Satellite Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walde, I.; Hese, S.; Berger, C.; Schmullius, C.

    2012-07-01

    Due to the dynamic character of urban land use (e.g. urban sprawl) there is a demand for frequent updates for monitoring, modeling, and controlling purposes. Urban land use is an added value that can be indirectly derived with the help of various properties of land cover classes that describe a certain area and create a distinguishable structure. The goal of this project is to extract land use (LU) classes out of a structure of land cover (LC) classes from high resolution Quickbird data and additional LiDAR building height models. The study area is Rostock, a German city with more than 200.000 inhabitants. To model the properties of urban land use a graph based approach is adapted from other disciplines (industrial image processing, medicine, informatics). A graph consists of nodes and edges while nodes describe the land cover and edges define the relationship of neighboring objects. To calculate the adjacency that describes which nodes are combined with an edge several distance ranges and building height properties are tested. Furthermore the information value of planar versus non-planar graph types is analyzed. After creating the graphs specific indices are computed that evaluate how compact or connected the graphs are. In this work several graph indices are explained and applied to training areas. Results show that the distance of buildings and building height are reliable indicators for LU-categories. The separability of LU-classes improves when properties of land cover classes and graph indices are combined to a LU-signature.

  20. Hydrochemistry of urban groundwater in Seoul, South Korea: effects of land-use and pollutant recharge

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Byoung-Young Choi; Seong-Taek Yun; Soon-Young Yu; Pyeong-Koo Lee; Seong-Sook Park; Gi-Tak Chae; Bernhard Mayer

    2005-01-01

    The ionic and isotopic compositions (?D, ?18O, and 3H) of urban groundwaters have been monitored in Seoul to examine the water quality in relation to land-use. High tritium contents\\u000a (6.1–12.0 TU) and the absence of spatial\\/seasonal change of O–H isotope data indicate that groundwaters are well mixed within\\u000a aquifers with recently recharged waters of high contamination susceptibility. Statistical analyses show a

  1. Urban land use in Natura 2000 surrounding areas in Vilnius Region, Lithuania.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, Paulo; Misi?n?, Ieva; Depellegrin, Daniel

    2015-04-01

    Urban development is one of the major causes of land degradation and pressure on protected areas. (Hansen and DeFries, 2007; Salvati and Sabbi, 2011). The urban areas in the fringe of the protected areas are a source of pollutants considered a negative disturbance to the ecosystems services and biodiversity within the protected areas. The distance between urban and protected areas is decreasing and in the future it is estimated that 88% of the world protected areas will be affected by urban growth (McDonald et al., 2008). The surrounding or buffer areas, are lands adjacent to the Natura 2000 territories, which aim to reduce the human influence within the protected areas. Presently there is no common definition of buffer area it is not clear among stakeholders (Van Dasselaar, 2013). The objective of this work is to identify the urban land use in the Natura 2000 areas in Vilnius region, Lithuania. Data from Natura 2000 areas and urban land use (Corine Land Cover 2006) in Vilnius region were collected in the European Environmental Agency website (http://www.eea.europa.eu/). In the surroundings of each Natura 2000 site, we identified the urban land use at the distances of 500, 1000 and 1500 m. The Natura 2000 sites and the urban areas occupied a total of 13.2% and 3.4% of Vilnius region, respectively. However, the urban areas are very dispersed in the territory, especially in the surroundings of Vilnius, which since the end of the XX century is growing (Pereira et al., 2014). This can represent a major threat to Natura 2000 areas ecosystem services quality and biodiversity. Overall, urban areas occupied approximately 50 km2, in the buffer area of 500 m, 95 km2 in buffer area of 1000 m and 131 km2 in the buffer area of 1500 km2. This shows that Natura 2000 surrounding areas in Vilnius region are subjected to a high urban pressure. This is especially evident in the Vilnius city and is a consequence of the uncontrolled urban development. The lack of a clear legislation regarding the land use of the Natura 2000 buffer areas is contributing to the degradation of the services provide by these areas. Acknowledgments RECARE (Preventing and Remediating Degradation of Soils in Europe Through Land Care, FP7-ENV-2013-TWO STAGE), funded by the European Commission, for the COST action ES1306 (Connecting European connectivity research) and COST Action IS1204 Tourism, Wellbeing and Ecosystem Services (TObeWELL) References Dasselaar, I.V. (2013) The impact of a buffer zone. The influence of the introduction of buffer zones surrounding Natura 2000 areas on local actors, the case of het Boetelerveld in the Netherlands. Master Thesis Forest and Nature Conservation, Forest and Nature Conservation Policy group, 69 p. Hansen, A.J. (2007) Ecological mechanisms linking protected areas to surrounding lands. Ecological Applications, 17, 974-978. McDonald, R.I., Kareiva, P., Forman, R.T.T. (2008) The implications of current and future urbanization for global protected areas and biodiversity conservation. Biological Conservation, 141, 1695-1703. Pereira, P., Monkevicius, A., Siarova, A. (2014) Public perception of the Environmental, Social and Economic impacts of Urban Sprawl in Vilnius. Societal Studies, 6, 256-290. Salvati, L., Sabbi, A. (2011) Exploring long-term land cover changes in an urban region of southern of Europe. International Journal of Sustainable Development & World Ecology, 18, 273-282.

  2. Effects of urbanization on stream ecosystems along an agriculture-to-urban land-use gradient, Milwaukee to Green Bay, Wisconsin, 2003-2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Richards, Kevin D.; Scudder, Barbara C.; Fitzpatrick, Faith A.; Steuer, Jeffery J.; Bell, Amanda H.; Peppler, Marie C.; Stewart, Jana S.; Harris, Mitchell A.

    2010-01-01

    In 2003 and 2004, 30 streams near Milwaukee and Green Bay, Wisconsin, were part of a national study by the U.S. Geological Survey to assess urbanization effects on physical, chemical, and biological characteristics along an agriculture-to-urban land-use gradient. A geographic information system was used to characterize natural landscape features that define the environmental setting and the degree of urbanization within each stream watershed. A combination of land cover, socioeconomic, and infrastructure variables were integrated into a multi-metric urban intensity index, scaled from 0 to 100, and assigned to each stream site to identify a gradient of urbanization within relatively homogeneous environmental settings. The 35 variables used to develop the final urban intensity index characterized the degree of urbanization and included road infrastructure (road area and road traffic index), 100-meter riparian land cover (percentage of impervious surface, shrubland, and agriculture), watershed land cover (percentage of impervious surface, developed/urban land, shrubland, and agriculture), and 26 socioeconomic variables (U.S. Census Bureau, 2001). Characteristics examined as part of this study included: habitat, hydrology, stream temperature, water chemistry (chloride, sulfate, nutrients, dissolved and particulate organic and inorganic carbon, pesticides, and suspended sediment), benthic algae, benthic invertebrates, and fish. Semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) were used to assess the potential for bioconcentration of hydrophobic organic contaminants (specifically polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, and organochlorine and pyrethroid insecticides) in biological membranes, such as the gills of fish. Physical habitat measurements reflective of channel enlargement, including bankfull channel size and bank erosion, increased with increasing urbanization within the watershed. In this study, percentage of riffles and streambed substrate size were more strongly related to local geologic setting, slope, watershed topography, and river-engineering practices than to urbanization. Historical local river-engineering features such as channelization, bank stabilization, and grade controls may have confounded relations among habitat characteristics and urbanization. A number of hydrologic-condition metrics (including flashiness and duration of high flow during pre- or post-ice periods) showed strong relations to the urban intensity index. Hydrologic-condition metrics cannot be used alone to predict habitat or geomorphic change. Chloride and SPMD measures of potential toxicity and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations showed the strongest positive correlations to urbanization including increases in road infrastructure, percentage of impervious surface in the watershed, urban land cover, and land-distribution related to urban land cover. This suggests that automobiles and the infrastructure required to support automobiles are a significant source of these compounds in this study area. Chloride in spring and summer showed a significant positive correlation with the urban intensity index; concentrations increased with increasing road infrastructure, urban land cover, and a number of landscape variables related to urbanization. Spring concentrations of sulfate, prometon, and diazinon correlated to fewer urban characteristics than chloride, including increases in road infrastructure, percentage of impervious surface, and urban land cover. Changes in biological communities correlated to the urban intensity index or individual urban-associated variables. Decreased percentages of pollution-sensitive diatoms and diatoms requiring high dissolved-oxygen saturation correlated to increases in the percentage of developed urban land, total impervious surface, stream flashiness, population density, road-area density, and decreases in the percentage of wetland in the watershed. Invertebrate taxa richness and Coleop

  3. Heavy metals in urban soils with various types of land use in Beijing, China.

    PubMed

    Xia, Xinghui; Chen, Xi; Liu, Ruimin; Liu, Hong

    2011-02-28

    Heavy metal concentrations of Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn were investigated for 127 urban soil samples collected from business area (BA), classical garden (CG), culture and education area (CEA), public green space (PGS), residential area (RA) and roadside area (RSA) in Beijing. The distribution of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn was mainly affected by anthropogenic sources, with their mean concentrations much higher than the background values of Beijing, while Cr and Ni were from natural sources. Among the 6 types of land use, the concentrations of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn in CG were significantly higher than those in the other 5 types of land use (p<0.05), which were due to their historical use such as pigments, wood preservation and brassware. For the other 5 types of land use except CG, the mean concentration of Cd in RSA was significantly higher than those in BA, CEA, PGS and RA (p<0.05), suggesting Cd was mainly from traffic sources. The distribution maps revealed that the concentrations of Cu, Pb and Zn showed decreasing trends from the center to the suburb of Beijing, they increased with the age of the urban area. PMID:21242029

  4. Effects of soil texture and land use interactions on organic carbon in soils in North China cities' urban fringe

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Limited information exists on the effects of the linkages between soil texture and land use on C storage efficiency. Organic C concentration in soils at the rural-urban interface were measured in 1982, 2000, and 2006 to determine controlling factors and optimal land use type to enhance soil organic ...

  5. Abstracting of suspected illegal land use in urban areas using case-based classification of remote sensing images

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fulong Chen; Chao Wang; Chengyun Yang; Hong Zhang; Fan Wu; Wenjuan Lin; Bo Zhang

    2008-01-01

    This paper proposed a method that uses a case-based classification of remote sensing images and applied this method to abstract the information of suspected illegal land use in urban areas. Because of the discrete cases for imagery classification, the proposed method dealt with the oscillation of spectrum or backscatter within the same land use category, and it not only overcame

  6. Mercury in urban soils with various types of land use in Beijing, China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xi; Xia, Xinghui; Wu, Shan; Wang, Fan; Guo, Xuejun

    2010-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) concentration was investigated for 127 urban soil samples collected from business area (BA), classical garden (CG), culture and education area (CEA), public green space (PGS), residential area (RA) and roadside area (RSA) in Beijing. The median of Hg concentration in Beijing was 0.26 mg/kg. The value in CG was much higher than the other 5 types of land use, which was due to the historical use of Hg. More than 87% of the samples were not contaminated according to the guideline values of China, UK, Canada, and USEPA. Spatial distribution map revealed that Hg concentration showed a decreasing trend from the center to the suburb, it increased with the age of the urban area. Hg contamination in urban area of Beijing is marked by features of non-point sources associated with human activities, and it is most likely to be the common characteristics of Hg contamination in cities. PMID:19765869

  7. EVALUATION OF LAND USE/LAND COVER DATASETS FOR URBAN WATERSHED MODELING

    SciTech Connect

    S.J. BURIAN; M.J. BROWN; T.N. MCPHERSON

    2001-08-01

    Land use/land cover (LULC) data are a vital component for nonpoint source pollution modeling. Most watershed hydrology and pollutant loading models use, in some capacity, LULC information to generate runoff and pollutant loading estimates. Simple equation methods predict runoff and pollutant loads using runoff coefficients or pollutant export coefficients that are often correlated to LULC type. Complex models use input variables and parameters to represent watershed characteristics and pollutant buildup and washoff rates as a function of LULC type. Whether using simple or complex models an accurate LULC dataset with an appropriate spatial resolution and level of detail is paramount for reliable predictions. The study presented in this paper compared and evaluated several LULC dataset sources for application in urban environmental modeling. The commonly used USGS LULC datasets have coarser spatial resolution and lower levels of classification than other LULC datasets. In addition, the USGS datasets do not accurately represent the land use in areas that have undergone significant land use change during the past two decades. We performed a watershed modeling analysis of three urban catchments in Los Angeles, California, USA to investigate the relative difference in average annual runoff volumes and total suspended solids (TSS) loads when using the USGS LULC dataset versus using a more detailed and current LULC dataset. When the two LULC datasets were aggregated to the same land use categories, the relative differences in predicted average annual runoff volumes and TSS loads from the three catchments were 8 to 14% and 13 to 40%, respectively. The relative differences did not have a predictable relationship with catchment size.

  8. Relationship study on land use spatial distribution structure and energy-related carbon emission intensity in different land use types of Guangdong, China, 1996-2008.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yi; Xia, Bin; Yang, Lei

    2013-01-01

    This study attempts to discuss the relationship between land use spatial distribution structure and energy-related carbon emission intensity in Guangdong during 1996-2008. We quantized the spatial distribution structure of five land use types including agricultural land, industrial land, residential and commercial land, traffic land, and other land through applying spatial Lorenz curve and Gini coefficient. Then the corresponding energy-related carbon emissions in each type of land were calculated in the study period. Through building the reasonable regression models, we found that the concentration degree of industrial land is negatively correlated with carbon emission intensity in the long term, whereas the concentration degree is positively correlated with carbon emission intensity in agricultural land, residential and commercial land, traffic land, and other land. The results also indicate that land use spatial distribution structure affects carbon emission intensity more intensively than energy efficiency and production efficiency do. These conclusions provide valuable reference to develop comprehensive policies for energy conservation and carbon emission reduction in a new perspective. PMID:23476128

  9. A study of the relation between the land use types and urban heat island effect in Guangzhou city based on remote sensing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cui Haishan; Qian Lexiang

    2010-01-01

    Urban heat island effect refers to the phenomenon of urban temperatures being higher than the suburban. relation of the city land use and the urban heat island effect has gradually become an important environmental problem that arousing general concern. Remote sensed data has been an effective measure monitoring and analyzing the land use change and the urban heat island effect.

  10. The impact of urban planning on land use and land cover in Pudong of Shanghai, China.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Bin; Nakagoshi, Nobukazu; Chen, Jia-kuan; Kong, Ling-yi

    2003-03-01

    Functional zones in cities constitute the most conspicuous components of newly developed urban area, and have been a hot spot for domestic and foreign investors in China, which not only show the expanse of urban space accompanied by the shifts both in landscape (from rural to urban) and land use (from less extensive to extensive), but also display the transformation of regional ecological functions. By using the theories and methods of landscape ecology, the structure of landscape and landscape ecological planning can be analyzed and evaluated for studying the urban functional zones' layout. In 1990, the Central Government of China declared to develop and open up Pudong New Area so as to promote economic development in Shanghai. Benefited from the advantages of Shanghai's location and economy, the government of Pudong New Area has successively built up 7 different functional zones over the past decade according to their functions and strategic goals. Based on the multi-spectral satellite imageries taken in 1990, 1997 and 2000, a landscape ecology analysis was carried out for Pudong New Area of Shanghai, supported by GIS technology. Green space (including croplands) and built-up area are the major factors considered in developing urban landscape. This paper was mainly concerned with the different spatial patterns and dynamic of green space, built-up areas and new buildings in different functional zones, influenced by different functional layouts and development strategies. The rapid urbanization in Pudong New Area resulted in a more homogeneous landscape. Agricultural landscape and suburban landscape were gradually replaced by urban landscape as the degree of urbanization increased. As consequence of urbanization in Pudong, not only built-up patches, but also newly-built patches and green patches merged into one large patch, which should be attributed to the construction policy of extensive green space as the urban development process in Pudong New Area. The shape of green area of 7 functional zones became more and more regular because of the horticultural needs in Shanghai urban planning. Some suggestions were finally made for the study of future urban planning and layout. PMID:12765263

  11. Three-dimensional Woody Vegetation Structure across Different Land-use Types and -land-use Intensities in a Semi-arid Savanna

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jolene Fisher; Barend Erasmus; Edward Witkowski; Jan van Aardt; Gregory Asner; Ty Kennedy-Bowdoin; David Knapp; Ruth Emerson; James Jacobson; Renaud Mathieu; Konrad J. Wessels

    2009-01-01

    Factors influencing woody savanna vegetation structure across a land-use gradient of intensity (highly and lightly utilized communal rangeland) and type (national protected area, private game reserve and communal rangelands) were investigated. Small-footprint discrete return LiDAR data (1.12 m point spacing) from the Carnegie Airborne Observatory (CAO) `Alpha system' were used to measure three-dimensional vegetation structure across the different treatments. A

  12. Urban heat island in Krakow, Poland: Land use versus land form interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bokwa, A.

    2012-04-01

    Urban heat island is a well known feature of urban climate, related mainly to the changes in land use in urban areas and anthropogenic heat emission. However, the interaction between the land use and land form in urban areas and its impact on air temperature spatial patterns is much less known. Krakow is a medium size city located in southern Poland, in the valley of the Vistula River. The city is surrounded with convex land forms from three sides, with height differences up to 100 m. Built-up areas of the city can be found in both the valley bottom and on nearby slopes. Numerous studies completed after the Second World War (e.g. Hess 1974, Lewinska et al. 1982, Morawska-Horawska, Cebulak 1981) showed that the characteristic features of the climate of Krakow are e.g. frequent air temperature inversions, poor natural ventilation, large precipitation horizontal gradients. More recent research (e.g. Bokwa 2010) revealed e.g. a thermal asymmetry of the area. On the basis of 3-year (2009-2011) air temperature measurements in 21 points, completed with mobile measurements and analysis of available long-term series, it was proposed to define urban heat island separately in particular vertical zones of the city. Bokwa, A., 2010, Wieloletnie zmiany struktury mezoklimatu miasta na przykladzie Krakowa [Multi-annual changes of the urban mesoclimate structure (using an example of Kraków)], Institute of Geography and Spatial Management, Jagiellonian University, Kraków, 258 pp.; available on-line: http://www.geo.uj.edu.pl/publikacje.php?&lang=1&page=monografie&menu=3&id=000155 Hess M., 1974, Klimat Krakowa {Climate of Krakow], Folia Geogr., ser. Geogr.-Phys., 8, 45-102. Lewi?ska J., Bartosik J., Ba?cik J., Czerwieniec M., Zgud K., 1982, Wp?yw miasta na klimat lokalny (na przyk?adzie aglomeracji krakowskiej) [Impact of a city on the local climate using an example of Krakow], Inst. Kszta?t. ?rod., Warszawa. Morawska-Horawska M., Cebulak E., 1981, Badania pionowego zasi?gu miejskiej wyspy ciep?a nad Krakowem [Studies on vertical extent of urban heat island over Krakow], Folia Geogr., ser. Geogr.-Phys., 14, 43-50.

  13. Tempo-Spatial Patterns of Land Use Changes and Urban Development in Globalizing China: A Study of Beijing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yichun Xie; Chuanglin Fang; George C. S. Lin; Hongmian Gong; Biao Qiao

    2007-01-01

    This study examines the temporal and spatial changes in land use as a consequence of rapid urban development in the city of Beijing. Using a combination of techniques of remote sensing and GIS, the study identifies a substantial loss of plain dryland and a phenomenal expansion of urban construction land over the recent decade. Geographically, there is a clear shifting

  14. Abstracting of suspected illegal land use in urban areas using case-based classification of remote sensing images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Fulong; Wang, Chao; Yang, Chengyun; Zhang, Hong; Wu, Fan; Lin, Wenjuan; Zhang, Bo

    2008-11-01

    This paper proposed a method that uses a case-based classification of remote sensing images and applied this method to abstract the information of suspected illegal land use in urban areas. Because of the discrete cases for imagery classification, the proposed method dealt with the oscillation of spectrum or backscatter within the same land use category, and it not only overcame the deficiency of maximum likelihood classification (the prior probability of land use could not be obtained) but also inherited the advantages of the knowledge-based classification system, such as artificial intelligence and automatic characteristics. Consequently, the proposed method could do the classifying better. Then the researchers used the object-oriented technique for shadow removal in highly dense city zones. With multi-temporal SPOT 5 images whose resolution was 2.5×2.5 meters, the researchers found that the method can abstract suspected illegal land use information in urban areas using post-classification comparison technique.

  15. Spatio-Temporal Dynamics of Urban Expansion in Japan Using Gridded Land Use Data, Population Census Data and DMSP Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagan, H.; Yamagata, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Integration of population data, land-use data, and satellite images can be used to identify and characterize the spatio-temporal extent and expansion trends of urban growth. We provided an idea to investigate the spatio-temporal urban growth using satellite images with population data. We analyze the urban expansion in Japan from 1990 to 2005 by using gridded land-use data, population census data, and DMSP satellite images of nighttime lights. First, we mapped the DMSP nighttime lights and land-use data onto a grid based on the standard 1 km2grid cell system of Japan to determine the proportional areas of DMSP nighttime lights and urban land use within each grid cell. Then, we investigated the relationships among population density, DMSP nighttime lights area, and urban area. A rapid expansion of the urban/built-up area around megacities was associated with population increases; in contrast, population density dropped steeply in rural areas and in small towns. Spatial correlation analysis showed a strong positive correlation between population density and urban land use (r= 0.59). In addition, correlation coefficients between population density and DMSP data increased as the DMSP nighttime lights brightness value increased. We then used census population data as the base population input, and performed a linear multiple regression analysis to predict population density from the combination of urban land-use area and DMSP data in Hokkaido, Japan. Visual and numerical evaluation of the results showed that the combination of urban land-use data and DMSP data could be used to predict the spatial distribution of population density. The results from this study indicated the high correlation between these data and suggested the potentials of population density prediction using DMSP data and land use data. References Bagan, H., and Y. Yamagata. Land-cover change analysis in 50 global cities by using a combination of Landsat data and analysis of grid cell. Environmental Research Letters, vol.9, no. 6, 064015. Jun. 2014. Bagan, H., and Y. Yamagata. Landsat analysis of urban growth: How Tokyo became the world's largest megacity during the last 40 years. Remote Sensing of Environment, vol.127, pp. 210-222. Dec. 2012.

  16. Geo-information Based Spatio-temporal Modeling of Urban Land Use and Land Cover Change in Butwal Municipality, Nepal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandal, U. K.

    2014-11-01

    Unscientific utilization of land use and land cover due to rapid growth of urban population deteriorates urban condition. Urban growth, land use change and future urban land demand are key concerns of urban planners. This paper is aimed to model urban land use change essential for sustainable urban development. GI science technology was employed to study the urban change dynamics using Markov Chain and CA-Markov and predicted the magnitude and spatial pattern. It was performed using the probability transition matrix from the Markov chain process, the suitability map of each land use/cover types and the contiguity filter. Suitability maps were generated from the MCE process where weight was derived from the pair wise comparison in the AHP process considering slope, land capability, distance to road, and settlement and water bodies as criterion of factor maps. Thematic land use land cover types of 1999, 2006, and 2013 of Landsat sensors were classified using MLC algorithm. The spatial extent increase from 1999 to 2013 in built up , bush and forest was observed to be 48.30 percent,79.48 percent and 7.79 percent, respectively, while decrease in agriculture and water bodies were 30.26 percent and 28.22 percent. The predicted urban LULC for 2020 and 2027 would provide useful inputs to the decision makers. Built up and bush expansion are explored as the main driving force for loss of agriculture and river areas and has the potential to continue in future also. The abandoned area of river bed has been converted to built- up areas.

  17. Analysis of land use\\/cover changes and urban expansion of Nairobi city using remote sensing and GIS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. N. Mundia; M. Aniya

    2005-01-01

    We used three Landsat images together with socio?economic data in a post?classification analysis to map the spatial dynamics of land use\\/cover changes and identify the urbanization process in Nairobi city. Land use\\/cover statistics, extracted from Landsat Multi?spectral Scanner (MSS), Thematic Mapper (TM) and Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM+) images for 1976, 1988 and 2000 respectively, revealed that the built?up area

  18. Land-use and transport-network indicators in the assessment of the sustainability of urban areas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marjo Kasanko; Carlo Lavalle; Luca Demicheli; Niall L. McCormick; Maddalena Turchini

    2002-01-01

    MOLAND (Monitoring Land Cover\\/Use Dynamics) is a research project aiming to assess and monitor the evolution of urban and regional land use and traffic networks. The main aims of MOLAND are to offer planners and decision-makers at various levels reliable, up-to-date and harmonized information on land use changes and a tool for monitoring, analyzing and forecasting such changes from the

  19. Soil humus composition - comparison between mountain grasslands and forest lands with different land-use intensity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naydenova, Lora; Zhiyanski, Miglena; Leifeld, Jens; Filcheva, Ekaterina

    2015-04-01

    Soil humus is a dynamic characteristic greatly vulnerable to land use and climate and with important feedbacks to the atmospheric green house gas balance and the rate of climate change. The increased demand for accurate soil carbon stocks assessments and predictions of its changes as a result of land use/cover and climate change has triggered large-scale and long-term measurements of soil organic matter specifics. We studied the soil humus composition in four mountain grasslands, differentiated according to the land-use sub-type and land-use intensity and four forest lands. Two pastures - with intensive (Pi) and extensive grazing (Pe) and two meadows- managed (Mm) and unmanaged (Mu) were objects of present study. Two spruce plantations (Picea abies Karst), and two natural beech forests (Fagus sylvatica L.) - control, unmanaged for the both (Su and Bu) and with 10 % cutting intensity (Sc and Bc). Humus composition was analyzed following the methodology of Kononova-Belchikova. The aggressive and mobile fulvic acids predominated in all of the investigated plots, except Pe and Bu. Humic acids are "free" and bonded with R3O3 and no Ca-bonded humic acids were established under the grasslands, but in the soils under the two beech forest we observed Ca-bonded humic acids in small quantities. The values of total org. C and C-extracted by 0.1 N NaOH was similar in most of studied horizons. Our results showed that the highest total carbon content was localized in the organic-mineral soil horizon and decreased toward deeper soil. The highest total carbon content estimated at 14.04 % was determined in A-horizon of soil in pasture with extensive grazing, for the grasslands. The higher grazing disturbance in Pi leads to increase root biomass in patch areas and in inter-patch upper soil related with decrease of soil humus content. We supposed that the reduced amount of litter input with increased recalcitrance to decomposition provoked the reduction of organic carbon content and in changes in its composition under intensive grazing. The extensive pasture management in mountain areas is better land-use approach in the perspective of soil humus quality improvement. The managed meadow in mountain areas accumulated more carbon in superficial soil, but the composition of soil humus is similar to this in unmanaged grassland. Both European beech and Norway spruce stands had higher accumulation of organic matter in the forest floor and the Ah horizon under unmanaged conditions. For the forest lands the highest total carbon content was found in the soil under the spruce forest - 9.5 %. In the managed forests, carbon contents tended to be higher in deeper horizons of the mineral soil, probably due to differences in microclimate after cutting. However, the variability in carbon storage was higher in managed sites which may reflect a higher degree of disturbance.

  20. Proliferation of Nonconforming Land Uses in Agricultural Envelope of Urban Hong Kong

    PubMed

    Jim

    1996-07-01

    Until the late 1960s rural Hong Kong had an attractive rustic landscape and a small but active farming population. The recent widespread agricultural decline provided opportunities for urban-oriented activities to invade, mainly as open storage and workshops unsuitable in city areas. Rapid container-port expansion and cross-border China trade generate demands for cheap and accessible land for non-conforming uses (NCU). Rural development control and land-use planning are inherently weak, and formal provision for such uses is lacking. An unfavorable landmark court judgement allows landowners to degrade the countryside. The activities have caused acute environmental problems, telescoped into a small territory, including visual blight, pollution, drainage blockage, loss of wetland habitats, and increased flooding hazard. The distinction between urban and rural has been blurred in the destruction of the valuable countryside heritage. An interim legislative amendment fails to stop unauthorized conversion of farmland. In the long term, an integrated and comprehensive rural planning strategy to conserve inherent elements, as well as accommodating selected urban spillover in properly located and serviced sites, is needed. PMID:8661615

  1. The impact of land use, season, age, and sex on the prevalence and intensity of Baylisascaris procyonis infections in raccoons (Procyon lotor) from Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Jardine, Claire M; Pearl, David L; Puskas, Kirstie; Campbell, Doug G; Shirose, Lenny; Peregrine, Andrew S

    2014-10-01

    We assessed the impact of land use, demographic factors, and season on the prevalence and intensity of Baylisascaris procyonis infections in raccoons (Procyon lotor) in Ontario, Canada. From March to October 2012, we recorded the number of B. procyonis in the intestinal tracts of raccoons submitted to the Canadian Cooperative Wildlife Health Centre for necropsy. Logistic regression models were used to examine associations between the presence of B. procyonis and age (adult, juvenile), sex, land use (suburban/urban, rural), and season (March-June and July-October); negative binomial regression models were used to examine associations between the number of worms and the same variables. We detected B. procyonis in 38% (95% confidence interval 30-47%) of raccoons examined (n=128). In univariable models, the presence of B. procyonis was significantly associated with age, land use, and season (P<0.05). Age was not retained in the multivariable model, and the impact of sex on the presence of B. procyonis varied with land use and season. For example, from March to June, suburban/urban male raccoons were significantly more likely to be infected with B. procyonis than suburban/urban female raccoons. However, later in the summer (July-October), the opposite was true. The median number of worms in the intestinal tracts of infected raccoons was 3 (range 1-116). Worm number was significantly associated with age and season in univariable models; in the multivariable model, juvenile raccoons had significantly more worms than adults, and the impact of season on the number of worms varied with land use and sex. A better understanding of the epidemiology of B. procyonis in raccoons is important for developing appropriate strategies to reduce the risk of human exposure to B. procyonis from the environment. PMID:25098302

  2. Bayesian networks and agent-based modeling approach for urban land-use and population density change: a BNAS model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kocabas, Verda; Dragicevic, Suzana

    2013-10-01

    Land-use change models grounded in complexity theory such as agent-based models (ABMs) are increasingly being used to examine evolving urban systems. The objective of this study is to develop a spatial model that simulates land-use change under the influence of human land-use choice behavior. This is achieved by integrating the key physical and social drivers of land-use change using Bayesian networks (BNs) coupled with agent-based modeling. The BNAS model, integrated Bayesian network-based agent system, presented in this study uses geographic information systems, ABMs, BNs, and influence diagram principles to model population change on an irregular spatial structure. The model is parameterized with historical data and then used to simulate 20 years of future population and land-use change for the City of Surrey, British Columbia, Canada. The simulation results identify feasible new urban areas for development around the main transportation corridors. The obtained new development areas and the projected population trajectories with the“what-if” scenario capabilities can provide insights into urban planners for better and more informed land-use policy or decision-making processes.

  3. Soil Organic Matter Stability and Soil Carbon Storage with Changes in Land Use Intensity in Uganda

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiemann, L. K.; Grandy, S.; Hartter, J.

    2014-12-01

    As the foundation of soil fertility, soil organic matter (SOM) formation and break-down is a critical factor of agroecosystem sustainability. In tropical systems where soils are quickly weathered, the link between SOM and soil fertility is particularly strong; however, the mechanisms controlling the stabilization and destabilization of SOM are not well characterized in tropical soils. In western Uganda, we collected soil samples under different levels of land use intensity including maize fields, banana plantations and inside an un-cultivated native tropical forest, Kibale National Park (KNP). To better understand the link between land use intensity and SOM stability we measured total soil C and N, and respiration rates during a 369 d soil incubation. In addition, we separated soils into particle size fractions, and mineral adsorbed SOM in the silt (2-50 ?m ) and clay (< 2 ?m) fractions was dissociated, purified and chemically characterized via pyrolysis-GC/MS. Cultivated soil C and N have declined by 22 and 48%, respectively, in comparison to uncultivated KNP soils. Incubation data indicate that over the last decade, relatively accessible and labile soil organic carbon (SOC) pools have been depleted by 55-59% in cultivated soils. As a result of this depletion, the chemical composition of SOM has been altered such that clay and silt associated SOM differed significantly between agricultural fields and KNP. In particular, nitrogen containing compounds were in lower abundance in agricultural compared to KNP soils. This suggests that N depletion due to agriculture has advanced to pools of mineral associated organic N that are typically protected from break-down. In areas where land use intensity is relatively greater, increases in polysaccharides and lipids in maize fields compared to KNP indicate increases in microbial residues and decomposition by-products as microbes mine SOM for organic N. Chemical characterization of post-incubation SOM will help us better understand how microbes preferentially break-down SOM. Agricultural intensification over the past decade in western Uganda has depleted SOC, on average, by 1427 g m-2. In addition, depletion of organic nitrogen reserves in stable SOM pools corresponds with reported declines in crop yields and productivity in this region.

  4. Adaptation of Land-Use Demands to the Impact of Climate Change on the Hydrological Processes of an Urbanized Watershed

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yu-Pin; Hong, Nien-Ming; Chiang, Li-Chi; Liu, Yen-Lan; Chu, Hone-Jay

    2012-01-01

    The adaptation of land-use patterns is an essential aspect of minimizing the inevitable impact of climate change at regional and local scales; for example, adapting watershed land-use patterns to mitigate the impact of climate change on a region’s hydrology. The objective of this study is to simulate and assess a region’s ability to adapt to hydrological changes by modifying land-use patterns in the Wu-Du watershed in northern Taiwan. A hydrological GWLF (Generalized Watershed Loading Functions) model is used to simulate three hydrological components, namely, runoff, groundwater and streamflow, based on various land-use scenarios under six global climate models. The land-use allocations are simulated by the CLUE-s model for the various development scenarios. The simulation results show that runoff and streamflow are strongly related to the precipitation levels predicted by different global climate models for the wet and dry seasons, but groundwater cycles are more related to land-use. The effects of climate change on groundwater and runoff can be mitigated by modifying current land-use patterns; and slowing the rate of urbanization would also reduce the impact of climate change on hydrological components. Thus, land-use adaptation on a local/regional scale provides an alternative way to reduce the impacts of global climate change on local hydrology. PMID:23202833

  5. Land Use and Watersheds: Human Influence on Hydrology and Geomorphology in Urban and Forest Areas. Water Science and Application Series

    SciTech Connect

    Wigmosta, Mark S.; Burges, S J.

    2001-10-01

    What is the effect of urbanization and forest use on hydrologic and geomorphic processes? How can we develop land use policies that minimize adverse impacts on ecosystems while sustaining biodiversity? Land Use and Watersheds: Human Influence on Hydrology and Geomorphology in Urban and Forest Areas addresses these issues and more. By featuring watersheds principally in the American Pacific Northwest, and the effects of timber harvesting and road construction on stream flow, sediment yield and landslide occurrence, scientists can advance their understanding of what constitutes appropriate management of environments with similar hydro-climatic-geomorphic settings worldwide.

  6. Urban Growth in a Fragmented Landscape: Estimating the Relationship between Landscape Pattern and Urban Land Use Change in Germany, 2000-2006

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, R.

    2013-12-01

    One of the highest priorities in the conservation and management of biodiversity, natural resources and other vital ecosystem services is the assessment of the mechanisms that drive urban land use change. Using key landscape indicators, this study addresses why urban land increased 6 percent overall in Germany from 2000-2006. Building on regional science and economic geography research, I develop a model of landscape change that integrates remotely sensed and other geospatial data, and socioeconomic data in a spatial autoregressive model to explain the variance in urban land use change observed in German kreise (counties) over the past decade. The results reveal three key landscape mechanisms that drive urban land use change across Germany, aligning with those observed in US studies: (1) the level of fragmentation, (2) the share of designated protected areas, and (3) the share of prime soil. First, as fragmentation of once continuous habitats in the landscape increases, extensive urban growth follows. Second, designated protected areas have the perverse effect of hastening urbanization in surrounding areas. Third, greater shares of prime, productive soil experienced less urban land take over the 6 year period, an effect that is stronger in the former East Germany, where the agricultural sector remains large. The results suggest that policy makers concentrate their conservation efforts on preexisting fragmented land with high shares of protected areas in Germany to effectively stem urban land take. Given that comparative studies of land use change are vital for the scientific community to grasp the wider global process of urbanization and coincident ecological impacts, the methodology employed here is easily exportable to land cover and land use research programs in other fields and geographic areas. Key words: Urban land use change, Ecosystem services, Landscape fragmentation, Remote sensing, Spatial regression models, GermanyOLS and Spatial Autoregressive Model Results N = 439; Standard error in ( ) . *p < .1, **p < .01, ***p < .001

  7. Quantifying Outdoor Water Consumption of Urban Land Use/Land Cover: Sensitivity to Drought

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaplan, Shai; Myint, Soe W.; Fan, Chao; Brazel, Anthony J.

    2014-04-01

    Outdoor water use is a key component in arid city water systems for achieving sustainable water use and ensuring water security. Using evapotranspiration (ET) calculations as a proxy for outdoor water consumption, the objectives of this research are to quantify outdoor water consumption of different land use and land cover types, and compare the spatio-temporal variation in water consumption between drought and wet years. An energy balance model was applied to Landsat 5 TM time series images to estimate daily and seasonal ET for the Central Arizona Phoenix Long-Term Ecological Research region (CAP-LTER). Modeled ET estimations were correlated with water use data in 49 parks within CAP-LTER and showed good agreement ( r 2 = 0.77), indicating model effectiveness to capture the variations across park water consumption. Seasonally, active agriculture shows high ET (>500 mm) for both wet and dry conditions, while the desert and urban land cover types experienced lower ET during drought (<300 mm). Within urban locales of CAP-LTER, xeric neighborhoods show significant differences from year to year, while mesic neighborhoods retain their ET values (400-500 mm) during drought, implying considerable use of irrigation to sustain their greenness. Considering the potentially limiting water availability of this region in the future due to large population increases and the threat of a warming and drying climate, maintaining large water-consuming, irrigated landscapes challenges sustainable practices of water conservation and the need to provide amenities of this desert area for enhancing quality of life.

  8. Analysing urban expansion and land use suitability for the city of Kahramanmara?, Turkey, and its surrounding region

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hakan Doygun; Hakan Alphan; Derya Ku?at Gurun

    2008-01-01

    This study aimed at quantifying changes in urban area of the city of Kahramanmara? (K.Mara?) between 1948 and 2006, and analysing\\u000a suitability of existing land use (LU) to the land potential. Urban change information was derived from two black-white monoscopic\\u000a aerial photographs, and IKONOS and the QuickBird images acquired in 1948, 1985, 2000 and 2006, respectively. QuickBird image\\u000a and soil

  9. An object-based multisensoral approach for the derivation of urban land use structures in the city of Rostock, Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindner, Martin; Hese, Sören; Berger, Christian; Schmullius, Christiane

    2011-11-01

    The present work is part of the Enviland-2 research project, which investigates the synergism between radar- and optical satellite data for ENVIronment and LAND use applications. The urban work package of Enviland aims at the combined analysis of RapidEye and TerraSAR-X data for the parameterization of different urban land use structures. This study focuses on the development of a transferable, object-based rule set for the derivation of urban land use structures at block level. The data base consists of RapidEye and TerraSAR-X imagery, as well as height information of a LiDAR nDSM (normalized Digital Surface Model) and object boundaries of ATKIS (Official Topographic Cartographic Information System) vector data for a study area in the city of Rostock, Germany. The classification of various land cover units forms the basis of the analysis. Therefore, an object-based land cover classification is implemented that uses feature level fusion to combine the information of all available input data. Besides spectral values also shape and context features are employed to characterize and extract specific land cover objects as indicators for the prevalent land use. The different land use structures are then determined by typical combinations and constellations of the extracted land use indicators and land cover proportions. Accuracy assessment is done by utilizing the available ATKIS information. From this analysis the land use structure classes residential, industrial/commercial, other built-up, allotments, sports facility, forest, grassland, other green spaces, squares/parking areas and water are distinguished with an overall accuracy of 63.2 %.

  10. Understory plant species composition in remnant stands along an urban-to-rural land-use gradient

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Guntenspergen, G.R.; Levenson, J.B.

    1997-01-01

    We examined the understory species composition of 24 remnant forest stands along an urban-to-rural gradient in the metropolitan Milwaukee, Wisconsin region to determine the relationships between plant community composition, human disturbance, and contrasting types of land use along a gradient of urbanization. A significant difference was found in shrub species community composition among three contrasting land-use categories but no significant difference was found in herbaceous community composition. Significant differences in human activity existed among rural, urban, and urbanizing land-use categories, but this index of disturbance was not significantly correlated to gradients in species composition. All stands in this study had been subjected to various types of human activity and environmental disturbances in the past. Our data suggest that differences in the relative importance of understory species exist among stands but these differences may not be caused by the impacts of urbanization alone. Changes in the natural disturbance regime of this landscape, along with the impacts associated with urbanization, have led to an individualistic response in the compositional dynamics of forest stands.

  11. Water in urban planning, Salt Creek Basin, Illinois water management as related to alternative land-use practices

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spieker, Andrew Maute

    1970-01-01

    Water management can be an integral part of urban comprehensive planning in a large metropolitan area. Water both imposes constraints on land use and offers opportunities for coordinated land and water management. Salt Creek basin in Cook and Du Page Counties of the Chicago metropolitan area is typical of rapidly developing suburban areas and has been selected to illustrate some of these constraints and opportunities and to suggest the effects of alternative solutions. The present study concentrates on the related problems of ground-water recharge, water quality, management of flood plains, and flood-control measures. Salt Creek basin has a drainage area of 150 square miles. It is in flat to. gently rolling terrain, underlain by glacial drift as much as 200 feet thick which covers a dolomite aquifer. In 1964, the population of the basin was about 400,000, and 40 percent of the land was in urban development. The population is expected to number 550,000 to 650,000 by 1990, and most of the land will be taken by urban development. Salt Creek is a sluggish stream, typical of small drainage channels in the headwaters area of northeastern Illinois. Low flows of 15 to 25 cubic feet per second in the lower part of the basin consist largely of sewage effluent. Nearly all the public water supplies in the basin depend on ground water. Of the total pumpage of 27.5 million gallons per day, 17.5 million gallons per day is pumped from the deep (Cambrian-Ordovician) aquifers and 10 million gallons per day is pumped from the shallow (Silurian dolomite and glacial drift) aquifers. The potential yield of the shallow aquifers, particularly glacial drift in the northern part of the basin, far exceeds present use. The largest concentration of pumpage from the shallow ,aquifers is in the Hinsdale-La Grange area. Salt Creek serves as an important source of recharge to these supplies, particularly just east of Hinsdale. The entire reach of Salt Creek south and east of Elmhurst can be regarded as an area of potential recharge to the shallow aquifers. Preservation of the effectiveness of these potential recharge areas should be considered in land-use planning. Salt Creek is polluted in times of both low and high flow. Most communities in the basin in Du Page County discharge their treated sewage into the creek, whereas those in Cook County transfer their sewage to plants of the Metropolitan Sanitary District outside the basin. During periods of high runoff, combined storm runoff and overflow from sanitary sewers enter the creek. Such polluted water detracts from the stream's esthetic and recreational potential and poses a threat to ground-water supplies owing to induced recharge of polluted water to shallow aquifers. Alternative approaches .to the pollution problem include improvement of the degree of sewage treatment, detention and treatment of storm runoff, dilution of sewage through flow augmentation, or transfer of sewage from the basin to a central treatment plant. To result in an enhanced environment, the streambed would have to be cleansed of accumulated sludge deposits. The overbank flooding in Salt Creek basin every 2 to 3 years presents problems because of encroachments and developments on the flood plains. Flood plains in an urban area can be managed by identifying them, by recognizing that either their natural storage capacity or equivalent artificial capacity is needed to accommodate floods, and by planning land use accordingly. Examples of effective floodplain management include (1) preservation of greenbelts or regional parks along stream courses, (2) use of flood plains for recreation, parking lots. or other low-intensity uses, (3) use of flood-proofed commercial buildings, and (4) provision for compensatory storage to replace natural storage capacity. Results of poor flood-plain management include uncontrolled residential development and encroachment by fill into natural storage areas where no compensatory storage has been

  12. Soil erosion evaluation in a rapidly urbanizing city (Shenzhen, China) and implementation of spatial land-use optimization.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wenting; Huang, Bo

    2015-03-01

    Soil erosion has become a pressing environmental concern worldwide. In addition to such natural factors as slope, rainfall, vegetation cover, and soil characteristics, land-use changes-a direct reflection of human activities-also exert a huge influence on soil erosion. In recent years, such dramatic changes, in conjunction with the increasing trend toward urbanization worldwide, have led to severe soil erosion. Against this backdrop, geographic information system-assisted research on the effects of land-use changes on soil erosion has become increasingly common, producing a number of meaningful results. In most of these studies, however, even when the spatial and temporal effects of land-use changes are evaluated, knowledge of how the resulting data can be used to formulate sound land-use plans is generally lacking. At the same time, land-use decisions are driven by social, environmental, and economic factors and thus cannot be made solely with the goal of controlling soil erosion. To address these issues, a genetic algorithm (GA)-based multi-objective optimization (MOO) approach has been proposed to find a balance among various land-use objectives, including soil erosion control, to achieve sound land-use plans. GA-based MOO offers decision-makers and land-use planners a set of Pareto-optimal solutions from which to choose. Shenzhen, a fast-developing Chinese city that has long suffered from severe soil erosion, is selected as a case study area to validate the efficacy of the GA-based MOO approach for controlling soil erosion. Based on the MOO results, three multiple land-use objectives are proposed for Shenzhen: (1) to minimize soil erosion, (2) to minimize the incompatibility of neighboring land-use types, and (3) to minimize the cost of changes to the status quo. In addition to these land-use objectives, several constraints are also defined: (1) the provision of sufficient built-up land to accommodate a growing population, (2) restrictions on the development of land with a steep slope, and (3) the protection of agricultural land. Three Pareto-optimal solutions are presented and analyzed for comparison. GA-based MOO is found able to solve the multi-objective land-use problem in Shenzhen by making a tradeoff among competing objectives. The outcome is alternative choices for decision-makers and planners. PMID:25315927

  13. Associations between land use and Perkinsus marinus infection of eastern oysters in a high salinity, partially urbanized estuary

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gray, Brian R.; Bushek, David; Drane, J. Wanzer; Porter, Dwayne

    2009-01-01

    Infection levels of eastern oysters by the unicellular pathogen Perkinsus marinus have been associated with anthropogenic influences in laboratory studies. However, these relationships have been difficult to investigate in the field because anthropogenic inputs are often associated with natural influences such as freshwater inflow, which can also affect infection levels. We addressed P. marinus-land use associations using field-collected data from Murrells Inlet, South Carolina, USA, a developed, coastal estuary with relatively minor freshwater inputs. Ten oysters from each of 30 reefs were sampled quarterly in each of 2 years. Distances to nearest urbanized land class and to nearest stormwater outfall were measured via both tidal creeks and an elaboration of Euclidean distance. As the forms of any associations between oyster infection and distance to urbanization were unknown a priori, we used data from the first and second years of the study as exploratory and confirmatory datasets, respectively. With one exception, quarterly land use associations identified using the exploratory dataset were not confirmed using the confirmatory dataset. The exception was an association between the prevalence of moderate to high infection levels in winter and decreasing distance to nearest urban land use. Given that the study design appeared adequate to detect effects inferred from the exploratory dataset, these results suggest that effects of land use gradients were largely insubstantial or were ephemeral with duration less than 3 months.

  14. Land Use and Land Cover Change, Urban Heat Island Phenomenon, and Health Implications: A Remote Sensing Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lo, C. P.; Quattrochi, Dale A.

    2003-01-01

    Land use and land cover maps of Atlanta Metropolitan Area in Georgia were produced from Landsat MSS and TM images for 1973,1979,1983,1987,1992, and 1997, spanning a period of 25 years. Dramatic changes in land use and land cover have occurred with loss of forest and cropland to urban use. In particular, low-density urban use, which includes largely residential use, has increased by over 119% between 1973 and 1997. These land use and land cover changes have drastically altered the land surface characteristics. An analysis of Landsat images revealed an increase in surface temperature and a decline in NDVI from 1973 to 1997. These changes have forced the development of a significant urban heat island effect and an increase in ground level ozone production to such an extent, that Atlanta has violated EPA's ozone level standard in recent years. The urban heat island initiated precipitation events that were identified between 1996 and 2000 tended to occur near high-density urban areas but outside the I-285 loop that traverses around the Central Business District, i.e. not in the inner city area, but some in close proximity to the highways. The health implications were investigated by comparing the spatial patterns of volatile organic compounds (VOC) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions, the two ingredients that form ozone by reacting with sunlight, with those of rates of cardiovascular and chronic lower respiratory diseases. A clear core-periphery pattern was revealed for both VOC and NOx emissions, but the spatial pattern was more random in the cases of rates of cardiovascular and chronic lower respiratory diseases. Clearly, factors other than ozone pollution were involved in explaining the rates of these diseases. Further research is therefore needed to understand the health geography and its relationship to land use and land cover change as well as urban heat island effect. This paper illustrates the usefulness of a remote sensing approach for this purpose.

  15. Effects of Green Space and Land Use/Land Cover on Urban Heat Island in a Subtropical Mega-city in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, G. Y.; Li, X.; Li, H.; Guo, Q.

    2014-12-01

    With the quick expansion of urban in size and population, its urban heat island intensity (UHII, expressed as the temperature difference between urban and rural areas) increased rapidly. However, very few studies could quantitatively reveal the effects of green space and land use/land cover (LULC) on urban thermal environment because of lacking of the detailed measurement. This study focuses on quantifying the effects of green space and LULC on urban Heat Island (UHI) in Shenzhen, a mega subtropical city in China. Extensive measurements (air temperature and humidity) were made by mobile traverse method in a transect of 8 km in length, where a variety of LULC types were included. Measurements were carried out at 2 hours interval for 2 years (totally repeated for 7011 times). According to LULC types, we selected 5 different LULC types for studying, including water body, village in the city, shopping center (commercial area), urban green space (well-vegetated area) and suburb (forest). The main conclusions are obtained as follows: (1) The temperature difference between the 5 different urban landscapes is obvious, i.e. shopping center > village in the city > urban water body > urban green space > suburb; (2) Air temperature and UHII decreases linearly with the increase of green space in urban; (3) Green space and water body in urban have obvious effects to reduce the air temperature by evapotranspiration. Compared to the commercial areas, urban water body can relieve the IUHI by 0.9?, while the urban green space can relieve the IUHI by 1.57?. The cooling effect of the urban green space is better than that of the urban water body; (4) Periodic activity of human being has obvious effects on urban air temperature. The UHII on Saturday and Sunday are higher than that from Monday to Friday, respectively higher for 0.65, 0.57, 0.26 and 0.21?. Thursday and Friday have the minimum air temperature and UHII. These results indicate that increase in urban evapotranspiration by increasing green space could be a useful way to improve urban thermal environment and mitigation of UHI.

  16. How landscape structure, land-use intensity and habitat diversity affect components of total arthropod diversity in agricultural landscapes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    FREDERIK HENDRICKX; JEAN-PIERRE MAELFAIT; LTER VAN WINGERDEN; OLIVER SCHWEIGER; MARJAN SPEELMANS; STÉPHANIE AVIRON; ISABEL AUGENSTEIN; REGULA BILLETER; DEBRA BAILEY; ROMAN BUKACEK; FRANÇOISE BUREL; TIM DIEKÖTTER; JOLANDA DIRKSEN; FELIX HERZOG; JAAN LIIRA; MARTINA ROUBALOVA; VIKI VANDOMME; ROB BUGTER

    2007-01-01

    Summary 1. Agricultural intensification poses a serious threat to biodiversity as a consequence of increased land-use intensity, decreased landscape heterogeneity and reduced habitat diversity. Although there is interest in the preservation of total species richness of an agricultural landscape ( ? diversity), the effects of intensification have been assessed primarily by species richness at a local scale ( ? diversity).

  17. Response of vascular epiphyte diversity to different land-use intensities in a neotropical montane wet forest

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mario L. Larrea; Florian A. Werner

    2010-01-01

    Although vascular epiphytes contribute substantially to the biodiversity of tropical montane forests, it is unclear how their diversity and community composition is affected by forest alteration. We studied the response of vascular epiphyte assemblages to different intensities of land-use in a montane wet forest of northeastern Ecuador: (1) unmanaged mature forest; (2) mature forest with mid- and understorey opened for

  18. A Study on the Land Use Characteristics of Urban Medium and Small stream Depending on the Width of stream

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seok, Song Young; Ho, Song Yang; Ho, Lee Jung; Moo Jong, Park

    2015-04-01

    Due to the increase of impervious layers caused by increased rainfall and urbanization which were brought about by the climate change after the late 1990s, the flood damage in urban watersheds is rising. The recent flood damage is occurring in medium and small stream rather than in large stream. Particularly, in medium stream which pass the cities, sudden flood occurs due to the short concentration of rainfall and urban areas suffer large damage, even though the flood damage is small, since residential areas and social infrastructures are concentrated. In spite of the importance of medium and small stream to pass the cities, there is no certain standard for classification of natural or urban stream and existing studies are mostly focused on the impervious area among the land use characteristics of watersheds. Most of existing river studies are based on the watershed scale, but in most urban watersheds where stream pass, urban areas are concentrated in the confluence, so urban areas only occupy less than 10% of the whole watershed and there is a high uncertainty in the classification of urban areas, based the watershed of stream. This study aims to suggest a classification standard of medium and small stream between local stream and small stream where suffer flood damage. According to the classified medium and small stream, this study analyzed the stream area to the stream width and distance using Arcgis Buffer tool, based on the stream line, not the existing watershed scale. This study then chose urban watersheds by analyzing the river area at certain intervals from the center of the chosen medium and small stream, in different ways. Among the land use characteristics in urban areas, the impervious area was applied to the selection standard of urban watersheds and the characteristics of urban watersheds were presented by calculating the ratio of the stream area to the impervious area using the Buffer tool. Acknowledgement "This research was supported by a grant [NEMA-NH-2011-45] from the Natural Hazard Mitigation Research Group, National Emergency Management Agency of Korea." Keywords: land use, urban watershed, medium and smaill stream, impervious area

  19. A Statistical Assessment of the Impact of Agricultural Land Use Intensity on Regional Surface Water Quality at Multiple Scales

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Weiwei; Li, Hong; Sun, Danfeng; Zhou, Liandi

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the effects of intensive agricultural land use activities on water resources is essential for natural resource management and environmental improvement. In this paper, multi-scale nested watersheds were delineated and the relationships between two representative water quality indexes and agricultural land use intensity were assessed and quantified for the year 2000 using multi-scale regression analysis. The results show that the log-transformed nitrate-nitrogen (NO3-N) index exhibited a relationship with chemical fertilizer input intensity and several natural factors, including soil loss, rainfall and sunlight at the first order watershed scale, while permanganate index (CODMn) had a positive relationship with another two input intensities of pesticides and agricultural plastic mulch and organic manure at the fifth order watershed scale. The first order watershed and the fifth order watershed were considered as the watershed adaptive response units for NO3-N and CODMn, respectively. The adjustment of agricultural input and its intensity may be carried out inside the individual watershed adaptive response unit. The multiple linear regression model demonstrated the cause-and-effect relationship between agricultural land use intensity and stream water quality at multiple scales, which is an important factor for the maintenance of stream water quality. PMID:23202839

  20. Contamination and potential mobility assessment of heavy metals in urban soils of Hangzhou, China: relationship with different land uses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. G. Lu; S. Q. Bai

    2010-01-01

    Concentration and distribution of heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn) in urban soils of Hangzhou, China, were measured based\\u000a on different land uses. The contamination degree of heavy metals was assessed on the basis of pollution index (PI), integrated\\u000a pollution index (IPI) and geoaccumulation index (I\\u000a geo). The 0.1 mol l?1 HCl extraction procedure and gastric juice simulation test (GJST) were

  1. A detailed comparison of backpropagation neural network and maximum-likelihood classifiers for urban land use classification

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Justin D. Paola; Robert A. Schowengerdt

    1995-01-01

    A detailed comparison of the backpropagation neural network and maximum-likelihood classifiers for urban land use classification is presented. Landsat Thematic Mapper images of Tucson, Arizona, and Oakland, California, were used for this comparison. For the Tucson image, the percentage of matching pixels in the two classification maps was only 64.5%, while for the Oakland image it was 83.3%. Although the

  2. VARIATIONS OF MICROORGANISM CONCENTRATIONS IN URBAN STORMWATER RUNOFF WITH LAND USE AND SEASONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Stormwater runoff samples were collected from outfalls draining small municipal separate storm sewer systems. The samples were collected from three different land use areas based on local designation (high-density residential, low-density residential, and landscaped commercial)....

  3. Simulating effects of land use policies on extent of the wildland urban interface and wildfire risk in Flathead County, Montana.

    PubMed

    Paveglio, Travis B; Prato, Tony; Hardy, Michael

    2013-11-30

    This study used a wildfire loss simulation model to evaluate how different land use policies are likely to influence wildfire risk in the wildland urban interface (WUI) for Flathead County, Montana. The model accounts for the complex socio-ecological interactions among climate change, economic growth, land use change and policy, homeowner mitigations, and forest treatments in Flathead County's WUI over the five 10-year subperiods comprising the future evaluation period (i.e., 2010-2059). Wildfire risk, defined as expected residential losses from wildfire [E(RLW)], depends on the number of residential properties on parcels, the probability that parcels burn, the probability of wildfire losses to residential structures on properties given the parcels on which those properties are located burn, the average percentage of wildfire-related losses in aesthetic values of residential properties, and the total value (structures plus land) of residential properties. E(RLW) for the five subperiods is simulated for 2010 (referred to as the current), moderately restrictive, and highly restrictive land use policy scenarios, a moderate economic growth scenario and the A2 greenhouse gas emissions scenario. Results demonstrate that increasingly restrictive land use policy for Flathead County significantly reduces the amount and footprint of future residential development in the WUI. In addition, shifting from the current to a moderately restrictive land use policy for Flathead County significantly reduces wildfire risk for the WUI, but shifting from the current to a highly restrictive land use policy does not significantly reduce wildfire risk in the WUI. Both the methods and results of the study can help land and wildfire managers to better manage future wildfire risk and identify residential areas having potentially high wildfire risk. PMID:24056233

  4. Analysis of urban land use pattern based on high resolution radar imagery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Esch; A. Roth; S. Dech

    2007-01-01

    The actual process of rapid urbanization is associated with various ecological, social and economic changes in both the urban area and the adjacent natural environment. To keep up with the effects and impacts of this development, effective urban and regional planning requires accurate and up-to-date information on the urban dynamics. Recent studies have proven the applicability of high resolution optical

  5. Land-Use Change Impacts on Intensity, Duration, and Frequency of Precipitation in the South Platte River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pina, A.; Denning, A. S.

    2014-12-01

    The Westward Expansion of the mid-1800s directly impacted the distribution of moisture in the South Platte River Basin (SPRB) by changing land surfaces from natural rangelands, grasslands, and shrublands to a disturbed state of urbanized cities, livestock pastures, and irrigated croplands. Changing land surfaces repartitions latent and sensible energy surface fluxes and inadvertently results in changes to the regional climate. In this study, we examined the impacts of land-use change on the meteorology and climate in the South Platte River Basin, a region sensitive to water-use management. WRF-ARW v3.4.1 was used to downscale the reanalysis of a climatologically normal summer (2010) to 0.5 km horizontal resolution over the SPRB. To analyze meteorological and climatological effects of land-use changes in northeastern Colorado, a control run where no changes to the input data was compared with a run which changed land-use index from anthropogenic-influenced landscapes back to their original vegetative land cover. Notable changes in the Bowen ratio around urban and irrigated lands as well as an enhancement of the mountain-valley circulation east of the Rocky Mountains were observed due to land-use changes. Output from the control run of the WRF simulation were used as a baseline for running a simulation to 2100 using a newly-developed multi-scale modeling framework based on the Community Earth System Model, which explicitly resolves convection in global climate model grid cells. Results of changing IDF curves over the 21st century can be compared with results shown in national and international documents such as the National Climate Assessment and Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change reports and used as planning tools for optimizing the balance of water management between agriculture communities and municipalities in Colorado.

  6. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in urban soils of different land uses in Beijing, China: distribution, sources and their correlation with the city's urbanization history.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shaoda; Xia, Xinghui; Yang, Lingyan; Shen, Mohai; Liu, Ruimin

    2010-05-15

    A total of 127 surface soil samples (0-20 cm) were collected from Beijing's urban district and determined for 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The mean concentration of summation SigmaPAHs was 1802.6 ng g(-1) with a standard deviation of 1824.2 ng g(-1). Average summation SigmaPAHs concentration and the percentage of high-molecular weight PAHs (4-6-rings) decreased from inner city to exterior areas. This correlated with the urbanization history of Beijing's urban district and inferred an increasing trend of soil PAHs with accumulation time and age of the urban area. summation SigmaPAHs in different land uses decreased in an order as: culture and education area (CEA)>classical garden (CG), business area (BA)>residential area (RA), roadside area (RSA)>public green space (PGS). PAHs in CEA mainly came from coal combustion, while soils of RSA exhibited clear traffic emission characteristics. PAHs in other land uses came from mixed sources. Principle component analysis followed by multivariate linear regression indicated that coal combustion and vehicle emission contributed about 46.0% and 54.0% to PAHs in Beijing's urban soils, respectively. Risk assessment based on the Canadian soil criterion indicated a low contamination level of PAHs. However, higher contents in some sensitive land uses such as CEA and CG should draw enough attention. PMID:20097001

  7. INTENSITY VALUE ANALYSIS AND THE CRIMINOGENIC EFFECTS OF LAND USE FEATURES ON LOCAL CRIME PATTERNS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eric S. McCord

    Research has shown that crime tends to cluster around certain categories of land uses; for example, assaults group around bars and thefts and vandalism gather in neighborhoods bordering high schools and shopping centers. Environmental criminology explains the criminogenic propensities of these places as the result of increased crime opportunities and activities that attract higher numbers of potential offenders. Current methodologies

  8. Multitemporal analysis (1975-2011) of vegetation changes in urban land uses: case of the city of Bartin, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Atesoglu, Ayhan

    2015-03-01

    Land use and physical planning have an integrative function especially for environmental planning. The most important factor is vegetation for this planning. The purpose of this study was to determine vegetative changes from 1975 to 2011 in Bartin urban area. Vegetation status analysisis the best indicators for understanding the contribution of land use in urban land. In the present study Landsat satellite images data belonging to 1975-1987-2000-2011 were used, data about altitude, slope groups of the Bartin municipal border were obtained. Vegetation change analysis and visual analyses of the study area were studed. According to the results of vegetation status analysis, 537.29 ha of area (14.59%), lost its vegetation quality between 1975 and 2011. The corresponding ratio of the area included in green areas, which was out of vegetation area, remained at negative 3.33%. This result showed that urban structuring in the regions out of vegetation was quite high. When the analysis made by using a slope groups map and the results obtained in the study were taken as the basis, the sum of class 1 and 2 farmland where level and gentle slopes lands within the area of study was 1805.96 ha The results showed that vegetation contribution on the ecological quality of study area was decreasing continuously and the effect it had on urban ecosystem was negative. PMID:25895273

  9. Urban Land Use Change Effects on Below and Aboveground Carbon Stocks—a Global Perspective and Future Research Needs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pouyat, R. V.; Chen, Y.; Yesilonis, I.; Day, S.

    2014-12-01

    Land use change (LUC) has a significant impact on both above- and below-ground carbon (C) stocks; however, little is known about the net effects of urban LUC on the C cycle and climate system. Moreover, as climate change becomes an increasingly pressing concern, there is growing evidence that urban policy and management decisions can have significant regional impacts on C dynamics. Soil organic carbon (SOC) varies significantly across ecoregions at global and continental scales due to differential sensitivity of primary production, substrate quality, and organic matter decay to changes in temperature and soil moisture. These factors are highly modified by urban LUC due to vegetation removal, soil relocation and disruption, pollution, urban heat island effects, and increased atmospheric CO2 concentrations. As a result, on a global scale urban LUC differentially affects the C cycle from ecoregion to ecoregion. For urban ecosystems, the data collected thus far suggests urbanization can lead to both an increase and decrease in soil C pools and fluxes, depending on the native ecosystem being impacted by urban development. For example, in drier climates, urban landscapes accumulate higher C densities than the native ecosystems they replaced. Results suggest also that soil C storage in urban ecosystems is highly variable with very high (> 20.0) and low (< 2.0) C densities (kg m-2 to a 1 m depth) present in the landscape at any one time. Moreover, similar to non-urban soils, total SOC densities are consistently 2-fold greater than aboveground stocks. For those soils with low SOC densities, there is potential to increase C sequestration through management, but specific urban related management practices need to be evaluated. In addition, urban LUC is a human-driven process and thus can be modified or adjusted to reduce its impacts on the C cycle. For example, policies that influence development patterns, population density, management practices, and other human factors can greatly ameliorate the impact of urban LUC on the C cycle. However, even with the recent and rapid expansion of newly acquired data, the net effects of urban LUC on C stocks and fluxes have not been comprehensively addressed. Furthermore, how sensitive these changes are to urban planning, policy decisions, and site management needs to be explored.

  10. Change detection of land use and land cover in an urban region with SPOT5 images and partial Lanczos extreme learning machine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ni-Bin Chang; Min Han; Wei Yao; Liang-Chien Chen; Shiguo Xu

    2010-01-01

    Satellite remote sensing technology and the science associated with evaluation of land use and land cover (LULC) in an urban region makes use of the wide range images and algorithms. Improved land management capacity is critically dependent on real-time or near real-time monitoring of land-use\\/land cover change (LUCC) to the extent to which solutions to a whole host of urban\\/rural

  11. A technical review of urban land use - transportation models as tools for evaluating vehicle travel reduction strategies

    SciTech Connect

    Southworth, F.

    1995-07-01

    The continued growth of highway traffic in the United States has led to unwanted urban traffic congestion as well as to noticeable urban air quality problems. These problems include emissions covered by the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) and 1991 Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act (ISTEA), as well as carbon dioxide and related {open_quotes}greenhouse gas{close_quotes} emissions. Urban travel also creates a major demand for imported oil. Therefore, for economic as well as environmental reasons, transportation planning agencies at both the state and metropolitan area level are focussing a good deal of attention on urban travel reduction policies. Much discussed policy instruments include those that encourage fewer trip starts, shorter trip distances, shifts to higher-occupancy vehicles or to nonvehicular modes, and shifts in the timing of trips from the more to the less congested periods of the day or week. Some analysts have concluded that in order to bring about sustainable reductions in urban traffic volumes, significant changes will be necessary in the way our households and businesses engage in daily travel. Such changes are likely to involve changes in the ways we organize and use traffic-generating and-attracting land within our urban areas. The purpose of this review is to evaluate the ability of current analytic methods and models to support both the evaluation and possibly the design of such vehicle travel reduction strategies, including those strategies involving the reorganization and use of urban land. The review is organized into three sections. Section 1 describes the nature of the problem we are trying to model, Section 2 reviews the state of the art in operational urban land use-transportation simulation models, and Section 3 provides a critical assessment of such models as useful urban transportation planning tools. A number of areas are identified where further model development or testing is required.

  12. Public Preferences for Land uses’ changes - valuing urban regeneration projects at the Venice Arsenale

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patrizia Riganti; Anna Alberini; Alberto Longo

    2005-01-01

    This paper discusses the results of a conjoint analysis study developed to assess alternative land uses for an important part of the city of Venice: its Arsenal. Aim of the study is to illustrate the potential of stated preferences techniques for placing a value on redevelopment and reuse alternatives for an underutilized site with high historical, cultural and architectural significance.

  13. Does mixed-species flocking influence how birds respond to a gradient of land-use intensity?

    PubMed

    Mammides, Christos; Chen, Jin; Goodale, Uromi Manage; Kotagama, Sarath Wimalabandara; Sidhu, Swati; Goodale, Eben

    2015-07-22

    Conservation biology is increasingly concerned with preserving interactions among species such as mutualisms in landscapes facing anthropogenic change. We investigated how one kind of mutualism, mixed-species bird flocks, influences the way in which birds respond to different habitat types of varying land-use intensity. We use data from a well-replicated, large-scale study in Sri Lanka and the Western Ghats of India, in which flocks were observed inside forest reserves, in 'buffer zones' of degraded forest or timber plantations, and in areas of intensive agriculture. We find flocks affected the responses of birds in three ways: (i) species with high propensity to flock were more sensitive to land use; (ii) different flock types, dominated by different flock leaders, varied in their sensitivity to land use and because following species have distinct preferences for leaders, this can have a cascading effect on followers' habitat selection; and (iii) those forest-interior species that remain outside of forests were found more inside flocks than would be expected by chance, as they may use flocks more in suboptimal habitat. We conclude that designing policies to protect flocks and their leading species may be an effective way to conserve multiple bird species in mixed forest and agricultural landscapes. PMID:26156772

  14. WATERSHED AND LAND USE–BASED SOURCES OF TRACE METALS IN URBAN STORM WATER

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Liesl L. Tiefenthaler; Eric D. Stein; Kenneth C. Schiff

    2008-01-01

    Trace metal contributions in urban storm water are of concern to environmental managers because of their potential impacts on ambient receiving waters. The mechanisms and processes that influence temporal and spatial patterns of trace metal loading in urban storm water, however, are not well understood. The goals of the present study were to quantify trace metal event mean concentration (EMC),

  15. 1 Mapping carbon storage in urban trees with multi-source remote sensing 2 data: Relationships between biomass, land use, and demographics in

    E-print Network

    Hutyra, Lucy R.

    · Used imagery and LiDAR to develop a high resolution urban biomass map for Boston, MA 11 · Tree carbon online xxxx 23 24 Editor: Simon Pollard 25Q4 Keywords: 26 Urban tree canopy 27 Vegetation biomass 28 Carbon cycle 29 Land use 30 Demographics 31 High resolution remote sensing 32 LiDAR 33 QuickBird 34High

  16. GIS and remote sensing as tools for the simulation of urban land-use CLA UDIA MARIA DE ALMEIDA*{, ANTONIO MIGUEL VIEIRA

    E-print Network

    Camara, Gilberto

    and transition probabilities were calculated for each grid cell by means of the `weights of evidence' statistical, such as in the diffusion or migration of resident populations (Portugali et al. 1997), competitive location of economic urban growth (Clarke et al. 1997) and urban land-use *Corresponding author. Email: almeida

  17. Evaluation of Land Use Regression Models Used to Predict Air Quality Concentrations in an Urban Area

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cohort studies designed to estimate human health effects of exposures to urban pollutants require accurate determination of ambient concentrations in order to minimize exposure misclassification errors. However, it is often difficult to collect concentration information at each s...

  18. SEDIMENT SOURCES IN AN URBANIZING, MIXED LAND-USE WATERSHED. (R825284)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract The Issaquah Creek watershed is a rapidly urbanizing watershed of 144 km2 in western Washington, where sediment aggradation of the main channel and delivery of fine sediment into a large downstream lake have raised increasingly frequent concern...

  19. Assessing changes on urban flood vulnerability through mapping land use from historical information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boudou, M.; Danière, B.; Lang, M.

    2015-06-01

    This paper presents a diachronic appraisal of flood vulnerability of two French cities, respectively Besançon and Moissac, which have been largely impacted by two ancient floods in January 1910 and March 1930. Both flood events figured among the most significant events recorded in France during the XXth century. An analysis of historical sources allows the mapping of land use and occupation within the flood extent of the two historical floods, both in past and present contexts. It gives an insight of the complexity of flood risk evolution, at a local scale.

  20. Remote sensing applications for urban planning - The LUMIS project. [Land Use Management Information System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paul, C. K.; Landini, A. J.; Diegert, C.

    1975-01-01

    The Santa Monica mountains of Los Angeles consist primarily of complexly folded sedimentary marine strata with igneous and metamorphic rocks at the eastern end of the mountains. With the increased development of the Santa Monicas, a study was conducted to determine the critical land use data items in the mountains. Two information systems developed in parallel are described. One capitalizes on the City's present computer line printer system, and the second utilizes map overlay techniques on an interactive computer terminal. Results concerning population, housing, and land improvement illustrate the successful linking of ordinal and nominal data files in the interactive system.-

  1. Spatio-temporal Assessment of Land Use/ Land Cover Dynamics and Urban Heat Island of Jaipur City using Satellite Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jalan, S.; Sharma, K.

    2014-11-01

    Urban Heat Island (UHI) refers to the phenomena of higher surface temperature occurring in urban areas as compared to the surrounding countryside attributable to urbanization. Spatio-temporal changes in UHI can be quantified through Land Surface Temperature (LST) derived from satellite imageries. Spatial variations in LST occur due to complexity of land surface - combination of impervious surface materials, vegetation, exposed soils as well as water surfaces. Jaipur city has observed rapid urbanization over the last decade. Due to rising population pressure the city has expanded considerably in areal extent and has also observed substantial land use/land cover (LULC) changes. The paper aims to determine changes in the LST and UHI phenomena for Jaipur city over the period from 2000 to 2011 and analyzes the spatial distribution and temporal variation of LST in context of changes in LULC. Landsat 7 ETM+ (2000) and Landsat 5 TM (2011) images of summer season have been used. Results reveal that Jaipur city has witnessed considerable growth in built up area at the cost of greener patches over the last decade, which has had clear impact on variation in LST. There has been an average rise of 2.99 °C in overall summer temperature. New suburbs of the city record 2° to 4 °C increase in LST. LST change is inversely related to change in vegetation cover and positively related to extent of built up area. The study concludes that UHI of Jaipur city has intensified and extended over new areas.

  2. Analysis of Land Use Change and Urbanization in the Kucukcekmece Water Basin (Istanbul, Turkey) with Temporal Satellite Data using Remote Sensing and GIS

    PubMed Central

    Coskun, H. Gonca; Alganci, Ugur; Usta, Gokce

    2008-01-01

    Accurate and timely information about land use and land cover (LULC) and its changes in urban areas are crucial for urban land management decision-making, ecosystem monitoring and urban planning. Also, monitoring and representation of urban sprawl and its effects on the LULC patterns and hydrological processes of an urbanized watershed is an essential part of water resource planning and management. This paper presents an image analysis study using multi temporal digital satellite imagery of LULC and changes in the Kucukcekmece Watershed (Metropolitan Istanbul, Turkey) from 1992 to 2006. The Kucukcekmece Basin includes portions of the Kucukcekmece District within the municipality of Istanbul so it faces a dramatic urbanization. An urban monitoring analysis approach was first used to implement a land cover classification. A change detection method controlled with ground truth information was then used to determine changes in land cover. During the study period, the variability and magnitude of hydrological components based on land-use patterns were cumulatively influenced by urban sprawl in the watershed. The proposed approach, which uses a combination of Remote Sensing (RS) and Geographical Information System (GIS) techniques, is an effective tool that enhances land-use monitoring, planning, and management of urbanized watersheds.

  3. Impact of Land Use Intensity on the Species Diversity of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi in Agroecosystems of Central Europe

    PubMed Central

    Oehl, Fritz; Sieverding, Ewald; Ineichen, Kurt; Mäder, Paul; Boller, Thomas; Wiemken, Andres

    2003-01-01

    The impact of land use intensity on the diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) was investigated at eight sites in the “three-country corner” of France, Germany, and Switzerland. Three sites were low-input, species-rich grasslands. Two sites represented low- to moderate-input farming with a 7-year crop rotation, and three sites represented high-input continuous maize monocropping. Representative soil samples were taken, and the AMF spores present were morphologically identified and counted. The same soil samples also served as inocula for “AMF trap cultures” with Plantago lanceolata, Trifolium pratense, and Lolium perenne. These trap cultures were established in pots in a greenhouse, and AMF root colonization and spore formation were monitored over 8 months. For the field samples, the numbers of AMF spores and species were highest in the grasslands, lower in the low- and moderate-input arable lands, and lowest in the lands with intensive continuous maize monocropping. Some AMF species occurred at all sites (“generalists”); most of them were prevalent in the intensively managed arable lands. Many other species, particularly those forming sporocarps, appeared to be specialists for grasslands. Only a few species were specialized on the arable lands with crop rotation, and only one species was restricted to the high-input maize sites. In the trap culture experiment, the rate of root colonization by AMF was highest with inocula from the permanent grasslands and lowest with those from the high-input monocropping sites. In contrast, AMF spore formation was slowest with the former inocula and fastest with the latter inocula. In conclusion, the increased land use intensity was correlated with a decrease in AMF species richness and with a preferential selection of species that colonized roots slowly but formed spores rapidly. PMID:12732553

  4. Project ATLANTA (Atlanta Land use Analysis: Temperature and Air Quality): Use of Remote Sensing and Modeling to Analyze How Urban Land Use Change Affects Meteorology and Air Quality Through Time

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quattrochi, Dale A.; Luvall, Jeffrey C.; Estes, Maurice G., Jr.

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of Project ATLANTA (ATlanta Land use ANalysis: Temperature and Air-quality) which is an investigation that seeks to observe, measure, model, and analyze how the rapid growth of the Atlanta, Georgia metropolitan area since the early 1970's has impacted the region's climate and air quality. The primary objectives for this research effort are: (1) To investigate and model the relationships between land cover change in the Atlanta metropolitan, and the development of the urban heat island phenomenon through time; (2) To investigate and model the temporal relationships between Atlanta urban growth and land cover change on air quality; and (3) To model the overall effects of urban development on surface energy budget characteristics across the Atlanta urban landscape through time. Our key goal is to derive a better scientific understanding of how land cover changes associated with urbanization in the Atlanta area, principally in transforming forest lands to urban land covers through time, has, and will, effect local and regional climate, surface energy flux, and air quality characteristics. Allied with this goal is the prospect that the results from this research can be applied by urban planners, environmental managers and other decision-makers, for determining how urbanization has impacted the climate and overall environment of the Atlanta area. Multiscaled remote sensing data, particularly high resolution thermal infrared data, are integral to this study for the analysis of thermal energy fluxes across the Atlanta urban landscape.

  5. Deer-vehicle collisions, deer density, and land use in Iowa's urban deer herd management zones

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Konstantina Gkritza; Michael Baird; Zachary N. Hans

    2010-01-01

    Many states are striving to keep their deer population to a sustainable and controllable level, while maximizing public safety. In Iowa, measures to control the deer population include annual deer hunts and special deer herd management plans in urban areas. While these plans may in effect reduce the deer population, traffic safety in these areas has not been fully assessed.

  6. The need for a Communicative Approach to improve Environmental Policy integration in urban Land Use Planning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vanya Simeonova; Valk van der A. J. J

    2009-01-01

    The debate on sustainable development emphasizes the importance of integrating environmental policy into all policy sectors. It is increasingly recognized that this integration is needed at both the national and the local levels of governance. The Environmental Policy Integration (EPI) principle agreed upon in a number of international and EU commitments is receiving the attention of more urban planning scholars.

  7. Object-based updating of land-use maps of urban areas using satellite remote sensing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. J. Dekker

    2005-01-01

    Geographical information in the form of maps is continuously subjected to change, especially in urban areas. Therefore maps have to be updated, which can be done using satellite remote sensing techniques since many satellites are in orbit today. In this paper several object-based classification and change detection techniques are investigated. An important aspect in map-updating is the translation from land

  8. Spatiotemporal urban land use changes in the Changzhutan Region of Hunan Province in China

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Changzhutan region in the north-central part of Hunan Province in China has experienced a rapid urbanization in the past few decades that has led to substantial changes in its environment. In 2007, the National Development and Reform Commission of China designated the metropolitan district of Ch...

  9. Forest Restoration in Urbanizing Landscapes: Interactions Between Land Uses and Exotic Shrubs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kathi L. Borgmann; Amanda D. Rodewald

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Preventing,and,controlling,exotic,plants,remains,a key challenge in any ecological restoration, and most efforts are currently,aimed,at local scales. We,combined,local- and,landscape-scale,approaches,to identify,factors,that were,most,closely,associated,with,invasion,of riparian forests by,exotic,shrubs,(Amur,honeysuckle,[Lonicera maackii] and Tatarian honeysuckle [L. tatarica]) in Ohio, U.S.A. Twenty,sites were,selected,in mature,riparian,for- ests along,a rural–urban,gradient,(<1–47% urban,land cover). Within each site, we measured percent cover of Lonicera spp. and native trees and shrubs, percent canopy cover, and facing edge

  10. Land-use intensity and the effects of organic farming on biodiversity: a hierarchical meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Tuck, Sean L; Winqvist, Camilla; Mota, Flávia; Ahnström, Johan; Turnbull, Lindsay A; Bengtsson, Janne

    2014-01-01

    The benefits of organic farming to biodiversity in agricultural landscapes continue to be hotly debated, emphasizing the importance of precisely quantifying the effect of organic vs. conventional farming. We conducted an updated hierarchical meta-analysis of studies that compared biodiversity under organic and conventional farming methods, measured as species richness. We calculated effect sizes for 184 observations garnered from 94 studies, and for each study, we obtained three standardized measures reflecting land-use intensity. We investigated the stability of effect sizes through time, publication bias due to the ‘file drawer’ problem, and consider whether the current literature is representative of global organic farming patterns. On average, organic farming increased species richness by about 30%. This result has been robust over the last 30 years of published studies and shows no sign of diminishing. Organic farming had a greater effect on biodiversity as the percentage of the landscape consisting of arable fields increased, that is, it is higher in intensively farmed regions. The average effect size and the response to agricultural intensification depend on taxonomic group, functional group and crop type. There is some evidence for publication bias in the literature; however, our results are robust to its impact. Current studies are heavily biased towards northern and western Europe and North America, while other regions with large areas of organic farming remain poorly investigated. Synthesis and applications. Our analysis affirms that organic farming has large positive effects on biodiversity compared with conventional farming, but that the effect size varies with the organism group and crop studied, and is greater in landscapes with higher land-use intensity. Decisions about where to site organic farms to maximize biodiversity will, however, depend on the costs as well as the potential benefits. Current studies have been heavily biased towards agricultural systems in the developed world. We recommend that future studies pay greater attention to other regions, in particular, areas with tropical, subtropical and Mediterranean climates, in which very few studies have been conducted. PMID:25653457

  11. Land use regression modeling with vertical distribution measurements for fine particulate matter and elements in an urban area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Chi-Chang; Chan, Chang-Chuan; Cho, Chien-Wen; Lin, Hung-I.; Lee, Jui-Huan; Wu, Chang-Fu

    2015-03-01

    Land use regression (LUR) models have been developed and applied to evaluate long-term exposure to air pollutants in residential area. However, adopting LUR models for vertical distributions of PM2.5 elemental composition has not been studied extensively. Developing this type of LUR model in various urban areas is essential to examine the influence of sampling height from ground level on the modeling prediction of these pollutants. The purpose of this study was to examine spatial variations of exposures to PM2.5 and PM2.5 composition in an urban area and build LUR models with vertical distribution measurements. PM2.5 samples were collected at twenty low-level sites (first to third floors), five mid-level sites (fourth to sixth floors), and five high-level sites (seventh to ninth floors). LUR models considering local land use data and traffic information were developed for PM2.5 and elements (i.e., silicon (Si), sulfur (S), potassium (K), titanium (Ti), manganese (Mn), iron (Fe), nickel (Ni), copper (Cu), and zinc (Zn)). The results demonstrated that the vertical ratios were higher than 1 (i.e., highest concentrations at low-level sites) for PM2.5, Si, Ti, and Fe. Their median ratios ranged from 1.05 to 1.18. The explained variances (R2) of LUR models ranged from 0.46 to 0.80. Traffic and industrial land were major variables in most models, and the floor level was identified as a significant predictor in the PM2.5, Si, and Fe models. This indicated the necessity of collecting vertically distributed measurements in future LUR studies for reducing the exposure bias in epidemiological studies.

  12. Labor efficiency and intensity of land use in rice production: An example from Kalimantan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christine Padoch

    1985-01-01

    The Boserup hypothesis contends that land-intensive systems of agriculture will be adopted only when high population density precludes the use of land-extensive methods. In the Kerayan District of East Kalimantan (Indonesia) the Lun Dayeh practice permanent-field rice cultivation despite very low human densities. An examination of the relative labor efficiencies of shifting and permanent-field agriculture in the Kerayan, as well

  13. Effects of habitat structure and land-use intensity on the genetic structure of the grasshopper species Chorthippus parallelus

    PubMed Central

    Wiesner, Kerstin R.; Habel, Jan Christian; Gossner, Martin M.; Loxdale, Hugh D.; Köhler, Günter; Schneider, Anja R. R.; Tiedemann, Ralph; Weisser, Wolfgang W.

    2014-01-01

    Land-use intensity (LUI) is assumed to impact the genetic structure of organisms. While effects of landscape structure on the genetics of local populations have frequently been analysed, potential effects of variation in LUI on the genetic diversity of local populations have mostly been neglected. In this study, we used six polymorphic microsatellites to analyse the genetic effects of variation in land use in the highly abundant grasshopper Chorthippus parallelus. We sampled a total of 610 individuals at 22 heterogeneous grassland sites in the Hainich-Dün region of Central Germany. For each of these grassland sites we assessed habitat size, LUI (combined index of mowing, grazing and fertilization), and the proportion of grassland adjoining the sampling site and the landscape heterogeneity (the latter two factors within a 500?m buffer zone surrounding each focal site). We found only marginal genetic differentiation among all local populations and no correlation between geographical and genetic distance. Habitat size, LUI and landscape characteristics had only weak effects on most of the parameters of genetic diversity of C. parallelus; only expected heterozygosity and the grasshopper abundances were affected by interacting effects of LUI, habitat size and landscape characteristics. The lack of any strong relationships between LUI, abundance and the genetic structure might be due to large local populations of the species in the landscape, counteracting local differentiation and potential genetic drift effects.

  14. Monitoring Land Use/Land Cover Changes in a River Basin due to Urbanization using Remote Sensing and GIS Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shukla, S.; Khire, M. V.; Gedam, S. S.

    2014-11-01

    Faster pace of urbanization, industrialization, unplanned infrastructure developments and extensive agriculture result in the rapid changes in the Land Use/Land Cover (LU/LC) of the sub-tropical river basins. Study of LU/LC transformations in a river basin is crucial for vulnerability assessment and proper management of the natural resources of a river basin. Remote sensing technology is very promising in mapping the LU/LC distribution of a large region on different spatio-temporal scales. The present study is intended to understand the LU/LC changes in the Upper Bhima river basin due to urbanization using modern geospatial techniques such as remote sensing and GIS. In this study, the Upper Bhima river basin is divided into three adjacent sub-basins: Mula-Mutha sub-basin (ubanized), Bhima sub-basin (semi-urbanized) and Ghod sub-basin (unurbanized). Time series LU/LC maps were prepared for the study area for a period of 1980, 2002 and 2009 using satellite datasets viz. Landsat MSS (October, 1980), Landsat ETM+ (October, 2002) and IRS LISS III (October 2008 and November 2009). All the satellite images were classified into five LU/LC classes viz. built-up lands, agricultural lands, waterbodies, forests and wastelands using supervised classification approach. Post classification change detection method was used to understand the LU/LC changes in the study area. Results reveal that built up lands, waterbodies and agricultural lands are increasing in all the three sub-basins of the study area at the cost of decreasing forests and wastelands. But the change is more drastic in urbanized Mula-Mutha sub-basin compared to the other two sub-basins.

  15. Advanced Land use Classification Considering Intra-annual Cropping patterns and Urbanization processes as a Contribution to Improve Knowledge base for Water Management.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, N.; Tischbein, B.; Beg, M. K.

    2014-12-01

    Land use and its spatial pattern and dynamics strongly influence water resources and water demand. Therefore, integrated water resources management coordinating water supply and demand is using modeling tools in order to assess the impact of land use changes on the water balance and to conceive infrastructural and operational measures to cope with these impacts. As a consequence, the appropriateness of water management measures depends on the reliability of the output gained by the modeling tools which in turn is highly determined by the capability of the models and the quality of model inputs. This research combines the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) and an advanced procedure for spatio-temporal detection of land use dynamics and irrigation in the Upper Kharun basin in the Chhattisgarh State in India. An on-screen visual digitization technique using the Landsat satellite images and their derivatives (NDVI and tasseled cap indices) were employed for land use classification. The land use maps prepared at different time steps within a year can be combined to produce a single multi-temporal land use classification. This approach captures and integrates all the major variations within a year in a single map and hence better represents an area with multiple crop rotations and different levels of urbanization. Urbanization and intensification of irrigation by increasing use of groundwater are major land use processes at the global scale as well as in the study region. The study reveals that an increasing pumping rate of groundwater for irrigation is the main reason for decreasing the groundwater contribution to streamflow and subsequently a lowering in discharge and water yield. On the other hand, annual surface runoff is increased significantly by an expansion in built up areas over the decades in the study area. This information (i) enhances the understanding of land use changes and their relevant drivers, and (ii) facilitates the introduction of best water and land use management practices.

  16. Labor efficiency and intensity of land use in rice production: an example from Kalimantan

    SciTech Connect

    Padoch, C.

    1986-09-01

    The ''Boserup hypothesis'' contends that land-intensive systems of agriculture will be adopted only when high population density precludes the use of land-extensive methods. In the Kerayan District of East Kalimantan (Indonesia) the Lun Dayeh practice permanent-field rice cultivation despite very low human densities. An examination of the relative labor efficiencies of shifting and permanent-field agriculture in the Kerayan, as well as of local environmental and historical variables, explains why this ''anomalous'' situation exists. It is argued that since relative success in production of rice by shifting- and permanent-field irrigated methods depends on many natural and social conditions other than levels of population density, the ''environment-free'' Boserup hypothesis cannot adequately explain or predict the occurrence of particular forms of rice agriculture.

  17. Distribution and sources of DDTs in urban soils with six types of land use in Beijing, China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lingyan; Xia, Xinghui; Liu, Shaoda; Bu, Qingwei

    2010-02-15

    The concentrations of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs) were investigated for urban soil samples collected from business area (BU), classical garden (CL), culture and educational area (CU), large public green space (LA), residential area (RE), and roadside area (RO) in Beijing. The DDTs concentrations ranged from 0.03 to 1282.58 ng/g, with an average of 68.14+/-189.46 ng/g. The DDTs concentration in CL was much higher than that in the other five types of land use, which was due to the usage of DDTs to protect vegetation in CL, and the DDTs concentration was affected by both the usage history of DDTs and the age of the CL. Only 22% of the samples, mainly located in RO, manifested the application of technical DDTs recently. DDTs concentration showed a decreasing trend from the city center to the suburb, and it increased with the age of the urban area. DDTs were positively correlated with total organic carbon and black carbon in soils. About 81.7% of the samples met the grade I standard (50 ng/g soil) of the Chinese Environmental Quality Standard for Soils, and only 1.5% of the samples exceeded the grade III standard (1000 ng/g soil). PMID:19783096

  18. Analysis of Land Use/Land Cover Changes Using Remote Sensing Data and GIS at an Urban Area, Tirupati, India

    PubMed Central

    Mallupattu, Praveen Kumar; Sreenivasula Reddy, Jayarama Reddy

    2013-01-01

    Land use/land cover (LU/LC) changes were determined in an urban area, Tirupati, from 1976 to 2003 by using Geographical Information Systems (GISs) and remote sensing technology. These studies were employed by using the Survey of India topographic map 57 O/6 and the remote sensing data of LISS III and PAN of IRS ID of 2003. The study area was classified into eight categories on the basis of field study, geographical conditions, and remote sensing data. The comparison of LU/LC in 1976 and 2003 derived from toposheet and satellite imagery interpretation indicates that there is a significant increase in built-up area, open forest, plantation, and other lands. It is also noted that substantial amount of agriculture land, water spread area, and dense forest area vanished during the period of study which may be due to rapid urbanization of the study area. No mining activities were found in the study area in 1976, but a small addition of mining land was found in 2003. PMID:23781152

  19. Assessing the applicability of the VIS model to map urban land use in the developing world: Case study of Yogyakarta, Indonesia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hery Setiawan; Renaud Mathieu; Michelle Thompson-fawcett

    2006-01-01

    The extensive expansion of urban centres over agricultural land in Indonesia is poorly monitored due to the ill-equipped land monitoring system. The objective of this study was to assess the applicability of the vegetation–impervious surface–soil (V–I–S) model in classifying land use in the context of medium-sized and densely populated cities of developing countries. The V–I–S model describes the urban environment

  20. Suspended sediment export in five intensive agricultural river catchments with contrasting land use and soil drainage characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherriff, Sophie; Rowan, John; Melland, Alice; Jordan, Phil; Fenton, Owen; hUallacháin, Daire Ó.

    2015-04-01

    Soil erosion and sediment loss from land can have a negative impact on the chemical and ecological quality of freshwater resources. In catchments dominated by agriculture, prediction of soil erosion risk is complex due to the interaction of physical characteristics such as topography, soil erodibility, hydrological connectivity and climate. Robust measurement approaches facilitate the assessment of sediment loss magnitudes in relation to a range of agricultural settings. These approaches improve our understanding of critical sediment transfer periods and inform development of evidence-based and cost-effective management strategies. The aim of this study was to i) assess the efficacy of out-of-channel (ex-situ) suspended sediment measurement approaches, ii) to quantify the variability of sediment exported from five river catchments with varying hydrology and agricultural land uses over multiple years and iii) to investigate trends in relation to physical and land use characteristics when sediment data were compared between catchments. Sediment data were collected in five intensive agricultural river catchments in Ireland (3-11 km2) which featured contrasting land uses (predominantly intensive grassland or arable) and soil drainage classes (well, moderate and poor). High-resolution suspended sediment concentration data (SSC - using a calibrated turbidity proxy) were collected ex-situ and combined with in-stream discharge data measured at each catchment outlet to estimate suspended sediment yield (SSY - t km-2 yr-1). In two catchments additional in-stream turbidity monitoring equipment replicated ex-situ measurements including site specific calibration of individual in-stream and ex-situ turbidity probes. Depth-integrated samples were collected to assess the accuracy of both approaches. Method comparison results showed that true SSC values (from depth-integrated sampling) were predominantly within the 95% confidence interval of ex-situ predicted SSC consequently confirming the robust cross-validation of these results. Average annual SSCs and SSYs were higher in poorly drained catchments (17-27 t km-2 yr-1) than those with well drained soils (8-10 t km-2 yr-1). Catchments with both poorly-drained soils and land use dominated by tillage were most susceptible to field-scale soil erosion due to rapid establishment of overland flow pathways and periods of bare soils during cropping cycles. However results suggest that relatively high SSY may also occur in grassland catchments, particularly on poorly drained soils and with higher stocking densities and greater likelihood of channel bank erosion. Whilst the mean SSY rates are low by international standards, inter-annual variability was significant highlighting the spatial and temporal fluctuations in runoff and soil erosion risk. Such issues are of particular concern as Ireland pursues an agricultural policy of sustainable intensification. Effective soil erosion and sediment management should address catchment specific characteristics.

  1. Impact of changes in rainfall intensity, land use pattern and management practice on sediment output of agricultural loess catchments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scherer, U.; Zehe, E.; Träbing, K.

    2009-04-01

    The emission of nutrients and pollutants from agricultural land via erosion is a serious threat to surface waters. For planning and managing the sustainable use of water resources information on sediment bound nutrient and pollutant emissions are required. Within the framework of a research project in a rural catchment the process based model CATFLOW-SED which permits the simulation of specific events as well as long term processes of water and sediment transport was developed. The detachment rate of sediment particles from the soil matrix is quantified using an optimized approach for loess soils, based on the correlation of the attacking forces of rainfall and surface runoff to the erosion rate. The amount of detached soil particles depends on the erosion resistance which is an empirical soil parameter. Sediment transport capacity is modelled for various grain size fractions using the equation of ENGELUND & HANSEN (1967). It is assumed, that detachment and transport on loess soils are not size selective. On the other hand, the deposition rate of a grain size fraction depends on the sinking velocity and therefore this process is highly size selective. The model results on sediment input for each grain size fraction could be coupled with nutrient and pollutant contents of the specific fractions allowing the quantification of nutrient and pollutant emissions into surface waters. CATFLOW-SED was validated for the database of the 3.5 km² Weiherbach catchment located within a loess region of Southwest Germany at various scales (irrigation experiments, hillslope, catchment). The variation between modeled and observed erosion rates of the irrigation experiments was high due to the stochastic variability of natural landscapes on small scales. On the catchment scale the erosion resistance for the homogenous loess soils mainly depends on the land use category and the management practice. So for the hillslope and catchment scale the model results were in good agreement with observed sediment loads of large erosion events. Following these results, various scenarios regarding changes of rainfall intensity, land use pattern and management practice were modelled. The rainfall intensity of erosion events was increased about 1-3 % to simulate the impact of heavier thunder storms expected for the future in Southern Germany. It could be shown, that surface runoff increased about 15-22 % and sediment output of the catchment about 29-34 % due to the high non linearity of the underlying processes pointing out the increasing importance of erosion protection measures. The sediment output of the largest observed erosion event was varied by a factor of 0.6-1.3 when the given percentage of land use categories was rearranged in a "best case" and a "worst case" scenario. For the management practice scenario a reduction of 50-90 % of sediment output was achieved for reduced tillage and mulching. Each landscape is characterized by specific processes and factors of influence. These relationships can only be measured and examined at small scale. It was shown that the model CATFLOW-SED is a tool for drawing up the interrelationships within an agricultural loess catchment allowing conclusions to be drawn about comparable loess areas.

  2. Remote Sensing of Urban Land Cover/Land Use Change, Surface Thermal Responses, and Potential Meteorological and Climate Change Impacts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quattrochi, Dale A.; Jedlovec, Gary; Meyer, Paul

    2011-01-01

    City growth influences the development of the urban heat island (UHI), but the effect that local meteorology has on the UHI is less well known. This paper presents some preliminary findings from a study that uses multitemporal Landsat TM and ASTER data to evaluate land cover/land use change (LULCC) over the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MFSC) and its Huntsville, AL metropolitan area. Landsat NLCD data for 1992 and 2001 have been used to evaluate LULCC for MSFC and the surrounding urban area. Land surface temperature (LST) and emissivity derived from NLCD data have also been analyzed to assess changes in these parameters in relation to LULCC. Additionally, LULCC, LST, and emissivity have been identified from ASTER data from 2001 and 2011 to provide a comparison with the 2001 NLCD and as a measure of current conditions within the study area. As anticipated, the multi-temporal NLCD and ASTER data show that significant changes have occurred in land covers, LST, and emissivity within and around MSFC. The patterns and arrangement of these changes, however, is significant because the juxtaposition of urban land covers within and outside of MSFC provides insight on what impacts at a local to regional scale, the inter-linkage of these changes potentially have on meteorology. To further analyze these interactions between LULCC, LST, and emissivity with the lower atmosphere, a network of eleven weather stations has been established across the MSFC property. These weather stations provide data at a 10 minute interval, and these data are uplinked for use by MSFC facilities operations and the National Weather Service. The weather data are also integrated within a larger network of meteorological stations across north Alabama. Given that the MSFC weather stations will operate for an extended period of time, they can be used to evaluate how the building of new structures, and changes in roadways, and green spaces as identified in the MSFC master plan for the future, will potentially affect land cover LSTs across the Center. Moreover, the weather stations will also provide baseline data for developing a better understanding of how localized weather factors, such as extreme rainfall and heat events, affect micrometeorology. These data can also be used to model the interrelationships between LSTs and meteorology on a longer term basis to help evaluate how changes in these parameters can be quantified from satellite data collected in the future. In turn, the overall integration of multi-temporal meteorological information with LULCC, and LST data for MSFC proper and the surrounding Huntsville urbanized area can provide a perspective on how urban land surface types affect the meteorology in the boundary layer and ultimately, the UHI. Additionally, data such as this can be used as a foundation for modeling how climate change will potentially impact local and regional meteorology and conversely, how urban LULCC can or will influence changes on climate over the north Alabama area.

  3. Effects of Land Use Characteristics on Residence and Employment Location and Travel Behavior of Urban Adult Workers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joao de Abreu e Silva; Thomas F. Golob; Konstadinos G. Goulias

    2006-01-01

    The relationships between socioeconomic and demographic characteristics, land use characteristics around the residence and work locations, and a variety of travel behavior indicators are examined by using a structural equations model. This simultaneous equations system allows one to model the effects of land use characteristics on travel behavior while controlling for self-selection bias: certain types of persons choose to live

  4. Evaluation of land-use regression models used to predict air quality concentrations in an urban area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Markey; Isakov, V.; Touma, J. S.; Mukerjee, S.; Özkaynak, H.

    2010-09-01

    Cohort studies designed to estimate human health effects of exposures to urban pollutants require accurate determination of ambient concentrations in order to minimize exposure misclassification errors. However, it is often difficult to collect concentration information at each study subject location. In the absence of complete subject-specific measurements, land-use regression (LUR) models have frequently been used for estimating individual levels of exposures to ambient air pollution. The LUR models, however, have several limitations mainly dealing with extensive monitoring data needs and challenges involved in their broader applicability to other locations. In contrast, air quality models can provide high-resolution source-concentration linkages for multiple pollutants, but require detailed emissions and meteorological information. In this study, first we predicted air quality concentrations of PM 2.5, NO x, and benzene in New Haven, CT using hybrid modeling techniques based on CMAQ and AERMOD model results. Next, we used these values as pseudo-observations to develop and evaluate the different LUR models built using alternative numbers of (training) sites (ranging from 25 to 285 locations out of the total 318 receptors). We then evaluated the fitted LUR models using various approaches, including: 1) internal "Leave-One-Out-Cross-Validation" (LOOCV) procedure within the "training" sites selected; and 2) "Hold-Out" evaluation procedure, where we set aside 33-293 tests sites as independent datasets for external model evaluation. LUR models appeared to perform well in the training datasets. However, when these LUR models were tested against independent hold out (test) datasets, their performance diminished considerably. Our results confirm the challenges facing the LUR community in attempting to fit empirical response surfaces to spatially- and temporally-varying pollution levels using LUR techniques that are site dependent. These results also illustrate the potential benefits of enhancing basic LUR models by utilizing air quality modeling tools or concepts in order to improve their reliability or transferability.

  5. Modeling urban growth and land use/land cover change in the Houston Metropolitan Area from 2002 - 2030 

    E-print Network

    Oguz, Hakan

    2005-08-29

    ................................................................................................... 7 2. Urban Modeling and SLEUTH..................................................................... 9 3. Computation Approaches to Modeling Urban Growth............................... 11 4. The Role of GIS in Urban Modeling... to local factors. The first generation of computer-based urban models was critical due to their specificity to the cities for which they were developed (Lee, 1973). 10 The current generation of computational models, including SLEUTH urban growth...

  6. Application of satellite and GIS technologies for land-cover and land-use mapping at the rural-urban fringe - A case study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. M. Treitz; P. J. Howarth; Peng Gong

    1992-01-01

    SPOT HRV multispectral and panchromatic data were recorded and coregistered for a portion of the rural-urban fringe of Toronto, Canada. A two-stage digital analysis algorithm incorporating a spectral-class frequency-based contextual classification of eight land-cover and land-use classes resulted in an overall Kappa coefficient of 82.2 percent for training-area data and a Kappa coefficient of 70.3 percent for test-area data. A

  7. Regional land use studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Place, J. L.

    1970-01-01

    Remote sensing technology and data from instrumented satellites and high altitude aircraft are proposed for mapping land use on a current national basis, for monitoring changes and trends, and for creating statistical models which can be manipulated to demonstrate the probable effects of proposed land use and of environmental changes over large areas. Both Apollo spacecraft and aircraft photography were used; the spacecraft pictures delineated the cropland and urban boundaries more clearly. A computer model is also proposed for statistical analysis and for printing out updated maps automatically; this model will include a data bank which can be updated rapidly with changes detected by the computer.

  8. Identification of heavy metal pollutants using multivariate analysis and effects of land uses on their accumulation in urban soils in Beijing, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Meie; Markert, Bernd; Chen, Weiping; Peng, Chi; Ouyang, Zhiyun

    2012-10-01

    In order to evaluate the current state of the environmental quality of soils in Beijing, we investigated contents of 14 metals in Beijing urban soils inside the 5th ring road by even grids sampling. Statistic analyses were conducted to identify possible heavy metal pollutants, as well as the effects of land uses on their accumulation. Our results revealed that the urban soils in Beijing were contaminated by Cd, Pb, Cu, and Zn. Land uses and urbanization ages affected the accumulation of the four heavy metals in soils significantly. Soils in industrial areas have the highest average Cu and Zn contents, while Pb contents in park areas and Cd in agricultural areas are the highest. The accumulations of Pb and Zn in urban soils increase significantly with sampling plots approaching the city center. And Pb, Cd, and Zn contents in soils in traffic areas also tend to increase in the city center. However, residential areas have the lowest contents of all the four heavy metals. PMID:22068310

  9. Development of a modular streamflow model to quantify runoff contributions from different land uses in tropical urban environments using Genetic Programming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meshgi, Ali; Schmitter, Petra; Chui, Ting Fong May; Babovic, Vladan

    2015-06-01

    The decrease of pervious areas during urbanization has severely altered the hydrological cycle, diminishing infiltration and therefore sub-surface flows during rainfall events, and further increasing peak discharges in urban drainage infrastructure. Designing appropriate waster sensitive infrastructure that reduces peak discharges requires a better understanding of land use specific contributions towards surface and sub-surface processes. However, to date, such understanding in tropical urban environments is still limited. On the other hand, the rainfall-runoff process in tropical urban systems experiences a high degree of non-linearity and heterogeneity. Therefore, this study used Genetic Programming to establish a physically interpretable modular model consisting of two sub-models: (i) a baseflow module and (ii) a quick flow module to simulate the two hydrograph flow components. The relationship between the input variables in the model (i.e. meteorological data and catchment initial conditions) and its overall structure can be explained in terms of catchment hydrological processes. Therefore, the model is a partial greying of what is often a black-box approach in catchment modelling. The model was further generalized to the sub-catchments of the main catchment, extending the potential for more widespread applications. Subsequently, this study used the modular model to predict both flow components of events as well as time series, and applied optimization techniques to estimate the contributions of various land uses (i.e. impervious, steep grassland, grassland on mild slope, mixed grasses and trees and relatively natural vegetation) towards baseflow and quickflow in tropical urban systems. The sub-catchment containing the highest portion of impervious surfaces (40% of the area) contributed the least towards the baseflow (6.3%) while the sub-catchment covered with 87% of relatively natural vegetation contributed the most (34.9%). The results from the quickflow module revealed average runoff coefficients between 0.12 and 0.80 for the various land uses and decreased from impervious (0.80), grass on steep slopes (0.56), grass on mild slopes (0.48), mixed grasses and trees (0.42) to relatively natural vegetation (0.12). The established modular model, reflecting the driving hydrological processes, enables the quantification of land use specific contributions towards the baseflow and quickflow components. This quantification facilitates the integration of water sensitive urban infrastructure for the sustainable development of water in tropical megacities.

  10. The Influence of Synoptic Climatology on Urban Heat Island Intensity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sean Michael Model

    1992-01-01

    This study describes the statistical properties of the urban heat island for a city under a variety of synoptic conditions during winter months. The relationships between urban heat island intensity and the identified atmospheric processes is investigated using a proposed heat island index. The urban heat island index (HII) is the difference in air temperature between a weather station located

  11. The legacy of land-use is revealed in the biogeochemistry of urban streams - 3-4-2014

    EPA Science Inventory

    Urban streams are among the most profoundly impacted aquatic ecosystems, characterized by altered hydrology or burial, increased sediment input, and myriad pollutants. We present results from a series of urban stream studies that revealed unique geochemical and biochemical patte...

  12. Analyses of Nocturnal Temperature Cooling-Rate Response to Historical Local-Scale Urban Land-Use/Land Cover Change

    E-print Network

    Sheridan, Scott

    temperatures [i.e., the urban heat island (UHI) effect]. This effect is usually measured as the relative researched example of this is the urban heat island (UHI)--the phenomenon of warmer urban envi- ronments in most published heat island work in defining rural areas to derive UHI in- tensities, which in turn

  13. Vegetation cover and land use impacts on soil water repellency in an Urban Park located in Vilnius, Lithuania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, Paulo; Cerda, Artemi

    2015-04-01

    It is strongly recognized that vegetation cover, land use have important impacts on the degree of soil water repellency (SWR). Soil water repellency is a natural property of soils, but can be induced by natural and anthropogenic disturbances as fire and soil tillage (Doerr et al., 2000; Urbanek et al., 2007; Mataix-Solera et al., 2014). Urban parks are areas where soils have a strong human impact, with implications on their hydrological properties. The aim of this work is to study the impact of different vegetations cover and urban soils impact on SWR and the relation to other soil variables as pH, Electrical Conductivity (EC) and soil organic matter (SOM) in an urban park. The study area is located in Vilnius city (54°.68' N, 25°.25' E). It was collected 15 soil samples under different vegetation cover as Pine (Pinus Sylvestris), Birch (Alnus glutinosa), Penduculate Oak (Quercus robur), Platanus (Platanus orientalis) and other human disturbed areas as forest trails and soils collected from human planted grass. Soils were taken to the laboratory, air-dried at room temperature and sieved with the <2 mm mesh in order to remove the coarse material. Subsequently were placed in petri dishes and exposed to a controlled laboratory environment (temperature of 20C and 50% of air relative humidity) for one week to avoid potential impacts of the atmospheric conditions on SWR (Doerr, 1998). The persistence of SWR was measured using the water drop penetration time (WDPT) (Wessel, 1998). The classification of WDPT was according to Bisdom et al. (1993) <5 (wettable), 5-60 (slightly water repellent), 60-600 (strongly water repellent), 600-3600 (severely water repellent) and >3600 (extremely water repellent). The results showed significant differences among the different vegetation cover (Kruskal-Wallis H=20.64, p<0.001). The WDPT soil median values collected under Pine, Birch, Penduculate Oak, forest trails and soils from planted grass were significantly higher than Platanus soil. The soils from Pine, Birch, Penduculate Oak, forest trails and planted grass were majorly severely water repellent, while Platanus soils were mostly strong water repellent. Soil water repellency of Pine soils had a significant negative correlation with pH (-0.52, p<0.05) and a significant negative correlation with SOM (0.69, p<0.01) and EC (0.53, p<0.05). In relation to Birch soils, SWR had a significant negative correlation with pH (-0.88, p<0.001) and significant positive correlation with SOM (0.78, p<0.001). In relation to the other species no significant correlations were observed between SWR and pH, EC and SOM. Acknowledgments POSTFIRE (Soil quality, erosion control and plant cover recovery under different post-fire management scenarios, CGL2013-47862-C2-1-R), funded by the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness; Fuegored; RECARE (Preventing and Remediating Degradation of Soils in Europe Through Land Care, FP7-ENV-2013-TWO STAGE), funded by the European Commission; and for the COST action ES1306 (Connecting European connectivity research). References Bisdom, E.B.A., Dekker, L., Schoute, J.F.Th. (1993) Water repellency of sieve fractions from sandy soils and relationships with organic material and soil structure. Geoderma, 56, 105-118. Doerr, S.H., Shakesby, R.A., Walsh, R.P.D. (2000) Soil water repellency: Its causes, characteristics and hydro-geomorphological significance. Earth-Science Reviews, 51, 33-65. Doerr, S.H. (1998) On standardising the "Water Drop Penetration Time" and the "Molarity of an Ethanol Droplet" techniques to classify soil hydrophobicity: a case study using medium textured soils. Earth Surface Process and Landforms, 23, 663-668. Mataix-Solera, J., Arcenegui, V., Zavala, L., Perez-Bejarano, A., Jordan, A., Morugan-Coronado, A., Barcenas-Moreno, G., Jimenez-Pinilla, P., Lozano, E., Granjed, A.J.P., Gil-Torres, J. (2014) Small variations of soil properties control fire induced water repellency, Spanish Journal of Soil Science, 4, 51-60. Urbanek., E., Hallet, P., Feeney, D

  14. Analysis of impacts of urban land use and land cover on air quality in the Las Vegas region using remote sensing information and ground observations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Xian, G.

    2007-01-01

    Urban development in the Las Vegas Valley of Nevada (USA) has expanded rapidly over the past 50 years. The air quality in the valley has suffered owing to increases from anthropogenic emissions of carbon monoxide, ozone and criteria pollutants of particular matter. Air quality observations show that pollutant concentrations have apparent heterogeneous characteristics in the urban area. Quantified urban land use and land cover information derived from satellite remote sensing data indicate an apparent local influence of urban development density on air pollutant distributions. Multi-year observational data collected by a network of local air monitoring stations specify that ozone maximums develop in the May and June timeframe, whereas minimum concentrations generally occur from November to February. The fine particulate matter maximum occurs in July. Ozone concentrations are highest on the west and northwest sides of the valley. Night-time ozone reduction contributes to the heterogeneous features of the spatial distribution for average ozone levels in the Las Vegas metropolitan area. Decreased ozone levels associated with increased urban development density suggest that the highest ozone and lowest nitrogen oxides concentrations are associated with medium to low density urban development in Las Vegas.

  15. The Application of Satellite-Derived, High-Resolution Land Use/Land Cover Data to Improve Urban Air Quality Model Forecasts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quattrochi, D. A.; Lapenta, W. M.; Crosson, W. L.; Estes, M. G., Jr.; Limaye, A.; Kahn, M.

    2006-01-01

    Local and state agencies are responsible for developing state implementation plans to meet National Ambient Air Quality Standards. Numerical models used for this purpose simulate the transport and transformation of criteria pollutants and their precursors. The specification of land use/land cover (LULC) plays an important role in controlling modeled surface meteorology and emissions. NASA researchers have worked with partners and Atlanta stakeholders to incorporate an improved high-resolution LULC dataset for the Atlanta area within their modeling system and to assess meteorological and air quality impacts of Urban Heat Island (UHI) mitigation strategies. The new LULC dataset provides a more accurate representation of land use, has the potential to improve model accuracy, and facilitates prediction of LULC changes. Use of the new LULC dataset for two summertime episodes improved meteorological forecasts, with an existing daytime cold bias of approx. equal to 3 C reduced by 30%. Model performance for ozone prediction did not show improvement. In addition, LULC changes due to Atlanta area urbanization were predicted through 2030, for which model simulations predict higher urban air temperatures. The incorporation of UHI mitigation strategies partially offset this warming trend. The data and modeling methods used are generally applicable to other U.S. cities.

  16. Relation of urban land-use and dry-weather storm and snowmelt flow characteristics to stream-water quality, Shunganunga Creek basin, Topeka, Kansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pope, L.M.; Bevans, H.E.

    1984-01-01

    Water-quality characteristics of streams draining Topeka, Kansas , and the Shunganunga Creek basin were investigated from October , 1979, through November 1981, to determine the effects of runoff from urban areas. Characteristics were determined at six sites and summarized statistically for three streamflow conditions-dry weather, storm, and snowmelt. Median concentrations of trace metals and nutrients were greater in storm streamflow than in dry-weather streamflow. Regression equations were developed to estimate median concentrations of total lead and zinc in storm streamflow from the percentage of drainage area in residential plus commercial land-use areas and from street density. Median concentrations of dissolved sodium, chloride, and solids were considerably greater in snowmelt streamflow than in dry-weather streamflow. Regression equations were also developed to estimate median concentrations of dissolved sodium, chloride, and solids from the summation of percentages of the drainage area in residential, commercial, and industrial land-use areas and from street density. Multiple-regression analysis relating storm-runoff volumes and average constituent concentrations to land-use and storm charactersitcs produced significant relations for storm-runoff volume, total lead, total zinc, and suspended sediment. (USGS)

  17. Application of satellite and GIS technologies for land-cover and land-use mapping at the rural-urban fringe - A case study

    SciTech Connect

    Treitz, P.M.; Howarth, P.J.; Gong, Peng (Waterloo, University (Canada))

    1992-04-01

    SPOT HRV multispectral and panchromatic data were recorded and coregistered for a portion of the rural-urban fringe of Toronto, Canada. A two-stage digital analysis algorithm incorporating a spectral-class frequency-based contextual classification of eight land-cover and land-use classes resulted in an overall Kappa coefficient of 82.2 percent for training-area data and a Kappa coefficient of 70.3 percent for test-area data. A matrix-overlay analysis was then performed within the geographic information system (GIS) to combine the land-cover and land-use classes generated from the SPOT digital classification with zoning information for the area. The map that was produced has an estimated interpretation accuracy of 78 percent. Global Positioning System (GPS) data provided a positional reference for new road networks. These networks, in addition to the new land-cover and land-use map derived from the SPOT HRV data, provide an up-to-date synthesis of change conditions in the area. 51 refs.

  18. Trends in urbanization and patterns of land use in the Asian mega cities Jakarta, Bangkok, and Metro Manila

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Akinobu Murakami; Alinda Medrial Zain; Kazuhiko Takeuchi; Atsushi Tsunekawa; Shigehiro Yokota

    2005-01-01

    Asian mega cities have experienced rapid population growth and continue to grow. Urbanization in those areas is proceeding differently from the patterns of city growth experienced in Western countries. Understanding the characteristics of Asian urbanization will be indispensable for the establishment of a local landscape planning system. In this study, we used the Clark linear exponential model and the Newling

  19. Water- and sediment-quality effects on Pimephales promelas spawning vary along an agriculture-to-urban land-use gradient

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Corsi, S.R.; Klaper, R.D.; Weber, D.N.; Bannerman, R.T.

    2011-01-01

    Many streams in the U.S. are "impaired" due to anthropogenic influence. For watershed managers to achieve practical understanding of these impairments, a multitude of factors must be considered, including point and nonpoint-source influence on water quality. A spawning assay was developed in this study to evaluate water- and sediment-quality effects that influenced Pimephales promelas (fathead minnow) egg production over a gradient of urban and agricultural land use in 27 small watersheds in Eastern Wisconsin. Six pairs of reproducing fathead minnows were contained in separate mesh cartridges within one larger flow-through chamber. Water- and sediment quality were sampled for an array of parameters. Egg production was monitored for each pair providing an assessment of spawning success throughout the 21-day test periods. Incidences of low dissolved oxygen (DO) in many of these streams negatively impacted spawning success. Nine of 27 streams experienced DO less than 3.1. mg/L and 15 streams experienced DO less than 4.8. mg/L. Low DO was observed in urban and agricultural watersheds, but the upper threshold of minimum DO decreased with increasing urban development. An increase in specific conductance was related to a decrease in spawning success. In previous studies for streams in this region, specific conductance had a linear relation with chloride, suggesting the possibility that chloride could be a factor in egg production. Egg production was lower at sites with substantial urban development, but sites with low egg production were not limited to urban sites. Degradation of water- and sediment-quality parameters with increasing urban development is indicated for multiple parameters while patterns were not detected for others. Results from this study indicate that DO must be a high priority watershed management consideration for this region, specific conductance should be investigated further to determine the mechanism of the relation with egg production, and water- and sediment-quality degrade in relation to urban influence. ?? 2011.

  20. SMART GROWTH LAND USE PLANNING FOR A COMMUNITY AT THE RURAL URBAN INTERFACE UTILIZING STRUCTURED PUBLIC INVOLVEMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    A. Simpson County, KY is facing suburban growth pressure like many communities across the country at the rural urban interface. This presents opportunities and challenges to maintain community identity, build economic diversity, protect environmental resources, and imp...

  1. Urban land-use regulations and housing markets in developing countries: Evidence from Indonesia on the importance of enforcement

    E-print Network

    Monkkonen, P

    2013-01-01

    Indonesia has grown proportionally with the urban population,and respon- sive to population growth. Indonesia has a lowerand population at the level of individual housing markets is straightforward in Indonesia;

  2. Resurrection of the Bombay trans-harbour link project by using Wheaton's monocentric models of urban land use

    E-print Network

    Bhave, Shubhada

    1987-01-01

    BOMBAY TRANS-HARBOUR LINK PROJECT: A possible solution to Bombay's seemingly unsurmountable social problems. The primary idea behind this thesis is to present a new technique for the appraisal of large scale urban ...

  3. A two-sector model of land use and deforestation: Funding urban development with a tax on urban and rural employment

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, D.W.; O`Neill, R.V.

    1992-07-17

    We model a small country with an urban manufacturing sector and a rural agricultural sector. Government taxes rural and urban employment to finance urban infrastructure which contributes to urban production. The manufacturing wage is fixed, leading to urban unemployment. Expansion of cultivated area involves deforestation at frontiers. An increment to urban infrastructure may draw resources into the city but a large enough addition to infrastructure may cause the tax rate to rise by more than urban labor productivity, which would exacerbate frontier deforestation. Improvement of rural transportation raises rural wages, reduces the urban unemployment rate, and extends the area under cultivation, causing deforestation; it also reduces the employment tax rate, which permits expansion of fixed-wage urban manufacturing. Such a wide, sectoral distribution of benefits may help explain the popularity of such policies despite their damage to frontier forest resources.

  4. Estimating material and energy intensities of urban areas

    E-print Network

    Quinn, David James, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this thesis is to develop methods to estimate, analyze and visualize the resource intensity of urban areas. Understanding the resource consumption of the built environment is particularly relevant in cities ...

  5. Developing a framework to assess the water quality and quantity impacts of climate change, shifting land use, and urbanization in a Midwestern agricultural landscape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loheide, S. P.; Booth, E. G.; Kucharik, C. J.; Carpenter, S. R.; Gries, C.; Katt-Reinders, E.; Rissman, A. R.; Turner, M. G.

    2011-12-01

    Dynamic hydrological processes play a critical role in the structure and functioning of agricultural watersheds undergoing urbanization. Developing a predictive understanding of the complex interaction between agricultural productivity, ecosystem health, water quality, urban development, and public policy requires an interdisciplinary effort that investigates the important biophysical and social processes of the system. Our research group has initiated such a framework that includes a coordinated program of integrated scenarios, model experiments to assess the effects of changing drivers on a broad set of ecosystem services, evaluations of governance and leverage points, outreach and public engagement, and information management. Our geographic focus is the Yahara River watershed in south-central Wisconsin, which is an exemplar of water-related issues in the Upper Midwest. This research addresses three specific questions. 1) How do different patterns of land use, land cover, land management, and water resources engineering practices affect the resilience and sensitivity of ecosystem services under a changing climate? 2) How can regional governance systems for water and land use be made more resilient and adaptive to meet diverse human needs? 3) In what ways are regional human-environment systems resilient and in what ways are they vulnerable to potential changes in climate and water resources? A comprehensive program of model experiments and biophysical measurements will be utilized to evaluate changes in five freshwater ecosystem services (flood regulation, groundwater recharge, surface water quality, groundwater quality, and lake recreation) and five related ecosystem services (food crop yields, bioenergy crop yields, carbon storage in soil, albedo, and terrestrial recreation). Novel additions to existing biophysical models will allow us to simulate all components of the hydrological cycle as well as agricultural productivity, nitrogen and phosphorus transport, and lake water quality. The integrated model will be validated using a comprehensive observational database that includes soil moisture, evapotranspiration, stomatal conductance, streamflow, stream and lake water quality, and crop yields and productivity. Integrated scenarios will be developed to synthesize decision-maker perspectives, alternative approaches to resource governance, plausible trends in demographic and economic drivers, and model projections under alternate climate and land use regimes to understand future conditions of the watershed and its ecosystem services. The quantitative data and integrated scenarios will then be linked to evaluate governance of water and land use.

  6. Effects of land use, topography and socio-economic factors on river water quality in a mountainous watershed with intensive agricultural production in East china.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jiabo; Lu, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the primary effects of anthropogenic activities and natural factors on river water quality is important in the study and efficient management of water resources. In this study, analysis of Variance (ANOVA), Principal component analysis (PCA), Pearson correlations, Multiple regression analysis (MRA) and Redundancy analysis (RDA) were applied as an integrated approach in a GIS environment to explore the temporal and spatial variations in river water quality and to estimate the influence of watershed land use, topography and socio-economic factors on river water quality based on 3 years of water quality monitoring data for the Cao-E River system. The statistical analysis revealed that TN, pH and temperature were generally higher in the rainy season, whereas BOD5, DO and turbidity were higher in the dry season. Spatial variations in river water quality were related to numerous anthropogenic and natural factors. Urban land use was found to be the most important explanatory variable for BOD5, CODMn, TN, DN, NH4+-N, NO3--N, DO, pH and TP. The animal husbandry output per capita was an important predictor of TP and turbidity, and the gross domestic product per capita largely determined spatial variations in EC. The remaining unexplained variance was related to other factors, such as topography. Our results suggested that pollution control of animal waste discharge in rural settlements, agricultural runoff in cropland, industrial production pollution and domestic pollution in urban and industrial areas were important within the Cao-E River basin. Moreover, the percentage of the total overall river water quality variance explained by an individual variable and/or all environmental variables (according to RDA) can assist in quantitatively identifying the primary factors that control pollution at the watershed scale. PMID:25090375

  7. Effects of Land Use, Topography and Socio-Economic Factors on River Water Quality in a Mountainous Watershed with Intensive Agricultural Production in East China

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jiabo; Lu, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the primary effects of anthropogenic activities and natural factors on river water quality is important in the study and efficient management of water resources. In this study, analysis of Variance (ANOVA), Principal component analysis (PCA), Pearson correlations, Multiple regression analysis (MRA) and Redundancy analysis (RDA) were applied as an integrated approach in a GIS environment to explore the temporal and spatial variations in river water quality and to estimate the influence of watershed land use, topography and socio-economic factors on river water quality based on 3 years of water quality monitoring data for the Cao-E River system. The statistical analysis revealed that TN, pH and temperature were generally higher in the rainy season, whereas BOD5, DO and turbidity were higher in the dry season. Spatial variations in river water quality were related to numerous anthropogenic and natural factors. Urban land use was found to be the most important explanatory variable for BOD5, CODMn, TN, DN, NH4+-N, NO3?-N, DO, pH and TP. The animal husbandry output per capita was an important predictor of TP and turbidity, and the gross domestic product per capita largely determined spatial variations in EC. The remaining unexplained variance was related to other factors, such as topography. Our results suggested that pollution control of animal waste discharge in rural settlements, agricultural runoff in cropland, industrial production pollution and domestic pollution in urban and industrial areas were important within the Cao-E River basin. Moreover, the percentage of the total overall river water quality variance explained by an individual variable and/or all environmental variables (according to RDA) can assist in quantitatively identifying the primary factors that control pollution at the watershed scale. PMID:25090375

  8. Concentration patterns of agricultural pesticides and urban biocides in surface waters of a catchment of mixed land use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stamm, C.; Wittmer, I.; Bader, H.-P.; Scheidegger, R.; Alder, A.; Lück, A.; Hanke, I.; Singer, H.

    2009-04-01

    Organic pesticides and biocides that are found in surface waters, can originate from agricultural and urban sources. For a long time, agricultural pesticides have received substantially more attention than biocidal compounds from urban use like material protection or in-can preservatives (cosmetics etc.). Recent studies however revealed that the amounts of urban biocides used may exceed those of agricultural pesticides. This study aims at comparing the input of several important pesticides and biocides into a small Swiss stream with a special focus on loss events triggered by rainfall. A set of 16 substances was selected to represent urban and agricultural sources. The selected substances are either only used as biocides (irgarol, isothiazolinones, IPBC), as pesticides (atrazine, sulcotrione, dichlofluanid, tolylfluanid) or have a mixed use (isoproturon, terbutryn, terbutylazine, mecoprop, diazinon, carbendazim) The study catchment has an area of 25 km2 and is inhabited by about 12'000 people. Four sampling sites were selected in the river system in order to reflect different urban and agricultural sources. Additionally, we sampled a combined sewer overflow, a rain sewer and the outflow of a wastewater treatment plant. At each site discharge was measured continuously from March to November 2007. During 16 rain events samples were taken by automatic devices at a high temporal resolution. The results, based on more than 500 analyzed samples, revealed distinct concentration patterns for different compounds and sources. Agricultural pesticides exhibited a strong seasonality as expected based on the application periods. During the first one or two rain events after application the concentrations reached up to several thousand ng/l during peak flow (atrazine, isoproturon). The temporal patterns of urban biocides were more diverse. Some compounds obviously stem from permanent sources independent of rainfall because they were found mostly in the outlet of the wastewater treatment plant throughout the year. The insecticide diazinon for example showed a background concentration in treated waste water of approximately 50 ng/l. Substances like mecoprop, which are used in urban areas (roof protection, private gardens) and agriculture showed a mixed pattern. At the time scale of single events two concentration peaks have been observed. One of them was due to the fast reaction of sewer overflows or rain sewers carrying urban storm water. The delayed peak was caused by fast flow from agricultural soils. Overall, the study revealed complex concentration patterns for the different compounds. Source identification was only possible by means of a comprehensive approach including different nested measuring sites, a broad range of different compounds that were complemented by tracer substances like caffeine or drugs and their metabolites (sulfamethoxazole, N4-acetylsulfamethoxazole, diclofenac) that can be non-ambiguously attributed to sources like treated or untreated wastewater.

  9. Urban land use, mobility and theory of science: exploring the potential for critical realism in empirical research

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Petter Næss; Ole B. Jensen

    2002-01-01

    Academic discussion where the adequacy of positions within theory of science is illustrated by means of examples from empirical research studies seems to be an area of neglect. The purpose of this paper is to contribute to such a debate, using examples from investigations into the relationship between urban structure and travel behaviour. The main research question of these investigations

  10. Characterization of potential larval habitats for Anopheles mosquitoes in relation to urban land-use in Malindi, Kenya

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joseph Keating; Kate Macintyre; Charles M Mbogo; John I Githure; John C Beier

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This study characterized Anopheles mosquito larval habitats in relation to ecological attributes about the habitat and community-level drainage potential, and investigated whether agricultural activities within or around urban households increased the probability of water body occurrence. Malindi, a city on the coast of Kenya, was mapped using global positioning system (GPS) technology, and a geographic information system (GIS) was

  11. Facing the Urban Challenge: Reimagining Land Use in America's Distressed Older Cities--The Federal Policy Role

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mallach, Alan

    2010-01-01

    The end of World War II heralded an era of urban disinvestment in the United States. While some cities began to rebound in the 1990s with population and economic growth, others--including large cities like Detroit, Cleveland, and St. Louis as well as many smaller cities and towns--did not, and have continued to decline. As these communities…

  12. Land use effects on water quality in the urban agglomeration of Cuiabá and Várzea Grande, Mato Grosso State, central Brazil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Zeilhofer; Eliana Beatriz Nunes Rondon Lima; Gilson Alberto Rosa Lima

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between spatial patterns of water quality and land occupation in the cities of Cuiabá and Várzea Grande, Mato Grosso state, Brazil, applying Geographic Information System (GIS) techniques and Polynomial Redundancy Analysis. The results show a strong relationship between water quality and population density, urbanization rate and regionalized low water runoff. Higher treatment rates improve oxygenation

  13. How do land use intensity, experimentally increased temperature and water level affect methane and nitrous oxide emissions from a drained fen peatland?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinichen, Jan; Eickenscheidt, Tim; Drösler, Matthias

    2014-05-01

    Rewetting and extensification of peatlands is widely discussed and practiced to reduce losses of CO2 and N2O from drained peat soils. But rewetting is known to carry the risk of increased CH4 emissions. Up to now it is not completely clear how the predicted temperature increase in the face of climate change will alter the N2O and CH4 exchange of grasslands on drained peatland soils in the temperate zone. Therefore we investigated the effects of land use intensity, increased groundwater level, increased temperature and the combination of warming and increased groundwater level on CH4 and N2O exchange of two grassland sites (intensive and extensive grassland) in a drained fen peatland in southern Germany. We set up a factorial design on both land use types, on each three treatments, warming, increased water table level and the combination of warming and increased water table level as well as a control site were established. Temperature was manipulated with open-top chambers (OTCs) and water level manipulation was performed using a pumping system and sheet pile walls. The intensive grassland was cut three times in the year, the extensive grassland once in autumn 2011. Cattle slurry and mineral fertilizer (CAN) were deployed on the intensive grassland. Fluxes of CH4 and N2O were measured biweekly from December 2010 to January 2012 using opaque static closed chambers. The annual mean groundwater level (GWL) of the sites without water level manipulation was -41.5 cm b. g. and -30 cm b. g. at the water level manipulated sites on the intensive grassland. On the extensive grassland the GWL of the sites without water level manipulation was -32 cm b. g. and -21.5 cm b. g. at the water level manipulated sites. Air temperature in 0.2 m was increased in 2011 by 0.7 ° C at the treatments with OTCs on the intensive grassland and by 1.0 ° C at the treatments with OTCs on the extensive grassland respectively. The annual cumulative CH4 exchange ranged from 8.1 ± 3.8 kg C ha-1 yr-1 to 36.3 ± 8.6 kg C ha-1 yr-1on the extensive grassland and from -0.1 ± 0.3 kg C ha-1 yr-1 to 15.0 ± 1.9 kg C ha-1 yr-1 on the intensive grassland. The CH4 emissions of the treatments with increased water level on the intensive grassland were significantly higher compared to the control and warming sites. No significant differences could be observed between CH4 emissions of the treatments on the extensive grassland. However, we found a general significant relationship between CH4 fluxes, groundwater level and temperature. All sites on the intensive grassland show higher annual emissions of N2O compared to the sites on the extensive grassland. The annual cumulative N2O exchange ranged from 3.1 ± 0.5 kg N ha-1 yr-1 to 6.1 ± 0.4 kg N ha-1 yr-1on the intensive grassland and from 0.7 ± 0.1 kg N ha-1 yr-1 to 1.3 ± 0.2 kg N ha-1 yr-1 on the extensive grassland. Significant treatment effects could not be observed for N2O exchange on both land use types.

  14. Land use effects on soil carbon fractions in the southeastern United States. I. Management-intensive versus extensive grazing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard T. Conant; Johan Six; Keith Paustian

    2003-01-01

    Changes in grassland management intended to increase productivity can lead to sequestration of substantial amounts of atmospheric C in soils. Management-intensive grazing (MiG) can increase forage production in mesic pastures, but potential impacts on soil C have not been evaluated. We sampled four pastures (to 50 cm depth) in Virginia, USA, under MiG and neighboring pastures that were extensively grazed or

  15. The effect of land use on soil health indicators in peri-urban agriculture in the humid forest zone of southern cameroon.

    PubMed

    Monkiedje, Adolphe; Spiteller, Michael; Fotio, Daniel; Sukul, Premasis

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify the effect of different land uses in peri-urban agriculture on the soil properties. Soil health indicators were evaluated in the top 10 cm at five tilled agricultural sites involving different cropping systems and use of agrochemicals within the peri-urban agricultural areas of Yaounde, Cameroon, and compared with a native forest land. The experimental data showed that the selected indicators were sensitive to cropping practice. Most cropped land had significantly higher total C, available N and P concentrations, soil pH, electrical conductivity, salinity, biomass C and P, dehydrogenase, beta-glucosidase, and acid phosphatase activities. Land producing corn (Zea mays L.) and sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) differed from that producing tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.), but cultivation of these crops has significantly impacted native soil quality. However, phenol oxidase, microbal biomass C/organic C (C(mic)/C(org)), and microbial biomass C/microbial biomass P (C(mic)/P(mic)) were negatively affected. These appeared to be more consistent indicators of negative management causing changes to soil health and may be suitable for an early appraisal of soil health. PMID:17071911

  16. Global Consequences of Land Use

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jonathan A. Foley; Ruth DeFries; Gregory P. Asner; Carol Barford; Gordon Bonan; Stephen R. Carpenter; F. Stuart Chapin; Michael T. Coe; Gretchen C. Daily; Holly K. Gibbs; Joseph H. Helkowski; Tracey Holloway; Erica A. Howard; Christopher J. Kucharik; Chad Monfreda; Jonathan A. Patz; I. Colin Prentice; Navin Ramankutty; Peter K. Snyder

    2005-01-01

    Land use has generally been considered a local environmental issue, but it is becoming a force of global importance. Worldwide changes to forests, farmlands, waterways, and air are being driven by the need to provide food, fiber, water, and shelter to more than six billion people. Global croplands, pastures, plantations, and urban areas have expanded in recent decades, accompanied by

  17. Hydrological impacts of land use change in three diverse South African catchments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warburton, Michele L.; Schulze, Roland E.; Jewitt, Graham P. W.

    2012-01-01

    SummaryIn order to meet society's needs for water, food, fuel and fibre, the earth's natural land cover and land use have been significantly changed. These changes have impacted on the hydrological responses and thus available water resources, as the hydrological responses of a catchment are dependent upon, and sensitive to, changes in the land use. The degree of anthropogenic modification of the land cover, the intensity of the land use changes and location of land uses within a catchment determines the extent to which land uses influences hydrological response of a catchment. The objective of the study was to improve understanding of the complex interactions between hydrological response and land use to aid in water resources planning. To achieve this, a hydrological model, viz. the ACRU agrohydrological model, which adequately represents hydrological processes and is sensitive to land use changes, was used to generate hydrological responses from three diverse, complex and operational South African catchments under both current land use and a baseline land cover. The selected catchments vary with respect to both land use and climate. The semi-arid sub-tropical Luvuvhu catchment has a large proportion of subsistence agriculture and informal residential areas, whereas in the winter rainfall Upper Breede catchment the primary land uses are commercial orchards and vineyards. The sub-humid Mgeni catchment is dominated by commercial plantation forestry in the upper reaches, commercial sugarcane and urban areas in the middle reaches, with the lower reaches dominated by urban areas. The hydrological responses of the selected catchments to land use change were complex. Results showed that the contributions of different land uses to the streamflow generated from a catchment is not proportional to the relative area of that land use, and the relative contribution of the land use to the catchment streamflow varies with the mean annual rainfall of the catchment. Furthermore, it was shown that the location of specific land uses within a catchment has a role in the response of the streamflow of the catchment to that land use change. From the Mgeni catchment, the significant role of the water engineered system on catchment streamflow was evident. Hydrological models have drawbacks associated with them due to inherent uncertainties. However, in this study the ACRU model proved to be a useful tool to assess the impacts of land use change on the hydrological response as impacts from the local scale to catchment scale could be assessed as well as the progression of impacts of land use changes as the streamflow cascades downstream through the catchment.

  18. Future change of wintertime urban heat island intensity over Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hara, M.; Adachi, S. A.; Kusaka, H.; Kimura, F.

    2014-12-01

    Urban canopy process is essential to investigate thermal environment in the near future, because surface air temperature (SAT) increase due to urban heat island is comparable to the one due to the global climate change over major metropolitan areas in Japan. During the past 100 years, mean SAT increased about 3 ºC in Tokyo, and 2 ºC in Nagoya and Osaka, while world mean SAT increased only 0.66 ºC. Major reason of difference in the warming is effect of the urban heat island (UHI), whose intensity also increased during the period and often the most during winter. This study investigates change in UHI intensity (UHII) of major metropolitan areas (Tokyo, Nagoya, and Osaka) in Japan by effects of the global climate change. A series of climate simulations performed. Present climate simulations with and without urban process are conducted using a high-resolution numerical climate model, the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. Future climate projections with and without urban process are also conducted. The future projections are performed using the pseudo global warming method, assuming lateral and bottom boundary conditions in the 2050s estimated by a GCM under the RCP 8.5 scenario. Simulation results indicated that UHII would be enhanced more than 30% in Tokyo during the night due to the global climate change.

  19. Study of the impact of land use and hydrogeological settings on the shallow groundwater quality in a peri-urban area of Kampala, Uganda.

    PubMed

    Kulabako, N R; Nalubega, M; Thunvik, R

    2007-08-01

    A study to assess the impacts of land use and hydrogeological characteristics on the shallow groundwater in one of Kampala's peri-urban areas (Bwaise III Parish) was undertaken for a period of 19 months. Water quality monitoring was carried out for 16 installed wells and one operational protected spring to ascertain the seasonal variation. The aspects of hydrogeological setting investigated in the study were the subsurface unconsolidated material characteristics (stratigraphy, lithology, hydraulic conductivity, porosity and chemical content), seasonal groundwater depths and spring discharge, topography and rainfall of the area. Both laboratory and field measurements were carried out to determine the soil and water characteristics. Field surveys were also undertaken to identify and locate the various land use activities that may potentially pollute. The results demonstrate that the water table in the area responds rapidly to short rains (48 h) due to the pervious (10(-5)-10(-3) ms(-1)) and shallow (<1 mbgl) vadose zone, which consists of foreign material (due to reclamation). This anthropogenically influenced vadose zone has a limited contaminant attenuation capacity resulting in water quality deterioration following the rains. There is widespread contamination of the groundwater with high organic (up to 370 mgTKN/l and 779 mgNO-3/l), thermotolerant coliforms (TTCs) and faecal streptococci (FS) (median values as high as 126E3 cfu/100 ml and 154E3 cfu/100 ml respectively) and total phosphorus (up to 13 mg/l) levels originating from multiple sources of contamination. These include animal rearing, solid waste dumping, pit latrine construction and greywater/stormwater disposal in unlined channels leading to increased localised microbial (faecal) and organic (TKN/NO-3) contamination during the rains. The spring discharge (range 1.22-1.48 m3/h) with high nitrate levels (median values of 117 and 129 mg/l in the wet and dry seasons) did not vary significantly with season (p=0.087) suggesting that this source is fed by regional base flow. However, the microbial quality deterioration observed in the spring discharge after a rain event (median values of 815TTCs cfu /100 ml and 433 FS cfu/100 ml) was attributed to the poor maintenance of the protection structure. Identification and selection of appropriate management solutions for the protection of shallow groundwater in informal settlements should not only be based on water quality problems and the causal physical characteristics as demonstrated by this study, but also institutional and socio-economic factors. PMID:17512037

  20. Effects of endogenous factors on regional land-use carbon emissions based on the Grossman decomposition model: a case study of Zhejiang Province, China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Cifang; Li, Guan; Yue, Wenze; Lu, Rucheng; Lu, Zhangwei; You, Heyuan

    2015-02-01

    The impact of land-use change on greenhouse gas emissions has become a core issue in current studies on global change and carbon cycle. However, a comprehensive evaluation of the effects of land-use changes on carbon emissions is very necessary. This paper attempted to apply the Grossman decomposition model to estimate the scale, structural, and management effects of land-use carbon emissions based on final energy consumption by establishing the relationship between the types of land use and carbon emissions in energy consumption. It was shown that land-use carbon emissions increase from 169.5624 million tons in 2000 to 637.0984 million tons in 2010, with an annual average growth rate of 14.15%. Meanwhile, land-use carbon intensity increased from 17.59 t/ha in 2000 to 64.42 t/ha in 2010, with an average annual growth rate of 13.86%. The results indicated that rapid industrialization and urbanization in Zhejiang Province promptly increased urban land and industrial land, which consequently affected land-use extensive emissions. The structural and management effects did not mitigate land-use carbon emissions. By contrast, both factors evidently affected the growth of carbon emissions because of the rigid demands of energy-intensive land-use types and the absence of land management. Results called for the policy implications of optimizing land-use structures and strengthening land-use management. PMID:25421995

  1. Land degradation in a semi-urban catchment in Burkina Faso: monitoring land use change and soil erosion with earth observations and field surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angeluccetti, Irene; Coviello, Velio; Vezza, Paolo; Grimaldi, Stefania; Steffenino, Sara; Magloire Koussoubé, Alain

    2015-04-01

    Soil erosion is currently menacing the availability of arable land in various countries worldwide. In particular the countries located in the Sahel area of Sub-Saharan Africa are extremely prone to this type of environmental degradation. The same countries rely traditionally upon subsistence farming, which makes the population more vulnerable to environmental changes. The study here presented exploits remote sensed data for identifying the main degradation processes occurring in a small catchment of central Burkina Faso (i.e., Boulbi watershed). This catchment, approximately 100 square km large, is characterized by the presence of a 30 years old dam, whose reservoir feeds 80 ha of rice-fields. This produce contributes up to 13% of the regional rice production. Nonetheless other crops, along with rain-fed rice, are grown all across the Boulbi catchment during the rainy season. Both the increasing gully erosion and the urbanization of the capital city pushing from the North are significantly threatening the farming activities. By using aerial frames acquired with a 16 years' time interval (i.e., 1996, 2012), free satellite imagery, and field surveys, the base cartography of the investigated area was updated and the most active gullies were identified. Moreover a change detection analysis was performed on both artifacts and land use features. More than 200.000 square m of erosion areas and an increase of nearly 90% in built-up areas were detected. In addition, the importance of producing up-to-date base data was proven by the exploitation of the outcomes for the production of a catchment land and water management plan.

  2. Application of remote sensing and GIS to the study of land use\\/cover change and urbanization expansion in Basrah province, southern Iraq

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. S. Hadeel; Mushtak T. Jabbar; Xiaoling Chen

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, land use\\/cover dynamic change has become a key subject that needs to be dealt with in the study of global\\u000a environmental change. In this paper, remote sensing and geographic information systems (GIS) are integrated to monitor, map,\\u000a and quantify the land use\\/cover change in the southern part of Iraq (Basrah Province was taken as a case) by

  3. The Influence of Synoptic Climatology on Urban Heat Island Intensity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Model, Sean Michael

    This study describes the statistical properties of the urban heat island for a city under a variety of synoptic conditions during winter months. The relationships between urban heat island intensity and the identified atmospheric processes is investigated using a proposed heat island index. The urban heat island index (HII) is the difference in air temperature between a weather station located in an urban setting and one located in a rural setting. The climatic data from the St. Louis, Missouri, City Station and Scott Air Force Base (AFB), Illinois were used. Daily maximum and minimum temperatures at Scott AFB were subtracted from the daily maximum and minimum air temperatures at St. Louis for the winter months (December, January, and February), during the years 1960 through 1969. Derived heat island intensities were then related to 500 mb and surface synoptic weather maps. The resulting data sets were cataloged using a combined 500 mb/surface pressure pattern classification scheme and descriptive statistics for each combined category were determined. A difference of means test was then applied to each combined 500 mb/surface pressure pattern category to determine statistically significant differences. A number of conclusions were attained. It was found that the statistical properties associated with sub-categories of high pressure, sectors of low pressure, and frontal zones are dissimilar, and the mean HII associated with sub-categories of high pressure are higher in magnitude than the means associated with sectors of low pressure or frontal zones. Additionally, the means associated with sub-categories of high pressure are statistically significantly different from the means associated with sectors of low pressure and frontal zones.

  4. Impact of Low-Level Jets on the Nocturnal Urban Heat Island Intensity in Oklahoma City

    E-print Network

    Xue, Ming

    modifications is the so-called urban heat island (UHI) effect, in which near-surface temperaturesImpact of Low-Level Jets on the Nocturnal Urban Heat Island Intensity in Oklahoma City XIAO-MING HU that urban heat islands (UHIs) frequently formed at night and the observed UHI intensity was variable (18­48C

  5. Using GIS to integrate the analysis of land-use, transportation, and the environment for managing urban growth based on transit oriented development in the metropolitan of Jabodetabek, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasibuan, H. S.; Moersidik, S.; Koestoer, R.; Soemardi, T. P.

    2014-02-01

    There is an interaction between land use, transportation, and environment in improving and managing urban quality. One of the concpets to integrate those three aspects is Transit Oriented Development (TOD). It is a concept for managing urban growth in transit corridors which have characteristics of mixed land use, compact, walkability, and development focused around public transit area. This research aims at utilizing GIS to organize, sort, and analyze spatial data including aspects of land use, transportation, and environment. Jabodetabek is a strategic metropolitan area in Indonesia, and consists of DKI Jakarta and the neighboring Bodetabek cities, with more than 27 million population in 2010. Approximately 1,105,000 people are entering Jakarta every workday from the negihboring Bodetabek region. The surge in the number of passenger cars and motorcycles is astonishing. In contrast, the usage of public transport has declined deeply. Public transport infrastructure development without the integration of TOD may not attain the objective of reducing car dependency. This paper discusses the study which was carried out to identify the applicability of TOD principles in Jabodetabek using GIS as a tool to analysis and create model.

  6. An integrated multi-criteria scenario evaluation web tool for participatory land-use planning in urbanized areas: The Ecosystem Portfolio Model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Labiosa, Bill; Forney, William M.; Hearn, Paul P.; Hogan, Dianna M.; Strong, David R.; Swain, Eric D.; Esnard, Ann-Margaret; Mitsova-Boneva, D.; Bernknopf, R.; Pearlstine, Leonard; Gladwin, Hugh

    2013-01-01

    Land-use land-cover change is one of the most important and direct drivers of changes in ecosystem functions and services. Given the complexity of the decision-making, there is a need for Internet-based decision support systems with scenario evaluation capabilities to help planners, resource managers and communities visualize, compare and consider trade-offs among the many values at stake in land use planning. This article presents details on an Ecosystem Portfolio Model (EPM) prototype that integrates ecological, socio-economic information and associated values of relevance to decision-makers and stakeholders. The EPM uses a multi-criteria scenario evaluation framework, Geographic Information Systems (GIS) analysis and spatially-explicit land-use/land-cover change-sensitive models to characterize changes in important land-cover related ecosystem values related to ecosystem services and functions, land parcel prices, and community quality-of-life (QoL) metrics. Parameters in the underlying models can be modified through the interface, allowing users in a facilitated group setting to explore simultaneously issues of scientific uncertainty and divergence in the preferences of stakeholders. One application of the South Florida EPM prototype reported in this article shows the modeled changes (which are significant) in aggregate ecological value, landscape patterns and fragmentation, biodiversity potential and ecological restoration potential for current land uses compared to the 2050 land-use scenario. Ongoing refinements to EPM, and future work especially in regard to modifiable sea level rise scenarios are also discussed.

  7. Mapping carbon storage in urban trees with multi-source remote sensing data: Relationships between biomass, land use, and demographics in

    E-print Network

    Hutyra, Lucy R.

    Demographics High resolution remote sensing LiDAR High resolution maps of urban vegetation and biomass 02215, United States H I G H L I G H T S · Used imagery and LiDAR to develop a high resolution urban online xxxx Editor: Simon Pollard Keywords: Urban tree canopy Vegetation biomass Carbon cycle

  8. Relation of urban land-use and land-surface characteristics to quantity and quality of storm runoff in two basins in California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sylvester, Marc A.; Brown, William M.

    1978-01-01

    Two basins (Castro Valley Creek, in Alameda County, and Strong Ranch Slough, in Sacramento County) in the San Francisco Bay and Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta region (Bay-Delta region) were sampled intensively (3-15 minute intervals) during three storms between October 1974 and April 1975. Both basins are primarily residential, but the Strong Ranch Slough basin is almost entirely urbanized and nearly flat, while the Castro Valley Creek basin possesses some rural areas and slopes greater than 70 percent in the headwaters. Water discharge and concentrations of suspended solids, chemical oxygen demand, 5-day biochemical oxygen demand, nitrite and nitrate, total Kjeldahl nitrogen, total orthophosphorus, and settleable matter were usually greater at the Castro Valley Creek basin than at the Strong Ranch Slough basin. Concentrations of these constituents and water discharge changed more rapidly at the Castro Valley Creek basin than at the Strong Ranch Slough basin. Of the four subbasins sampled (two in each basin), constituent concentrations in runoff from a residential subbasin were usually greatest. Quantity and quality of runoff were related to environmental characteristics such as slope, perviousness, residential development and maintenance, and channel conditions. Greater water discharge and concentrations of constituents in the Castro Valley Creek basin seem to be partly due to steeper slopes, less perviousness, and smaller residential lot sizes than are in the Strong Ranch Slough basin. Erosion of steep slopes disturbed by grazing and residential development, poorly maintained dwellings and lots, and a mostly earthen drainage channel in the Castro Valley Creek basin are probably responsible for the greater concentrations of suspended solids and settleable matter in runoff from this basin. In both basins, the highest observed concentrations of suspended solids, chemical oxygen demand, 5-day biochemical oxygen demand, settleable matter, total Kjeldahl nitrogen, and total orthophosphorus were observed at or near peak water discharges. Flow-weighted and arithmetic-mean concentrations of suspended solids in Castro Valley Creek exceed the arithmetic-mean concentration of suspended solids in medium-strength untreated sewage. These results indicate that control of urban storm runoff in the Bay-Delta region may be desirable to protect receiving water.

  9. Land Use Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC.

    This study examines current and emerging issues relating to federal involvement in the land use planning, management, and control area and represents the perspective used to organize General Accounting Office (GAO) audit efforts. (Author)

  10. A Comparison of Natural and Urban Characteristics and the Development of Urban Intensity Indices Across Six Geographic Settings

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Falcone, James; Stewart, Jana; Sobieszczyk, Steven; Dupree, Jean; McMahon, Gerard; Buell, Gary

    2007-01-01

    As part of the U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Assessment Program, the effects of urbanization on stream ecosystems have been intensively investigated in six metropolitan areas in the United States. Approximately 30 watersheds in each area, ranging in size from 4 to 560 square kilometers (median is 50 square kilometers), and spanning a development gradient from very low to very high urbanization, were examined near Atlanta, Georgia; Raleigh, North Carolina; Denver, Colorado; Dallas-Fort Worth, Texas; Portland, Oregon; and Milwaukee-Green Bay, Wisconsin. These six studies are a continuation of three previous studies in Boston, Massachusetts; Birmingham, Alabama; and Salt Lake City, Utah. In each study, geographic information system data for approximately 300 variables were assembled to (a) characterize the environmental settings of the areas and (b) establish a consistent multimetric urban intensity index based on locally important land-cover, infrastructure, and socioeconomic variables. This paper describes the key features of urbanization and the urban intensity index for the study watersheds within each area, how they differ across study areas, and the relation between the environmental setting and the characteristics of urbanization. A number of features of urbanization were identified that correlated very strongly to population density in every study area. Of these, road density had the least variability across diverse geographic settings and most closely matched the multimetric nature of the urban intensity index. A common urban intensity index was derived that ranks watersheds across all six study areas. Differences in local natural settings and urban geography were challenging in (a) identifying consistent urban gradients in individual study areas and (b) creating a common urban intensity index that matched the site scores of the local urban intensity index in all areas. It is intended that the descriptions of the similarities and differences in urbanization and environmental settings across these study areas will provide a foundation for understanding and interpreting the effects of urbanization on stream ecosystems in the studies being conducted as part of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program.

  11. A Coupled SD and CLUE-S Model for Exploring the Impact of Land Use Change on Ecosystem Service Value: A Case Study in Baoshan District, Shanghai, China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Meng; Ren, Xiangyu; Che, Yue; Yang, Kai

    2015-08-01

    Most of the cities in developing countries are experiencing rapid urbanization. Land use change driven by urban sprawl, population growth, and intensified socio-economic activities have led to a steep decline of ecosystem service value (ESV) in rapid urbanization areas, and decision-makers often ignore some valuable ecosystem service functions and values in land use planning. In this paper, we attempt to build a modeling framework which integrated System Dynamics model with Conversion of Land Use and its Effects at Small Extent model to simulate the dynamics of ESV of landscape and explore the potential impacts of land use change on ESV. We take Baoshan district of Shanghai as an example which is a fast urbanization area of metropolitan in China. The results of the study indicate that: (1) The integrated methodology can improve the characterization and presentation of the dynamics of ESV, which may give insight into understanding the possible impacts of land use change on ESV and provide information for land use planning. (2) Land use polices can affect the magnitude and location of ESV both directly and indirectly. Land use changes tend to weaken and simplify ecosystem service functions and values of landscape at urban rural fringe where land use change is more intensive. (3) The application of the methodology has proved that the integration of currently existing models within a single modeling framework could be a beneficial exploration, and should be encouraged and enhanced in the future research on the changing dynamics of ESV due to the complexity of ecosystem services and land use system. PMID:25924787

  12. Understorey indicators of disturbance for riparian forests along an urban–rural gradient in Manitoba

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. F. Moffatt; S. M. McLachlan

    2004-01-01

    Extensive agricultural and urban development has contributed to the decline of riparian forests across North America. An urban–rural gradient was used to identify species- and guild-level indicators of riparian forest degradation in southern Manitoba. Twenty-five sites were categorized according to urban, suburban, high-intensity rural, low-intensity rural, and relatively high quality reference land use. Generalists, which frequented all land use types,

  13. The land use—transport connection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter WG Newman; Jeffrey R Kenworthy

    1996-01-01

    There is a growing international movement, ‘The New Urbanism’, which seeks to reconnect transport with land use and in particular to establish transit-oriented development where higher-density, mixed-use areas built around high-quality transit systems provide a focused urban structure that can help to loosen the grasp of automobile dependence. There are many case studies around the world of cities which demonstrate

  14. Future land use plan

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1995-08-31

    The US Department of Energy`s (DOE) changing mission, coupled with the need to apply appropriate cleanup standards for current and future environmental restoration, prompted the need for a process to determine preferred Future Land Uses for DOE-owned sites. DOE began the ``Future Land Use`` initiative in 1994 to ensure that its cleanup efforts reflect the surrounding communities` interests in future land use. This plan presents the results of a study of stakeholder-preferred future land uses for the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), located in central Long Island, New York. The plan gives the Laboratory`s view of its future development over the next 20 years, as well as land uses preferred by the community were BNL ever to cease operations as a national laboratory (the post-BNL scenario). The plan provides an overview of the physical features of the site including its history, topography, geology/hydrogeology, biological inventory, floodplains, wetlands, climate, and atmosphere. Utility systems and current environmental operations are described including waste management, waste water treatment, hazardous waste management, refuse disposal and ground water management. To complement the physical descriptions of the site, demographics are discussed, including overviews of the surrounding areas, laboratory population, and economic and non-economic impacts.

  15. Land-use Leakage

    SciTech Connect

    Calvin, Katherine V.; Edmonds, James A.; Clarke, Leon E.; Bond-Lamberty, Benjamin; Kim, Son H.; Wise, Marshall A.; Thomson, Allison M.; Kyle, G. Page

    2009-12-01

    Leakage occurs whenever actions to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions in one part of the world unleash countervailing forces elsewhere in the world so that reductions in global emissions are less than emissions mitigation in the mitigating region. While many researchers have examined the concept of industrial leakage, land-use policies can also result in leakage. We show that land-use leakage is potentially as large as or larger than industrial leakage. We identify two potential land-use leakage drivers, land-use policies and bioenergy. We distinguish between these two pathways and run numerical experiments for each. We also show that the land-use policy environment exerts a powerful influence on leakage and that under some policy designs leakage can be negative. International “offsets” are a potential mechanism to communicate emissions mitigation beyond the borders of emissions mitigating regions, but in a stabilization regime designed to limit radiative forcing to 3.7 2/m2, this also implies greater emissions mitigation commitments on the part of mitigating regions.

  16. Ecologically based municipal land use planning

    SciTech Connect

    Honachefsky, W.B.

    2000-07-01

    The book presents compelling evidence and sound arguments that make the case for sound land use policies that will reduce sprawl. The book provides easily understood solutions for municipal land planners dealing with urban sprawl; discusses ecological resources; emphasizes the use of new environmental indicators; and includes the use of the Geographic Information System (GIS) to problem solving.

  17. Land Use. Ag Ed Environmental Education Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tulloch, Rodney W.

    Land use is the subject of the student resource unit to be used with high school vocational agriculture students. Uses of the land in an urban environment, suburban environment, rural environment (as cropland, forest, and others), recreation and parks, and other environments are described. The supply of and demand for land is discussed.…

  18. Land Use in Saskatchewan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saskatchewan Dept. of the Environment, Regina. Public Information and Education Branch.

    Information on land use in Saskatchewan is provided in this updated report by the Policy, Planning, and Research Branch of Saskatchewan Environment. Chapter I discusses the physical, economic, and cultural geography of Saskatchewan and traces the history of settlement in this province. Chapter II provides information on the province's resource…

  19. Land Use and Nitrogen

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    In this lesson students explore the impacts of concentrated development and sprawl on water quality and land use. The concept of a watershed is introduced, along with information on basins and tributaries and the impacts of growth and nitrogen loading. The students are able to develop a plan to reduce nitrogen runoff to a targeted level. Several handouts and maps are included.

  20. Influence of watershed-climate interactions on stream temperature, sediment yield, and metabolism along a land use intensity gradient in Indonesian Borneo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlson, Kimberly M.; Curran, Lisa M.; Ponette-González, Alexandra G.; Ratnasari, Dessy; Ruspita; Lisnawati, Neli; Purwanto, Yadi; Brauman, Kate A.; Raymond, Peter A.

    2014-06-01

    Oil palm plantation expansion into tropical forests may alter physical and biogeochemical inputs to streams, thereby changing hydrological function. In West Kalimantan, Indonesia, we assessed streams draining watersheds characterized by five land uses: intact forest, logged forest, mixed agroforest, and young (<3 years) and mature (>10 years) oil palm plantation. We quantified suspended sediments, stream temperature, and metabolism using high-frequency submersible sonde measurements during month-long intervals between 2009 and 2012. Streams draining oil palm plantations had markedly higher sediment concentrations and yields, and stream temperatures, compared to other streams. Mean sediment concentrations were fourfold to 550-fold greater in young oil palm than in all other streams and remained elevated even under base flow conditions. After controlling for precipitation, the mature oil palm stream exhibited significantly greater sediment yield than other streams. Young and mature oil palm streams were 3.9°C and 3.0°C warmer than the intact forest stream (25°C). Across all streams, base flow periods were significantly warmer than times of stormflow, and these differences were especially large in oil palm catchments. Ecosystem respiration rates were also influenced by low precipitation. During an El Niño-Southern Oscillation-associated drought, the mature oil palm stream consumed a maximum 21 g O2 m-2 d-1 in ecosystem respiration, in contrast with 2.8 ± 3.1 g O2 m-2 d-1 during nondrought sampling. Given that 23% of Kalimantan's land area is occupied by watersheds similar to those studied here, our findings inform potential hydrologic outcomes of regional periodic drought coupled with continued oil palm plantation expansion.

  1. Development and applications of a comprehensive land use classification and map for the US.

    PubMed

    Theobald, David M

    2014-01-01

    Land cover maps reasonably depict areas that are strongly converted by human activities, but typically are unable to resolve low-density but widespread development patterns. Data products specifically designed to resolve land uses complement land cover datasets and likely improve our ability to understand the extent and complexity of human modification. Methods for developing a comprehensive land use classification system are described, and a map of land use for the conterminous United States is presented to reveal what we are doing on the land. The comprehensive, detailed and high-resolution dataset was developed through spatial analysis of nearly two-dozen publicly-available, national spatial datasets--predominantly based on census housing, employment, and infrastructure, as well as land cover from satellite imagery. This effort resulted in 79 land use classes that fit within five main land use groups: built-up, production, recreation, conservation, and water. Key findings from this study are that built-up areas occupy 13.6% of mainland US, but that the majority of this occurs as low-density exurban/rural residential (9.1% of the US), while more intensive built-up land uses occupy 4.5%. For every acre of urban and suburban residential land, there are 0.13 commercial, 0.07 industrial, 0.48 institutional, and 0.29 acres of interstates/highways. This database can be used to address a variety of natural resource applications, and I provide three examples here: an entropy index of the diversity of land uses for smart-growth planning, a power-law scaling of metropolitan area population to developed footprint, and identifying potential conflict areas by delineating the urban interface. PMID:24728210

  2. THE CO-EVOLUTION OF LAND USE AND ROAD NETWORKS

    E-print Network

    Levinson, David M.

    lead to a more or less hierarchical road network? Observation of historical evidence does not lead1 THE CO-EVOLUTION OF LAND USE AND ROAD NETWORKS David Levinson, Feng Xie, and Shanjiang Zhu of urban form. First, changes in land use alter travel demand patterns, which determine traffic flows

  3. Land use and mapping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joyce, A. T.

    1974-01-01

    The ERTS program provides data that can be used to derive information relative to the actual use of the land resource, in a practical and timely manner. ERTS data provide coverage of total land areas, and its repetitive nature enables the detection and monitoring of changes taking place in land use. Generally, the techniques and the procedures used to extract information from ERTS data may be categorized as pertaining to either the interpretations of ERTS imagery or to the use of digital data and computer techniques. Examples are given of the use of ERTS-1 data for land use classification in: (1) New England areas; (2) Chesapeake Bay and Washington, D.C.; (3) Mississippi Gulf Coast; (4) Los Angeles, California; (5) Houston, Texas; and (6) Phoenix, Arizona.

  4. Techniques for detecting effects of urban and rural land-use practices on stream-water chemistry in selected watersheds in Texas, Minnesota,and Illinois

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walker, J.F.

    1993-01-01

    A discussion is presented of several parametric and nonparametric statistical techniques for detecting trends in water-chemistry data. The need for reducing the effects of natural variability was recognized and accomplished through the use of regression equations. This report describes the use of storm mass-transport data as a means of improving regression relations, thereby reducing data variability. Selected statistical techniques were applied to 1 urban watershed in Texas, 2 urban watersheds in Minnesota, and 3 rural watersheds in Illinois. For the urban watersheds, single- and paired-site data-collection strategies were considered. The paired-site strategy was much more effective than the single-site strategy for detecting trends. For the rural watersheds, none of the selected techniques proved to be effective at identifying trends, primarily because of a small degree of management-practice implementation, potential errors introduced through the estimation of storm mass transport, and small sample sizes. A Monte Carlo sensitivity analysis was used to determine the percent change in chemistry that could be detected for each watershed. In most instances, the use of regressions improved the ability to detect trends. (USGS)

  5. Land use and energy

    SciTech Connect

    Robeck, K.E.; Ballou, S.W.; South, D.W.; Davis, M.J.; Chiu, S.Y.; Baker, J.E.; Dauzvardis, P.A.; Garvey, D.B.; Torpy, M.F.

    1980-07-01

    This report provides estimates of the amount of land required by past and future energy development in the United States and examines major federal legislation that regulates the impact of energy facilities on land use. An example of one land use issue associated with energy development - the potential conflict between surface mining and agriculture - is illustrated by describing the actual and projected changes in land use caused by coal mining in western Indiana. Energy activities addressed in the report include extraction of coal, oil, natural gas, uranium, oil shale, and geothermal steam; uranium processing; preparation of synfuels from coal; oil refineries; fossil-fuel, nuclear, and hydro-electric power plants; biomass energy farms; and disposal of solid wastes generated during combustion of fossil fuels. Approximately 1.1 to 3.3 x 10/sup 6/ acres were devoted to these activities in the United States in 1975. As much as 1.8 to 2.0 x 10/sup 6/ additional acres could be required by 1990 for new, nonbiomass energy development. The production of grain for fuel ethanol could require an additional 16.9 to 55.7 x 10/sup 6/ acres by 1990. Federal laws that directly or indirectly regulate the land-use impacts of energy facilities include the National Environmental Protection Act, Clean Air Act, Federal Water Pollution Control Act, Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act, and Coastal Zone Management Act. The major provisions of these acts, other relevant federal regulations, and similar state and local regulatons are described in this report. Federal legislation relating to air quality, water quality, and the management of public lands has the greatest potential to influence the location and timing of future energy development in the United States.

  6. Long-term water monitoring in two Mediterranean lagoons as an indicator of land-use changes and intense precipitation events (Adra, Southeastern Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Miguel; Benavente, José; Alcalá, Francisco J.; Paracuellos, Mariano

    2011-02-01

    During recent historical times the Adra river delta, a detrital coastal aquifer of nearly 32 km 2 located in a semi-arid, mountainous area of SE Spain, has undergone different changes caused by human activity. Within this context, both the river dynamics in the plain and the geomorphology of the coastline have at various times resulted in the formation of small lagoons. At present only two small (<0.5 km 2) lagoons exist, at the eastern edge of the aquifer, which, although closely surrounded by commercial market-garden greenhouses, are protected under international agreements. During the last 30 years of the twentieth century traditional agricultural irrigation techniques have undergone significant changes to improve their efficiency. Surface-water resources in the Adra river basin are regulated via the Beninar reservoir. In addition, the use of groundwater is increasing progressively. Both these factors affect the recharge of the coastal aquifer. To monitor these changes measurements of electrical conductivity and water level fluctuations have been recorded in these lagoons for the last 35 years (1975-2010). A comparison of the hydrochemical characteristics of the water in the lagoons and of the surrounding groundwater from 2003 to 2010 shows marked differences induced by the different hydrological dynamics in each lagoon, as well as by the hydrogeological impact of changes in land use in the delta. The increase in water demand is a consequence of the extension of irrigated areas from the fluvio-deltaic plain to its slopes, originally occupied by unirrigated crops. A reduction in irrigation return-flow is linked to the use of new irrigation techniques. These modifications affect both the recharge regime of the aquifer and its water quality. Moreover, extreme precipitation events, which are characteristic of Mediterranean semi-arid environments, can affect the lagoons' hydrological dynamics to a considerable extent. One such example is the unusually rainy period from January to March 2010 (>600 mm). This event, along with other effects, has dramatically lowered the salinity of the water in both lagoons. This case study reveals the extreme vulnerability of deltaic environments and also how lagoons can reflect anthropogenic changes over the whole river basin.

  7. USING THE EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERING INTENSITY SCALE TO IMPROVE URBAN AREA EARTHQUAKE EMERGENCY RESPONSE

    E-print Network

    Irfanoglu, Ayhan

    USING THE EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERING INTENSITY SCALE TO IMPROVE URBAN AREA EARTHQUAKE EMERGENCY distribution estimation of earthquake damage in building stocks is presented. The purpose is to start a strong urban area earthquake. We used a pair of ground motion and building-tag color databases

  8. Land Use Change in Phoenix, Arizona-- Remote Sensing Lesson

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This lesson examines land use in Phoenix, Arizona; specifically, the lesson gives students the opportunity to look at land use change in an urban environment. South Phoenix has experienced rapid urbanization in the last 15 years. ArcGIS 9.3, ENVI 4.5 and the internet (to access Landsat Data) are utilized in this exercise. A learning unit summary, instructor and student guides and supporting documents are included. A quick, free login is required to view or download the materials.

  9. Incorporating Land-Use Mapping Uncertainty in Remote Sensing Based Calibration of Land-Use Change Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cockx, K.; Van de Voorde, T.; Canters, F.; Poelmans, L.; Uljee, I.; Engelen, G.; de Jong, K.; Karssenberg, D.; van der Kwast, J.

    2013-05-01

    Building urban growth models typically involves a process of historic calibration based on historic time series of land-use maps, usually obtained from satellite imagery. Both the remote sensing data analysis to infer land use and the subsequent modelling of land-use change are subject to uncertainties, which may have an impact on the accuracy of future land-use predictions. Our research aims to quantify and reduce these uncertainties by means of a particle filter data assimilation approach that incorporates uncertainty in land-use mapping and land-use model parameter assessment into the calibration process. This paper focuses on part of this work, more in particular the modelling of uncertainties associated with the impervious surface cover estimation and urban land-use classification adopted in the land-use mapping approach. Both stages are submitted to a Monte Carlo simulation to assess their relative contribution to and their combined impact on the uncertainty in the derived land-use maps. The approach was applied on the central part of the Flanders region (Belgium), using a time-series of Landsat/SPOT-HRV data covering the years 1987, 1996, 2005 and 2012. Although the most likely land-use map obtained from the simulation is very similar to the original classification, it is shown that the errors related to the impervious surface sub-pixel fraction estimation have a strong impact on the land-use map's uncertainty. Hence, incorporating uncertainty in the land-use change model calibration through particle filter data assimilation is proposed to address the uncertainty observed in the derived land-use maps and to reduce uncertainty in future land-use predictions.

  10. Characterization of streamflow, salinity, and selenium loading and land-use change in Montrose Arroyo, western Colorado, from 1992 to 2013

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Richards, Rodney J.; Moore, Jennifer L.

    2015-01-01

    Land use was characterized for 1992, 2002, and 2009 for site MA3. The common land-use change in the MA3 subwatershed was a conversion from previously irrigated agricultural land to urban land use. The MA3 subwatershed had 124 acres of irrigated land use converted to urban land use and 27.1 acres of unirrigated desert converted to urban land use from 1992 to 2009. Consistent with findings in previous land-use change reports, salinity and dissolved-selenium loading at site MA3 showed significant decreases as irrigated land was converted to urban land use.

  11. Modeling enzootic raccoon rabies from land use patterns - Georgia (USA) 2006-2010

    PubMed Central

    Duke, John E.

    2014-01-01

    We analyzed how land-use patterns and changes in urbanization influence reported rabid raccoons in Georgia from 2006 - 2010.  Using Geographical Information Systems and rabies surveillance data, multivariate analysis was conducted on 15 land-use variables that included natural topography, agricultural development, and urbanization to model positive raccoon rabies cases while controlling for potential raccoon submission bias associated with higher human population densities.  Low intensity residential development was positively associated with reported rabid raccoons while a negative association was found with evergreen forest.  Evergreen forests may offer a barrier effect where resources are low and raccoon populations are not supported.  Areas with pure stands of upland evergreen forest might be utilized in baiting strategies for oral rabies vaccination programs where fewer or no baits may be needed.  Their use as a barrier should be considered carefully in a cost-effective strategy for oral rabies vaccination (ORV) programs to contain the western spread of this important zoonotic disease. PMID:24715971

  12. IDAHO LAND USE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Use groupings are: Surface gravity irrigation, Sprinkler irrigation, Dryland agriculture, Rangeland, Forest, Exposed rock, Riparian, Urban, Water. Easily incorporated into maps at the region to watershed level. Too coarse for site-scale applications. Scale: 1:500,000. Major ...

  13. Land Use and Change

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Irwin, Daniel E.

    2004-01-01

    The overall purpose of this training session is to familiarize Central American project cooperators with the remote sensing and image processing research that is being conducted by the NASA research team and to acquaint them with the data products being produced in the areas of Land Cover and Land Use Change and carbon modeling under the NASA SERVIR project. The training session, therefore, will be both informative and practical in nature. Specifically, the course will focus on the physics of remote sensing, various satellite and airborne sensors (Landsat, MODIS, IKONOS, Star-3i), processing techniques, and commercial off the shelf image processing software.

  14. Predicting land-use change

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Veldkamp; E. F. Lambin

    2001-01-01

    Land use change modelling, especially if done in a spatially-explicit, integrated and multi-scale manner, is an important technique for the projection of alternative pathways into the future, for conducting experiments that test our understanding of key processes in land use changes. Land-use change models should represent part of the complexity of land use systems. They offer the possibility to test

  15. Scaling the land use system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Kok

    2001-01-01

    IntroductionThere is a growing demand for quantitative information on actual land use\\/land cover and their future changes in space and time. Particularly during the last decade, land use and land cover change have become important issues. Besides local and direct effects like loss of biodiversity through deforestation or soil degradation through unsustainable land use, increasing importance is given to the

  16. LAND USE AND NATURAL RESOURCES

    E-print Network

    Ferrara, Katherine W.

    1 LAND USE AND NATURAL RESOURCES CONTINUING AND PROFESSIONAL EDUCATION SUMMER 2013 Including in a white Cadillac. It was worth the trip. We in the Land Use and Natural Resources and Sustainability Lave Johnston Director, Land Use and Natural Resources Department UC Davis Extension #12;3 CONTENTS

  17. Change in agricultural land use constrains adaptation of national wildlife refuges to climate change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hamilton, Christopher M.; Thogmartin, Wayne E.; Radeloff, Volker C.; Plantinga, Andrew J.; Heglund, Patricia J.; Martinuzzi, Sebastian; Pidgeon, Anna M.

    2015-01-01

    Land-use change around protected areas limits their ability to conserve biodiversity by altering ecological processes such as natural hydrologic and disturbance regimes, facilitating species invasions, and interfering with dispersal of organisms. This paper informs USA National Wildlife Refuge System conservation planning by predicting future land-use change on lands within 25 km distance of 461 refuges in the USA using an econometric model. The model contained two differing policy scenarios, namely a ‘business-as-usual’ scenario and a ‘pro-agriculture’ scenario. Regardless of scenario, by 2051, forest cover and urban land use were predicted to increase around refuges, while the extent of range and pasture was predicted to decrease; cropland use decreased under the business-as-usual scenario, but increased under the pro-agriculture scenario. Increasing agricultural land value under the pro-agriculture scenario slowed an expected increase in forest around refuges, and doubled the rate of range and pasture loss. Intensity of land-use change on lands surrounding refuges differed by regions. Regional differences among scenarios revealed that an understanding of regional and local land-use dynamics and management options was an essential requirement to effectively manage these conserved lands. Such knowledge is particularly important given the predicted need to adapt to a changing global climate.

  18. Groundwater Vulnerability, Brownfield Redevelopment and Land Use Planning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kent Murray; Daniel Rogers

    1999-01-01

    An understanding of groundwater vulnerability in urban watersheds is important for the prevention of both surface water and groundwater contamination and can therefore be a useful tool in brownfield redevelopment and land use planning. Although industrial activity in southeastern Michigan has historically been restricted to the urbanized sections of metropolitan Detroit, new industrial development is rapidly taking place in rural

  19. The influence of land use change on landslide susceptibility zonation: the Briga catchment test site (Messina, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reichenbach, Paola; Busca, Claudia; Mondini, Alessandro; Rossi, Mauro

    2013-04-01

    Landslides spatial distribution and frequency are the consequence of different meteorological conditions, the land use and environmental settings including topographical, morphological, hydrological, lithology. Lithology and structure change over periods of millions of years, morphology varies rapidly or over a period of centuries if mass wasting processes are consistent, climate, and land use change seasonally or over a period of decades. In this work we have attempted to evaluate the influence of land use change in a period of about 60 years on landslide spatial distribution occurrence (susceptibility) for the Briga catchment test site. The Briga basin is located along the Ionian coast of Sicily (SW of Messina, Italy). On 1 October 2009, the area was hit by a high intensity rainfall event that triggered abundant slope failures, and resulted in widespread erosion and deposition of debris along ephemeral drainage channels. After the storm, an accurate event landslide inventory map was made for the catchment and a pre-event landslide map was prepared using aerial photographs. For the test area two different land use maps were realized. The first was obtained through a semi-automatic classification of a digitized aerial photographs acquired during the year 1954, the second through the combination of supervised classifications of two QuickBird images acquired in 2006 and 2009. Exploiting the two different land use maps, different susceptibility zonations were prepared through a multivariate statistical analysis of a set of morphological and land use information. Differences in the susceptibility models were analyzed to identify: i) land use change effects on the landslide susceptibility; ii) the influence of human action on the land use change and iii) the consequences of land use change on landslide vulnerability and risk. Preliminary results show an overall increase of the susceptibility, probably due to the increase of bare soil to the detriment of forested areas, mainly in correspondence of pre-existing and new urban areas.

  20. Land use, land cover change analysis with multitemporal remote sensing data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Suzanchi; R. N. Sahoo; N. Kalra; S. Pandey

    2006-01-01

    Presently, unplanned changes of land use have become a major problem. Most land use changes occur without a clear and logical planning with little attention to their environmental impacts. In last four-decade, urban growth in Delhi has occurred rapidly in some unwanted direction and destroyed valuable agriculture lands in its surround. Rapid changes in land use \\/ cover occurring over

  1. A Basic Introduction to Land Use Control Law and Doctrine. Publication 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, E. F.

    Divided into four sections, this paper discusses the historical development of land-use control law and doctrine. Entitled "Genesis of the Zoning Mechanism", Part 1 discusses zoning in terms of: a by-product of urbanization: common law land-use controls (public and private nuisance laws); private property as restraint on land-use legislation…

  2. How Will America Grow? A Citizen Guide to Land-Use Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Citizens Advisory Committee on Environmental Quality.

    Citizens are encouraged to learn about and become involved in land use and growth issues in their communities. Intended as a follow-up of an earlier report by the Committee's Task Force on Land Use and Urban Growth which outlined philosophical, legal, and policy aspects of land-use planning, the document suggests planning guidelines for citizen…

  3. Impact of Urbanization on Precipitation Distribution and Intensity over Lake Victoria Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gudoshava, M.; Semazzi, F. H. M.

    2014-12-01

    In this study, sensitivity simulations on the impact of rapid urbanization over Lake Victoria Basin in East Africa were done using a Regional Climate Model (RegCM4.4-rc29) with the Hostetler lake model activated. The simulations were done for the rainy seasons that is the long rains (March-April-May) and short rains (October-November-December). Africa is projected to have a surge in urbanization with an approximate rate of 590% in 2030 over their 2000 levels. The Northern part of Lake Victoria Basin and some parts of Rwanda and Burundi are amongst the regions with high urbanization projections. Simulations were done with the land cover for 2000 and the projected 2030 urbanization levels. The results showed that increasing the urban fraction over the northern part of the basin modified the physical parameters such as albedo, moisture and surface energy fluxes, aerodynamic roughness and surface emissivity, thereby altering the precipitation distribution, intensity and frequency in the region. The change in the physical parameters gave a response of an average increase in temperature of approximately 2oC over the urbanized region. A strong convergence zone was formed over the urbanized region and thereby accelerating the lake-breeze front towards the urbanized region center. Precipitation in the urbanized region and regions immediate to the area increased by approximately 4mm/day, while drying up the southern (non-urbanized) side of the basin. The drying up of the southern side of the basin could be a result of divergent flow and subsidence that suppresses vertical development of storms.

  4. Modeling land-use change

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    Tropical land-use change is generally considered to be the greatest net contributor of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere after fossil-fuel burning. However, estimates vary widely, with one major cause of variation being that terrestrial ecosystems are both a source and a sink for carbon. This article describes two spatially explicit models which simulate rates and patterns of tropical land-use change: GEOMOD1, based on intuitive assumptions about how people develop land over time, and GEOMOD2, based on a statistical analysis of how people have actually used the land. The models more closely estimate the connections between atmospheric carbon dioxide, deforestation, and other land use changes.

  5. Land Use and Public Health

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Physicians for Social Responsibility

    This site provides an overview of how public and private land use and development affect environmental and human health. Special topics include hazardous waste sites such as Superfund sites and "brownfields," sprawl and transportation issues, development of antibiotic resistance in humans due to antibiotic use on farm animals, and how land use can contaminate surface waters. The site also features links to current news and related resources and organizations.

  6. Influence of land use on hyporheos in catchment of the Jarama River (central Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iepure, S.; Martínez-Hernández, V.; Herrera, S.; de Bustamante, I.; Rasines, R.

    2012-04-01

    The Water Framework Directive (2000) requires integrated assessment of water bodies based on water resources but also the evaluation of land-use catchment effect on chemical and ecological conditions of aquatic ecosystems. The hyporheic zone (HZ) supporting obligate subterranean species are particularly vulnerable in river ecosystems when environmental stress occurs at surface and require management strategies to protect both the stream catchment and the aquifer that feed the stream channel. The influence of catchment land-use in the Jarama basin (central Spain) on river geomorphology and hyporheic zone granulometry, chemical and biological variables inferred from crustacean community biodiversity (species richness, taxonomic distinctness) and ecology was assessed. The study was conducted in four streams from the Madrid metropolitan area under distinct local land-use and water resource protection: i) a preserved forested natural sites where critical river ecosystem processes were unaltered or less altered by human activities, and ii) different degree of anthropogenic impact sites from agriculture, urban industrial and mining activities. The river bed permeability reduction and the increase of low sediment size input associated with changes in geomorphology of the stream channels are greatly affected by land-use changes in the Jarama watershed. Water chemical parameters linked to land-use increase from the natural stream to the urban industrial and agricultural dominated catchment. Principal coordinate analysis (PCO) and multidimensional scaling (MDS) clearly discriminate the pristine sites from forested areas by those under anthropogenic stressors. In streams draining forested areas, groundwater discharge and regular exchange between groundwater and surface water occur due to relatively high permeability of the sediments. Consequently, forested land-use produce sites of high water quality and crustacean richness (both groundwater dwellers and surface-benthos species), as indicate the expected diversity pattern after the simulation procedure for taxonomic distinctness. Crustacean diversity (Shannon index) was greatest in less extensive agricultural land-use sites where riparian zone is slightly developed, while intensive agricultural activities cause a decline of water quality and therefore of crustacean richness. Intensively urban industrial land-use yield highly contaminated hyporheic water with heavy metals and VOC (i.e. toluene, benzene). Complementarily, the streams geomorphology and low rates of water flow favour the deposition of fine sediments that clog the interstices, generate a reverse dynamic of river channel and induce a reduction of groundwater discharge. In results, the hyporheic is unsuitable for hyporheos that are missing or harbour reduced populations of exclusively surface-water taxa. There are sites of intermediate biodiversity including hypogeans, located in natural regional parks thriving well-established riparian zone and relatively good water quality. The differences among sites in the Jarama basin indicate the impact that changes in land-use have upon the hyporheic ecology as shown the pattern of crustacean community distribution, diversity and ecological structure. We suggest that in rehabilitation processes of streams sectors require the understanding and recognition of the potential roles of the hyporheic zone and its biota in the whole stream ecosystem.

  7. Experiments in Globalisation, Food Security and Land Use Decision Making

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Calum; Murray-Rust, Dave; van Vliet, Jasper; Alam, Shah Jamal; Verburg, Peter H.; Rounsevell, Mark D.

    2014-01-01

    The globalisation of trade affects land use, food production and environments around the world. In principle, globalisation can maximise productivity and efficiency if competition prompts specialisation on the basis of productive capacity. In reality, however, such specialisation is often constrained by practical or political barriers, including those intended to ensure national or regional food security. These are likely to produce globally sub-optimal distributions of land uses. Both outcomes are subject to the responses of individual land managers to economic and environmental stimuli, and these responses are known to be variable and often (economically) irrational. We investigate the consequences of stylised food security policies and globalisation of agricultural markets on land use patterns under a variety of modelled forms of land manager behaviour, including variation in production levels, tenacity, land use intensity and multi-functionality. We find that a system entirely dedicated to regional food security is inferior to an entirely globalised system in terms of overall production levels, but that several forms of behaviour limit the difference between the two, and that variations in land use intensity and functionality can substantially increase the provision of food and other ecosystem services in both cases. We also find emergent behaviour that results in the abandonment of productive land, the slowing of rates of land use change and the fragmentation or, conversely, concentration of land uses following changes in demand levels. PMID:25437010

  8. A National Survey of Local Land-Use

    E-print Network

    Goodman, Robert M.

    and Michael L. Lahr Principal Investigators with Center for Urban Policy Research staff: William Dolphin, Carole Walker, Andrew Svelka, Bryan Grady, Arlene Pashman Submitted to: DIVISION OF AFFORDABLE HOUSING, and the multitude of land-use professionals who improved the project. Robert W. Burchell, Ph.D. Michael L. Lahr, Ph

  9. Clug; Community Land Use Game. Player's Manual with Selected Readings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldt, Allan G.

    CLUG (Community Land Use Game) is designed to provide players with an understanding of several underlying factors affecting the growth of an urban region. It has been used with players from junior high to graduate school and also with non-students. It unites concepts from sociology, economics, and geography. Players invest in land, construct…

  10. Recent Changes in Floodplain Urban Development and in Intense Rainfall Patterns: Evidence and Effects for the Reclamation Network in North-Eastern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarolli, P.; Sofia, G.; Prosdocimi, M.; Dalla Fontana, G.

    2014-12-01

    Within the wide approach of watershed management, the crucial role of floodplains in hydrological processes and runoff generation, in particular during flood events, is well known. The recent changes in land use and/or intense rainfall patterns associated to climate changes, however, add complexity to the analysis of the hydrologic response. This study investigates and displays evidences and effects of land use changes and climatic changes in a small floodplain area in the north east of Italy. As in other countries in Europe, over the past half-century, intense urban and agricultural land uses changed the drainage networks, causing serious hydraulic dysfunctions. In this work we focused the research on the network drainage density and storage capacity, considering that they are the main requirements for hydraulic infrastructures and that the storage of water is crucial for any water management strategy. The effects of the changes in the network parameters have been then further investigated using the Network Saturation Index (NSI) that quantifies how fast an area is saturated by a design rainfall and can give an idea of the delay of the watershed response respect to the rainfall peak. Over the past half-century, the study site witnessed a drastic reduction of the storage volume, resulting in shorter times for saturation especially for storm events having a shorter return period and for events that were less critical in the past. For our case study, climatic evidence shows that the rainfall regime is highly irregular, with intense events taking an increasing role in determining the total precipitation over the past half-century. Considering this climatic trend that cannot be controlled, our study suggests to carefully plan the changes in the drainage networks, as these changes might seriously constrain the functionality of the reclamation system, especially for rather frequent rainfall events not necessarily associated with extreme meteorological conditions or with the worst case scenarios. Sofia, G., Prosdocimi, M., Dalla Fontana, G., Tarolli, P. (2014). Evidences and effects of changes in the artificial drainage network during the past half-century: a case study in the Veneto floodplain (Italy), Anthropocene, doi:10.1016/j.ancene.2014.06.005.

  11. Land UseLand Use inimizing the risk of foodborne illness from produce begins on the farm itself. Whether you are

    E-print Network

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    Land UseLand Use M inimizing the risk of foodborne illness from produce begins on the farm itself are planted. Land with intensive animal use. Areas that have been used for intensive animal production are a good example. Pathogens shed by animals such as certain harmful types of E. coli, Salmonella spp

  12. Advancing Our Understanding of the Impacts of Historic and Projected Land Use in the Earth System: The Land Use Model Intercomparison Project (LUMIP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawrence, D. M.; Hurtt, G. C.; Brovkin, V.; Calvin, K. V.; de Noblet-Ducoudre, N.; Jones, C.; Pongratz, J.; Seneviratne, S. I.; Shevliakova, E.

    2014-12-01

    Earth System Models (ESMs) are including increasingly comprehensive treatments of land use and land management, representing not only land cover change, but also land use in the form of prognostic crop and pasture models, irrigation, fertilization, wood harvest, and urbanization. The Land Use Model Intercomparison Project (LUMIP) is a new (proposed) satellite-MIP within the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP) that is designed to address the following main science questions: (1) What are the effects of land use and land-use change on climate (past-future)? (2) What are the effects of climate change on land-use and land-use change? (3) Are there regional land management strategies with promise to help mitigate and adapt to climate change? LUMIP will coordinate across existing land use change projects such as LUCID, AgMIP, GSWP3, Trendy, and LUC4C. LUMIP encompasses three major activities: (1) input and output data harmonization and standardization, (2) development of model metrics to assess ESM performance with respect to the impact of land use on climate and carbon cycling, and (3) design and execution of a concise set of land model and ESM experiments for assessment of the impacts of historic and projected land use on the climate system and to separate effects of fossil fuel vs. land use, biogeochemical vs biogeophysical processes, and land cover vs land management. Preliminary results from idealized model experiments will be presented.

  13. Some findings on the applications of ERTS and Skylab imagery for metropolitan land use analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, R. H. (principal investigator); Milazzo, V. A.

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Work undertaken on a three-sensor land use data evaluation for a portion of the Phoenix area is reported. Analyses between land use data generated from 1970 high altitude photography and that detectable from ERTS and Skylab, especially in terms of changes in land use indicate that ERTS and Skylab imagery can be used effectively to detect and identify areas of post-1970 land use change, especially those documenting urban expansion at the rural-urban fringe. Significant preliminary findings on the utility of ERTS and Skylab data for metropolitan land use analysis, substantiated by evaluation with 1970 and 1972 ground control land use data are reported.

  14. Development of Sub-Daily Intensity Duration Frequency (IDF) Curves for Major Urban Areas in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, H.; Mishra, V.

    2014-12-01

    Extreme precipitation events disrupt urban transportation and cause enormous damage to infrastructure. Urban areas are fast responding catchments due to significant impervious surface. Stormwater designs based on daily rainfall data provide inadequate information. We, therefore, develop intensity-duration-frequency curves using sub-daily (1 hour to 12 hour) rainfall data for 57 major urban areas in India. While rain gage stations data from urban areas are most suitable, but stations are unevenly distributed and their data have gaps and inconsistencies. Therefore, we used hourly rainfall data from the Modern Era Retrospective-analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA), which provides a long term data (1979 onwards). Since reanalysis products have uncertainty associated with them we need to enhance their accuracy before their application. We compared daily rain gage station data obtained from Global Surface Summary of Day Data (GSOD) available for 65 stations for the period of 2000-2010 with gridded daily rainfall data provided by Indian Meteorological Department (IMD). 3-hourly data from NOAA/Climate Prediction Center morphing technique (CMORPH), Precipitation Estimation from Remotely Sensed Information using Artificial Neural Networks (PERSIANN), and the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Multisatellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA) were aggregated to daily for comparison with GSOD station data . TMPA is found to be best correlated with GSOD data. We used TMPA data to correct MERRA's hourly precipitation, which were applied to develop IDF curves. We compared results with IDF curves from empirical methods and found substantial disparities in the existing stormwater designs in India.

  15. MODELING LAND USE CHANGE AND ITS ECOLOGICAL CONSEQUENCES IN THE PHOENIX METROPOLITAN REGION Jianguo Wu, John David, Darrel Jenerette, Matt Luck, and Sheryl Berling-Wolff

    E-print Network

    Hall, Sharon J.

    MODELING LAND USE CHANGE AND ITS ECOLOGICAL CONSEQUENCES IN THE PHOENIX METROPOLITAN REGION Jianguo land use change, multiple-scale analysis of the current urban landscape, spatial ecological footprint), (2) Land Use and Land Cover Change Modeling (a CA-Markov-GA model, a rule-based urban growth model

  16. Land Use and Land Cover Baseline Report

    E-print Network

    Columbia University

    Land Use and Land Cover Baseline Report September 2012 Data and analysis of land use and land cover of the findings of land use and land cover mapping in the South Department of Haiti a baseline measurement of land cover and land use conditions in the region

  17. Effect of land use and longitudinal gradient on carbon quality and lability in the Vesdre River catchment, Belgium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gettel, G. M.; Bravo-Palacios, L.; Gupta, S.

    2011-12-01

    In order to construct accurate terrestrial carbon budgets, it is necessary to understand how land use and river processing affect the export and quality of organic matter. Fluorescence spectroscopy is commonly used to characterize dissolved organic matter (DOM) quality, but how fluorescence characteristics relate to the functional properties of DOM is hardly known. The objectives of this study were to: 1. Characterize DOM quality in diverse land-use types and along a longitudinal gradient in the Vesdre River, Belgium; and 2. At the same sites, relate fluorescence characteristics to DOM lability, which was quantified by microbial respiration and denitrification measurements. The Vesdre basin is 710 km2, contains 429 people/km2, and is characterized by peat, forest, agricultural, and urban land use. Surface water samples from main stem sites (14), tributaries (13), and reservoirs (2) were collected along a 40 km section of the River Vesdre in January 2011. Main stem sites were used to examine the effect of longitudinal processing while tributary sites were used to assess the effects of land use, which included peat, forest, agriculture and urban. Samples were analyzed for DOC concentration, fluorescence, and absorbance spectra. Excitation-emission matrices (EEMs) were generated and analyzed in a 13-component parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) model. Lability was determined by 42-day incubations in which DOC consumption was fitted with a 3-pool kinetics model, which partitioned the DOM into labile, semi-labile, and refractory pools and generated a decay rate (k) for each pool. The effect of DOM quality on denitrification was also determined using an acetylene block assay in which only excess NO3 was added and samples were normalized to a similar DOC concentration. Mulitivariate regression was used to relate land use and river position to fluorescence properties and DOM lability. High concentration of DOC and intensity of fluorophore C (humic-like fraction, also related to PARAFAC Component 5, C5) in the upstream portion of the catchment were associated with forested and peat lands, whereas low DOC concentration and high intensity of fluorophore T (tryptophan-like fraction, C8) characterized agriculture and urban areas in downstream portion of the catchment. The labile, semi-labile, and refractory pools were related to both land use and DOM quality. Peat was positively correlated with the size of the refractory pool, whereas agriculture and urban land use were positively correlated with the semi-labile pool. The labile pool was positively correlated with C1, while the refractory pool was correlated with C5 and C9 (the humic acid portion). Denitrification rate was correlated with C8. Interestingly, degradation constants (k) from 3- pool model were not correlated with land use or with fluorescence characteristics. In conclusion, this study shows that land-use is important in determining DOM quality, and that in turn, DOM quality affects lability. While not all aspects of the fluorescence properties were important to the functional properties of DOM, fluorescence may be useful in river-network models that aim to relate processing to land use and longitudinal gradient.

  18. Simulating land-use dynamics under planning policies by integrating artificial immune systems with cellular automata

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiaoping Liu; Xia Li; Xun Shi; Xiaohu Zhang; Yimin Chen

    2010-01-01

    Cellular automata (CA) have been increasingly used in simulating urban expansion and land-use dynamics. However, most urban CA models rely on empirical data for deriving transition rules, assuming that the historical trend will continue into the future. Such inertia CA models do not take into account possible external interventions, particularly planning policies, and thus have rarely been used in urban

  19. DYNAMICS OF LAND-USE AND LAND-COVER CHANGE IN TROPICAL REGIONS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eric F. Lambin; Helmut J. Geist; Erika Lepers

    2003-01-01

    We highlight the complexity of land-use\\/cover change and propose a framework for a more general understanding of the issue, with emphasis on tropical regions. The review summarizes recent estimates on changes in cropland, agricultural intensification, tropical deforestation, pasture expansion, and urbanization and identifies the still unmeasured land-cover changes. Climate-driven land-cover modifications interact with land-use changes. Land-use change is driven by

  20. Open and reproducible global land use classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nüst, Daniel; Václavík, Tomáš; Pross, Benjamin

    2015-04-01

    Researchers led by the Helmholtz Centre for Environmental research (UFZ) developed a new world map of land use systems based on over 30 diverse indicators (http://geoportal.glues.geo.tu-dresden.de/stories/landsystemarchetypes.html) of land use intensity, climate and environmental and socioeconomic factors. They identified twelve land system archetypes (LSA) using a data-driven classification algorithm (self-organizing maps) to assess global impacts of land use on the environment, and found unexpected similarities across global regions. We present how the algorithm behind this analysis can be published as an executable web process using 52°North WPS4R (https://wiki.52north.org/bin/view/Geostatistics/WPS4R) within the GLUES project (http://modul-a.nachhaltiges-landmanagement.de/en/scientific-coordination-glues/). WPS4R is an open source collaboration platform for researchers, analysts and software developers to publish R scripts (http://www.r-project.org/) as a geo-enabled OGC Web Processing Service (WPS) process. The interoperable interface to call the geoprocess allows both reproducibility of the analysis and integration of user data without knowledge about web services or classification algorithms. The open platform allows everybody to replicate the analysis in their own environments. The LSA WPS process has several input parameters, which can be changed via a simple web interface. The input parameters are used to configure both the WPS environment and the LSA algorithm itself. The encapsulation as a web process allows integration of non-public datasets, while at the same time the publication requires a well-defined documentation of the analysis. We demonstrate this platform specifically to domain scientists and show how reproducibility and open source publication of analyses can be enhanced. We also discuss future extensions of the reproducible land use classification, such as the possibility for users to enter their own areas of interest to the system and generate summary statistics relating the particular area to the land system archetype. Such an extension demonstrates the advantages of open geoprocesses, because the user does not need to replicate the whole workflow, which included considerable data preparation steps, and can still access an analysis result tailored to his needs. The LSAs are the basis for science-based policy recommendations for sustainable land management and yield improvement at a global scale. The reproducibility of the study strengthens the scientific work and the open source platform allows scientists to adapt and extend it to provide new original contributions to sustainable land use management.

  1. Risk Assessment and Decision Making Related to Land-Use Planning in France

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Risk Assessment and Decision Making Related to Land-Use Planning in France O. Salvi, N. Rodrigues.10"3 per year if we consider the number of accidents reported in the MARS accident database of the European. It is necessary to organise the settlement of industrial and urban areas with an appropriate land-use planning

  2. Biological consequences of land use.

    PubMed Central

    Munn, R E

    1975-01-01

    The primary goals of land-use planning are enunciated. A plea is made for consideration of the total biosphere and not just its separate components. The environmental impact statement process is reviewed and some suggestions made for its strengthening. Moves for international adoption of this process are noted, as well as the concept of eco-development currently under examination by UN agencies. PMID:1157793

  3. Biological consequences of land use.

    PubMed

    Munn, R E

    1975-04-01

    The primary goals of land-use planning are enunciated. A plea is made for consideration of the total biosphere and not just its separate components. The environmental impact statement process is reviewed and some suggestions made for its strengthening. Moves for international adoption of this process are noted, as well as the concept of eco-development currently under examination by UN agencies. PMID:1157793

  4. Applications of Skylab data to land use and climatological analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, R. H. (principal investigator); Lewis, J. E., Jr.; Lins, H. F., Jr.; Jenner, C. B.; Outcalt, S. I.; Pease, R. W.

    1976-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Skylab study in Central Atlantic Regional Ecological Test Site encompassed two separate but related tasks: (1) evaluation of photographic sensors S190A and B as sources of land use data for planning and managing land resources in major metropolitan regions, and (2) evaluation of the multispectral scanner S192 used in conjunction with associated data and analytical techniques as a data source on urban climates and the surface energy balance. Photographs from the Skylab S190B earth terrain camera were of greatest interest in the land use analysis task; they were of sufficiently high resolution to identify and map many level 2 and 3 land use categories. After being corrected to allow for atmosphere effects, output from thermal and visible bands of the S192 was employed in constructing computer map plots of albedo and surface temperature.

  5. Estimating demand for industrial and commercial land use given economic forecasts.

    PubMed

    Batista e Silva, Filipe; Koomen, Eric; Diogo, Vasco; Lavalle, Carlo

    2014-01-01

    Current developments in the field of land use modelling point towards greater level of spatial and thematic resolution and the possibility to model large geographical extents. Improvements are taking place as computational capabilities increase and socioeconomic and environmental data are produced with sufficient detail. Integrated approaches to land use modelling rely on the development of interfaces with specialized models from fields like economy, hydrology, and agriculture. Impact assessment of scenarios/policies at various geographical scales can particularly benefit from these advances. A comprehensive land use modelling framework includes necessarily both the estimation of the quantity and the spatial allocation of land uses within a given timeframe. In this paper, we seek to establish straightforward methods to estimate demand for industrial and commercial land uses that can be used in the context of land use modelling, in particular for applications at continental scale, where the unavailability of data is often a major constraint. We propose a set of approaches based on 'land use intensity' measures indicating the amount of economic output per existing areal unit of land use. A base model was designed to estimate land demand based on regional-specific land use intensities; in addition, variants accounting for sectoral differences in land use intensity were introduced. A validation was carried out for a set of European countries by estimating land use for 2006 and comparing it to observations. The models' results were compared with estimations generated using the 'null model' (no land use change) and simple trend extrapolations. Results indicate that the proposed approaches clearly outperformed the 'null model', but did not consistently outperform the linear extrapolation. An uncertainty analysis further revealed that the models' performances are particularly sensitive to the quality of the input land use data. In addition, unknown future trends of regional land use intensity widen considerably the uncertainty bands of the predictions. PMID:24647587

  6. Risk assessment of flash floods in central Pyrenees (Spain) through land use change analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serrano-Notivoli, Roberto; Mora, Daniel; Sánchez-Fabre, Miguel; Ángel Saz, Miguel; Ollero, Alfredo

    2015-04-01

    Nowadays, the main cause of the damages to human areas is the increased risk exposure. The urbanization in touristic areas in Pyrenees has increased enormously in last 25 years, and the most of urban development have been made on land occupied by the stream channel. We present two different case studies in central Pyrenees: one in Aragón river and one in Ésera river. We made a land use analysis from 1956 to 2013 in the headwaters of these two rivers delimiting the channel in different flash floods events, and analysing the amount and distribution of precipitation at the same time. The results show that the risk exposure is one of the main factors of the impact of flash floods. We found that most of the damage on urbanization and human activities was caused by the urban occupation of areas that were located on the floodplain of the river. For both Aragon and Esera headwaters precipitation events were considered extreme in their time series. However, the amount of precipitation of these extreme events does not support the consequences in geomorphological and human environments. The events of high intensity rainfall over the last years could be expected, yet, it had unexpected consequences that could be predictable by land managers through an appropriate regional planning.

  7. Database Development of Land Use Characteristics along Major U.S. Highways

    SciTech Connect

    Xiong, D

    2000-06-06

    The major objective of the effort reported here is to develop methods to measure transportation land use at the national level (i.e., how much land and what types of lands are used by transportation systems) and to track changes over time. Data for transportation-related land use are important for environmental analysis, climate change studies, transportation-land use interaction research, policy decisions related to urban sprawl, and more. Transportation systems have direct effects on the environment through modification of vegetation, impacts on wildlife habitats, changes in local climate and alternation of drainage patterns (U.S. DOT/BTS, 1996; U.S. DOT/BTS, 1998; U.S. EPA, 1999; Maggi, 1994; Verhoef, 1994). However, without accurate and complete land use data, it is extremely difficult to study and evaluate these effects. Transportation systems also induce land use changes. Such indirect effects, while not the subject of this study, may be more significant than the direct land-use impacts of transportation infrastructure. Establishing an inventory of transportation infrastructure and adjacent land use and maintaining the inventory over time is an important first step towards understanding the full range of interactions between transportation and land use. While current and historic land use data are essential for investigating the relationships between transportation and land use, so far, no technological or institutional mechanisms have been established to systematically collect such data at the national level. The lack of long-term planning in land use data acquisition can be a major setback for future research in transportation land use studies. Land use data also play a key role in the understanding of problems related to urban sprawl and in policy decisions in dealing with these problems.

  8. Historical land use and soil analysis guiding corridor landscape design

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Renee Keydoszius; S. Knight Cox; Mary B. Haque; Elena Mikhailova; Christopher J. Post; William C. Stringer; Mark A. Schlautman

    2007-01-01

    Changing land use from forested environments to agricultural and\\/or urban spaces dramatically alters soil chemical, physical,\\u000a and biological properties and thereby influences the survivability of landscape plants installed in these areas. This site\\u000a analysis was conducted along New Hope Road, in Pickens County, SC, to develop a sustainable landscape design for the greenway\\u000a corridor to buffer future cuttings of pines

  9. LAND USE, COVER AND FORMS CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM

    E-print Network

    Binford, Michael W.

    FLORIDA LAND USE, COVER AND FORMS CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM HANDBOOK JANUARY 1999 DEPARTMENT CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SURVEYING AND MAPPING OFFICE GEOGRPAHIC MAPPING LAND USE, COVER AND FORMS CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM ABOUT THIS EDITION: This is an updated FLORIDA LAND USE

  10. Major land uses in the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marschner, Francis J.; Anderson, James R.

    1967-01-01

    This is a polygon coverage of major land uses in the United States. The source of the coverage is the map of major land uses in the National Atlas, pages 158-159, which was adapted from U.S. Department of Agriculture, "Major Land Uses in the United States," by Francis J. Marschner, revised by James R. Anderson, 1967.

  11. Land Use Planning (3cr.) Spring 2007

    E-print Network

    Brown, Gregory G.

    ENV 3016 Land Use Planning (3cr.) Spring 2007 Tuesday 2:30-5:30 Bogue 17 Instructor Greg Brown Juergensmeyer, J.C. and T.E. Roberts. (2003). Land Use Planning and Development Regulation Law. St. Paul, MN: West Group. Randolph, J. (2004). Environmental Land Use Planning and Management. Washington, DC: Island

  12. Ecological influence and pathways of land use in sagebrush

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knick, Steven T.; Hanser, Steven E.; Miller, Richard F.; Pyke, David A.; Wisdom, Michael J.; Finn, Sean P.; Rinkes, E. Thomas; Henny, Charles J.

    2011-01-01

    Land use in sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) landscapes influences all sage-grouse (Centrocer-cus spp.) populations in western North America. Croplands and the network of irrigation canals cover 230,000 km2 and indirectly influence up to 77% of the Sage-Grouse Conservation Area and 73% of sagebrush land cover by subsidizing synanthropic predators on sage-grouse. Urbanization and the demands of human population growth have created an extensive network of con-necting infrastructure that is expanding its influence on sagebrush landscapes. Over 2,500 km2 are now covered by interstate highways and paved roads; when secondary roads are included, 15% of the Sage-Grouse Conservation Area and 5% of existing sagebrush habitats are 2.5 km from roads. Density of secondary roads often exceeds 5 km/km2, resulting in widespread motorized access for recreation, creating extensive travel corridors for management actions and resource development, subsidizing predators adapted to human presence, and facilitating spread of exotic or invasive plants. Sagebrush lands also are being used for their wilderness and recreation values, including off highway vehicle use. Approximately 12,000,000 animal use months (AUM amount of forage to support one livestock unit per month) are permitted for grazing livestock on public lands in the western states. Direct effects of grazing on sage-grouse populations or sagebrush landscapes are not possible to assess from current data. However, management of lands grazed by livestock has influenced sagebrush ecosystems by vegetation treatments to increase forage and reduce sagebrush and other plant species unpalatable to livestock. Fences (2 km/km2 in some regions), roads, and water developments to manage livestock movements further modify the landscape. Oil and gas development influences 8% of the sagebrush habitats with the highest intensities occurring in the eastern range of sage-grouse; 20% of the sagebrush distribution is indirectly influenced in the Great Plains, Wyoming Basin, and Colorado Plateau SMZs. Energy development physically removes habitat to construct well pads, roads, power lines, and pipelines; indirect effects include habitat fragmentation, soil disturbance, and facilitation of exotic plant and animal spread. More recent development of alternative energy, such as wind and geothermal, creates infrastructure in new regions of the sage-grouse distribution. Land use will continue to be a dominant stressor on sage-brush systems; its individual and cumulative effects will challenge long-term conservation of sage-grouse populations.

  13. An approach to analyzing the intensity of the daytime surface urban heat island effect at a local scale

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shenlai Xu

    2009-01-01

    A landscape index LI is proposed to evaluate the intensity of the daytime surface urban heat island (SUHI) effect at a local\\u000a scale. Three aspects of this landscape index are crucial: the source landscape, the sink landscape, and the contribution of\\u000a source and sink landscapes to the intensity of the SUHI. Source and sink landscape types are identified using the

  14. Integrated climate/land use/hydrological change scenarios for assessing threats to ecosystem services on California rangelands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byrd, K. B.; Flint, L. E.; Casey, C. F.; Alvarez, P.; Sleeter, B. M.; Sohl, T.

    2013-12-01

    In California there are over 18 million acres of rangelands in the Central Valley and the interior Coast Range, most of which are privately owned and managed for livestock production. Ranches provide extensive wildlife habitat and generate multiple ecosystem services that carry considerable market and non-market values. These rangelands are under pressure from urbanization and conversion to intensive agriculture, as well as from climate change that can alter the flow of these services. To understand the coupled and isolated impacts of land use and climate change on rangeland ecosystem services, we developed six spatially explicit (250 m) coupled climate/land use/hydrological change scenarios for the Central Valley and oak woodland regions of California consistent with three IPCC emission scenarios - A2, A1B and B1. Three land use land cover (LULC) change scenarios were each integrated with two downscaled global climate models (GCMs) (a warm, wet future and a hot, dry future) and related hydrologic data. We used these scenarios to quantify wildlife habitat, water supply (recharge potential and streamflow) and carbon sequestration on rangelands and to conduct an economic analysis associated with changes in these benefits. The USGS FOREcasting SCEnarios of land-use change model (FORE-SCE), which runs dynamically with downscaled GCM outputs, was used to generate maps of yearly LULC change for each scenario from 2006 to 2100. We used the USGS Basin Characterization Model (BCM), a regional water balance model, to generate change in runoff, recharge, and stream discharge based on land use change and climate change. Metrics derived from model outputs were generated at the landscape scale and for six case-study watersheds. At the landscape scale, over a quarter of the million acres set aside for conservation in the B1 scenario would otherwise be converted to agriculture in the A2 scenario, where temperatures increase by up to 4.5 °C compared to 1.3 °C in the B1 scenario. A comparison of two watersheds - Alameda Creek, an urbanized watershed, and Upper Stony Creek, impacted by intensified agriculture, demonstrates the relative contribution of urbanization and climate change to water supply. In Upper Stony Creek, where 24% of grassland is converted to agriculture in the A1B scenario, a hotter, dryer 4-year time period could lead to a 40% reduction in streamflow compared to present day. In Alameda Creek, for the same scenario, 47% of grassland is converted to urbanized lands and streamflow may increase by 11%, resulting in a recharge:runoff ratio of 0.26; though if urbanization does not take place, streamflow could decrease by 64% and the recharge:runoff ratio would be 1.2. Model outputs quantify the impact of urbanization on water supply and show the importance of soil storage capacity. Scenarios have applications for climate-smart conservation and land use planning by identifying outcomes associated with coupled future land use scenarios and more variable and extreme potential future climates.

  15. Comparison of maximum likelihood classification method with supervised artificial neural network algorithms for land use activities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Sunar Erbek; C. Özkan; M. Taberner

    2004-01-01

    More than most European cities, Istanbul is experiencing considerable pressure from urban development due to a rapidly increasing population. As a consequence the land use activities in urban and suburban areas are changing dramatically. To provide cost-effective information about the current state and how it is changing in order to develop integrated policies, multi-temporal remotely sensed data, with its synoptic

  16. Land use causes genetic differentiation of life-history traits in Bromus hordeaceus.

    PubMed

    Völler, Eva; Auge, Harald; Bossdorf, Oliver; Prati, Daniel

    2013-03-01

    There is increasing evidence that species can evolve rapidly in response to environmental change. However, although land use is one of the key drivers of current environmental change, studies of its evolutionary consequences are still fairly scarce, in particular studies that examine land-use effects across large numbers of populations, and discriminate between different aspects of land use. Here, we investigated genetic differentiation in relation to land use in the annual grass Bromus hordeaceus. A common garden study with offspring from 51 populations from three regions and a broad range of land-use types and intensities showed that there was indeed systematic population differentiation of ecologically important plant traits in relation to land use, in particular due to increasing mowing and grazing intensities. We also found strong land-use-related genetic differentiation in plant phenology, where the onset of flowering consistently shifted away from the typical time of management. In addition, increased grazing intensity significantly increased the genetic variability within populations. Our study suggests that land use can cause considerable genetic differentiation among plant populations, and that the timing of land use may select for phenological escape strategies, particularly in monocarpic plant species. PMID:23504845

  17. Locational Determinants of Emissions from Pollution-Intensive Firms in Urban Areas

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Min; Tan, Shukui; Guo, Mingjing; Zhang, Lu

    2015-01-01

    Industrial pollution has remained as one of the most daunting challenges for many regions around the world. Characterizing the determinants of industrial pollution should provide important management implications. Unfortunately, due to the absence of high-quality data, rather few studies have systematically examined the locational determinants using a geographical approach. This paper aimed to fill the gap by accessing the pollution source census dataset, which recorded the quantity of discharged wastes (waste water and solid waste) from 717 pollution-intensive firms within Huzhou City, China. Spatial exploratory analysis was applied to analyze the spatial dependency and local clusters of waste emissions. Results demonstrated that waste emissions presented significantly positive autocorrelation in space. The high-high hotspots generally concentrated towards the city boundary, while the low-low clusters approached the Taihu Lake. Their locational determinants were identified by spatial regression. In particular, firms near the city boundary and county road were prone to discharge more wastes. Lower waste emissions were more likely to be observed from firms with high proximity to freight transfer stations or the Taihu Lake. Dense populous districts saw more likelihood of solid waste emissions. Firms in the neighborhood of rivers exhibited higher waste water emissions. Besides, the control variables (firm size, ownership, operation time and industrial type) also exerted significant influence. The present methodology can be applicable to other areas, and further inform the industrial pollution control practices. Our study advanced the knowledge of determinants of emissions from pollution-intensive firms in urban areas. PMID:25927438

  18. Current and future land use around a nationwide protected area network

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hamilton, Christopher M.; Martinuzzi, Sebastian; Plantinga, Andrew J.; Radeloff, Volker C.; Lewis, David J.; Thogmartin, Wayne E.; Heglund, Patricia J.; Pidgeon, Anna M.

    2013-01-01

    Land-use change around protected areas can reduce their effective size and limit their ability to conserve biodiversity because land-use change alters ecological processes and the ability of organisms to move freely among protected areas. The goal of our analysis was to inform conservation planning efforts for a nationwide network of protected lands by predicting future land use change. We evaluated the relative effect of three economic policy scenarios on land use surrounding the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service's National Wildlife Refuges. We predicted changes for three land-use classes (forest/range, crop/pasture, and urban) by 2051. Our results showed an increase in forest/range lands (by 1.9% to 4.7% depending on the scenario), a decrease in crop/pasture between 15.2% and 23.1%, and a substantial increase in urban land use between 28.5% and 57.0%. The magnitude of land-use change differed strongly among different USFWS administrative regions, with the most change in the Upper Midwestern US (approximately 30%), and the Southeastern and Northeastern US (25%), and the rest of the U.S. between 15 and 20%. Among our scenarios, changes in land use were similar, with the exception of our “restricted-urban-growth” scenario, which resulted in noticeably different rates of change. This demonstrates that it will likely be difficult to influence land-use change patterns with national policies and that understanding regional land-use dynamics is critical for effective management and planning of protected lands throughout the U.S.

  19. Willow short-rotation coppice in multiple land-use systems: evaluation of four combination options in the Dutch context

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marc Londo; Michelle Roose; Jos Dekker; Hans de Graaf

    2004-01-01

    Introduction of energy crops in multiple land use may be an opportunity to increase the overall land-use efficiency, improve energy crop competitiveness and enhance its introduction in regions with intensive land-use, such as Northwest Europe. In this study, we evaluated the opportunities for energy crops in multiple land-use on three criteria: combinations should be biophysically feasible, they should have a

  20. Population pressure, intensification of agriculture, and rural-urban migration.

    PubMed

    Salehi-isfahani, D

    1993-04-01

    "In this paper I provide an analytical basis for why labor absorption [in agriculture] may improve with higher population density. My argument is in two parts. First, analysing agriculture in isolation, I use the Boserup insight to show that higher population density is associated with more intensive techniques of land use. Second, using a two-sector model, I show that the rate of labor absorption (defined as the rate of natural population growth minus the rate of rural-urban migration) increases with the intensity of land use." Cross-sectional data for Iran are used to illustrate the model. PMID:12345244

  1. Climate change and land use drivers of fecal bacteria in tropical hawaiian rivers.

    PubMed

    Strauch, Ayron M; Mackenzie, Richard A; Bruland, Gregory L; Tingley, Ralph; Giardina, Christian P

    2014-07-01

    Potential shifts in rainfall driven by climate change are anticipated to affect watershed processes (e.g., soil moisture, runoff, stream flow), yet few model systems exist in the tropics to test hypotheses about how these processes may respond to these shifts. We used a sequence of nine watersheds on Hawaii Island spanning 3000 mm (7500-4500 mm) of mean annual rainfall (MAR) to investigate the effects of short-term (24-h) and long-term (MAR) rainfall on three fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) (enterococci, total coliforms, and ). All sample sites were in native Ohia dominated forest above 600 m in elevation. Additional samples were collected just above sea level where the predominant land cover is pasture and agriculture, permitting the additional study of interactions between land use across the MAR gradient. We found that declines in MAR significantly amplified concentrations of all three FIB and that FIB yield increased more rapidly with 24-h rainfall in low-MAR watersheds than in high-MAR watersheds. Because storm frequency decreases with declining MAR, the rate of change in water potential affects microbial growth, whereas increased rainfall intensity dislodges more soil and bacteria as runoff compared with water-logged soils of high-MAR watersheds. As expected, declines in % forest cover and increased urbanization increased FIB. Taken together, shifts in rainfall may alter bacterial inputs to tropical streams, with land use change also affecting water quality in streams and near-shore environments. PMID:25603095

  2. Lesson 2: Land Use/Land Cover Data In this lesson you will work with polygon data describing the types of natural land covers

    E-print Network

    Lesson 2: Land Use/Land Cover Data In this lesson you will work with polygon data describing settlements. This lesson is only our first step in working with land use/land cover (LULC) data. We will use a raster form of LULC in lesson 4 when we do some spatial analysis to see where urban land use might expand

  3. Reconstruction assessment of historical land use: A case study in the Kamo River basin, Kyoto, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Pingping; Takara, Kaoru; Apip; He, Bin; Nover, Daniel

    2014-02-01

    Reconstruction assessment of historical land use can be useful for understanding historical conditions and the impact of long-term land-use change. This study establishes a new method to estimate historical land use based on a set of basic rules generated from the comparison of present land-use and historical documents. This method has been formalized in the paleo-land-use reconstruction (PLUR) program, allowing users to quickly reconstruct historical land use using historical information. The 1843, 1902 and 1927 historical land use conditions were generated using the PLUR model for the Kamo River basin (KRB). Our results show that between 1902 and 1976, three golf courses (Ohara Public course, Kamigamo course and Funayama course) replaced forest land in the KRB. As a result of agricultural development, the area occupied by paddy fields in 1843 was 2.48 km2 less than that in 1902. Urban areas increased from 1843 to 1976, mainly reflecting declining coverage of paddy fields after 1902. The approach presented in this study can be used to support land-use change analyses and reconstruction of paleo-hydrology. This study also provides a discussion of the major drivers of land use change.

  4. Land Use and Land Cover Change

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Daniel; Polsky, Colin; Bolstad, Paul V.; Brody, Samuel D.; Hulse, David; Kroh, Roger; Loveland, Thomas; Thomson, Allison M.

    2014-05-01

    A contribution to the 3rd National Climate Assessment report, discussing the following key messages: 1. Choices about land-use and land-cover patterns have affected and will continue to affect how vulnerable or resilient human communities and ecosystems are to the effects of climate change. 2. Land-use and land-cover changes affect local, regional, and global climate processes. 3. Individuals, organizations, and governments have the capacity to make land-use decisions to adapt to the effects of climate change. 4. Choices about land use and land management provide a means of reducing atmospheric greenhouse gas levels.

  5. Effects of Precipitation and Land Use on Storm Runoff

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, R.G.

    1988-01-01

    Storm-runoff quantity and quality were studied in three watersheds located near St. Paul in Ramsey County, Minnesota, from April 15 through September 15 of 1984, 1985, and 1986 to qualitatively determine the effects of precipitation and selected land uses on storm runoff. In respect to precipitation effects, differences in storm-runoff quantity between years in an urban watershed that lacks wetlands appear to be related to the average storm size (amount of precipitation) during the study period of each year. In contrast, the differences in storm-runoff quantity from watersheds that contain wetlands appear to be related to total precipitation during study period of each year. In respect to land use, the differences in storm-runoff quantity appear to be related to the amounts of impervious and wetland area. The watershed that contains the largest amount of impervious area and smallest amount of wetland area has the largest amount of storm runoff.

  6. Assessing land use and cover change effects on hydrological response in the river C

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Nunes

    2009-01-01

    Assessing the impacts of land use change, especially the role of vegetation, on hydrological response from the plot to the catchment scale has become one of the widespread issues of scientific concern,in recent decades. The continuous expansion of urban areas, the dramatic changes in land-cover and land-use patterns and the climate change which have taken place on a global scale

  7. Biofuels and indirect land use change

    E-print Network

    Biofuels and indirect land use change The case for mitigation October 2011 #12;About this study), Malaysian Palm Oil Board, National Farmers Union, Novozymes, Northeast Biofuels Collaborative, Patagonia Bio contributed views on a confidential basis. #12;1Biofuels and indirect land use change The case for mitigation

  8. PLACES: A Tool For Sustainable Land Use

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rapid development of the human made environment to meet human needs and expand the economy is largely responsible for environmental losses. Because all land uses will incrementally and cumulatively degrade ecosystems that sustain human life, site-level land use decisions must ac...

  9. Development of a decision support tool for assessing impacts of land-use change on groundwater quantity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dibyajyoti Tripathy

    2007-01-01

    Land-use change related to human activity affects the quantity and quality of both surface and groundwater. Groundwater is a crucial long-term resource for humans as well as other components of the ecosystem. However, land use impacts on groundwater have received less attention than surface water. With growing population and urbanization across the globe, the demand for potable water is increasing

  10. Monitoring 1985-2005 land use and land cover change in the Phoenix metropolitan area: distance and direction

    E-print Network

    Hall, Sharon J.

    Monitoring 1985-2005 land use and land cover change in the Phoenix metropolitan area: distance changed the land surfaces in Phoenix. Changes of land use and land cover, especially from the expansion converted into some category of urban use, 54% was agricultural and 40% was desert land. Of the converted

  11. Anomaly in the rainfall-runoff behaviour of the Meuse catchment. Climate, land use, or land use management?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fenicia, F.; Savenije, H. H. G.; Avdeeva, Y.

    2008-07-01

    An anomaly has been found in the rainfall runoff behaviour of the Meuse. Ninety years of rainfall-runoff simulations show a consistent underestimation of the runoff in the period between 1930 and 1965. Different authors have debated possible causes for the anomaly, including climatic variability, land use change and data errors. None of the authors considered the way in which the land is used by for instance agricultural and forestry practises. This paper focuses on the possible effects of land use and land use management on the hydrological response of the Meuse catchment. In absence of detailed information on land use over the observation period, we adopted a fully "top-down" approach to the problem. The approach consists of a dynamic evaluation of a conceptual hydrological model and the interpretation of the temporal trends of model parameters. It appears that land use has had a considerable impact on the hydrological behaviour of the Meuse catchment. The time lag of the catchment has reduced markedly over time, possibly related to more intensive drainage and river training works. Moreover we hypothesise that forest rotation has had a significant impact on the evaporation of the catchment. These results contrast with previous studies, where the effect of land use change on the hydrological behaviour of the Meuse catchment was considered negligible, mainly because there was not sufficient change in land cover to account for it. Here we hypothesise that in the Meuse it was not the change of land cover that was responsible for hydrological change, but rather the way the land was managed.

  12. CARETS: A prototype regional environmental information system. Volume 2, parts A and B: Norfolk and environs; a land use perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, R. H. (principal investigator); Buzzanell, P. J.; Fitzpatrick, K. A.; Lins, H. F., Jr.; Mcginty, H. K., III

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The Norfolk-Portsmouth metropolitan statistical area in southeastern Virginia was the site of intensive testing of a number of land resources assessment methods. Land use and land cover data at three levels of detail were derived by manual image interpretation from both aircraft and satellite sources and used to characterize the 1,766 sq km (682 sq mi) area from the perspective of its various resource-related activities and problems. Measurements at level 1 from 1:100, 000 scale maps revealed 42 percent of the test area (excluding bays and estuaries) to be forest, 28 percent agriculture, 23 percent urban and built-up, 4 percent nonforested wetlands, and 2 percent water. At the same scale and level of detail, 10 percent of the area underwent change from one land use category to another in the period 1959-70, 62 percent of which involved the relatively irreversible change from forest or agriculture to urban uses.

  13. Automatic photointerpretation for land use management in Minnesota

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swanlund, G. D. (principal investigator); Pile, D. R.

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The Minnesota Iron Range area was selected as one of the land use areas to be evaluated. Six classes were selected: (1) hardwood; (2) conifer; (3) water (including in mines); (4) mines, tailings and wet areas; (5) open area; and (6) urban. Initial classification results show a correct classification of 70.1 to 95.4% for the six classes. This is extremely good. It can be further improved since there were some incorrect classifications in the ground truth.

  14. Land use classification utilizing remote multispectral scanner data and computer analysis techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leblanc, P. N.; Johannsen, C. J.; Yanner, J. E.

    1973-01-01

    An airborne multispectral scanner was used to collect the visible and reflective infrared data. A small subdivision near Lafayette, Indiana was selected as the test site for the urban land use study. Multispectral scanner data were collected over the subdivision on May 1, 1970 from an altitude of 915 meters. The data were collected in twelve wavelength bands from 0.40 to 1.00 micrometers by the scanner. The results indicated that computer analysis of multispectral data can be very accurate in classifying and estimating the natural and man-made materials that characterize land uses in an urban scene.

  15. Monitoring Stream Nutrient Concentration Trends in a Mixed-Land-Use Watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeiger, S. J.; Hubbart, J. A.

    2014-12-01

    Mixed-land use watersheds are often a complex patchwork of forested, agricultural, and urban land-uses where differential land-use mediated non-point source pollution can significantly impact water quality. Stream nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations serve as important variables for quantifying land use effects on non-point source pollution in receiving waters and relative impacts on aquatic biota. The Hinkson Creek Watershed (HCW) is a representative mixed land use urbanizing catchment (231 km2) located in central Missouri, USA. A nested-scale experimental watershed study including five permanent hydroclimate stations was established in 2009 to provide quantitative understanding of multiple land use impacts on nutrient loading. Spectrophotometric analysis was used to quantify total inorganic nitrogen (TIN) and total phosphorus (TP as PO4) regimes. Results (2010 - 2013) indicate average nitrate (NO3-) concentration (mg/l) range of 0.28 to 0.46 mg/l, nitrite (NO2-) range of 0.02 to 0.03 mg/l, ammonia (NH3) ranged from 0.04 to 0.08 mg/l, and TP range of 0.26 to 0.39 mg/l. With n=858, NO3-, NO2-, NH3, and TP concentrations were significantly (CI=95%, p=0.00) higher in the subbasin with the greatest percent cumulative agricultural land use (57%). NH3 and TP concentrations were significantly (CI=95%, p=0.00) higher (with the exception of the agricultural subbasin) in the subbasin with the greatest percent cumulative urban land use (26%). Results from multiple regression analyses showed percent cumulative agricultural and urban land uses accounted for 85% and 96% of the explained variance in TIN loading (CI=95%, p=0.08) and TP loading (CI=95%, p=0.02), respectively, between gauging sites. These results improve understanding of agricultural and urban land use impacts on nutrient concentrations in mixed use watersheds of the Midwest and have implications for nutrient reduction programs in the Mississippi River Basin and hypoxia reductions in the Gulf of Mexico, USA.

  16. Study Design 10 nested urban stormwater catchments

    E-print Network

    Hall, Sharon J.

    Study Design 10 nested urban stormwater catchments · Vary stormwater infrastructure and scale · Control land use: med density residential Effects of Urban Stormwater Infrastructure on Dissolved Nitrogen variation in stormwater infrastructure affect fluxes of water and dissolved nitrogen from urban watersheds

  17. Analyzing the effect of urbanization on flood characteristics at catchment levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, X.; Tian, C.; Meng, X.; Xu, Q.; Cui, G.; Zhang, Q.; Xiang, L.

    2015-06-01

    It is increasingly recognized that the land-use change, especially urbanization has influenced hydrological attributes intensely. Flood characteristics variation could likewise increase flood risks and pose higher demand on water management. The paper aims to evaluate temporal and spatial processes of urbanization affecting flood events at catchment level. The study sites were Xiaoqinhe catchment and its sub-catchments, a part of lower Yellow river basin in northern China. Historic cities Jinan and Zibo in the area have experienced dramatic urban expansion in recent decades, about 5% growth of urban build-up area annually from 1990s to 2010s, and also pressed alarm for increasing flood disasters. In the paper, a HEC-HMS model was set up to simulate flood processes for different land-use scenarios. The possible effects of urbanization on flood characteristics were checked in study catchment and its sub-catchments.

  18. Mixed land-use planning on the periphery of large Asian cities: the case of Nonthaburi Province, Thailand

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yuji HaraAi HiramatsuRyo Honda; Ai Hiramatsu; Ryo Honda; Makiko Sekiyama; Hirotaka Matsuda

    2010-01-01

    Throughout Asia, rapid and uncontrolled urbanization has created serious environmental problems, and the development of sustainable\\u000a urban–rural planning methods is of critical importance. To improve our understanding of mixed urban–rural land uses and provide\\u000a future practical visions for regional planning, we conducted a case study of the urban fringe of the Bangkok Metropolitan\\u000a Region, Thailand. After identifying local irrigation districts

  19. Nitrate stable isotopes: Tools for determining nitrate sources among different land uses in the Mississippi River Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chang, Cecily C.Y.; Kendall, C.; Silva, S.R.; Battaglin, W.A.; Campbell, D.H.

    2002-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine whether NO3- stable isotopes (??15N and ??18O), at natural abundance levels, could discriminate among NO3- sources from sites with different land uses at the basin scale. Water samples were collected from 24 sites in the Mississippi River Basin from five land-use categories: (1) large river basins (>34 590 km2) draining multiple land uses and smaller basins in which the predominant land use was (2) urban (3) undeveloped, (4) crops, or (5) crops and livestock. Our data suggest that riverine nitrates from different land uses have overlapping but moderately distinct isotopic signatures. ??18O data were critical in showing abrupt changes in NO3- source with discharge. The isotopic values of large rivers resembled crop sites, sites with livestock tended to have ??15N values characteristic of manure, and urban sites tended to have high ??18O values characteristic of atmospheric nitrate.

  20. Agriculture, land use, and commercial biomass energy

    SciTech Connect

    Edmonds, J.A.; Wise, M.A.; Sands, R.D.; Brown, R.A.; Kheshgi, H.

    1996-06-01

    In this paper we have considered commercial biomass energy in the context of overall agriculture and land-use change. We have described a model of energy, agriculture, and land-use and employed that model to examine the implications of commercial biomass energy or both energy sector and land-use change carbon emissions. In general we find that the introduction of biomass energy has a negative effect on the extent of unmanaged ecosystems. Commercial biomass introduces a major new land use which raises land rental rates, and provides an incentive to bring more land into production, increasing the rate of incursion into unmanaged ecosystems. But while the emergence of a commercial biomass industry may increase land-use change emissions, the overall effect is strongly to reduce total anthropogenic carbon emissions. Further, the higher the rate of commercial biomass energy productivity, the lower net emissions. Higher commercial biomass energy productivity, while leading to higher land-use change emissions, has a far stronger effect on fossil fuel carbon emissions. Highly productive and inexpensive commercial biomass energy technologies appear to have a substantial depressing effect on total anthropogenic carbon emissions, though their introduction raises the rental rate on land, providing incentives for greater rates of deforestation than in the reference case.

  1. Exploration of land-use scenarios for flood hazard modeling - the case of Santiago de Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, A.; Reinstorf, F.

    2011-04-01

    Urban expansion leads to modifications in land use and land cover and to the loss of vegetated areas. These developments are in some regions of the world accelerated by a changing regional climate. As a consequence, major changes in the amount of green spaces can be observed in many urban regions. Amongst other dependences the amount of green spaces determines the availability of retention areas in a watershed. The goal of this research is to develop possible land-use and land-cover scenarios for a watershed and to explore the influence of land-use and land-cover changes on its runoff behavior using the distributed hydrological model HEC-HMS. The study area for this research is a small peri-urban watershed in the eastern area of Santiago de Chile. Three spatially explicit exploratory land-use/land-cover scenario alternatives were developed based on the analysis of previous land-use developments using high resolution satellite data, on the analysis of urban planning laws, on the analysis of climate change predictions, and on expert interviews. Modeling the resulting changes in runoff allows making predictions about the changes in flood hazard which the adjacent urban areas are facing after heavy winter precipitation events. The paper shows how HEC-HMS was used applying a distributed event modeling approach. The derived runoff values are combined with existing flood hazard maps and can be regarded as important source of information for the adaptation to changing conditions in the study area. The most significant finding is that the land-use changes that have to be expected after long drought periods pose the highest risk with respect to floods.

  2. An assessment of a collaborative mapping approach for exploring land use patterns for several European metropolises

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jokar Arsanjani, Jamal; Vaz, Eric

    2015-03-01

    Until recently, land surveys and digital interpretation of remotely sensed imagery have been used to generate land use inventories. These techniques however, are often cumbersome and costly, allocating large amounts of technical and temporal costs. The technological advances of web 2.0 have brought a wide array of technological achievements, stimulating the participatory role in collaborative and crowd sourced mapping products. This has been fostered by GPS-enabled devices, and accessible tools that enable visual interpretation of high resolution satellite images/air photos provided in collaborative mapping projects. Such technologies offer an integrative approach to geography by means of promoting public participation and allowing accurate assessment and classification of land use as well as geographical features. OpenStreetMap (OSM) has supported the evolution of such techniques, contributing to the existence of a large inventory of spatial land use information. This paper explores the introduction of this novel participatory phenomenon for land use classification in Europe's metropolitan regions. We adopt a positivistic approach to assess comparatively the accuracy of these contributions of OSM for land use classifications in seven large European metropolitan regions. Thematic accuracy and degree of completeness of OSM data was compared to available Global Monitoring for Environment and Security Urban Atlas (GMESUA) datasets for the chosen metropolises. We further extend our findings of land use within a novel framework for geography, justifying that volunteered geographic information (VGI) sources are of great benefit for land use mapping depending on location and degree of VGI dynamism and offer a great alternative to traditional mapping techniques for metropolitan regions throughout Europe. Evaluation of several land use types at the local level suggests that a number of OSM classes (such as anthropogenic land use, agricultural and some natural environment classes) are viable alternatives for land use classification. These classes are highly accurate and can be integrated into planning decisions for stakeholders and policymakers.

  3. Effect of land use on the seasonal variation of streamwater quality in the Wei River basin, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, S.; Xu, Z.; Wu, W.; Zuo, D.

    2015-05-01

    The temporal effect of land use on streamwater quality needs to be addressed for a better understanding of the complex relationship between land use and streamwater quality. In this study, GIS and Pearson correlation analysis were used to determine whether there were correlations of land-use types with streamwater quality at the sub-basin scale in the Wei River basin, China, during dry and rainy seasons in 2012. Temporal variation of these relations was observed, indicating that relationships between water quality variables and proportions of different land uses were weaker in the rainy season than that in the dry season. Comparing with other land uses, agriculture and urban lands had a stronger relationship with water quality variables in both the rainy and dry seasons. These results suggest that the aspect of temporal effects should be taken into account for better land-use management.

  4. Characterization of salinity and selenium loading and land-use change in Montrose Arroyo, western Colorado, from 1992 to 2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moore, Jennifer L.

    2011-01-01

    Salinity and selenium are naturally occurring and perva-sive in the lower Gunnison River Basin of Colorado, includ-ing the watershed of Montrose Arroyo. Although some of the salinity and selenium loading in the Montrose Arroyo study area is from natural sources, additional loading has resulted from the introduction of intensive irrigation in the water-shed. With increasing land-use change and the conversion from irrigated agricultural to urban land, land managers and stakeholders need information about the long-term effects of land-use change on salinity and selenium loading. In response to the need to advance salinity and selenium science, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Bureau of Reclamation, Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Forum, and Colorado River Water Conservation District, developed a study to characterize salinity and selenium loading and how salinity and selenium sources may relate to land-use change in Montrose Arroyo. This report characterizes changes in salinity and selenium loading to Montrose Arroyo from March 1992 to February 2010 and the magnitude of land-use change between unirrigated desert, irrigated agricultural, and urban land-use/land-cover types, and discusses how the respective loads may relate to land-use change. Montrose Arroyo is an approximately 8-square-mile watershed in Montrose County in western Colorado. Salinity and selenium were studied in Montrose Arroyo in a 2001 study as part of a salinity- and selenium-control lateral project. The robust nature of the historical dataset indicated that Montrose Arroyo was a prime watershed for a follow-up study. Two sites from the 2001 study were used to monitor salinity and selenium loads in Montrose Arroyo in the follow-up study. Over the period of 2 water years and respective irrigation seasons (2008-2010), 27 water-quality samples were collected and streamflow measurements were made at the historical sites MA2 and MA4. Salinity and selenium concen-trations, loads, and streamflow were compared between the pre-lateral-project and post-growth periods and between the post-lateral-project and post-growth periods. No significant differences in streamflow, salinity (concen-tration and load), or selenium (concentration and load) were found at MA4 between the pre-lateral project and post-growth periods or between the post-lateral-project and post-growth periods. The statistical analysis indicated no significant dif-ferences in streamflow or salinity (both concentration and load) between the pre-lateral-project and post-growth periods or between the post-lateral-project and post-growth periods at MA2; however, selenium concentrations and loads were significantly greater between the pre-lateral-project and post-growth periods and between the post-lateral-project and post-growth periods at MA2. Land-use change between MA4 and MA2 may have contributed to the determined differences in selenium values, but the specific mechanisms causing the increases between periods are unknown. The size of the urbanized area in Montrose Arroyo was quantified for 1993, 2002, and 2009 by using a geographic information system (GIS) with imagery from the specified years. The greatest change in land use from 1993 to 2009 was the increase of urban land due to conversion from irrigated agricultural land. The conversion of previously unirrigated desert to urban land or irrigated agriculture could become more common if urbanization and development expands into the eastern part of the watershed because a majority of the un-urbanized land in eastern Montrose Arroyo is unirrigated desert. By applying GIS to the City of Montrose 2008 com-prehensive growth plan, it was estimated that approximately 786 acres of previously irrigated agricultural land will be converted to urban land and 689 acres of unirrigated desert will be converted to urban land under the plan scenario. New development on previously unirrigated land in shale areas would likely increase the potential for mobilization of sele-nium and salinity from new sources to Montrose Arroyo and the Lower Gunnis

  5. Organic matter breakdown in streams in a region of contrasting anthropogenic land use.

    PubMed

    Voß, K; Fernández, D; Schäfer, R B

    2015-09-15

    Streams provide ecosystem services to humans that depend on ecosystem functions, such as organic matter breakdown (OMB). OMB can be affected by land use-related disturbance. We measured OMB in 29 low-order streams in a region of contrasting land use in south-west Germany to quantify land use effects on OMB. We deployed fine and coarse mesh leaf bags in streams of forest, agricultural, vinicultural and urban catchments to determine the microbial and invertebrate-mediated OMB, respectively. Furthermore, we monitored physicochemical, geographical and habitat parameters to explain potential differences in OMB among land use types and sites. Only microbial OMB differed between land use types. Microbial OMB was negatively correlated with pH and invertebrate-mediated OMB was positively correlated with tree cover. Generally, OMB responded to stressor gradients rather than directly to land use. Therefore, the monitoring of specific stressors may be more relevant than land use to detect effects on ecosystem functions, and to extrapolate effects on functions, e.g. in the context of assessing ecosystem services. PMID:25958365

  6. A study on time-space character of urban heat island effect and relations with LUCC based on remote sensing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yingbao Yang; Nan Jiang; Sansheng Cheng; Yanwen Li

    2007-01-01

    This paper takes Nanjing city as an example, analyzes diurnal and seasonal characteristics of UHI by eight granule and sixteen scenes MODIS, respectively. The land cover index (LCI) has been constructed to get a quantitative analysis about the changes of land use\\/land cover how to affect the distributional characteristics of urban thermal space. The results indicate the diurnal intensity of

  7. Land use inventory of Salt Lake County, Utah from color infrared aerial photography 1982

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Price, K. P.; Willie, R. D.; Wheeler, D. J.; Ridd, M. K.

    1983-01-01

    The preparation of land use maps of Salt Lake County, Utah from high altitude color infrared photography is described. The primary purpose of the maps is to aid in the assessment of the effects of urban development on the agricultural land base and water resources. The first stage of map production was to determine the categories of land use/land cover and the mapping unit detail. The highest level of interpretive detail was given to the land use categories found in the agricultural or urbanized portions of the county; these areas are of primary interest with regard to the consumptive use of water from surface streams and wells. A slightly lower level of mapping detail was given to wetland environments; areas to which water is not purposely diverted by man but which have a high consumptive rate of water use. Photos were interpreted on the basis of color, tone, texture, and pattern, together with features of the topographic, hydrologic, and ecological context.

  8. Effect of land-use patterns on total nitrogen concentration in the upstream regions of the Haihe River Basin, China.

    PubMed

    Sun, Ranhao; Chen, Liding; Chen, Wenlin; Ji, Yuhe

    2013-01-01

    Nutrient loading into rivers is generally increased by human-induced land-use changes and can lead to increased surface water pollution. Understanding the extent to which land-use patterns influence nutrient loading is critical to the development of best-management practices aimed at water-quality improvement. In this study, we investigated total nitrogen (total N) concentration as a function of land-use patterns and compared the relative significance of the identified land-use variables for 26 upstream watersheds of the Haihe River basin. Seven land-use intensity and nine landscape complexity variables were selected to form the land-use pattern metrics on the landscape scale. After analyzing the significance of the land-use pattern metrics, we obtained five dominant principal components: human-induced land-use intensity, landscape patch-area complexity, area-weighted landscape patch-shape complexity, forest and grassland area, and landscape patch-shape complexity. A linear regression model with a stepwise selection protocol was used to identify an optimal set of land-use pattern predictors. The resulting contributions to the total N concentration were 50% (human-induced land-use intensity), 23.13% (landscape patch-shape complexity), 14.38% (forest and grassland area), and 12.50% (landscape patch-area complexity), respectively. The regression model using land-use measurements can explain 87% of total N variability in the upstream regions of Haihe River. The results indicated that human-related land-use factors, such as residential areas, population, and road density, had the most significant effect on N concentration. The agricultural area (30.1% of the study region) was not found to be significantly correlated with total N concentration due to little irrigative farmland and rainfall. Results of the study could help us understand the implications of potential land-use changes that often occur as a result of the rapid development in China. PMID:22002468

  9. Effect of Land-Use Patterns on Total Nitrogen Concentration in the Upstream Regions of the Haihe River Basin, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Ranhao; Chen, Liding; Chen, Wenlin; Ji, Yuhe

    2013-01-01

    Nutrient loading into rivers is generally increased by human-induced land-use changes and can lead to increased surface water pollution. Understanding the extent to which land-use patterns influence nutrient loading is critical to the development of best-management practices aimed at water-quality improvement. In this study, we investigated total nitrogen (total N) concentration as a function of land-use patterns and compared the relative significance of the identified land-use variables for 26 upstream watersheds of the Haihe River basin. Seven land-use intensity and nine landscape complexity variables were selected to form the land-use pattern metrics on the landscape scale. After analyzing the significance of the land-use pattern metrics, we obtained five dominant principal components: human-induced land-use intensity, landscape patch-area complexity, area-weighted landscape patch-shape complexity, forest and grassland area, and landscape patch-shape complexity. A linear regression model with a stepwise selection protocol was used to identify an optimal set of land-use pattern predictors. The resulting contributions to the total N concentration were 50% (human-induced land-use intensity), 23.13% (landscape patch-shape complexity), 14.38% (forest and grassland area), and 12.50% (landscape patch-area complexity), respectively. The regression model using land-use measurements can explain 87% of total N variability in the upstream regions of Haihe River. The results indicated that human-related land-use factors, such as residential areas, population, and road density, had the most significant effect on N concentration. The agricultural area (30.1% of the study region) was not found to be significantly correlated with total N concentration due to little irrigative farmland and rainfall. Results of the study could help us understand the implications of potential land-use changes that often occur as a result of the rapid development in China.

  10. 44 CFR 9.15 - Planning programs affecting land use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...false Planning programs affecting land use. 9.15 Section 9.15 Emergency...15 Planning programs affecting land use. The Agency shall take floodplain...formulating or evaluating any water and land use plans. No plan may be approved...

  11. THE ROLE OF LAND USE IN MEETING CALIFORNIA'S ENERGY AND

    E-print Network

    CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION THE ROLE OF LAND USE IN MEETING CALIFORNIA'S ENERGY AND CLIMATE CHANGE. The Role of Land Use in Meeting California's Energy and Climate Change Goals. California Energy Commission .....................................................................................................1 Examples of Better Land Use Planning

  12. 44 CFR 9.15 - Planning programs affecting land use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...false Planning programs affecting land use. 9.15 Section 9.15 Emergency...15 Planning programs affecting land use. The Agency shall take floodplain...formulating or evaluating any water and land use plans. No plan may be approved...

  13. CALIFORNIA ENERGY EFFECT OF LAND USE CHOICES ON

    E-print Network

    CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION EFFECT OF LAND USE CHOICES ON TRANSPORTATION FUEL DEMAND IN SUPPORT ................................................................................................................... 1 Current Approach to Transportation Fuel Demand and Land Use Planning........... 1 Obstacles to Efficient Land Use Planning .................................................................. 2 Trends

  14. 44 CFR 9.15 - Planning programs affecting land use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...false Planning programs affecting land use. 9.15 Section 9.15 Emergency...15 Planning programs affecting land use. The Agency shall take floodplain...formulating or evaluating any water and land use plans. No plan may be approved...

  15. 44 CFR 9.15 - Planning programs affecting land use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...false Planning programs affecting land use. 9.15 Section 9.15 Emergency...15 Planning programs affecting land use. The Agency shall take floodplain...formulating or evaluating any water and land use plans. No plan may be approved...

  16. 44 CFR 9.15 - Planning programs affecting land use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...true Planning programs affecting land use. 9.15 Section 9.15 Emergency...15 Planning programs affecting land use. The Agency shall take floodplain...formulating or evaluating any water and land use plans. No plan may be approved...

  17. Interaction between land use and climate variability amplifies stream nitrate export

    EPA Science Inventory

    We investigated regional effects of urban land use change on nitrate concentrations in approximately 1,000 small streams in Maryland, U.S.A. during record drought and wet years in 2001-2003. We also investigated changes in nitrate-N export during the same time period in 8 intens...

  18. ASSESSMENT OF LAND USE CHANGE IMPACTS ON FLOW CHARACTERISTICS IN AN EASTERN PENNSYLVANIA WATERSHED

    EPA Science Inventory

    The impacts of changes in land use/cover due to urbanization on the hydrologic regime of the watershed have long been recognized and have been the subject of many studies. Distributed hydrologic models are one means of assessing such impacts. In this study we evaluated the potent...

  19. Land Use and Property Market Impacts of the Relocation of Athens International Airport

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alexis Politakis

    2006-01-01

    This paper investigates the impact of the relocation of Athens International Airport (AIA), one of the most significant urban developments in the modern history of the city of Athens, on land uses and the property market around the former airport site (FAS) and the new Eleftherios Venizelos airport (EV). Airport relocations are in themselves relatively rare events. In this dissertation,

  20. Global Land-Use Practices are Undermining Ecosystem Services and Human Health

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. A. Foley

    2004-01-01

    Land use and land cover change are now environmental forces of global significance. Massive, worldwide changes to forests, farmlands, watersheds and air are being driven by human actions and the need to provide food, fiber, water and shelter to over six billion people. Croplands, pastures, managed forests and urban areas have all expanded in recent decades, accompanied by enormous increases

  1. Linking land use with household vehicle emissions in the central puget sound: methodological framework and findings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lawrence D. Frank; Brian Stone Jr.; William Bachman

    2000-01-01

    A leading cause of air pollution in many urban regions is mobile source emissions that are largely attributable to household vehicle travel. While household travel patterns have been previously related with land use in the literature (Crane, R., 1996. Journal of the American Planning Association 62 (1, Winter); Cervero, R. and Kockelman, C., 1997. Transportation Research Part D 2 (3),

  2. Analyzing simulated patterns of land use change

    SciTech Connect

    Dale, V.H.; O`Neill, R.V.; Southworth, F. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Loureiro, F. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1992-07-01

    Land use change is one of major factors affecting global environmental conditions. Modeling land use change requires combining spatially-explicit ecological information with socioeconomic factors. A modeling system is being developed that integrates sub-models of human colonization with submodels of ecological interactions to estimate patterns and rates of deforestation under different immigration and land management scenarios. The model projects maps of land use change that can be compared to remote sensing measures using spatial statistics. The simulation modeling system is being applied to the Brazilian state of Rondonia where deforestation has increased at a faster rate over the past two decades than anywhere else in the world. The model projections suggest that land management can both reduce carbon release and improve the length of time farmers are able to remain on the land. The model provides a tool to evaluate the spatial and temporal implications of various land management options.

  3. Analyzing simulated patterns of land use change

    SciTech Connect

    Dale, V.H.; O'Neill, R.V.; Southworth, F. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Loureiro, F. (Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States))

    1992-01-01

    Land use change is one of major factors affecting global environmental conditions. Modeling land use change requires combining spatially-explicit ecological information with socioeconomic factors. A modeling system is being developed that integrates sub-models of human colonization with submodels of ecological interactions to estimate patterns and rates of deforestation under different immigration and land management scenarios. The model projects maps of land use change that can be compared to remote sensing measures using spatial statistics. The simulation modeling system is being applied to the Brazilian state of Rondonia where deforestation has increased at a faster rate over the past two decades than anywhere else in the world. The model projections suggest that land management can both reduce carbon release and improve the length of time farmers are able to remain on the land. The model provides a tool to evaluate the spatial and temporal implications of various land management options.

  4. December 2005 1893LAND-USE CHANGE IN RURAL AMERICA Ecological Applications, 15(6), 2005, pp. 18931905

    E-print Network

    Lawrence, Rick L.

    of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 USA Abstract. Low-density rural home development is the fastest ) includes urban fringe development (UFD) on the periphery of cities and rural residential development (RRD; landscape management; land cover; land use; rural residential development; urban fringe development; weeds

  5. Land Use Change Modelling in R

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moulds, S.; Buytaert, W.

    2014-12-01

    Land use activities, through the provision of natural resources, are essential to human existence. In many regions land use change is degrading biodiversity and threatening the sustainability of ecosystem services upon which communities and livelihoods depend. Spatially explicit land use change models are widely used to understand and quantify key processes that affect land use change and make predictions about past and future change. These models typically include a module to estimate the suitability of different locations to particular land use types based on biophysical and socioeconomic predictor variables and a module to allocate change spatially. They are commonly implemented in languages such as C/C++ and Fortran and made available as standalone applications or through proprietary GIS. In many cases the models are released under closed source licences, limiting the reproducibility of scientific results and making model comparison difficult. This work presents a new R package providing methods and classes to support land use change modelling and model development and comparison within the open source R statistical computing environment. The package makes use of existing R implementations of methods such as random forests and recursive partitioning and regression trees to estimate location suitability, as well as providing methods for statistical model building and evaluation. Currently two spatial allocation methods are provided: the first based on the widely used and tested CLUE-S algorithm and the second a novel stochastic procedure developed for large scale applications. Some common tools for evaluating allocation results are implemented. It is hoped that the package will provide a framework for the development of new routines that can be incorporated into future releases of the code.

  6. Responses of physical, chemical, and biological indicators of water quality to a gradient of agricultural land use in the Yakima River Basin, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cuffney, T.F.; Meador, M.R.; Porter, S.D.; Gurtz, M.E.

    2000-01-01

    The condition of 25 stream sites in the Yakima River Basin, Washington, were assessed by the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program. Multimetric condition indices were developed and used to rank sites on the basis of physical, chemical, and biological characteristics. These indices showed that sites in the Cascades and Eastern Cascades ecoregions were largely unimpaired. In contrast, all but two sites in the Columbia Basin ecoregion were impaired, some severely. Agriculture (nutrients and pesticides) was the primary factor associated with impairment and all impaired sites were characterized by multiple indicators of impairment. All indices of biological condition (fish, invertebrates, and algae) declined as agricultural intensity increased. The response exhibited by invertebrates and algae suggested a threshold response with conditions declining precipitously at relatively low levels of agricultural intensity and little response at moderate to high levels of agricultural intensity. This pattern of response suggests that the success of mitigation will vary depending upon where on the response curve the mitigation is undertaken. Because the form of the community condition response is critical to effective water-quality management, the National Water-Quality Assessment Program is conducting studies to examine the response of biota to gradients of land-use intensity and the relevance of these responses to water-quality management. These land-use gradient pilot studies will be conducted in several urban areas starting in 1999.

  7. Relating dissolved organic carbon quality to biodegradability along land-use and longitudinal gradients in Vesdre River catchment, Belgium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gettel, Gretchen; Bravo-Palacios, Luz; Gupta, Saurabh; Weldemariam, Abraha; Dibar, Dagne

    2013-04-01

    It is increasingly recognized that in order to accurately determine terrestrial carbon budgets, we must understand how dissolved organic matter (DOM) in rivers is lost via microbial respiration. The amount of respiration that can be supported - or lability - is related to DOM quality, but little is known about this relationship. Fluorescence spectroscopy is increasingly used to characterize DOM quality in a simple and cost-effective manner. However, only a small portion of the total DOM pool fluoresces, and how these characteristics relate to its lability is not known. In this study, we use the fluorescence and absorbance characteristics of DOM from a variety of land-uses in the Vesdre River catchment and relate them to the degredation kinetics of DOM. Results from winter and autumn sampling provide insight into the effect of leaf fall on these relationships. The specific objectives of this study were to: 1. Characterize DOM quality in diverse land-use types and along a longitudinal gradient in the Vesdre River using optical properties; 2. At the same sites, relate fluorescence characteristics to DOM lability, which was quantified by microbial respiration; and 3. Examine the effects of leaf fall on DOM quality and biodegradation by comparing results from winter and autumn seasons. The Vesdre basin is 710 km2, contains 429 people/km2, and is characterized by peat and forested land uses in its headwaters and agricultural, and urban land uses lower in the catchment. Surface water samples from main stem sites (14), tributaries (13), and reservoirs (2) were collected along a 40 km section of the River Vesdre in November 2012 (autumn) and Janurary 2011 (winter). Main stem sites were used to examine the effect of longitudinal processing while tributary sites were used to assess the effects of land use, which included peat, forest, agriculture and urban. Samples were analyzed for DOC and total N (TN) concentration as well as inorganic nutrients (ammonium, nitrate, phosphate), dissolved oxygen, conductivity, and pH. Fluorescence and aborbance spectra were measured. Excitation-emission matrices (EEM's) were generated and analyzed in a 13-component parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) model. Lability was determined by 42-day incubations in which DOC consumption was fitted with a 3-pool kinetics model, which partitioned the DOM into labile, semi-labile, and refractory pools and generated a decay rate (k) for each pool. Mulitivariate regression was used to relate land use and river position to fluorescence properties and DOM lability. Winter and Autumn lability and fluorescence characteristics were compared using ANOVA. For January 2011, the a high concentration of DOC and intensity of fluorophore C (humic-like fraction) were associated with forested and peat lands, whereas low DOC concentration and high intensity of fluorophore T, the tryptophan-like fraction, characterized agriculture and urban areas in downstream portion of the catchment. This pattern was echoed by the PARAFAC results, which showed that Component 5 (C5) was also higher in the forested and wetland sections, whereas C8 was higher in the agricultural and urban areas. Fom the three-pool model, the labile, semi-labile, and refractory pools were related to both land use and DOM quality. Peat was positively correlated with the size of the refractory pool, whereas agriculture and urban land use were positively correlated with the semi-labile pool. The labile pool was positively correlated with C1, while the refractory pool was correlated with C5 and C9 (the humic acid portion). Interestingly, degradation constants (k) from 3- pool model were not correlated with land use or with fluorescence characteristics. These results will be compared to those of November 2012 sampling, which are currently being analyzed, but conclusions thus far show that not all aspects of the fluorescence properties were important to the functional properties of DOM, and experimentation provides information about which aspects are most important to measure in future in-situ instrumentation. These resu

  8. [Influence of land use change on vegetation cover dynamics in Dapeng Peninsula of Shenzhen, Guangdong Province of South China].

    PubMed

    Liang, Yao-Qin; Zeng, Hui; Li, Jing

    2012-01-01

    To study the vegetation cover dynamics under urbanization is of significance to direct regional ecological conservation. Based on the 1995-2007 remote sensing data and the investigation data of 1996 and 2007 land use change in Shenzhen, and by using NDVI index tracking and algebraic overlay calculation, this paper analyzed the vegetation types and their spatial differentiation, land use change pattern, and the relationships between land use change and vegetation cover dynamics in Dapeng Peninsula of Shenzhen. In 1995-2007, the vegetation cover in 65% of the study area changed significantly, with an overall increasing trend. Land use change was mainly caused by the development of urbanization and commercial agriculture, with 31% of the land surface changed in land use function. The land use change was one of the main causes of vegetation cover dynamics, and about 35% of the region where vegetation cover significantly degraded was related to land use change. 55% of the region where land use function changed due to mechanical disturbance caused the degradation of vegetation cover, but by the end of the study period, the vegetation cover in most of the degraded region had being improved significantly. PMID:22489500

  9. Inter-regional comparison of land-use effects on stream metabolism

    SciTech Connect

    Bernot, Melody [Ball State University; Sobota, Daniel [Oregon State University; Hall, Robert [University of Wyoming, Laramie; Mulholland, Patrick J [ORNL; Dodds, Walter [Kansas State University; Webster, Jackson [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University (Virginia Tech); Tank, Jennifer [University of Notre Dame, IN; Ashkenas, Linda [Oregon State University, Corvallis; Cooper, Lee W [ORNL; Dahm, Cliff [University of New Mexico, Albuquerque; Gregory, Stanley [Oregon State University, Corvallis; Grimm, Nancy [Arizona State University; Hamilton, Stephen [Michigan State University, East Lansing; Johnson, Sherri [Oregon State University; McDowell, William [University of Hew Hampshire; Meyer, Judy [University of Georgia, Athens, GA; Peterson, Bruce [Marine Biological Laboratory; Poole, Geoffrey C. [Montana State University; Valett, H. Maurice [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University (Virginia Tech); Arango, Clay [University of Notre Dame, IN; Beaulieu, Jake [University of Notre Dame, IN; Burgin, Amy [Michigan State University, East Lansing; Crenshaw, Chelsea [University of New Mexico, Albuquerque; Helton, Ashley [University of Georgia, Athens, GA; Johnson, Laura [University of Notre Dame, IN; Merriam, Jeffrey [University of New Hampshire; Niederlehner, Bobbie [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University (Virginia Tech); O'Brien, Jon [Michigan State University, East Lansing; Potter, Jody [University of New Hampshire; Sheibley, Rich [Arizona State University; Thomas, Suzanne [Marine Biological Laboratory; Wilson, Kym [Kansas State University

    2010-01-01

    Rates of whole-system metabolism (production and respiration) are fundamental indicators of ecosystem structure and function. Although first-order, proximal controls are well understood, assessments of the interactions between proximal controls and distal controls, such as land use and geographic region, are lacking. Thus, the influence of land use on stream metabolism across geographic regions is unknown. Further, there is limited understanding of how land use may alter variability in ecosystem metabolism across regions. 2. Stream metabolism was measured in nine streams in each of eight regions (n = 72) across the United States and Puerto Rico. In each region, three streams were selected from a range of three land uses: agriculturally influenced, urban-influenced, and reference streams. Stream metabolism was estimated from diel changes in dissolved oxygen concentrations in each stream reach with correction for reaeration and groundwater input. 3. Gross primary production (GPP) was highest in regions with little riparian vegetation (sagebrush steppe in Wyoming, desert shrub in Arizona/New Mexico) and lowest in forested regions (North Carolina, Oregon). In contrast, ecosystem respiration (ER) varied both within and among regions. Reference streams had significantly lower rates of GPP than urban or agriculturally influenced streams. 4. GPP was positively correlated with photosynthetically active radiation and autotrophic biomass. Multiple regression models compared using Akaike's information criterion (AIC) indicated GPP increased with water column ammonium and the fraction of the catchment in urban and reference land-use categories. Multiple regression models also identified velocity, temperature, nitrate, ammonium, dissolved organic carbon, GPP, coarse benthic organic matter, fine benthic organic matter and the fraction of all land-use categories in the catchment as regulators of ER. 5. Structural equation modelling indicated significant distal as well as proximal control pathways including a direct effect of land-use on GPP as well as SRP, DIN, and PAR effects on GPP; GPP effects on autotrophic biomass, organic matter, and ER; and organic matter effects on ER. 6. Overall, consideration of the data separated by land-use categories showed reduced inter-regional variability in rates of metabolism, indicating that the influence of agricultural and urban land use can obscure regional differences in stream metabolism.

  10. The Savannah River: Site Description, Land Use and Management History

    SciTech Connect

    White, D.L.; Gaines, K.F.

    2000-10-01

    Aboriginal and early European settlement were primarily along streams where much of the farming and timber cutting occurred. Woodland grazing occurred in the upland and lowlands. Land use intensity increased after the Civil War and peaked in the 1920's. The impact of agricultural and timber cutting practices left little land untouched. Grazing and the reduction in fire limited reproduction of longleaf pine. After 1951, a massive reforestation effort was implemented. Over the last decades efforts have shifted to recovering the red-cockaded woodpecker and restoring other habitats.

  11. Soil food web properties explain ecosystem services across European land use systems.

    PubMed

    de Vries, Franciska T; Thébault, Elisa; Liiri, Mira; Birkhofer, Klaus; Tsiafouli, Maria A; Bjørnlund, Lisa; Bracht Jørgensen, Helene; Brady, Mark Vincent; Christensen, Søren; de Ruiter, Peter C; d'Hertefeldt, Tina; Frouz, Jan; Hedlund, Katarina; Hemerik, Lia; Hol, W H Gera; Hotes, Stefan; Mortimer, Simon R; Setälä, Heikki; Sgardelis, Stefanos P; Uteseny, Karoline; van der Putten, Wim H; Wolters, Volkmar; Bardgett, Richard D

    2013-08-27

    Intensive land use reduces the diversity and abundance of many soil biota, with consequences for the processes that they govern and the ecosystem services that these processes underpin. Relationships between soil biota and ecosystem processes have mostly been found in laboratory experiments and rarely are found in the field. Here, we quantified, across four countries of contrasting climatic and soil conditions in Europe, how differences in soil food web composition resulting from land use systems (intensive wheat rotation, extensive rotation, and permanent grassland) influence the functioning of soils and the ecosystem services that they deliver. Intensive wheat rotation consistently reduced the biomass of all components of the soil food web across all countries. Soil food web properties strongly and consistently predicted processes of C and N cycling across land use systems and geographic locations, and they were a better predictor of these processes than land use. Processes of carbon loss increased with soil food web properties that correlated with soil C content, such as earthworm biomass and fungal/bacterial energy channel ratio, and were greatest in permanent grassland. In contrast, processes of N cycling were explained by soil food web properties independent of land use, such as arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and bacterial channel biomass. Our quantification of the contribution of soil organisms to processes of C and N cycling across land use systems and geographic locations shows that soil biota need to be included in C and N cycling models and highlights the need to map and conserve soil biodiversity across the world. PMID:23940339

  12. Principal land use changes anticipated in Europe

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Bouma; G. Varallyay; N. H. Batjes

    1998-01-01

    Major changes in land use may be anticipated in Europe in the decades to come as a result of technological, socio-economic and political developments as well as global environmental change. The type and effects of these changes will strongly depend on policy decisions which are governed, amongst others, by: (i) an increasing agricultural productivity; (ii) an increasing realization of the

  13. Current Research in Land Use Impact Assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is a continuing debate on how to best evaluate land use impacts within the LCA framework. While this problem is spatially and temporally complex, recent advances in tool development are providing options to allow a GIS-based analysis of various ecosystem services given the...

  14. Land use policy as an international issue

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lynton K. Caldwell

    1984-01-01

    Land use is not an end in itself; it is a means to the realization of a broad range of social, economic and political objectives. Few public issues appear to be more strictly national. In environment-related United Nations conferences, Third World representatives in particular have asserted the absolute control of nations over their land and natural resources. Nevertheless, international concern

  15. Land Use Interpretation in Flood Damage Estimation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sharon Michelle Metzler

    2011-01-01

    This thesis examines the role of geographic land use interpretation in flood damage estimation. Sample flood data were drawn from the 1998 flood event along San Francisquito Creek in northern Santa Clara County, California. Spatial flood data for the event were collected from the Santa Clara Valley Water District (the District); depth-damage factors and the flood damage equations were both

  16. Eurasian land use impacts on rangeland productivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ojima, Dennis S.; Chuluun, Togtohyn; Bolortsetseg, Boldyn; Tucker, Compton J.; Hicke, Jeff

    Dramatic changes have occurred in pastoral systems of East and Central Asia covering the steppe ecosystems of Mongolia, China, Kazakhstan, and Russia over the past several decades. The socio-economic changes over the past decades have markedly shaped the land use patterns in the region. Evaluation of these pastoral systems is the focus of this paper. These pastoral systems have existed for thousands of years; however, in recent decades a decline in nomadic movements has led to greater vulnerability of the pastoralists. The nomadic pastoral systems developed to cope with arid or semi-arid climate variability. Interactions between ecosystems and nomadic land use systems co-shaped them in mutually adaptive ways for hundreds of years, thus making both the Mongolian rangeland ecosystem and nomadic pastoral system resilient and sustainable. The pervasive role of demographic, political and economic driving forces during the past 50 years has greatly altered the pastoral systems. The general trend involves greater intensification of resource exploitation at the expense of traditional patterns of range utilization. This set of drivers is orthogonal to the described climate drivers. Thus we expect climate-land use interactions to be modified by socio-economic forces. Nevertheless, the complex relationship between climate variability and pastoral exploitation patterns will still form the environmental framework for overall patterns of land use change. Integration of knowledge and delivery of this knowledge to scientists, policy makers and land users is critical for regionally sustainable development.

  17. National Land Use Policy: Objectives, Components, Implementation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soil Conservation Society of America, Ankeny, IA.

    Proceedings of a special conference sponsored by the Soil Conservation Society of America, are compiled in this report. The conference served as a forum for those involved in land use planning and implementation at all levels of government and private enterprise. Comments were directed to four main topics: (1) Objectives and Need for a National…

  18. Journal of Land Use and Environmental Law

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Journal is published twice a year by the Journal of Land Use & Environmental Law at the Florida State University College of Law. (ISSN 0892-4480) Articles are indexed in Environmental Periodicals Bibliography and are also available on both Westlaw

  19. Evaluating Impacts of climate and land use changes on streamflow using SWAT and land use models based CESM1-CAM5 Climate scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Tzu Ping; Lin, Yu Pin; Lien, Wan Yu

    2015-04-01

    Climate change projects have various levels of impacts on hydrological cycles around the world. The impact of climate change and uncertainty of climate projections from general circulation models (GCMs) from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) which has been just be released in Taiwan, 2014. Since the streamflow run into ocean directly due to the steep terrain and the rainfall difference between wet and dry seasons is apparent; as a result, the allocation water resource reasonable is very challenge in Taiwan, particularly under climate change. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impacts of climate and land use changes on a small watershed in Taiwan. The AR5 General Circulation Models(GCM) output data was adopted in this study and was downscaled from the monthly to the daily weather data as the input data of hydrological model such as Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model in this study. The spatially explicit land uses change model, the Conservation of Land Use and its Effects at Small regional extent (CLUE-s), was applied to simulate land use scenarios in 2020-2039. Combined climate and land use change scenarios were adopted as input data of the hydrological model, the SWAT model, to estimate the future streamflows. With the increasing precipitation, increasing urban area and decreasing agricultural and grass land, the annual streamflow in the most of twenty-three subbasins were also increased. Besides, due to the increasing rainfall in wet season and decreasing rainfall in dry season, the difference of streamflow between wet season and dry season are also increased. This result indicates a more stringent challenge on the water resource management in future. Therefore, impacts on water resource caused by climate change and land use change should be considered in water resource planning for the Datuan river watershed. Keywords: SWAT, GCM, CLUE-s, streamflow, climate change, land use change

  20. Population, behavioural and physiological responses of an urban population of black swans to an intense annual noise event.

    PubMed

    Payne, Catherine J; Jessop, Tim S; Guay, Patrick-Jean; Johnstone, Michele; Feore, Megan; Mulder, Raoul A

    2012-01-01

    Wild animals in urban environments are exposed to a broad range of human activities that have the potential to disturb their life history and behaviour. Wildlife responses to disturbance can range from emigration to modified behaviour, or elevated stress, but these responses are rarely evaluated in concert. We simultaneously examined population, behavioural and hormonal responses of an urban population of black swans Cygnus atratus before, during and after an annual disturbance event involving large crowds and intense noise, the Australian Formula One Grand Prix. Black swan population numbers were lowest one week before the event and rose gradually over the course of the study, peaking after the event, suggesting that the disturbance does not trigger mass emigration. We also found no difference in the proportion of time spent on key behaviours such as locomotion, foraging, resting or self-maintenance over the course of the study. However, basal and capture stress-induced corticosterone levels showed significant variation, consistent with a modest physiological response. Basal plasma corticosterone levels were highest before the event and decreased over the course of the study. Capture-induced stress levels peaked during the Grand Prix and then also declined over the remainder of the study. Our results suggest that even intensely noisy and apparently disruptive events may have relatively low measurable short-term impact on population numbers, behaviour or physiology in urban populations with apparently high tolerance to anthropogenic disturbance. Nevertheless, the potential long-term impact of such disturbance on reproductive success, individual fitness and population health will need to be carefully evaluated. PMID:23024783

  1. [Land use pattern of Dalian City, Liaoning Province of Northeast China based on CA-Markov model and multi-objective optimization].

    PubMed

    Hu, Xue-Li; Xu, Ling; Zhang, Shu-Shen

    2013-06-01

    Based on the land use/cover maps of 1990, 2000, and 2010, topographic factors, and geographic elements, a CA-Markov model consisting of Markov transition matrix, multi-criteria evaluation, and cellular automata was developed to simulate the change trends of the future land use and landscape patterns of Dalian, Liaoning Province. The future land use pattern of Dalian was optimally allocated by the method of fuzzy multi-objective programming, based on the characters of land use structure, society, economy, and natural environment. The results indicated that in 1990-2010, the rapid development of Dalian showed the characteristics of the continued expansion of urban area and the reduction of cropland and woodland area. With the present speed of urban development, the landscape pattern and land use cover would have a great change, and the landscape fragmentation would be exacerbated. To optimize the land use structure could meet the demand of the future sustainable development of Dalian. PMID:24066554

  2. Land use and human impact in the Mediterranean karst of southern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delle Rose, M.; Parise, M.

    2003-04-01

    Human activities such as land use transformation, changes in land cover and soil surface conditions, and increasing urbanization in catchment basins may result in serious consequences for the natural environment: episodes of degradation or pollution, and deterioration in the water quality are continuously registered in many areas of the world. In addition, the human impact is also frequently at the origin of the occurrence of extreme hydrological conditions such as floods and droughts. Many natural environments are particularly susceptible to negative impacts from human activities: among these, karst is one of the most vulnerable, due to a number of geological, morphological and hydrogeological features. Karst is in fact characterized by the very limited presence, if not absence, of water flowing at the surface; water tends to quickly infiltrate underground through the network of cavities produced by karst processes. This may favour the movement of contaminants toward the water table, and the resulting deterioration in water quality. The intimate connection between surface and underground drainage, and the rapidity with which surface water may enter and percolate down through the karst rock, result in an overall extreme fragility of the karst landscape, and in a high to very high vulnerability to human impacts. In no other landscapes, likely, the effects of negative impacts, in terms of landscape modifications, or of events of pollution, may be so destructive and not recoverable. The present contribution deals with description of some examples from a typical karst Mediterranean area: the karst of Apulia, in southern Italy, where land use transformation and degradation of the natural environment have produced heavy modification in the natural landscape, leading in many cases to pollution, or to deterioration of naturalistic sites (including caves), and moving toward desertification processes as well. Assessment of the possible impacts of land use changes has become an important priority in the karst of Apulia, driven by the need to develop concepts for sustainable land management in karst environment. Apulia region is in fact mostly underlain by intensely karstified limestones, where karst processes have had a prominent role in the development of the present landscape.

  3. Determining land use changes by radar-optic fused images and monitoring its environmental impacts in Edremit region of western Turkey.

    PubMed

    Balik Sanli, Fusun; Kurucu, Yusuf; Esetlili, Mustafa Tolga

    2009-04-01

    Rapid and unplanned urbanization and industrialization are the main reasons of environmental problems. If urban growth is not based on resource sustainability criteria and urban plans are not applied, natural and human resources are damaged dramatically. In this study, land use change and urban expansion in Edremit region of Turkey is determined by means of remote sensing techniques between 1971 and 2002. To improve the accuracy of land use/cover maps, the contribution of SAR images to optic images in defining land cover types was investigated. To determine the situation of land use/cover types in 2002 accurately, Landsat-5 images and Radarsat-1 images were fused, and the land use/cover types were defined from the fused images. Comparisons with the ground truth reveal that land use maps generated using the fuse technique are improved about 6% with an accuracy of 81.20%. To define land use types and urban expansion, screen digitizing and classification methods were used. The results of the study indicate that the urban areas have been increased 1,826 ha across the agricultural fields which are in land use capability classes of I and II, and significant environmental changes such as land degradation and degeneration of ground water quality occurred. PMID:18437516

  4. Dissolved and particulate organic matter fluorescence in coastal river systems in relation to land use and carbon transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osburn, C. L.

    2011-12-01

    Recently, dissolved organic matter (DOM) fluorescence has been employed in river systems to understand carbon cycling, land use, and to some degree climate change. Excitation-emission matrices (EEMs) of DOM fluorescence spectra can be modeled using multivariate statistical approaches (e.g., parallel factor analysis, PARAFAC) to elucidate discrete and subtle changes to DOM properties. These changes are then often related to watershed properties (e.g., land use-land cover), hydrology, etc. This talk will build on that body of work, but also introduce the EEM-PARAFAC technique for water- and base-extractable OM (WEOM and BEOM, respectively) from particles in the Neuse River, eastern North Carolina, a coastal river which is under stress from land use (urbanization and agriculture) and climatic changes (periods of drought and increasing frequency and intensity of tropical storms) occurring in its watershed. POM fluorescence EEMs will be discussed in tandem with corresponding DOM fluorescence EEMs in several tributaries of the Neuse River, in addition to the Neuse Proper. The fluorescence data will be interpreted in the context of stream discharge, particle concentrations, and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations. Results from experiments and PARAFAC models showing the similarities and differences between WEOM, BEOM, and DOM fluorescence properties illuminate distinct relationships between POM and DOM cycling, and carbon transfer between these organic matter pools. The overall aim of this talk is to introduce the combined WEOM+BEOM+DOM fluorescence approach as a way to model organic matter in river systems through data fusion of these three fluorescence signatures.

  5. Application of Skylab EREP data for land use management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simonett, D. S. (principal investigator)

    1976-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The 1.09-1.19 micron band proved to be very valuable for discriminating a variety of land use categories, including agriculture, forest, and urban classes. The 1.55-1.75 micron band proved very useful in combination with the 1.09-1.19 micron band. Misregistration between spectral bands, even by as little as 1/2 pixel, may degrade classification accuracy. Identification accuracy of boundary or border pixels was as much as 13% lower than the accuracy for identifying internal field pixels. The principal conclusion with respect to the S190B camera system is that the higher resolution of the S190B system in comparison to previous space photography (Gemini, Apollo), to the S190A system (Skylab), and to LANDSAT imagery significantly increases the range of additional discrimination achievable.

  6. 43 CFR 3425.2 - Land use plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Land use plans. 3425.2 Section 3425...Leasing on Application § 3425.2 Land use plans. No lease shall be offered...have been included in a comprehensive land use plan or a land use analysis,...

  7. 43 CFR 4100.0-8 - Land use plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Land use plans. 4100.0-8 Section 4100...Alaska; General § 4100.0-8 Land use plans. The authorized officer...and in accordance with applicable land use plans. Land use plans shall...

  8. 43 CFR 3425.2 - Land use plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Land use plans. 3425.2 Section 3425...Leasing on Application § 3425.2 Land use plans. No lease shall be offered...have been included in a comprehensive land use plan or a land use analysis,...

  9. Simulating land use change in China from a global perspective

    E-print Network

    Palmer, Paul

    1 Simulating land use change in China from a global perspective Xuefeng Cui1,2,3,* , Mark explores land use change in China using a global, parsimonious land use model (PLUM). The model links as usual scenario suggests that PLUM could be used to project future land use change at the country level

  10. 43 CFR 3425.2 - Land use plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Land use plans. 3425.2 Section 3425...Leasing on Application § 3425.2 Land use plans. No lease shall be offered...have been included in a comprehensive land use plan or a land use analysis,...

  11. 43 CFR 4100.0-8 - Land use plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Land use plans. 4100.0-8 Section 4100...Alaska; General § 4100.0-8 Land use plans. The authorized officer...and in accordance with applicable land use plans. Land use plans shall...

  12. 43 CFR 4100.0-8 - Land use plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Land use plans. 4100.0-8 Section 4100...Alaska; General § 4100.0-8 Land use plans. The authorized officer...and in accordance with applicable land use plans. Land use plans shall...

  13. 43 CFR 3425.2 - Land use plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Land use plans. 3425.2 Section 3425...Leasing on Application § 3425.2 Land use plans. No lease shall be offered...have been included in a comprehensive land use plan or a land use analysis,...

  14. 43 CFR 4100.0-8 - Land use plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Land use plans. 4100.0-8 Section 4100...Alaska; General § 4100.0-8 Land use plans. The authorized officer...and in accordance with applicable land use plans. Land use plans shall...

  15. Land use and land cover mapping: City of Palm Bay, Florida

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barile, D. D.; Pierce, R.

    1977-01-01

    Two different computer systems were compared for use in making land use and land cover maps. The Honeywell 635 with the LANDSAT signature development program (LSDP) produced a map depicting general patterns, but themes were difficult to classify as specific land use. Urban areas were unclassified. The General Electric Image 100 produced a map depicting eight land cover categories classifying 68 percent of the total area. Ground truth, LSDP, and Image 100 maps were all made to the same scale for comparison. LSDP agreed with the ground truth 60 percent and 64 percent within the two test areas compared and Image 100 was in agreement 70 percent and 80 percent.

  16. The effects of urban stream improving the thermal environment in urban area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jin-Ki; Na, Sang-il; Park, Jong-hwa

    2012-10-01

    Urban areas create distinctive urban climates by Urban Heat Island (UHI) that is the temperature increase in urban areas compared to that in surrounding rural areas and is caused by number of factors, such as land use / land cover (LULC) change, concentration of population and increase anthropogenic heat. In general, the study of thermal environment in urban area focused on UHI intensity and phenomenon. Recently, climate improvement has been studied using water and green belt of urban, as interest in UHI phenomenon mitigation or enhancement has been increased. Therefore in this study, effects of urban stream on urban thermal environment were analyzed using remotely sensed data. The Landsat 7 ETM+ data acquired on 6 September 2009 were utilized to derive the surface Temperature (Ts) and surface energy balance using Surface Energy Balance Algorithms for Land (SEBAL) (Bastiaanssen et al., 1998). The surface energy budget consists of net radiation at the surface (Rn), sensible heat flux to the air (H), latent heat flux (LE) and soil heat flux (G). The net radiation flux is computed by subtracting all outgoing radiant fluxes (K?: shortwave outgoing, L? longwave outgoing) from all incoming radiant fluxes (K? shortwave incoming, L?: longwave incoming). This is given in the surface energy budget equation: Rn = H + LE + G = K? - K? + L? - L?. The result indicates that the Ts of urban stream are1 °C lower than circumjacent urban area, LE flux of urban stream is higher than surrounding urban area. However, land covers of streamside and around stream with concrete, asphalt and barren belt are comprised of hot spot zone that deteriorates urban thermal environment. And urban stream does perform a role of cool spot zone that improves urban thermal environment.

  17. Evaluation of Nonpoint-Source Contamination, Wisconsin; Land-Use and Best-Management-Practices Inventory, Selected Streamwater-Quality Data, Urban-Watershed Quality Assurance and Quality Control, Constituent Loads in Rural Streams, and Snowmelt-Runoff Analysis, Water Year 1994

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walker, J.F.; Graczyk, D.J.; Corsi, S.R.; Owens, D.W.; Wierl, J.A.

    1995-01-01

    The objective of the watershed-management evaluation monitoring program in Wisconsin is to evaluate the effectiveness of best-management practices (BMP) for controlling nonpoint-source contamination in rural and urban watersheds. This report is an annual summary of the data collected for the program by the U.S Geological Survey and a report of the results of several different detailed analyses of the data. A land-use and BMP inventory is ongoing for 12 evaluation monitoring projects to track the sources of nonpoint-source pollution in each watershed and to document implementation of BMP's that may cause changes in the water quality of streams. Updated information is gathered each year, mapped, and stored in a geographic-information-system data base. Summaries of data collected during water years 1989-94 are presented. A water year is the period beginning October 1 and ending September 30; the water year is designated by the calendar year in which it ends. Suspended-sediment and total-phosphorus data (storm loads and annual loads) are summarized for eight rural sites. For all sites, the annual suspended-sediment or suspended-solids load for water year 1993 exceeded the average for the period of data collection; the minimum annual loads were transported in water year 1991 or 1992. Continuous dissolved-oxygen data were collected at seven rural sites during water year 1994. Data for water years 1990-93 are summarized and plotted in terms of percentage of time that a particular concentration is equaled or exceeded. Dissolved-oxygen concentrations in four streams were less than 9 mg/L at least 50 percent of the time, a condition that fails to meet suggested criterion for coldwater streams. The dissolved-oxygen probability curve for one of the coldwater streams is markedly different than the curves for the other streams, perhaps because of differences in aquatic biomass. Blank quality-assurance samples were collected at two of the urban evaluation monitoring sites to isolate contamination in the sample bottle, the automatic sampler and splitter, and the filtration system. Significant contamination caused excessive concentrations of dissolved chloride, alkalinity, and biochemical oxygen demand. The level of contamination may be large enough to affect data for water samples in which these analytes are present at low concentration. Further investigation is being done to determine the source of contamination and take measures to minimize its effect on the sampling. A preliminary regression analysis was done for the rural sites using data collected during water years 1989-93. Loads of suspended solids and total phosphorus in stormflow were regressed against various precipitation-related measures. The results indicate that, for most sites, changes in constituent load on the order of 40 to 50 percent could be detected with a statistical test. For two sites, the change would have to be 60 to 70 percent to be detected. A detailed comparison of snowmelt runoff and rainfall stormflow in urban and rural areas was done using data collected during water years 1985-93. For the rural sites where statistically significant differences were found between constituent loads in snowmelt and storm runoff, the loads of suspended solids and total phosphorus in snowmelt runoff were greater than those in storm runoff. For the urban sites where statistically significant differences were found between snowmelt and storm runoff, the loads of suspended solids and total phosphorus in storm runoff were greater than those in snowmelt runoff. The importance of including snowmelt runoff in designing and analyzing the effects of BMP's on streamwater quality, particularly in rural areas, is emphasized by these results.

  18. Development and Application of Nonlinear Land-Use Regression Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Champendal, Alexandre; Kanevski, Mikhail; Huguenot, Pierre-Emmanuel

    2014-05-01

    The problem of air pollution modelling in urban zones is of great importance both from scientific and applied points of view. At present there are several fundamental approaches either based on science-based modelling (air pollution dispersion) or on the application of space-time geostatistical methods (e.g. family of kriging models or conditional stochastic simulations). Recently, there were important developments in so-called Land Use Regression (LUR) models. These models take into account geospatial information (e.g. traffic network, sources of pollution, average traffic, population census, land use, etc.) at different scales, for example, using buffering operations. Usually the dimension of the input space (number of independent variables) is within the range of (10-100). It was shown that LUR models have some potential to model complex and highly variable patterns of air pollution in urban zones. Most of LUR models currently used are linear models. In the present research the nonlinear LUR models are developed and applied for Geneva city. Mainly two nonlinear data-driven models were elaborated: multilayer perceptron and random forest. An important part of the research deals also with a comprehensive exploratory data analysis using statistical, geostatistical and time series tools. Unsupervised self-organizing maps were applied to better understand space-time patterns of the pollution. The real data case study deals with spatial-temporal air pollution data of Geneva (2002-2011). Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) has caught our attention. It has effects on human health and on plants; NO2 contributes to the phenomenon of acid rain. The negative effects of nitrogen dioxides on plants are the reduction of the growth, production and pesticide resistance. And finally, the effects on materials: nitrogen dioxide increases the corrosion. The data used for this study consist of a set of 106 NO2 passive sensors. 80 were used to build the models and the remaining 36 have constituted the testing set. Missing data have been completed using multiple linear regression and annual average values of pollutant concentrations were computed. All sensors are dispersed homogeneously over the central urban area of Geneva. The main result of the study is that the nonlinear LUR models developed have demonstrated their efficiency in modelling complex phrenomena of air pollution in urban zones and significantly reduced the testing error in comparison with linear models. Further research deals with the development and application of other non-linear data-driven models (Kanevski et al. 2009). References Kanevski M., Pozdnoukhov A. and Timonin V. (2009). Machine Learning for Spatial Environmental Data. Theory, Applications and Software. EPLF Press, Lausanne.

  19. Impacts of Land Use Change on Energy Usage and Ghg Emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeyachandran, I.; Eltrop, L.; Jenssen, T.; Marathe, S. D.

    2014-12-01

    Urbanization has a profound impact on landscape modification and subsequent impacts on energy usage and associated Green House Gas (GHG) emissions. In this paper, a methodology to assess the impact of land use change on energy demand and Green House Gas emissions using remote sensing data is presented. The methodology development was carried out using region of Stuttgart, Germany as the case study for the time period of 1990 to 2006. The first step involved using Corine land cover corresponding to the years 1990, 2000 and 2006 in conjunction with the administrative boundary map of the region of Stuttgart to assess the land use change from 1990 to 2006. The second step of the methodology involved using ATKIS building data of 2004 in conjunction with the land use data of 1990, and 2000 to identify the buildings in 1990 and 2000 and assess the land use conversion to built areas due to urbanization. Also the building types were identified, and the energy usage for heating and cooling was modeled using local guidelines. As the final step, the GHG emissions associated with heating and energy demand was estimated for the years 1990, 2000 and 2004 using the empirical relation set by Öko-Institute (2011). The results of the study indicate that there has been a significant increase in urban residential built surfaces (17%) and decrease in urban greenery, forest and agricultural areas during the time period of 1990 to 2004. The increase in residential built surfaces has resulted in an increase of electricity and heating demand and a subsequent increase in GHG emissions(14%). The methodology presented in this paper brings forth the use of remote sensing to estimate and predict GHG emissions resulting from land use changes.

  20. The effects of sewer infrastructure on water quality: implications for land use studies.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vrebos, Dirk; Staes, Jan; Meire, Patrick

    2010-05-01

    The European Water Framework Directive requires a good ecological status of the European water bodies and the necessary measures to obtain this have to be implemented. The water quality of a river is the result of complex anthropogenic systems (buildings, waste water treatment infrastructure, regulations, etc.) and biogeochemical and eco-hydrological interactions. It is therefore essential to obtain more insight in the factors that determine the water quality in a river. Research into the relation between land use and water quality is necessary. Human activities have a huge impact on the flow regimes and associated water quality of river systems. Effects of land use bound activities on water quality are often investigated, but these studies generally ignore the hydrological complexity of a human influenced catchment. Infrastructure like sewer systems and wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) can displace huge quantities of polluted water. The transfers change flow paths, displace water between catchments and change the residence time of the system. If we want to correctly understand the effect of land use distribution on water quality we have to take these sewer systems into account. In this study we analyse the relation between land use and water quality in the Nete catchment (Belgium) and investigate the impact of the sewage infrastructure on this relation. The Nete catchment (1.673 km²) is a mosaic of semi natural, agricultural and urbanized areas and the land use is very fragmented. For the moment 74% of the households within the catchment are connected to a WWTP. The discharges from these WWTP's compose 15% of the total discharge of the Nete. Based on a runoff model the surface of upstream land use was calculated for 378 points. These data were then corrected for the impact of WWTP's. Using sewage infrastructure plans, urban areas connected to a WWTP were added to the upstream land use of the WWTP's water receiving stream. In order to understand the effect of the sewage infrastructure we analysed water quality parameters and upstream land use with, and without, taking the sewage infrastructure into account. Water quality data were obtained from the Flemish Environmental Agency. The incorporation of the sewage system in the upstream land use calculation resulted in important changes in the upstream land use area. While some sample points experienced a reduction in total upstream area up to 18% compared to the run-off model, others saw an increase in their upstream area up to 43%. Upstream urban area decreased by 100% or increased up to 430%. Our results clearly demonstrate the importance of the impact of the sewer systems on the river water quality. Almost no significant results were found between urban area and water quality if sewage system transfers were disregarded. When however a distinction was made between WWTP-connected and not-connected households, we found comprehensible, positive and significant results for several water quality parameters. Our study demonstrates that if upstream land use areas are calculated without taking the sewer system in to account the impact of certain land use classes and the impact of anthropogenic activities on the river system in general can be underestimated. We believe that these results not only demonstrate the importance of sewer infrastructure that relate land use to water quality, but that it also has important implications for water quantity and quality modelling. In complex, human influenced catchments, simple run-off models simply cannot realistically represent the catchment system.

  1. Stream biodiversity: The ghost of land use past

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. S. Harding; E. F. B ENFIELD; P. V. BOLSTAD; G. S. H ELFMAN; E. B. D. JONES

    1998-01-01

    The inf luence of past land use on the present- day diversity of stream invertebrates and fish was investigated by comparing watersheds with different land-use history. Whole watershed land use in the 1950s was the best predictor of present-day diversity, whereas riparian land use and wa- tershed land use in the 1990s were comparatively poor indi- cators. Our findings indicate

  2. Impacts of land use changes on heavy precipitation over the Indian monsoonal regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, H.; Niyogi, D.; Mohanty, U.; Routray, A.; Gupte, M.

    2005-12-01

    In the middle and southern regions of the Indian sub-continent, 80% of the yearly precipitation is caused by the Asian monsoon, an intensely rainy season occurs from June to September every year. Weather models, during the monsoon season, have varying degrees of success at predicting the locations and amount of rainfall to be expected. In late July 2005, a record-breaking precipitation event occurred in Mumbai, western India, but the weather forecasting models failed to identify the heavy rainfall event, and the flooding did major damage. Anomalies in precipitation in the monsoonal regions could be the consequence of anthropogenic activities, such as urbanization and the changes in forested to agricultural crops and associated land use land cover changes. We report results on the impact of landuse land cover changes on the heavy precipitation episode simulations in the western Indian monsoon region using a mesocale model system. The primary area of interest is focused on domains based on the Arabian Sea Monsoon Experiment (2002) and then the validated model is applied to the Mumbai heavy precipitation case.

  3. Land Use, Residential Density, and Walking

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel A. Rodríguez; Kelly R. Evenson; Ana V. Diez Roux; Shannon J. Brines

    2009-01-01

    Background: The neighborhood environment may play a role in encouraging sedentary patterns, especially for middle-aged and older adults. Purpose: The aim of this study was to examine the associations between walking and neighborhood population density, retail availability, and land-use distribution using data from a cohort of adults aged 45 to 84 years. Methods: Data from a multi-ethnic sample of 5529

  4. The Center for Land Use Interpretation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Founded in 1994, the Center for Land Use Interpretation (CLUI) is a research organization "interested in understanding the nature and extent of human interaction with the earth's surface." To this end, CLUI has adopted a multidisciplinary approach to engaging themselves with its mission and actively produces a number of exhibits on land use themes. The site contains information about visiting the center's headquarters in Los Angeles, and a complete archive of the in-house newsletter, Lay of the Land. Visitors will want to take a look at the ongoing programs and projects, which include tours, information on the residency program for landscape interpreters, and the rather creative extrapolative projects. The definitive highlight of the site is the online CLUI Land Use Database which allows users to search an interactive map of the United States or perform a keyword search to look for sites that are unusual and exemplary throughout the country. Each listing generally contains a brief description, some type of visual documentation, and external website links where available.

  5. LAND USE AND WATER QUALITY MANAGEMENT

    E-print Network

    ....................................................... 1.0 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 3.0 4.0 4.1 INTRODUCTION ................................. 4.5 URBAN AND INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT. ........................ 5.0 WATER QUALITY WAGEMEN Residential, cottage and resort development 5 Urban and industrial development. .......... MANAGEMENT

  6. Position Information Job Title Extension Assistant/Associate Professor -Urban Forestry

    E-print Network

    Watson, Craig A.

    Position Information Job Title Extension Assistant/Associate Professor - Urban Forestry Department field of urban forestry, with a focus on urbanization and changing land use. Potential topics include faculty. Extension responsibilities include developing and coordinating a statewide urban forestry

  7. Applying SLEUTH for simulating urban expansion of Hangzhou

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yong; Liu, Xiuhua

    2009-06-01

    Urbanization is found to be closely associated with land use/land cover change which has an important influence in our environment and ecosystems, such as urban heat island effect, biodiversity loss, soil erosion, and pollutions. Studies on accurately simulating urban expansion have been inspired by increasing concerns of the sustainability of urban development. This paper reports our research aiming to simulate the expansion of Hangzhou city using SLEUTH (slope, landuse, exclusion, urban extent, transportation and hillshade) urban growth model. In this research, we investigates the urban spatial growth patterns based on Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM)/Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) images and creates four land cover change scenarios in 2020 with different socio-economic conditions. The results show that the SLEUTH model is less effective for depicting wave-like urban growth. From the four projected scenarios, urban area in this city will increase linearly and the shape of the city continues to be multi-nuclei in 2020. The hotspot area featured by intensive urban growth would, however, shift from urban center to sub-centers.

  8. Effects of urban stormwater-management strategies on stream-water quantity and quality

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Loperfido, J.V.; Hogan, Dianna M.

    2012-01-01

    Urbanization results in elevated stormwater runoff, greater and more intense streamflow, and increased delivery of pollutants to local streams and downstream aquatic systems such as the Chesapeake Bay. Stormwater Best Management Practices (BMPs) are used to mitigate these effects of urban land use by retaining large volumes of stormwater runoff (water quantity) and removing pollutants in the runoff (water quality). Current USGS research aims to understand how the spatial pattern and connectivity of stormwater BMPs affect water quantity and water quality in urban areas.

  9. Land use classification for hydrologic models using interactive machine classification of LANDSAT data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, T. J.; Ragan, R. M.; Mccuen, R. H.

    1975-01-01

    A study was developed to investigate the use of computer aided analysis of LANDSAT multispectral data in estimating percent of imperviousness and associated land uses needed in urban hydrologic modeling. An interactive computer was used to delineate seven land use classifications in the 342 sq. km. Maryland portion of the Anacostia River Basin from LANDSAT data. These results compared favorably with those of an earlier study which obtained the same information through analysis of aerial photographs having a scale of 1:4800. Approximately 94 man days were required to complete the land use analysis using the aerial photographs while less than three man days were required to accomplish similar tasks using the LANDSAT data.

  10. Theorizing Land Cover and Land Use Changes: The Case of Tropical Deforestation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, Robert

    2004-01-01

    This article addresses land-cover and land-use dynamics from the perspective of regional science and economic geography. It first provides an account of the so-called spatially explicit model, which has emerged in recent years as a key empirical approach to the issue. The article uses this discussion as a springboard to evaluate the potential utility of von Thuenen to the discourse on land-cover and land-use change. After identifying shortcomings of current theoretical approaches to land use in mainly urban models, the article filters a discussion of deforestation through the lens of bid-rent and assesses its effectiveness in helping us comprehend the destruction of tropical forest in the Amazon basin. The article considers the adjustments that would have to be made to existing theory to make it more useful to the empirical issues.

  11. The Nexus Land-Use model version 1.0, an approach articulating biophysical potentials and economic dynamics to model competition for land-use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souty, F.; Brunelle, T.; Dumas, P.; Dorin, B.; Ciais, P.; Crassous, R.; Müller, C.; Bondeau, A.

    2012-02-01

    Interactions between food demand, biomass energy and forest preservation are driving both food prices and land-use changes, regionally and globally. This study presents a new model called Nexus Land-Use version 1.0 which describes these interactions through a generic representation of agricultural intensification mechanisms. The Nexus Land-Use model equations combine biophysics and economics into a single coherent framework to calculate crop yields, food prices, and resulting pasture and cropland areas within 12 regions inter-connected with each other by international trade. The representation of cropland and livestock production systems in each region relies on three components: (i) a biomass production function derived from the crop yield response function to inputs such as industrial fertilisers; (ii) a detailed representation of the livestock production system subdivided into an intensive and an extensive component, and (iii) a spatially explicit distribution of potential (maximal) crop yields prescribed from the Lund-Postdam-Jena global vegetation model for managed Land (LPJmL). The economic principles governing decisions about land-use and intensification are adapted from the Ricardian rent theory, assuming cost minimisation for farmers. The land-use modelling approach described in this paper entails several advantages. Firstly, it makes it possible to explore interactions among different types of biomass demand for food and animal feed, in a consistent approach, including indirect effects on land-use change resulting from international trade. Secondly, yield variations induced by the possible expansion of croplands on less suitable marginal lands are modelled by using regional land area distributions of potential yields, and a calculated boundary between intensive and extensive production. The model equations and parameter values are first described in details. Then, idealised scenarios exploring the impact of forest preservation policies or rising energy price on agricultural intensification are described, and their impacts on pasture and cropland areas are investigated.

  12. [Effects of land use structure change on regional ecological health--taking Shapingba County as an example].

    PubMed

    Wang, Cheng; Wei, Chaofu; Gao, Ming; Luo, Guanglian; Jiang, Wei

    2005-12-01

    Land resource is the carrier for the exchange of matter, energy and information flows, while the change velocity and the intensity of land use has strong effects on the ecological processes such as matter circulation, energy flow, and biologic diversity. Land use structure change will alter the type, area, and spatial distribution of ecosystem, and in the meantime, result in the changes of regional ecological health. Employing the principles and methods of landscape ecology, and through endowing relative ecological value to land use type, this paper analyzed the charaeteristics of recent 10 years land use change in Shapingba County of Chongqing, and discussed the effects of land use change on regional ecological health, aimed to provide scientific references for land use planning and sustainable land resource utilization. The results indicated that transformation often occurred among different land use types, and the land use structure in each transformation phase differed quite obviously. Under different land use structure, there was a great disparity in relative ecological value of sub-ecosystems, which played various roles in regional ecological health. In general, the regional relative ecological value embodied both increase and decrease. In the future, the relative ecological value of sub-ecosystem would represent three tendencies, i.e., increase first and decrease then, continuous decrease, and continuous increase. The situation of regional ecological health would gradually become better. PMID:16515175

  13. The Impact of Land Use/Land Cover Changes on Land Degradation Dynamics: A Mediterranean Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bajocco, S.; De Angelis, A.; Perini, L.; Ferrara, A.; Salvati, L.

    2012-05-01

    In the last decades, due to climate changes, soil deterioration, and Land Use/Land Cover Changes (LULCCs), land degradation risk has become one of the most important ecological issues at the global level. Land degradation involves two interlocking systems: the natural ecosystem and the socio-economic system. The complexity of land degradation processes should be addressed using a multidisciplinary approach. Therefore, the aim of this work is to assess diachronically land degradation dynamics under changing land covers. This paper analyzes LULCCs and the parallel increase in the level of land sensitivity to degradation along the coastal belt of Sardinia (Italy), a typical Mediterranean region where human pressure affects the landscape characteristics through fires, intensive agricultural practices, land abandonment, urban sprawl, and tourism concentration. Results reveal that two factors mainly affect the level of land sensitivity to degradation in the study area: (i) land abandonment and (ii) unsustainable use of rural and peri-urban areas. Taken together, these factors represent the primary cause of the LULCCs observed in coastal Sardinia. By linking the structural features of the Mediterranean landscape with its functional land degradation dynamics over time, these results contribute to orienting policies for sustainable land management in Mediterranean coastal areas.

  14. The impact of land use/land cover changes on land degradation dynamics: a Mediterranean case study.

    PubMed

    Bajocco, S; De Angelis, A; Perini, L; Ferrara, A; Salvati, L

    2012-05-01

    In the last decades, due to climate changes, soil deterioration, and Land Use/Land Cover Changes (LULCCs), land degradation risk has become one of the most important ecological issues at the global level. Land degradation involves two interlocking systems: the natural ecosystem and the socio-economic system. The complexity of land degradation processes should be addressed using a multidisciplinary approach. Therefore, the aim of this work is to assess diachronically land degradation dynamics under changing land covers. This paper analyzes LULCCs and the parallel increase in the level of land sensitivity to degradation along the coastal belt of Sardinia (Italy), a typical Mediterranean region where human pressure affects the landscape characteristics through fires, intensive agricultural practices, land abandonment, urban sprawl, and tourism concentration. Results reveal that two factors mainly affect the level of land sensitivity to degradation in the study area: (i) land abandonment and (ii) unsustainable use of rural and peri-urban areas. Taken together, these factors represent the primary cause of the LULCCs observed in coastal Sardinia. By linking the structural features of the Mediterranean landscape with its functional land degradation dynamics over time, these results contribute to orienting policies for sustainable land management in Mediterranean coastal areas. PMID:22419398

  15. Land use intensification alters ecosystem multifunctionality via loss of biodiversity and changes to functional composition.

    PubMed

    Allan, Eric; Manning, Pete; Alt, Fabian; Binkenstein, Julia; Blaser, Stefan; Blüthgen, Nico; Böhm, Stefan; Grassein, Fabrice; Hölzel, Norbert; Klaus, Valentin H; Kleinebecker, Till; Morris, E Kathryn; Oelmann, Yvonne; Prati, Daniel; Renner, Swen C; Rillig, Matthias C; Schaefer, Martin; Schloter, Michael; Schmitt, Barbara; Schöning, Ingo; Schrumpf, Marion; Solly, Emily; Sorkau, Elisabeth; Steckel, Juliane; Steffen-Dewenter, Ingolf; Stempfhuber, Barbara; Tschapka, Marco; Weiner, Christiane N; Weisser, Wolfgang W; Werner, Michael; Westphal, Catrin; Wilcke, Wolfgang; Fischer, Markus

    2015-08-01

    Global change, especially land-use intensification, affects human well-being by impacting the delivery of multiple ecosystem services (multifunctionality). However, whether biodiversity loss is a major component of global change effects on multifunctionality in real-world ecosystems, as in experimental ones, remains unclear. Therefore, we assessed biodiversity, functional composition and 14 ecosystem services on 150 agricultural grasslands differing in land-use intensity. We also introduce five multifunctionality measures in which ecosystem services were weighted according to realistic land-use objectives. We found that indirect land-use effects, i.e. those mediated by biodiversity loss and by changes to functional composition, were as strong as direct effects on average. Their strength varied with land-use objectives and regional context. Biodiversity loss explained indirect effects in a region of intermediate productivity and was most damaging when land-use objectives favoured supporting and cultural services. In contrast, functional composition shifts, towards fast-growing plant species, strongly increased provisioning services in more inherently unproductive grasslands. PMID:26096863

  16. Does Land-Use Intensification Decrease Plant Phylogenetic Diversity in Local Grasslands?

    PubMed Central

    Egorov, Eugen; Prati, Daniel; Durka, Walter; Michalski, Stefan; Fischer, Markus; Schmitt, Barbara; Blaser, Stefan; Brändle, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Phylogenetic diversity (PD) has been successfully used as a complement to classical measures of biological diversity such as species richness or functional diversity. By considering the phylogenetic history of species, PD broadly summarizes the trait space within a community. This covers amongst others complex physiological or biochemical traits that are often not considered in estimates of functional diversity, but may be important for the understanding of community assembly and the relationship between diversity and ecosystem functions. In this study we analyzed the relationship between PD of plant communities and land-use intensification in 150 local grassland plots in three regions in Germany. Specifically we asked whether PD decreases with land-use intensification and if so, whether the relationship is robust across different regions. Overall, we found that species richness decreased along land-use gradients the results however differed for common and rare species assemblages. PD only weakly decreased with increasing land-use intensity. The strength of the relationship thereby varied among regions and PD metrics used. From our results we suggest that there is no general relationship between PD and land-use intensification probably due to lack of phylogenetic conservatism in land-use sensitive traits. Nevertheless, we suggest that depending on specific regional idiosyncrasies the consideration of PD as a complement to other measures of diversity can be useful. PMID:25061934

  17. The influence of land-use composition on fecal contamination of riverine source water in southern British Columbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    St Laurent, Jacques; Mazumder, Asit

    2012-12-01

    The potential for riverine drinking source water to become contaminated with pathogens is related to the production and transport of fecal waste from within the local catchment area. Identifying specific relationships between land-use types and fecal contamination in riverine water provides an indication of the risk associated with land-use change and helps to target mitigation measures toward land-use types of concern. Fecal coliform (FC) data from 42 riverine sites across British Columbia (BC), Canada, were examined in relation to land-use composition (including 16 land-use types) in the local catchment area. FC concentration significantly increased in relation to anthropogenic land-use impacts but was negatively associated with undisturbed and high-elevation land types. Regression tree analysis identified that highest FC concentrations occurred in catchments characterized by more than 12.5% agricultural land and more than 1.6% urban land. Furthermore, the risk of violation of the BC partial treatment raw drinking water quality guideline for FC concentration (100 CFU 100 mL-1) increased in relation to agricultural impacts. Additional factors, such as sewage treatment discharge, low dilution in smaller streams, and higher temperatures, were associated with higher FC concentration among sites with similar levels of agricultural development. These results identify land-use types that present the greatest threat to riverine contamination, namely agricultural and urban land, and indicate the proportion of such land use associated with high contamination. Land use should be managed and source water protection should be targeted in light of these results so as to minimize the risk of surface water exposure to fecal contaminants.

  18. The Watershed Planning System: A Tool for Integrated Land Use Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weller, D. G.

    2002-05-01

    The challenge in Maryland and across the nation is allowing economic growth while protecting our environment. Maryland's Smart Growth policies provide a strong foundation for conserving resource land, minimizing nutrient loadings from new development, and revitalizing our urban/suburban communities. To assist local governments and communities, MDP has developed the Watershed Planning System (WPS). It is an analytical tool to conduct watershed-based assessments of the impacts of current and alternative programs and policies on land and water resources. The WPS consists of two GIS-based models, the Growth Management Simulation, and the Pollution Simulation Management models. The Growth Management Simulation Model estimates changes in land uses by watershed as a function of population and household projections, as well as state and county policies, regulations, and programs. The model allows evaluation of different future land use scenarios by changing assumptions associated with comprehensive plans and zoning, subdivision, and environmental regulations through which plans are implemented. The Pollution Simulation Management model evaluates the effects of pollution management alternatives on current land use and future land use conditions. The output provides a basis for selecting a feasible mix of management alternatives that can be implemented through program changes, such as: comprehensive plans, soil conservation and water quality plans, nutrient management programs, zoning and subdivision programs, and sensitive area protection programs, and through implementation of best management practices. The WPS has been applied in the 13 counties, Anne Arundel, Calvert, Charles, Howard, Montgomery, Prince George's, St. Mary's, Worcester, Cecil, Wicomico, Frederick, Carroll, and Harford, to address a variety of land use management, resource conservation, and pollution control objectives. In addition, the model has been used to produce statewide 2020 land use projections essential for sound land use planning.

  19. Land use and water use in the Antelope Valley, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Templin, W.E.; Phillips, S.P.; Cherry, D.E.; DeBortoli, M.L.; Haltom, T.C.; McPherson, K.R.; Mrozek, C.A.

    1995-01-01

    Urban land use and water use in the Antelope Valley, California, have increased greatly since the devel- opment of the valley began in the late 1800's. Ground water always has been a major source of supply in this area because of limited local surface-water resources. Ground-water pumpage reportedly increased from about 29,000 acre-feet in 1919 to about 400,000 acre-feet in the 1950's. Declines in ground-water levels and increased costs of electrical power in the 1970's resulted in a reduction in the quantity of ground-water pumped annually for irrigation uses. Ground-water pumpage was further reduced in the 1970's following the completion of the California Aqueduct, which conveys water from northern California. Total annual reported ground-water pumpage decreased to a low of about 53,200 acre-feet in 1983 and increased again to about 91,700 acre-feet in 1991. Rapid urban development and the 1987-92 drought renewed concern about a possible return to extensive ground-water- storage depletion and increased land subsidence. Water-demand forecasts in 1980 for the Antelope Valley indicated that total annual demand by the year 2020 was expected to be about 250,000 acre- feet per year, with agricultural uses to be about 65 percent of this total demand. In 1990, total demand. In 1993, preliminary forecasts for total demand for 2010 ranged from about 127,000 to 329,000 acre-feet with urban water uses accounting for all but a few percent of the total anticipated demand. This history of forecasts indicates that expectations change with time. Factors that affect water demand change and different forecasting methods are used. Water-conservation options may be adopted to employ best-management practices that would further influence future water demands in the Antelope Valley.

  20. INDEX OF MAPS AND DIAGRAMS LAND USE: CAMPUS & SURROUNDING AREAS 6

    E-print Network

    Kamat, Vineet R.

    INDEX OF MAPS AND DIAGRAMS KEY PLAN LAND USE: CAMPUS & SURROUNDING AREAS 6 LAND USE: PATTERNS ARBOR: LAND USE 38 LAND USE: CAMPUS & SURROUNDING AREAS 40 LAND USE: SCIENCES 41 LAND USE: HOUSING 42 LAND USE: RELIGIOUS INSTITUTIONS 43 LAND USE: UM ADMINISTRATION 44 UNIVERSITY BUILDINGS: CLASSROOM & 45

  1. Symposium Essay: The Energy-Land Use Nexus

    E-print Network

    Outka, Uma

    2012-01-01

    This Symposium Essay explores the contours of the 'energy-land use nexus' – the rich set of interrelationships between land use and energy production and consumption. This underexplored nexus encapsulates barriers and opportunities as the trajectory...

  2. CARBON SEQUESTRATION THROUGH CHANGES IN LAND USE IN OREGON

    E-print Network

    CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION CARBON SEQUESTRATION THROUGH CHANGES IN LAND USE IN OREGON: COSTS, and J. Kadyszewski (Winrock International). 2007. Carbon Sequestration Through Changes in Land Use Curves, and Pilot Actions for Terrestrial Carbon Sequestration in Oregon. Report to Winrock

  3. Conditions and effectiveness of land use as a mobility tool

    E-print Network

    Zhang, Ming, 1963 Apr. 22-

    2002-01-01

    This dissertation examines the potential of land use as a mobility tool to affect travel, a subject of long and ongoing policy debate. Land use strategies such as densification, mixed-use development, and non-driving-oriented ...

  4. 25 CFR 168.10 - Conservation and land use provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 2013-04-01 false Conservation and land use provisions. 168.10 Section 168.10...GRAZING REGULATIONS FOR THE HOPI PARTITIONED LANDS AREA § 168.10 Conservation and land use provisions. Grazing operations shall...

  5. 12 CFR 1010.209 - Title and land use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 false Title and land use. 1010.209 Section 1010.209...OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL PROTECTION LAND REGISTRATION (REGULATION J) Reporting...Requirements § 1010.209 Title and land use. (a) General...

  6. 25 CFR 168.10 - Conservation and land use provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 2011-04-01 false Conservation and land use provisions. 168.10 Section 168.10...GRAZING REGULATIONS FOR THE HOPI PARTITIONED LANDS AREA § 168.10 Conservation and land use provisions. Grazing operations shall...

  7. 25 CFR 168.10 - Conservation and land use provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 2014-04-01 false Conservation and land use provisions. 168.10 Section 168.10...GRAZING REGULATIONS FOR THE HOPI PARTITIONED LANDS AREA § 168.10 Conservation and land use provisions. Grazing operations shall...

  8. 12 CFR 1010.209 - Title and land use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 false Title and land use. 1010.209 Section 1010.209...OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL PROTECTION LAND REGISTRATION (REGULATION J) Reporting...Requirements § 1010.209 Title and land use. (a) General...

  9. 25 CFR 168.10 - Conservation and land use provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 2010-04-01 false Conservation and land use provisions. 168.10 Section 168.10...GRAZING REGULATIONS FOR THE HOPI PARTITIONED LANDS AREA § 168.10 Conservation and land use provisions. Grazing operations shall...

  10. 25 CFR 168.10 - Conservation and land use provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 2011-04-01 true Conservation and land use provisions. 168.10 Section 168.10...GRAZING REGULATIONS FOR THE HOPI PARTITIONED LANDS AREA § 168.10 Conservation and land use provisions. Grazing operations shall...

  11. 12 CFR 1010.209 - Title and land use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 false Title and land use. 1010.209 Section 1010.209...OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL PROTECTION LAND REGISTRATION (REGULATION J) Reporting...Requirements § 1010.209 Title and land use. (a) General...

  12. BRITISH COLUMBIA LAND USE PLANNING: BACKCOUNTRY TOURISM PERSPECTIVES

    E-print Network

    BRITISH COLUMBIA LAND USE PLANNING: BACKCOUNTRY TOURISM PERSPECTIVES by Rebekah Edwards-Craig B of Research Project: British Columbia Land Use Planning: Backcountry Tourism Perspectives Supervisory, including the backcountry tourism and outdoor recreation sectors, at a disadvantage in such planning

  13. Oak Ridge reservation land-use plan

    SciTech Connect

    Bibb, W. R.; Hardin, T. H.; Hawkins, C. C.; Johnson, W. A.; Peitzsch, F. C.; Scott, T. H.; Theisen, M. R.; Tuck, S. C.

    1980-03-01

    This study establishes a basis for long-range land-use planning to accommodate both present and projected DOE program requirements in Oak Ridge. In addition to technological requirements, this land-use plan incorporates in-depth ecological concepts that recognize multiple uses of land as a viable option. Neither environmental research nor technological operations need to be mutually exclusive in all instances. Unique biological areas, as well as rare and endangered species, need to be protected, and human and environmental health and safety must be maintained. The plan is based on the concept that the primary use of DOE land resources must be to implement the overall DOE mission in Oak Ridge. This document, along with the base map and overlay maps, provides a reasonably detailed description of the DOE Oak Ridge land resources and of the current and potential uses of the land. A description of the land characteristics, including geomorphology, agricultural productivity and soils, water courses, vegetation, and terrestrial and aquatic animal habitats, is presented to serve as a resource document. Essentially all DOE land in the Oak Ridge area is being fully used for ongoing DOE programs or has been set aside as protected areas.

  14. Community Context, Land Use and First Birth

    PubMed Central

    Ghimire, Dirgha J.; Axinn, William G.

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the influence of community context and land use on the monthly odds of first birth in a society in the midst of dramatic fertility transition. The theoretical framework guiding our work predicts that proximity to non-family services should delay first births by creating opportunities for competing non-family activities and spreading new ideas that change expectations about family life. On the other hand, living in agricultural settings that provide opportunities for higher returns to the child labor should speed first births. We use a longitudinal, multilevel, mixed-method data from the Nepalese Himalayas to test these predictions. The empirical results reveal that non-family services during childhood and during early adulthood both have important independent influences on the odds of first birth. Also, as predicted, a high density of agricultural land use affects the odds of first births in the opposite direction, speeding first births. This clear pattern of contrasting effects provides important new evidence of the contextual dynamics that produce watershed changes in post-marital birth timing. PMID:20877584

  15. Land use and cover change in Japan and Tokyo’s appetite for meat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tatiana Gadda; Alexandros Gasparatos

    2009-01-01

    Urban consumption of ecosystems services such as food generates environmental impacts at different geographical scales. In\\u000a the last few decades Tokyoites have shown an increasing appetite for meat. This study examines the environmental implications\\u000a of Tokyo’s increasing meat consumption by analyzing how this trend has affected land use and cover change in areas near and\\u000a far away. Historical databases (1970–2005)

  16. Land Use and Basin Characteristics Determine the Composition and Abundance of the Microzooplankton

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susana B. José de Paggi; Melina Devercelli

    2011-01-01

    The influence of watershed land use on microzooplankton was examined. Six rivers and a shallow lake located in rural (agriculture,\\u000a livestock) and urban areas were sampled during 4 weeks at low water, low temperatures and 3 weeks at high water, high temperatures.\\u000a The major aim of this study was to analyze the composition, richness and abundance of the microzooplankton in relation to

  17. Soil landscape constraint mapping for coastal land use planning using geographic information system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    X. Yang; J. M. Gray; G. A. Chapman; M. A. Young

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the study was to delineate soil landscape constraints to various land uses for urban and regional planning in the coastal areas of New South Wales (NSW), Australia. Soil landscape units mapped at 1:100,000 or coarser were sub-divided into component facets using advanced terrain modelling techniques in a geographic information system (GIS). The output facet grids were further

  18. Estimation of Land Use Specific Runoff and Pollutant Concentration for Tapi River Basin in India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aabha Sargaonkar

    2006-01-01

    Non-point source (NPS) pollution is the result of various land use practices such as agriculture, sites of construction and\\u000a waste disposal, urban development and so on. The control of NPS pollution is possible by regular monitoring and assessment\\u000a on watershed basis to educate people for implementing well-known structural and non-structural measures. Recent trend is to\\u000a use GIS based modelling tool

  19. Development of engineering geologic performance standards for land-use regulation in Sabine Pass, Texas 

    E-print Network

    Vaught, Richmond Murphy

    1982-01-01

    ). While the data gained and results of studies is useful, many times their conversion into practical, usable forms is difficult (Mathewson and Ruckman, 1974). A combination of engineering and geology to produce performance standards for particular... University Chairman of Advisory Committee: Dr. C. C. Mathewson Development of engineering geologic performance standards for urban planning is a feasible means of providing data based land-use criteria. Engineering geologic data was assimilated for Sabine...

  20. Impacts of land-use change on ecosystem service value in Changsha, China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yun-guo Liu; Xiao-xia Zeng; Li Xu; Da-lun Tian; Guang-ming Zeng; Xin-jiang Hu; Yin-fang Tang

    2011-01-01

    Changsha, a typical city in central China, was selected as the study area to assess the variations of ecosystem service value\\u000a on the basis of land-use change. The analysis not only included the whole city but also the urban district where the landscape\\u000a changed more rapidly in the center of the city. Two LANDSAT TM data sets in 1986 and

  1. Hydrological Processes Modifications Induced by Land-Use Changes in the Caetité Region, Northeastern Brazil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. F. Fernandes; M. R. Franklin; A. C. Ferraz; R. G. Reis; V. P. Melo

    2009-01-01

    Land-use changes can generate important modifications in hydrological processes, especially those that take place close to the soil surface. These changes usually lead to a decrease in infiltration rates and to an increase in surface runoff and soil erosion. Besides, in the long-term, they tend to reduce groundwater recharge. Such effect can be amplified when intensive groundwater pumping is carried

  2. Impact of land use change on wind erosion and dust emission: scenarios from the central US

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There will be significant changes in land cover and land use throughout the central United States in the coming years, particularly as a result of climate change, changes in US rangeland/farm policy, and increasing exploitation of land-intensive sustainable energy sources. The purpose of this study ...

  3. Implications of land use change in tropical West Africa under global warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brücher, Tim; Claussen, Martin

    2015-04-01

    Northern Africa, and the Sahel in particular, are highly vulnerable to climate change, due to strong exposure to increasing temperature, precipitation variability, and population growth. A major link between climate and humans in this region is land use and associated land cover change, mainly where subsistence farming prevails. But how strongly does climate change affect land use and how strongly does land use feeds back into climate change? To which extent may climate-induced water, food and wood shortages exacerbate conflict potential and lead changes in land use and to migration? Estimates of possible changes in African climate vary among the Earth System Models participating in the recent Coupled Model Intercomparison (CMIP5) exercise, except for the region adjacent to the Mediterranean Sea, where a significant decrease of precipitation emerges. While all models agree in a strong temperature increase, rainfall uncertainties for most parts of the Sahara, Sahel, and Sudan are higher. Here we present results of complementary experiments based on extreme and idealized land use change scenarios within a future climate.. We use the MPI-ESM forced with a strong green house gas scenario (RCP8.5) and apply an additional land use forcing by varying largely the intensity and kind of agricultural practice. By these transient experiments (until 2100) we elaborate the additional impact on climate due to strong land use forcing. However, the differences are mostly insignificant. The greenhouse gas caused temperature increase and the high variability in the West African Monsoon rainfall superposes the minor changes in climate due to land use. While simulated climate key variables like precipitation and temperature are not distinguishable from the CMIP5 RCP8.5 results, an additional greening is simulated, when crops are demanded. Crops have lower water usage than pastureland has. This benefits available soil water, which is taken up by the natural vegetation and makes it more productive. Given the limitations of an ESM, the findings of our study show that changes in the kind and intensity of land use have minor effects on the climate. Consequently, implications of extreme land use on e.g. human security, conflict or migration can be investigated in offline simulations.

  4. UP 261 Land Use Planning: Processes, Critiques and Innovations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vinit Mukhija

    2004-01-01

    The class will start with a review of the history of public land use control mechanisms, particularly zoning. It will try to develop an understanding of the role of various institutions involved in the planning process. Next, the class will discuss the main critiques of conventional land use planning. These include critiques of land use planning as an inefficient, capricious,

  5. The effects of land use on stream nitrate dynamics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cara J. Poor; Jeffrey J. McDonnell

    2007-01-01

    The effects of land use and land use change on stream nitrate are poorly understood. While case studies have been presented, most process work has been done in areas with one land use (minimally disturbed or agricultural) and areas with substantial atmospheric deposition. In this paper we present results from three neighboring headwater catchments in western Oregon with similar (low)

  6. Modeling the relationship between land use and surface water quality

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susanna T. Y. Tong; Wenli Chen

    2002-01-01

    It is widely known that watershed hydrology is dependent on many factors, including land use, climate, and soil conditions. But the relative impacts of different types of land use on the surface water are yet to be ascertained and quantified. This research attempted to use a comprehensive approach to examine the hydrologic effects of land use at both a regional

  7. Automatic photointerpretation for land use management in Minnesota

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swanlund, G. D. (principal investigator); Kirvida, L.; Cheung, M.; Pile, D.; Zirkle, R.

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Automatic photointerpretation techniques were utilized to evaluate the feasibility of data for land use management. It was shown that ERTS-1 MSS data can produce thematic maps of adequate resolution and accuracy to update land use maps. In particular, five typical land use areas were mapped with classification accuracies ranging from 77% to over 90%.

  8. 30 CFR 817.133 - Postmining land use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 false Postmining land use. 817.133 Section 817.133...ACTIVITIES § 817.133 Postmining land use. (a) General. All disturbed...uses of land to which the postmining land use is compared shall be those uses...

  9. 50 CFR 70.7 - Land-use management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Land-use management. 70.7 Section 70.7 Wildlife...AREAS NATIONAL FISH HATCHERIES § 70.7 Land-use management. The land-use management provisions set forth in part 29 of...

  10. Sharpening the Focus of Yolo County Land Use Policy

    E-print Network

    Ferrara, Katherine W.

    Sharpening the Focus of Yolo County Land Use Policy Kurt R. Richter University of California Agricultural Issues Center October 2009 #12;Sharpening the Focus of Yolo County Land Use Policy II University of California Agricultural Issues Center #12;Sharpening the Focus of Yolo County Land Use Policy III Making

  11. 43 CFR 3430.3-1 - Land use planning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Land use planning. 3430.3-1 Section...Preference Right Leases § 3430.3-1 Land use planning. (a) As a matter...the cycle of on-going comprehensive land use plans unless the authorized...

  12. 30 CFR 816.133 - Postmining land use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false Postmining land use. 816.133 Section 816.133...ACTIVITIES § 816.133 Postmining land use. (a) General. All disturbed...uses of land to which the postmining land use is compared shall be those uses...

  13. 43 CFR 4710.1 - Land use planning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Land use planning. 4710.1 Section 4710...Management Considerations § 4710.1 Land use planning. Management activities...shall be in accordance with approved land use plans prepared pursuant to part...

  14. www.extension.ucdavis.edu/landuse Land Use and

    E-print Network

    Thomases, Becca

    www.extension.ucdavis.edu/landuse Land Use and Natural Resources Fall 2010 CONTINUING extension@ucdavis.edu or visit us online. www.extension.ucdavis.edu/landuse ABOUT ThE LAND USE AND NATURAL RESOURCES PROGRAm The Land Use and Natural Resources program--one of the largest of its kind in the U

  15. 14 CFR 150.11 - Identification of land uses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 false Identification of land uses. 150.11 Section 150.11... § 150.11 Identification of land uses. For the purposes of this part...A of this part. Determination of land use must be based on professional...

  16. 50 CFR 70.7 - Land-use management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Land-use management. 70.7 Section 70.7 Wildlife...AREAS NATIONAL FISH HATCHERIES § 70.7 Land-use management. The land-use management provisions set forth in part 29 of...

  17. Title: CLUPA Modifying Land Use Area Data Creator /

    E-print Network

    Title: CLUPA Modifying Land Use Area Data Creator / Copyright Owner: Ontario Ministry of Natural Coverage Date(s): N/A Updates: N/A Abstract: Contains land use direction and the geographic extent they represent that supplements and/or modifies the principal land use direction for Crown Land. Refer to Ontario

  18. 4, 42654295, 2007 Impact of land-use

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    HESSD 4, 4265­4295, 2007 Impact of land-use change on the groundwater system J. Dams et al. Title System Sciences Forecasting land-use change and its impact on the groundwater system of the Kleine Nete #12;HESSD 4, 4265­4295, 2007 Impact of land-use change on the groundwater system J. Dams et al. Title

  19. 14 CFR 150.11 - Identification of land uses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 false Identification of land uses. 150.11 Section 150.11... § 150.11 Identification of land uses. For the purposes of this part...A of this part. Determination of land use must be based on professional...

  20. 30 CFR 816.133 - Postmining land use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false Postmining land use. 816.133 Section 816.133...ACTIVITIES § 816.133 Postmining land use. (a) General. All disturbed...uses of land to which the postmining land use is compared shall be those uses...

  1. 30 CFR 817.133 - Postmining land use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false Postmining land use. 817.133 Section 817.133...ACTIVITIES § 817.133 Postmining land use. (a) General. All disturbed...uses of land to which the postmining land use is compared shall be those uses...

  2. extension.ucdavis.edu/landuse Land Use and

    E-print Network

    Thomases, Becca

    extension.ucdavis.edu/landuse Land Use and Natural Resources Summer 2011 CONTINUING with challenges, nature invests! UC Davis Extension's Land Use and Natural Resources is also investing to how GIS can lead the way in land use and natural resource management. Our Sustainability and the Built

  3. 43 CFR 3430.3-1 - Land use planning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Land use planning. 3430.3-1 Section...Preference Right Leases § 3430.3-1 Land use planning. (a) As a matter...the cycle of on-going comprehensive land use plans unless the authorized...

  4. 30 CFR 816.133 - Postmining land use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false Postmining land use. 816.133 Section 816.133...ACTIVITIES § 816.133 Postmining land use. (a) General. All disturbed...uses of land to which the postmining land use is compared shall be those uses...

  5. 43 CFR 4710.1 - Land use planning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Land use planning. 4710.1 Section 4710...Management Considerations § 4710.1 Land use planning. Management activities...shall be in accordance with approved land use plans prepared pursuant to part...

  6. The worldwide extent of land-use change

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. A. Houghton

    1994-01-01

    In the last few centuries, particularly the last several decades, the effects of land use change have become global. These global changes are not only changes in land use and direct effects, but also in the contribution to global changes in climate through increasing greenhouse gas emission. Land use change can be considered from two perspectives: the intended and the

  7. 14 CFR 150.11 - Identification of land uses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 false Identification of land uses. 150.11 Section 150.11... § 150.11 Identification of land uses. For the purposes of this part...A of this part. Determination of land use must be based on professional...

  8. 43 CFR 3430.3-1 - Land use planning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Land use planning. 3430.3-1 Section...Preference Right Leases § 3430.3-1 Land use planning. (a) As a matter...the cycle of on-going comprehensive land use plans unless the authorized...

  9. 43 CFR 3430.3-1 - Land use planning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Land use planning. 3430.3-1 Section...Preference Right Leases § 3430.3-1 Land use planning. (a) As a matter...the cycle of on-going comprehensive land use plans unless the authorized...

  10. 30 CFR 817.133 - Postmining land use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false Postmining land use. 817.133 Section 817.133...ACTIVITIES § 817.133 Postmining land use. (a) General. All disturbed...uses of land to which the postmining land use is compared shall be those uses...

  11. 30 CFR 817.133 - Postmining land use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Postmining land use. 817.133 Section 817.133...ACTIVITIES § 817.133 Postmining land use. (a) General. All disturbed...uses of land to which the postmining land use is compared shall be those uses...

  12. 30 CFR 817.133 - Postmining land use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false Postmining land use. 817.133 Section 817.133...ACTIVITIES § 817.133 Postmining land use. (a) General. All disturbed...uses of land to which the postmining land use is compared shall be those uses...

  13. Invited Feature Land Use Change around Nature Reserves

    E-print Network

    Hansen, Andrew J.

    Invited Feature Land Use Change around Nature Reserves: Implications for Sustaining Biodiversity1 Program recommended creating buffer zones of intermediate human land use to reduce the impacts within protected areas. The first studies of change in land use during the period of high-resolution satellite data

  14. 50 CFR 70.7 - Land-use management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Land-use management. 70.7 Section 70.7 Wildlife...AREAS NATIONAL FISH HATCHERIES § 70.7 Land-use management. The land-use management provisions set forth in part 29 of...

  15. 50 CFR 70.7 - Land-use management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Land-use management. 70.7 Section 70.7 Wildlife...AREAS NATIONAL FISH HATCHERIES § 70.7 Land-use management. The land-use management provisions set forth in part 29 of...

  16. 30 CFR 816.133 - Postmining land use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 false Postmining land use. 816.133 Section 816.133...ACTIVITIES § 816.133 Postmining land use. (a) General. All disturbed...uses of land to which the postmining land use is compared shall be those uses...

  17. 43 CFR 4710.1 - Land use planning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Land use planning. 4710.1 Section 4710...Management Considerations § 4710.1 Land use planning. Management activities...shall be in accordance with approved land use plans prepared pursuant to part...

  18. 43 CFR 4710.1 - Land use planning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Land use planning. 4710.1 Section 4710...Management Considerations § 4710.1 Land use planning. Management activities...shall be in accordance with approved land use plans prepared pursuant to part...

  19. Land Use and natUraL resoUrces

    E-print Network

    California at Davis, University of

    1 Land Use and natUraL resoUrces FALL 2012 Including: New Development Models for the Emerging AND PROFESSIONAL EDUCATION #12;2 We have been celebrating Land Use and Natural Resources' 30th anniversary all year in the history of planning and environmental management in California. For 30 years, Land Use and Natural

  20. Land Use and natUraL resoUrces

    E-print Network

    Ferrara, Katherine W.

    1 Land Use and natUraL resoUrces winter 2013 including: Complete Streets: From Adoption Extension is expanding its Land Use and Natural Resource Planning portfolio to include courses (with: Land Use Planning for Non-Planners: An Introduction to Planning in California. We are also reducing

  1. 30 CFR 816.133 - Postmining land use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Postmining land use. 816.133 Section 816.133...ACTIVITIES § 816.133 Postmining land use. (a) General. All disturbed...uses of land to which the postmining land use is compared shall be those uses...

  2. 14 CFR 150.11 - Identification of land uses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 false Identification of land uses. 150.11 Section 150.11... § 150.11 Identification of land uses. For the purposes of this part...A of this part. Determination of land use must be based on professional...

  3. Assessing sustainable land-use practices using geographic information systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Amelie Y.

    Many prominent scientists have claimed that we need to develop environmentally sustainable practices otherwise societies may collapse. The use of Geographic Information Systems allows detailed studies that can cross disciplinary boundaries and lead to quantifiable statements as to the change of land use practices that took place in the past and those that may occur in the future. This dissertation focuses on two research topics. One that attempts to quantify the environmental consequences of parking lots located in the Midwest, USA. The other research topic focuses on the land area needed to support ethanol in the United States. In Tippecanoe County, Indiana, it was determined that parking lots occupied approximately 6.6% of the urban areas, that the area devoted to parking lots exceeded the area devoted to urban parks by a factor of 3, and that these parking lots contributed to increased runoff of pollutants. The parking lots of Tippecanoe County were estimated to be responsible for 46.5 thousand pounds of oil and grease released annually in runoff, as well as an increase of 240.6 thousand pounds of suspended solids, and 65.7 pounds of lead released when compared to pre-development conditions. A method that scales up the county wide study was also developed to determine the areal footprint of parking lots with the states of Illinois, Indiana, Michigan and Wisconsin. It was estimated that these four states allocate approximately 1260 square km of their land to parking lots and that this accounts for 4.97% of urban land use and over 43 million parking spaces, whereas the number of individuals in age of driving (adults over 18 years old) amounted to just over 25 million. Within the four states studied, states where urban sprawl was considered more prevalent were also states that had a higher proportion of their urban land devoted to parking lots. The second dissertation topic focused on using GIS to locate suitable sites for corn or cellulosic based ethanol production facilities. Since a valuable byproduct of corn ethanol production is Distiller's Grain Solubles (DGS), siting of ethanol plants was considered with regard to both corn production by county within the conterminous United States and head of cattle available to use this output as feed. We found that many counties outside the Midwest could sustain smaller sized ethanol plants, especially when considering that most large production facilities need to redistribute their DGS in dried form sometimes as far as California which has negative impacts on the Net Energy Value of corn based ethanol. The future of ethanol expansion however lies with cellulosic feedstock which is bulkier and thus more costly to transport than corn. Our results indicate that cellulosic ethanol plants should be smaller in capacity, especially when compared to corn ethanol plants where 100 million gallons a year (mgy) plants are more the norm. Only 7 out of 3109 counties in the conterminous United States contain enough wood, switchgrass or crop residue feedstock to sustain plants that produce greater than 40 mgy of biofuel, meaning that larger plants would need to import feedstock from considerable distances and thus incur greater feedstock transport costs. The last section explored co-location options for siting lignocellulosic ethanol plant production facilities.

  4. Interactions between natural-occurring landscape conditions and land use influencing the abundance of riverine smallmouth bass, micropterus dolomieu

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brewer, S.K.; Rabeni, C.F.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined how interactions between natural landscape features and land use influenced the abundance of smallmouth bass, Micropterus dolomieu, in Missouri, USA, streams. Stream segments were placed into one of four groups based on natural-occurring watershed characteristics (soil texture and soil permeability) predicted to relate to smallmouth bass abundance. Within each group, stream segments were assigned forest (n = 3), pasture (n = 3), or urban (n = 3) designations based on the percentages of land use within each watershed. Analyses of variance indicated smallmouth bass densities differed between land use and natural conditions. Decision tree models indicated abundance was highest in forested stream segments and lowest in urban stream segments, regardless of group designation. Land use explained the most variation in decision tree models, but in-channel features of temperature, flow, and sediment also contributed significantly. These results are unique and indicate the importance of natural-occurring watershed conditions in defining the potential of populations and how finer-scale filters interact with land use to further alter population potential. Smallmouth bass has differing vulnerabilities to land-use attributes, and the better the natural watershed conditions are for population success, the more resilient these populations will be when land conversion occurs.

  5. Impacts of adjacent land use and isolation on marsh bird communities.

    PubMed

    Smith, Lyndsay A; Chow-Fraser, Patricia

    2010-05-01

    Over the next half century the human population is expected to grow rapidly, resulting in the conversion of rural areas into cities. Wetlands in these regions are therefore under threat, even though they have important ecosystem services and functions. Many obligate marsh-nesting birds in North America have shown declines over the past 40 years, and it is important to evaluate marsh bird community response to increased urbanization. We surveyed 20 coastal marshes in southern Ontario, Canada, and found that obligate marsh-nesting birds preferred rural over urban wetlands, generalist marsh-nesting birds showed no preference, while synanthropic species showed a trend towards increased richness and abundance in urban marshes. The Index of Marsh Bird Community Integrity (IMBCI) was calculated for each wetland and we found significantly higher scores in rural compared to urban wetlands. The presence of a forested buffer surrounding the marsh was not an important factor in predicting the distribution of generalists, obligates, synanthropic species, or the IMBCI. More isolated marshes had a lower species richness of obligate marsh-nesters and a lower IMBCI than less isolated marshes. Based on our results, we recommend that urban land use is not the dominant land use within 1000 m from any wetland, as it negatively affects the abundance and richness of obligate marsh-nesters, and the overall integrity of the avian community. We also recommend that all existing wetlands be conserved to mitigate against isolation effects and to preserve biodiversity. PMID:20358198

  6. Impacts of Adjacent Land Use and Isolation on Marsh Bird Communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Lyndsay A.; Chow-Fraser, Patricia

    2010-05-01

    Over the next half century the human population is expected to grow rapidly, resulting in the conversion of rural areas into cities. Wetlands in these regions are therefore under threat, even though they have important ecosystem services and functions. Many obligate marsh-nesting birds in North America have shown declines over the past 40 years, and it is important to evaluate marsh bird community response to increased urbanization. We surveyed 20 coastal marshes in southern Ontario, Canada, and found that obligate marsh-nesting birds preferred rural over urban wetlands, generalist marsh-nesting birds showed no preference, while synanthropic species showed a trend towards increased richness and abundance in urban marshes. The Index of Marsh Bird Community Integrity (IMBCI) was calculated for each wetland and we found significantly higher scores in rural compared to urban wetlands. The presence of a forested buffer surrounding the marsh was not an important factor in predicting the distribution of generalists, obligates, synanthropic species, or the IMBCI. More isolated marshes had a lower species richness of obligate marsh-nesters and a lower IMBCI than less isolated marshes. Based on our results, we recommend that urban land use is not the dominant land use within 1000 m from any wetland, as it negatively affects the abundance and richness of obligate marsh-nesters, and the overall integrity of the avian community. We also recommend that all existing wetlands be conserved to mitigate against isolation effects and to preserve biodiversity.

  7. URBAN GROWTH IN CALIFORNIA Projecting Growth in California (2000

    E-print Network

    URBAN GROWTH IN CALIFORNIA Projecting Growth in California (2000­ 2050) Under Six Alternative documents the development of land use models that represent different urban growth policy scenarios growth away from landscape elements of conservation interest. Keywords: Urban growth model, Land Use

  8. Seasonal solute dynamics across land uses during storms in glaciated landscape of the US Midwest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vidon, P.; Hubbard, L. E.; Soyeux, E.

    2009-09-01

    SummaryConsidering the importance of solute exports during storms in annual nutrient budgets at the watershed scale, it is critical to understand the impact of seasonality and differences in land use on watershed hydrological and biogeochemical response to storm events. This study investigates the hydrological response to storms and chloride, nitrate and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) export dynamics during one spring storm and two summer storms in an agricultural catchment (watershed A) and a mixed agricultural/urban catchment (watershed M). Drier antecedent moisture conditions in summer were associated with lower runoff ratios during summer storms than during the spring storm studied. Watershed M also had a much flashier hydrologic behavior than watershed A, suggesting that moderate differences in land use significantly affected each watershed hydrological response to storm events. DOC concentrations were not significantly different between watersheds A and M; however, nitrate and chloride concentrations and export rates were, respectively, higher and lower in watershed A than M. Regardless of land use, nitrate concentrations were also consistently higher during the spring storm than during the two summer storms studied. Although DOC concentrations varied seasonally, precipitation characteristics appeared to be the primary controls on DOC concentration during storms. Generally, chloride and DOC concentrations, respectively, decreased and increased along with discharge during storms. No clear concentration patterns relative to discharge were observed for nitrate in the agricultural watershed. Nitrate concentrations tended to increase following the peak in discharge in the mixed land use watershed. Analysis of stream DOC specific UV absorbance (SUVA) indicated a sharp increase in stream DOC aromaticity during storms regardless of land use and seasons, suggesting a shift in the source of DOC to the stream during storms from low aromaticity DOC at baseflow to highly aromatic DOC during storms. Overall, although many variables can contribute to differences in solute flushing patterns between the watersheds studied, this study indicates that moderate differences in land use (85% agriculture in the agricultural watershed, and 33% agriculture/33% urban/17% pasture/13% forest in the mixed land use watershed), storm characteristics and seasonality (spring vs. summer) can significantly impact watershed response to precipitation and patterns of chloride, nitrate and DOC exports during storms at the watershed scale. Owing to the importance of solute export dynamics in streams during storms in annual solute budgets, we argue that more studies investigating the impact of seasonality and differences in land uses on watersheds' hydrological and biogeochemical responses to storms should be conducted in a variety of geomorphic settings.

  9. Mixed Land Use and Obesity: An Empirical Comparison of Alternative Land Use Measures and Geographic Scales

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ikuho Yamada; Barbara B. Brown; Ken R. Smith; Cathleen D. Zick; Lori Kowaleski-Jones; Jessie X. Fan

    2011-01-01

    Obesity is a growing epidemic in the United States. Walkable neighborhoods, characterized as having the three Ds of walkability (population Density, land use Diversity, and pedestrian-friendly Design), have been identified as a potentially promising factor to prevent obesity for residents. Past studies examining the relationship between obesity and walkability vary in geographic scales of neighborhood definitions and methods of measuring

  10. Mixed Land Use and Obesity: An Empirical Comparison of Alternative Land Use Measures and Geographic Scales

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ikuho Yamada; Barbara B. Brown; Ken R. Smith; Cathleen D. Zick; Lori Kowaleski-Jones; Jessie X. Fan

    2012-01-01

    Obesity is a growing epidemic in the United States. Walkable neighborhoods, characterized as having the three Ds of walkability (population Density, land use Diversity, and pedestrian-friendly Design), have been identified as a potentially promising factor to prevent obesity for residents. Past studies examining the relationship between obesity and walkability vary in geographic scales of neighborhood definitions and methods of measuring

  11. [Urban heat island effect based on urban heat island source and sink indices in Shenyang, Northeast China].

    PubMed

    Li, Li-Guang; Xu, Shen-Lai; Wang, Hong-Bo; Zhao, Zi-Qi; Cai, Fu; Wu, Jin-Wen; Chen, Peng-Shi; Zhang, Yu-Shu

    2013-12-01

    Based on the remote images in 2001 and 2010, the source and sink areas of urban heat island (UHI) in Shenyang City, Northeast China were determined by GIS technique. The effect of urban regional landscape pattern on UHI effect was assessed with land surface temperature (LST), area rate index (CI) of the source and sink areas and intensity index (LI) of heat island. The results indicated that the land use type changed significantly from 2001 to 2010, which significantly changed the source and sink areas of UHI, especially in the second and third circle regions. The source and sink areas were 94.3% and 5.7% in the first circle region, 64.0% and 36.0% in the third circle region in 2001, while they were 93.4% and 6.6%, 70.2% and 29.8% in 2010, respectively. It suggested that the land use pattern extended by a round shape in Shenyang led to the corresponding UHI pattern. The LST in the study area tended to decrease from the first circle region to the third. The UHI intensity was characterized with a single center in 2001 and with several centers in 2010, and the grade of UHI intensity was in a decreasing trend from 2001 to 2010. The absolute value of CI increased from the first circle region to the third, and the L1 was close to 1, suggesting the change in land use pattern had no significant influence on UHI in Shenyang. PMID:24697063

  12. Stratification of a cityscape using census and land use variables for inventory of building materials

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rosenfield, G.H.; Fitzpatrick-Lins, K.; Johnson, T.L.

    1987-01-01

    A cityscape (or any landscape) can be stratified into environmental units using multiple variables of information. For the purposes of sampling building materials, census and land use variables were used to identify similar strata. In the Metropolitan Statistical Area of a cityscape, the census tract is the smallest unit for which census data are summarized and digitized boundaries are available. For purposes of this analysis, census data on total population, total number of housing units, and number of singleunit dwellings were aggregated into variables of persons per square kilometer and proportion of housing units in single-unit dwellings. The level 2 categories of the U.S. Geological Survey's land use and land cover data base were aggregated into variables of proportion of residential land with buildings, proportion of nonresidential land with buildings, and proportion of open land. The cityscape was stratified, from these variables, into environmental strata of Urban Central Business District, Urban Livelihood Industrial Commercial, Urban Multi-Family Residential, Urban Single Family Residential, Non-Urban Suburbanizing, and Non-Urban Rural. The New England region was chosen as a region with commonality of building materials, and a procedure developed for trial classification of census tracts into one of the strata. Final stratification was performed by discriminant analysis using the trial classification and prior probabilities as weights. The procedure was applied to several cities, and the results analyzed by correlation analysis from a field sample of building materials. The methodology developed for stratification of a cityscape using multiple variables has application to many other types of environmental studies, including forest inventory, hydrologic unit management, waste disposal, transportation studies, and other urban studies. Multivariate analysis techniques have recently been used for urban stratification in England. ?? 1987 Annals of Regional Science.

  13. PLUS: 'Planning Land Use with Students' is a Local Land Use Policy That Showcase the Geosciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turrin, M.

    2014-12-01

    Land Use decisions in the local community are well represented in geoscience topics and issues, and provide an excellent opportunity to showcase a wide range of geoscience careers to high school students. In PLUS (Planning Land Use with Students) we work with youth corps, volunteer agencies and the County Departments of Planning, Transportation, Public Health, Water Resources to run a program for high school seniors to engage the students in the complex layers of decision making connected with land use as we showcase geoscience careers (http://www.ldeo.columbia.edu/edu/plus/index.html). How development occurs, what resources are in use and who makes these decisions is both interesting and relevant for students. We develop case studies around current, active, local land use issues large enough in scale to have a formal environmental review at the County and/or the State level. Sections of each case study are dedicated to addressing the range of environmental issues that are central to each land use decision. Water, its availability, planned use and treatment on the site, brings in both a review of local hydrology and a discussion of storm water management. Air quality and the impact of the proposed project's density, transportation plans, and commercial and industrial uses brings in air quality issues like air quality ratings, existing pollution, and local air monitoring. A review of the site plans brings in grading plans for the project area, which highlights issues of drainage, soil stability, and exposure to toxins or pollutants depending on the historic use of the site. Brownfield redevelopments are especially challenging with various monitoring, clean up and usage restrictions that are extremely interesting to the students. Students' work with mentors from the community who represent various roles in the planning process including a range of geosciences, community business members and other players in the planning process. This interplay of individuals provides a realistic look at the forces that move land use decision-making in a community. Discussion of impacts and mitigations highlight the intersection of policy and science. Debate arises on how much science should guide policy and how much land use policy decisions require science monitoring, pushing new scientific developments.

  14. Impacts of Land-use Changes on Biofuels ORNL History of Exploring Changes in Land Use in the United States

    E-print Network

    Impacts of Land-use Changes on Biofuels ORNL History of Exploring Changes in Land Use in the United. Building from their work on environmental costs and benefits associated with biofuel production, ORNL positively impact the sustainability of the biofuels industry. Building understanding of land-use change from

  15. ERTS applications in state land use planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pincura, P. G.; Meier, C. J.; Garrett, G. B.; Herd, L.; Wukelic, G. E.; Stephan, J. G.; Smail, H. E.

    1975-01-01

    The progress made and limitations encountered in using ERTS-1 data for resource management in Ohio is surveyed. Photo-opto-electronic techniques were used with special facility equipment and resolution to 10-30 meters was required to determine strip mine features. Lake Erie's sediment patterns were detected along with flooding conditions, large scale vegetative damage caused by toxic air pollutants was identified, Ohio land use categories were tabulated and thematic map containing forested areas was derived. The experimental findings regarding utility/relevance assessment were ranked in 4 classes for all the applications involved. Preliminary recommendations for operational satellite earth resources survey data requirements are presented and data analysis and product dissemination are proposed to be centralized in conjunction with thermal IR data and an increased resolution.

  16. Testing the Paradox of Enrichment along a Land Use Gradient in a Multitrophic Aboveground and Belowground Community

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Katrin M.; Vos, Matthijs; Mooij, Wolf M.; Hol, W. H. Gera; Termorshuizen, Aad J.; van der Putten, Wim H.

    2012-01-01

    In the light of ongoing land use changes, it is important to understand how multitrophic communities perform at different land use intensities. The paradox of enrichment predicts that fertilization leads to destabilization and extinction of predator-prey systems. We tested this prediction for a land use intensity gradient from natural to highly fertilized agricultural ecosystems. We included multiple aboveground and belowground trophic levels and land use-dependent searching efficiencies of insects. To overcome logistic constraints of field experiments, we used a successfully validated simulation model to investigate plant responses to removal of herbivores and their enemies. Consistent with our predictions, instability measured by herbivore-induced plant mortality increased with increasing land use intensity. Simultaneously, the balance between herbivores and natural enemies turned increasingly towards herbivore dominance and natural enemy failure. Under natural conditions, there were more frequently significant effects of belowground herbivores and their natural enemies on plant performance, whereas there were more aboveground effects in agroecosystems. This result was partly due to the “boom-bust” behavior of the shoot herbivore population. Plant responses to herbivore or natural enemy removal were much more abrupt than the imposed smooth land use intensity gradient. This may be due to the presence of multiple trophic levels aboveground and belowground. Our model suggests that destabilization and extinction are more likely to occur in agroecosystems than in natural communities, but the shape of the relationship is nonlinear under the influence of multiple trophic interactions. PMID:23145055

  17. Assessment of quantitative food web metrics for investigating the influence of land use on warm water fish diets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Derek P. CraneThomas; Thomas H. Johengen; J. David Allan

    2011-01-01

    Lotic systems in many regions of the country have experienced habitat degradation and biodiversity loss due to agricultural\\u000a activity and urbanization. Southeastern Michigan is no exception, as agriculture in the River Raisin watershed and increased\\u000a urbanization in the Huron River watershed threatens both systems. To further understand the ecological impact of land use\\u000a on trophic interactions in Midwestern streams and

  18. Assessing the Impacts of Climate and Land Use Change on Streamflow and Nutrient Loading in the Arroyo Colorado Watershed in Southern Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osidele, O.; Sun, A.; Green, R.

    2011-12-01

    Based on results of the Second National Climate Assessment reported in 2009, the U.S. Global Change Research Program projects temperatures in southern Texas will increase 5 to 8° F by the end of the 21st century, with larger changes occurring under scenarios of higher greenhouse gas emissions. Temperature increases in summer are projected to be larger than in winter. Although drier conditions are expected in the region, sea-level rise, extreme rainfall events, and associated storm surges are projected to occur more frequently because of the likely increase in intensity of hurricanes and tropical storms in the Gulf of Mexico. The range of possible responses to climate change is attributable to a combination of characteristics at global, regional, and local scales. The risk of flooding and catastrophic infrastructure damage due to global climate phenomena has been incorporated into local climate adaptation plans for many low-lying areas and communities in the Gulf Coast region of southern Texas. However, because this region is dominated by irrigated agriculture and the population is projected to double by 2050, it is important to examine how climate change will affect water resources and environmental quality. The purpose of this study is to investigate the potential hydrologic and water quality impacts of projected climate change, land use change, and population change scenarios in the headwaters of the Arroyo Colorado. The results of this work will provide content for a web-based, collaborative geospatial decision support system being developed to support environmental management in the Arroyo Colorado Watershed. Presently, land use in the Arroyo Colorado Watershed is more than 50 percent agricultural and almost 25 percent residential with varying levels of urbanization. As a result, flow in the Arroyo Colorado is sustained primarily by discharge from municipal wastewater treatment facilities, irrigation return flows, and urban storm runoff. In this study, streamflow and nutrient loading simulations for the Arroyo Colorado Watershed are based on the application of the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model driven by projected future climatic conditions generated from five global circulation models under three greenhouse gas emission scenarios. Land use change data are incorporated based on various remote sensing earth observation products including NASA's Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer datasets and Landsat images in the multiagency National Land Cover Database. Population change and urbanization are considered in terms of changes in permitted wastewater treatment discharges. The findings of this study indicate that hydrological models like SWAT are useful tools for evaluating the watershed impacts from global climate change scenarios. In developing climate adaption plans, such models should include significant interactions among various local water management systems driven by population growth and urbanization in communities, and site-specific agricultural water use.

  19. Regional Land Use Mapping: the Phoenix Pilot Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, J. R.; Place, J. L.

    1971-01-01

    The Phoenix Pilot Program has been designed to make effective use of past experience in making land use maps and collecting land use information. Conclusions reached from the project are: (1) Land use maps and accompanying statistical information of reasonable accuracy and quality can be compiled at a scale of 1:250,000 from orbital imagery. (2) Orbital imagery used in conjunction with other sources of information when available can significantly enhance the collection and analysis of land use information. (3) Orbital imagery combined with modern computer technology will help resolve the problem of obtaining land use data quickly and on a regular basis, which will greatly enhance the usefulness of such data in regional planning, land management, and other applied programs. (4) Agreement on a framework or scheme of land use classification for use with orbital imagery will be necessary for effective use of land use data.

  20. URBAN/SUBURBAN WATERSHED CHARACTERIZATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The ability to characterize the land surface and related pollutant source loadings is critical for reliable watershed modeling. Urban/suburban land uses are the most rapidly growing land use class, generating non-point source pollutant loadings likely to seriously impair streams...

  1. Urbanization Effects on Manaus Microclimate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souza, D. O. D.; Nascimento, M. G. D.; Alvalá, R.

    2014-12-01

    Urban growth, related to urbanization and consequent land use and land cover changes, can directly modify the Surface Energy Balance (SEB), generating changes in the atmosphere that can vary from local to regional scales. Trying to understand these effects, the main objective of this work is to study the influence of urbanization on the local microclimate of the city of Manaus through numerical simulations using three different scenarios of urban area growth. These scenarios consider a representation of the anthropogenic energy fluxes and physical characteristics of the urban area of Manaus, with a scenario related to urban characteristics in 2008, 1973 and a future scenario considering that the physical area of Manaus will be duplicated as well as anthropogenic fluxes. A first analysis of the results showed that the model has an excellent skill in representing the diurnal cycle of temperature and humidity in urban area. It was observed that the presence of the urban area modifies significantly the SEB, generating a thermal gradient between the city adjacent regions, favoring the formation and intensification of local atmospheric circulations. The growth of the urban area of Manaus had a direct influence on the SEB, where it was observed that with increase in its area there is an increase in temperature, a decrease in moisture and water vapor, as well as significant changes in the flow at low levels (Figure 1) and the structure and characteristic of ABL on the urban region. Was also observed that the flow at low levels, related with breeze circulations, has greater intensity mainly due to the intensification of the thermal gradient. In the general context of the results it was observed that the process of urbanization and the consequently increased of anthropogenic heat fluxes is directly related to changes in local microclimate. It is emphasized so that public policies that aim an organized growth of urban areas and the comfort of the population are necessary for the effects of climate change are not potentiated by existing local microclimate effects related to the process of urbanization.

  2. Page 144 Geography Sonoma State University 2011-2012 Catalog land-use planning, and land-change science.

    E-print Network

    Ravikumar, B.

    departments in areas such as parks and recreation, open space, water, urban plan- ning, and othersPage 144 Geography Sonoma State University 2011-2012 Catalog land-use planning, and land-profits that regularly hire ge- ographers range from international organizations, such as the Nature Conservancy

  3. Land use and land cover classification with SPOT5 images and Partial Lanczos Extreme Learning Machine (PL-ELM)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ni-Bin Chang; Min Han; Wei Yao; Liang-Chien Chen; Shiguo Xu

    2010-01-01

    Satellite remote sensing technology and the science associated with evaluation of land use and land cover (LULC) in urban region makes use of the wide range images and algorithms. Yet previous processing with LULC methods is often time-consuming, laborious, and tedious making the outputs unavailable within the required time window. This paper presents a new image classification approach based on

  4. Variation in stream diatom communities in relation to water quality and catchment variables in a boreal, urbanized region.

    PubMed

    Teittinen, Anette; Taka, Maija; Ruth, Olli; Soininen, Janne

    2015-10-15

    Intensive anthropogenic land use such as urbanization alters the hydrological cycle, water chemistry and physical habitat characteristics, thus impairing stream physicochemical and biological quality. Diatoms are widely used to assess stream water quality as they integrate water chemistry temporally and reflect the joint influence of multiple stressors on stream biota. However, knowledge of the major community patterns of diatoms in urban streams remains limited especially in boreal regions. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of water chemistry and catchment characteristics on stream diatom communities, and to test the performance of the Index of Pollution Sensitivity (IPS) as a stream water quality indicator across an urban-to-rural gradient in southern Finland. Diatom community structure and species richness were related to local-scale variables such as water temperature, aluminium concentration, and electrical conductivity, which were in turn influenced by patterns in catchment land use and land cover. Diatoms reflected the intensity of human activities as more intensive land use increased the occurrence of pollution-tolerant species. The change in community structure along the land use intensity gradient was accompanied by a distinct decline in species richness. On the contrary, the IPS index failed to indicate differences in water quality along the urban-to-rural gradient as no consistent differences in the IPS values were found. Our results highlight the joint influence of multifaceted factors that underlie diatom patterns, and show that diatom biodiversity can be used as cost-effective metric indicating urban stream conditions. However, the IPS index turned out to be an unsuitable tool for assessing water quality among these streams. PMID:26047862

  5. Land-use changes as uncertainties in landslide hazard assessment. An application in Vrancea Seismic Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popovici, A.; Kucsicsa, Gh.; Balteanu, D.; Sandric, I.; Micu, M.

    2012-04-01

    Vrancea Seismic Region, covering a surface of 8 000 km2 in the Romanian Curvature Carpathians, represents one of Europe's most intensely affected by slope and channel processes area. Due to its geographical framework (a diverse relief, of mountains, hills and depressions) and socio-political situation (several changes of property due to historical circumstances), it shows also an increased predisposition for land-use changes. The purpose of this paper is to highlight the uncertainties that land-use (considered an independent variable within a landslide susceptibility assessment) changes may trigger within the assessment of landslide hazard, potentially amplifying the uncertainties already induced by climate change. Besides historical maps and CORINE-derived land use distributions, statistical data were used to run two modeling applications (CLUE-S model and Idrisi Taiga Land Change Modeler, who predicts new land-use covers using Markov Chain or Multiple Layer Perception). Based on certain driving forces, like bio-physical drivers (elevation, slope, geology, soil, climatic conditions etc.) but also on socio-economic drivers (population density, distance to towns, distance to roads, people employed in different economical sectors, livestock density, land-property type, farms type, etc.) predicted land-use changes pattern is studied through statistical analysis (logistic regression) backed-up by continuous expert-opinion analysis. The results, represented by land-use simulated maps (2010-2050), once validated (using land-use maps derived from 2007 to 2011 Landsat images, according to CORINE methodology), will give important information on both the suitable methodology for such simulation and on the landslide hazard assessment, a vital stage in the elaboration of landslide risk management strategies.

  6. Attributing greenhouse gas emissions associated with land use and land use change to direct and indirect human and natural drivers: a modelling study to estimate their relative importance.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hastings, Astley; Abdalla, Mohamed; Bell, Madeleine; Blagodatskiy, Sergey; Datta, Arindam; Dondini, Marta; Fitton, Nuala; Jones, Ed; Klumpp, Katja; Nemoto, Rie; Richards, Mark; Yeluripati, Jagadeesh; Smith, Pete

    2013-04-01

    Since humans cultivated crops, domesticated livestock and exploited woods and grasslands they have directly changed land use. In Europe, most of the landscapes are anthropogenically influenced. Each land use will have its carbon stock in the soil and vegetation that will depend on the geography, parent material of the soil, the climate and its land use history. For each land use and cover the soil carbon stock will reach a steady state where the rate of decomposition of the soil carbon is balanced by the organic material input each year. Each type of vegetation will reach a steady state depending on the length of its plants life cycle; for annual plants it is months, perennial grasslands it is years and for forest it is decades or centuries. In addition, the management of the crops, grasses or trees can be intensive, where the maximum vegetation is harvested or grazed, or extensive, when part of the plant material is left as a soil input. Net carbon flux will depend on the carbon balance between photosynthesis and respiration. Methane flux will mainly depend of the water content and redox potential of the soil and nitrous oxide emissions will depend of the type and amount of nitrogen input, pH and the relative timing of rainfall events, as well as the climatic conditions. In his study we have used site experiments to parameterize ecosystem models such as ECOSSE, DAYCENT, PASIM and DNDC on sites where there were more than one land use treatment to investigate the relative impact of human direct and indirect drivers compared to natural ones. Once the models have been parameterized the drivers to be investigated are systematically changed. The land uses investigated are grassland, forest, peatland and cropland. The direct drivers investigated are land use change (from cropland and grassland to bioenergy grasses, cropland to grassland and forest) and management change from intensive to extensive and vice versa. The management drivers investigated include tillage, fertilizer amount, timing and type, crop residue management, catch crops, field drainage and animal stock numbers. For each experimental site we have also run the model from the current conditions to the future using climate predictions applicable to the site for both high and low emissions scenario to look at the overall impact of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. In general, we conclude that anthropogenic drivers have a larger impact on net GHG emissions than natural drivers with the exception of extreme drought in peatlands.

  7. Land use in Korean tidal wetlands: impacts and management strategies.

    PubMed

    Hong, Sun-Kee; Koh, Chul-Hwan; Harris, Richard R; Kim, Jae-Eun; Lee, Jeom-Sook; Ihm, Byung-Sun

    2010-05-01

    The coastal landscapes in southwestern Korea include a diverse array of tidal wetlands and salt marshes. These coastal zones link the ecological functions of marine tidal wetlands and freshwater ecosystems with terrestrial ecosystems. They are rich in biological diversity and play important roles in sustaining ecological health and processing environmental pollutants. Korean tidal wetlands are particularly important as nurseries for economically important fishes and habitats for migratory birds. Diking, draining, tourism, and conversion to agricultural and urban uses have adversely affected Korean tidal wetlands. Recent large development projects have contributed to further losses. Environmental impact assessments conducted for projects affecting tidal wetlands and their surrounding landscapes should be customized for application to these special settings. Adequate environmental impact assessments will include classification of hydrogeomorphic units and consideration of their responses to biological and environmental stressors. As is true worldwide, Korean laws and regulations are changing to be more favorable to the conservation and protection of tidal wetlands. More public education needs to be done at the local level to build support for tidal wetland conservation. Some key public education points include the role of tidal wetlands in maintaining healthy fish populations and reducing impacts of nonpoint source pollution. There is also a need to develop procedures for integrating economic and environmental objectives within the overall context of sustainable management and land uses. PMID:18523822

  8. Land Use in Korean Tidal Wetlands: Impacts and Management Strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Sun-Kee; Koh, Chul-Hwan; Harris, Richard R.; Kim, Jae-Eun; Lee, Jeom-Sook; Ihm, Byung-Sun

    2010-05-01

    The coastal landscapes in southwestern Korea include a diverse array of tidal wetlands and salt marshes. These coastal zones link the ecological functions of marine tidal wetlands and freshwater ecosystems with terrestrial ecosystems. They are rich in biological diversity and play important roles in sustaining ecological health and processing environmental pollutants. Korean tidal wetlands are particularly important as nurseries for economically important fishes and habitats for migratory birds. Diking, draining, tourism, and conversion to agricultural and urban uses have adversely affected Korean tidal wetlands. Recent large development projects have contributed to further losses. Environmental impact assessments conducted for projects affecting tidal wetlands and their surrounding landscapes should be customized for application to these special settings. Adequate environmental impact assessments will include classification of hydrogeomorphic units and consideration of their responses to biological and environmental stressors. As is true worldwide, Korean laws and regulations are changing to be more favorable to the conservation and protection of tidal wetlands. More public education needs to be done at the local level to build support for tidal wetland conservation. Some key public education points include the role of tidal wetlands in maintaining healthy fish populations and reducing impacts of nonpoint source pollution. There is also a need to develop procedures for integrating economic and environmental objectives within the overall context of sustainable management and land uses.

  9. Forecasting the effect of land-use change on native and non-native mammalian predator distributions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. A. Hilty; C. Brooks; E. Heaton; A. M. Merenlender

    2006-01-01

    Intensive land use can fragment continuous natural areas into smaller patches, which may be too small to support viable populations\\u000a of native fauna and more susceptible to invasion by alien species. We demonstrate the utility of combining species occurrence\\u000a models with land-use change models to identify areas where future development may differentially affect wildlife. Occurrence\\u000a data for native (e.g., gray

  10. Impact of land use covers upon karst processes in a typical Fengcong depression system of Nongla, Guangxi, China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cheng Zhang; Jianguo Pei; Yunqiu Xie; Jianhua Cao; Lanling Wang

    2008-01-01

    The direction and intensity of karst processes can be deeply affected by soil physical and chemical variations which were\\u000a resulted from land use. Taking Nongla Fengcong depression area, Mashan County, Guangxi as an example, authors discussed the\\u000a impact of land use on karst processes based on the data of field limestone tablet. The results showed that the corrosional\\u000a rates at

  11. Metro Rail Red Line MOS-2 corridor land-use analysis and joint-development potential. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, I.N.

    1992-04-17

    Land use patterns and opportunities to reshape land use intensities in areas surrounding the nine transit stations in the Minimum Operating Segment, Phase 2 (MOS-2) of the Metro Red Line Rail Transit Project was studied. The primary objective of the study was to identify sites where private investment is likely to occur once the transit system is operational and to identify the scope of public policy intervention necessary to encourage transit usage and to reduce automobile dependence in the transit corridor.

  12. Land use and surface process domains on alpine hillslopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhn, Nikolaus J.; Caviezel, Chatrina; Hunziker, Matthias

    2015-04-01

    Shrubs and trees are generally considered to protect hillslopes from erosion. As a consequence, shrub encroachment on mountain pastures after abandoning grazing is not considered a threat to soils. However, the abandonment of mown or grazed grasslands causes a shift in vegetation composition and thus a change in landscape ecology and geomorphology. On many alpine slopes, current changes in land use and vegetation cover are accompanied by climate change, potentially generating a new geomorphic regime. Most of the debate focuses on the effect of land abandonment on water erosion rates. Generally, an established perennial vegetation cover improves the mechanical anchoring of the soil and the regulation of the soil water budget, including runoff generation and erosion. However, changing vegetation composition affects many other above- and below-ground properties like root density, -diversity and -geometry, soil structure, pore volume and acidity. Each combination of these properties can lead to a distinct scenario of dominating surface processes, often not reflected by common erosion risk assessment procedures. The study of soil properties along a chronosequence of green alder (alnusviridis) encroachment on the Unteralptal in central Switzerland reveals that shrub encroachment changes soil and vegetation properties towards an increase of resistance to run-off related erosion processes, but a decrease of slope stability against shallow landslides. The latter are a particular threat because of the currently increasing frequency of slide-triggering high magnitude rainfalls. The potential change of process domain on alpine pastures highlights the need for a careful use of erosion models when assessing future land use and climate scenarios. In mountains, but also other intensively managed agricultural landscapes, risk assessment without the appropriate reflection on the shifting relevance of surface processes carries the risk of missing future threats to environmental quality, services and hazards.

  13. Differentiation and concordance in smallholder land use strategies in southern Mexico's conservation frontier

    PubMed Central

    Roy Chowdhury, Rinku

    2010-01-01

    Forest cover transitions in the developing tropics are conditioned by agricultural change. The expansion, intensification, and diversification of agricultural land uses are tied to regional economic/environmental regimes and decisions of local farming households. Land change science and agrarian systems research share an interest in the drivers of household strategies, land use impacts, and typologies of those land uses/drivers. This study derives a typology of farming households in southern Mexico based on emergent patterns in their land use combinations and analyzes their household and policy drivers. The results reveal broadly diversified household land use portfolios as well as three emergent clusters of farmstead production orientation: (i) extensive subsistence-oriented conservationists, (ii), dual extensive-intensive farmers, and (iii) nonextensive diversified land users. Household membership in these clusters is uneven and strongly related to tenancy, land endowments, wage labor, and policy subsidies. Although most households are following a nonextensive agricultural strategy incorporating off-farm incomes, the likelihood of a regional forest transition remains debatable because of the disproportionate deforestation impacts of the less common strategies. Conservation development policies in the region need to accommodate diverse smallholder farming rationales, increase off-farm opportunities, and target sustainable development with the assistance of community conservation leaders. PMID:20339082

  14. Differentiation and concordance in smallholder land use strategies in southern Mexico's conservation frontier.

    PubMed

    Roy Chowdhury, Rinku

    2010-03-30

    Forest cover transitions in the developing tropics are conditioned by agricultural change. The expansion, intensification, and diversification of agricultural land uses are tied to regional economic/environmental regimes and decisions of local farming households. Land change science and agrarian systems research share an interest in the drivers of household strategies, land use impacts, and typologies of those land uses/drivers. This study derives a typology of farming households in southern Mexico based on emergent patterns in their land use combinations and analyzes their household and policy drivers. The results reveal broadly diversified household land use portfolios as well as three emergent clusters of farmstead production orientation: (i) extensive subsistence-oriented conservationists, (ii), dual extensive-intensive farmers, and (iii) nonextensive diversified land users. Household membership in these clusters is uneven and strongly related to tenancy, land endowments, wage labor, and policy subsidies. Although most households are following a nonextensive agricultural strategy incorporating off-farm incomes, the likelihood of a regional forest transition remains debatable because of the disproportionate deforestation impacts of the less common strategies. Conservation development policies in the region need to accommodate diverse smallholder farming rationales, increase off-farm opportunities, and target sustainable development with the assistance of community conservation leaders. PMID:20339082

  15. Estuaries of the northeastern United States: Habitat and land use signatures

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roman, C.T.; Jaworski, N.; Short, F.T.; Findlay, S.; Warren, R.S.

    2000-01-01

    Geographic signatures are physical, chemical, biotic, and human-induced characteristics or processes that help define similar or unique features of estuaries along latitudinal or geographic gradients. Geomorphologically, estuaries of the northeastern U.S., from the Hudson River estuary and northward along the Gulf of Maine shoreline, are highly diverse because of a complex bedrock geology and glacial history. Back-barrier estuaries and lagoons occur within the northeast region, but the dominant type is the drowned-river valley, often with rocky shores. Tidal range and mean depth of northeast estuaries are generally greater when compared to estuaries of the more southern U.S. Atlantic coast and Gulf of Mexico. Because of small estuarine drainage basins, low riverine flows, a bedrock substrate, and dense forest cover, sediment loads in northeast estuaries are generally quite low and water clarity is high. Tidal marshes, seagrass meadows, intertidal mudflats, and rocky shores represent major habitat types that fringe northeast estuaries, supporting commercially-important fauna, forage nekton and benthos, and coastal bird communities, while also serving as links between deeper estuarine waters and habitats through detritus-based pathways. Regarding land use and water quality trends, portions of the northeast have a history of over a century of intense urbanization as reflected in increased total nitrogen and total phosphorus loadings to estuaries, with wastewater treatment facilities and atmospheric deposition being major sources. Agricultural inputs are relatively minor throughout the northeast, with relative importance increasing for coastal plain estuaries. Identifying geographic signatures provides an objective means for comparing the structure function, and processes of estuaries along latitudinal gradients.

  16. Mixed land use and obesity: an empirical comparison of alternative land use measures and geographic scales

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, Ikuho; Brown, Barbara B.; Smith, Ken R.; Zick, Cathleen D.; Kowaleski-Jones, Lori; Fan, Jessie X.

    2011-01-01

    Obesity is a growing epidemic in the United States. Walkable neighborhoods, characterized as having the 3Ds of walkability (population Density, land use Diversity, and pedestrian-friendly Design), have been identified as a potentially promising factor to prevent obesity for their residents. Past studies examining the relationship between obesity and walkability vary in geographic scales of neighborhood definitions and methods of measuring the 3Ds. To better understand potential influences of these sometimes arbitrary choices, we test how four types of alternative measures of land use diversity measured at three geographic scales relate to body mass index for 4960 Salt Lake County adults. Generalized estimation equation models demonstrate that optimal diversity measures differed by gender and geographic scale and that integrating walkability measures at different scales improved the overall performance of models. PMID:22665941

  17. Spatial patterns of land use changes across a Mediterranean metropolitan landscape: implications for biodiversity management.

    PubMed

    Ba?nou, Corina; Álvarez, Enrique; Bagaria, Guillem; Guardiola, Moisès; Isern, Rosó; Vicente, Paloma; Pino, Joan

    2013-10-01

    Land use and land cover change (LUCC) is an acknowledged cause of the current biodiversity crisis, but the link between LUCC and biodiversity conservation remains largely unknown at the regional scale, especially due to the traditional lack of consistent biodiversity data. We provide a methodological approach for assessing this link through defining a set of major pressures on biodiversity from LUCC and evaluating their extent, distribution, and association with a set of physical factors. The study was performed in the Metropolitan Region of Barcelona (MRB, NE of Spain) between 1956 and 2000. We generated a LUCC map for the time period, which was reclassified into a set of pressures on biodiversity (forestation, deforestation, crop abandonment, and urbanization). We then explored the association of these pressures with a set of physical factors using redundancy analysis (RDA). Pressures encompassed 38.8% of the MRB area. Urbanization and forestation were the dominating pressures, followed by crop abandonment and deforestation. RDA showed a significant distribution gradient of these pressures in relation to the studied physical factors: while forestation and deforestation are concentrated in remote mountain areas, urbanization mainly occurs in lowlands and especially on the coast, and close to previous urban centers and roads. Unchanged areas are concentrated in rainy and relatively remote mountain areas. Results also showed a dramatic loss of open habitats and of the traditional land use gradient, both featuring Mediterranean landscapes and extremely important for their biodiversity conservation. Implications of these results for biodiversity management are finally discussed. PMID:23989407

  18. Historic land use and land use changes in Lower Lusatia (Brandenburg, East Germany)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicolay, A.; Raab, A.; Raab, T. A.; Rösler, H.; Bönisch, E.

    2011-12-01

    In the apron of the active lignite open cast mine Jänschwalde (Lower Lusatia, Brandenburg, East Germany) geoscientists from the BTU Cottbus and archaeologists from the Brandenburgisches Landesamt für Denkmalpflege und Archäologisches Landesmuseum jointly investigate the impact of prehistoric and historic land use on the landscape. In the study area evidence of different land use and land use change is abundant. Amongst others, the presumably largest charcoal production area in Germany was found which was used from medieval to modern times. Charcoal burning and related activities certainly had tremendous environmental impacts. Archaeological surveys and excavations offer excellent outcrop situations. Fieldwork started in 2010 and concentrates on an area where aeolian drift and coversands are widespread. We assume that the formation of these aeolian coversands is the result of deforestation for charcoal burning and agricultural land use. To study pedology, geomorphology and landscape development on a landscape scale several up to 150 m long and 2 m depth cross-sections were carried out. Field methods include topographical surveying (by differential GPS) and the description of soils and sediments. Laboratory methods (e.g., soil texture, TOC, contents of pedogenic oxides) are carried out for soil characterization. In addition, for chronological information radiocarbon (14C) and optical stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating as well as dendrochronological age determinations are applied on selected materials. Our preliminary results from several cross-sections show that the landscape was used in different ways. Buried topsoil horizons of the Roman Imperial period (50-315 AD) and the Migration period (375-600 AD) are found. Moreover agricultural soil horizons from the Slavic medieval period (600-1200 AD) are present. The former topsoils are covered by 10-150 cm thick aeolian drift sands which can be differentiated by pedological and sedimentological means into two phases, whereby the later one dates to the main phase of charcoal production in modern times.

  19. Incentives for low-input land-use types and their influence on the attractiveness of landscapes.

    PubMed

    Schüpbach, Beatrice; Zgraggen, Kurt; Szerencsits, Erich

    2008-11-01

    Changes in agricultural policy have traceable effects on landscape aesthetics. For the catchment area of Lake Greifensee, an economic land-use model predicted land-use changes caused by agricultural policy. Three scenarios implementing different direct payment schemes show that land-use intensity will decrease by 2011 compared with the 'reference status' 2000. The output of the economic land-use model is explicit in space. It was assessed by the 'naturalness' perception factor of the method proposed by Hoisl et al. [1989. Landschaftsästhetik in der Flurbereinigung. Materialien zur Flurbereinigung-Heft 17. Bayerisches Staatsministerium für Ernährung, Landwirtschaft und Forsten, München] with regard to landscape aesthetics. Even though lower land-use intensity is generally predicted by 2011, the values of the 'naturalness' perception factor do not significantly improve if the payment scheme remains unchanged, or if the payment scheme is amended by incentives for specific location of the ecological compensation areas (ECAs). A significant reduction in the values of the 'naturalness' perception factor was found when subsidies for ECA's were cancelled. This leads us to the conclusion that in order to keep Swiss landscapes as attractive as they are at present, policy must sustain incentives for low-intensity land-use types. PMID:17716810

  20. Influence of urban land cover changes and climate change for the exposure of European cities to flooding during high-intensity precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skougaard Kaspersen, P.; Høegh Ravn, N.; Arnbjerg-Nielsen, K.; Madsen, H.; Drews, M.

    2015-06-01

    The extent and location of impervious surfaces within urban areas due to past and present city development strongly affects the amount and velocity of run-off during high-intensity rainfall and consequently influences the exposure of cities towards flooding. The frequency and intensity of extreme rainfall are expected to increase in many places due to climate change and thus further exacerbate the risk of pluvial flooding. This paper presents a combined hydrological-hydrodynamic modelling and remote sensing approach suitable for examining the susceptibility of European cities to pluvial flooding owing to recent changes in urban land cover, under present and future climatic conditions. Estimated changes in impervious urban surfaces based on Landsat satellite imagery covering the period 1984-2014 are combined with regionally downscaled estimates of current and expected future rainfall extremes to enable 2-D overland flow simulations and flood hazard assessments. The methodology is evaluated for the Danish city of Odense. Results suggest that the past 30 years of urban development alone has increased the city's exposure to pluvial flooding by 6% for 10-year rainfall up to 26% for 100-year rainfall. Corresponding estimates for RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 climate change scenarios (2071-2100) are in the order of 40 and 100%, indicating that land cover changes within cities can play a central role for the cities' exposure to flooding and conversely also for their adaptation to a changed climate.

  1. Frontier Lecture in Hydrological Science: Land Use and the Changing Nature of World Water Resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foley, J. A.

    2005-12-01

    Historically, land use has mainly been considered a local environmental issue, but it is fast becoming a force of global significance. Worldwide changes to forests and farmlands, coastlines and waterways are being driven by the need to provide food, fiber, fresh water, and shelter to more than six billion people. Such changes in land use - including a significant expansion of global croplands, pastures, plantations, and urban areas in recent decades - have also been accompanied by large increases in global energy, freshwater, and fertilizer consumption. All together, these changes in land use practices have enabled humans to appropriate an increasing share of the planet's resources, but they also potentially undermine the capacity of terrestrial hydrological systems and aquatic ecosystems to maintain clean, reliable freshwater resources, and their accompanying ecosystem services. We now face the challenge of managing "trade-offs" between meeting immediate human needs and maintaining the capacity of watersheds and aquatic ecosystems to provide goods and services in the long term. In this presentation, I will discuss the impacts of land use and land cover change on the state of global water resources. In particular, this talk will explore linkages among changing land cover, regional climate patterns, surface hydrological processes, the hydrology of large rivers, and the continued flow of ecosystem goods and services from the large watersheds of the world.

  2. NASA Land Cover and Land Use Change (LCLUC): an interdisciplinary research program.

    PubMed

    Justice, Chris; Gutman, Garik; Vadrevu, Krishna Prasad

    2015-01-15

    Understanding Land Cover/Land Use Change (LCLUC) in diverse regions of the world and at varied spatial scales is one of the important challenges in global change research. In this article, we provide a brief overview of the NASA LCLUC program, its focus areas, and the importance of satellite remote sensing observations in LCLUC research including future directions. The LCLUC Program was designed to be a cross-cutting theme within NASA's Earth Science program. The program aims to develop and use remote sensing technologies to improve understanding of human interactions with the environment. Since 1997, the NASA LCLUC program has supported nearly 280 research projects on diverse topics such as forest loss and carbon, urban expansion, land abandonment, wetland loss, agricultural land use change and land use change in mountain systems. The NASA LCLUC program emphasizes studies where land-use changes are rapid or where there are significant regional or global LCLUC implications. Over a period of years, the LCLUC program has contributed to large regional science programs such as Land Biosphere-Atmosphere (LBA), the Northern Eurasia Earth Science Partnership Initiative (NEESPI), and the Monsoon Area Integrated Regional Study (MAIRS). The primary emphasis of the program will remain on using remote sensing datasets for LCLUC research. The program will continue to emphasize integration of physical and social sciences to address regional to global scale issues of LCLUC for the benefit of society. PMID:25500156

  3. Land use and land cover changes in Zêzere watershed (Portugal) - Water quality implications.

    PubMed

    Meneses, B M; Reis, R; Vale, M J; Saraiva, R

    2015-09-15

    To understand the relations between land use allocation and water quality preservation within a watershed is essential to assure sustainable development. The land use and land cover (LUC) within Zêzere River watershed registered relevant changes in the last decades. These land use and land cover changes (LUCCs) have impacts in water quality, mainly in surface water degradation caused by surface runoff from artificial and agricultural areas, forest fires and burnt areas, and caused by sewage discharges from agroindustry and urban sprawl. In this context, the impact of LUCCs in the quality of surface water of the Zêzere watershed is evaluated, considering the changes for different types of LUC and establishing their possible correlations to the most relevant water quality changes. The results indicate that the loss of coniferous forest and the increase of transitional woodland-shrub are related to increased water's pH; while the growth in artificial surfaces and pastures leads mainly to the increase of soluble salts and fecal coliform concentration. These particular findings within the Zêzere watershed, show the relevance of addressing water quality impact driven from land use and should therefore be taken into account within the planning process in order to prevent water stress, namely within watersheds integrating drinking water catchments. PMID:25981942

  4. Anomaly in the rainfall-runoff behaviour of the Meuse catchment. Climate, land-use, or land-use management?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fenicia, F.; Savenije, H. H. G.; Avdeeva, Y.

    2009-09-01

    The objective of this paper is to investigate the time variability of catchment characteristics in the Meuse basin through its effect on catchment response. The approach uses a conceptual model to represent rainfall-runoff behaviour of this catchment, and evaluates possible time-dependence of model parameters. The main hypothesis is that conceptual model parameters, although not measurable quantities, are representative of specific catchment attributes (e.g. geology, land-use, land management, topography). Hence, we assume that eventual trends in model parameters are representative of catchment attributes that may have changed over time. The available hydrological record involves ninety years of data, starting in 1911. During this period the Meuse catchment has undergone significant modifications. The catchment structural modifications, although documented, are not available as "hard-data". Hence, our results should be considered as "plausible hypotheses". The main motivation of this work is the "anomaly" found in the rainfall runoff behaviour of the Meuse basin, where ninety years of rainfall-runoff simulations show a consistent overestimation of the runoff in the period between 1930 and 1965. Different authors have debated possible causes for the "anomaly", including climatic variability, land-use change and data errors. None of the authors considered the way in which the land is used by for instance agricultural and forestry practises. This aspect influenced the model design, which has been configured to account for different evaporation demand of growing forest. As a result of our analysis, we conclude that the lag time of the catchment has decreased significantly over time, which we attribute to more intensive drainage and river training works. Furthermore, we hypothesise that forest rotation has had a significant impact on the evaporation of the catchment. These results contrast with previous studies, where the effect of land-use change on the hydrological behaviour of the Meuse catchment was considered negligible, mainly because there was not sufficient change in land cover to account for it. Here we hypothesise that in the Meuse it was not the change of land cover that was responsible for hydrological change, but rather the way the land was managed.

  5. Use of aerial photography in determining land use and streamflow relationships on small developing watersheds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owe, M.

    1981-01-01

    Using aerial photographs dating back to 1937, the historical trends of five land use classes (crop, forest, open field, urban and suburban) are determined. The relationships between these and various flow regime parameters are investigated. Annual runoff is found to be 7.5 inches greater now than in the year 1932. It is also found that growing season runoff increased by 3.5 inches during the same period. This increase is approximately equivalent to 160 area inches of excess runoff during the 45-year period of observation. The increase in runoff is found to be positively correlated with the percent basin area in the urban, suburban and open field land use classes. A negative correlation is established with forest and crop land. Although poor correlations are found with high flow, low flow, flow interval and flow date data, it is thought that a more precise quantification of land use or a smaller basin area may possibly have yielded more positive results for streamflow timing data.

  6. Land use and cover changes in the critical areas in northwestern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Weicheng

    2004-02-01

    This paper summarizes our research on land use and cover changes in the critical areas named North Ningxia (Yinchuan Region), North Shaanxi (Yulin Prefecture/Mu Us) and Middle Tarim River in northwest China. The objectives of the study were to investigate the present land use situation and changes in the past decades and to understand causes of landuse changes. Multi-temporal Landsat TM and ETM+ images (plus an old Corona image for the Middle Tarim), countylevel socioeconomic data and meteorological data were used for this task. The methods and procedures adopted in this work were image registration, atmospheric correction, tasseled cap transformation, indicator differencing, county-level change mapping, and multivariate regression modeling. The principal conclusions are as follows: (1) Not "advancing desert" was observed; however, signs of serious land degradation, e.g., vegetation degradation and soil salinization, have apparently taken place in the past decades due to cultivation practices, land reclamation and grazing. Some of these changes can be traced back to land use policies. (2) Farmland extension is a remarkable rural environmental change in these sites and is associated with the increase in agricultural output. Taking up a small percentage of the total change, the urban extension is related to about 90% of the GDP growth and driven directly by the urban population and their socioeconomic activities. Some river courses have been narrowing, owing partly to climate variability but mainly to the overuse of water in agriculture.

  7. Water resources and land use and cover in a humid region: the southeastern United States.

    PubMed

    Nagy, R Chelsea; Lockaby, B Graeme; Helms, Brian; Kalin, Latif; Stoeckel, Denise

    2011-01-01

    It is widely recognized that forest and water resources are intricately linked. Globally, changes in forest cover to accommodate agriculture and urban development introduce additional challenges for water management. The U.S. Southeast typifies this global trend as predictions of land-use change and population growth suggest increased pressure on water resources in coming years. Close attention has long been paid to interactions between people and water in arid regions; however, based on information from regions such as the Southeast, it is evident that much greater focus is required to sustain a high-quality water supply in humid areas as well. To that end, we review hydrological, physicochemical, biological, and human and environmental health responses to conversion of forests to agriculture and urban land uses in the Southeast. Commonly, forest removal leads to increased stream sediment and nutrients, more variable flow, altered habitat and stream and riparian communities, and increased risk of human health effects. Although indicators such as the percentage of impervious cover signify overall watershed alteration, the threshold to disturbance, or the point at which effects can been observed in stream and riparian parameters, can be quite low and often varies with physiographic conditions. In addition to current land use, historical practices can greatly influence current water quality. General inferences of this study may extend to many humid regions concerning climate, environmental thresholds, and the causes and nature of effects. PMID:21546673

  8. Analyzing the land use changes in the Poyang lake region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Z. B.; Shang, Y. J.

    2014-03-01

    Poyang Lake is the largest freshwater lake in China. It faces a series of ecological and environmental problems, hence it is important and necessary to study the land use change in the Poyang Lake region. In this study, Landsat images in 1976, 1989, 1999 and 2009 were analysed using methods including quantitative changes of land use and land use degree change in the Poyang Lake region. Land use was classified into seven types: cropland, woodland, grassland, water body, construction land, bottomland and unused land. Cropland, bottomland and water body were decreasing while water body decreased relatively slowly. However, construction land, grassland, woodland and unused land increased to a certain extent. The land use degree was above national average. During the period 1976-1989, 1989-1999 and 1999-2009, land use was in adjustment stage, development stage and adjustment stage.

  9. Global land use data for integrated assessment modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Ramankutty, Navin

    2005-12-12

    Changes in land use and land cover have been one of the major drivers of global change over the last three centuries. Detailed spatially-explicit data sets characterizing these historical land cover changes are now emerging. By synthesizing remotely-sensed land cover classification data sets with historical land use census data, our research group has developed comprehensive databases of historical land use and land cover change. Moreover, we are building estimates of the land suitability for agriculture to predict the constraints on future land use. In this project, we have interacted with the Global Trade and Analysis Project (GTAP) at Purdue University, to adapt our land use data for use with the GTAP database, a baseline database widely used by the integrated assessment modeling community. Moreover, we have developed an interactive website for providing these newly emerging land use data products for the integrated assessment (IA) community and to the climate modeling community.

  10. Land-use and climate effects on soil respiration quantified with a landscape sensor network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crum, S.; Jenerette, D.

    2014-12-01

    Land-use change alters the magnitudes and variability of soil respiration (Rs). However, the importance of ecosystem and landscape drivers of Rs remain poorly understood from an empirical and mechanistic standpoint and likely vary across climate gradients. To address this knowledge gap we asked, what regulates the spatial and temporal variation of Rs across a human dominated region? From a landscape perspective, climate and land-use are hypothesized to be key drivers of Rs. From a soil physiological perspective, variability in temperature, moisture, and substrate availability regulate Rs. According to an inverse metabolic activity hypothesis, systems with higher metabolic activity will have less temporal variability in Rs than those with lower rates. Alternatively, soil substrate availability may drive sensitivity of Rs to water inputs. To quantify variability in Rs and test hypotheses of its regulation we deployed an Rs sensor network beginning in November 2013 with nodes distributed across three land-use types - lawn, agriculture, and wildland - at three sub-regions spanning a coastal to inland to desert climate gradient (total 9 sites, 3 land-uses x 3 sub-regions). At each node we are measuring soil Rs using the flux gradient approach, which includes soil state CO2 sensors, temperature, and moisture measured at three depths and at five minute intervals. We analyzed the data for the winter sampling period, which is southern California's rainy season. The mean of Rs was lowest at the coastal and highest in the desert sub-regions for both lawn (3.99 and 4.7 ?mol CO2 m-2 s-1) and wildland (0.23 and 0.49 ?mol CO2 m-2 s-1) land-uses. Rs was the highest in the inland sub-region for agricultural land-uses (4.1 ?mol CO2 m-2 s-1). Lawn and wildland land-uses had increasing coefficient of variation in Rs across the coastal to desert climate gradient, while agriculture had decreasing variation. Sites that had higher mean fluxes and soil organic matter, a proxy for substrate availability, also had higher variability, supporting the hypothesis on substrate regulation of Rs sensitivity to water inputs. As urban centers spread in the arid and semi-arid Southwest, the likely consequences of land-use change will be increased magnitude and variance in Rs as the result of increased soil nutrient and water inputs.

  11. Rural land-use trends in the conterminous United States, 1950-2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, Daniel G.; Johnson, Kenneth M.; Loveland, Thomas R.; Theobald, David M.

    2005-01-01

    In order to understand the magnitude, direction, and geographic distribution of land-use changes, we evaluated land-use trends in U.S. counties during the latter half of the 20th century. Our paper synthesizes the dominant spatial and temporal trends in population, agriculture, and urbanized land uses, using a variety of data sources and an ecoregion classification as a frame of reference. A combination of increasing attractiveness of nonmetropolitan areas in the period 1970–2000, decreasing household size, and decreasing density of settlement has resulted in important trends in the patterns of developed land. By 2000, the area of low-density, exurban development beyond the urban fringe occupied nearly 15 times the area of higher density urbanized development. Efficiency gains, mechanization, and agglomeration of agricultural concerns has resulted in data that show cropland area to be stable throughout the Corn Belt and parts of the West between 1950 and 2000, but decreasing by about 22% east of the Mississippi River. We use a regional case study of the Mid-Atlantic and Southeastern regions to focus in more detail on the land-cover changes resulting from these dynamics. Dominating were land-cover changes associated with the timber practices in the forested plains ecoregions and urbanization in the piedmont ecoregions. Appalachian ecoregions show the slowest rates of land-cover change. The dominant trends of tremendous exurban growth, throughout the United States, and conversion and abandonment of agricultural lands, especially in the eastern United States, have important implications because they affect large areas of the country, the functioning of ecological systems, and the potential for restoration.

  12. Land Use Intensification Effects in Soil Arthropod Community of an Entisol in Pernambuco State, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Siqueira, G. M.; Silva, E. F. F.; Paz-Ferreiro, J.

    2014-01-01

    The interactions between soil invertebrates and land use and management are fundamental for soil quality assessment but remain largely unaddressed. The aim of this study was to evaluate the changes in soil arthropod community of an entisol brought about by different land use systems under semiarid climate in Pernambuco State, Brazil. The soil invertebrate community was sampled using pitfall traps from areas with eight vegetation types by the end of the austral winter. The land uses studied were native thorn forest plus seven agricultural fields planted with elephant grass, apple guava, passion fruit, carrot, maize, tomato, and green pepper. Native vegetation was considered as a reference, whereas the agricultural fields showed a range of soil use intensities. The abundance of organisms, the total and average richness, Shannon's diversity index, and the Pielou uniformity index were determined, and all of these were affected by several crop and soil management practices such as residue cover, weed control, and pesticide application. Our study found differences in community assemblages and composition under different land use systems, but no single taxa could be used as indicator of soil use intensity. PMID:25431792

  13. The Nexus Land-Use model version 1.0, an approach articulating biophysical potentials and economic dynamics to model competition for land-use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souty, F.; Brunelle, T.; Dumas, P.; Dorin, B.; Ciais, P.; Crassous, R.; Müller, C.; Bondeau, A.

    2012-10-01

    Interactions between food demand, biomass energy and forest preservation are driving both food prices and land-use changes, regionally and globally. This study presents a new model called Nexus Land-Use version 1.0 which describes these interactions through a generic representation of agricultural intensification mechanisms within agricultural lands. The Nexus Land-Use model equations combine biophysics and economics into a single coherent framework to calculate crop yields, food prices, and resulting pasture and cropland areas within 12 regions inter-connected with each other by international trade. The representation of cropland and livestock production systems in each region relies on three components: (i) a biomass production function derived from the crop yield response function to inputs such as industrial fertilisers; (ii) a detailed representation of the livestock production system subdivided into an intensive and an extensive component, and (iii) a spatially explicit distribution of potential (maximal) crop yields prescribed from the Lund-Postdam-Jena global vegetation model for managed Land (LPJmL). The economic principles governing decisions about land-use and intensification are adapted from the Ricardian rent theory, assuming cost minimisation for farmers. In contrast to the other land-use models linking economy and biophysics, crops are aggregated as a representative product in calories and intensification for the representative crop is a non-linear function of chemical inputs. The model equations and parameter values are first described in details. Then, idealised scenarios exploring the impact of forest preservation policies or rising energy price on agricultural intensification are described, and their impacts on pasture and cropland areas are investigated.

  14. Urban rent generation: The esenkent case in Istanbul

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aysegul Yakar-Onal

    2001-01-01

    An increasing proportion of the rapidly growing world population is attempting to satisfy its economic and social needs in an urban context. The migration of people into cities results in urban growth. As a result of this process of urban growth, there is an increasing demand for urban land. Within urban areas land use is subject to fewer changes. Because

  15. Climate change - Agricultural land use - Food security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagy, János; Széles, Adrienn

    2015-04-01

    In Hungary, plougland decreased to 52% of its area by the time of political restructuring (1989) in comparison with the 1950s. Forested areas increased significantly (18%) and lands withdrawn from agricultural production doubled (11%). For today, these proportions further changed. Ploughlands reduced to 46% and forested areas further increased (21%) in 2013. The most significat changes were observed in the proportion of lands withdrawn from agricultural production which increased to 21%. Temperature in Hungary increased by 1°C during the last century and predictions show a further 2.6 °C increase by 2050. The yearly amount of precipitation significantly decreased from 640 mm to 560 mm with a more uneven temporal distribution. The following aspects can be considered in the correlation between climate change and agriculture: a) impact of agriculture on climate, b) future impact of climate change on agriculture and food supply, c) impact of climate change on food security. The reason for the significant change of climate is the accumulation of greenhouse gases (GHG) which results from anthropological activities. Between 2008 and 2012, Hungary had to reduce its GHG emission by 6% compared to the base period between 1985-1987. At the end of 2011, Hungarian GHG emission was 43.1% lower than that of the base period. The total gross emission was 66.2 million CO2 equivalent, while the net emission which also includes land use, land use change and forestry was 62.8 million tons. The emission of agriculture was 8.8 million tons (OMSZ, 2013). The greatest opportunity to reduce agricultural GHG emission is dinitrogen oxides which can be significantly mitigated by the smaller extent and more efficient use of nitrogen-based fertilisers (precision farming) and by using biomanures produced from utilised waste materials. Plant and animal species which better adapt to extreme weather circumstances should be bred and maintained, thereby making an investment in food security. Climate change contributes to the proliferation of the pests of agricultural produces, the spreading of diseases and the development of new pathogens, while it could also increase the food risk caused by bacterial infection during the food chain phase between the producer and the consumer. Climate change has an impact on the world's food prices, especially that of cereals. The food production of the world needs to be doubled in order to cover the need of the population by 2050, especially if it rises above nine billion. As a result of the increase of population, there is an increased demand for agricultural products and it also necessitates the more efficient use of agricultural lands. As a consequence of increasing food prices, there is a risk of increased starvation and food consumption may decrease (especially in developing countries), while the health care inequality is expected to grow. Food security is one of the most important elements of adapting to global climate change. For this reason, it is extremely important to breed new biological resources, as well as to introduce production systems which facilitate the adaptation to changed circumstances.

  16. Cost, accuracy, and consistency comparisons of land use maps made from high-altitutde aircraft photography and ERTS imagery

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fitzpatrick, Katherine A.

    1975-01-01

    Accuracy analyses for the land use maps of the Central Atlantic Regional Ecological Test Site were performed for a 1-percent sample of the area. Researchers compared Level II land use maps produced at three scales, 1:24,000, 1:100,000, and 1:250,000 from high-altitude photography, with each other and with point data obtained in the field. They employed the same procedures to determine the accuracy of the Level I land use maps produced at 1:250,000 from high-altitude photography and color composite ERTS imagery. The accuracy of the Level II maps was 84.9 percent at 1:24,000, 77.4 percent at 1:100,000, and 73.0 percent at 1:250,000. The accuracy of the Level I 1:250,000 maps produced from high-altitude aircraft photography was 76.5 percent and for those produced from ERTS imagery was 69.5 percent The cost of Level II land use mapping at 1:24,000 was found to be high ($11.93 per km2 ). The cost of mapping at 1:100,000 ($1.75) was about 2 times as expensive as mapping at 1:250,000 ($.88), and the accuracy increased by only 4.4 percent. Level I land use maps, when mapped from highaltitude photography, were about 4 times as expensive as the maps produced from ERTS imagery, although the accuracy is 7.0 percent greater. The Level I land use category that is least accurately mapped from ERTS imagery is urban and built-up land in the non-urban areas; in the urbanized areas, built-up land is more reliably mapped.

  17. Urban goods movement (UGM) analysis as a tool for urban planning

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Urban goods movement (UGM) analysis as a tool for urban planning Mathieu Gardrat, Jesus Gonzalez 07 Submission for track: F - Transport, Land Use and Sustainability Since several years, urban planning has become a major stake for the sustainable development of cities. Each decision taken for urban

  18. Importance of land use update during the calibration period and simulation of water balance response to land use change in the upper Rio das Mortes Catchment (Cerrado Biome, Central-Western Brazil)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamparter, Gabriele; Kovacs, Kristof; Nobrega, Rodolfo; Gerold, Gerhard

    2015-04-01

    Changes in the hydrological balance and following degradation of the water ecosystem services due to large scale land use changes are reported from agricultural frontiers all over the world. Traditionally, hydrological models including vegetation and land use as a part of the hydrological cycle use a fixed distribution of land use for the calibration period. We believe that a meaningful calibration - especially when investigating the effects of land use change on hydrology - demands the inclusion of land use change during the calibration period into the calibration procedure. The SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool) model is a process-based, semi-distributed model calculating the different components of the water balance. The model bases on the definition of hydrological response units (HRUs) which are based on soil, vegetation and slope distribution. It specifically emphasises the role of land use and land management on the water balance. The Central-Western region of Brazil is one of the leading agricultural frontiers, which experienced rapid and radical deforestation and agricultural intensification in the last 40 years (from natural Cerrado savannah to cattle grazing to intensive corn and soya cropland). The land use history of the upper Rio das Mortes catchment (with 17500 km²) is reasonably well documented since the 1970th. At the same time there are almost continuous climate and runoff data available for the period between 1988 and 2011. Therefore, the work presented here shows the model calibration and validation of the SWAT model with the land use update function for three different periods (1988 to 1998, 1998 to 2007 and 2007 to 2011) in comparison with the same calibration periods using a steady state land use distribution. The use of the land use update function allows a clearer identification which changes in the discharge are due to climatic variability and which are due to changes in the vegetation cover. With land use update included into the calibration procedure, the impact of land use change on overall modelled runoff was more pronounced. For example, the accordance of modelled peak discharge improved for the period from 1988 to 1998 (with a decrease of primary Cerrado from 60 to 30 %) with the use of the land use update function compared to the steady state calibration. The effect for the following two periods 1998 to 2007 and 2007 to 2011 (with a decrease of primary Cerrado from 30 to 24 % and 24 to 19 % respectively) show only a small improvement of the model fit.

  19. Effects of Land Use Changes on the Water and Energy Balance Over South America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nascimento, M.; Herdies, D. L.; Angelis, C.

    2013-05-01

    With the objective of analyzing the effects of land use changes in the Amazon and its consequences on the main components of the water and energy balance over South America, with emphasis on the Amazon and La Plata Basin, two experiments were carried for 10-year period (1999-2008), in which the land use conditions were modified, representing conditions for the 90s (CONTROL Experiment) and current conditions over land use in the Amazon region (Experiment 1). Changes in land use were observed mainly in the Amazon region and southern Brazil. The numerical model used to perform the simulations was the ETA in its climate version, using as an initial and boundary condition the CFSR/NCEP reanalysis datasets. The results show for the analyzed period that there was a reduction of 3.3 mm/month in average rainfall rates in the La Plata Basin and 4.2 mm/month in the Amazon region, with some places where this reduction was more pronounced. Seasonally was observed that during the summer there is an average reduction of 3.9 mm/month in the Amazon region. Already on the La Plata Basin was observed an average increase of 11.7 mm/month in the La Plata Basin during the summer and an reduction in winter season. Through the overall result was also possible to conclude that the changes in land use for more realistic conditions, there were significant reductions in evapotranspiration and latent heat fluxes, as well as an increase in sensible heat fluxes, especially over the regions where the changes were more pronounced. Through the analyzes it can be observed that in general the La Plata Basin is sensitive to changes in land use over the Amazon and adjacent regions, allowing to conclude that such changes can influence the amount of rainfall, the intensity of the major meteorological systems, as well as temperature trends on the regions analyzed.

  20. Implications of Limiting CO2 Concentrations for Land Use and Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Wise, Marshall A.; Calvin, Katherine V.; Thomson, Allison M.; Clarke, Leon E.; Bond-Lamberty, Benjamin; Sands, Ronald D.; Smith, Steven J.; Janetos, Anthony C.; Edmonds, James A.

    2009-05-29

    This paper is the first to simultaneously examine the implications of extending the concept of placing a value on carbon beyond fossil fuel and industrial emissions to all sources, including those associated with land use and land use change. The paper reports a variety of results that have bearing on recent discussions in the literature regarding the role of bioenergy and the indirect emission of carbon through land-use change as well as the burgeoning literature on interactions between bioenergy and crop prices. This paper goes beyond results currently in the literature by using an integrated assessment model to assess energy use and supply, atmospheric composition, land use, and terrestrial carbon in the context of limiting the concentration of atmospheric CO2. We find that when the concept of valuing carbon emissions is extended to all carbon emissions, regardless of origin, that in contrast to a mitigation scenario where only fossil fuel and industrial carbon emissions are valued, deforestation is replaced by afforestation and expanded unmanaged ecosystems; the cost of limiting CO2 concentrations falls; crop prices rise; and human diets are transformed as people shift away from consumption of beef and other carbon-intensive protein sources. The increase in crop prices flows directly from the consideration of land-use change emissions in a comprehensive emissions mitigation program and occurs even in the absence of the use of purpose-grown bioenergy. Finally, we find that the assumed rate of improvement in food and fiber crop productivity (e.g. wheat, rice, corn) has a strong influence on land-use change emissions, making the technology for growing crops potentially as important for limiting atmospheric CO2 concentrations as energy technologies such as CO2 capture and storage.

  1. Implications of land use change in tropical Northern Africa under global warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brücher, T.; Claussen, M.; Raddatz, T.

    2015-06-01

    A major link between climate and humans in Northern Africa, and the Sahel in particular, is land use and associated land cover change, mainly where subsistence farming prevails. Here we assess possible feedbacks between the type of land use and harvest intensity and climate by analyzing a series of idealized GCM experiments using the MPI-ESM. The base line for these experiments is a simulation forced by the RCP8.5 scenario which includes strong greenhouse gas emissions and anthropogenic land cover changes. The anthropogenic land cover changes in the RCP8.5 scenario include a mixture of pasture and agriculture. In subsequent simulations, we replace the entire area affected by anthropogenic land cover change in the region between the Sahara in the North and the Guinean Coast in the South (4 to 20° N) by either pasture or agriculture, respectively. In a second setup we vary the amount of harvest in case of agriculture. The RCP8.5 base line simulation reveals strong changes in mean agriculture and monsoon rainfall. In comparison with these changes, any variation of the type of land use in the study area leads to very small, mostly insignificantly small, additional differences in mean temperature and annual precipitation change in this region. Within the uncertainty of the representation of land use in current ESMs, our study suggests marginal feedback between land use changes and climate changes triggered by strong greenhouse gas emissions. Hence as a good approximation, climate change can be considered as external driver in models of land-use - conflict dynamics when seasonal or mean values are used as external driver.

  2. Impact of Urbanization on Water Quantity and Quality: The Need for an Integrative Watershed Modeling Approach

    EPA Science Inventory

    Economic development through natural resource extraction is the primary driver of land use change. Land use change generally occurs as a result of urban development (residential, commercial, and industrial), agriculture (pasture and crop production), forestry (wood for constructi...

  3. Spatially explicit land-use and land-cover scenarios for the Great Plains of the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sohl, Terry L.; Sleeter, Benjamin M.; Sayler, Kristi L.; Bouchard, Michelle A.; Reker, Ryan R.; Bennett, Stacie L.; Sleeter, Rachel R.; Kanengieter, Ronald L.; Zhu, Zhi-Liang

    2012-01-01

    The Great Plains of the United States has undergone extensive land-use and land-cover change in the past 150 years, with much of the once vast native grasslands and wetlands converted to agricultural crops, and much of the unbroken prairie now heavily grazed. Future land-use change in the region could have dramatic impacts on ecological resources and processes. A scenario-based modeling framework is needed to support the analysis of potential land-use change in an uncertain future, and to mitigate potentially negative future impacts on ecosystem processes. We developed a scenario-based modeling framework to analyze potential future land-use change in the Great Plains. A unique scenario construction process, using an integrated modeling framework, historical data, workshops, and expert knowledge, was used to develop quantitative demand for future land-use change for four IPCC scenarios at the ecoregion level. The FORE-SCE model ingested the scenario information and produced spatially explicit land-use maps for the region at relatively fine spatial and thematic resolutions. Spatial modeling of the four scenarios provided spatial patterns of land-use change consistent with underlying assumptions and processes associated with each scenario. Economically oriented scenarios were characterized by significant loss of natural land covers and expansion of agricultural and urban land uses. Environmentally oriented scenarios experienced modest declines in natural land covers to slight increases. Model results were assessed for quantity and allocation disagreement between each scenario pair. In conjunction with the U.S. Geological Survey's Biological Carbon Sequestration project, the scenario-based modeling framework used for the Great Plains is now being applied to the entire United States.

  4. Effect of Rainfall Regime on Catchment Runoff Response in Tropical Urban Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babovic, Vladan; Meshgi, Ali

    2015-04-01

    Increasing global urbanization has severely altered the hydrological cycle, resulting reduction of pervious areas, groundwater infiltration and the lateral sub-surface component during rainfall events, increasing peak discharges in urban drainage infrastructure. On the other hand, behaviour of rainfall-runoff processes in urban systems is highly non-linear and spatially heterogeneous. This call for a better understanding of rainfall-runoff processes in urbanized areas. Unfortunately, knowledge about rainfall-runoff processes in tropical urban environments is still limited. This study proposed genetic programming to establish a physically interpretable modular model consisting of two sub-models to simulate the hydrograph flow components (i.e. baseflow and direct runoff) for a tropical urban catchment in Singapore. Rainfall events were divided into clusters and sub-clusters based on rainfall regimes (i.e. total precipitation in the event, maximum 30-min intensity and duration) and antecedent catchment conditions using a hierarchical technique. Average runoff coefficients of each cluster/sub-cluster were then estimated from runoff module of the modular model to estimate the effect of various rainfall regimes on catchment runoff response in tropical urban systems. The results suggested that either a very large rainfall event (e.g. 10 year ARI) or a small rainfall event may cause runoff generation processes to be significantly different among different land-uses types. The results also showed rainfall regimes had the largest effect on the runoff coefficient of bush areas compared to other land use types. In addition, the runoff coefficients of all the land uses increased gradually from sub-cluster-1 (relatively un-saturated condition) to sub-cluster-3 (relatively saturated condition). The outcomes of this study can yield better insights in the rainfall-runoff processes and helps for better understanding of runoff generation mechanism in tropical urban environments.

  5. Land Use and the Democratic Process: Creating Your Own Magazine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, David C.

    1976-01-01

    Presents ideas for creating an environmental education publication or television documentary as a secondary level class activity. Suggested topics for the publication include information on international land use, climatic factors, food production, nuclear energy, and individual freedom versus land use restriction. (Author/DB)

  6. Land use data collection systems: Some problems of unification

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael B. Teitz

    1966-01-01

    Conclusion With all this, what can be said about the future of land use information collection, storage, and retrieval by governmental agencies? One thing is clear: there is not now enough information to justify an immediate attempt to establish a central land use data collection system almost anywhere. On the other hand, there do appear to be advantages to be

  7. Land Use and natUraL resoUrces

    E-print Network

    California at Davis, University of

    1 Land Use and natUraL resoUrces Fall 2013 Including: Mitigation and Conservation Banking Climate. Your feedback is important to us! Julia Lave Johnston Director, Land Use and Natural Resources....................................................................................................7 natUraL resoUrces NEW · Climate Action Planning and Implementation

  8. Integrating regional economic development analysis and land use economics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark D. Partridge; Dan S. Rickman

    2012-01-01

    Two largely separate literatures exist on regional economic development and land use economics. In this chapter, we argue that a full understanding of each of the two areas requires greater knowledge of their interrelationship. We review key studies of the two literatures, particularly those related to the close interconnectedness of regional economic development and land use. We contend that a

  9. Image interpretation for a multilevel land use classification system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The potential use is discussed of three remote sensors for developing a four level land use classification system. Three types of imagery for photointerpretation are presented: ERTS-1 satellite imagery, high altitude photography, and medium altitude photography. Suggestions are given as to which remote sensors and imagery scales may be most effectively employed to provide data on specific types of land use.

  10. Quantifying the Climate Impacts of Land Use Change (Invited)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. J. Anderson-Teixeira; P. K. Snyder; T. E. Twine

    2010-01-01

    Climate change mitigation efforts that involve land use decisions call for comprehensive quantification of the climate services of terrestrial ecosystems. This is particularly imperative for analyses of the climate impact of bioenergy production, as land use change is often the single most important factor in determining bioenergy's sustainability. However, current metrics of the climate services of terrestrial ecosystems used for

  11. LAND USE LAND COVER (LULC) - US GEOLOGICAL SURVEY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Mapping Program, a component of the U. S. Geological Survey (USGS), produces and distributes land use and land cover maps and digitized data for the conterminous U.S. and Hawaii. Land use refers to the human activities that are directly related to the land. The int...

  12. Using Field Experiences to Study the Land-Use Legacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brady, Joseph K.; Brady, Jody C.

    2009-01-01

    The current rapid decline of Earth's biodiversity represents an enormous crisis for humanity. Among the factors producing declines in biodiversity, changes in land use may have the greatest effect in the near term. It is well known that land-use history produces strong, lingering effects on biodiversity. This phenomenon has become known as the…

  13. extension.ucdavis.edu/landuse Land Use and

    E-print Network

    Ferrara, Katherine W.

    extension.ucdavis.edu/landuse Land Use and Natural Resources Fall 2011 CONTINUING AND PROFESSIONAL.ucdavis.edu/landuse letteR fROm the DiRectOR Please join us in welcoming Julia Lave Johnston as the new director of Land Useth anniversary of UC Davis Extension's award- winning Land Use and Natural Resources program

  14. Climate change and land use in Florida: Interdependencies and opportunities

    E-print Network

    Watson, Craig A.

    Climate change and land use in Florida: Interdependencies and opportunities Stephen Mulkey, Ph June 2007 Revised 30 September 2007 #12;Climate change and land use ­ Report to the Century Commission - S. Mulkey, June 2007 2 Executive summary Over this century anthropogenic climate change will present

  15. Relationship of water quality and pollutant loads to land uses in adjoining watersheds

    SciTech Connect

    Ostry, R.C.

    1982-02-01

    The Grand and Saugeen Rivers in southern Ontario were chosen for study as pilot watersheds under the Pollution From Land Use Activities Reference Group (PLUARG) study. The pilot watersheds have adjacent headwater areas and are physically similar in geology, physiography, and climate. Significant differences in water quality between the watersheds at their outlets are attributed to land use and population differences. The major pollutant sources in the two pilot watersheds were identified as trace elements from urban runoff and point source discharges; phosphorus from agricultural and urban runoff and private waste disposal; chloride from transportation corridors; and sediment and nitrogen from agricultural runoff. Yields at the watershed outlets were similar for suspended sediment and two to three times as high in the Grand River for phosphorus, nitrogen, chloride, and lead. The higher phosphorus and nitrogen levels were attributed to larger point source inputs and the higher proportion of agricultural activity, comprising 75 percent of the Grand River basin compared to 64 percent in the Saugeen River basin. Similarly, the higher chloride and lead levels were attributed to an order of magnitude larger population and three times as much urban land in the Grand River basin compared to the Saugeen River basin.

  16. Impact analysis of the decline of agricultural land-use on flood risk and material flux in hilly and mountainous watersheds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimizu, Y.; Onodera, S.; Takahashi, H.; Matsumori, K.

    2015-06-01

    Agricultural land-use has been reduced by mainly urbanization and devastation in Japan. The objective of this study is to evaluate the impact of the decline of agricultural land-use on flood risk and material flux in hilly and mountainous watersheds using Soil Water Assessment Tool. The results indicated that increase of flood risk due to abandonment of agricultural land-use. Furthermore, the abandonment of rice paddy field on steep slope areas may have larger impacts on sediment discharges than cultivated field. Therefore, it is suggested that prevention of expansion of abandonment of rice paddy field is an important factor in the decrease of yields of sediment and nutrients.

  17. Collaborative development of land use change scenarios for analysing hydro-meteorological risk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malek, Žiga; Glade, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    Simulating future land use changes remains a difficult task, due to uncontrollable and uncertain driving forces of change. Scenario development emerged as a tool to address these limitations. Scenarios offer the exploration of possible futures and environmental consequences, and enable the analysis of possible decisions. Therefore, there is increasing interest of both decision makers and researchers to apply scenarios when studying future land use changes and their consequences. The uncertainties related to generating land use change scenarios are among others defined by the accuracy of data, identification and quantification of driving forces, and the relation between expected future changes and the corresponding spatial pattern. To address the issue of data and intangible driving forces, several studies have applied collaborative, participatory techniques when developing future scenarios. The involvement of stakeholders can lead to incorporating a broader spectrum of professional values and experience. Moreover, stakeholders can help to provide missing data, improve detail, uncover mistakes, and offer alternatives. Thus, collaborative scenarios can be considered as more reliable and relevant. Collaborative scenario development has been applied to study a variety of issues in environmental sciences on different spatial and temporal scales. Still, these participatory approaches are rarely spatially explicit, making them difficult to apply when analysing changes to hydro-meteorological risk on a local scale. Spatial explicitness is needed to identify potentially critical areas of land use change, leading to locations where the risk might increase. In order to allocate collaboratively developed scenarios of land change, we combined participatory modeling with geosimulation in a multi-step scenario generation framework. We propose a framework able to develop scenarios that are plausible, can overcome data inaccessibility, address intangible and external driving forces of land change, and is transferable to other case study areas with different land use change processes and consequences. The framework starts with the involvement of stakeholders where driving forces of land use change are being studied by performing interviews and group discussions. In order to bridge the gap between qualitative methods and conventional geospatial techniques, we applied cognitive mapping and the Drivers-Pressures-State-Impact and Response framework (DPSIR) to develop a conceptual land use change model. This was later transformed into a spatially explicit land use change model based on remote sensing data, GIS and cellular automata spatial allocation. The methodology was developed and applied in a study area in the eastern Italian Alps, where the uncertainties regarding future urban expansion are high. Later, we transferred it to a study area in the Romanian Carpathians, where the identified prevailing process of land use change is deforestation. Both areas are subject to hydro-meteorological risk, posing a need for the analysis of the possible future spatial pattern and locations of land use change. The resulting scenarios enabled us, to point at identifying hot-spots of land use change, serving as a possible input for a risk assessment.

  18. Land Use, Livelihoods, Vulnerabilities, and Resilience in Coastal Bangladesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilligan, J. M.; Ackerly, B.; Goodbred, S. L., Jr.; Wilson, C.

    2014-12-01

    The densely populated, low-lying coast of Bangladesh is famously associated with vulnerability to sea-level rise, storms, and flooding. Simultaneously, land-use change has significantly altered local sediment transport, causing elevation loss and degradation of drainage. The rapid growth of shrimp aquaculture has also affected soil chemistry in former agricultural areas and the stock of riverine fisheries through intense larval harvesting. To understand the net impact of these environmental changes on the region's communities, it is necessary to examine interactions across scale - from externally driven large scale environmental change to smaller scale, but often more intense, local change - and also between the physical environment and social, political, and economic conditions. We report on a study of interactions between changing communities and changing environment in coastal Bangladesh, exploring the role of societal and physical factors in shaping the different outcomes and their effects on people's lives. Land reclamation projects in the 1960s surrounded intertidal islands with embankments. This allowed rice farming to expand, but also produced significant elevation loss, which rendered many islands vulnerable to waterlogging and flooding from storm surges. The advent of large-scale shrimp aquaculture added environmental, economic, social, and political stresses, but also brought much export revenue to a developing nation. Locally, attempts to remedy environmental stresses have produced mixed results, with similar measures succeeding in some communities and failing in others. In this context, we find that people are continually adapting to changing opportunities and constraints for food, housing, and income. Niches that support different livelihood activities emerge and dwindle, and their occupants' desires affect the political context. Understanding and successfully responding to the impacts of environmental change requires understanding not only the physical environment, but also the human livelihoods, interpersonal interactions, and human-environmental interactions within a socio-ecological system.

  19. Land-use changes in Illinois, ASA: The influence of landscape attributes on current and historic land use

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Louis R. Iverson

    1988-01-01

    The Illinois Geographic Information System was used to compare the soil and landscape attributes of the State with its historic vegetation, current land use, and patterns of land-use change over the past 160 years. Patch structural characteristics among land types in four geographic zones were also compared. The assessment of patch characteristics revealed a highly modified State with most land

  20. Growth effects of major land use projects. Volume II. Compilation of land use based emission factors. Final report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Benesh

    1976-01-01

    Growth Effects of Major Land Use Projects is a research program whose goal is to formulate a methodology to predict air pollutant emissions resulting from the construction and operation of two types of major land use projects, large residential projects and large concentrations of employment (i.e., office parks and industrial parks). Emissions are quantified from the major project, from land