Science.gov

Sample records for urban land-use intensity

  1. Evaluating the compatibility of multi-functional and intensive urban land uses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taleai, M.; Sharifi, A.; Sliuzas, R.; Mesgari, M.

    2007-12-01

    This research is aimed at developing a model for assessing land use compatibility in densely built-up urban areas. In this process, a new model was developed through the combination of a suite of existing methods and tools: geographical information system, Delphi methods and spatial decision support tools: namely multi-criteria evaluation analysis, analytical hierarchy process and ordered weighted average method. The developed model has the potential to calculate land use compatibility in both horizontal and vertical directions. Furthermore, the compatibility between the use of each floor in a building and its neighboring land uses can be evaluated. The method was tested in a built-up urban area located in Tehran, the capital city of Iran. The results show that the model is robust in clarifying different levels of physical compatibility between neighboring land uses. This paper describes the various steps and processes of developing the proposed land use compatibility evaluation model (CEM).

  2. Urban Land-Use and Respiratory Symptoms in Infants

    PubMed Central

    Ebisu, Keita; Holford, Theodore R.; Belanger, Kathleen D.; Leaderer, Brian P.; Bell, Michelle L.

    2011-01-01

    Background Children’s respiratory health has been linked to many factors, including air pollution. The impacts of urban land-use on health are not fully understood, although these relationships are of key importance given the growing populations living in urban environments. Objectives We investigated whether the degree of urban land-use near a family’s residence is associated with severity of respiratory symptoms like wheeze among infants. Methods Wheeze occurrence was recorded for the first year of life for 680 infants in Connecticut for 1996–1998 from a cohort at risk for asthma development. Land-use categories were obtained from the National Land Cover Database. The fraction of urban land-use near each subject’s home was related to severity of wheeze symptoms using ordered logistic regression, adjusting for individual-level data including smoking in the household, race, gender, and socio-economic status. Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) exposure was estimated using integrated traffic exposure modeling. Different levels of urban land-use intensity were included in separate models to explore intensity-response relationships. A buffer distance was selected based on the log-likelihood value of models with buffers of 100–2,000m by 10m increments. Results A 10% increase in urban land-use within the selected 1,540m buffer of each infant’s residence was associated with 1.09-fold increased risk of wheeze severity (95% confidence interval, 1.02–1.16). Results were robust to alternate buffer sizes. When NO2, representing traffic pollution, was added to the model, results for urban land-use were no longer statistically significant, but had similar central estimates. Higher urban intensity showed higher risk of prevalence and severity of wheeze symptoms. Conclusions Urban land-use was associated with severity of wheeze symptoms in infants. Findings indicate that health effect estimates for urbanicity incorporate some effects of traffic-related emissions, but also involve other factors. These may include differences in housing characteristics or baseline healthcare status. PMID:21530957

  3. Noise levels associated with urban land use.

    PubMed

    King, Gavin; Roland-Mieszkowski, Marek; Jason, Timothy; Rainham, Daniel G

    2012-12-01

    Recent trends towards the intensification of urban development to increase urban densities and avoid sprawl should be accompanied by research into the potential for related health impacts from environmental exposure. The objective of the current study was to examine the effect of the built environment and land use on levels of environmental noise. Two different study areas were selected using a combination of small area census geography, land use information, air photography, and ground-truthing. The first study area represented residential land use and consisted of two- to three-story single-family homes. The second study area was characteristic of mixed-use urban planning with apartment buildings as well as commercial and institutional development. Study areas were subdivided into six grids, and a location was randomly selected within each grid for noise monitoring. Each location was sampled four times over a 24-h day, resulting in a total of 24 samples for each of the two areas. Results showed significant variability in noise within study areas and significantly higher levels of environmental noise in the mixed-use area. Both study areas exceeded recommended noise limits when evaluated against World Health Organization guidelines and yielded average noise events values in the moderate to serious annoyance range with the potential to obscure normal conversation and cause sleep disturbance. PMID:22707308

  4. Urban Land Use and Transportation Center University of California, Davis

    E-print Network

    California at Davis, University of

    Urban Land Use and Transportation Center University of California, Davis The Urban Land Use. The mission of ULTRANS is to refocus transportation and land use planning to create livable communities to the people who make policy decisions. As another step in building a strong research foundation for land use

  5. Procedural Modeling of Urban Land Use Tom Lechner1

    E-print Network

    Young, R. Michael

    1 Procedural Modeling of Urban Land Use Tom Lechner1 , Benjamin Watson2 Dept. EECS, Dept. CS not model land use, meaning artists must arrange the buildings in the cities they create manually. We describe a method for procedurally generating typical patterns of urban land use using agent

  6. Urban Dynamics: Analyzing Land Use Change in Urban Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acevedo, William; Richards, Lora R.; Buchanan, Janis T.; Wegener, Whitney R.

    2000-01-01

    In FY99, the Earth Resource Observation System (EROS) staff at Ames continued managing the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) Urban Dynamics Research program, which has mapping and analysis activities at five USGS mapping centers. Historic land use reconstruction work continued while activities in geographic analysis and modeling were expanded. Retrospective geographic information system (GIS) development - the spatial reconstruction of a region's urban land-use history - focused on the Detroit River Corridor, California's Central Valley, and the city of Sioux Falls, South Dakota.

  7. Challenges and opportunities in mapping land use intensity globally?

    PubMed Central

    Kuemmerle, Tobias; Erb, Karlheinz; Meyfroidt, Patrick; Müller, Daniel; Verburg, Peter H; Estel, Stephan; Haberl, Helmut; Hostert, Patrick; Jepsen, Martin R.; Kastner, Thomas; Levers, Christian; Lindner, Marcus; Plutzar, Christoph; Verkerk, Pieter Johannes; van der Zanden, Emma H; Reenberg, Anette

    2013-01-01

    Future increases in land-based production will need to focus more on sustainably intensifying existing production systems. Unfortunately, our understanding of the global patterns of land use intensity is weak, partly because land use intensity is a complex, multidimensional term, and partly because we lack appropriate datasets to assess land use intensity across broad geographic extents. Here, we review the state of the art regarding approaches for mapping land use intensity and provide a comprehensive overview of available global-scale datasets on land use intensity. We also outline major challenges and opportunities for mapping land use intensity for cropland, grazing, and forestry systems, and identify key issues for future research. PMID:24143157

  8. Improving urban land use and land cover classification from

    E-print Network

    Du, Jenny (Qian)

    Improving urban land use and land cover classification from high-spatial-resolution hyperspectral Library on 02 Sep 2010 to 130.18.64.144. Terms of Use: http://spiedl.org/terms #12;Improving urban land use and land cover classification from high-spatial-resolution hyperspectral imagery using contextual

  9. Using land use change trajectories to quantify the effects of urbanization on urban heat island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Huihui; Zhao, Xiaofeng; Chen, Feng; Wu, Lichun

    2014-02-01

    This paper proposed a quantitative method of land use change trajectory, which means the succession among different land use types across time, to examine the effects of urbanization on an urban heat island (UHI). To accomplish this, multi-temporal images from Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper (TM) and Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) of Xiamen City in China from 1987 to 2007 were selected. First, the land use change trajectories were extracted based on the classified images from different years. Then the land surface temperatures (LST) were retrieved and the magnitudes of the UHI were evaluated using the UHI intensity (UHII) indicator. Finally, the indices of the contribution to UHI intensity (CUHII) were constructed and calculated to quantify the effects of each land use change trajectory on the UHI during urbanization. The results demonstrated that the land use change trajectories and CUHII are effective and useful in quantifying the effects of urbanization on UHI. In Xiamen City, a total of 2218 land use change trajectories were identified and 530 of them were the existing urban or urbanization trajectories. The UHII presents a trend of continuous increase from 0.83 °C in 1987 to 2.14 °C in 2007. With respect to the effects of urban growth on UHI, the contribution of existing urban area to UHI decreased during urbanization. Prior to 2007, the existing urban area of trajectory NO. 44444 had the most significant effect on UHI with the greatest CUHII, while the value has decreased from 55.00% in 1987 to 13.03% in 2007 because of the addition of new urbanized area. In 2007, the greatest CUHII was replaced by a trajectory from farmland to built-up area (NO. 22224) with the CUHII of 21.98%, followed by the existing urban area of trajectory NO. 44444 with the CUHII of 13.03%. These results provide not only a new methodology to assess the environmental effects of urbanization, but also decision-supports for the planning and management of cities.

  10. Cities and Urban Land Use in Advanced Placement Human Geography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Larry R.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the cities and urban land use section of the Advanced Placement (AP) human geography course, focusing on the: (1) definitions of urbanism; (2) origin and evolution of cities; (3) functional character of contemporary cities; (4) built environment and social space; and (5) responses to urban growth. (CMK)

  11. Influences of different land use spatial control schemes on farmland conversion and urban development.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Min; Tan, Shukui; Zhang, Lu

    2015-01-01

    Land use planning is always officially implemented as an effective tool to control urban development and protect farmland. However, its impact on land use change remains untested in China. Using a case study of Hang-Jia-Hu region, the main objective of this paper was to investigate the influence of different land use spatial control schemes on farmland conversion and urban development. Comparisons of farmland conversion and urban development patterns between the urban planning area and the non-urban planning area were characterized by using remote sensing, geographical information systems, and landscape metrics. Results indicated that farmland conversion in the non-urban planning area was more intensive than that in the urban planning area, and that farmland patterns was more fragmented in the non-urban planning area. Built-up land patterns in the non-urban planning area showed a trend of aggregation, while those in the urban planning area had a dual trend of fragmentation and aggregation. Existing built-up areas had less influence on built-up land sprawl in the non-urban planning area than that in the urban planning area. Built-up land sprawl in the form of continuous development in the urban planning area led to farmland conversion; and in the non-urban planning area, built-up land sprawl in the form of leapfrogging development resulted in farmland areal declines and fragmentation. We argued that it is a basic requirement to integrate land use plans in urban and non-urban planning areas for land use planning and management. PMID:25915897

  12. Influences of Different Land Use Spatial Control Schemes on Farmland Conversion and Urban Development

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Min; Tan, Shukui; Zhang, Lu

    2015-01-01

    Land use planning is always officially implemented as an effective tool to control urban development and protect farmland. However, its impact on land use change remains untested in China. Using a case study of Hang-Jia-Hu region, the main objective of this paper was to investigate the influence of different land use spatial control schemes on farmland conversion and urban development. Comparisons of farmland conversion and urban development patterns between the urban planning area and the non-urban planning area were characterized by using remote sensing, geographical information systems, and landscape metrics. Results indicated that farmland conversion in the non-urban planning area was more intensive than that in the urban planning area, and that farmland patterns was more fragmented in the non-urban planning area. Built-up land patterns in the non-urban planning area showed a trend of aggregation, while those in the urban planning area had a dual trend of fragmentation and aggregation. Existing built-up areas had less influence on built-up land sprawl in the non-urban planning area than that in the urban planning area. Built-up land sprawl in the form of continuous development in the urban planning area led to farmland conversion; and in the non-urban planning area, built-up land sprawl in the form of leapfrogging development resulted in farmland areal declines and fragmentation. We argued that it is a basic requirement to integrate land use plans in urban and non-urban planning areas for land use planning and management. PMID:25915897

  13. Benchmarking land use change impacts on direct runoff in ungauged urban watersheds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozdemir, Hasan; Elba??, Emre

    This paper describes the results of benchmark testing of land use change impact on direct runoff using Soil Conservation Service-Curve Number (SCS-CN) model in two ungauged neighbouring urban watersheds (Ç?nar and Kad?yakuplu) in Istanbul, Turkey. To examine this impact, the model was applied to daily rainfall data using three different dated (1982, 1996 and 2012) hydrological soil groups and land use of the two ungauged urban watersheds. Finally, the impact of land use change and model performance were evaluated with the rainfall-runoff regression, the coefficient of determination and the NSE test using benchmark runoff data based on 1982 land use conditions. The results of the analysis indicate that the changing of land use types from natural surfaces to impervious surfaces has a significant impact on surface runoff. Additionally, remarkable spatial variations of the land use changes and their impact on the runoff in 1996 and 2012 were more detected in the Ç?nar watershed compared with the Kad?yakuplu watershed. The planning decision on land use of the watersheds, has vital role in these differences. The results of this research also reveal that change to intensive land use in urban watersheds has a significantly larger impact on runoff generation than those rainfall.

  14. Land-use suitability analysis for urban development in Beijing.

    PubMed

    Liu, Renzhi; Zhang, Ke; Zhang, Zhijiao; Borthwick, Alistair G L

    2014-12-01

    Land-use suitability analyses are of considerable use in the planning of mega-cities. An Urban Development Land-use Suitability Mapping (UDLSM) approach has been constructed, based on opportunity and constraint criteria. Two Multi-criteria Evaluation (MCE) methods, the Ideal Point Method (IPM) and Ordered Weighted Averaging (OWA), were used to generate the opportunity map. The protection map was obtained by means of constraint criteria, utilizing the Boolean union operator. A suitability map was then generated by overlaying the opportunity and protection maps. By applying the UDLSM approach to Beijing, its urban development land-use suitability was mapped, and a sensitivity analysis undertaken to examine the robustness of the proposed approach. Indirect validation was achieved by mutual comparisons of suitability maps resulting from the two MCE methods, where the overall agreement of 91% and kappa coefficient of 0.78 indicated that both methods provide very similar spatial land-use suitability distributions. The suitability level decreases from central Beijing to its periphery, and the area classed as suitable amounts to 28% of the total area. Leading attributes of each opportunity factor for suitability were revealed, with 2256 km(2), i.e. 70%, of existing development land being overlaid by suitable areas in Beijing. Conflicting parcels of land were identified by overlaying the resultant map with two previous development blueprints for Beijing. The paper includes several recommendations aimed at improving the long-term urban development plans for Beijing. PMID:25036557

  15. Detecting residential land-use development at the urban fringe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jensen, J. R.; Toll, D. L.

    1982-01-01

    Problems associated with the use of Landsat multispectral scanner (MSS) imagery for the detection of urban growth and land use patterns are discussed. The presence of vegetation, either original or added between scanning periods, has been found to dramatically effect the range of signatures in a given area. Different land use developmental stages have been successfully identified by means of 1:50,000 scale panchromatic aerial photography, a resolution only considered possible by spaceborne instrumentation with the advent of the Landsat D satellite. Textural information generated through the grey-tone spatial-dependency matrix for the Landsat band 5 data is compared for different years and a change detection algorithm is described. It is found that the addition of vegetation during development after the removal of natural vegetation resulted in error of omission in the single band data, which must therefore only be used in concert with other data sources.

  16. Urban land use predicts West Nile virus exposure in songbirds.

    PubMed

    Bradley, Catherine A; Gibbs, Samantha E J; Altizer, Sonia

    2008-07-01

    Urbanization is a widespread phenomenon that is likely to influence the prevalence and impact of wildlife pathogens, with implications for wildlife management and public health policies toward zoonotic pathogens. In this study, wild songbird populations were sampled at 14 sites along an urban rural gradient in the greater metropolitan Atlanta (Georgia, USA) area and tested for antibodies to West Nile virus (WNV). The level of urbanization among sites was quantitatively assessed using a principal component analysis of key land use characteristics. In total, 499 individual birds were tested during the spring and summer over three years (2004-2006). Antibody prevalence of WNV increased from rural to urban sites, and this trend was stronger among adult birds relative to juveniles. Furthermore, antibody prevalence among Northern Cardinals (Cardinalis cardinalis) was significantly higher than in other songbird species along the urban gradient. Findings reported here indicate that ecological factors associated with urbanization can influence infection patterns of this vector-borne viral disease, with likely mechanisms including changes in host species diversity and the tolerance or recovery of infected animals. PMID:18686573

  17. The ERTS-1 investigation (ER-600). Volume 5: ERTS-1 urban land use analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erb, R. B.

    1974-01-01

    The Urban Land Use Team conducted a year's investigation of ERTS-1 MSS data to determine the number of Land Use categories in the Houston, Texas, area. They discovered unusually low classification accuracies occurred when a spectrally complex urban scene was classified with extensive rural areas containing spectrally homogeneous features. Separate computer processing of only data in the urbanized area increased classification accuracies of certain urban land use categories. Even so, accuracies of urban landscape were in the 40-70 percent range compared to 70-90 percent for the land use categories containing more homogeneous features (agriculture, forest, water, etc.) in the nonurban areas.

  18. Fractal analysis of urban environment: land use and sewer system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gires, A.; Ochoa Rodriguez, S.; Van Assel, J.; Bruni, G.; Murla Tulys, D.; Wang, L.; Pina, R.; Richard, J.; Ichiba, A.; Willems, P.; Tchiguirinskaia, I.; ten Veldhuis, M. C.; Schertzer, D. J. M.

    2014-12-01

    Land use distribution are usually obtained by automatic processing of satellite and airborne pictures. The complexity of the obtained patterns which are furthermore scale dependent is enhanced in urban environment. This scale dependency is even more visible in a rasterized representation where only a unique class is affected to each pixel. A parameter commonly analysed in urban hydrology is the coefficient of imperviousness, which reflects the proportion of rainfall that will be immediately active in the catchment response. This coefficient is strongly scale dependent with a rasterized representation. This complex behaviour is well grasped with the help of the scale invariant notion of fractal dimension which enables to quantify the space occupied by a geometrical set (here the impervious areas) not only at a single scale but across all scales. This fractal dimension is also compared to the ones computed on the representation of the catchments with the help of operational semi-distributed models. Fractal dimensions of the corresponding sewer systems are also computed and compared with values found in the literature for natural river networks. This methodology is tested on 7 pilot sites of the European NWE Interreg IV RainGain project located in France, Belgium, Netherlands, United-Kingdom and Portugal. Results are compared between all the case study which exhibit different physical features (slope, level of urbanisation, population density...).

  19. Urban Land Use Decouples Plant-Herbivore-Parasitoid Interactions at Multiple Spatial Scales

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Amanda E.; Forbes, Andrew A.

    2014-01-01

    Intense urban and agricultural development alters habitats, increases fragmentation, and may decouple trophic interactions if plants or animals cannot disperse to needed resources. Specialist insects represent a substantial proportion of global biodiversity and their fidelity to discrete microhabitats provides a powerful framework for investigating organismal responses to human land use. We sampled site occupancy and densities for two plant-herbivore-parasitoid systems from 250 sites across a 360 km2 urban/agricultural landscape to ask whether and how human development decouples interactions between trophic levels. We compared patterns of site occupancy, host plant density, herbivory and parasitism rates of insects at two trophic levels with respect to landcover at multiple spatial scales. Geospatial analyses were used to identify landcover characters predictive of insect distributions. We found that herbivorous insect densities were decoupled from host tree densities in urban landcover types at several spatial scales. This effect was amplified for the third trophic level in one of the two insect systems: despite being abundant regionally, a parasitoid species was absent from all urban/suburban landcover even where its herbivore host was common. Our results indicate that human land use patterns limit distributions of specialist insects. Dispersal constraints associated with urban built development are specifically implicated as a limiting factor. PMID:25019962

  20. Urban land use decouples plant-herbivore-parasitoid interactions at multiple spatial scales.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Amanda E; Forbes, Andrew A

    2014-01-01

    Intense urban and agricultural development alters habitats, increases fragmentation, and may decouple trophic interactions if plants or animals cannot disperse to needed resources. Specialist insects represent a substantial proportion of global biodiversity and their fidelity to discrete microhabitats provides a powerful framework for investigating organismal responses to human land use. We sampled site occupancy and densities for two plant-herbivore-parasitoid systems from 250 sites across a 360 km2 urban/agricultural landscape to ask whether and how human development decouples interactions between trophic levels. We compared patterns of site occupancy, host plant density, herbivory and parasitism rates of insects at two trophic levels with respect to landcover at multiple spatial scales. Geospatial analyses were used to identify landcover characters predictive of insect distributions. We found that herbivorous insect densities were decoupled from host tree densities in urban landcover types at several spatial scales. This effect was amplified for the third trophic level in one of the two insect systems: despite being abundant regionally, a parasitoid species was absent from all urban/suburban landcover even where its herbivore host was common. Our results indicate that human land use patterns limit distributions of specialist insects. Dispersal constraints associated with urban built development are specifically implicated as a limiting factor. PMID:25019962

  1. Gravel resources, urbanization, and future land use, Front Range Urban Corridor, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Soule, James M.; Fitch, Harold R.

    1974-01-01

    An assessment of gravel needs in Front Range Urban Corridor markets to 2000 A.D., based on forecast population increases and urbanization, indicates that adequate resources to meet anticipated needs are potentially available, if future land use does not preclude their extraction. Because of urban encroachment onto gravel-bearing lands, this basic construction material is in short supply nationally and in the Front Range Urban Corridor. Longer hauls, increased prices, and use of alternatives, especially crushed rock aggregate, have resulted. An analysis of possible sequential land uses following gravel mining indicates that a desirable use is for 'real estate' ponds and small lakes. A method for computing gravel reserves, based on planimeter measurement of area of resource-bearing lands and statistical analysis of reliability of thickness and size distribution data, was developed to compute reserves in individual markets. A discussion of the qualitative 'usability' of these reserves is then made for the individual markets.

  2. Rates, trends, causes, and consequences of urban land-use change in the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Acevedo, William; Taylor, Janis L.; Hester, Dave J.; Mladinich, Carol S.; Glavac, Sonya

    2006-01-01

    Over the past 200 years, changes to the Nation's urban areas have been dramatic. Changes that have occurred relate both to the location of urban centers, as well as to the spatial extent of land dedicated to urban uses. Urban areas at the beginning of the 19th century were located primarily along major rivers or bodies of water, as waterways provided the most efficient means for transporting goods and people. As railroads became prominent, urban areas were able to expand or develop away from the water's edge. Geographic features such as steep slopes, wetlands, and lack of freshwater impeded settlement. In 1902, the National Reclamation Act was passed and with it came funding for the construction of water storage and transportation systems. This encouraged urban expansion in the arid west. After World War II, the Nation's urban areas continued to expand outward away from the city center as populations migrated to the margins of urban areas, where land was less expensive and the environment was less polluted. In 1956, the Federal Highway Act and the building of Interstate highways further facilitated urban expansion across the Unite States. Rural towns, small industrial centers, and farmland were engulfed by expanding urban centers. Over the past 200 years, numerous social, cultural, economic, and political incentives have encouraged urban expansion. In the 1800s, the industrial revolution influenced where people lived and worked. Many people shifted from agricultural production in rural areas to factory work in urban centers. Advances in transportation systems, such as rail transport in the 19th and early 20th centuries, followed by the mass production of the automobile and convenient air travel, facilitated a mobile society and a national economy. Economic growth and a population boom after World War II spurred increased suburbanization-the shifting of residential areas to the outlying section of a city or to a separate municipality-on the fringe of urban areas. Other economic and political incentives that shaped the urban environment included Federally backed home loans, credit and tax mechanisms that encouraged new development, and less restrictive municipal ordinances regarding building codes, environmental laws, and zoning regulations. Throughout the past two centuries land use changes associated with increasing urbanization have had impacts that resonate at local, regional, and even national scales. Landscape changes resulting from urbanization can be mapped and studied over time. Understanding these changes requires a study of the causes of change as related to social, economic, and political influences. Understanding these changes also requires analysis of how urbanization physically spreads across the landscape. The knowledge gained from studying urban land-use change can be helpful when it flows into local, regional, and national decisionmaking that relates to land-use decisions that impact the people, the economy, and the environment. Deriving a correlation between physical change and the explanations of the causes of change can help anticipate and mitigate the impacts of future change. Throughout the past two centuries changes to the Nation's urban areas are inextricably linked to population changes. The Nation's population started growing slowly along the eastern seaboard during the 17th and 18th centuries, accelerated in the second half of the 19th century, and then continued steadily spreading westward throughout the next hundred years. Currently, nearly 80 percent of the U.S. population resides in urban areas. Land area dedicated to urban use continues to expand, although differently than it has in the past. Most newly urbanized areas are much less densely populated and less intensively developed than they were 50 to 100 years ago.

  3. Land use patterns and urbanization in the holy city of Varanasi, India: a scenario.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Manoj; Mukherjee, Nivedita; Sharma, Gyan Prakash; Raghubanshi, A S

    2010-08-01

    Rapid urbanization and increasing land use changes due to population and economic growth in selected landscapes is being witnessed of late in India and other developing countries. The cities are expanding in all directions resulting in large-scale urban sprawl and changes in urban land use. The spatial pattern of such changes is clearly noticed on the urban fringes or city peripheral rural areas than in the city center. In fact, this is reflected in changing urban land use patterns. There is an urgent need to accurately describe land use changes for planning and sustainable management. In the recent times, remote sensing is gaining importance as vital tool in the analysis and integration of spatial data. This study intends to estimate land use pattern in a planned and unplanned urban setup and also to analyze the impact of change in land use pattern in the Varanasi urban environment. The results indicate that the planned urban setup had a higher tree cover to that of unplanned area in the Varanasi City, although a considerable disparity existed within the planned urban setups. The results emphasize the need to critically review concepts of urban planning and give more consideration to the preservation and management of urban tree cover/greenspace. PMID:19562495

  4. City-wide relationships between green spaces, urban land use and topography

    E-print Network

    Queensland, University of

    City-wide relationships between green spaces, urban land use and topography Richard G. Davies in urban form and topography. The total area of buildings and length of the road network are equally strong-cover. Topography. Urban form Urban Ecosyst (2008) 11:269­287 DOI 10.1007/s11252-008-0062-y R. G. Davies :O. Barbosa

  5. Green Infrastructure & Sustainable Urban Land Use Decision Analysis Workshop

    EPA Science Inventory

    Introduce green infrastructure, concepts and land use alternatives, to City of Cleveland operations staff. Discuss potential of green alternatives to impact daily operations and routine maintenance activities. Tie in sustainability concepts to long-term City planning and discu...

  6. Beacon City: An Urban Land Use Simulation. Teacher's Guide. Preparing for Tomorrow's World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iozzi, Louis A.; And Others

    "Preparing for Tomorrow's World" (PTW) is an interdisciplinary, future-oriented program incorporating information from the sciences/social sciences and addressing societal concerns which interface science/technology/society. "Beacon City," one of a series of program modules, is an urban land use simulation. Land use planning techniques patterned…

  7. Quantifying uncertainty in remote sensing-based urban land-use mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cockx, Kasper; Van de Voorde, Tim; Canters, Frank

    2014-09-01

    Land-use/land-cover information constitutes an important component in the calibration of many urban growth models. Typically, the model building involves a process of historic calibration based on time series of land-use maps. Medium-resolution satellite imagery is an interesting source for obtaining data on land-use change, yet inferring information on the use of urbanised spaces from these images is a challenging task that is subject to different types of uncertainty. Quantifying and reducing the uncertainties in land-use mapping and land-use change model parameter assessment are therefore crucial to improve the reliability of urban growth models relying on these data. In this paper, a remote sensing-based land-use mapping approach is adopted, consisting of two stages: (i) estimating impervious surface cover at sub-pixel level through linear regression unmixing and (ii) inferring urban land use from urban form using metrics describing the spatial structure of the built-up area, together with address data. The focus lies on quantifying the uncertainty involved in this approach. Both stages of the land-use mapping process are subjected to Monte Carlo simulation to assess their relative contribution to and their combined impact on the uncertainty in the derived land-use maps. The robustness to uncertainty of the land-use mapping strategy is addressed by comparing the most likely land-use maps obtained from the simulation with the original land-use map, obtained without taking uncertainty into account. The approach was applied on the Brussels-Capital Region and the central part of the Flanders region (Belgium), covering the city of Antwerp, using a time series of SPOT data for 1996, 2005 and 2012. Although the most likely land-use map obtained from the simulation is very similar to the original land-use map - indicating absence of bias in the mapping process - it is shown that the errors related to the impervious surface sub-pixel fraction estimation have a strong impact on the land-use map's uncertainty. Hence, uncertainties observed in the derived land-use maps should be taken into account when using these maps as an input for modelling of urban growth.

  8. EFFECTS OF LAND USE AND SEASON ON MICROORGANISM CONCENTRATIONS IN URBAN STORMWATER RUNOFF

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study investigated differences in pathogen and indicator organism concentrations in stormwater runoff between different urban land uses and seasons. Stormwater samples collected from storm sewers draining small municipal separate storm sewer systems shown to be free of cros...

  9. Relationships between human disturbance and wildlife land use in urban habitat fragments.

    PubMed

    Markovchick-Nicholls, Lisa; Regan, Helen M; Deutschman, Douglas H; Widyanata, Astrid; Martin, Barry; Noreke, Lani; Hunt, Timothy Ann

    2008-02-01

    Habitat remnants in urbanized areas typically conserve biodiversity and serve the recreation and urban open-space needs of human populations. Nevertheless, these goals can be in conflict if human activity negatively affects wildlife. Hence, when considering habitat remnants as conservation refuges it is crucial to understand how human activities and land uses affect wildlife use of those and adjacent areas. We used tracking data (animal tracks and den or bed sites) on 10 animal species and information on human activity and environmental factors associated with anthropogenic disturbance in 12 habitat fragments across San Diego County, California, to examine the relationships among habitat fragment characteristics, human activity, and wildlife presence. There were no significant correlations of species presence and abundance with percent plant cover for all species or with different land-use intensities for all species, except the opossum (Didelphis virginiana), which preferred areas with intensive development. Woodrats (Neotoma spp.) and cougars (Puma concolor) were associated significantly and positively and significantly and negatively, respectively, with the presence and prominence of utilities. Woodrats were also negatively associated with the presence of horses. Raccoons (Procyon lotor) and coyotes (Canis latrans) were associated significantly and negatively and significantly and positively, respectively, with plant bulk and permanence. Cougars and gray foxes (Urocyon cinereoargenteus) were negatively associated with the presence of roads. Roadrunners (Geococcyx californianus) were positively associated with litter. The only species that had no significant correlations with any of the environmental variables were black-tailed jackrabbits (Lepus californicus) and mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus). Bobcat tracks were observed more often than gray foxes in the study area and bobcats correlated significantly only with water availability, contrasting with results from other studies. Our results appear to indicate that maintenance of habitat fragments in urban areas is of conservation benefit to some animal species, despite human activity and disturbance, as long as the fragments are large. PMID:18254856

  10. Regional soil erosion in response to land use and increased typhoon frequency and intensity, Taiwan

    E-print Network

    Montgomery, David R.

    Regional soil erosion in response to land use and increased typhoon frequency and intensity, Taiwan: Received 27 April 2013 Available online 15 November 2013 Keywords: Erosion Sedimentation Land use Typhoon Reservoir sedimentation data and sediment yields from Taiwanese rivers show increased soil erosion

  11. Determining urban land uses through building-associated element attributes derived from lidar and aerial photographs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Xuelian

    Urban land-use research is a key component in analyzing the interactions between human activities and environmental change. Researchers have conducted many experiments to classify urban or built-up land, forest, water, agriculture, and other land-use and land-cover types. Separating residential land uses from other land uses within urban areas, however, has proven to be surprisingly troublesome. Although high-resolution images have recently become more available for land-use classification, an increase in spatial resolution does not guarantee improved classification accuracy by traditional classifiers due to the increase of class complexity. This research presents an approach to detect and separate residential land uses on a building scale directly from remotely sensed imagery to enhance urban land-use analysis. Specifically, the proposed methodology applies a multi-directional ground filter to generate a bare ground surface from lidar data, then utilizes a morphology-based building detection algorithm to identify buildings from lidar and aerial photographs, and finally separates residential buildings using a supervised C4.5 decision tree analysis based on the seven selected building land-use indicators. Successful execution of this study produces three independent methods, each corresponding to the steps of the methodology: lidar ground filtering, building detection, and building-based object-oriented land-use classification. Furthermore, this research provides a prototype as one of the few early explorations of building-based land-use analysis and successful separation of more than 85% of residential buildings based on an experiment on an 8.25-km2 study site located in Austin, Texas.

  12. Spatial stochastic regression modelling of urban land use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arshad, S. H. M.; Jaafar, J.; Abiden, M. Z. Z.; Latif, Z. A.; Rasam, A. R. A.

    2014-02-01

    Urbanization is very closely linked to industrialization, commercialization or overall economic growth and development. This results in innumerable benefits of the quantity and quality of the urban environment and lifestyle but on the other hand contributes to unbounded development, urban sprawl, overcrowding and decreasing standard of living. Regulation and observation of urban development activities is crucial. The understanding of urban systems that promotes urban growth are also essential for the purpose of policy making, formulating development strategies as well as development plan preparation. This study aims to compare two different stochastic regression modeling techniques for spatial structure models of urban growth in the same specific study area. Both techniques will utilize the same datasets and their results will be analyzed. The work starts by producing an urban growth model by using stochastic regression modeling techniques namely the Ordinary Least Square (OLS) and Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR). The two techniques are compared to and it is found that, GWR seems to be a more significant stochastic regression model compared to OLS, it gives a smaller AICc (Akaike's Information Corrected Criterion) value and its output is more spatially explainable.

  13. Urban land use, air toxics and public health: Assessing hazardous exposures at the neighborhood scale

    SciTech Connect

    Corburn, Jason . E-mail: jtc2105@columbia.edu

    2007-03-15

    Land use data are increasingly understood as important indicators of potential environmental health risk in urban areas where micro-scale or neighborhood level hazard exposure data are not routinely collected. This paper aims to offer a method for estimating the distribution of air toxics in urban neighborhoods using land use information because actual air monitoring data rarely exist at this scale. Using Geographic Information System spatial modeling tools, we estimate air toxics concentrations across neighborhoods in New York City and statistically compare our model with the US Environmental Protection Agency's National Air Toxic Assessment and air monitoring data across three NYC neighborhoods. We conclude that land use data can act as a good proxy for estimating neighborhood scale air toxics, particularly in the absence of monitoring data. In addition, the paper suggests that land use data can expand the reach of environmental impact assessments that routinely exclude analyses of potential exposures to urban air toxics at the neighborhood scale.

  14. Quantifying Land Use and Land Cover Effects on Urban Runoff Water Quality.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallo, E. L.; Snyder, M. A.; Dejwakh, N. R.; Lohse, K.; Brooks, P. D.; McLain, J. E.; McIntosh, J.; Meixner, T.

    2007-12-01

    The impact of non-point source pollution on urban storm runoff is of major concern in the Southwest where water resources are scarce, episodic rainfall is intense and runoff recharge is a water management strategy. The objectives of this study are to 1) determine the extent to which specific types of urban land use impact the quality of monsoonal rainfall-runoff, and 2) identify pollutant source and modification during transport within urban washes of different types. We installed autosamplers at the outlet of four watersheds in the Tucson, AZ basin, with land uses representative of growing urban centers in the southwest U.S.: 1) commercial; 2) medium and high density residential; 3) low density residential; and 4) mixed use. At each outlet, storm runoff samples were collected at 20 minute intervals during several monsoonal storms. To characterize how pollutants were modified during transport, we installed autosamplers at upstream and downstream locations of a wash. Samples were analyzed for nutrients, organic pollutants, metals, anions, cations and fecal indicator bacteria (E. coli). Preliminary data show that nitrate concentrations were highest in the commercial and low density watersheds (median = 2.53 mg/L and 2.81 mg/L NO3-N, respectively) and lowest in the medium density watershed (median = 1.68 mg/L). Ammonium concentrations were also highest in the commercial and low density watersheds (median = 1.84 mg/L and 1.75 mg/L NH4-N, respectively) and lowest in the medium density watershed (1.28 mg/L). E. coli counts were highest in the commercial (median = 4500 CFU/ml) and lowest in the medium density watershed (median = 61.26 CFU/ml). Over the season, E. coli concentrations decreased in all except the mixed density watershed where they increased as the monsoon progressed. We observed distinct pollutant concentration response patterns to storm events among watersheds. Pollutant concentrations in runoff from commercial and low density watersheds peaked within the first 40 minutes of a storm event and subsequently tapered, whereas concentrations in the middle density watershed increased throughout a storm event. Our study demonstrates that land use type directly and distinctly impacts storm runoff chemical composition, which has significant implications for basin wide pollutant fate and transport. Our data also suggests that the type of runoff drainage system may play an important role in contaminant degradation and subsequent transport.

  15. Impacts of land-use change on the water cycle of urban areas within the Upper Great Lakes drainage basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowling, L. C.; Cherkauer, K. A.; Pijanowski, B. C.; Niyogi, D.

    2006-12-01

    Urbanization is altering the global landscape at an unprecedented rate. This form of land cover/land-use change (LCLUC) can significantly reduce infiltration and runoff response times, and alter heat and water vapor fluxes, which can further alter surface-forced regional circulation patterns and modulate precipitation volume and intensity. Spatial patterns of future LCLUC are projected using the Land Transformation Model (LTM), enhanced to incorporate dynamic landcover, economics and policy using Bayesian Belief Networks (LTM- BBN). Different land use scenarios predicted by the LTM-BBN as well as a pre-development scenario are represented through the Unified Noah Land Surface Model (LSM) with an enhanced urban canopy model, embedded in the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. The coupled WRF-Noah LSM model will be used to investigate the connections between land-use, hydrometeorology and the atmosphere, through analysis of water and energy balances over several urbanized watersheds within the Upper Great Lakes region. Preliminary results focus on a single watershed, the White River in Indiana, which includes the city of Indianapolis. Coupled WRF-Noah simulations made using pre and post-development land use maps provide a 7 year climatology of convective storm morphology around the urban center. Precipitation and other meteorological variables from the WRF-Noah simulations are used to drive simulations of the White River watershed using the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) macroscale hydrologic model. The VIC model has been modified to represent urban areas and has been calibrated for modern flow regimes in the White River watershed. Pre- and post-development VIC simulations are used to assess the impact of Indianapolis area infiltration changes. Finally, VIC model simulations utilizing projected land use change from 2005 through 2040 for the Indianapolis metropolitan area explore the magnitude of future hydrologic change, especially peak flow response to extreme precipitation events.

  16. LAND USE CHANGE DUE TO URBANIZATION FOR THE NEUSE RIVER BASIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Urban Growth Model (UGM) was applied to analysis of land use change in the Neuse River Basin as part of a larger project for estimating the regional and broader impact of urbanization. UGM is based on cellular automation (CA) simulation techniques developed at the University...

  17. www.frontiersinecology.org The Ecological Society of America Urban land-use change has been identified as one of

    E-print Network

    Thomas, David D.

    74 www.frontiersinecology.org © The Ecological Society of America Urban land-use change has been untested outcome of contemporary US land-use change is ecological homogenization across urban areas Chowdhury13 , and Meredith K Steele5 A visually apparent but scientifically untested outcome of land-use

  18. Effect of historical changes in land use and climate on the water budget of an urbanizing watershed

    E-print Network

    Vallino, Joseph J.

    Effect of historical changes in land use and climate on the water budget of an urbanizing watershed of historical (1931­1998) changes in both land use and climate on the water budget of a rapidly urbanizing. Rastetter, and J. Vallino (2006), Effect of historical changes in land use and climate on the water budget

  19. Urban and regional land use analysis: CARETS and Census Cities experiment package. [mapping land use climatology from MSS imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, R. H. (principal investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The arrival of the so-called energy crisis makes the portion of this experiment dealing with land use climatology of more immediate significance than before, since in addition to helping to understand the processes of climatic change associated with urbanization, the knowledge obtained may be useful in assigning an energy balance impact factor to proposed changes in land use in and around cities. Thermal maps derived from S-192 data are to be used as a measure of the energy being radiated into space from the mosaic of different surfaces in and around the city. While presenting excellent spatial sampling potential for a metropolitan area tests site, the Skylab data permit a very poor temporal sampling opportunity, owing to the large number of factors beyond the investigator's control that determine when data will be taken over a given test site. The strategy is to augment the thermal maps derived from S-192 with a modeling technique which enables the simulation of a number of components of the surface energy balance, calculated at regular time intervals throughout the day or year. Preliminary tests on the performance of the model are still underway, using airborne MSS data from NASA aircraft flights. Results look extremely promising.

  20. Monitoring the effects of land use/landcover changes on urban heat island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gee, Ong K.; Sarker, Md Latifur Rahman

    2013-10-01

    Urban heat island effects are well known nowadays and observed in cities throughout the World. The main reason behind the effects of urban heat island (UHI) is the transformation of land use/ land cover, and this transformation is associated with UHI through different actions: i) removal of vegetated areas, ii) land reclamation from sea/river, iii) construction of new building as well as other concrete structures, and iv) industrial and domestic activity. In rapidly developing cities, urban heat island effects increases very hastily with the transformation of vegetated/ other types of areas into urban surface because of the increasing population as well as for economical activities. In this research the effect of land use/ land cover on urban heat island was investigated in two growing cities in Asia i.e. Singapore and Johor Bahru, (Malaysia) using 10 years data (from 1997 to 2010) from Landsat TM/ETM+. Multispectral visible band along with indices such as Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), Normalized Difference Build Index (NDBI), and Normalized Difference Bareness Index (NDBaI) were used for the classification of major land use/land cover types using Maximum Likelihood Classifiers. On the other hand, land surface temperature (LST) was estimated from thermal image using Land Surface Temperature algorithm. Emissivity correction was applied to the LST map using the emissivity values from the major land use/ land cover types, and validation of the UHI map was carried out using in situ data. Results of this research indicate that there is a strong relationship between the land use/land cover changes and UHI. Over this 10 years period, significant percentage of non-urban surface was decreased but urban heat surface was increased because of the rapid urbanization. With the increase of UHI effect it is expected that local urban climate has been modified and some heat related health problem has been exposed, so appropriate measure should be taken in order to reduce UHI effects as soon as possible.

  1. Simulating the Response of Urban Water Quality to Climate and Land Use Change in Partially Urbanized Basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, N.; Yearsley, J. R.; Nijssen, B.; Lettenmaier, D. P.

    2014-12-01

    Urban stream quality is particularly susceptible to extreme precipitation events and land use change. Although the projected effects of extreme events and land use change on hydrology have been resonably well studied, the impacts on urban water quality have not been widely examined due in part to the scale mismatch between global climate models and the spatial scales required to represent urban hydrology and water quality signals. Here we describe a grid-based modeling system that integrates the Distributed Hydrology Soil Vegetation Model (DHSVM) and urban water quality module adpated from EPA's Storm Water Management Model (SWMM) and Soil and water assessment tool (SWAT). Using the model system, we evaluate, for four partially urbanized catchments within the Puget Sound basin, urban water quality under current climate conditions, and projected potential changes in urban water quality associated with future changes in climate and land use. We examine in particular total suspended solids, toal nitrogen, total phosphorous, and coliform bacteria, with catchment representations at the 150-meter spatial resolution and the sub-daily timestep. We report long-term streamflow and water quality predictions in response to extreme precipitation events of varying magnitudes in the four partially urbanized catchments. Our simulations show that urban water quality is highly sensitive to both climatic and land use change.

  2. Urban-field land use in southern New England: A first look

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simpson, R. B. (principal investigator)

    1972-01-01

    There are no author-identified significant results in this report. First look evaluation of ERTS-1 multiband imagery for urban-field land use applications revealed a great deal of potentially valuable information. The amount of land use detail which can be extracted confidently from ERTS imagery is encouraging, and the objectives of the proposed project are considered feasible providing timely cloud-free coverage is available.

  3. Assigning land use to supply wells for the statistical characterization of regional groundwater quality: Correlating urban land use and VOC occurrence

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, T.D.; Belitz, K.

    2009-01-01

    Many national and regional groundwater studies have correlated land use "near" a well, often using a 500 m radius circle, with water quality. However, the use of a 500 m circle may seem counterintuitive given that contributing areas are expected to extend up-gradient from wells, and not be circular in shape. The objective of this study was to evaluate if a 500 m circle is adequate for assigning land use to a well for the statistical correlation between urban land use and the occurrence of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Land use and VOC data came from 277 supply wells in four study areas in California. Land use was computed using ten different-sized circles and wedges (250 m to 10 km in radius), and three different-sized "searchlights" (1-2 km in length). We define these shapes as contributing area surrogates (CASs), recognizing that a simple shape is at best a surrogate for the actual contributing area. The presence or absence of correlation between land use and the occurrence of VOCs was evaluated using Kendall's tau (??). Values of ?? were within 10% of one another for wedges and circles ranging in size from 500 m to 2 km, with correlations remaining statistically significant (p < 0.05) for all CAS sizes and shapes, suggesting that a 500 m circular CAS is adequate for assigning land use to a well. Additional evaluation indicated that urban land use is autocorrelated at distances ranging from 8 to 36 km. Thus, urban land use in a 500 m CAS is likely to be predictive of urban land use in the actual contributing area.

  4. Land use intensity trajectories on Amazonian pastures derived from Landsat time series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rufin, Philippe; Müller, Hannes; Pflugmacher, Dirk; Hostert, Patrick

    2015-09-01

    Monitoring changes in land use intensity of grazing systems in the Amazon is an important prerequisite to study the complex political and socio-economic forces driving Amazonian deforestation. Remote sensing offers the potential to map pasture vegetation over large areas, but mapping pasture conditions consistently through time is not a trivial task because of seasonal changes associated with phenology and data gaps from clouds and cloud shadows. In this study, we tested spectral-temporal metrics derived from intra-annual Landsat time series to distinguish between grass-dominated and woody pastures. The abundance of woody vegetation on pastures is an indicator for management intensity, since the duration and intensity of land use steer secondary succession rates, apart from climate and soil conditions. We used the developed Landsat-based metrics to analyze pasture intensity trajectories between 1985 and 2012 in Novo Progresso, Brazil, finding that woody vegetation cover generally decreased after four to ten years of grazing activity. Pastures established in the 80s and early 90s showed a higher fraction of woody vegetation during their initial land use history than pastures established in the early 2000s. Historic intensity trajectories suggested a trend towards more intensive land use in the last decade, which aligns well with regional environmental policies and market dynamics. This study demonstrates the potential of dense Landsat time series to monitor land-use intensification on Amazonian pastures.

  5. Urban and regional land use analysis: CARETS and Census Cities experiment package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, R. H. (principal investigator); Milazzo, V. A.

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Areas of post 1970 and 1972 land use changes were identified solely from the Skylab imagery from comparisons with 1970 land use maps. Most land use changes identified involved transition from agriculture to single family residential land use. The second most prominent changes identified from the Skylab imagery were areas presently under construction. Post 1970 changes from Skylab were compared with the 1972 changes noted from the high altitude photographs. A good correlation existed between the change polygons mapped from Skylab and those mapped from the 1972 high altitude aerial photos. In addition, there were a number of instances where additional built-up land use not noted in the 1972 aerial photo as being developed were identified on the Skylab imagery. While these cases have not been documented by field observation, by correlating these areas with the appearance of similar land use areas whose identity has been determined, we can safely say that we have been able to map further occurrences of land use change beyond existing high altitude photo coverage from the Skylab imagery. It was concluded that Skylab data can be used to detect areas of land use change within an urban setting.

  6. Conversion of prime agricultural land to urban land uses in Kansas City

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaklee, R. V.

    1976-01-01

    In an expanding urban environment, agriculture and urban land uses are the two primary competitors for regional land resources. As a result of an increasing awareness of the effects which urban expansion has upon the regional environment, the conversion of prime agricultural land to urban land uses has become a point of concern to urban planners. A study was undertaken for the Kansas City Metropolitan Region, to determine the rate at which prime agricultural land has been converted to urban land uses over a five year period from 1969 to 1974. Using NASA high altitude color infrared imagery acquired over the city in October, 1969 and in May, 1974 to monitor the extent and location of urban expansion in the interim period, it was revealed that 42% of that expansion had occurred upon land classified as having prime agricultural potential. This involved a total of 10,727 acres of prime agricultural land and indicated a 7% increase over the 1969 which showed that 35% of the urban area had been developed on prime agricultural land.

  7. Agricultural land use intensity and its determinants: A case study in Taibus Banner, Inner Mongolia, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Haiguang; Li, Xiubin; Tan, Minghong; Zhang, Jiping; Zhang, Huiyuan

    2015-06-01

    Based on rural household survey data from Taibus Banner, in the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, China, this study separately categorizes agricultural land use intensity into labor intensity, capital intensity, the intensity of labor-saving inputs, and the intensity of yield-increasing inputs, and then analyzes their determinants at the household level. The findings reveal that within the study area: (1) labor intensity is higher and capital intensity is lower than in the major grain-producing and economically developed areas of eastern and central China; (2) the most widely planted crops are those with the lowest labor intensity (oats) and capital intensity (benne); (3) there are marked differences in agricultural land use intensity among households; a major factor affecting land use decision-making is the reduced need for labor intensity for those households with high opportunity costs, such as those with income earned from non-farming activities which alleviates financial constraints and allows for increased capital intensity. As a result, these households invest more in labor-saving inputs; (4) households with a larger number of workers will allocate adequate time to manage their land and thus they will not necessarily invest more in labor-saving inputs. Those households with more land to manage tend to adopt an extensive cultivation strategy. Total income has a positive impact on capital intensity and a negative impact on labor intensity. Households that derive a higher proportion of their total income through farming are more reliant upon agriculture, which necessitates significant labor and yield-increasing inputs. Finally, the authors contend that policy makers should clearly recognize the impacts of non-farming employment on agricultural land use intensity. In order to ensure long-term food security and sustainable agricultural development in China, income streams from both farming and non-farming employment should be balanced.

  8. [Simulation and prediction of urban and rural settlement growth and land use change in Yingkou City].

    PubMed

    Xi, Feng-Ming; He, Hong-Shi; Hu, Yuan-Man; Wu, Xiao-Qing; Bao, Li; Tian, Ying; Wang, Jin-Nian; Ma, Wen-Jun

    2008-07-01

    Based on the 1988, 1992, 1997, 2000, and 2004 Landsat TM remote sensing data of Yingkou City, Liaoning Province, the urban and rural settlement growth and land use change in the city from 2005 to 2030 were simulated and predicted by using the SLEUTH urban growth and land use change model with six scenarios (current trend scenario, no protection scenario, moderate protection scenario, managed growth scenario, ecologically sustainable growth scenario, and regional and urban comprehensive planning scenario). The results showed that in the city, the increased area of urban and rural settlement growth from 1988 to 2004 was 14.93 km2, and the areas of water area, orchard, mine, and agricultural land changed greatly from 1997 to 2004. From 2005 to 2030, based on ecologically sustainable growth scenario, the urban and rural settlement growth would have a slow increase, and agricultural land and forestland would be better protected; under no protection scenario, the urban and rural settlement growth would have a rapid increase, and large area of agricultural land would be lost; under current trend scenario, the agricultural land loss would be similar to that under no protective scenario, but the loss pattern could be different; under moderate protection scenario and managed growth scenario, the agricultural land would have a smaller loss; while under regional and urban comprehensive planning scenario, the urban and rural settlement growth would be mainly distributed in urban development area and urban fringe. The SLEUTH model with different scenarios could simulate how the different land management policies affect urban and rural settlement growth and land use change, which would be instructive to the coordination of Chinese urban and rural settlement development and the socialist new rural reconstruction. PMID:18839915

  9. Land Use/Cover Change Detection and Urban Sprawl Analysis in Bandar Abbas City, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Mohd Shafri, Helmi Zulhaidi; Ahmad, Noordin; Pradhan, Biswajeet; Safarpour, Sahabeh

    2014-01-01

    The process of land use change and urban sprawl has been considered as a prominent characteristic of urban development. This study aims to investigate urban growth process in Bandar Abbas city, Iran, focusing on urban sprawl and land use change during 1956–2012. To calculate urban sprawl and land use changes, aerial photos and satellite images are utilized in different time spans. The results demonstrate that urban region area has changed from 403.77 to 4959.59 hectares between 1956 and 2012. Moreover, the population has increased more than 30 times in last six decades. The major part of population growth is related to migration from other parts the country to Bandar Abbas city. Considering the speed of urban sprawl growth rate, the scale and the role of the city have changed from medium and regional to large scale and transregional. Due to natural and structural limitations, more than 80% of barren lands, stone cliffs, beach zone, and agricultural lands are occupied by built-up areas. Our results revealed that the irregular expansion of Bandar Abbas city must be controlled so that sustainable development could be achieved. PMID:25276858

  10. Land use/cover change detection and urban sprawl analysis in Bandar Abbas city, Iran.

    PubMed

    Dadras, Mohsen; Shafri, Helmi Zulhaidi Mohd; Ahmad, Noordin; Pradhan, Biswajeet; Safarpour, Sahabeh

    2014-01-01

    The process of land use change and urban sprawl has been considered as a prominent characteristic of urban development. This study aims to investigate urban growth process in Bandar Abbas city, Iran, focusing on urban sprawl and land use change during 1956-2012. To calculate urban sprawl and land use changes, aerial photos and satellite images are utilized in different time spans. The results demonstrate that urban region area has changed from 403.77 to 4959.59 hectares between 1956 and 2012. Moreover, the population has increased more than 30 times in last six decades. The major part of population growth is related to migration from other parts the country to Bandar Abbas city. Considering the speed of urban sprawl growth rate, the scale and the role of the city have changed from medium and regional to large scale and transregional. Due to natural and structural limitations, more than 80% of barren lands, stone cliffs, beach zone, and agricultural lands are occupied by built-up areas. Our results revealed that the irregular expansion of Bandar Abbas city must be controlled so that sustainable development could be achieved. PMID:25276858

  11. Preliminary Analysis of the efficacy of Artificial neural Network (ANN) and Cellular Automaton (CA) based Land Use Models in Urban Land-Use Planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harun, R.

    2013-05-01

    This research provides an opportunity of collaboration between urban planners and modellers by providing a clear theoretical foundations on the two most widely used urban land use models, and assessing the effectiveness of applying the models in urban planning context. Understanding urban land cover change is an essential element for sustainable urban development as it affects ecological functioning in urban ecosystem. Rapid urbanization due to growing inclination of people to settle in urban areas has increased the complexities in predicting that at what shape and size cities will grow. The dynamic changes in the spatial pattern of urban landscapes has exposed the policy makers and environmental scientists to great challenge. But geographic science has grown in symmetry to the advancements in computer science. Models and tools are developed to support urban planning by analyzing the causes and consequences of land use changes and project the future. Of all the different types of land use models available in recent days, it has been found by researchers that the most frequently used models are Cellular Automaton (CA) and Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) models. But studies have demonstrated that the existing land use models have not been able to meet the needs of planners and policy makers. There are two primary causes identified behind this prologue. First, there is inadequate understanding of the fundamental theories and application of the models in urban planning context i.e., there is a gap in communication between modellers and urban planners. Second, the existing models exclude many key drivers in the process of simplification of the complex urban system that guide urban spatial pattern. Thus the models end up being effective in assessing the impacts of certain land use policies, but cannot contribute in new policy formulation. This paper is an attempt to increase the knowledge base of planners on the most frequently used land use model and also assess the relative effectiveness of the two models, ANN and CA, in urban planning. The questions that are addressed in this research are: a) What makes ANN models different from CA models?; b) Which model has higher accuracy in predicting future urban land use change?; and c) Are the models effective enough in guiding urban land use policies and strategies? The models that are used for this research are Multilayer Perceptron (MLP) and CA model, available in IDRISI Taiga. Since, the objective is to perform a comparative analysis and draw general inferences irrespective of specific urban policies, the availability of data was given more emphasis over the selection of particular location. Urban area in Massachusetts was chosen to conduct the study due to data availability. Extensive literature review was performed to understand the functionality of the two models. The models were applied to predict future changes and the accuracy assessment was performed using standard matrix. Inferences were drawn about the applicability of the models in urban planning context along with recommendations. This research will not only develop understanding of land use models among urban planners, but also will create an environment of coupled research between planners and modellers.

  12. Urban land use of the Sao Paulo metropolitan area by automatic analysis of LANDSAT data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parada, N. D. J. (principal investigator); Niero, M.; Foresti, C.

    1983-01-01

    The separability of urban land use classes in the metropolitan area of Sao Paulo was studied by means of automatic analysis of MSS/LANDSAT digital data. The data were analyzed using the media K and MAXVER classification algorithms. The land use classes obtained were: CBD/vertical growth area, residential area, mixed area, industrial area, embankment area type 1, embankment area type 2, dense vegetation area and sparse vegetation area. The spectral analysis of representative samples of urban land use classes was done using the "Single Cell" analysis option. The classes CBD/vertical growth area, residential area and embankment area type 2 showed better spectral separability when compared to the other classes.

  13. Using geometrical, textural, and contextual information of land parcels for classification of detailed urban land use

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wu, S.-S.; Qiu, X.; Usery, E.L.; Wang, L.

    2009-01-01

    Detailed urban land use data are important to government officials, researchers, and businesspeople for a variety of purposes. This article presents an approach to classifying detailed urban land use based on geometrical, textural, and contextual information of land parcels. An area of 6 by 14 km in Austin, Texas, with land parcel boundaries delineated by the Travis Central Appraisal District of Travis County, Texas, is tested for the approach. We derive fifty parcel attributes from relevant geographic information system (GIS) and remote sensing data and use them to discriminate among nine urban land uses: single family, multifamily, commercial, office, industrial, civic, open space, transportation, and undeveloped. Half of the 33,025 parcels in the study area are used as training data for land use classification and the other half are used as testing data for accuracy assessment. The best result with a decision tree classification algorithm has an overall accuracy of 96 percent and a kappa coefficient of 0.78, and two naive, baseline models based on the majority rule and the spatial autocorrelation rule have overall accuracy of 89 percent and 79 percent, respectively. The algorithm is relatively good at classifying single-family, multifamily, commercial, open space, and undeveloped land uses and relatively poor at classifying office, industrial, civic, and transportation land uses. The most important attributes for land use classification are the geometrical attributes, particularly those related to building areas. Next are the contextual attributes, particularly those relevant to the spatial relationship between buildings, then the textural attributes, particularly the semivariance texture statistic from 0.61-m resolution images.

  14. LAND USE AND SEASONAL EFFECTS ON URBAN STORMWATER RUNOFF MICROORGANISM CONCENTRATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Stormwater samples collected from storm sewers draining small municipal separate storm sewer systems shown to be free of cross connections within an urban watershed dominated by a single land use were analyzed for pathogens (Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus) and i...

  15. Land use analysis of US urban areas using high-resolution imagery from Skylab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gallagher, D. B. (principal investigator)

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The S-190B imagery from Skylab 3 permitted the detection of higher levels of land use detail than any satellite imagery previously evaluated using manual interpretation techniques. Resolution approaches that of 1:100,000 scale infrared aircraft photography, especially regarding urban areas. Nonurban areas are less distinct.

  16. DC WRRC REPORT NO. 125 URBAN LAND USE ACTIVITIES AND THE GROUND

    E-print Network

    District of Columbia, University of the

    Washington, DC August1992 #12;DC WRRC REPORT NO. 125 URBAN LAND USE ACTIVITIES AND THE GROUND WATER 4200 Connecticut Ave, NW Washington, DC 20008 Phone: (202) 673-3442 FAX: (202) 673·2085 WASHINGTON, DC immense problems for cities such as Washington, DC. These pollutants originate from such diverse

  17. The Major Environmentally-Based Land Use Issues on the Urban Fringe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hordon, Robert M.

    Types of land-use issues which form current problems in urban areas are discussed in this paper. The majority of these environmentally based issues revolve around the management of water. The five most often encountered water-oriented issues are denoted in rank order of importance. First, an ample water supply which is free from contamination must…

  18. Interactive Effects of Urban Land Use and Climate Change on Biogeochemical Cycles (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pouyat, R. V.

    2009-12-01

    Urban land-use change can affect biogeochemical cycles through altered disturbance regimes, landscape management practices (e.g., irrigation and fertilization), built structures, and altered environments (heat island effect, pollution, introduction of non-native species, loss of native species). As a result, the conversion of native to urban ecological systems has been shown to significantly affect carbon, nitrogen, and water cycles at local, regional, and global scales. These changes have created novel habitats and ecosystems, which have no analogue in the history of life. Nonetheless, some of the environmental changes occurring in urban areas are analogous to the changes expected in climate by the end of the century, e.g. atmospheric increase in CO2 and an increase in air temperatures, which can be utilized as a “natural experiment” to investigate global change effects on large scale ecosystem processes. Moreover, as analogues of expected future environments, urban ecological systems may act as reservoirs of plant and animal species for adjoining landscapes that are expected to undergo relatively rapid climate changes in the next 100 years. Urban land-use change by itself may contribute to changes in regional weather patterns and long-term changes in global climate, which will depend on the net effect of converting native systems to urban systems and the comparison of per capita “footprints” between urban, suburban, and rural inhabitants. My objectives are to 1) assess the impact of changes in urban land-use on climate change and in turn how climate change may affect urban biogeochemical cycles and 2) discuss the potential for urban ecosystems to mitigate green house gas emissions.

  19. Preparation of urban land use inventories by machine processing of ERTS MSS data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Todd, W.; Mausel, P. E.; Wenner, K. A.

    1973-01-01

    Spectral classes of urban phenomena identified from Earth Resources Technology Satellite (ERTS) multispectral scanner data in Milwaukee included suburban inner city, industry, grassy (open area), road, wooded suburb, water cloud, and shadow. The Milwaukee spectral class statistics were used to classify the Chicago area, within the same ERTS frame, and similar results were achieved. In another ERTS frame, Marion County (Indianapolis) data were classified into similar classes. The Marion County ERTS study was supported by a land use classification of an area near downtown Indianapolis that utilized 12-band MSS data collected by aircraft from 3000 feet. The results of the ERTS analyses suggest that satellite data will be a useful tool for the urban planner for monitoring urban land use.

  20. Preparation of urban land use inventories by machine-processing of ERTS MSS data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Todd, W.; Mausel, P. E.; Wenner, K. A.

    1973-01-01

    Spectral classes of urban phenomena identified from ERTS multispectral scanner data in Milwaukee included Surburban, Inner City, Industry, Grassy (open area), Road, Wooded Suburb, Water, Cloud, and Shadow. The Milwaukee spectral class statistics were used to classify the Chicago area, within the same ERTS frame, and similar results were achieved. In another ERTS frame, Marion County (Indianapolis) data were classified into similar classes. The Marion County ERTS study was supported by a land use classification of an area near downtown Indianapolis that utilized 12-band MSS data collected by aircraft from 3000 feet. The results of the ERTS analyses suggest that satellite data will be a useful tool for the urban planner for monitoring urban land use.

  1. Water-Urban Land Use: Neglected Link in the Climate Change Triadic Relationship among Water-Energy-Land Use in California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanco, H. J.

    2014-12-01

    Efforts to reduce the magnitude of climate change due to GHG emissions has focused attention on how different sectors contribute to GHG emitting energy use. California has been a leader in climate change mitigation policy across the nation with its passage of the Global Warming Act of 2006, with a major focus on the energy sector. Directly linked to climate change, the Energy-Travel-Urban Land Use Nexus in California is well recognized and the density/compactness of land use is subject of 2008 state policy (Sustainable Communities and Climate Protection Act, SB 375). The Water-Energy Nexus is also well-recognized, given that about 19% of electricity use in State is water-related, and water scarcity in the State has led to increasing policy guidelines, e.g., the 2009 water conservation plan, with a target of reducing urban water use by 20% by 2020. Since 40-50% of urban water in California is consumed by outdoor water use, the character of urban land use, its compactness and density, have important effects on water use and resulting energy impacts. However, direct policy attention to the water-urban land use nexus has focused primarily on water-conserving outdoor watering devices, and landscapes. Direct policy on the character of development itself has yet to emerge, and adequate recognition of the interrelationships among energy, water use and the character of urban development has yet to occur. This paper reviews the research and policies on the water-urban land use link, as well as on the larger triadic relation. It identifies research questions, and policy issues that this neglected link poses to California and the nation.

  2. Landscaping practices, land use patterns and stormwater quantity and quality in urban watersheds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miles, B.; Band, L. E.

    2011-12-01

    Increasing quantity and decreasing quality of urban stormwater threatens biodiversity in local streams and reservoirs, jeopardizes water supplies, and ultimately contributes to estuarine eutrophication. To estimate the effects that present and alternative landscaping practices and land use patterns may have on urban stormwater quantity and quality, simulations of existing land use/land cover using the Regional Hydro-Ecologic Simulation System (RHESSys), a process-based surface hydrology and biogeochemistry model, were developed for watersheds in Baltimore, MD (as part of the Baltimore Ecosystem Study (BES) NSF Long-Term Ecological Research (LTER) site) and Durham, NC (as part of the NSF Urban Long-Term Research Area (ULTRA) program). The influence of land use patterns and landscaping practices on nutrient export in urban watersheds has been explored as part of the BES; this work has focused on improving our understanding of how residential landscaping practices (i.e. lawn fertilization rates) vary across land use and socioeconomic gradients. Elsewhere, others have explored the political ecology of residential landscaping practices - seeking to understand the economic, political, and cultural influences on the practice of high-input residential turf-grass management. Going forward, my research will synthesize and extend this prior work. Rather than pre-supposing predominant residential land use patterns and landscaping practices (i.e. lower-density periphery development incorporating high-input turf landscapes) alternate land use and landscaping scenarios (e.g. higher-density/transit-oriented development, rain gardens, vegetable gardens, native plant/xeriscaping) will be developed through interviews/focus groups with stakeholders (citizens, public officials, developers, non-profits). These scenarios will then be applied to the RHESSys models already developed for catchments in Baltimore and Durham. The modeled scenario results will be used to identify alternate land use patterns and landscaping practices that would: (1) help to reduce non-point sources of nutrient pollution in urban watersheds; and (2) be likely to gain public support. This research will inform sustainable development policy while furthering interdisciplinary research in the fields of planning and water resource management.

  3. Climate Change, Pacific Ocean and Land Use Influences on Los Angeles' Urban Heat Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gamelin, B.; Hsu, F.; LaDochy, S.; Ramirez, P. C.; Ye, H.; Sequera, P.; Gonzalez, J.; McDonald, K.; Patzert, W. C.

    2013-12-01

    The Los Angeles urban heat island (UHI) is a complex entity that is changing in time, space and intensity. The major influences on its characteristics appear to be population, landuse, and Pacific Ocean variability. Since 1950, the city of Los Angeles has nearly tripled in population from 1,333,300 to 3,792,621 in 2010. The downtown skyline has also changed as more high-rises replace lower density buildings and parking lots. Downtown average temperatures have increased rapidly, rising over 3oC in the last century. Tmin values have increased faster than Tmax similar to other UHI cities. However the Los Angeles UHI is unique among most cities, with its complex terrain and dominant land/sea breeze circulations. Also, the city is part of a regional megalopolis, where the surrounding rural areas are distant and ill-defined, in contrast to most UHIs. Our study looks at the diurnal and seasonal patterns in the urban thermal regime and how they have changed over recent decades. Temporal changes in land use, particularly vegetation, coastal sea surface temperatures, Pacific climatic indices such as the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) and coastal upwelling all seem to contribute to the changes in city temperatures. The PDO especially correlates well with Los Angeles temperatures. The spatial changes in an UHI are described combining surface met data and aircraft remote sensing, using the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) and the MODIS/ASTER Airborne Simulator (MASTER) sensors at spatial resolutions of 30 and 50 m, respectively. In our study recent sea breeze enhancement will be investigated in its influence on coastal cooling. Implications of the role of the intensifying UHI in the increases in Los Angeles heat waves will also be discussed.

  4. Urban air pollution patterns, land use, and thermal landscape: an examination of the linkage using GIS.

    PubMed

    Weng, Qihao; Yang, Shihong

    2006-06-01

    This article investigates the relationship of local air pollution pattern with urban land use and with urban thermal landscape using a GIS approach. Ambient air quality measurements for sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxide, carbon monoxide, total suspended particles, and dust level were obtained for Guangzhou City in South China between 1981 and 2000. Landsat TM images and aerial photo derived maps were used to examine city's land use and land cover at different times and changes. Landsat thermal infrared data were employed to compute land surface temperatures and to assess urban thermal patterns. Relationships among the spatial patterns of air pollution, land use, and thermal landscape were sought through GIS and correlation analyses. Results show that the spatial patterns of air pollutants probed were positively correlated with urban built-up density, and with satellite derived land surface temperature values, particularly with measurements taken during the summer. It is suggested that further studies investigate the mechanisms of this linkage, and that remote sensing of air pollution delves into how the energy interacts with the atmosphere and the environment and how sensors see pollutants. Thermal infrared imagery could play a unique role in monitoring and modeling atmospheric pollution. PMID:16917724

  5. Modeling Coupled Climate and Urban Land Use Change in the Eastern United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melton, F. S.; Goetz, S. J.; Wang, W.; Milesi, C.; Theobald, D. M.; Nemani, R. R.

    2010-12-01

    Urban land cover and associated impervious surface area are expected to increase by as much as 50% over the next few decades across substantial portions of the coterminous U.S. In combination with urban expansion, increases in temperature and precipitation are expected to impact ecosystems through changes in productivity, disturbance and hydrological properties. In this study, we use land cover predictions from SERGoM through the year 2030 and an ensemble of climate projections (Bias Corrected and Downscaled WCRP CMIP3) for large watersheds of the eastern United States to explore the impacts of urbanization and climate change on hydrologic dynamics (runoff) and vegetation carbon uptake (gross productivity). We use the Terrestrial Observation and Prediction System (TOPS), an ecosystem modeling framework, to simulate the influence of potential adaptation actions associated with land use. We present the modeling approach, and the component and cumulative impacts of climate and land use changes forecast to occur in the region. We also present results from an evaluation of simulated scenarios to characterize the mitigation potential of various best management practices for land use planning, such as urban afforestation and replacement of asphalt with permeable surfaces.

  6. Impact of Land-Use Intensity and Productivity on Bryophyte Diversity in Agricultural Grasslands

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Jörg; Klaus, Valentin H.; Kleinebecker, Till; Prati, Daniel; Hölzel, Norbert; Fischer, Markus

    2012-01-01

    While bryophytes greatly contribute to plant diversity of semi-natural grasslands, little is known about the relationships between land-use intensity, productivity, and bryophyte diversity in these habitats. We recorded vascular plant and bryophyte vegetation in 85 agricultural used grasslands in two regions in northern and central Germany and gathered information on land-use intensity. To assess grassland productivity, we harvested aboveground vascular plant biomass and analyzed nutrient concentrations of N, P, K, Ca and Mg. Further we calculated mean Ellenberg indicator values of vascular plant vegetation. We tested for effects of land-use intensity and productivity on total bryophyte species richness and on the species richness of acrocarpous (small & erect) and pleurocarpous (creeping, including liverworts) growth forms separately. Bryophyte species were found in almost all studied grasslands, but species richness differed considerably between study regions in northern Germany (2.8 species per 16 m2) and central Germany (6.4 species per 16 m2) due environmental differences as well as land-use history. Increased fertilizer application, coinciding with high mowing frequency, reduced bryophyte species richness significantly. Accordingly, productivity estimates such as plant biomass and nitrogen concentration were strongly negatively related to bryophyte species richness, although productivity decreased only pleurocarpous species. Ellenberg indicator values for nutrients proved to be useful indicators of species richness and productivity. In conclusion, bryophyte composition was strongly dependent on productivity, with smaller bryophytes that were likely negatively affected by greater competition for light. Intensive land-use, however, can also indirectly decrease bryophyte species richness by promoting grassland productivity. Thus, increasing productivity is likely to cause a loss of bryophyte species and a decrease in species diversity. PMID:23251563

  7. Urbanization suitability maps: a dynamic spatial decision support system for sustainable land use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerreta, M.; De Toro, P.

    2012-11-01

    Recent developments in land consumption assessment identify the need to implement integrated evaluation approaches, with particular attention to the development of multidimensional tools for guiding and managing sustainable land use. Land use policy decisions are implemented mostly through spatial planning and its related zoning. This involves trade-offs between many sectorial interests and conflicting challenges seeking win-win solutions. In order to identify a decision-making process for land use allocation, this paper proposes a methodological approach for developing a Dynamic Spatial Decision Support System (DSDSS), denominated Integrated Spatial Assessment (ISA), supported by Geographical Information Systems (GIS) combined with the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP). Through empirical investigation in an operative case study, an integrated evaluation approach implemented in a DSDSS helps produce "urbanization suitability maps" in which spatial analysis combined with multi-criteria evaluation methods proved to be useful for both facing the main issues relating to land consumption as well as minimizing environmental impacts of spatial planning.

  8. Urbanization susceptibility maps: a dynamic spatial decision support system for sustainable land use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerreta, M.; De Toro, P.

    2012-10-01

    Recent developments in land consumption assessment identify the need to implement integrated evaluative approaches, with particular attention to the identification of multidimensional tools for guiding and managing sustainable land use. Policy decisions defining land use are mostly implemented through spatial planning and related zoning, and this involves trade-offs between many sectoral interests and conflicting challenges aimed at win-win solutions. In order to identify a decision-making process for land use allocation, the paper proposes a methodological approach for a Dynamic Spatial Decision Support System (DSDSS), named Integrated Spatial Assessment (ISA), supported by Geographical Information Systems (GIS) combined with Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP). Through the empirical investigation in an operative case study, an integrated evaluative approach implemented in a DSDSS helps to elaborate "urbanization susceptibility maps", where spatial analysis combined with a multi-criteria method proved to be useful for facing the main issues related to land consumption and minimizing environmental impacts of spatial planning.

  9. Anthropogenic land uses elevate metal levels in stream water in an urbanizing watershed.

    PubMed

    Yu, Shen; Wu, Qian; Li, Qingliang; Gao, Jinbo; Lin, Qiaoying; Ma, Jun; Xu, Qiufang; Wu, Shengchun

    2014-08-01

    Land use/cover change is a dominant factor affecting surface water quality in rapidly developing areas of Asia. In this study we examined relationships between land use and instream metal loadings in a rapidly developing mixed land use watershed in southeastern China. Five developing subwatersheds and one forested reference site (head water) were instrumented with timing- and rainfall-triggered autosampler and instream loadings of anthropogenic metals (Cu, Zn, Pb, Cr, Cd, and Mn) were monitored from March 2012 to December 2013. Farm land and urban land were positively, and forest and green land were negatively associated with metal loadings (except Cr) in stream water. All developing sites had higher loadings than the reference head water site. Assessed by Chinese surface water quality standard (GB3830-2002), instream loadings of Cu and Zn occasionally exceeded the Class I thresholds at monitoring points within farmland dominated subwatersheds while Mn loadings were greater than the limit for drinking water sources at all monitoring points. Farm land use highly and positively contributed to statistical models of instream loadings of Cu, Zn, Cd, and Mn while urban land use was the dominant contributor to models of Pb and Cd loadings. Rainfall played a crucial role in metal loadings in stream water as a direct source (there were significant levels of Cu and Zn in rain water) and as a driver of watershed processes (loadings were higher in wet years and seasons). Urbanization effects on metal loadings in this watershed are likely to change rapidly with development in future years. Further monitoring to characterize these changes is clearly warranted and should help to develop plans to avoid conflicts between economic development and water quality degradation in this watershed and in watersheds throughout rapidly developing areas of Asia. PMID:24815555

  10. Modeling Occurrence of Urban Mosquitos Based on Land Use Types and Meteorological Factors in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Yong-Su; Bae, Mi-Jung; Chung, Namil; Lee, Yeo-Rang; Hwang, Suntae; Kim, Sang-Ae; Choi, Young Jean; Park, Young-Seuk

    2015-10-01

    Mosquitoes are a public health concern because they are vectors of pathogen, which cause human-related diseases. It is well known that the occurrence of mosquitoes is highly influenced by meteorological conditions (e.g., temperature and precipitation) and land use, but there are insufficient studies quantifying their impacts. Therefore, three analytical methods were applied to determine the relationships between urban mosquito occurrence, land use type, and meteorological factors: cluster analysis based on land use types; principal component analysis (PCA) based on mosquito occurrence; and three prediction models, support vector machine (SVM), classification and regression tree (CART), and random forest (RF). We used mosquito data collected at 12 sites from 2011 to 2012. Mosquito abundance was highest from August to September in both years. The monitoring sites were differentiated into three clusters based on differences in land use type such as culture and sport areas, inland water, artificial grasslands, and traffic areas. These clusters were well reflected in PCA ordinations, indicating that mosquito occurrence was highly influenced by land use types. Lastly, the RF represented the highest predictive power for mosquito occurrence and temperature-related factors were the most influential. Our study will contribute to effective control and management of mosquito occurrences. PMID:26492260

  11. Modeling Occurrence of Urban Mosquitos Based on Land Use Types and Meteorological Factors in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Yong-Su; Bae, Mi-Jung; Chung, Namil; Lee, Yeo-Rang; Hwang, Suntae; Kim, Sang-Ae; Choi, Young Jean; Park, Young-Seuk

    2015-01-01

    Mosquitoes are a public health concern because they are vectors of pathogen, which cause human-related diseases. It is well known that the occurrence of mosquitoes is highly influenced by meteorological conditions (e.g., temperature and precipitation) and land use, but there are insufficient studies quantifying their impacts. Therefore, three analytical methods were applied to determine the relationships between urban mosquito occurrence, land use type, and meteorological factors: cluster analysis based on land use types; principal component analysis (PCA) based on mosquito occurrence; and three prediction models, support vector machine (SVM), classification and regression tree (CART), and random forest (RF). We used mosquito data collected at 12 sites from 2011 to 2012. Mosquito abundance was highest from August to September in both years. The monitoring sites were differentiated into three clusters based on differences in land use type such as culture and sport areas, inland water, artificial grasslands, and traffic areas. These clusters were well reflected in PCA ordinations, indicating that mosquito occurrence was highly influenced by land use types. Lastly, the RF represented the highest predictive power for mosquito occurrence and temperature-related factors were the most influential. Our study will contribute to effective control and management of mosquito occurrences. PMID:26492260

  12. Graph-Based Urban Land Use Mapping from High Resolution Satellite Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walde, I.; Hese, S.; Berger, C.; Schmullius, C.

    2012-07-01

    Due to the dynamic character of urban land use (e.g. urban sprawl) there is a demand for frequent updates for monitoring, modeling, and controlling purposes. Urban land use is an added value that can be indirectly derived with the help of various properties of land cover classes that describe a certain area and create a distinguishable structure. The goal of this project is to extract land use (LU) classes out of a structure of land cover (LC) classes from high resolution Quickbird data and additional LiDAR building height models. The study area is Rostock, a German city with more than 200.000 inhabitants. To model the properties of urban land use a graph based approach is adapted from other disciplines (industrial image processing, medicine, informatics). A graph consists of nodes and edges while nodes describe the land cover and edges define the relationship of neighboring objects. To calculate the adjacency that describes which nodes are combined with an edge several distance ranges and building height properties are tested. Furthermore the information value of planar versus non-planar graph types is analyzed. After creating the graphs specific indices are computed that evaluate how compact or connected the graphs are. In this work several graph indices are explained and applied to training areas. Results show that the distance of buildings and building height are reliable indicators for LU-categories. The separability of LU-classes improves when properties of land cover classes and graph indices are combined to a LU-signature.

  13. Solute Sourcing and Hydrologic Response to Monsoon Precipitation Along a Gradient of Urban Land Use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallo, E. L.; Brooks, P. D.; Lohse, K.; McIntosh, J.; McLain, J. E.; Meixner, T.

    2008-12-01

    Urban storm runoff in arid and semiarid areas is used as a potential groundwater recharge resource, but knowledge gaps remain in our understanding on the underlying hydrologic and biogeochemical processes that control the water quality of urban runoff. This study addresses this gap by evaluating how hydrologic and biogeochemical processes interact to produce distinct storm runoff chemistry. We hypothesized that transport processes dominate the solute chemistry of highly urbanized watersheds with large impervious cover; whereas biogeochemical reactions dominate solute responses in less urbanized watersheds with potentially more vegetation and longer flow paths. Utilizing automatic water samplers, we collected urban storm runoff from five distinct urban land use watersheds: 1) low density residential (least urbanized), 2) old medium density residential, 3) new medium density residential, 4) mixed land use and 5) commercial (most urbanized). We coupled a conservative tracer (chloride, Cl-) with stable isotope data (?D and ?18O) to infer physical and biogeochemical processes contributing to the solute chemistry observed. Solute response was similar in the least and most urbanized watersheds, which had the highest mean seasonal concentrations of Cl-, DOC, fecal indicator bacteria (E. coli), Na, Hg and Cu among others, and had the lowest As, Ca and Ni concentrations. The low density site exhibited weak seasonal chloride flushing, contrasting with the commercial site's stronger flushing response. Coupling of Cl-, ?D and ?18O data, and comparing it across sites demonstrates solute flushing and evapoconcentration in the commercial site as inferred by ?18O and ?D values that plot along an evaporation trend (from -34 to -24 ‰ ?D, and -5.3 to -3.5 ‰ ?18O) with increasing Cl- concentrations (from 1.8 to 7.4 mg L-1) during the runoff event. In contrast, high ?D values (-27 to -22 ‰) of runoff and a simultaneous decrease in Cl- concentrations (from 11.5 to 3.7 mg L-1) at the low density site suggest watershed solute retention despite runoff evaporation which should concentrate Cl-. Lower ?D values of runoff, closer to the meteoric water line, in the commercial site may indicate a shorter flow path when compared to the higher ?D values (more evaporated signature) in the low density site. Our study demonstrates that the urban storm runoff quality can not be predicted by land use alone, and supports the study's hypothesis of transport controls on solutes at the most urbanized sites, and flow path and biogeochemical controls at least impervious sites.

  14. Urban land use in Natura 2000 surrounding areas in Vilnius Region, Lithuania.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, Paulo; Misi?n?, Ieva; Depellegrin, Daniel

    2015-04-01

    Urban development is one of the major causes of land degradation and pressure on protected areas. (Hansen and DeFries, 2007; Salvati and Sabbi, 2011). The urban areas in the fringe of the protected areas are a source of pollutants considered a negative disturbance to the ecosystems services and biodiversity within the protected areas. The distance between urban and protected areas is decreasing and in the future it is estimated that 88% of the world protected areas will be affected by urban growth (McDonald et al., 2008). The surrounding or buffer areas, are lands adjacent to the Natura 2000 territories, which aim to reduce the human influence within the protected areas. Presently there is no common definition of buffer area it is not clear among stakeholders (Van Dasselaar, 2013). The objective of this work is to identify the urban land use in the Natura 2000 areas in Vilnius region, Lithuania. Data from Natura 2000 areas and urban land use (Corine Land Cover 2006) in Vilnius region were collected in the European Environmental Agency website (http://www.eea.europa.eu/). In the surroundings of each Natura 2000 site, we identified the urban land use at the distances of 500, 1000 and 1500 m. The Natura 2000 sites and the urban areas occupied a total of 13.2% and 3.4% of Vilnius region, respectively. However, the urban areas are very dispersed in the territory, especially in the surroundings of Vilnius, which since the end of the XX century is growing (Pereira et al., 2014). This can represent a major threat to Natura 2000 areas ecosystem services quality and biodiversity. Overall, urban areas occupied approximately 50 km2, in the buffer area of 500 m, 95 km2 in buffer area of 1000 m and 131 km2 in the buffer area of 1500 km2. This shows that Natura 2000 surrounding areas in Vilnius region are subjected to a high urban pressure. This is especially evident in the Vilnius city and is a consequence of the uncontrolled urban development. The lack of a clear legislation regarding the land use of the Natura 2000 buffer areas is contributing to the degradation of the services provide by these areas. Acknowledgments RECARE (Preventing and Remediating Degradation of Soils in Europe Through Land Care, FP7-ENV-2013-TWO STAGE), funded by the European Commission, for the COST action ES1306 (Connecting European connectivity research) and COST Action IS1204 Tourism, Wellbeing and Ecosystem Services (TObeWELL) References Dasselaar, I.V. (2013) The impact of a buffer zone. The influence of the introduction of buffer zones surrounding Natura 2000 areas on local actors, the case of het Boetelerveld in the Netherlands. Master Thesis Forest and Nature Conservation, Forest and Nature Conservation Policy group, 69 p. Hansen, A.J. (2007) Ecological mechanisms linking protected areas to surrounding lands. Ecological Applications, 17, 974-978. McDonald, R.I., Kareiva, P., Forman, R.T.T. (2008) The implications of current and future urbanization for global protected areas and biodiversity conservation. Biological Conservation, 141, 1695-1703. Pereira, P., Monkevicius, A., Siarova, A. (2014) Public perception of the Environmental, Social and Economic impacts of Urban Sprawl in Vilnius. Societal Studies, 6, 256-290. Salvati, L., Sabbi, A. (2011) Exploring long-term land cover changes in an urban region of southern of Europe. International Journal of Sustainable Development & World Ecology, 18, 273-282.

  15. Monitoring and Predicting Land-use Changes and the Hydrology of the Urbanized Paochiao Watershed in Taiwan Using Remote Sensing Data, Urban Growth Models and a Hydrological Model

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yu-Pin; Lin, Yun-Bin; Wang, Yen-Tan; Hong, Nien-Ming

    2008-01-01

    Monitoring and simulating urban sprawl and its effects on land-use patterns and hydrological processes in urbanized watersheds are essential in land-use and water-resource planning and management. This study applies a novel framework to the urban growth model Slope, Land use, Excluded land, Urban extent, Transportation, and Hillshading (SLEUTH) and land-use change with the Conversion of Land use and its Effects (CLUE-s) model using historical SPOT images to predict urban sprawl in the Paochiao watershed in Taipei County, Taiwan. The historical and predicted land-use data was input into Patch Analyst to obtain landscape metrics. This data was also input to the Generalized Watershed Loading Function (GWLF) model to analyze the effects of future urban sprawl on the land-use patterns and watershed hydrology. The landscape metrics of the historical SPOT images show that land-use patterns changed between 1990–2000. The SLEUTH model accurately simulated historical land-use patterns and urban sprawl in the Paochiao watershed, and simulated future clustered land-use patterns (2001–2025). The CLUE-s model also simulated land-use patterns for the same period and yielded historical trends in the metrics of land-use patterns. The land-use patterns predicted by the SLEUTH and CLUE-s models show the significant impact urban sprawl will have on land-use patterns in the Paochiao watershed. The historical and predicted land-use patterns in the watershed tended to fragment, had regular shapes and interspersion patterns, but were relatively less isolated in 2001–2025 and less interspersed from 2005–2025 compared with land-use pattern in 1990. During the study, the variability and magnitude of hydrological components based on the historical and predicted land-use patterns were cumulatively affected by urban sprawl in the watershed; specifically, surface runoff increased significantly by 22.0% and baseflow decreased by 18.0% during 1990–2025. The proposed approach is an effective means of enhancing land-use monitoring and management of urbanized watersheds.

  16. WRF model evaluation for the urban heat island assessment under varying land use/land cover and reference site conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhati, Shweta; Mohan, Manju

    2015-08-01

    Urban heat island effect in Delhi has been assessed using Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF v3.5) coupled with urban canopy model (UCM) focusing on air temperature and surface skin temperature. The estimated heat island intensities for different land use/land cover (LULC) have been compared with those derived from in situ and satellite observations. The model performs reasonably well for urban heat island intensity (UHI) estimation and is able to reproduce trend of UHI for urban areas. There is a significant improvement in model performance with inclusion of UCM which results in reduction in root mean-squared errors (RMSE) for temperatures from 1.63 °C (2.89 °C) to 1.13 °C (2.75 °C) for urban (non-urban) areas. Modification of LULC also improves performance for non-urban areas. High UHI zones and top 3 hotspots are captured well by the model. The relevance of selecting a reference point at the periphery of the city away from populated and built-up areas for UHI estimation is examined in the context of rapidly growing cities where rural areas are transforming fast into built-up areas, and reference site may not be appropriate for future years. UHI estimated by WRF model (with and without UCM) with respect to reference rural site compares well with the UHI based on observed in situ data. An alternative methodology is explored using a green area with minimum temperature within the city as a reference site. This alternative methodology works well with observed UHIs and WRF-UCM-simulated UHIs but has poor performance for WRF-simulated UHIs. It is concluded that WRF model can be applied for UHI estimation with classical methodology based on rural reference site. In general, many times WRF model performs satisfactorily, though WRF-UCM always shows a better performance. Hence, inclusion of appropriate representation of urban canopies and land use-land cover is important for improving predictive capabilities of the mesoscale models.

  17. Geographically explicit urban land use change scenarios for Mega cities: a case study in Tokyo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamagata, Y.; Bagan, H.; Seya, H.; Nakamichi, K.

    2010-12-01

    In preparation for the IPCC 5th assessment report, the international modeling community is developing four Representative Concentration Paths employing the scenarios developed by four different Integrated Assessment Models. These RCPs will be employed as an input to climate models, such as Earth System Models. In these days, the importance of assessment of not only global but also local (city/zone level) impacts of global change has gradually been recognized, thereby downscaling climate models are one of the urgent problems to be solved. Needless to say, reliable downscaling requires spatially high resolution land use change scenarios. So far, there has been proposed a lot of methods for constructing land use change scenarios with considering economic behavior of human, such as agent-based model (e.g., Parker et al., 2001), and land use transport (LUT) model (e.g., Anas and Liu, 2007). The latter approach in particular has widely been applied to actual urban/transport policy; hence modeling the interaction between them is very important for creating reliable land use change scenarios. However, the LUT models are usually built based on the zones of cities/municipalities whose spatial resolutions are too low to derive sensible parameters of the climate models. Moreover, almost all of the works which attempt to build spatially high resolution LUT model employs very small regions as the study area. The objective of this research is deriving various input parameters to climate models such as population density, fractional green vegetation cover, and anthropogenic heat emission with spatially high resolution land use change scenarios constructed with LUT model. The study area of this research is Tokyo metropolitan area, which is the largest urban area in the world (United Nations., 2010). Firstly, this study employs very high ground resolution zones composed of micro districts around 1km2. Secondly, the research attempt to combine remote sensing techniques and LUT models to derive future distribution of fractional green vegetation cover. The study has created two extreme land-use scenarios: urban concentration (compact city) and dispersion scenarios in order to show possible range of future land use change, and derives the input parameters for the climate models. The authors are planning to open the scenarios and derived parameters to relate researches. Anas, A. and Y. Liu. (2007). A Regional Economy, Land Use, and Transportation Model (REULU-TRAN): Formulation, Algorithm Design, and Testing. Journal of Regional Science, 47, 415-455. Parker, D.C., T. Berger, S.M. Manson, Editors (2001). Agent-Based Models of Land-Use and Land-Cover Change. LUCC Report Series No. 6, (Accessed: 27 AUG. 2009; http://www.globallandproject.org/Documents/LUCC_No_6.pdf) United Nations. (2010). World urbanization prospects: City population.

  18. John M. Dulac, "The Road to Sustainable Urban Transportation: Understanding the relationship between urban transport sector emissions, household travel behavior and land use development."

    E-print Network

    John M. Dulac, "The Road to Sustainable Urban Transportation: Understanding the relationship between urban transport sector emissions, household travel behavior and land use development." Submitted such as public transportation, then U.S. passenger travel emissions would decrease by roughly 90 MT. Land use

  19. Density of insect-pollinated grassland plants decreases with increasing surrounding land-use intensity.

    PubMed

    Clough, Yann; Ekroos, Johan; Báldi, András; Batáry, Péter; Bommarco, Riccardo; Gross, Nicolas; Holzschuh, Andrea; Hopfenmüller, Sebastian; Knop, Eva; Kuussaari, Mikko; Lindborg, Regina; Marini, Lorenzo; Öckinger, Erik; Potts, Simon G; Pöyry, Juha; Roberts, Stuart Pm; Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf; Smith, Henrik G

    2014-09-01

    Pollinator declines have raised concerns about the persistence of plant species that depend on insect pollination, in particular by bees, for their reproduction. The impact of pollinator declines remains unknown for species-rich plant communities found in temperate seminatural grasslands. We investigated effects of land-use intensity in the surrounding landscape on the distribution of plant traits related to insect pollination in 239 European seminatural grasslands. Increasing arable land use in the surrounding landscape consistently reduced the density of plants depending on bee and insect pollination. Similarly, the relative abundance of bee-pollination-dependent plants increased with higher proportions of non-arable agricultural land (e.g. permanent grassland). This was paralleled by an overall increase in bee abundance and diversity. By isolating the impact of the surrounding landscape from effects of local habitat quality, we show for the first time that grassland plants dependent on insect pollination are particularly susceptible to increasing land-use intensity in the landscape. PMID:25040328

  20. Effects of urbanization on stream ecosystems along an agriculture-to-urban land-use gradient, Milwaukee to Green Bay, Wisconsin, 2003-2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Richards, Kevin D.; Scudder, Barbara C.; Fitzpatrick, Faith A.; Steuer, Jeffery J.; Bell, Amanda H.; Peppler, Marie C.; Stewart, Jana S.; Harris, Mitchell A.

    2010-01-01

    In 2003 and 2004, 30 streams near Milwaukee and Green Bay, Wisconsin, were part of a national study by the U.S. Geological Survey to assess urbanization effects on physical, chemical, and biological characteristics along an agriculture-to-urban land-use gradient. A geographic information system was used to characterize natural landscape features that define the environmental setting and the degree of urbanization within each stream watershed. A combination of land cover, socioeconomic, and infrastructure variables were integrated into a multi-metric urban intensity index, scaled from 0 to 100, and assigned to each stream site to identify a gradient of urbanization within relatively homogeneous environmental settings. The 35 variables used to develop the final urban intensity index characterized the degree of urbanization and included road infrastructure (road area and road traffic index), 100-meter riparian land cover (percentage of impervious surface, shrubland, and agriculture), watershed land cover (percentage of impervious surface, developed/urban land, shrubland, and agriculture), and 26 socioeconomic variables (U.S. Census Bureau, 2001). Characteristics examined as part of this study included: habitat, hydrology, stream temperature, water chemistry (chloride, sulfate, nutrients, dissolved and particulate organic and inorganic carbon, pesticides, and suspended sediment), benthic algae, benthic invertebrates, and fish. Semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) were used to assess the potential for bioconcentration of hydrophobic organic contaminants (specifically polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, and organochlorine and pyrethroid insecticides) in biological membranes, such as the gills of fish. Physical habitat measurements reflective of channel enlargement, including bankfull channel size and bank erosion, increased with increasing urbanization within the watershed. In this study, percentage of riffles and streambed substrate size were more strongly related to local geologic setting, slope, watershed topography, and river-engineering practices than to urbanization. Historical local river-engineering features such as channelization, bank stabilization, and grade controls may have confounded relations among habitat characteristics and urbanization. A number of hydrologic-condition metrics (including flashiness and duration of high flow during pre- or post-ice periods) showed strong relations to the urban intensity index. Hydrologic-condition metrics cannot be used alone to predict habitat or geomorphic change. Chloride and SPMD measures of potential toxicity and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations showed the strongest positive correlations to urbanization including increases in road infrastructure, percentage of impervious surface in the watershed, urban land cover, and land-distribution related to urban land cover. This suggests that automobiles and the infrastructure required to support automobiles are a significant source of these compounds in this study area. Chloride in spring and summer showed a significant positive correlation with the urban intensity index; concentrations increased with increasing road infrastructure, urban land cover, and a number of landscape variables related to urbanization. Spring concentrations of sulfate, prometon, and diazinon correlated to fewer urban characteristics than chloride, including increases in road infrastructure, percentage of impervious surface, and urban land cover. Changes in biological communities correlated to the urban intensity index or individual urban-associated variables. Decreased percentages of pollution-sensitive diatoms and diatoms requiring high dissolved-oxygen saturation correlated to increases in the percentage of developed urban land, total impervious surface, stream flashiness, population density, road-area density, and decreases in the percentage of wetland in the watershed. Invertebrate taxa richness and Coleop

  1. Changes in Urban Climate due to Future Land-Use Changes based on Population Changes in the Nagoya Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adachi, S. A.; Hara, M.; Takahashi, H. G.; Ma, X.; Yoshikane, T.; Kimura, F.

    2013-12-01

    Severe hot weather in summer season becomes a big social problem in metropolitan areas, including the Nagoya region in Japan. Surface air temperature warming is projected in the future. Therefore, the reduction of surface air temperature is an urgent issue in the urban area. Although there are several studies dealing with the effects of global climate change and urbanization to the local climate in the future, these studies tend to ignore the future population changes. This study estimates future land-use scenarios associated with the multi-projections of future population and investigates the impacts of these scenarios on the surface temperature change. The Weather Research and Forecast model ver. 3.3.1 (hereafter, WRF) was used in this study. The horizontal resolutions were 20km, 4km, and 2km, for outer, middle, and inner domains, respectively. The results from the inner domain, covering the Nagoya region, were used for the analysis. The Noah land surface model and the single-layer urban canopy model were applied to calculate the land surface processes and urban surface processes, respectively. The initial and boundary conditions were given from the NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data in August 2010. The urban area ratio used in the WRF model was calculated from the future land-use data provided by the S8 project. The land-use data was created as follows. (1) Three scenarios of population, namely, with high-fertility assumption and low-mortality assumption (POP-high), with medium-fertility assumption and medium-mortality assumption (POP-med), and with low-fertility assumption and high-mortality assumption (POP-low), are estimated using the method proposed by Ariga and Matsuhashi (2012). These scenarios are based on the future projections provided by the National Institute of Population and Social Security Research. (2) The future changes in urban area ratio were assumed to be proportional to the population change (Hanasaki et al., 2012). The averaged urban area ratio in the Nagoya region was 0.37 in 2010. The area ratios were projected to reach a peak in 2010 to 2020, and then to decrease in the future in all of scenarios. The urban heat island intensity in the Nagoya region is about 1.5°C in 2010. In contrast, the differences of surface temperature is -0.17°C, -0.21°C, and -0.30°C in POP-high, POP-med, and POP-low, from the current situation in 2010. These impacts correspond to the 10% to 20% of current urban heat island intensity. However, the changes in the efficiency of energy consumption were not considered. Considering that the future surface temperature change is projected to be about 1.2°C to 4°C in 2070, it is required to quantitatively evaluate future urban scenarios including the mitigation strategies for urban heat island such as the improvement of energy consumption, greening, and so on. Acknowledgments. This study was supported by the Research Program on Climate Change Adaptation (RECCA) Fund by Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT) of Japan and the Global Environment Research Fund (S-8) of the Ministry of the Environment of Japan.

  2. A Coordinated Approach to Food Safety and Land Use Law at the Urban Fringe.

    PubMed

    Miller, Stephen R

    2015-01-01

    Much has been written about the rise of the local food movement in urban and suburban areas. This essay tackles an emerging outgrowth of that movement: the growing desire of urban and suburban dwellers to engage rural areas where food is produced not only to obtain food but also as a means of tourism and cultural activity. This represents a potentially much-needed means of economic development for rural areas and small farmers who are increasingly dependent on non-farm income for survival. The problem, however, is that food safety and land use laws struggle to keep up with these changes, waffling between over-regulation and de-regulation. This essay posits a legal path forward to steer clear of regulatory extremes and to help the local food movement grow and prosper at the urban fringe. We must cultivate our garden. PMID:26591827

  3. Contrasting Effects of Land Use Intensity and Exotic Host Plants on the Specialization of Interactions in Plant-Herbivore Networks

    PubMed Central

    de Araújo, Walter Santos; Vieira, Marcos Costa; Lewinsohn, Thomas M.; Almeida-Neto, Mário

    2015-01-01

    Human land use tends to decrease the diversity of native plant species and facilitate the invasion and establishment of exotic ones. Such changes in land use and plant community composition usually have negative impacts on the assemblages of native herbivorous insects. Highly specialized herbivores are expected to be especially sensitive to land use intensification and the presence of exotic plant species because they are neither capable of consuming alternative plant species of the native flora nor exotic plant species. Therefore, higher levels of land use intensity might reduce the proportion of highly specialized herbivores, which ultimately would lead to changes in the specialization of interactions in plant-herbivore networks. This study investigates the community-wide effects of land use intensity on the degree of specialization of 72 plant-herbivore networks, including effects mediated by the increase in the proportion of exotic plant species. Contrary to our expectation, the net effect of land use intensity on network specialization was positive. However, this positive effect of land use intensity was partially canceled by an opposite effect of the proportion of exotic plant species on network specialization. When we analyzed networks composed exclusively of endophagous herbivores separately from those composed exclusively of exophagous herbivores, we found that only endophages showed a consistent change in network specialization at higher land use levels. Altogether, these results indicate that land use intensity is an important ecological driver of network specialization, by way of reducing the local host range of herbivore guilds with highly specialized feeding habits. However, because the effect of land use intensity is offset by an opposite effect owing to the proportion of exotic host species, the net effect of land use in a given herbivore assemblage will likely depend on the extent of the replacement of native host species with exotic ones. PMID:25565141

  4. Relationship Study on Land Use Spatial Distribution Structure and Energy-Related Carbon Emission Intensity in Different Land Use Types of Guangdong, China, 1996–2008

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yi; Yang, Lei

    2013-01-01

    This study attempts to discuss the relationship between land use spatial distribution structure and energy-related carbon emission intensity in Guangdong during 1996–2008. We quantized the spatial distribution structure of five land use types including agricultural land, industrial land, residential and commercial land, traffic land, and other land through applying spatial Lorenz curve and Gini coefficient. Then the corresponding energy-related carbon emissions in each type of land were calculated in the study period. Through building the reasonable regression models, we found that the concentration degree of industrial land is negatively correlated with carbon emission intensity in the long term, whereas the concentration degree is positively correlated with carbon emission intensity in agricultural land, residential and commercial land, traffic land, and other land. The results also indicate that land use spatial distribution structure affects carbon emission intensity more intensively than energy efficiency and production efficiency do. These conclusions provide valuable reference to develop comprehensive policies for energy conservation and carbon emission reduction in a new perspective. PMID:23476128

  5. Tempo-Spatial Patterns of Land Use Changes and Urban Development in Globalizing China: A Study of Beijing

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Yichun; Fang, Chuanglin; Lin, George C.S.; Gong, Hongmian; Qiao, Biao

    2007-01-01

    This study examines the temporal and spatial changes in land use as a consequence of rapid urban development in the city of Beijing. Using a combination of techniques of remote sensing and GIS, the study identifies a substantial loss of plain dryland and a phenomenal expansion of urban construction land over the recent decade. Geographically, there is a clear shifting of urban construction land from the inner city to the outskirts as a consequence of suburbanization. The outward expansion of the ring-road system is found to be one of the most important driving forces explaining the temporal and spatial pattern of land use change. The uneven distribution of population stands as another factor with significant correlation with land use change. The application of the techniques of remote sensing and GIS can enhance the precision and comparability of research on land use change and urban transformation in China.

  6. Evaluation of land use/land cover datasets for urban watershed modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Burian, S. J.; Brown, M. J.; McPherson, T. N.

    2001-01-01

    Land use/land cover (LULC) data are a vital component for nonpoint source pollution modeling. Most watershed hydrology and pollutant loading models use, in some capacity, LULC information to generate runoff and pollutant loading estimates. Simple equation methods predict runoff and pollutant loads using runoff coefficients or pollutant export coefficients that are often correlated to LULC type. Complex models use input variables and parameters to represent watershed characteristics and pollutant buildup and washoff rates as a function of LULC type. Whether using simple or complex models an accurate LULC dataset with an appropriate spatial resolution and level of detail is paramount for reliable predictions. The study presented in this paper compared and evaluated several LULC dataset sources for application in urban environmental modeling. The commonly used USGS LULC datasets have coarser spatial resolution and lower levels of classification than other LULC datasets. In addition, the USGS datasets do not accurately represent the land use in areas that have undergone significant land use change during the past two decades. We performed a watershed modeling analysis of three urban catchments in Los Angeles, California, USA to investigate the relative difference in average annual runoff volumes and total suspended solids (TSS) loads when using the USGS LULC dataset versus using a more detailed and current LULC dataset. When the two LULC datasets were aggregated to the same land use categories, the relative differences in predicted average annual runoff volumes and TSS loads from the three catchments were 8 to 14% and 13 to 40%, respectively. The relative differences did not have a predictable relationship with catchment size.

  7. EVALUATION OF LAND USE/LAND COVER DATASETS FOR URBAN WATERSHED MODELING

    SciTech Connect

    S.J. BURIAN; M.J. BROWN; T.N. MCPHERSON

    2001-08-01

    Land use/land cover (LULC) data are a vital component for nonpoint source pollution modeling. Most watershed hydrology and pollutant loading models use, in some capacity, LULC information to generate runoff and pollutant loading estimates. Simple equation methods predict runoff and pollutant loads using runoff coefficients or pollutant export coefficients that are often correlated to LULC type. Complex models use input variables and parameters to represent watershed characteristics and pollutant buildup and washoff rates as a function of LULC type. Whether using simple or complex models an accurate LULC dataset with an appropriate spatial resolution and level of detail is paramount for reliable predictions. The study presented in this paper compared and evaluated several LULC dataset sources for application in urban environmental modeling. The commonly used USGS LULC datasets have coarser spatial resolution and lower levels of classification than other LULC datasets. In addition, the USGS datasets do not accurately represent the land use in areas that have undergone significant land use change during the past two decades. We performed a watershed modeling analysis of three urban catchments in Los Angeles, California, USA to investigate the relative difference in average annual runoff volumes and total suspended solids (TSS) loads when using the USGS LULC dataset versus using a more detailed and current LULC dataset. When the two LULC datasets were aggregated to the same land use categories, the relative differences in predicted average annual runoff volumes and TSS loads from the three catchments were 8 to 14% and 13 to 40%, respectively. The relative differences did not have a predictable relationship with catchment size.

  8. Variation in Stormwater Characteristics Depending on Urban Land Uses Using Remote- Sensing and GIS in Conjunction to Hydro-Chemical Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asaf, L.; Goldshlger, N.; Ben Dor, E.; Filin, S.; Shoshany, M.

    2008-12-01

    Urban Hydrology has attracted growing attention in the last decades due to the environmental implications resulting from the expansion of built-up areas. Understanding stormwater characteristics and potential can be beneficial in contributing to sustainable urban water resources management. Studying stormwater in relation to the various urban land uses (residential ,industrial, roods, parking areas ,etc) using remote sensing and GIS coupled with hydrological and chemical monitoring is an advanced practice which is used in this study. The study area covers the growing cities of Herzlia and Ra'anana which site along the Israeli Coastal Plain. High resolution GIS data, Air Photo images combine with LIDAR, and hyper-spectral remote sensing data were used to study land-use distribution within the highly developed urban setting (45%-87% paved areas). Temporal variations in the runoff coefficient and chemical compositions of urban stormwater under different land uses, and their dependence on physical parameters such as precipitation intensity, stormwater discharge, cumulative stormwater volumes and the size of paved areas were analyzed. Results indicate that runoff coefficient is directly correlated to the percentage of paved areas. Fluxes of major ions and trace elements were highest in industrial areas. The concentrations and variety of semi- volatile organic compounds were significantly higher in stormwater generated in the industrial areas than in that draining from residential areas. Concentrations of fecal coliform bacteria from all land-uses exceeded the drinking water standards and displayed a random pattern. The results of this work suggest that while stormwater can contribute to urban water resources it must be treated accordingly with regard to its land uses origin within the city.

  9. [Dynamics of land use landscape pattern in Hangzhou City during its rapid urbanization].

    PubMed

    Deng, Jin-Song; Li, Jun; Yu, Liang; Wang, Ke

    2008-09-01

    Based on the multi-temporal SPOT images of Hangzhou City in 1996, 2000, 2003, and 2006, a method combining Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and hybrid classifier was adopted to accurately extract the land use change information. Meantime, the dynamics and characteristics of landscape pattern change were analyzed by using landscape indexes. The results showed that from 1996 to 2006, the rapid urbanization in Hangzhou induced a tremendous conversion of landscape pattern. Owing to the anthropogenic disturbance, the agricultural landscape was gradually replaced by man-made landscape, and the dynamics of the landscape pattern in Hangzhou exhibited complexity and diversity. Cropland landscape was impacted most seriously, being encroached at large scale; orchard landscape suffered from slight impact due to its small occupation in the landscape; forest landscape was insensitive to the impact due to its aggregated distribution; while water landscape was impacted greatly but exhibited slight fragmentation. Urban land landscape was the one undergone the biggest and quickest change. PMID:19102316

  10. Urban heat island in Krakow, Poland: Land use versus land form interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bokwa, A.

    2012-04-01

    Urban heat island is a well known feature of urban climate, related mainly to the changes in land use in urban areas and anthropogenic heat emission. However, the interaction between the land use and land form in urban areas and its impact on air temperature spatial patterns is much less known. Krakow is a medium size city located in southern Poland, in the valley of the Vistula River. The city is surrounded with convex land forms from three sides, with height differences up to 100 m. Built-up areas of the city can be found in both the valley bottom and on nearby slopes. Numerous studies completed after the Second World War (e.g. Hess 1974, Lewinska et al. 1982, Morawska-Horawska, Cebulak 1981) showed that the characteristic features of the climate of Krakow are e.g. frequent air temperature inversions, poor natural ventilation, large precipitation horizontal gradients. More recent research (e.g. Bokwa 2010) revealed e.g. a thermal asymmetry of the area. On the basis of 3-year (2009-2011) air temperature measurements in 21 points, completed with mobile measurements and analysis of available long-term series, it was proposed to define urban heat island separately in particular vertical zones of the city. Bokwa, A., 2010, Wieloletnie zmiany struktury mezoklimatu miasta na przykladzie Krakowa [Multi-annual changes of the urban mesoclimate structure (using an example of Kraków)], Institute of Geography and Spatial Management, Jagiellonian University, Kraków, 258 pp.; available on-line: http://www.geo.uj.edu.pl/publikacje.php?&lang=1&page=monografie&menu=3&id=000155 Hess M., 1974, Klimat Krakowa {Climate of Krakow], Folia Geogr., ser. Geogr.-Phys., 8, 45-102. Lewi?ska J., Bartosik J., Ba?cik J., Czerwieniec M., Zgud K., 1982, Wp?yw miasta na klimat lokalny (na przyk?adzie aglomeracji krakowskiej) [Impact of a city on the local climate using an example of Krakow], Inst. Kszta?t. ?rod., Warszawa. Morawska-Horawska M., Cebulak E., 1981, Badania pionowego zasi?gu miejskiej wyspy ciep?a nad Krakowem [Studies on vertical extent of urban heat island over Krakow], Folia Geogr., ser. Geogr.-Phys., 14, 43-50.

  11. Mapping of the CO2 and anthropogenic heat emission under spatially explicit urban land use scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamichi, K.; Yamagata, Y.; Seya, H.

    2010-12-01

    The serious further efforts on CO2 and other green house gases emission reduction by global climate change mitigation remain as an urgent global issue to be solved. From the viewpoint of urban land use measures, the realization of low-carbon city is the key to change people’s behavior to reduce CO2 emission. In this respect, a lot of studies aimed at realizing low-carbon city are progressing on a number of fronts, including city planning and transportation planning. With respect to the low-carbon city, compact city is expected to reduce CO2 emission from transportation sector. Hence many studies have been conducted with scenario analysis considering modal share change, for instance, increase of public transportation use and reduction of trip length by car. On the other hand, it is important that CO2 emission from not only transportation sector but also residential sector can be reduced by a move from a detached house to a condominium, the change of family composition types and so on. In regard to residential sector, it has been founded that CO2 emission units differ among family composition types, for example, the single-person household emit more CO2 in general. From the viewpoint of an urban climate prediction, the possible range of future land use change should be recognized as the input parameters for the climate models. In addition to CO2 emission, the anthropogenic heat emission is also important as an input data of climate models in order to evaluate the social and economic impacts of urban land use change. The objective of this study is to demonstrate a compact city scenario and a dispersion scenario in Tokyo metropolitan area, which is the largest metropolitan area in the world, and to examine future climate change mitigation policies including land use for realization of low-carbon city. We have created two scenarios of population distribution by using an urban economic model. In these scenarios we have assumed extreme cases in order to show the possible range of future land use change. The first one is a compact city scenario and the second one is a dispersion scenario. In the compact city scenario, we assumed that commuting to work by cars would be prohibited. In the dispersion scenario, we assumed that all workers would work in their own houses and the time of commuting to work would be zero. The spatially explicit emissions are mapped by using Geographical Information System (GIS). As for the CO2 emission, this study focuses on the analysis of the tendency from the viewpoint of both direct and indirect emission. As a result, people would live in suburbs in the second scenario, and the emissions would increase. It is concluded that the results shows the importance of low-carbon city as compact city. Moreover, the anthropogenic heat emission estimated in this study can used as the input parameters for the climate models. The developed system can be used for analyzing the implications of urban planning and carbon management scenarios.

  12. Direct and indirect effects of land use on floral resources and flower-visiting insects across an urban landscape

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Matteson, K.C.; Grace, James B.; Minor, E.S.

    2013-01-01

    Although urban areas are often considered to have uniformly negative effects on biodiversity, cities are most accurately characterized as heterogeneous mosaics of buildings, streets, parks, and gardens that include both ‘good’ and ‘bad’ areas for wildlife. However, to date, few studies have evaluated how human impacts vary in direction and magnitude across a heterogeneous urban landscape. In this study, we assessed the distribution of floral resources and flower-visiting insects across a variety of land uses in New York City. We visited both green spaces (e.g. parks, cemeteries) and heavily developed neighborhood blocks (e.g. with high or low density residential zoning) and used structural equation modeling (SEM) to evaluate the direct and indirect effects of median income, vegetation, and development intensity on floral resources and insects in both settings. Abundance and taxonomic richness of flower-visiting insects was significantly greater in green spaces than neighborhood blocks. The SEM results indicated that heavily-developed neighborhoods generally had fewer flower-visiting insects consistent with reductions in floral resources. However, some low-density residential neighborhoods maintained high levels of floral resources and flower-visiting insects. We found that the effects of surrounding vegetation on floral resources, and thus indirect effects on insects, varied considerably between green spaces and neighborhood blocks. Along neighborhood blocks, vegetation consisted of a mosaic of open gardens and sparsely distributed trees and had a positive indirect effect on flower-visiting insects. In contrast, vegetation in urban green spaces was associated with increased canopy cover and thus had a negative indirect effect on flower-visiting insects through reductions in floral resources. In both neighborhood blocks and green spaces, vegetation had a positive direct effect on flower-visiting insects independent of the influence of vegetation on floral resources. Our results demonstrate how inter-related components of an urban ecosystem can vary with respect to one another across a heterogeneous urban landscape, suggesting that it is inappropriate to generalize about urban systems as a whole without first addressing differences among component land use types.

  13. A novel land use approach for assessment of human health: The relationship between urban structure types and cardiorespiratory disease risk.

    PubMed

    Réquia Júnior, Weeberb Joăo; Roig, Henrique Llacer; Koutrakis, Petros

    2015-12-01

    Extensive evidence shows that in addition to lifestyle factors, environmental aspects are an important risk factor for human health. Numerous approaches have been used to estimate the relationship between environment and health. For example, the urban characteristics, especially the types of land use, are considered a potential proxy indicator to evaluate risk of disease. Although several studies have used land use variables to assess human health, none of them has used the concept of Urban Morphology by Urban Structure Types (USTs) as indicators of land use. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between USTs and cardiorespiratory disease risks in the Federal District, Brazil. Toward this end, we used a quantile regression model to estimate risk. We used 21 types of UST. Income and population density were used as covariates in our sensitivity analysis. Our analysis showed an association between cardiorespiratory diseases risk and 10 UST variables (1 related to rural area, 6 related to residential area, 1 recreational area, 1 public area and 1 commercial area). Our findings suggest that the conventional land use method may be missing important information about the effect of land use on human health. The use of USTs can be an approach to complement the conventional method. This should be of interest to policy makers in order to enhance public health policies and to create future strategies in terms of urban planning, land use and environmental health. PMID:26458022

  14. Quantifying suspended sediment flux in a mixed-land-use urbanizing watershed using a nested-scale study design.

    PubMed

    Zeiger, Sean; Hubbart, Jason A

    2016-01-15

    Suspended sediment (SS) remains the most pervasive water quality problem globally and yet, despite progress, SS process understanding remains relatively poor in watersheds with mixed-land-use practices. The main objective of the current work was to investigate relationships between suspended sediment and land use types at multiple spatial scales (n=5) using four years of suspended sediment data collected in a representative urbanized mixed-land-use (forest, agriculture, urban) watershed. Water samples were analyzed for SS using a nested-scale experimental watershed study design (n=836 samples×5 gauging sites). Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn's post-hoc multiple comparison tests were used to test for significant differences (CI=95%, p<0.05) in SS levels between gauging sites. Climate extremes (high precipitation/drought) were observed during the study period. Annual maximum SS concentrations exceeded 2387.6mg/L. Median SS concentrations decreased by 60% from the agricultural headwaters to the rural/urban interface, and increased by 98% as urban land use increased. Multiple linear regression analysis results showed significant relationships between SS, annual total precipitation (positive correlate), forested land use (negative correlate), agricultural land use (negative correlate), and urban land use (negative correlate). Estimated annual SS yields ranged from 16.1 to 313.0tkm(-2)year(-1) mainly due to differences in annual total precipitation. Results highlight the need for additional studies, and point to the need for improved best management practices designed to reduce anthropogenic SS loading in mixed-land-use watersheds. PMID:26519591

  15. Soil humus composition - comparison between mountain grasslands and forest lands with different land-use intensity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naydenova, Lora; Zhiyanski, Miglena; Leifeld, Jens; Filcheva, Ekaterina

    2015-04-01

    Soil humus is a dynamic characteristic greatly vulnerable to land use and climate and with important feedbacks to the atmospheric green house gas balance and the rate of climate change. The increased demand for accurate soil carbon stocks assessments and predictions of its changes as a result of land use/cover and climate change has triggered large-scale and long-term measurements of soil organic matter specifics. We studied the soil humus composition in four mountain grasslands, differentiated according to the land-use sub-type and land-use intensity and four forest lands. Two pastures - with intensive (Pi) and extensive grazing (Pe) and two meadows- managed (Mm) and unmanaged (Mu) were objects of present study. Two spruce plantations (Picea abies Karst), and two natural beech forests (Fagus sylvatica L.) - control, unmanaged for the both (Su and Bu) and with 10 % cutting intensity (Sc and Bc). Humus composition was analyzed following the methodology of Kononova-Belchikova. The aggressive and mobile fulvic acids predominated in all of the investigated plots, except Pe and Bu. Humic acids are "free" and bonded with R3O3 and no Ca-bonded humic acids were established under the grasslands, but in the soils under the two beech forest we observed Ca-bonded humic acids in small quantities. The values of total org. C and C-extracted by 0.1 N NaOH was similar in most of studied horizons. Our results showed that the highest total carbon content was localized in the organic-mineral soil horizon and decreased toward deeper soil. The highest total carbon content estimated at 14.04 % was determined in A-horizon of soil in pasture with extensive grazing, for the grasslands. The higher grazing disturbance in Pi leads to increase root biomass in patch areas and in inter-patch upper soil related with decrease of soil humus content. We supposed that the reduced amount of litter input with increased recalcitrance to decomposition provoked the reduction of organic carbon content and in changes in its composition under intensive grazing. The extensive pasture management in mountain areas is better land-use approach in the perspective of soil humus quality improvement. The managed meadow in mountain areas accumulated more carbon in superficial soil, but the composition of soil humus is similar to this in unmanaged grassland. Both European beech and Norway spruce stands had higher accumulation of organic matter in the forest floor and the Ah horizon under unmanaged conditions. For the forest lands the highest total carbon content was found in the soil under the spruce forest - 9.5 %. In the managed forests, carbon contents tended to be higher in deeper horizons of the mineral soil, probably due to differences in microclimate after cutting. However, the variability in carbon storage was higher in managed sites which may reflect a higher degree of disturbance.

  16. Land use dynamics of the fast-growing Shanghai Metropolis, China (1979-2008) and its implications for land use and urban planning policy.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hao; Zhou, Li-Guo; Chen, Ming-Nan; Ma, Wei-Chun

    2011-01-01

    Through the integrated approach of remote sensing and geographic information system (GIS) techniques, four Landsat TM/ETM+ imagery acquired during 1979 and 2008 were used to quantitatively characterize the patterns of land use and land cover change (LULC) and urban sprawl in the fast-growing Shanghai Metropolis, China. Results showed that, the urban/built-up area grew on average by 4,242.06 ha yr(-1). Bare land grew by 1,594.66 ha yr(-1) on average. In contrast, cropland decreased by 3,286.26 ha yr(-1) on average, followed by forest and shrub, water, and tidal land, which decreased by 1,331.33 ha yr(-1), 903.43 ha yr(-1), and 315.72 ha yr(-1) on average, respectively. As a result, during 1979 and 2008 approximately 83.83% of the newly urban/built-up land was converted from cropland (67.35%), forest and shrub (9.12%), water (4.80%), and tidal land (2.19%). Another significant change was the continuous increase in regular residents, which played a very important role in contributing to local population growth and increase in urban/built-up land. This can be explained with this city's huge demand for investment and qualified labor since the latest industrial transformation. Moreover, with a decrease in cropland, the proportion of population engaged in farming decreased 13.84%. Therefore, significant socio-economic transformation occurred, and this would lead to new demand for land resources. However, due to very scarce land resources and overload of population in Shanghai, the drive to achieve economic goals at the loss of cropland, water, and the other lands is not sustainable. Future urban planning policy aiming at ensuring a win-win balance between sustainable land use and economic growth is urgently needed. PMID:22319382

  17. Soil Organic Matter Stability and Soil Carbon Storage with Changes in Land Use Intensity in Uganda

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiemann, L. K.; Grandy, S.; Hartter, J.

    2014-12-01

    As the foundation of soil fertility, soil organic matter (SOM) formation and break-down is a critical factor of agroecosystem sustainability. In tropical systems where soils are quickly weathered, the link between SOM and soil fertility is particularly strong; however, the mechanisms controlling the stabilization and destabilization of SOM are not well characterized in tropical soils. In western Uganda, we collected soil samples under different levels of land use intensity including maize fields, banana plantations and inside an un-cultivated native tropical forest, Kibale National Park (KNP). To better understand the link between land use intensity and SOM stability we measured total soil C and N, and respiration rates during a 369 d soil incubation. In addition, we separated soils into particle size fractions, and mineral adsorbed SOM in the silt (2-50 ?m ) and clay (< 2 ?m) fractions was dissociated, purified and chemically characterized via pyrolysis-GC/MS. Cultivated soil C and N have declined by 22 and 48%, respectively, in comparison to uncultivated KNP soils. Incubation data indicate that over the last decade, relatively accessible and labile soil organic carbon (SOC) pools have been depleted by 55-59% in cultivated soils. As a result of this depletion, the chemical composition of SOM has been altered such that clay and silt associated SOM differed significantly between agricultural fields and KNP. In particular, nitrogen containing compounds were in lower abundance in agricultural compared to KNP soils. This suggests that N depletion due to agriculture has advanced to pools of mineral associated organic N that are typically protected from break-down. In areas where land use intensity is relatively greater, increases in polysaccharides and lipids in maize fields compared to KNP indicate increases in microbial residues and decomposition by-products as microbes mine SOM for organic N. Chemical characterization of post-incubation SOM will help us better understand how microbes preferentially break-down SOM. Agricultural intensification over the past decade in western Uganda has depleted SOC, on average, by 1427 g m-2. In addition, depletion of organic nitrogen reserves in stable SOM pools corresponds with reported declines in crop yields and productivity in this region.

  18. Comparative study of heavy metals concentration in topsoil of urban green space and agricultural land uses.

    PubMed

    Mirzaei, Rouhollah; Teymourzade, Safiye; Sakizadeh, Mohamad; Ghorbani, Hadi

    2015-12-01

    The main objective of this study was to determine the concentration of cadmium, chromium, copper, nickel, lead, and zinc in surface soils of two land uses including agricultural and urban green space in Semnan Province, Iran. For this purpose, the soil samples of 27 urban green space and 47 agricultural fields were collected and analyzed. The correlation coefficients, analysis of variance, principal component analysis, cluster analysis, and geoaccumulation index were utilized to compare the mean values in the two land uses and pinpoint the possible sources of contamination in the study area. The average contents of Cd, Cu, Cr, Ni, Pb, and Zn in green space soils were 0.1, 24.9, 78.7, 28.2, 22.1, and 82.1 mg/kg, respectively, while the mean concentrations of Cd, Cu, Cr, Ni, Pb, and Zn in agricultural soils were 0.3, 24.3, 83.7, 33.3, 18.1, and 80.4 mg/kg, respectively. The mean concentrations of lead, copper, and zinc were higher in urban green space in comparison with those of agricultural fields, while it was vice versa for chromium, cadmium, and nickel. In general, significant, but weak, correlations were observed between Zn with Pb (r = 0.53) and Cu (r = 0.61) and Ni with Cr (r = 0.55) and Cu(r = 0.51). The main sources of contamination turned out to be both natural and anthropogenic as the results of correlation coefficients, principal component analysis, and cluster analysis showed. That is to say, chromium and nickel had emanated from natural while the sources of cadmium, lead, and zinc could be attributed to anthropogenic activities. For the case of copper, both natural and anthropogenic activities were influential; however, the role of human activities was more effective. The results of contamination assessment showed that heavy metal contamination in agricultural land use was higher than green space indicating the role of human activities in this respect. PMID:26559555

  19. Effect of land use activities on PAH contamination in urban soils of Rawalpindi and Islamabad, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Ud Din, Ikhtiar; Rashid, Audil; Mahmood, Tariq; Khalid, Azeem

    2013-10-01

    Urbanization can increase the vulnerability of soils to various types of contamination. Increased contamination of urban soils with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) could relate to increased number of petrol pump stations and mechanical workshops-a phenomenon that needs to be constantly monitored. This study was undertaken to explore the soil PAH levels in Rawalpindi and Islamabad urban areas in relation to land use activities. Composite soil samples from petrol pump stations and mechanical workshops (n?=?32) areas were evaluated for five PAHs--naphthalene, phenanthrene, pyrene, benzo[a]pyrene, and indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene-and compared with control area locations with minimum petroleum-related activity (n?=?16). Surface samples up to 3 cm depth were collected and extraction of analytes was carried out using n-hexane and dichloromethane. Prior to running the samples, standards (100 ?g ml(-1)) were run on HPLC to optimize signal to noise ratio using acetonitrile as mobile phase at a flow rate of 1.25 ml/min at 40 °C. Significant differences between petrol pump stations and mechanical workshop areas were observed for individual PAH as well as with control area soil samples. Naphthalene was found to be the most abundant PAH in soil, ranging from 2.47 to 24.36 mg kg(-1). Correlation between the benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) level in soil and the total PAH concentration (r?=?0.82, P?urban areas of Rawalpindi and Islamabad has direct relevance with land use for petroleum activity. We conclude that in order to reduce the soil PAH exposure in urban environment, petrol pumps and mechanical workshops must be shifted to less densely populated areas because of their role as important point sources for PAH emission. PMID:23595691

  20. Spatio-Temporal Dynamics of Urban Expansion in Japan Using Gridded Land Use Data, Population Census Data and DMSP Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagan, H.; Yamagata, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Integration of population data, land-use data, and satellite images can be used to identify and characterize the spatio-temporal extent and expansion trends of urban growth. We provided an idea to investigate the spatio-temporal urban growth using satellite images with population data. We analyze the urban expansion in Japan from 1990 to 2005 by using gridded land-use data, population census data, and DMSP satellite images of nighttime lights. First, we mapped the DMSP nighttime lights and land-use data onto a grid based on the standard 1 km2grid cell system of Japan to determine the proportional areas of DMSP nighttime lights and urban land use within each grid cell. Then, we investigated the relationships among population density, DMSP nighttime lights area, and urban area. A rapid expansion of the urban/built-up area around megacities was associated with population increases; in contrast, population density dropped steeply in rural areas and in small towns. Spatial correlation analysis showed a strong positive correlation between population density and urban land use (r= 0.59). In addition, correlation coefficients between population density and DMSP data increased as the DMSP nighttime lights brightness value increased. We then used census population data as the base population input, and performed a linear multiple regression analysis to predict population density from the combination of urban land-use area and DMSP data in Hokkaido, Japan. Visual and numerical evaluation of the results showed that the combination of urban land-use data and DMSP data could be used to predict the spatial distribution of population density. The results from this study indicated the high correlation between these data and suggested the potentials of population density prediction using DMSP data and land use data. References Bagan, H., and Y. Yamagata. Land-cover change analysis in 50 global cities by using a combination of Landsat data and analysis of grid cell. Environmental Research Letters, vol.9, no. 6, 064015. Jun. 2014. Bagan, H., and Y. Yamagata. Landsat analysis of urban growth: How Tokyo became the world's largest megacity during the last 40 years. Remote Sensing of Environment, vol.127, pp. 210-222. Dec. 2012.

  1. The impact of land use, season, age, and sex on the prevalence and intensity of Baylisascaris procyonis infections in raccoons (Procyon lotor) from Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Jardine, Claire M; Pearl, David L; Puskas, Kirstie; Campbell, Doug G; Shirose, Lenny; Peregrine, Andrew S

    2014-10-01

    We assessed the impact of land use, demographic factors, and season on the prevalence and intensity of Baylisascaris procyonis infections in raccoons (Procyon lotor) in Ontario, Canada. From March to October 2012, we recorded the number of B. procyonis in the intestinal tracts of raccoons submitted to the Canadian Cooperative Wildlife Health Centre for necropsy. Logistic regression models were used to examine associations between the presence of B. procyonis and age (adult, juvenile), sex, land use (suburban/urban, rural), and season (March-June and July-October); negative binomial regression models were used to examine associations between the number of worms and the same variables. We detected B. procyonis in 38% (95% confidence interval 30-47%) of raccoons examined (n=128). In univariable models, the presence of B. procyonis was significantly associated with age, land use, and season (P<0.05). Age was not retained in the multivariable model, and the impact of sex on the presence of B. procyonis varied with land use and season. For example, from March to June, suburban/urban male raccoons were significantly more likely to be infected with B. procyonis than suburban/urban female raccoons. However, later in the summer (July-October), the opposite was true. The median number of worms in the intestinal tracts of infected raccoons was 3 (range 1-116). Worm number was significantly associated with age and season in univariable models; in the multivariable model, juvenile raccoons had significantly more worms than adults, and the impact of season on the number of worms varied with land use and sex. A better understanding of the epidemiology of B. procyonis in raccoons is important for developing appropriate strategies to reduce the risk of human exposure to B. procyonis from the environment. PMID:25098302

  2. Effects of land-use type on urban groundwater quality, Seoul metropolitan city, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, S.; Yun, S.; Chae, G.; So, C.; Kweon, S.; Lee, P.

    2001-12-01

    The progressive degradation of urban groundwater becomes an important environmental problem encountered in South Korea. This study aims to examine the relationships between land-use type and groundwater quality in Seoul metropolitan city, based on the results of hydrogeochemical monitoring. For this purpose, land-use type was divided into five categories (green zone, housing, agricultural, traffic, and industrialized). The mean concentrations of TDS (total dissolved solids) effectively reflect the degree of anthropogenic contamination and increase in the following order: green zone (152.5 mg/l), then agricultural (380.7 mg/l) and housing (384.2 mg/l), then traffic (457.0 mg/l), and finally industrialized area (554.5 mg/l). Among major dissolved solutes, the concentrations of Na, Ca, Mg, HCO3, and Cl increase with increasing TDS. In case of Na and Ca, de-icing salts and sewage are considered as major contamination sources. The corrosion of cements may also increase Ca. Nitrate concentration is characteristically very high in housing and agricultural areas, reflecting the severe contamination from domestic sewage and fertilizer. Sulfate and magnesium are enriched in industrialized area, possibly due to their derivation from industrial facilities. Chlorine ion is considered to be derived from de-chlorination of hydrocarbons as well as de-icing salts. Bicarbonate also increases with increasing TDS, for which cement dissolution and oxidation of organics are considered as source materials. However, enhanced water-rock(or construction materials) interaction also may increase the bicarbonate, because acidic wastewater in urban area is very corrosive. Trace metals and organic compounds generally does not show any distinct pattern of regional variation. However, Fe, Mn, Ni, Se, Zn, TCE, and PCE tend to increase locally in industrialized area, whereas high concentrations of Br, Ni, and Cu are found in traffic area. The groundwaters with very high concentrations of Fe, Zn, and Mn are presumed to be affected from decrepit pipelines under inproper management. The correlation matrix between hydrochemical data and local land-use data was examined, based on the areal calculation of land use (road, building for housing and official work, industrial building, forest, and agricultural land) within a circular (radius = 500 m) around a well. The results show that the areal percentage of road correlates positively with the concentrations of TDS, Na, Ca, HCO3, Br, Mn, and Ni, whereas the areal percentage of industrial building correlates well with Mg, SO4, Fe, TCE, and PCE. The present study suggests that urban groundwaters in Seoul are strongly affected by anthropogenic sources and show a strong effect by local land-use characteristics. As an useful guideline for evaluating the groundwater quality, we have obtained background water quality criteria as follows: Na (10.8 mg/l), K (1.2 mg/l), Ca (19.9 mg/l), Mg (1.6 mg/l), NO3 (8.3 mg/l), Cl (9.0 mg/l), SO4 (12.9 mg/l), and HCO3 (54.8 mg/l).

  3. Geo-information Based Spatio-temporal Modeling of Urban Land Use and Land Cover Change in Butwal Municipality, Nepal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandal, U. K.

    2014-11-01

    Unscientific utilization of land use and land cover due to rapid growth of urban population deteriorates urban condition. Urban growth, land use change and future urban land demand are key concerns of urban planners. This paper is aimed to model urban land use change essential for sustainable urban development. GI science technology was employed to study the urban change dynamics using Markov Chain and CA-Markov and predicted the magnitude and spatial pattern. It was performed using the probability transition matrix from the Markov chain process, the suitability map of each land use/cover types and the contiguity filter. Suitability maps were generated from the MCE process where weight was derived from the pair wise comparison in the AHP process considering slope, land capability, distance to road, and settlement and water bodies as criterion of factor maps. Thematic land use land cover types of 1999, 2006, and 2013 of Landsat sensors were classified using MLC algorithm. The spatial extent increase from 1999 to 2013 in built up , bush and forest was observed to be 48.30 percent,79.48 percent and 7.79 percent, respectively, while decrease in agriculture and water bodies were 30.26 percent and 28.22 percent. The predicted urban LULC for 2020 and 2027 would provide useful inputs to the decision makers. Built up and bush expansion are explored as the main driving force for loss of agriculture and river areas and has the potential to continue in future also. The abandoned area of river bed has been converted to built- up areas.

  4. Bayesian networks and agent-based modeling approach for urban land-use and population density change: a BNAS model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kocabas, Verda; Dragicevic, Suzana

    2013-10-01

    Land-use change models grounded in complexity theory such as agent-based models (ABMs) are increasingly being used to examine evolving urban systems. The objective of this study is to develop a spatial model that simulates land-use change under the influence of human land-use choice behavior. This is achieved by integrating the key physical and social drivers of land-use change using Bayesian networks (BNs) coupled with agent-based modeling. The BNAS model, integrated Bayesian network-based agent system, presented in this study uses geographic information systems, ABMs, BNs, and influence diagram principles to model population change on an irregular spatial structure. The model is parameterized with historical data and then used to simulate 20 years of future population and land-use change for the City of Surrey, British Columbia, Canada. The simulation results identify feasible new urban areas for development around the main transportation corridors. The obtained new development areas and the projected population trajectories with the“what-if” scenario capabilities can provide insights into urban planners for better and more informed land-use policy or decision-making processes.

  5. A Comparative Land Use-Based Analysis of Noise Pollution Levels in Selected Urban Centers of Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Baloye, David O.; Palamuleni, Lobina G.

    2015-01-01

    Growth in the commercialization, mobility and urbanization of human settlements across the globe has greatly exposed world urban population to potentially harmful noise levels. The situation is more disturbing in developing countries like Nigeria, where there are no sacrosanct noise laws and regulations. This study characterized noise pollution levels in Ibadan and Ile-Ife, two urban areas of Southwestern Nigeria that have experienced significant increases in population and land use activities. Eight hundred noise measurements, taken at 20 different positions in the morning, afternoon, and evening of carefully selected weekdays, in each urban area, were used for this study. Findings put the average noise levels in the urban centers at between 53 dB(A) and 89 dB (A), a far cry from the World Health Organization (WHO) permissible limits in all the land use types, with highest noise pollution levels recorded for transportation, commercial, residential and educational land use types. The result of the one-way ANOVA test carried out on the dependent variable noise and fixed factor land use types reveals a statistically significant mean noise levels across the study area (F(3,34) = 15.13, p = 0.000). The study underscores noise pollution monitoring and the urgent need to control urban noise pollution with appropriate and effective policies. PMID:26426033

  6. A Comparative Land Use-Based Analysis of Noise Pollution Levels in Selected Urban Centers of Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Baloye, David O; Palamuleni, Lobina G

    2015-10-01

    Growth in the commercialization, mobility and urbanization of human settlements across the globe has greatly exposed world urban population to potentially harmful noise levels. The situation is more disturbing in developing countries like Nigeria, where there are no sacrosanct noise laws and regulations. This study characterized noise pollution levels in Ibadan and Ile-Ife, two urban areas of Southwestern Nigeria that have experienced significant increases in population and land use activities. Eight hundred noise measurements, taken at 20 different positions in the morning, afternoon, and evening of carefully selected weekdays, in each urban area, were used for this study. Findings put the average noise levels in the urban centers at between 53 dB(A) and 89 dB (A), a far cry from the World Health Organization (WHO) permissible limits in all the land use types, with highest noise pollution levels recorded for transportation, commercial, residential and educational land use types. The result of the one-way ANOVA test carried out on the dependent variable noise and fixed factor land use types reveals a statistically significant mean noise levels across the study area (F(3,34) = 15.13, p = 0.000). The study underscores noise pollution monitoring and the urgent need to control urban noise pollution with appropriate and effective policies. PMID:26426033

  7. Adaptation of Land-Use Demands to the Impact of Climate Change on the Hydrological Processes of an Urbanized Watershed

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yu-Pin; Hong, Nien-Ming; Chiang, Li-Chi; Liu, Yen-Lan; Chu, Hone-Jay

    2012-01-01

    The adaptation of land-use patterns is an essential aspect of minimizing the inevitable impact of climate change at regional and local scales; for example, adapting watershed land-use patterns to mitigate the impact of climate change on a region’s hydrology. The objective of this study is to simulate and assess a region’s ability to adapt to hydrological changes by modifying land-use patterns in the Wu-Du watershed in northern Taiwan. A hydrological GWLF (Generalized Watershed Loading Functions) model is used to simulate three hydrological components, namely, runoff, groundwater and streamflow, based on various land-use scenarios under six global climate models. The land-use allocations are simulated by the CLUE-s model for the various development scenarios. The simulation results show that runoff and streamflow are strongly related to the precipitation levels predicted by different global climate models for the wet and dry seasons, but groundwater cycles are more related to land-use. The effects of climate change on groundwater and runoff can be mitigated by modifying current land-use patterns; and slowing the rate of urbanization would also reduce the impact of climate change on hydrological components. Thus, land-use adaptation on a local/regional scale provides an alternative way to reduce the impacts of global climate change on local hydrology. PMID:23202833

  8. Microzonation in Urban Areas, Basic Element for Land-Use Planning, Risk Management and Sustainable Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres Morales, G. F.; Dávalos Sotelo, R.; Castillo Aguilar, S.; Mora González, I.; Lermo Samaniego, J. F.; Rodriguez, M.; García Martínez, J.; Suárez, M. Leonardo; Hernández Juan, F.

    2013-05-01

    This paper presents the results of microzonification of the natural hazards for different metropolitan areas and highlights the importance of integrating these results in urban planning. The cities that have been covered for the definition of danger in the state of Veracruz are: Orizaba, Veracruz and Xalapa, as part of the production of a Geological and Hydrometeorology Hazards Atlas for the state of Veracruz, financed by the Funds for the Prevention of Natural Disasters FOPREDEN and CONACYT. The general data of each metropolitan area was integrated in a geographic information system (GIS), obtaining different theme maps, and maps of dynamic characteristics of soils in each metropolitan area. For the planning of an urban area to aspire to promote sustainable development, it is essential to have a great deal of the details on the pertinent information and the most important is that that has to do with the degree of exposure to natural phenomena. In general, microzonation investigations consider all natural phenomena that could potentially affect an area of interest and hazard maps for each of potential hazards are prepared. With all the data collected and generated and fed into a SIG, models were generated which define the areas most threatened by earthquake, flood and landslide slopes. These results were compared with maps of the main features in the urban zones and a qualitative classification of areas of high to low hazard was established. It will have the basic elements of information for urban planning and land use. This information will be made available to the authorities and the general public through an Internet portal where people can download and view maps using free software available online.;

  9. Rapid urban growth, land-use changes and air pollution in Santiago, Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romero, H.; Ihl, M.; Rivera, A.; Zalazar, P.; Azocar, P.

    This paper is a contribution to the understanding of the topoclimatic and environmental geography of the basin where Santiago — one of the most polluted Latin American city - is located. In the first part, land-use change is analysed looking at the climatic transformation caused by the rapid transit from natural semiarid surface to urban areas. In the second part, seasonal weather and daily cycles of slope winds and the available ventilation are described trying to relate those patterns with the spatial distribution of air pollution. A combination of meteorological, geographical and cultural factors explain extreme air pollution events: meteorologically, Santiago is under permanent subsidence inversion layers. Geographically, the city is located in a closed basin surrounded by mountains. Culturally, the urban area has the highest population concentration (40% of the national total), industries (near 70% of the total) and vehicles, which are the main sources of smog. The urban and suburban transport system is based on a large number of buses (diesel) and private cars, both experiencing a rapid growth from the past few years. The city and specially the transport system generates high emissions of pollutant, but the natural semiarid deforested soils and slopes are also important sources. The local wind system can explain the differential spatial distribution on the concentration of air pollutants in the city and its periphery. In winter (rain season) concentrations of particulate matter are higher at the centre and the SW part of the city. The andean piedmont area (E part of the city) shows minimum values, suggesting major ventilation effects of slope and valley winds. Ozone exceeds air quality standards in summer (dry season) at all sites in the centre and periphery. However, the O 3-concentrations are higher on preferred residential areas located at the piedmont area (E part of the city), suggesting air pollution transport effects. Currently, there is no consideration of these local climatic features in the process of urban planning.

  10. Land Use and Watersheds: Human Influence on Hydrology and Geomorphology in Urban and Forest Areas. Water Science and Application Series

    SciTech Connect

    Wigmosta, Mark S.; Burges, S J.

    2001-10-01

    What is the effect of urbanization and forest use on hydrologic and geomorphic processes? How can we develop land use policies that minimize adverse impacts on ecosystems while sustaining biodiversity? Land Use and Watersheds: Human Influence on Hydrology and Geomorphology in Urban and Forest Areas addresses these issues and more. By featuring watersheds principally in the American Pacific Northwest, and the effects of timber harvesting and road construction on stream flow, sediment yield and landslide occurrence, scientists can advance their understanding of what constitutes appropriate management of environments with similar hydro-climatic-geomorphic settings worldwide.

  11. Quantifying Outdoor Water Consumption of Urban Land Use/Land Cover: Sensitivity to Drought

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaplan, Shai; Myint, Soe W.; Fan, Chao; Brazel, Anthony J.

    2014-04-01

    Outdoor water use is a key component in arid city water systems for achieving sustainable water use and ensuring water security. Using evapotranspiration (ET) calculations as a proxy for outdoor water consumption, the objectives of this research are to quantify outdoor water consumption of different land use and land cover types, and compare the spatio-temporal variation in water consumption between drought and wet years. An energy balance model was applied to Landsat 5 TM time series images to estimate daily and seasonal ET for the Central Arizona Phoenix Long-Term Ecological Research region (CAP-LTER). Modeled ET estimations were correlated with water use data in 49 parks within CAP-LTER and showed good agreement ( r 2 = 0.77), indicating model effectiveness to capture the variations across park water consumption. Seasonally, active agriculture shows high ET (>500 mm) for both wet and dry conditions, while the desert and urban land cover types experienced lower ET during drought (<300 mm). Within urban locales of CAP-LTER, xeric neighborhoods show significant differences from year to year, while mesic neighborhoods retain their ET values (400-500 mm) during drought, implying considerable use of irrigation to sustain their greenness. Considering the potentially limiting water availability of this region in the future due to large population increases and the threat of a warming and drying climate, maintaining large water-consuming, irrigated landscapes challenges sustainable practices of water conservation and the need to provide amenities of this desert area for enhancing quality of life.

  12. Urban land-use effects on groundwater phosphate distribution in a shallow aquifer, Nanfei River basin, China

    E-print Network

    Zhan, Hongbin

    Urban land-use effects on groundwater phosphate distribution in a shallow aquifer, Nanfei River. The distribution of phosphate (PO4 3­ ) and the relationships between PO4 3­ and several constituents groundwater . Groundwater monitoring . Partial correlation analysis . Phosphate . China Introduction

  13. Urban land use mapping by machine processing of ERTS-1 multispectral data: A San Francisco Bay area example

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellefsen, R.; Swain, P. H.; Wray, J. R.

    1973-01-01

    The study is reported to develop computer produced urban land use maps using multispectral scanner data from a satellite is reported. Data processing is discussed along with the results of the San Francisco Bay area, which was chosen as the test area.

  14. Different Land Use Intensities in Grassland Ecosystems Drive Ecology of Microbial Communities Involved in Nitrogen Turnover in Soil

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Annabel; Focks, Andreas; Radl, Viviane; Keil, Daniel; Welzl, Gerhard; Schöning, Ingo; Boch, Steffen; Marhan, Sven; Kandeler, Ellen; Schloter, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Understanding factors driving the ecology of N cycling microbial communities is of central importance for sustainable land use. In this study we report changes of abundance of denitrifiers, nitrifiers and nitrogen-fixing microorganisms (based on qPCR data for selected functional genes) in response to different land use intensity levels and the consequences for potential turnover rates. We investigated selected grassland sites being comparable with respect to soil type and climatic conditions, which have been continuously treated for many years as intensely used meadows (IM), intensely used mown pastures (IP) and extensively used pastures (EP), respectively. The obtained data were linked to above ground biodiversity pattern as well as water extractable fractions of nitrogen and carbon in soil. Shifts in land use intensity changed plant community composition from systems dominated by s-strategists in extensive managed grasslands to c-strategist dominated communities in intensive managed grasslands. Along the different types of land use intensity, the availability of inorganic nitrogen regulated the abundance of bacterial and archaeal ammonia oxidizers. In contrast, the amount of dissolved organic nitrogen determined the abundance of denitrifiers (nirS and nirK). The high abundance of nifH carrying bacteria at intensive managed sites gave evidence that the amounts of substrates as energy source outcompete the high availability of inorganic nitrogen in these sites. Overall, we revealed that abundance and function of microorganisms involved in key processes of inorganic N cycling (nitrification, denitrification and N fixation) might be independently regulated by different abiotic and biotic factors in response to land use intensity. PMID:24039974

  15. Water in urban planning, Salt Creek Basin, Illinois water management as related to alternative land-use practices

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spieker, Andrew Maute

    1970-01-01

    Water management can be an integral part of urban comprehensive planning in a large metropolitan area. Water both imposes constraints on land use and offers opportunities for coordinated land and water management. Salt Creek basin in Cook and Du Page Counties of the Chicago metropolitan area is typical of rapidly developing suburban areas and has been selected to illustrate some of these constraints and opportunities and to suggest the effects of alternative solutions. The present study concentrates on the related problems of ground-water recharge, water quality, management of flood plains, and flood-control measures. Salt Creek basin has a drainage area of 150 square miles. It is in flat to. gently rolling terrain, underlain by glacial drift as much as 200 feet thick which covers a dolomite aquifer. In 1964, the population of the basin was about 400,000, and 40 percent of the land was in urban development. The population is expected to number 550,000 to 650,000 by 1990, and most of the land will be taken by urban development. Salt Creek is a sluggish stream, typical of small drainage channels in the headwaters area of northeastern Illinois. Low flows of 15 to 25 cubic feet per second in the lower part of the basin consist largely of sewage effluent. Nearly all the public water supplies in the basin depend on ground water. Of the total pumpage of 27.5 million gallons per day, 17.5 million gallons per day is pumped from the deep (Cambrian-Ordovician) aquifers and 10 million gallons per day is pumped from the shallow (Silurian dolomite and glacial drift) aquifers. The potential yield of the shallow aquifers, particularly glacial drift in the northern part of the basin, far exceeds present use. The largest concentration of pumpage from the shallow ,aquifers is in the Hinsdale-La Grange area. Salt Creek serves as an important source of recharge to these supplies, particularly just east of Hinsdale. The entire reach of Salt Creek south and east of Elmhurst can be regarded as an area of potential recharge to the shallow aquifers. Preservation of the effectiveness of these potential recharge areas should be considered in land-use planning. Salt Creek is polluted in times of both low and high flow. Most communities in the basin in Du Page County discharge their treated sewage into the creek, whereas those in Cook County transfer their sewage to plants of the Metropolitan Sanitary District outside the basin. During periods of high runoff, combined storm runoff and overflow from sanitary sewers enter the creek. Such polluted water detracts from the stream's esthetic and recreational potential and poses a threat to ground-water supplies owing to induced recharge of polluted water to shallow aquifers. Alternative approaches .to the pollution problem include improvement of the degree of sewage treatment, detention and treatment of storm runoff, dilution of sewage through flow augmentation, or transfer of sewage from the basin to a central treatment plant. To result in an enhanced environment, the streambed would have to be cleansed of accumulated sludge deposits. The overbank flooding in Salt Creek basin every 2 to 3 years presents problems because of encroachments and developments on the flood plains. Flood plains in an urban area can be managed by identifying them, by recognizing that either their natural storage capacity or equivalent artificial capacity is needed to accommodate floods, and by planning land use accordingly. Examples of effective floodplain management include (1) preservation of greenbelts or regional parks along stream courses, (2) use of flood plains for recreation, parking lots. or other low-intensity uses, (3) use of flood-proofed commercial buildings, and (4) provision for compensatory storage to replace natural storage capacity. Results of poor flood-plain management include uncontrolled residential development and encroachment by fill into natural storage areas where no compensatory storage has been

  16. Soil erosion evaluation in a rapidly urbanizing city (Shenzhen, China) and implementation of spatial land-use optimization.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wenting; Huang, Bo

    2015-03-01

    Soil erosion has become a pressing environmental concern worldwide. In addition to such natural factors as slope, rainfall, vegetation cover, and soil characteristics, land-use changes-a direct reflection of human activities-also exert a huge influence on soil erosion. In recent years, such dramatic changes, in conjunction with the increasing trend toward urbanization worldwide, have led to severe soil erosion. Against this backdrop, geographic information system-assisted research on the effects of land-use changes on soil erosion has become increasingly common, producing a number of meaningful results. In most of these studies, however, even when the spatial and temporal effects of land-use changes are evaluated, knowledge of how the resulting data can be used to formulate sound land-use plans is generally lacking. At the same time, land-use decisions are driven by social, environmental, and economic factors and thus cannot be made solely with the goal of controlling soil erosion. To address these issues, a genetic algorithm (GA)-based multi-objective optimization (MOO) approach has been proposed to find a balance among various land-use objectives, including soil erosion control, to achieve sound land-use plans. GA-based MOO offers decision-makers and land-use planners a set of Pareto-optimal solutions from which to choose. Shenzhen, a fast-developing Chinese city that has long suffered from severe soil erosion, is selected as a case study area to validate the efficacy of the GA-based MOO approach for controlling soil erosion. Based on the MOO results, three multiple land-use objectives are proposed for Shenzhen: (1) to minimize soil erosion, (2) to minimize the incompatibility of neighboring land-use types, and (3) to minimize the cost of changes to the status quo. In addition to these land-use objectives, several constraints are also defined: (1) the provision of sufficient built-up land to accommodate a growing population, (2) restrictions on the development of land with a steep slope, and (3) the protection of agricultural land. Three Pareto-optimal solutions are presented and analyzed for comparison. GA-based MOO is found able to solve the multi-objective land-use problem in Shenzhen by making a tradeoff among competing objectives. The outcome is alternative choices for decision-makers and planners. PMID:25315927

  17. Associations between land use and Perkinsus marinus infection of eastern oysters in a high salinity, partially urbanized estuary

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gray, Brian R.; Bushek, David; Drane, J. Wanzer; Porter, Dwayne

    2009-01-01

    Infection levels of eastern oysters by the unicellular pathogen Perkinsus marinus have been associated with anthropogenic influences in laboratory studies. However, these relationships have been difficult to investigate in the field because anthropogenic inputs are often associated with natural influences such as freshwater inflow, which can also affect infection levels. We addressed P. marinus-land use associations using field-collected data from Murrells Inlet, South Carolina, USA, a developed, coastal estuary with relatively minor freshwater inputs. Ten oysters from each of 30 reefs were sampled quarterly in each of 2 years. Distances to nearest urbanized land class and to nearest stormwater outfall were measured via both tidal creeks and an elaboration of Euclidean distance. As the forms of any associations between oyster infection and distance to urbanization were unknown a priori, we used data from the first and second years of the study as exploratory and confirmatory datasets, respectively. With one exception, quarterly land use associations identified using the exploratory dataset were not confirmed using the confirmatory dataset. The exception was an association between the prevalence of moderate to high infection levels in winter and decreasing distance to nearest urban land use. Given that the study design appeared adequate to detect effects inferred from the exploratory dataset, these results suggest that effects of land use gradients were largely insubstantial or were ephemeral with duration less than 3 months.

  18. Land Use and Land Cover Change, Urban Heat Island Phenomenon, and Health Implications: A Remote Sensing Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lo, C. P.; Quattrochi, Dale A.

    2003-01-01

    Land use and land cover maps of Atlanta Metropolitan Area in Georgia were produced from Landsat MSS and TM images for 1973,1979,1983,1987,1992, and 1997, spanning a period of 25 years. Dramatic changes in land use and land cover have occurred with loss of forest and cropland to urban use. In particular, low-density urban use, which includes largely residential use, has increased by over 119% between 1973 and 1997. These land use and land cover changes have drastically altered the land surface characteristics. An analysis of Landsat images revealed an increase in surface temperature and a decline in NDVI from 1973 to 1997. These changes have forced the development of a significant urban heat island effect and an increase in ground level ozone production to such an extent, that Atlanta has violated EPA's ozone level standard in recent years. The urban heat island initiated precipitation events that were identified between 1996 and 2000 tended to occur near high-density urban areas but outside the I-285 loop that traverses around the Central Business District, i.e. not in the inner city area, but some in close proximity to the highways. The health implications were investigated by comparing the spatial patterns of volatile organic compounds (VOC) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions, the two ingredients that form ozone by reacting with sunlight, with those of rates of cardiovascular and chronic lower respiratory diseases. A clear core-periphery pattern was revealed for both VOC and NOx emissions, but the spatial pattern was more random in the cases of rates of cardiovascular and chronic lower respiratory diseases. Clearly, factors other than ozone pollution were involved in explaining the rates of these diseases. Further research is therefore needed to understand the health geography and its relationship to land use and land cover change as well as urban heat island effect. This paper illustrates the usefulness of a remote sensing approach for this purpose.

  19. Effects of Green Space and Land Use/Land Cover on Urban Heat Island in a Subtropical Mega-city in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, G. Y.; Li, X.; Li, H.; Guo, Q.

    2014-12-01

    With the quick expansion of urban in size and population, its urban heat island intensity (UHII, expressed as the temperature difference between urban and rural areas) increased rapidly. However, very few studies could quantitatively reveal the effects of green space and land use/land cover (LULC) on urban thermal environment because of lacking of the detailed measurement. This study focuses on quantifying the effects of green space and LULC on urban Heat Island (UHI) in Shenzhen, a mega subtropical city in China. Extensive measurements (air temperature and humidity) were made by mobile traverse method in a transect of 8 km in length, where a variety of LULC types were included. Measurements were carried out at 2 hours interval for 2 years (totally repeated for 7011 times). According to LULC types, we selected 5 different LULC types for studying, including water body, village in the city, shopping center (commercial area), urban green space (well-vegetated area) and suburb (forest). The main conclusions are obtained as follows: (1) The temperature difference between the 5 different urban landscapes is obvious, i.e. shopping center > village in the city > urban water body > urban green space > suburb; (2) Air temperature and UHII decreases linearly with the increase of green space in urban; (3) Green space and water body in urban have obvious effects to reduce the air temperature by evapotranspiration. Compared to the commercial areas, urban water body can relieve the IUHI by 0.9?, while the urban green space can relieve the IUHI by 1.57?. The cooling effect of the urban green space is better than that of the urban water body; (4) Periodic activity of human being has obvious effects on urban air temperature. The UHII on Saturday and Sunday are higher than that from Monday to Friday, respectively higher for 0.65, 0.57, 0.26 and 0.21?. Thursday and Friday have the minimum air temperature and UHII. These results indicate that increase in urban evapotranspiration by increasing green space could be a useful way to improve urban thermal environment and mitigation of UHI.

  20. A Study on the Land Use Characteristics of Urban Medium and Small stream Depending on the Width of stream

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seok, Song Young; Ho, Song Yang; Ho, Lee Jung; Moo Jong, Park

    2015-04-01

    Due to the increase of impervious layers caused by increased rainfall and urbanization which were brought about by the climate change after the late 1990s, the flood damage in urban watersheds is rising. The recent flood damage is occurring in medium and small stream rather than in large stream. Particularly, in medium stream which pass the cities, sudden flood occurs due to the short concentration of rainfall and urban areas suffer large damage, even though the flood damage is small, since residential areas and social infrastructures are concentrated. In spite of the importance of medium and small stream to pass the cities, there is no certain standard for classification of natural or urban stream and existing studies are mostly focused on the impervious area among the land use characteristics of watersheds. Most of existing river studies are based on the watershed scale, but in most urban watersheds where stream pass, urban areas are concentrated in the confluence, so urban areas only occupy less than 10% of the whole watershed and there is a high uncertainty in the classification of urban areas, based the watershed of stream. This study aims to suggest a classification standard of medium and small stream between local stream and small stream where suffer flood damage. According to the classified medium and small stream, this study analyzed the stream area to the stream width and distance using Arcgis Buffer tool, based on the stream line, not the existing watershed scale. This study then chose urban watersheds by analyzing the river area at certain intervals from the center of the chosen medium and small stream, in different ways. Among the land use characteristics in urban areas, the impervious area was applied to the selection standard of urban watersheds and the characteristics of urban watersheds were presented by calculating the ratio of the stream area to the impervious area using the Buffer tool. Acknowledgement "This research was supported by a grant [NEMA-NH-2011-45] from the Natural Hazard Mitigation Research Group, National Emergency Management Agency of Korea." Keywords: land use, urban watershed, medium and smaill stream, impervious area

  1. Spatial distribution of ultrafine particles in urban settings: A land use regression model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivera, Marcela; Basagańa, Xavier; Aguilera, Inmaculada; Agis, David; Bouso, Laura; Foraster, Maria; Medina-Ramón, Mercedes; Pey, Jorge; Künzli, Nino; Hoek, Gerard

    2012-07-01

    BackgroundThe toxic effects of ultrafine particles (UFP) are a public health concern. However, epidemiological studies on the long term effects of UFP are limited due to lacking exposure models. Given the high spatial variation of UFP, the assignment of exposure levels in epidemiological studies requires a fine spatial scale. The aim of this study was to assess the performance of a short-term measurement protocol used at a large number of locations to derive a land use regression (LUR) model of the spatial variation of UFP in Girona, Spain. MethodsWe measured UFP for 15 min on the sidewalk of 644 participants' homes in 12 towns of Girona province (Spain). The measurements were done during non-rush traffic hours 9:15-12:45 and 15:15-16:45 during 32 days between June 15 and July 31, 2009. In parallel, we counted the number of vehicles driving in both directions. Measurements were repeated on a different day for a subset of 25 sites in Girona city. Potential predictor variables such as building density, distance to bus lines and land cover were derived using geographic information systems. We adjusted for temporal variation using daily mean NOx concentrations at a central monitor. Land use regression models for the entire area (Core model) and for individual towns were derived using a supervised forward selection algorithm. ResultsThe best predictors of UFP were traffic intensity, distance to nearest major crossroad, area of high density residential land and household density. The LUR Core model explained 36% of UFP total variation. Adding sampling date and hour of the day to the Core model increased the R2 to 51% without changing the regression slopes. Local models included predictor variables similar to those in the Core model, but performed better with an R2 of 50% in Girona city. Independent LUR models for the first and second measurements at the subset of sites with repetitions had R2's of about 47%. When the mean of the two measurements was used R2 improved to 72%. ConclusionsLUR models for UFP were developed, based on a highly cost-effective short-term monitoring campaign at a large number of sites, with fair performance. Complementing the approach with further strategies to address sources of temporal variation of UFP is likely to result in improved models as indicated by the good performance of the model based on the subset of sites with one repeated measurement. Our approach is promising for UFP and possibly for other PM components requiring active sampling.

  2. Water resources: Effects of land use and urbanization. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-03-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the effects of land use and urban development on water supply quality and quantity. Topics include appropriate local, state, and federal government policies, and utilization of mathematical models as predictive tools. Studies performed at specific localities are included if they provide comprehensive strategies that can be applied to other locations. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  3. Water resources: effects of land use and urbanization. (Latest citations from the NTIS data base). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-04-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the effects of land use and urban development on water supply quality and quantity. Topics include appropriate local, state, and federal government policies, and utilization of mathematical models as predictive tools. Studies performed at specific localities are included if they provide comprehensive strategies that can be applied to other locations. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  4. Monitoring urban expansion and its effects on land use and land cover changes in Guangzhou city, China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yanyan; Li, Shuyuan; Yu, Shixiao

    2016-01-01

    There are widespread concerns about urban sprawl in China. In response, modeling and assessing urban expansion and subsequent land use and land cover (LULC) changes have become important approaches to support decisions about appropriate development and land resource use. Guangzhou, a major metropolitan city in South China, has experienced rapid urbanization and great economic growth in the past few decades. This study applied a series of Landsat images to assess the urban expansion and subsequent LULC changes over 35 years, from 1979 to 2013. From start to end, urban expansion increased by 1512.24 km(2) with an annual growth rate of 11.25 %. There were four stages of urban growth: low rates from 1979 to 1990, increased rates from 1990 to 2001, high rates from 2001 to 2009, and steady increased rates from 2009 to 2013. There were also three different urban growth types in these different stages: edge-expansion growth, infilling growth, and spontaneous growth. Other land cover, such as cropland, forest, and mosaics of cropland and natural vegetation, were severely impacted as a result. To analyze these changes, we used landscape metrics to characterize the changes in the spatial patterns across the Guangzhou landscape and the impacts of urban growth on other types of land cover. The significant changes in LULC and urban expansion were highly correlated with economic development, population growth, technical progress, policy elements, and other similar indexes. PMID:26700678

  5. VARIATIONS OF MICROORGANISM CONCENTRATIONS IN URBAN STORMWATER RUNOFF WITH LAND USE AND SEASONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Stormwater runoff samples were collected from outfalls draining small municipal separate storm sewer systems. The samples were collected from three different land use areas based on local designation (high-density residential, low-density residential, and landscaped commercial)....

  6. Urban and regional land use analysis: CARETS and census cities experiment package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, R. (principal investigator); Lins, H. F., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The most significant finding has been the ability of the S-190B data to produce land use maps not far removed from the quality of high altitude aircraft photography generated maps.

  7. Urban land use monitoring from computer-implemented processing of airborne multispectral data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Todd, W. J.; Mausel, P. W.; Baumgardner, M. F.

    1976-01-01

    Machine processing techniques were applied to multispectral data obtained from airborne scanners at an elevation of 600 meters over central Indianapolis in August, 1972. Computer analysis of these spectral data indicate that roads (two types), roof tops (three types), dense grass (two types), sparse grass (two types), trees, bare soil, and water (two types) can be accurately identified. Using computers, it is possible to determine land uses from analysis of type, size, shape, and spatial associations of earth surface images identified from multispectral data. Land use data developed through machine processing techniques can be programmed to monitor land use changes, simulate land use conditions, and provide impact statistics that are required to analyze stresses placed on spatial systems.

  8. Land-Use Change Impacts on Intensity, Duration, and Frequency of Precipitation in the South Platte River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pina, A.; Denning, A. S.

    2014-12-01

    The Westward Expansion of the mid-1800s directly impacted the distribution of moisture in the South Platte River Basin (SPRB) by changing land surfaces from natural rangelands, grasslands, and shrublands to a disturbed state of urbanized cities, livestock pastures, and irrigated croplands. Changing land surfaces repartitions latent and sensible energy surface fluxes and inadvertently results in changes to the regional climate. In this study, we examined the impacts of land-use change on the meteorology and climate in the South Platte River Basin, a region sensitive to water-use management. WRF-ARW v3.4.1 was used to downscale the reanalysis of a climatologically normal summer (2010) to 0.5 km horizontal resolution over the SPRB. To analyze meteorological and climatological effects of land-use changes in northeastern Colorado, a control run where no changes to the input data was compared with a run which changed land-use index from anthropogenic-influenced landscapes back to their original vegetative land cover. Notable changes in the Bowen ratio around urban and irrigated lands as well as an enhancement of the mountain-valley circulation east of the Rocky Mountains were observed due to land-use changes. Output from the control run of the WRF simulation were used as a baseline for running a simulation to 2100 using a newly-developed multi-scale modeling framework based on the Community Earth System Model, which explicitly resolves convection in global climate model grid cells. Results of changing IDF curves over the 21st century can be compared with results shown in national and international documents such as the National Climate Assessment and Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change reports and used as planning tools for optimizing the balance of water management between agriculture communities and municipalities in Colorado.

  9. Land Use/Land Cover Classification of Urban SAR Scenes: An Envisat/ASAR and HJ-1 Joint Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aldrighi, M.; Gamba, P.; Lisini, G.

    2013-01-01

    The classification of urban areas in terms of Land-Use/Land-Cover (LULC) maps is a challenging as well as essential task in order to monitor how the urban sprawl is changing the environment. In many case, this phenomenon leads to dramatic changes, since in many parts of the world commercial as well as residential areas are replacing natural environments, such as crops and forests. In this work we present the description of a novel procedure designed to exploit coarse resolution SAR images and obtain both the built-up area extents and a LULC map of the individuated urban area. Moreover, a data fusion approach, able to combine optical (HJ-1) and SAR (ENVISAT/ASAR) data, has been introduced in order to obtain a better vegetation assessment by means of the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). An experimental result is presented using a data set of the Beijing megacity acquired by ENVISAT/ASAR and HJ-1.

  10. Urban Land Use Change Effects on Below and Aboveground Carbon Stocks—a Global Perspective and Future Research Needs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pouyat, R. V.; Chen, Y.; Yesilonis, I.; Day, S.

    2014-12-01

    Land use change (LUC) has a significant impact on both above- and below-ground carbon (C) stocks; however, little is known about the net effects of urban LUC on the C cycle and climate system. Moreover, as climate change becomes an increasingly pressing concern, there is growing evidence that urban policy and management decisions can have significant regional impacts on C dynamics. Soil organic carbon (SOC) varies significantly across ecoregions at global and continental scales due to differential sensitivity of primary production, substrate quality, and organic matter decay to changes in temperature and soil moisture. These factors are highly modified by urban LUC due to vegetation removal, soil relocation and disruption, pollution, urban heat island effects, and increased atmospheric CO2 concentrations. As a result, on a global scale urban LUC differentially affects the C cycle from ecoregion to ecoregion. For urban ecosystems, the data collected thus far suggests urbanization can lead to both an increase and decrease in soil C pools and fluxes, depending on the native ecosystem being impacted by urban development. For example, in drier climates, urban landscapes accumulate higher C densities than the native ecosystems they replaced. Results suggest also that soil C storage in urban ecosystems is highly variable with very high (> 20.0) and low (< 2.0) C densities (kg m-2 to a 1 m depth) present in the landscape at any one time. Moreover, similar to non-urban soils, total SOC densities are consistently 2-fold greater than aboveground stocks. For those soils with low SOC densities, there is potential to increase C sequestration through management, but specific urban related management practices need to be evaluated. In addition, urban LUC is a human-driven process and thus can be modified or adjusted to reduce its impacts on the C cycle. For example, policies that influence development patterns, population density, management practices, and other human factors can greatly ameliorate the impact of urban LUC on the C cycle. However, even with the recent and rapid expansion of newly acquired data, the net effects of urban LUC on C stocks and fluxes have not been comprehensively addressed. Furthermore, how sensitive these changes are to urban planning, policy decisions, and site management needs to be explored.

  11. The legacy of land-use is revealed in the biogeochemistry of urban streams

    EPA Science Inventory

    Urban streams are among the most profoundly impacted aquatic ecosystems, characterized by altered hydrology or burial, increased sediment input, and myriad pollutants. We present results from a series of urban stream studies that revealed unique geochemical and biochemical patte...

  12. Does mixed-species flocking influence how birds respond to a gradient of land-use intensity?

    PubMed

    Mammides, Christos; Chen, Jin; Goodale, Uromi Manage; Kotagama, Sarath Wimalabandara; Sidhu, Swati; Goodale, Eben

    2015-07-22

    Conservation biology is increasingly concerned with preserving interactions among species such as mutualisms in landscapes facing anthropogenic change. We investigated how one kind of mutualism, mixed-species bird flocks, influences the way in which birds respond to different habitat types of varying land-use intensity. We use data from a well-replicated, large-scale study in Sri Lanka and the Western Ghats of India, in which flocks were observed inside forest reserves, in 'buffer zones' of degraded forest or timber plantations, and in areas of intensive agriculture. We find flocks affected the responses of birds in three ways: (i) species with high propensity to flock were more sensitive to land use; (ii) different flock types, dominated by different flock leaders, varied in their sensitivity to land use and because following species have distinct preferences for leaders, this can have a cascading effect on followers' habitat selection; and (iii) those forest-interior species that remain outside of forests were found more inside flocks than would be expected by chance, as they may use flocks more in suboptimal habitat. We conclude that designing policies to protect flocks and their leading species may be an effective way to conserve multiple bird species in mixed forest and agricultural landscapes. PMID:26156772

  13. Integrating Geospatial Technologies to Examine Urban Land Use Change: A Design Partnership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bodzin, Alec M.; Cirucci, Lori

    2009-01-01

    This article describes a design partnership that investigated how to integrate Google Earth, remotely sensed satellite and aerial imagery, with other instructional resources to investigate ground cover and land use in diverse middle school classrooms. Data analysis from the implementation study revealed that students acquired skills for…

  14. Measuring the Impact of Urbanization on Scenic Quality: Land Use Change in the Northeast1

    E-print Network

    regression models for the region and for town landscapes within that region. The models provide empirical not always be so. Land use planning that consid- ers scenic resources may serve to maintain high levels, SRV = 5.0. Figure 12--Town, SRV = 5.3. Figure 13--Town, SRV = 1.2. Figure 14--Industry, SRV = 4

  15. A spatially distributed model for the assessment of land use impacts on stream temperature in small urban watersheds

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Ning; Yearsley, John; Voisin, Nathalie; Lettenmaier, D. P.

    2015-05-15

    Stream temperatures in urban watersheds are influenced to a high degree by anthropogenic impacts related to changes in landscape, stream channel morphology, and climate. These impacts can occur at small time and length scales, hence require analytical tools that consider the influence of the hydrologic regime, energy fluxes, topography, channel morphology, and near-stream vegetation distribution. Here we describe a modeling system that integrates the Distributed Hydrologic Soil Vegetation Model, DHSVM, with the semi-Lagrangian stream temperature model RBM, which has the capability to simulate the hydrology and water temperature of urban streams at high time and space resolutions, as well as a representation of the effects of riparian shading on stream energetics. We demonstrate the modeling system through application to the Mercer Creek watershed, a small urban catchment near Bellevue, Washington. The results suggest that the model is able both to produce realistic streamflow predictions at fine temporal and spatial scales, and to provide spatially distributed water temperature predictions that are consistent with observations throughout a complex stream network. We use the modeling construct to characterize impacts of land use change and near-stream vegetation change on stream temperature throughout the Mercer Creek system. We then explore the sensitivity of stream temperature to land use changes and modifications in vegetation along the riparian corridor.

  16. Mathematical relationships for metal build-up on urban road surfaces based on traffic and land use characteristics.

    PubMed

    Gunawardena, Janaka; Ziyath, Abdul M; Egodawatta, Prasanna; Ayoko, Godwin A; Goonetilleke, Ashantha

    2014-03-01

    The study investigated the influence of traffic and land use parameters on metal build-up on urban road surfaces. Mathematical relationships were developed to predict metals originating from fuel combustion and vehicle wear. The analysis undertaken found that nickel and chromium originate from exhaust emissions, lead, copper and zinc from vehicle wear, cadmium from both exhaust and wear and manganese from geogenic sources. Land use does not demonstrate a clear pattern in relation to the metal build-up process, though its inherent characteristics such as traffic activities exert influence. The equation derived for fuel related metal load has high cross-validated coefficient of determination (Q(2)) and low Standard Error of Cross-Validation (SECV) values which indicates that the model is reliable, while the equation derived for wear-related metal load has low Q(2) and high SECV values suggesting its use only in preliminary investigations. Relative Prediction Error values for both equations are considered to be well within the error limits for a complex system such as an urban road surface. These equations will be beneficial for developing reliable stormwater treatment strategies in urban areas which specifically focus on mitigation of metal pollution. PMID:24268173

  17. A technical review of urban land use - transportation models as tools for evaluating vehicle travel reduction strategies

    SciTech Connect

    Southworth, F.

    1995-07-01

    The continued growth of highway traffic in the United States has led to unwanted urban traffic congestion as well as to noticeable urban air quality problems. These problems include emissions covered by the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) and 1991 Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act (ISTEA), as well as carbon dioxide and related {open_quotes}greenhouse gas{close_quotes} emissions. Urban travel also creates a major demand for imported oil. Therefore, for economic as well as environmental reasons, transportation planning agencies at both the state and metropolitan area level are focussing a good deal of attention on urban travel reduction policies. Much discussed policy instruments include those that encourage fewer trip starts, shorter trip distances, shifts to higher-occupancy vehicles or to nonvehicular modes, and shifts in the timing of trips from the more to the less congested periods of the day or week. Some analysts have concluded that in order to bring about sustainable reductions in urban traffic volumes, significant changes will be necessary in the way our households and businesses engage in daily travel. Such changes are likely to involve changes in the ways we organize and use traffic-generating and-attracting land within our urban areas. The purpose of this review is to evaluate the ability of current analytic methods and models to support both the evaluation and possibly the design of such vehicle travel reduction strategies, including those strategies involving the reorganization and use of urban land. The review is organized into three sections. Section 1 describes the nature of the problem we are trying to model, Section 2 reviews the state of the art in operational urban land use-transportation simulation models, and Section 3 provides a critical assessment of such models as useful urban transportation planning tools. A number of areas are identified where further model development or testing is required.

  18. The impacts of urbanization on air quality over the Pearl River Delta in winter: roles of urban land use and emission distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Bin; Yang, Shuai; Xu, Xiang-De; Zhang, Wei

    2014-07-01

    In this study, ideal but realistic numerical experiments are performed to explore the relative effects of changes in land use and emission distribution on air quality in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region in winter. The experiments are accomplished using the Lagrangian particle transport and dispersion model FLEXPART coupled with the Weather Research and Forecasting model under different scenarios. Experiment results show that the maximum changes in daily mean air pollution concentration (as represented by SO2 concentration) caused by land use change alone reaches up to 2 × 10-6 g m-3, whereas changes in concentrations due to the anthropogenic emission distribution are characterized by a maximum value of 6 × 10-6 g m-3. Such results reflect that, although the impacts of land use change on air quality are non-negligible, the emission distribution exerts a more significant influence on air quality than land use change. This provides clear implications for policy makers to control urban air pollution over the PRD region, especially for the urban planning in spatial arrangements for reasonable emissions.

  19. An assessment of soil productivity loss caused by expanding urban land use using remote sensing and soil productivity models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nizeyimana, Egide; Petersen, Gary W.; Warner, Eric D.; Shi, Xuenzheng; Imhoff, Marc L.; Lawrence, William T.; Russo, Joseph M.

    1997-01-01

    An EOS IDS project has been recently designed to assess the loss of soil productivity resulting from expanding urbanization in the U.S. and selected regions in Mexico and the Middle East using remotely sensed data and soil productivity models. The extent of urbanization will be determined by generating urban land cover layers from DMSP/OLS (Defense Meteorological Satellite Program's Operational Linescan System) nighttime imagery. This imagery will be calibrated using Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) and population/housing census data. A range of soil/land productivity models will be evaluated using soil factors computed from the State Soil Geographic Database (STATSGO) and FAO soil databases, terrain models, climate and vegetation to rank soil mapping units based on their productivity potential. Examples of these models are the Net Primary Productivity (NPP) and FAO Fertility Capability Classification (FCC) system. The magnitude of soil productivity loss due to urbanization will finally be determined by analysis of data obtained from GIS overlays of urban land use and soil productivity layers.

  20. Urban land use and geohazards in the Itanagar Capital city, Arunachal Pradesh, India: Need for geoethics in urban disaster resilience governance in a changing climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acharjee, Swapna

    2013-04-01

    The capital city, Itanagar, Arunachal Pradesh, India is exposed to the multiple geohazards as the city is located in the region which experiences extreme physical phenomenon due to changing climate in the tectonically active North-Eastern Himalayas. The geohazards in Itanagar includes landslides, floods, soil erosion and earthquakes. The high decadal growth rate of 111.36% in 1991-2001 census has brought in many challenges with respect to the capital city developmental planning. Due to rapid and haphazard growth in urban land use the people residing in the city are gradually becoming more vulnerable to the geohazards in the past decades. The city condition at present has raised issues of grave concern related to effective hazard management. It is observed that geoscientific approach is violated at many places in the urban developmental activities along the central spine, the National Highway-52A of the capital city. There is an urgent need of geoscientists to apprise the urban populace about land suitability and stability in terms of rock types, soil, slope, geomorphology, groundwater condition etc. and the vulnerability of the existing urban land use to landslides, flood, soil erosion and earthquakes. In this paper major issue, critical issues and elements at risk are discussed in the context of ethics in geohazard management and developmental planning for urban disaster resilience governance in a changing climate.

  1. Detecting agricultural to urban land use change from multi-temporal MSS digital data. [Salt Lake County, Utah

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ridd, M. K.; Merola, J. A.; Jaynes, R. A.

    1983-01-01

    Conversion of agricultural land to a variety of urban uses is a major problem along the Wasatch Front, Utah. Although LANDSAT MSS data is a relatively coarse tool for discriminating categories of change in urban-size plots, its availability prompts a thorough test of its power to detect change. The procedures being applied to a test area in Salt Lake County, Utah, where the land conversion problem is acute are presented. The identity of land uses before and after conversion was determined and digital procedures for doing so were compared. Several algorithms were compared, utilizing both raw data and preprocessed data. Verification of results involved high quality color infrared photography and field observation. Two data sets were digitally registered, specific change categories internally identified in the software, results tabulated by computer, and change maps printed at 1:24,000 scale.

  2. Remote sensing applications for urban planning - The LUMIS project. [Land Use Management Information System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paul, C. K.; Landini, A. J.; Diegert, C.

    1975-01-01

    The Santa Monica mountains of Los Angeles consist primarily of complexly folded sedimentary marine strata with igneous and metamorphic rocks at the eastern end of the mountains. With the increased development of the Santa Monicas, a study was conducted to determine the critical land use data items in the mountains. Two information systems developed in parallel are described. One capitalizes on the City's present computer line printer system, and the second utilizes map overlay techniques on an interactive computer terminal. Results concerning population, housing, and land improvement illustrate the successful linking of ordinal and nominal data files in the interactive system.-

  3. Evaluation of Land Use Regression Models Used to Predict Air Quality Concentrations in an Urban Area

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cohort studies designed to estimate human health effects of exposures to urban pollutants require accurate determination of ambient concentrations in order to minimize exposure misclassification errors. However, it is often difficult to collect concentration information at each s...

  4. The Implementation of a Geospatial Information Technology (GIT)-Supported Land Use Change Curriculum with Urban Middle School Learners to Promote Spatial Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bodzin, Alec M.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated whether a geospatial information technology (GIT)-supported science curriculum helped students in an urban middle school understand land use change (LUC) concepts and enhanced their spatial thinking. Five 8th grade earth and space science classes in an urban middle school consisting of three different ability level tracks…

  5. Spatio-temporal Assessment of Land Use/ Land Cover Dynamics and Urban Heat Island of Jaipur City using Satellite Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jalan, S.; Sharma, K.

    2014-11-01

    Urban Heat Island (UHI) refers to the phenomena of higher surface temperature occurring in urban areas as compared to the surrounding countryside attributable to urbanization. Spatio-temporal changes in UHI can be quantified through Land Surface Temperature (LST) derived from satellite imageries. Spatial variations in LST occur due to complexity of land surface - combination of impervious surface materials, vegetation, exposed soils as well as water surfaces. Jaipur city has observed rapid urbanization over the last decade. Due to rising population pressure the city has expanded considerably in areal extent and has also observed substantial land use/land cover (LULC) changes. The paper aims to determine changes in the LST and UHI phenomena for Jaipur city over the period from 2000 to 2011 and analyzes the spatial distribution and temporal variation of LST in context of changes in LULC. Landsat 7 ETM+ (2000) and Landsat 5 TM (2011) images of summer season have been used. Results reveal that Jaipur city has witnessed considerable growth in built up area at the cost of greener patches over the last decade, which has had clear impact on variation in LST. There has been an average rise of 2.99 °C in overall summer temperature. New suburbs of the city record 2° to 4 °C increase in LST. LST change is inversely related to change in vegetation cover and positively related to extent of built up area. The study concludes that UHI of Jaipur city has intensified and extended over new areas.

  6. Spatiotemporal urban land use changes in the Changzhutan Region of Hunan Province in China

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Changzhutan region in the north-central part of Hunan Province in China has experienced a rapid urbanization in the past few decades that has led to substantial changes in its environment. In 2007, the National Development and Reform Commission of China designated the metropolitan district of Ch...

  7. Land-use intensity and the effects of organic farming on biodiversity: a hierarchical meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Tuck, Sean L; Winqvist, Camilla; Mota, Flávia; Ahnström, Johan; Turnbull, Lindsay A; Bengtsson, Janne

    2014-01-01

    The benefits of organic farming to biodiversity in agricultural landscapes continue to be hotly debated, emphasizing the importance of precisely quantifying the effect of organic vs. conventional farming. We conducted an updated hierarchical meta-analysis of studies that compared biodiversity under organic and conventional farming methods, measured as species richness. We calculated effect sizes for 184 observations garnered from 94 studies, and for each study, we obtained three standardized measures reflecting land-use intensity. We investigated the stability of effect sizes through time, publication bias due to the ‘file drawer’ problem, and consider whether the current literature is representative of global organic farming patterns. On average, organic farming increased species richness by about 30%. This result has been robust over the last 30 years of published studies and shows no sign of diminishing. Organic farming had a greater effect on biodiversity as the percentage of the landscape consisting of arable fields increased, that is, it is higher in intensively farmed regions. The average effect size and the response to agricultural intensification depend on taxonomic group, functional group and crop type. There is some evidence for publication bias in the literature; however, our results are robust to its impact. Current studies are heavily biased towards northern and western Europe and North America, while other regions with large areas of organic farming remain poorly investigated. Synthesis and applications. Our analysis affirms that organic farming has large positive effects on biodiversity compared with conventional farming, but that the effect size varies with the organism group and crop studied, and is greater in landscapes with higher land-use intensity. Decisions about where to site organic farms to maximize biodiversity will, however, depend on the costs as well as the potential benefits. Current studies have been heavily biased towards agricultural systems in the developed world. We recommend that future studies pay greater attention to other regions, in particular, areas with tropical, subtropical and Mediterranean climates, in which very few studies have been conducted. PMID:25653457

  8. Project ATLANTA (Atlanta Land use Analysis: Temperature and Air Quality): Use of Remote Sensing and Modeling to Analyze How Urban Land Use Change Affects Meteorology and Air Quality Through Time

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quattrochi, Dale A.; Luvall, Jeffrey C.; Estes, Maurice G., Jr.

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of Project ATLANTA (ATlanta Land use ANalysis: Temperature and Air-quality) which is an investigation that seeks to observe, measure, model, and analyze how the rapid growth of the Atlanta, Georgia metropolitan area since the early 1970's has impacted the region's climate and air quality. The primary objectives for this research effort are: (1) To investigate and model the relationships between land cover change in the Atlanta metropolitan, and the development of the urban heat island phenomenon through time; (2) To investigate and model the temporal relationships between Atlanta urban growth and land cover change on air quality; and (3) To model the overall effects of urban development on surface energy budget characteristics across the Atlanta urban landscape through time. Our key goal is to derive a better scientific understanding of how land cover changes associated with urbanization in the Atlanta area, principally in transforming forest lands to urban land covers through time, has, and will, effect local and regional climate, surface energy flux, and air quality characteristics. Allied with this goal is the prospect that the results from this research can be applied by urban planners, environmental managers and other decision-makers, for determining how urbanization has impacted the climate and overall environment of the Atlanta area. Multiscaled remote sensing data, particularly high resolution thermal infrared data, are integral to this study for the analysis of thermal energy fluxes across the Atlanta urban landscape.

  9. Automobile dependence in cities: An international comparison of urban transport and land use patterns with implications for sustainability

    SciTech Connect

    Kenworthy, J.R.; Laube, F.B.

    1996-07-01

    Cities around the world are subject to increasing levels of environmental impact from dependence on the automobile. In the highly auto-dependent cities of the US and Australia, this is manifested in problems such as urban sprawl and its destruction of prime farming land and natural landscapes, photochemical smog that can be primarily attributed to auto emissions. On top of the more local impacts of the automobile, the global dimension should not be forgotten. Perhaps the two most pressing issues in this regard are the oil problem and the greenhouse problem. A comparison of global cities over the period 1980 to 1990 reveals large differences in automobile dependence with implications for the future sustainability of cities in different countries. This study explores some of the underlying land use, transport, and economic reasons for these different transport patterns. It briefly reviews what the sustainability agenda means for transport and land use patterns in cities and suggests a suite of targets or goals for sustainability by which cities might measure their current directions and plans.

  10. Variation of microorganism concentrations in urban stormwater runoff with land use and seasons.

    PubMed

    Selvakumar, Ariamalar; Borst, Michael

    2006-03-01

    Stormwater runoff samples were collected from outfalls draining small municipal separate storm sewer systems. The samples were collected from three different land use areas based on local designation (high-density residential, low-density residential and landscaped commercial). The concentrations of microorganisms in the stormwater runoff were found to be similar in magnitude to, but less variable than, those reported in the stormwater National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) database. Microorganism concentrations from high-density residential areas were higher than those associated with low-density residential and landscaped commercial areas. Since the outfalls were free of sanitary wastewater cross-connections, the major sources of microorganisms to the stormwater runoff were most likely from the feces of domestic animals and wildlife. Concentrations of microorganisms were significantly affected by the season during which the samples were collected. The lowest concentrations were observed during winter except for Staphylococcus aureus. The Pearson correlation coefficients among different indicators showed weak linear relationships and the relationships were statistically significant. However, the relationships between indicators and pathogens were poorly correlated and were not statistically significant, suggesting the use of indicators as evidence of the presence of pathogens is not appropriate. Further, the correlation between the concentration of the traditionally monitored indicators (total coliforms and fecal coliforms) and the suggested substitutes (enterococci and E. coli) is weak, but statistically significant, suggesting that historical time series will be only a qualitative indicator of impaired waters under the revised criteria for recreational water quality by the US EPA. PMID:16604843

  11. Land use regression modeling with vertical distribution measurements for fine particulate matter and elements in an urban area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Chi-Chang; Chan, Chang-Chuan; Cho, Chien-Wen; Lin, Hung-I.; Lee, Jui-Huan; Wu, Chang-Fu

    2015-03-01

    Land use regression (LUR) models have been developed and applied to evaluate long-term exposure to air pollutants in residential area. However, adopting LUR models for vertical distributions of PM2.5 elemental composition has not been studied extensively. Developing this type of LUR model in various urban areas is essential to examine the influence of sampling height from ground level on the modeling prediction of these pollutants. The purpose of this study was to examine spatial variations of exposures to PM2.5 and PM2.5 composition in an urban area and build LUR models with vertical distribution measurements. PM2.5 samples were collected at twenty low-level sites (first to third floors), five mid-level sites (fourth to sixth floors), and five high-level sites (seventh to ninth floors). LUR models considering local land use data and traffic information were developed for PM2.5 and elements (i.e., silicon (Si), sulfur (S), potassium (K), titanium (Ti), manganese (Mn), iron (Fe), nickel (Ni), copper (Cu), and zinc (Zn)). The results demonstrated that the vertical ratios were higher than 1 (i.e., highest concentrations at low-level sites) for PM2.5, Si, Ti, and Fe. Their median ratios ranged from 1.05 to 1.18. The explained variances (R2) of LUR models ranged from 0.46 to 0.80. Traffic and industrial land were major variables in most models, and the floor level was identified as a significant predictor in the PM2.5, Si, and Fe models. This indicated the necessity of collecting vertically distributed measurements in future LUR studies for reducing the exposure bias in epidemiological studies.

  12. Analysis of Urban-Rural Land-Use Change during 1995-2006 and Its Policy Dimensional Driving Forces in Chongqing, China

    PubMed Central

    Long, Hualou; Wu, Xiuqin; Wang, Wenjie; Dong, Guihua

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyzes the urban-rural land-use change of Chongqing and its policy dimensional driving forces from 1995 to 2006, using high-resolution Landsat TM (Thematic Mapper) data of 1995, 2000 and 2006, and socio-economic data from both research institutes and government departments. The outcomes indicated that urban-rural land-use change in Chongqing can be characterized by two major trends: First, the non-agricultural land increased substantially from 1995 to 2006, thus causing agricultural land especially farmland to decrease continuously. Second, the aggregation index of urban settlements and rural settlements shows that local urban-rural development experienced a process of changing from aggregation (1995-2000) to decentralization (2000-2006). Chongqing is a special area getting immersed in many important policies, which include the establishment of the municipality directly under the Central Government, the building of Three Gorges Dam Project, the Western China Development Program and the Grain-for-Green Programme, and bring about tremendous influences on its land-use change. By analyzing Chongqing's land-use change and its policy driving forces, some implications for its new policy of ‘Urban-rural Integrated Reform’ are obtained. That is more attentions need to be paid to curbing excessive and idle rural housing and consolidating rural construction land, and to laying out a scientific land-use plan for its rural areas taking such rural land-use issues as farmland occupation and rural housing land management into accounts, so as to coordinate and balance the urban-rural development.

  13. Urgency for sustainable development in coastal urban areas with reference to weather pattern, land use, and water quality.

    PubMed

    Sheela, A M; Letha, J; Swarnalatha, K; Baiju, K V; Sankar, Divya

    2014-05-01

    Water pollution is one of the most critical problems affecting mankind. Weather pattern and land use of catchment area have significant role in quality of water bodies. Due to climate change, there is frequent variation in weather pattern all over the world. There is also rapid change in land use due to increase in population and urbanization. The study was carried out to analyze the effect of change in weather pattern during the monsoon periods of 2008 and 2012 on water quality of a tropical coastal lake system. The nature and extent of variation in different water quality parameters namely electrical conductivity (EC), magnesium (Mg), sodium (Na), chloride (Cl), sulphate (SO4), turbidity, Secchi disk depth, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), phosphate (PO4), calcium (Ca), and water temperature as well as the effect of various land use activities in the lake basin on water quality have also been studied. There is significant reduction in precipitation, EC, Mg, Na, Cl, SO4, turbidity, and Secchi disk depths whereas a significant rise in the BOD, PO4, Ca, and water temperature were observed in 2012. This significant reduction in electrical conductivity during 2012 revealed that because of less precipitation, the lake was separated from the sea by the sandbar during most of the monsoon period and thereby interrupted the natural flushing process. This caused the accumulation of organic matter including phosphate and thereby resulting reduction in clarity and chlorophyll-a (algae) in the lake. The unsustainable development activities of Thiruvanathapuram city are mainly responsible for the degradation of water bodies. The lack of maintenance and augmentation activities namely replacement of old pipes and periodical cleaning of pipe lines of the old sewer system in the city results in the bypass of sewage into water bodies. Because of the existence of the old sewerage system, no effort has been taken by the individual establishment/house of the city to provide their own treatment system for sewage and sullage and the untreated wastes are discharged into these old sewer pipes and ultimately the wastes reach the water bodies. In this context, decentralized treatment of sewage, sullage, and garbage by individual houses/establishments/hotels/hospitals is a better option for the developing countries. With the rapid developmental activities, and due to the variation of precipitation due to climate change, it is highly essential to provide proper waste treatment/augmentation facilities in urban lake system because a slight variation in the weather pattern can result in serious implications in the already polluted water bodies. PMID:24415134

  14. Intra-urban variation of ultrafine particles as evaluated by process related land use and pollutant driven regression modelling.

    PubMed

    Ghassoun, Yahya; Ruths, Matthias; Löwner, Marc-Oliver; Weber, Stephan

    2015-12-01

    The microscale intra-urban variation of ultrafine particle concentrations (UFP, diameter Dp<100 nm) and particle number size distributions was studied by two statistical regression approaches. The models were applied to a 1 km2 study area in Braunschweig, Germany. A land use regression model (LUR) using different urban morphology parameters as input is compared to a multiple regression type model driven by pollutant and meteorological parameters (PDR). While the LUR model was trained with UFP concentration the PDR model was trained with measured particle number size distribution data. The UFP concentration was then calculated from the modelled size distributions. Both statistical approaches include explanatory variables that try to address the 'process chain' of particle emission, dilution and deposition. LUR explained 74% and 85% of the variance of UFP for the full data set with a root mean square error (RMSE) of 668 cm(-3) and 1639 cm(-3) in summer and winter, respectively. PDR explained 56% and 74% of the variance with RMSE of 4066 cm(-3) and 6030 cm(-3) in summer and winter, respectively. Both models are capable to depict the spatial variation of UFP across the study area and in different outdoor microenvironments. The deviation from measured UFP concentrations is smaller in the LUR model than in PDR. The PDR model is well suited to predict urban particle number size distributions from the explanatory variables (total particle number concentration, black carbon and wind speed). The urban morphology parameters in the LUR model are able to resolve size dependent concentration variations but not as adequately as PDR. PMID:26204051

  15. Advanced Land use Classification Considering Intra-annual Cropping patterns and Urbanization processes as a Contribution to Improve Knowledge base for Water Management.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, N.; Tischbein, B.; Beg, M. K.

    2014-12-01

    Land use and its spatial pattern and dynamics strongly influence water resources and water demand. Therefore, integrated water resources management coordinating water supply and demand is using modeling tools in order to assess the impact of land use changes on the water balance and to conceive infrastructural and operational measures to cope with these impacts. As a consequence, the appropriateness of water management measures depends on the reliability of the output gained by the modeling tools which in turn is highly determined by the capability of the models and the quality of model inputs. This research combines the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) and an advanced procedure for spatio-temporal detection of land use dynamics and irrigation in the Upper Kharun basin in the Chhattisgarh State in India. An on-screen visual digitization technique using the Landsat satellite images and their derivatives (NDVI and tasseled cap indices) were employed for land use classification. The land use maps prepared at different time steps within a year can be combined to produce a single multi-temporal land use classification. This approach captures and integrates all the major variations within a year in a single map and hence better represents an area with multiple crop rotations and different levels of urbanization. Urbanization and intensification of irrigation by increasing use of groundwater are major land use processes at the global scale as well as in the study region. The study reveals that an increasing pumping rate of groundwater for irrigation is the main reason for decreasing the groundwater contribution to streamflow and subsequently a lowering in discharge and water yield. On the other hand, annual surface runoff is increased significantly by an expansion in built up areas over the decades in the study area. This information (i) enhances the understanding of land use changes and their relevant drivers, and (ii) facilitates the introduction of best water and land use management practices.

  16. Impact of the Spatial Arrangement of Agricultural Land Use on Ecosystems Services and Peri-Urban Livelihoods at the Landscape Scale.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inkoom, J. N.; Fürst, C.

    2014-12-01

    The relationship between agricultural land uses (ALU) and their impact on ecosystems services (ES) including biodiversity conservation is complex. This complexity has been augmented by isolated research on the impact of ALU on the landscape's capacity to provide ES in most climatically vulnerable areas of Sub-Saharan Africa. Though a considerable number of studies emphasise the nexus between specific land use types and their impact on ES, a sufficient modelling basis for an empirical consideration of spatial interactions between different agricultural land uses at the landscape scale within peri-urban areas in Sub-Saharan Africa is consistently missing. The need to assess and address significant issues regarding size, shape, spatial location, and interactivity of different land use patches in assessing land use interactions and their impact on ecosystem service provision necessitated this investigation. To formulate a methodology to correspond to this complexity, ES obtained from a characteristically agricultural and urbanizing landscapes were mapped using analytical hierarchical processes and management expert approaches. Further, landscape metrics and mean enrichment factor approaches are explored as neighbourhood assessment tools aimed at assessing the mutual impact gradient of agricultural and adjacent urban land uses on ES provision. Implementation is undertaken in GISCAME using a 2012 rapideye image classification and primary data collected on selected ES from local farmers within the VEA catchment of Upper East, Ghana. The outcome aims to provide the understanding of expected trade-offs and synergies varying ALU could pose to current and potential ES provision within urbanizing landscapes. Policy implications for observed trade-offs and synergies of ALU interaction on ES, rural livelihoods, and food security are communicated to farmers and decision makers. Keywords: Agricultural land use, neighbourhood interaction, ecosystems services, livelihoods, GISCAME.

  17. The effect of radar azimuth angle on cultural data. [urban scene analysis and land use studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryan, M. L.

    1979-01-01

    Emphasis is placed on the role that the orientation of observed features has on the grey tone of the resulting positive image. As an example it is shown that in the Los Angeles urbanized region, large areas have significantly lower grey tones than adjacent areas having similar land cover. It is determined that this effect is the result of the angle difference between the radar azimuth and the street pattern and especially the orientation of the walls of the structures imaged. Therefore, knowledge of this information is essential in order to ensure accurate interpretation of radar imagery. It is concluded that for radar systems operated from platforms which have fixed azimuth angles (e.g., satellite systems such as Seasat-A), an interpretation methodology, which considers street patterns, is considered especially critical for proper and accurate SAR imagery.

  18. Analysis of Land Use/Land Cover Changes Using Remote Sensing Data and GIS at an Urban Area, Tirupati, India

    PubMed Central

    Mallupattu, Praveen Kumar; Sreenivasula Reddy, Jayarama Reddy

    2013-01-01

    Land use/land cover (LU/LC) changes were determined in an urban area, Tirupati, from 1976 to 2003 by using Geographical Information Systems (GISs) and remote sensing technology. These studies were employed by using the Survey of India topographic map 57 O/6 and the remote sensing data of LISS III and PAN of IRS ID of 2003. The study area was classified into eight categories on the basis of field study, geographical conditions, and remote sensing data. The comparison of LU/LC in 1976 and 2003 derived from toposheet and satellite imagery interpretation indicates that there is a significant increase in built-up area, open forest, plantation, and other lands. It is also noted that substantial amount of agriculture land, water spread area, and dense forest area vanished during the period of study which may be due to rapid urbanization of the study area. No mining activities were found in the study area in 1976, but a small addition of mining land was found in 2003. PMID:23781152

  19. Land use regression modeling of intra-urban residential variability in multiple traffic-related air pollutants

    PubMed Central

    Clougherty, Jane E; Wright, Rosalind J; Baxter, Lisa K; Levy, Jonathan I

    2008-01-01

    Background There is a growing body of literature linking GIS-based measures of traffic density to asthma and other respiratory outcomes. However, no consensus exists on which traffic indicators best capture variability in different pollutants or within different settings. As part of a study on childhood asthma etiology, we examined variability in outdoor concentrations of multiple traffic-related air pollutants within urban communities, using a range of GIS-based predictors and land use regression techniques. Methods We measured fine particulate matter (PM2.5), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and elemental carbon (EC) outside 44 homes representing a range of traffic densities and neighborhoods across Boston, Massachusetts and nearby communities. Multiple three to four-day average samples were collected at each home during winters and summers from 2003 to 2005. Traffic indicators were derived using Massachusetts Highway Department data and direct traffic counts. Multivariate regression analyses were performed separately for each pollutant, using traffic indicators, land use, meteorology, site characteristics, and central site concentrations. Results PM2.5 was strongly associated with the central site monitor (R2 = 0.68). Additional variability was explained by total roadway length within 100 m of the home, smoking or grilling near the monitor, and block-group population density (R2 = 0.76). EC showed greater spatial variability, especially during winter months, and was predicted by roadway length within 200 m of the home. The influence of traffic was greater under low wind speed conditions, and concentrations were lower during summer (R2 = 0.52). NO2 showed significant spatial variability, predicted by population density and roadway length within 50 m of the home, modified by site characteristics (obstruction), and with higher concentrations during summer (R2 = 0.56). Conclusion Each pollutant examined displayed somewhat different spatial patterns within urban neighborhoods, and were differently related to local traffic and meteorology. Our results indicate a need for multi-pollutant exposure modeling to disentangle causal agents in epidemiological studies, and further investigation of site-specific and meteorological modification of the traffic-concentration relationship in urban neighborhoods. PMID:18485201

  20. Suspended sediment export in five intensive agricultural river catchments with contrasting land use and soil drainage characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherriff, Sophie; Rowan, John; Melland, Alice; Jordan, Phil; Fenton, Owen; hUallacháin, Daire Ó.

    2015-04-01

    Soil erosion and sediment loss from land can have a negative impact on the chemical and ecological quality of freshwater resources. In catchments dominated by agriculture, prediction of soil erosion risk is complex due to the interaction of physical characteristics such as topography, soil erodibility, hydrological connectivity and climate. Robust measurement approaches facilitate the assessment of sediment loss magnitudes in relation to a range of agricultural settings. These approaches improve our understanding of critical sediment transfer periods and inform development of evidence-based and cost-effective management strategies. The aim of this study was to i) assess the efficacy of out-of-channel (ex-situ) suspended sediment measurement approaches, ii) to quantify the variability of sediment exported from five river catchments with varying hydrology and agricultural land uses over multiple years and iii) to investigate trends in relation to physical and land use characteristics when sediment data were compared between catchments. Sediment data were collected in five intensive agricultural river catchments in Ireland (3-11 km2) which featured contrasting land uses (predominantly intensive grassland or arable) and soil drainage classes (well, moderate and poor). High-resolution suspended sediment concentration data (SSC - using a calibrated turbidity proxy) were collected ex-situ and combined with in-stream discharge data measured at each catchment outlet to estimate suspended sediment yield (SSY - t km-2 yr-1). In two catchments additional in-stream turbidity monitoring equipment replicated ex-situ measurements including site specific calibration of individual in-stream and ex-situ turbidity probes. Depth-integrated samples were collected to assess the accuracy of both approaches. Method comparison results showed that true SSC values (from depth-integrated sampling) were predominantly within the 95% confidence interval of ex-situ predicted SSC consequently confirming the robust cross-validation of these results. Average annual SSCs and SSYs were higher in poorly drained catchments (17-27 t km-2 yr-1) than those with well drained soils (8-10 t km-2 yr-1). Catchments with both poorly-drained soils and land use dominated by tillage were most susceptible to field-scale soil erosion due to rapid establishment of overland flow pathways and periods of bare soils during cropping cycles. However results suggest that relatively high SSY may also occur in grassland catchments, particularly on poorly drained soils and with higher stocking densities and greater likelihood of channel bank erosion. Whilst the mean SSY rates are low by international standards, inter-annual variability was significant highlighting the spatial and temporal fluctuations in runoff and soil erosion risk. Such issues are of particular concern as Ireland pursues an agricultural policy of sustainable intensification. Effective soil erosion and sediment management should address catchment specific characteristics.

  1. Dynamic modelling of future land use change under urbanization and climate change pressures: application to a case study in central Belgium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacquemin, I.; Fontaine, C. M.; Dendoncker, N.; François, L.; De Vreese, R.; Marek, A.; Mortelmans, D.; Van Herzele, A.; Devillet, G.

    2012-04-01

    Projecting the future of the evolution of socio-ecological systems to analyse their sustainability under climate or other environmental changes is not straightforward. Current projections usually use process-oriented models describing the complex interactions within the physical/biological systems (ecosystems), while the socio-economic constraints are represented with the help of scenarios. However, the actual evolution can be expected to be much more complex, because of the mutual interactions between ecological and socio-economic systems. To represent these interactions, models must integrate the complex process of human decision at individual or society levels. Moreover, models must be spatially explicit, defining elementary spatial units on which can act both the physical factors and the human decision process. These spatial units (e.g., farm fields) must be described not only in terms of energy, water, carbon and nutrient flows, but also in terms of the flow of ecosystem goods and services (EGS) they provide to the society together with the management costs required to sustain them. The provision of EGS may be altered in the future in response to changes in the climate system and the environment, but also through various human pressures on the landscape such as urbanization, as well as through the reaction of human societies to these changes in EGS provision. In the VOTES ("Valuation Of Terrestrial Ecosystem Services in a multifunctional peri-urban space") project, we attempt to model this coupled socio-ecological system by combining a dynamic vegetation model (DVM) with an agent-based model (ABM). The DVM (CARAIB; Dury et al., iForest - Biogeosciences and Forestry, 4:82-99, 2011) model describes the evolution of physical and biological processes in the ecosystems, i.e. the impact of climate change and land management on the energy, water and carbon budgets, as well as the productivity of each simulated plant species present on each land unit. The original version of the model developed for natural vegetation has been upgraded to include crop systems and pastures. The ABM (Murray-Rust, Journal of Land Use Science, 6(2-3):83-99, 2011) describes the management choices (e.g., crop rotation, intensive agriculture or organic farming, etc) for each land plot, as well as the possible change in their affectation (e.g., conversion of farm fields to residential areas in response to urbanization), under different socio-economic contexts described in the storyline of three scenarios depicting general societal orientations (business-as-usual; market oriented; sustainability oriented). As a result, the ABM produces a dynamic evolution of land use and management options to be passed on to the DVM for further analysis. The outputs from the DVM allow evaluating quantitatively the provision of EGS by each land plot. This DVM-ABM modelling tool is thus able to describe the future evolution of land use and land cover, as well as of EGS production, in the context of socio-economic scenarios. The model is applied to a case study area covering four municipalities located in central Belgium close to Brussels and Leuven. The area is mostly composed of agricultural fields (crops and meadows), residential areas and a large protected forest (Meerdaalbos) and is subject to intense urbanization pressure due to the proximity to Brussels.

  2. Changes in Land Use and Soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paz-González, A.; Tarquis, A.; de Abreu, C. A.; Olechko, K.; Sáa, A.; Gobin, A.; Gómez, J. A.; Kutilek, M.

    2012-04-01

    Land use change is one of the main drivers of many processes of environmental change, as it influences basic resources of the landscape including the soil. Poor land management can rapidly deteriorate vast amounts of land, which frequently becomes a major threat to rural subsistence in many developing countries. Conversely, impact of land use changes on soil also can occur so unnoticed that land managers hardly contemplate initiating ameliorative measures. Subsequently, changes in land use affect soil properties and processes at a variety of scales. For example, forest conversion to cropland and reduction of tillage intensity can prevail as main changes of land use in some regions, whereas abandon of agricultural fields can be a major concern in other regions. In non-agricultural context, changes of land use of major interest are driven by urbanization, landscaping, engineering, mining, contamination, etc. Disturbed soils are not necessarily lost to agriculture, forestry, amenity or other alternative uses. Knowledge and understanding of soil properties and processes ensures remediation or reclamation of disturbed or damaged soils. Therefore, we focus mainly on how soil properties and processes can be managed and controlled to mitigate the impact of changes in land use. Moreover, land use changes occur at different spatial and temporal scales. Currently, the most promising approaches to evaluate the complex interaction between land use and soil heterogeneity at various scales apply advanced statistical and mathematical methods.

  3. Monitoring urban expansion and land use/land cover changes of Shanghai metropolitan area during the transitional economy (1979-2009) in China.

    PubMed

    Yin, Jie; Yin, Zhane; Zhong, Haidong; Xu, Shiyuan; Hu, Xiaomeng; Wang, Jun; Wu, Jianping

    2011-06-01

    This study explored the spatio-temporal dynamics and evolution of land use/cover changes and urban expansion in Shanghai metropolitan area, China, during the transitional economy period (1979-2009) using multi-temporal satellite images and geographic information systems (GIS). A maximum likelihood supervised classification algorithm was employed to extract information from four landsat images, with the post-classification change detection technique and GIS-based spatial analysis methods used to detect land-use and land-cover (LULC) changes. The overall Kappa indices of land use/cover change maps ranged from 0.79 to 0.89. Results indicated that urbanization has accelerated at an unprecedented scale and rate during the study period, leading to a considerable reduction in the area of farmland and green land. Findings further revealed that water bodies and bare land increased, obviously due to large-scale coastal development after 2000. The direction of urban expansion was along a north-south axis from 1979 to 2000, but after 2000 this growth changed to spread from both the existing urban area and along transport routes in all directions. Urban expansion and subsequent LULC changes in Shanghai have largely been driven by policy reform, population growth, and economic development. Rapid urban expansion through clearing of vegetation has led to a wide range of eco-environmental degradation. PMID:20824336

  4. Estimating windblown PM-10 emissions from vacant urban land using GIS.

    PubMed

    Pulugurtha, Srinivas S; James, David

    2006-04-30

    This paper presents a Geographic Information Systems (GIS)-based methodology to estimate annual area-wide airborne particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of less than 10 microm (PM-10) emissions, and identify zones with high emissions in order to efficiently implement mitigation strategies. Application of the methodology is demonstrated using the land disposal boundary within Clark County, NV as the study area, which is currently classified as a non-attainment area by United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA). The estimated PM-10 emissions depend on the extent of disturbed vacant land area, undisturbed vacant land area, emission factors by soil group, and wind speeds. Portable wind tunnel field test data were used to estimate emission factors at 78 sites in the study area. Portable wind tunnel results were categorized by the wind speed range and the corresponding site soil group in order to estimate emission factors by soil group and the wind speed range. Wind speed data were obtained from the Clark County Health District's air quality monitoring stations. The proximal area over which the wind speeds are same is obtained by constructing "Thiessen" polygons around each wind speed monitoring station. PM-10 emissions were estimated as a function of the extent of disturbed vacant lands, the measured or estimated erodibility of the soil surfaces, and the intensity, duration and frequency of erosive wind events. PMID:16423454

  5. Land Use

    EPA Science Inventory

    This indicator describes the status of, and trends in, various categories of land use in the United States as a whole, and for EPA regions, from 1977 to 2003. This information provides an understanding of how land use is changing in the United States, which can affect both hum...

  6. Impact of changes in rainfall intensity, land use pattern and management practice on sediment output of agricultural loess catchments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scherer, U.; Zehe, E.; Träbing, K.

    2009-04-01

    The emission of nutrients and pollutants from agricultural land via erosion is a serious threat to surface waters. For planning and managing the sustainable use of water resources information on sediment bound nutrient and pollutant emissions are required. Within the framework of a research project in a rural catchment the process based model CATFLOW-SED which permits the simulation of specific events as well as long term processes of water and sediment transport was developed. The detachment rate of sediment particles from the soil matrix is quantified using an optimized approach for loess soils, based on the correlation of the attacking forces of rainfall and surface runoff to the erosion rate. The amount of detached soil particles depends on the erosion resistance which is an empirical soil parameter. Sediment transport capacity is modelled for various grain size fractions using the equation of ENGELUND & HANSEN (1967). It is assumed, that detachment and transport on loess soils are not size selective. On the other hand, the deposition rate of a grain size fraction depends on the sinking velocity and therefore this process is highly size selective. The model results on sediment input for each grain size fraction could be coupled with nutrient and pollutant contents of the specific fractions allowing the quantification of nutrient and pollutant emissions into surface waters. CATFLOW-SED was validated for the database of the 3.5 km˛ Weiherbach catchment located within a loess region of Southwest Germany at various scales (irrigation experiments, hillslope, catchment). The variation between modeled and observed erosion rates of the irrigation experiments was high due to the stochastic variability of natural landscapes on small scales. On the catchment scale the erosion resistance for the homogenous loess soils mainly depends on the land use category and the management practice. So for the hillslope and catchment scale the model results were in good agreement with observed sediment loads of large erosion events. Following these results, various scenarios regarding changes of rainfall intensity, land use pattern and management practice were modelled. The rainfall intensity of erosion events was increased about 1-3 % to simulate the impact of heavier thunder storms expected for the future in Southern Germany. It could be shown, that surface runoff increased about 15-22 % and sediment output of the catchment about 29-34 % due to the high non linearity of the underlying processes pointing out the increasing importance of erosion protection measures. The sediment output of the largest observed erosion event was varied by a factor of 0.6-1.3 when the given percentage of land use categories was rearranged in a "best case" and a "worst case" scenario. For the management practice scenario a reduction of 50-90 % of sediment output was achieved for reduced tillage and mulching. Each landscape is characterized by specific processes and factors of influence. These relationships can only be measured and examined at small scale. It was shown that the model CATFLOW-SED is a tool for drawing up the interrelationships within an agricultural loess catchment allowing conclusions to be drawn about comparable loess areas.

  7. Effects of urban land-use change on streamflow and water quality in Oakland County, Michigan, 1970-2003, as inferred from urban gradient and temporal analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Aichele, Stephen S.

    2005-01-01

    Various adverse hydrologic effects on streams have been attributed to urban development and expanded impervious surface area, including increased high flows, decreased low flows, increased variability (commonly referred to as flashiness), nutrient enrichment, and increased dissolved solids concentrations. These effects are often observed through the use of urban-gradient studies, which compare hydrologic characteristics among watersheds with different levels of development. This technique is frequently applied when comparable prior data are not available for the watersheds of interest. During 1966 - 1970, and again during 2001 - 2003, the U.S. Geological Survey collected a series of low-flow water-chemistry samples. Streamflow-gaging stations were operated throughout the period from 1966-2003 as part of ongoing monitoring operations. This study compares these two water-quality data sets; tests the streamflow data for trends in high flows, low flows, and flashiness; and correlates 2000 land use with water-quality and streamflow data collected during the 2001 - 2003 study. Despite substantial change in land use during 1980 - 2000, with urban land covers replacing open space, forest, and agriculture, little evidence is found in the time-series data of alteration of the daily streamflow characteristics or nutrient enrichment in the study watersheds. However, a distinct shift is observable in chloride concentrations. Strong positive correlations exist across the urban gradient between development and increased peak flows as well as between development and increased flashiness. Correlations of water-quality data to development metrics show strong positive correlations with increased dissolved solids and salt content, as well as increased concentrations of fecal indicator bacteria (Eschericia coli). This apparent contradiction may be caused by the differences in the changes measured in each analysis. The change-through-time approach describes change from a fixed starting point of approximately 1970; the gradient approach describes the cumulative effect of all change up to approximately 2000. These findings indicate that although urbanization in Oakland County results in most of the effects observed in the literature, as evidenced in the gradient approach, relatively few of the anticipated effects have been observed during the past three decades. This relative stability despite rapid land-cover change may be related to efforts to mitigate the effects of development and a general decrease in the density of new residential development. It may also be related to external factors such as climate variability and reduced atmospheric deposition of specific chemicals.

  8. Impact of urbanization and land-use/land-cover change on diurnal temperature range: a case study of tropical urban airshed of India using remote sensing data.

    PubMed

    Mohan, Manju; Kandya, Anurag

    2015-02-15

    Diurnal temperature range (DTR) is an important climate change index. Its knowledge is important to a range of issues and themes in earth sciences central to urban climatology and human-environment interactions. The present study investigates the effect of urbanization on the land surface temperature (LST) based DTR. This study presents spatial and temporal variations of satellite based estimates of annually averaged DTR over megacity Delhi, the capital of India, which are shown for a period of 11 years during 2001-2011 and analyzes this with regard to its land-use/land-cover (LU/LC) changes and population growth. Delhi which witnessed massive urbanization in terms of population growth (decadal growth rate of Delhi during 2001-2011 was 20.96%) and major transformations in the LU/LC (built-up area crossed more than 53%) are experiencing severity in its micro and macroclimate. There was a consistent increase in the areas experiencing DTR below 11°C which typically resembled the 'urban class' viz. from 26.4% in the year 2001 to 65.3% in the year 2011 and subsequently the DTR of entire Delhi which was 12.48°C in the year 2001 gradually reduced to 10.34°C in the year 2011, exhibiting a significant decreasing trend. Rapidly urbanizing areas like Rohini, Dwarka, Vasant Kunj, Kaushambi, Khanjhawala Village, IIT, Safdarjung Airport, etc. registered a significant decreasing trend in the DTR. In the background of the converging DTR, which was primarily due to the increase in the minimum temperatures, a grim situation in terms of potentially net increase in the heat-related mortality rate especially for the young children below 15years of age is envisaged for Delhi. Considering the earlier findings that the level of risk of death remained the highest and longest for Delhi, in comparison to megacities like Sao Paulo and London, the study calls for strong and urgent heat island mitigation measures. PMID:25437763

  9. Remote Sensing of Urban Land Cover/Land Use Change, Surface Thermal Responses, and Potential Meteorological and Climate Change Impacts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quattrochi, Dale A.; Jedlovec, Gary; Meyer, Paul

    2011-01-01

    City growth influences the development of the urban heat island (UHI), but the effect that local meteorology has on the UHI is less well known. This paper presents some preliminary findings from a study that uses multitemporal Landsat TM and ASTER data to evaluate land cover/land use change (LULCC) over the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MFSC) and its Huntsville, AL metropolitan area. Landsat NLCD data for 1992 and 2001 have been used to evaluate LULCC for MSFC and the surrounding urban area. Land surface temperature (LST) and emissivity derived from NLCD data have also been analyzed to assess changes in these parameters in relation to LULCC. Additionally, LULCC, LST, and emissivity have been identified from ASTER data from 2001 and 2011 to provide a comparison with the 2001 NLCD and as a measure of current conditions within the study area. As anticipated, the multi-temporal NLCD and ASTER data show that significant changes have occurred in land covers, LST, and emissivity within and around MSFC. The patterns and arrangement of these changes, however, is significant because the juxtaposition of urban land covers within and outside of MSFC provides insight on what impacts at a local to regional scale, the inter-linkage of these changes potentially have on meteorology. To further analyze these interactions between LULCC, LST, and emissivity with the lower atmosphere, a network of eleven weather stations has been established across the MSFC property. These weather stations provide data at a 10 minute interval, and these data are uplinked for use by MSFC facilities operations and the National Weather Service. The weather data are also integrated within a larger network of meteorological stations across north Alabama. Given that the MSFC weather stations will operate for an extended period of time, they can be used to evaluate how the building of new structures, and changes in roadways, and green spaces as identified in the MSFC master plan for the future, will potentially affect land cover LSTs across the Center. Moreover, the weather stations will also provide baseline data for developing a better understanding of how localized weather factors, such as extreme rainfall and heat events, affect micrometeorology. These data can also be used to model the interrelationships between LSTs and meteorology on a longer term basis to help evaluate how changes in these parameters can be quantified from satellite data collected in the future. In turn, the overall integration of multi-temporal meteorological information with LULCC, and LST data for MSFC proper and the surrounding Huntsville urbanized area can provide a perspective on how urban land surface types affect the meteorology in the boundary layer and ultimately, the UHI. Additionally, data such as this can be used as a foundation for modeling how climate change will potentially impact local and regional meteorology and conversely, how urban LULCC can or will influence changes on climate over the north Alabama area.

  10. Data concurrency is required for estimating urban heat island intensity.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Shuqing; Zhou, Decheng; Liu, Shuguang

    2016-01-01

    Urban heat island (UHI) can generate profound impacts on socioeconomics, human life, and the environment. Most previous studies have estimated UHI intensity using outdated urban extent maps to define urban and its surrounding areas, and the impacts of urban boundary expansion have never been quantified. Here, we assess the possible biases in UHI intensity estimates induced by outdated urban boundary maps using MODIS Land surface temperature (LST) data from 2009 to 2011 for China's 32 major cities, in combination with the urban boundaries generated from urban extent maps of the years 2000, 2005 and 2010. Our results suggest that it is critical to use concurrent urban extent and LST maps to estimate UHI at the city and national levels. Specific definition of UHI matters for the direction and magnitude of potential biases in estimating UHI intensity using outdated urban extent maps. PMID:26243476

  11. Simulation of Urban Heat Island Mitigation Strategies in Atlanta, GA Using High-Resolution Land Use/Land Cover Data Set to Enhance Meteorological Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crosson, William L.; Dembek, Scott; Estes, Maurice G., Jr.; Limaye, Ashutosh S.; Lapenta, William; Quattrochi, Dale A.; Johnson, Hoyt; Khan, Maudood

    2006-01-01

    The specification of land use/land cover (LULC) and associated land surface parameters in meteorological models at all scales has a major influence on modeled surface energy fluxes and boundary layer states. In urban areas, accurate representation of the land surface may be even more important than in undeveloped regions due to the large heterogeneity within the urban area. Deficiencies in the characterization of the land surface related to the spatial or temporal resolution of the data, the number of LULC classes defined, the accuracy with which they are defined, or the degree of heterogeneity of the land surface properties within each class may degrade the performance of the models. In this study, an experiment was conducted to test a new high-resolution LULC data set for meteorological simulations for the Atlanta, Georgia metropolitan area using a mesoscale meteorological model and to evaluate the effects of urban heat island (UHI) mitigation strategies on modeled meteorology for 2030. Simulation results showed that use of the new LULC data set reduced a major deficiency of the land use data used previously, specifically the poor representation of urban and suburban land use. Performance of the meteorological model improved substantially, with the overall daytime cold bias reduced by over 30%. UHI mitigation strategies were projected to offset much of a predicted urban warming between 2000 and 2030. In fact, for the urban core, the cooling due to UHI mitigation strategies was slightly greater than the warming associated with urbanization over this period. For the larger metropolitan area, cooling only partially offset the projected warming trend.

  12. Impact of land use on urban mobility patterns, emissions and air quality in a Portuguese medium-sized city.

    PubMed

    Bandeira, Jorge M; Coelho, Margarida C; Sá, Maria Elisa; Tavares, Richard; Borrego, Carlos

    2011-02-15

    The main objective of this work was to evaluate the impact of urban development trends in mobility patterns of a medium sized Portuguese city and air quality consequences, using a sequential modeling process, comprising i) land use and transportation, TRANUS model; ii) road traffic air pollutants emissions, TREM model and; iii) air quality, TAPM model. This integrated methodology was applied to a medium sized Portuguese city. In order to evaluate the implementation of the methodology, a preliminary study was performed, which consisted on the comparison of modeled mobility patterns and CO and PM(10) concentrations with measured data used in the definition of the current scenario. The comparison between modeled and monitored mobility patterns at the morning peak hour for a weekday showed an RMSE of 31%. Regarding CO concentrations, an underestimation of the modeled results was observed. Nevertheless, the modeled PM(10) concentrations were consistent with the monitored data. Overall, the results showed a reasonable consistency of the modeled data, which allowed the use of the integrated modeling system for the study scenarios. The future scenarios consisted on the definition of different mobility patterns and vehicle technology characteristics, according to two main developing trends: (1) "car pooling" scenario, which imposes a mean occupancy rate of 3 passengers by vehicle and (2) the "Euro 6" scenario, which establishes that all vehicles accomplish at least the Euro 6 standard technology. Reductions of 54% and 83% for CO, 44% and 95% for PM(10), 44% and 87% for VOC and 44% and 79% for NO(x) emissions were observed in scenarios 1 and 2, respectively. Concerning air quality, a reduction of about 100 ?g m(-3) of CO annual average concentration was observed in both scenarios. The results of PM(10) annual concentrations showed a reduction of 1.35 ?g m(-3) and 2.7 ?g m(-3) for scenarios 1 and 2 respectively. PMID:21216441

  13. Modeling concentration patterns of agricultural and urban micropollutants in surface waters in catchment of mixed land use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stamm, C.; Scheidegger, R.; Bader, H. P.

    2012-04-01

    Organic micropollutants detected in surface waters can originate from agricultural and urban sources. Depending on the use of the compounds, the temporal loss patterns vary substantially. Therefore models that simulate water quality in watersheds of mixed land use have to account for all relevant sources. We present here simulation results of a transport model that describes the dynamic of several biocidal compounds as well as the behaviour of human pharmaceuticals. The model consists of the sub-model Rexpo simulating the transfer of the compounds from the point of application to the stream in semi-lumped manner. The river sub-model, which is programmed in the Aquasim software, describes the fate of the compounds in the stream. Both sub-models are process-based. The Rexpo sub-model was calibrated at the scale of a small catchment of 25 km2, which is inhabited by about 12'000 people. Based on the resulting model parameters the loss dynamics of two herbicides (atrazine, isoproturon) and a compound of mixed urban and agricultural use (diuron) were predicted for two nested catchment of 212 and 1696 km2, respectively. The model output was compared to observed time-series of concentrations and loads obtained for the entire year 2009. Additionally, the fate of two pharmaceuticals with constant input (carbamazepine, diclofenac) was simulated for improving the understanding of possible degradation processes. The simulated loads and concentrations of the biocidal compounds differed by a factor of 2 to 3 from the observations. In general, the seasonal patterns were well captured by the model. However, a detailed analysis of the seasonality revealed substantial input uncertainty for the application of the compounds. The model results also demonstrated that for the dynamics of rain-driven losses of biocidal compounds the semi-lumped approach of the Rexpo sub-model was sufficient. Only for simulating the photolytic degradation of diclofenac in the stream the detailed representation of the routing in the stream was essential. Overall, the study demonstrated that the simulation of micropollutants at the watershed scale can be strongly hampered by input uncertainty regarding the use of the chemicals. Under such conditions the level of process-representation in the Rexpo sub-models is superfluous. For practical applications, one should address the question how to simply the approach while still maintaining the essential parts.

  14. A study of the utilization of ERTS-1 data from the Wabash River Basin. [crop identification, water resources, urban land use, soil mapping, and atmospheric modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landgrebe, D. A. (principal investigator)

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The most significant results were obtained in the water resources research, urban land use mapping, and soil association mapping projects. ERTS-1 data was used to classify water bodies to determine acreages and high agreement was obtained with USGS figures. Quantitative evaluation was achieved of urban land use classifications from ERTS-1 data and an overall test accuracy of 90.3% was observed. ERTS-1 data classifications of soil test sites were compared with soil association maps scaled to match the computer produced map and good agreement was observed. In some cases the ERTS-1 results proved to be more accurate than the soil association map.

  15. Project ATLANTA (ATlanta Land-use ANalysis: Temperature and Air quality): A Study of how the Urban Landscape Affects Meteorology and Air Quality Through Time

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quattrochi, Dale A.; Luvall, Jeffrey C.; Estes, Maurice G.; Lo, C. P.; Kidder, Stanley Q.; Hafner, Jan; Taha, Haider; Bornstein, Robert D.; Gillies, Robert R.; Gallo, Kevin P.

    1998-01-01

    It is our intent through this investigation to help facilitate measures that can be Project ATLANTA (ATlanta Land-use ANalysis: applied to mitigate climatological or air quality Temperature and Air-quality) is a NASA Earth degradation, or to design alternate measures to sustain Observing System (EOS) Interdisciplinary Science or improve the overall urban environment in the future. investigation that seeks to observe, measure, model, and analyze how the rapid growth of the Atlanta. The primary objectives for this research effort are: 1) To In the last half of the 20th century, Atlanta, investigate and model the relationship between Atlanta Georgia has risen as the premier commercial, urban growth, land cover change, and the development industrial, and transportation urban area of the of the urban heat island phenomenon through time at southeastern United States. The rapid growth of the nested spatial scales from local to regional; 2) To Atlanta area, particularly within the last 25 years, has investigate and model the relationship between Atlanta made Atlanta one of the fastest growing metropolitan urban growth and land cover change on air quality areas in the United States. The population of the through time at nested spatial scales from local to Atlanta metropolitan area increased 27% between 1970 regional; and 3) To model the overall effects of urban and 1980, and 33% between 1980-1990 (Research development on surface energy budget characteristics Atlanta, Inc., 1993). Concomitant with this high rate of across the Atlanta urban landscape through time at population growth, has been an explosive growth in nested spatial scales from local to regional. Our key retail, industrial, commercial, and transportation goal is to derive a better scientific understanding of how services within the Atlanta region. This has resulted in land cover changes associated with urbanization in the tremendous land cover change dynamics within the Atlanta area, principally in transforming forest lands to metropolitan region, wherein urbanization has urban land covers through time, has, and will, effect consumed vast acreas of land adjacent to the city local and regional climate, surface energy flux, and air proper and has pushed the rural/urban fringe farther quality characteristics. Allied with this goal is the and farther away from the original Atlanta urban core. prospect that the results from this research can be An enormous transition of land from forest and applied by urban planners, environmental managers agriculture to urban land uses has occurred in the and other decision-makers, for determining how Atlanta area in the last 25 years, along with subsequent urbanization has impacted the climate and overall

  16. Comparison of the performances of land use regression modelling and dispersion modelling in estimating small-scale variations in long-term air pollution concentrations in a Dutch urban area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beelen, Rob; Voogt, Marita; Duyzer, Jan; Zandveld, Peter; Hoek, Gerard

    2010-11-01

    The performance of a Land Use Regression (LUR) model and a dispersion model (URBIS - URBis Information System) was compared in a Dutch urban area. For the Rijnmond area, i.e. Rotterdam and surroundings, nitrogen dioxide (NO 2) concentrations for 2001 were estimated for nearly 70 000 centroids of a regular grid of 100 × 100 m. A LUR model based upon measurements carried out on 44 sites from the Dutch national monitoring network and upon Geographic Information System (GIS) predictor variables including traffic intensity, industry, population and residential land use was developed. Interpolation of regional background concentration measurements was used to obtain the regional background. The URBIS system was used to estimate NO 2 concentrations using dispersion modelling. URBIS includes the CAR model (Calculation of Air pollution from Road traffic) to calculate concentrations of air pollutants near urban roads and Gaussian plume models to calculate air pollution levels near motorways and industrial sources. Background concentrations were accounted for using 1 × 1 km maps derived from monitoring and model calculations. Moderate agreement was found between the URBIS and LUR in calculating NO 2 concentrations ( R = 0.55). The predictions agreed well for the central part of the concentration distribution but differed substantially for the highest and lowest concentrations. The URBIS dispersion model performed better than the LUR model ( R = 0.77 versus R = 0.47 respectively) in the comparison between measured and calculated concentrations on 18 validation sites. Differences can be understood because of the use of different regional background concentrations, inclusion of rather coarse land use category industry as a predictor variable in the LUR model and different treatment of conversion of NO to NO 2. Moderate agreement was found between a dispersion model and a land use regression model in calculating annual average NO 2 concentrations in an area with multiple sources. The dispersion model explained concentrations at validation sites better.

  17. Regional land use studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Place, J. L.

    1970-01-01

    Remote sensing technology and data from instrumented satellites and high altitude aircraft are proposed for mapping land use on a current national basis, for monitoring changes and trends, and for creating statistical models which can be manipulated to demonstrate the probable effects of proposed land use and of environmental changes over large areas. Both Apollo spacecraft and aircraft photography were used; the spacecraft pictures delineated the cropland and urban boundaries more clearly. A computer model is also proposed for statistical analysis and for printing out updated maps automatically; this model will include a data bank which can be updated rapidly with changes detected by the computer.

  18. [Effects of land use change on soil erosion intensity in small watershed of Loess Hilly Region: a quantitative evaluation with 137-Cesium tracer].

    PubMed

    Wang, Ya-Feng; Fu, Bo-Jie; Li, Chen-Ding; Lü, Yi-He; Luo, Chun-Yan

    2009-07-01

    Based on the land use change data and by using 137Cs tracer technique, this paper studied the change process of soil erosion intensity in Yangjuangou watershed in Loess Hilly Region. Since the 1980's, the land use intensity in the watershed decreased gradually. In 1980-2006, the slope arable land decreased from 94.9 hm2 to 0.2 hmb2, while the forest land, shrub land, orchard land, and grassland increased from 0 to 51.1 hm2, from 0 to 19.2 hm2, from 0 to 18.0 hm2, and from 76.9 hm2 to 80.1 hmb2, respectively. The soil erosion intensity was in the order of slope arable land > shrub land > orchard land > grass land > forest land. In 1980, 1984, 1996, and 2006, the soil erosion intensity was 6408.9, 5362.4, 4903.9, and 3641.4 t x km(-2) x a(-1), respectively, being changed from intense to moderate. Soil and water conservation and vegetation restoration were the main causes of the decrease of soil erosion intensity in the study area. PMID:19899453

  19. Development of a modular streamflow model to quantify runoff contributions from different land uses in tropical urban environments using Genetic Programming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meshgi, Ali; Schmitter, Petra; Chui, Ting Fong May; Babovic, Vladan

    2015-06-01

    The decrease of pervious areas during urbanization has severely altered the hydrological cycle, diminishing infiltration and therefore sub-surface flows during rainfall events, and further increasing peak discharges in urban drainage infrastructure. Designing appropriate waster sensitive infrastructure that reduces peak discharges requires a better understanding of land use specific contributions towards surface and sub-surface processes. However, to date, such understanding in tropical urban environments is still limited. On the other hand, the rainfall-runoff process in tropical urban systems experiences a high degree of non-linearity and heterogeneity. Therefore, this study used Genetic Programming to establish a physically interpretable modular model consisting of two sub-models: (i) a baseflow module and (ii) a quick flow module to simulate the two hydrograph flow components. The relationship between the input variables in the model (i.e. meteorological data and catchment initial conditions) and its overall structure can be explained in terms of catchment hydrological processes. Therefore, the model is a partial greying of what is often a black-box approach in catchment modelling. The model was further generalized to the sub-catchments of the main catchment, extending the potential for more widespread applications. Subsequently, this study used the modular model to predict both flow components of events as well as time series, and applied optimization techniques to estimate the contributions of various land uses (i.e. impervious, steep grassland, grassland on mild slope, mixed grasses and trees and relatively natural vegetation) towards baseflow and quickflow in tropical urban systems. The sub-catchment containing the highest portion of impervious surfaces (40% of the area) contributed the least towards the baseflow (6.3%) while the sub-catchment covered with 87% of relatively natural vegetation contributed the most (34.9%). The results from the quickflow module revealed average runoff coefficients between 0.12 and 0.80 for the various land uses and decreased from impervious (0.80), grass on steep slopes (0.56), grass on mild slopes (0.48), mixed grasses and trees (0.42) to relatively natural vegetation (0.12). The established modular model, reflecting the driving hydrological processes, enables the quantification of land use specific contributions towards the baseflow and quickflow components. This quantification facilitates the integration of water sensitive urban infrastructure for the sustainable development of water in tropical megacities.

  20. The legacy of land-use is revealed in the biogeochemistry of urban streams - 3-4-2014

    EPA Science Inventory

    Urban streams are among the most profoundly impacted aquatic ecosystems, characterized by altered hydrology or burial, increased sediment input, and myriad pollutants. We present results from a series of urban stream studies that revealed unique geochemical and biochemical patte...

  1. Fish assemblage responses to urban intensity gradients in contrasting metropolitan areas: Birmingham, Alabama and Boston, Massachusetts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meador, M.R.; Coles, J.F.; Zappia, H.

    2005-01-01

    We examined fish assemblage responses to urban intensify gradients in two contrasting metropolitan areas: Birmingham, Alabama (BIR) and Boston, Massachusetts (BOS). Urbanization was quantified by using an urban intensity index (UII) that included multiple stream buffers and basin land uses, human population density, and road density variables. We evaluated fish assemblage responses by using species richness metrics and detrended correspondence analyses (DCA). Fish species richness metrics included total fish species richness, and percentages of endemic species richness, alien species, and fluvial specialist species. Fish species richness decreased significantly with increasing urbanization in BIR (r = -0.82, P = 0.001) and BOS (r = -0.48, P = 0.008). Percentages of endemic species richness decreased significantly with increasing urbanization only in BIR (r = - 0.71, P = 0.001), whereas percentages of fluvial specialist species decreased significantly with increasing urbanization only in BOS (r = -0.56, P = 0.002). Our DCA results for BIR indicate that highly urbanized fish assemblages are composed primarily of largescale stoneroller Campostoma oligolepis, largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides, and creek chub Semotilus atromaculatus, whereas the highly urbanized fish assemblages in BOS are dominated by yellow perch Perca flavescens, bluegill Lefomis macrochirus, yellow bullhead Ameiurus natalis, largemouth bass, pumpkinseed L. gibbosus, brown bullhead A. nebulosus, and redfin pickerel Esox americanus. Differences in fish assemblage responses to urbanization between the two areas appear to be related to differences in nutrient enrichment, habitat alterations, and invasive species. Because species richness can increase or decrease with increasing urbanization, a general response model is not applicable. Instead, response models based on species' life histories, behavior, and autecologies offer greater potential for understanding fish assemblage responses to urbanization. ?? 2005 by the American Fisheries Society.

  2. Vegetation cover and land use impacts on soil water repellency in an Urban Park located in Vilnius, Lithuania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, Paulo; Cerda, Artemi

    2015-04-01

    It is strongly recognized that vegetation cover, land use have important impacts on the degree of soil water repellency (SWR). Soil water repellency is a natural property of soils, but can be induced by natural and anthropogenic disturbances as fire and soil tillage (Doerr et al., 2000; Urbanek et al., 2007; Mataix-Solera et al., 2014). Urban parks are areas where soils have a strong human impact, with implications on their hydrological properties. The aim of this work is to study the impact of different vegetations cover and urban soils impact on SWR and the relation to other soil variables as pH, Electrical Conductivity (EC) and soil organic matter (SOM) in an urban park. The study area is located in Vilnius city (54°.68' N, 25°.25' E). It was collected 15 soil samples under different vegetation cover as Pine (Pinus Sylvestris), Birch (Alnus glutinosa), Penduculate Oak (Quercus robur), Platanus (Platanus orientalis) and other human disturbed areas as forest trails and soils collected from human planted grass. Soils were taken to the laboratory, air-dried at room temperature and sieved with the <2 mm mesh in order to remove the coarse material. Subsequently were placed in petri dishes and exposed to a controlled laboratory environment (temperature of 20C and 50% of air relative humidity) for one week to avoid potential impacts of the atmospheric conditions on SWR (Doerr, 1998). The persistence of SWR was measured using the water drop penetration time (WDPT) (Wessel, 1998). The classification of WDPT was according to Bisdom et al. (1993) <5 (wettable), 5-60 (slightly water repellent), 60-600 (strongly water repellent), 600-3600 (severely water repellent) and >3600 (extremely water repellent). The results showed significant differences among the different vegetation cover (Kruskal-Wallis H=20.64, p<0.001). The WDPT soil median values collected under Pine, Birch, Penduculate Oak, forest trails and soils from planted grass were significantly higher than Platanus soil. The soils from Pine, Birch, Penduculate Oak, forest trails and planted grass were majorly severely water repellent, while Platanus soils were mostly strong water repellent. Soil water repellency of Pine soils had a significant negative correlation with pH (-0.52, p<0.05) and a significant negative correlation with SOM (0.69, p<0.01) and EC (0.53, p<0.05). In relation to Birch soils, SWR had a significant negative correlation with pH (-0.88, p<0.001) and significant positive correlation with SOM (0.78, p<0.001). In relation to the other species no significant correlations were observed between SWR and pH, EC and SOM. Acknowledgments POSTFIRE (Soil quality, erosion control and plant cover recovery under different post-fire management scenarios, CGL2013-47862-C2-1-R), funded by the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness; Fuegored; RECARE (Preventing and Remediating Degradation of Soils in Europe Through Land Care, FP7-ENV-2013-TWO STAGE), funded by the European Commission; and for the COST action ES1306 (Connecting European connectivity research). References Bisdom, E.B.A., Dekker, L., Schoute, J.F.Th. (1993) Water repellency of sieve fractions from sandy soils and relationships with organic material and soil structure. Geoderma, 56, 105-118. Doerr, S.H., Shakesby, R.A., Walsh, R.P.D. (2000) Soil water repellency: Its causes, characteristics and hydro-geomorphological significance. Earth-Science Reviews, 51, 33-65. Doerr, S.H. (1998) On standardising the "Water Drop Penetration Time" and the "Molarity of an Ethanol Droplet" techniques to classify soil hydrophobicity: a case study using medium textured soils. Earth Surface Process and Landforms, 23, 663-668. Mataix-Solera, J., Arcenegui, V., Zavala, L., Perez-Bejarano, A., Jordan, A., Morugan-Coronado, A., Barcenas-Moreno, G., Jimenez-Pinilla, P., Lozano, E., Granjed, A.J.P., Gil-Torres, J. (2014) Small variations of soil properties control fire induced water repellency, Spanish Journal of Soil Science, 4, 51-60. Urbanek., E., Hallet, P., Feeney, D

  3. Analysis of impacts of urban land use and land cover on air quality in the Las Vegas region using remote sensing information and ground observations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Xian, G.

    2007-01-01

    Urban development in the Las Vegas Valley of Nevada (USA) has expanded rapidly over the past 50 years. The air quality in the valley has suffered owing to increases from anthropogenic emissions of carbon monoxide, ozone and criteria pollutants of particular matter. Air quality observations show that pollutant concentrations have apparent heterogeneous characteristics in the urban area. Quantified urban land use and land cover information derived from satellite remote sensing data indicate an apparent local influence of urban development density on air pollutant distributions. Multi-year observational data collected by a network of local air monitoring stations specify that ozone maximums develop in the May and June timeframe, whereas minimum concentrations generally occur from November to February. The fine particulate matter maximum occurs in July. Ozone concentrations are highest on the west and northwest sides of the valley. Night-time ozone reduction contributes to the heterogeneous features of the spatial distribution for average ozone levels in the Las Vegas metropolitan area. Decreased ozone levels associated with increased urban development density suggest that the highest ozone and lowest nitrogen oxides concentrations are associated with medium to low density urban development in Las Vegas.

  4. The Application of Satellite-Derived, High-Resolution Land Use/Land Cover Data to Improve Urban Air Quality Model Forecasts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quattrochi, D. A.; Lapenta, W. M.; Crosson, W. L.; Estes, M. G., Jr.; Limaye, A.; Kahn, M.

    2006-01-01

    Local and state agencies are responsible for developing state implementation plans to meet National Ambient Air Quality Standards. Numerical models used for this purpose simulate the transport and transformation of criteria pollutants and their precursors. The specification of land use/land cover (LULC) plays an important role in controlling modeled surface meteorology and emissions. NASA researchers have worked with partners and Atlanta stakeholders to incorporate an improved high-resolution LULC dataset for the Atlanta area within their modeling system and to assess meteorological and air quality impacts of Urban Heat Island (UHI) mitigation strategies. The new LULC dataset provides a more accurate representation of land use, has the potential to improve model accuracy, and facilitates prediction of LULC changes. Use of the new LULC dataset for two summertime episodes improved meteorological forecasts, with an existing daytime cold bias of approx. equal to 3 C reduced by 30%. Model performance for ozone prediction did not show improvement. In addition, LULC changes due to Atlanta area urbanization were predicted through 2030, for which model simulations predict higher urban air temperatures. The incorporation of UHI mitigation strategies partially offset this warming trend. The data and modeling methods used are generally applicable to other U.S. cities.

  5. Evaluating the effect of land use land cover change in a rapidly urbanizing semi-arid watershed on estuarine freshwater inflows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahoo, D.; Smith, P.; Popescu, S.

    2006-12-01

    Estuarine freshwater inflows along with their associated nutrient and metal delivery are influenced by the land use/land cover (LULC) and water management practices in the contributing watershed. This study evaluates the effect of rapid urbanization in the San Antonio River Watershed on the amount of freshwater inflow reaching the San Antonio-Guadalupe estuary on the Gulf Coast of Texas. Remotely sensed data from satellite imagery provided a source of reliable data for land use classification and land cover change analysis; while long time series of the geophysical signals of stream flow and precipitation provided the data needed to assess change in flow in the watershed. LULC was determined using LANDSAT (5 TM and 7 ETM) satellite images over 20 years (1985-2003). The LANDSAT images were classified using an ENVI. ISODATA classification scheme. Changes were quantified in terms of the urban expansion that had occurred in past 20 years using an urban index. Streamflow was analyzed using 20 years (1985-2004) of average daily discharge obtained from the USGS gauging station (08188500) closest to the headwaters of the estuary. Baseflow and storm flow were partitioned from total flow using a universally used baseflow separation technique. Precipitation data was obtained from an NCDC station in the watershed. Preliminary results indicate that the most significant change in land use over the 20 year period was an increase in the total amount of impervious area in the watershed. This increase in impervious area was accompanied by an increase in both total streamflow and in baseflow over the same period. The investigation did not show a significant change in total annual precipitation from 1990 to 2004. This suggests that the increase in streamflow was more influenced by LULC than climate change. One explanation for the increase in baseflow may be an increase in return flows resulting from an increase in the total number of wastewater treatment plants in the watershed.

  6. Relation of urban land-use and dry-weather storm and snowmelt flow characteristics to stream-water quality, Shunganunga Creek basin, Topeka, Kansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pope, L.M.; Bevans, H.E.

    1984-01-01

    Water-quality characteristics of streams draining Topeka, Kansas , and the Shunganunga Creek basin were investigated from October , 1979, through November 1981, to determine the effects of runoff from urban areas. Characteristics were determined at six sites and summarized statistically for three streamflow conditions-dry weather, storm, and snowmelt. Median concentrations of trace metals and nutrients were greater in storm streamflow than in dry-weather streamflow. Regression equations were developed to estimate median concentrations of total lead and zinc in storm streamflow from the percentage of drainage area in residential plus commercial land-use areas and from street density. Median concentrations of dissolved sodium, chloride, and solids were considerably greater in snowmelt streamflow than in dry-weather streamflow. Regression equations were also developed to estimate median concentrations of dissolved sodium, chloride, and solids from the summation of percentages of the drainage area in residential, commercial, and industrial land-use areas and from street density. Multiple-regression analysis relating storm-runoff volumes and average constituent concentrations to land-use and storm charactersitcs produced significant relations for storm-runoff volume, total lead, total zinc, and suspended sediment. (USGS)

  7. Application of satellite and GIS technologies for land-cover and land-use mapping at the rural-urban fringe - A case study

    SciTech Connect

    Treitz, P.M.; Howarth, P.J.; Gong, Peng )

    1992-04-01

    SPOT HRV multispectral and panchromatic data were recorded and coregistered for a portion of the rural-urban fringe of Toronto, Canada. A two-stage digital analysis algorithm incorporating a spectral-class frequency-based contextual classification of eight land-cover and land-use classes resulted in an overall Kappa coefficient of 82.2 percent for training-area data and a Kappa coefficient of 70.3 percent for test-area data. A matrix-overlay analysis was then performed within the geographic information system (GIS) to combine the land-cover and land-use classes generated from the SPOT digital classification with zoning information for the area. The map that was produced has an estimated interpretation accuracy of 78 percent. Global Positioning System (GPS) data provided a positional reference for new road networks. These networks, in addition to the new land-cover and land-use map derived from the SPOT HRV data, provide an up-to-date synthesis of change conditions in the area. 51 refs.

  8. The Land Use and Land Cover Dichotomy: A Comparison of Two Land Classification Systems in Support of Urban Earth Science Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McAllister, William K.

    2003-01-01

    One is likely to read the terms 'land use' and 'land cover' in the same sentence, yet these concepts have different origins and different applications. Land cover is typically analyzed by earth scientists working with remotely sensed images. Land use is typically studied by urban planners who must prescribe solutions that could prevent future problems. This apparent dichotomy has led to different classification systems for land-based data. The works of earth scientists and urban planning practitioners are beginning to come together in the field of spatial analysis and in their common use of new spatial analysis technology. In this context, the technology can stimulate a common 'language' that allows a broader sharing of ideas. The increasing amount of land use and land cover change challenges the various efforts to classify in ways that are efficient, effective, and agreeable to all groups of users. If land cover and land uses can be identified by remote methods using aerial photography and satellites, then these ways are more efficient than field surveys of the same area. New technology, such as high-resolution satellite sensors, and new methods, such as more refined algorithms for image interpretation, are providing refined data to better identify the actual cover and apparent use of land, thus effectiveness is improved. However, the closer together and the more vertical the land uses are, the more difficult the task of identification is, and the greater is the need to supplement remotely sensed data with field study (in situ). Thus, a number of land classification methods were developed in order to organize the greatly expanding volume of data on land characteristics in ways useful to different groups. This paper distinguishes two land based classification systems, one developed primarily for remotely sensed data, and the other, a more comprehensive system requiring in situ collection methods. The intent is to look at how the two systems developed and how they can work together so that land based information can be shared among different users and compared over time.

  9. Estimating material and energy intensities of urban areas

    E-print Network

    Quinn, David James, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this thesis is to develop methods to estimate, analyze and visualize the resource intensity of urban areas. Understanding the resource consumption of the built environment is particularly relevant in cities ...

  10. Effects of urban land-use change in East China on the East Asian summer monsoon based on the CAM5.1 model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Hongyun; Jiang, Zhihong; Song, Jie; Dai, Aiguo; Yang, Xiuqun; Huo, Fei

    2015-07-01

    The effects of urban land-use change in East China on the East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) are investigated using a Community Atmosphere Model Version 5.1. The results show that the urban land-use change in East China causes spatially-varying changes in surface net radiation and heat fluxes, atmospheric circulation, and water budgets. It results in significant surface warming (cooling) and precipitation decrease (increase) in a large region north (south) of 30°N. Urban expansion agglomerated in (29°-41°N, 110°-122°E) alters the surface energy budget and warms the surface, resulting in strengthened southwesterly airflow south of 25°N and increased convergence below the mid-troposphere between 20° and 30°N. A concomitant northward downdraft associated with the increased convection generates an anomalous high pressure north of 30°N. Meanwhile, the downdraft not only produces adiabatic warming but also inhibits the dynamic condition for precipitation formation. The anomalous high pressure formed in North China prevents the southwesterly airflow from advancing northward, leading to increase the convergence and precipitation in South China. These changes reduce the meridional temperature gradient in the mid-lower troposphere and weaken the westerly airflow near 30°N. In addition, horizontal transport of vorticity north of 35°N weakens significantly, which leads to an anomalous barotropic structure of anticyclonic there. As a result, the anomalous anticyclonic circulation and descent north of 30°N are strengthened. At the same time, the anomalous cyclonic circulation and ascent south of 30°N are enhanced. These process induced by the thermal state changes due to urbanization weakens the EASM.

  11. Water- and sediment-quality effects on Pimephales promelas spawning vary along an agriculture-to-urban land-use gradient

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Corsi, S.R.; Klaper, R.D.; Weber, D.N.; Bannerman, R.T.

    2011-01-01

    Many streams in the U.S. are "impaired" due to anthropogenic influence. For watershed managers to achieve practical understanding of these impairments, a multitude of factors must be considered, including point and nonpoint-source influence on water quality. A spawning assay was developed in this study to evaluate water- and sediment-quality effects that influenced Pimephales promelas (fathead minnow) egg production over a gradient of urban and agricultural land use in 27 small watersheds in Eastern Wisconsin. Six pairs of reproducing fathead minnows were contained in separate mesh cartridges within one larger flow-through chamber. Water- and sediment quality were sampled for an array of parameters. Egg production was monitored for each pair providing an assessment of spawning success throughout the 21-day test periods. Incidences of low dissolved oxygen (DO) in many of these streams negatively impacted spawning success. Nine of 27 streams experienced DO less than 3.1. mg/L and 15 streams experienced DO less than 4.8. mg/L. Low DO was observed in urban and agricultural watersheds, but the upper threshold of minimum DO decreased with increasing urban development. An increase in specific conductance was related to a decrease in spawning success. In previous studies for streams in this region, specific conductance had a linear relation with chloride, suggesting the possibility that chloride could be a factor in egg production. Egg production was lower at sites with substantial urban development, but sites with low egg production were not limited to urban sites. Degradation of water- and sediment-quality parameters with increasing urban development is indicated for multiple parameters while patterns were not detected for others. Results from this study indicate that DO must be a high priority watershed management consideration for this region, specific conductance should be investigated further to determine the mechanism of the relation with egg production, and water- and sediment-quality degrade in relation to urban influence. ?? 2011.

  12. Modeling urban growth and land use/land cover change in the Houston Metropolitan Area from 2002 - 2030 

    E-print Network

    Oguz, Hakan

    2005-08-29

    spatially explicit cellular automata model, to simulate future (2002-2030) urban growth in the Houston metropolitan area, one of the fastest growing metropolises in the United States during the past decades. The model is calibrated with historical data...

  13. SPATIAL ANALYSIS OF AIR POLLUTION AND DEVELOPMENT OF A LAND-USE REGRESSION ( LUR ) MODEL IN AN URBAN AIRSHED

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Detroit Children's Health Study is an epidemiologic study examining associations between chronic ambient environmental exposures to gaseous air pollutants and respiratory health outcomes among elementary school-age children in an urban airshed. The exposure component of this...

  14. Resurrection of the Bombay trans-harbour link project by using Wheaton's monocentric models of urban land use

    E-print Network

    Bhave, Shubhada

    1987-01-01

    BOMBAY TRANS-HARBOUR LINK PROJECT: A possible solution to Bombay's seemingly unsurmountable social problems. The primary idea behind this thesis is to present a new technique for the appraisal of large scale urban ...

  15. Land Use Planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Computer technology, aerial photography and space imagery are being combined in a NASA community services program designed to help solve land use and natural resource planning problems. As urban areas grow, so grows the need for comprehensive, up-to-date information on which to base intelligent decisions regarding land use. State and local planners need information such as the nature of urban change, where the changes are occurring, how they affect public safety, transportation, the economy, tax assessment, sewer systems, water quality, flood hazard, noise impact and a great variety of other considerations. Most importantly they need continually updated maps. Preparing timely maps, gathering the essential data and maintaining it in orderly fashion are becoming matters of increasing difficulty. The NASA project, which has nationwide potential for improving efficiency in the planning process, is a pilot program focused on Tacoma, Washington and surrounding Pierce County. Its key element, developed by Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), is a computerized Land Use Management Information System (LUMIS).

  16. Effects of Land Use, Topography and Socio-Economic Factors on River Water Quality in a Mountainous Watershed with Intensive Agricultural Production in East China

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jiabo; Lu, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the primary effects of anthropogenic activities and natural factors on river water quality is important in the study and efficient management of water resources. In this study, analysis of Variance (ANOVA), Principal component analysis (PCA), Pearson correlations, Multiple regression analysis (MRA) and Redundancy analysis (RDA) were applied as an integrated approach in a GIS environment to explore the temporal and spatial variations in river water quality and to estimate the influence of watershed land use, topography and socio-economic factors on river water quality based on 3 years of water quality monitoring data for the Cao-E River system. The statistical analysis revealed that TN, pH and temperature were generally higher in the rainy season, whereas BOD5, DO and turbidity were higher in the dry season. Spatial variations in river water quality were related to numerous anthropogenic and natural factors. Urban land use was found to be the most important explanatory variable for BOD5, CODMn, TN, DN, NH4+-N, NO3?-N, DO, pH and TP. The animal husbandry output per capita was an important predictor of TP and turbidity, and the gross domestic product per capita largely determined spatial variations in EC. The remaining unexplained variance was related to other factors, such as topography. Our results suggested that pollution control of animal waste discharge in rural settlements, agricultural runoff in cropland, industrial production pollution and domestic pollution in urban and industrial areas were important within the Cao-E River basin. Moreover, the percentage of the total overall river water quality variance explained by an individual variable and/or all environmental variables (according to RDA) can assist in quantitatively identifying the primary factors that control pollution at the watershed scale. PMID:25090375

  17. A two-sector model of land use and deforestation: Funding urban development with a tax on urban and rural employment

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, D.W.; O`Neill, R.V.

    1992-07-17

    We model a small country with an urban manufacturing sector and a rural agricultural sector. Government taxes rural and urban employment to finance urban infrastructure which contributes to urban production. The manufacturing wage is fixed, leading to urban unemployment. Expansion of cultivated area involves deforestation at frontiers. An increment to urban infrastructure may draw resources into the city but a large enough addition to infrastructure may cause the tax rate to rise by more than urban labor productivity, which would exacerbate frontier deforestation. Improvement of rural transportation raises rural wages, reduces the urban unemployment rate, and extends the area under cultivation, causing deforestation; it also reduces the employment tax rate, which permits expansion of fixed-wage urban manufacturing. Such a wide, sectoral distribution of benefits may help explain the popularity of such policies despite their damage to frontier forest resources.

  18. Developing a framework to assess the water quality and quantity impacts of climate change, shifting land use, and urbanization in a Midwestern agricultural landscape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loheide, S. P.; Booth, E. G.; Kucharik, C. J.; Carpenter, S. R.; Gries, C.; Katt-Reinders, E.; Rissman, A. R.; Turner, M. G.

    2011-12-01

    Dynamic hydrological processes play a critical role in the structure and functioning of agricultural watersheds undergoing urbanization. Developing a predictive understanding of the complex interaction between agricultural productivity, ecosystem health, water quality, urban development, and public policy requires an interdisciplinary effort that investigates the important biophysical and social processes of the system. Our research group has initiated such a framework that includes a coordinated program of integrated scenarios, model experiments to assess the effects of changing drivers on a broad set of ecosystem services, evaluations of governance and leverage points, outreach and public engagement, and information management. Our geographic focus is the Yahara River watershed in south-central Wisconsin, which is an exemplar of water-related issues in the Upper Midwest. This research addresses three specific questions. 1) How do different patterns of land use, land cover, land management, and water resources engineering practices affect the resilience and sensitivity of ecosystem services under a changing climate? 2) How can regional governance systems for water and land use be made more resilient and adaptive to meet diverse human needs? 3) In what ways are regional human-environment systems resilient and in what ways are they vulnerable to potential changes in climate and water resources? A comprehensive program of model experiments and biophysical measurements will be utilized to evaluate changes in five freshwater ecosystem services (flood regulation, groundwater recharge, surface water quality, groundwater quality, and lake recreation) and five related ecosystem services (food crop yields, bioenergy crop yields, carbon storage in soil, albedo, and terrestrial recreation). Novel additions to existing biophysical models will allow us to simulate all components of the hydrological cycle as well as agricultural productivity, nitrogen and phosphorus transport, and lake water quality. The integrated model will be validated using a comprehensive observational database that includes soil moisture, evapotranspiration, stomatal conductance, streamflow, stream and lake water quality, and crop yields and productivity. Integrated scenarios will be developed to synthesize decision-maker perspectives, alternative approaches to resource governance, plausible trends in demographic and economic drivers, and model projections under alternate climate and land use regimes to understand future conditions of the watershed and its ecosystem services. The quantitative data and integrated scenarios will then be linked to evaluate governance of water and land use.

  19. MEASURING LAND USE PERFORMANCE

    E-print Network

    California at Davis, University of

    MEASURING LAND USE PERFORMANCE: POLICY, PLAN, AND OUTCOME October Measuring Land Use Performance: Policy, Plan, and Outcome A National Center Land Use ...................... 4 State-led Efforts to Influence Local Land Use

  20. Concentration patterns of agricultural pesticides and urban biocides in surface waters of a catchment of mixed land use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stamm, C.; Wittmer, I.; Bader, H.-P.; Scheidegger, R.; Alder, A.; Lück, A.; Hanke, I.; Singer, H.

    2009-04-01

    Organic pesticides and biocides that are found in surface waters, can originate from agricultural and urban sources. For a long time, agricultural pesticides have received substantially more attention than biocidal compounds from urban use like material protection or in-can preservatives (cosmetics etc.). Recent studies however revealed that the amounts of urban biocides used may exceed those of agricultural pesticides. This study aims at comparing the input of several important pesticides and biocides into a small Swiss stream with a special focus on loss events triggered by rainfall. A set of 16 substances was selected to represent urban and agricultural sources. The selected substances are either only used as biocides (irgarol, isothiazolinones, IPBC), as pesticides (atrazine, sulcotrione, dichlofluanid, tolylfluanid) or have a mixed use (isoproturon, terbutryn, terbutylazine, mecoprop, diazinon, carbendazim) The study catchment has an area of 25 km2 and is inhabited by about 12'000 people. Four sampling sites were selected in the river system in order to reflect different urban and agricultural sources. Additionally, we sampled a combined sewer overflow, a rain sewer and the outflow of a wastewater treatment plant. At each site discharge was measured continuously from March to November 2007. During 16 rain events samples were taken by automatic devices at a high temporal resolution. The results, based on more than 500 analyzed samples, revealed distinct concentration patterns for different compounds and sources. Agricultural pesticides exhibited a strong seasonality as expected based on the application periods. During the first one or two rain events after application the concentrations reached up to several thousand ng/l during peak flow (atrazine, isoproturon). The temporal patterns of urban biocides were more diverse. Some compounds obviously stem from permanent sources independent of rainfall because they were found mostly in the outlet of the wastewater treatment plant throughout the year. The insecticide diazinon for example showed a background concentration in treated waste water of approximately 50 ng/l. Substances like mecoprop, which are used in urban areas (roof protection, private gardens) and agriculture showed a mixed pattern. At the time scale of single events two concentration peaks have been observed. One of them was due to the fast reaction of sewer overflows or rain sewers carrying urban storm water. The delayed peak was caused by fast flow from agricultural soils. Overall, the study revealed complex concentration patterns for the different compounds. Source identification was only possible by means of a comprehensive approach including different nested measuring sites, a broad range of different compounds that were complemented by tracer substances like caffeine or drugs and their metabolites (sulfamethoxazole, N4-acetylsulfamethoxazole, diclofenac) that can be non-ambiguously attributed to sources like treated or untreated wastewater.

  1. How do land use intensity, experimentally increased temperature and water level affect methane and nitrous oxide emissions from a drained fen peatland?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinichen, Jan; Eickenscheidt, Tim; Drösler, Matthias

    2014-05-01

    Rewetting and extensification of peatlands is widely discussed and practiced to reduce losses of CO2 and N2O from drained peat soils. But rewetting is known to carry the risk of increased CH4 emissions. Up to now it is not completely clear how the predicted temperature increase in the face of climate change will alter the N2O and CH4 exchange of grasslands on drained peatland soils in the temperate zone. Therefore we investigated the effects of land use intensity, increased groundwater level, increased temperature and the combination of warming and increased groundwater level on CH4 and N2O exchange of two grassland sites (intensive and extensive grassland) in a drained fen peatland in southern Germany. We set up a factorial design on both land use types, on each three treatments, warming, increased water table level and the combination of warming and increased water table level as well as a control site were established. Temperature was manipulated with open-top chambers (OTCs) and water level manipulation was performed using a pumping system and sheet pile walls. The intensive grassland was cut three times in the year, the extensive grassland once in autumn 2011. Cattle slurry and mineral fertilizer (CAN) were deployed on the intensive grassland. Fluxes of CH4 and N2O were measured biweekly from December 2010 to January 2012 using opaque static closed chambers. The annual mean groundwater level (GWL) of the sites without water level manipulation was -41.5 cm b. g. and -30 cm b. g. at the water level manipulated sites on the intensive grassland. On the extensive grassland the GWL of the sites without water level manipulation was -32 cm b. g. and -21.5 cm b. g. at the water level manipulated sites. Air temperature in 0.2 m was increased in 2011 by 0.7 ° C at the treatments with OTCs on the intensive grassland and by 1.0 ° C at the treatments with OTCs on the extensive grassland respectively. The annual cumulative CH4 exchange ranged from 8.1 ± 3.8 kg C ha-1 yr-1 to 36.3 ± 8.6 kg C ha-1 yr-1on the extensive grassland and from -0.1 ± 0.3 kg C ha-1 yr-1 to 15.0 ± 1.9 kg C ha-1 yr-1 on the intensive grassland. The CH4 emissions of the treatments with increased water level on the intensive grassland were significantly higher compared to the control and warming sites. No significant differences could be observed between CH4 emissions of the treatments on the extensive grassland. However, we found a general significant relationship between CH4 fluxes, groundwater level and temperature. All sites on the intensive grassland show higher annual emissions of N2O compared to the sites on the extensive grassland. The annual cumulative N2O exchange ranged from 3.1 ± 0.5 kg N ha-1 yr-1 to 6.1 ± 0.4 kg N ha-1 yr-1on the intensive grassland and from 0.7 ± 0.1 kg N ha-1 yr-1 to 1.3 ± 0.2 kg N ha-1 yr-1 on the extensive grassland. Significant treatment effects could not be observed for N2O exchange on both land use types.

  2. SMART GROWTH LAND USE PLANNING FOR A COMMUNITY AT THE RURAL URBAN INTERFACE UTILIZING STRUCTURED PUBLIC INVOLVEMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    A. Simpson County, KY is facing suburban growth pressure like many communities across the country at the rural urban interface. This presents opportunities and challenges to maintain community identity, build economic diversity, protect environmental resources, and imp...

  3. Facing the Urban Challenge: Reimagining Land Use in America's Distressed Older Cities--The Federal Policy Role

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mallach, Alan

    2010-01-01

    The end of World War II heralded an era of urban disinvestment in the United States. While some cities began to rebound in the 1990s with population and economic growth, others--including large cities like Detroit, Cleveland, and St. Louis as well as many smaller cities and towns--did not, and have continued to decline. As these communities…

  4. Evaluating the effects of urbanization and land-use planning using ground-water and surface-water models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hunt, R.J.; Steuer, J.J.

    2001-01-01

    Why are the effects of urbanization a concern? As the city of Middleton, Wisconsin, and its surroundings continue to develop, the Pheasant Branch watershed (fig.l) is expected to undergo urbanization. For the downstream city of Middleton, urbanization in the watershed can mean increased flood peaks, water volume and pollutant loads. More subtly, it may also reduce water that sustains the ground-water system (called "recharge") and adversely affect downstream ecosystems that depend on ground water such as the Pheasant Branch Springs (hereafter referred to as the Springs). The relation of stormwater runoff and reduced ground-water recharge is complex because the surface-water system is coupled to the underlying ground-water system. In many cases there is movement of water from one system to the other that varies seasonally or daily depending on changing conditions. Therefore, it is difficult to reliably determine the effects of urbanization on stream baseflow and spring flows without rigorous investigation. Moreover, mitigating adverse effects after development has occurred can be expensive and administratively difficult. Overlying these concerns are issues such as stewardship of the resource, the rights of the public, and land owners' rights both of those developing their land and those whose land is affected by this development. With the often- contradictory goals, a scientific basis for assessing effects of urbanization and effectiveness of mitigation measures helps ensure fair and constructive decision-making. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the City of Middleton and Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources, completed a study that helps address these issues through modeling of the hydrologic system. This Fact Sheet discusses the results of this work.

  5. A comparison between developed and developing countries in terms of urban land use change effects on nitrogen cycle: Paris and Săo Paulo metropolitan areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nardoto, Gabriela; Svirejeva-Hopkin, Anastasia; Martinelli, Luiz Antonio

    2010-05-01

    Urbanization is considered one of the most powerful and characteristic anthropogenic forces on Earth in the 21st century. Although, currently, cities occupy only about 2 percent of the Earth's land surface, they are home to over 50 percent of the world's population. While in cities of some developed countries, urban population might stabilize or even slightly decrease, its rate of growth in developing countries is faster than in the industrialized nations. Such increase is accompanied by growing energy production, increased food demand, expanding transportation and industrialization. Although agricultural production is by far the largest cause of the doubling in the amount of reactive nitrogen entering the biospheric cycle compared to pre-industrial conditions, nowadays more than half of the crops produced in rural areas are consumed in urban zones. Having in mind that there is a clear global trend towards urbanization and growing urban areas, the objective of this study was to compare major nitrogen fluxes between a mega city situated in a developing country (Săo Paulo Metropolitan Area - SPMA) in Brazil with one of the largest city of highly industrialized Europe (Paris Metropolitan Area - PMA). We make the first step in producing a detailed N mass balance for the SPMA and PMA in order to estimate the magnitude of major fluxes across the urban landscape and see how N cycling vary among urban system components. This effort may help to highlight differences between developing and developed areas and subsidize the formulation of public policies towards reduction of N related pollution of recipient systems. The N mass balance showed the SPMA as a net source of nitrogen, emitting in total about 93.5 Gg of N per year, or about 4750 g of N per capita. Most N inputs to the SPMA are directly related to food consumption, N in wastewater and landfills. These fluxes are quite amendable to management efforts to reduce N input to the receiver component of the urban ecosystem (rivers and soil). For example treated sewage effluent could be used as a source of N for some crops, especially vegetables. PMA is also a source of reactive nitrogen, emitting in total about 32 Gg of N per year, or about 3000 g of N per capita, being the major part attributed to the atmospheric emissions from transportation and energy. An important outcome of this study has been the identification of several key uncertainties regarding the N budget that require further research for either developed and developing regions studied. The following uncertainties of N cycling in an urban system need better understanding: the mechanisms of dry-deposition processes in urban systems with patchy vegetation; high NOx emissions and the increase in travel distance of smaller particles coming from modern engines; and complex patterns of air flow in the dense build-up areas. Urban soil N dynamics is very uncertain, while soil represents a major sink of N in natural ecosystems. Ultimately, the challenge is to integrate human choices and ecosystem dynamics into a multidisciplinary model of biogeochemical cycling in urban ecosystems, focusing as a first step on the quantitatively evaluating the mutual relationship between urban land-use changes and natural ecosystem from the standpoint of global N balance. To develop those schemes will require the construction of detailed ecosystem-level N balances, an in-depth understanding of the interplay of inputs, geographical and climatic factors, nonspecific management practices, and deliberate N management practices that control the fate of N in urban landscapes.

  6. Mapping Carbon Storage in Urban Trees with Multi-source Remote Sensing Data: Relationships between Biomass, Land Use, and Demographics in Boston Neighborhoods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raciti, S. M.; Hutyra, L.

    2014-12-01

    High resolution maps of urban vegetation and biomass are powerful tools for policy-makers and community groups seeking to reduce rates of urban runoff, moderate urban heat island effects, and mitigate the effects of greenhouse gas emissions. We develop a very high resolution map of urban tree biomass, assess the scale sensitivities in biomass estimation, compare our results with lower resolution estimates, and explore the demographic relationships in biomass distribution across the City of Boston. We integrated remote sensing data (including LiDAR-based tree height estimates) and field-based observations to map canopy cover and aboveground tree carbon storage at ~1 m spatial scale. Mean tree canopy cover was estimated to be 25.5±1.5% and carbon storage was 355 Gg (28.8 Mg C ha-1) for the City of Boston. Tree biomass was highest in forest patches (110.7 Mg C ha-1), but residential (32.8 Mg C ha-1) and developed open (23.5 Mg C ha-1) land uses also contained relatively high carbon stocks. In contrast with previous studies, we did not find significant correlations between tree biomass and the demographic characteristics of Boston neighborhoods, including income, education, race, or population density. The proportion of households that rent was negatively correlated with urban tree biomass (R2=0.26, p=0.04) and correlated with Priority Planting Index values (R2=0.55, p=0.001), potentially reflecting differences in land management among rented and owner-occupied residential properties. We compared our very high resolution biomass map to lower resolution biomass products from other sources and found that those products consistently underestimated biomass within urban areas. This underestimation became more severe as spatial resolution decreased. This research demonstrates that 1) urban areas contain considerable tree carbon stocks; 2) canopy cover and biomass may not be related to the demographic characteristics of Boston neighborhoods; and 3) that recent advances in high resolution remote sensing have the potential to improve the characterization and management of urban vegetation.

  7. 36 CFR 910.16 - Land use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Land use. 910.16 Section 910...AND UNIFORM STANDARDS FOR URBAN PLANNING AND DESIGN OF DEVELOPMENT WITHIN...AVENUE DEVELOPMENT AREA Urban Planning and Design Concerns § 910.16 Land use. (a)...

  8. 36 CFR 910.16 - Land use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Land use. 910.16 Section 910...AND UNIFORM STANDARDS FOR URBAN PLANNING AND DESIGN OF DEVELOPMENT WITHIN...AVENUE DEVELOPMENT AREA Urban Planning and Design Concerns § 910.16 Land use. (a)...

  9. An evaluation of machine processing techniques of ERTS-1 data for user applications. [urban land use and soil association mapping in Indiana

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landgrebe, D.

    1974-01-01

    A broad study is described to evaluate a set of machine analysis and processing techniques applied to ERTS-1 data. Based on the analysis results in urban land use analysis and soil association mapping together with previously reported results in general earth surface feature identification and crop species classification, a profile of general applicability of this procedure is beginning to emerge. Put in the hands of a user who knows well the information needed from the data and also is familiar with the region to be analyzed it appears that significantly useful information can be generated by these methods. When supported by preprocessing techniques such as the geometric correction and temporal registration capabilities, final products readily useable by user agencies appear possible. In parallel with application, through further research, there is much potential for further development of these techniques both with regard to providing higher performance and in new situations not yet studied.

  10. Identification of the relationship between economic and land use characteristics and urban mobility at the macroscopic level in Texas urban areas 

    E-print Network

    Schrank, David Lynn

    2004-11-15

    Traffic congestion continues to be a growing problem for cities of all sizes in the United States. Transportation agencies in urban areas are facing the difficult challenges of providing an efficient and reliable transportation ...

  11. Influence of fipronil compounds and rice-cultivation land-use intensity on macroinvertebrate communities in streams of southwestern Louisiana, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mize, S.V.; Porter, S.D.; Demcheck, D.K.

    2008-01-01

    Laboratory tests of fipronil and its degradation products have revealed acute lethal toxicity at very low concentrations (LC50) of <0.5 ??g/L to selected aquatic macroinvertebrates. In streams draining basins with intensive rice cultivation in southwestern Louisiana, USA, concentrations of fipronil compounds were an order of magnitude larger than the LC50. The abundance (?? = -0.64; p = 0.015) and taxa richness (r2 = 0.515, p < 0.005) of macroinvertebrate communities declined significantly with increases in concentrations of fipronil compounds and rice-cultivation land-use intensity. Macroinvertebrate community tolerance scores increased linearly (r2 = 0.442, p < 0.005) with increases in the percentage of rice cultivation in the basins, indicating increasingly degraded stream conditions. Similarly, macroinvertebrate community-tolerance scores increased rapidly as fipronil concentrations approached about 1 ??g/L. Pesticide toxicity index determinations indicated that aquatic macroinvertebrates respond to a gradient of fipronil compounds in water although stream size and habitat cannot be ruled out as contributing influences.

  12. Aligning lAnd Use And TrAnsporTATion

    E-print Network

    California at Davis, University of

    1 ULTRANS Aligning lAnd Use And TrAnsporTATion policy And prAcTice #12;oVerVieW The Urban Land Use research and outreach enhance land use and transportation policies and decisions by enabling full are considering a wide range of land use and transportation policies, from parking pricing to infill development

  13. Analysis of the effect of evergreen and deciduous trees on urban nitrogen dioxide levels in the U.S. using land-use regression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, M.; George, L. A.

    2012-12-01

    Nitrogen dioxide (NO2), an atmospheric pollutant generated primarily by anthropogenic combustion processes, is typically found at higher concentrations in urban areas compared to non-urbanized environments. Elevated NO2 levels have multiple ecosystem effects at different spatial scales. At the local scale, elevated levels affect human health directly and through the formation of secondary pollutants such as ozone and aerosols; at the regional scale secondary pollutants such as nitric acid and organic nitrates have deleterious effects on non-urbanized areas; and, at the global scale, nitrogen oxide emissions significantly alter the natural biogeochemical nitrogen cycle. As cities globally become larger and larger sources of nitrogen oxide emissions, it is important to assess possible mitigation strategies to reduce the impact of emissions locally, regionally and globally. In this study, we build a national land-use regression (LUR) model to compare the impacts of deciduous and evergreen trees on urban NO2 levels in the United States. We use the EPA monitoring network values of NO2 levels for 2006, the 2006 NLCD tree canopy data for deciduous and evergreen canopies, and the US Census Bureau's TIGER shapefiles for roads, railroads, impervious area & population density as proxies for NO2 sources on-road traffic, railroad traffic, off-road and area sources respectively. Our preliminary LUR model corroborates previous LUR studies showing that the presence of trees is associated with reduced urban NO2 levels. Additionally, our model indicates that deciduous and evergreen trees reduce NO2 to different extents, and that the amount of NO2 reduced varies seasonally. The model indicates that every square kilometer of deciduous canopy within a 2km buffer is associated with a reduction in ambient NO2 levels of 0.64 ppb in summer and 0.46ppb in winter. Similarly, every square kilometer of evergreen tree canopy within a 2 km buffer is associated with a reduction in ambient NO2 by 0.53 ppb in summer and 0.84 ppb in winter. Thus, the model indicates that deciduous trees are associated with a 30% smaller reduction in NO2 in winter as compared to summer, while evergreens are associated with a 60% increase in the reduction of NO2 in winter, for every square kilometer of deciduous or evergreen canopy within a 2 km buffer. Leaf- and local canopy-level studies have shown that trees are a sink for urban NO2 through deposition as well as stomatal and cuticular uptake. The winter time versus summer time effects suggest that leaf-level deposition may not be the only uptake mechanism and points to the need for a more holistic analysis of tree and canopy-level deposition for urban air pollution models. Since deposition velocities for NO2 vary by tree species, the reduction may also vary by species. These findings have implications for designing cities to reduce the impact of air pollution.

  14. As seen in Fig. 2, US land planted to crops has been relatively steady while production has increased. Land used for fuel ethanol production is

    E-print Network

    Pennycook, Steve

    increased. Land used for fuel ethanol production is relatively small and gradually increasing. No major converted to an urban use ... land rarely transitions back to a less intensive agricultural use uses. Understanding the land-use change (LUC) implications of bioenergy feedstock production is crucial

  15. Hydrological impacts of land use change in three diverse South African catchments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warburton, Michele L.; Schulze, Roland E.; Jewitt, Graham P. W.

    2012-01-01

    SummaryIn order to meet society's needs for water, food, fuel and fibre, the earth's natural land cover and land use have been significantly changed. These changes have impacted on the hydrological responses and thus available water resources, as the hydrological responses of a catchment are dependent upon, and sensitive to, changes in the land use. The degree of anthropogenic modification of the land cover, the intensity of the land use changes and location of land uses within a catchment determines the extent to which land uses influences hydrological response of a catchment. The objective of the study was to improve understanding of the complex interactions between hydrological response and land use to aid in water resources planning. To achieve this, a hydrological model, viz. the ACRU agrohydrological model, which adequately represents hydrological processes and is sensitive to land use changes, was used to generate hydrological responses from three diverse, complex and operational South African catchments under both current land use and a baseline land cover. The selected catchments vary with respect to both land use and climate. The semi-arid sub-tropical Luvuvhu catchment has a large proportion of subsistence agriculture and informal residential areas, whereas in the winter rainfall Upper Breede catchment the primary land uses are commercial orchards and vineyards. The sub-humid Mgeni catchment is dominated by commercial plantation forestry in the upper reaches, commercial sugarcane and urban areas in the middle reaches, with the lower reaches dominated by urban areas. The hydrological responses of the selected catchments to land use change were complex. Results showed that the contributions of different land uses to the streamflow generated from a catchment is not proportional to the relative area of that land use, and the relative contribution of the land use to the catchment streamflow varies with the mean annual rainfall of the catchment. Furthermore, it was shown that the location of specific land uses within a catchment has a role in the response of the streamflow of the catchment to that land use change. From the Mgeni catchment, the significant role of the water engineered system on catchment streamflow was evident. Hydrological models have drawbacks associated with them due to inherent uncertainties. However, in this study the ACRU model proved to be a useful tool to assess the impacts of land use change on the hydrological response as impacts from the local scale to catchment scale could be assessed as well as the progression of impacts of land use changes as the streamflow cascades downstream through the catchment.

  16. Land-use history and management intensity as drivers of spatial variability in soil greenhouse gas fluxes in a poplar bioenergy plantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Görres, Carolyn-Monika; Ceulemans, Reinhart

    2014-05-01

    Bioenergy crops are considered to be carbon-neutral because biomass combustion releases only carbon which has previously been extracted from the atmosphere by the plants. However, during crop growth, a significant amount of the greenhouse gases (GHG) CO2, CH4 and N2O can be produced by soil microorganisms and released to the atmosphere. Depending on crop type and management intensity, soil GHG fluxes might be so substantial that bioenergy crops could overall emit more GHG than the same amount of fossil fuels. The present knowledge about soil GHG fluxes from bioenergy crops is not sufficient to accurately quantify them. This is especially true for short rotation woody crops (SRWC) which might become more important in the future because they have a relatively high GHG mitigation potential. However, before pursuing the use of SRWC plantations for carbon sequestration and fossil fuel replacement, it is necessary to accurately assess their uptake and release of all major GHG to prevent the unconscious widespread deployment of unsustainable cultivation practices. The aim of this project is to identify drivers of spatial variability in soil GHG fluxes in a poplar SRWC plantation with special emphasis on the legacy effect of former land-use. The plantation has been established partly on former pasture and partly on former cropland, offering the unique opportunity to study soil GHG flux dynamics with respect to their dependency on former land-use type under identical climate and management conditions. The plantation is currently in its fifth vegetation season and in the first year of its third rotation. Simultaneous monitoring of soil CO2, CH4 and N2O fluxes will take place with a custom-made automated chamber system throughout the entire third rotation (three years) accompanied by soil gas concentration profile measurements. In parallel, community composition of functional groups of soil microorganisms (denitrifiers, ammonia oxidizers, methanogens) and total soil microbial biomass will be quantified at different developmental stages of the poplar plantation as well as in adjacent long-established and newly converted agricultural fields. The microbial community data will give a quantitative overview of the spatial variability of these functional groups in a highly patterned agricultural landscape and new insights into the effect of different types of disturbance events (e.g. land-use change, harvest) on the composition of functional groups of soil microorganisms and the time duration of possible acclimation effects. In combination with the soil GHG flux dataset, this research will result in new significant insights into the importance of environmental controls versus microbial community composition for soil GHG flux dynamics in bioenergy crops. The interpretation of the data will be aided by a vast database containing information on ecosystem GHG fluxes, soil CO2 fluxes, above-ground and below-ground biomass development, as well as groundwater chemistry, which has been collected since the establishment of the plantation in 2010 in the POPFULL project (http://webh01.ua.ac.be/popfull/). Funding from ERC Advanced Grant agreement (# 233366) POPFULL under the EC 7th Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013), from the Flemish Hercules Foundation as Infrastructure contract # ZW09-06, and from the Methusalem Programme of the Flemish Government.

  17. 36 CFR 910.16 - Land use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Land use. 910.16 Section 910.16 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PENNSYLVANIA AVENUE DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION GENERAL GUIDELINES... DEVELOPMENT AREA Urban Planning and Design Concerns § 910.16 Land use. (a) Development within the...

  18. 36 CFR 910.16 - Land use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Land use. 910.16 Section 910.16 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PENNSYLVANIA AVENUE DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION GENERAL GUIDELINES... DEVELOPMENT AREA Urban Planning and Design Concerns § 910.16 Land use. (a) Development within the...

  19. 36 CFR 910.16 - Land use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Land use. 910.16 Section 910.16 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PENNSYLVANIA AVENUE DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION GENERAL GUIDELINES... DEVELOPMENT AREA Urban Planning and Design Concerns § 910.16 Land use. (a) Development within the...

  20. 36 CFR 910.16 - Land use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Land use. 910.16 Section 910.16 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PENNSYLVANIA AVENUE DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION GENERAL GUIDELINES... DEVELOPMENT AREA Urban Planning and Design Concerns § 910.16 Land use. (a) Development within the...

  1. 36 CFR 910.16 - Land use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Land use. 910.16 Section 910.16 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PENNSYLVANIA AVENUE DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION GENERAL GUIDELINES... DEVELOPMENT AREA Urban Planning and Design Concerns § 910.16 Land use. (a) Development within the...

  2. Land Use Planning (3cr.) Spring 2007

    E-print Network

    Brown, Gregory G.

    control over land in this country, the use of planning and zoning mechanisms to control land use principles of landscape ecology and ecological design, as well as contemporary concepts of "smart growth", and "new urbanism". Most land uses are interrelated and planners must increasingly address cross

  3. Land degradation in a semi-urban catchment in Burkina Faso: monitoring land use change and soil erosion with earth observations and field surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angeluccetti, Irene; Coviello, Velio; Vezza, Paolo; Grimaldi, Stefania; Steffenino, Sara; Magloire Koussoubé, Alain

    2015-04-01

    Soil erosion is currently menacing the availability of arable land in various countries worldwide. In particular the countries located in the Sahel area of Sub-Saharan Africa are extremely prone to this type of environmental degradation. The same countries rely traditionally upon subsistence farming, which makes the population more vulnerable to environmental changes. The study here presented exploits remote sensed data for identifying the main degradation processes occurring in a small catchment of central Burkina Faso (i.e., Boulbi watershed). This catchment, approximately 100 square km large, is characterized by the presence of a 30 years old dam, whose reservoir feeds 80 ha of rice-fields. This produce contributes up to 13% of the regional rice production. Nonetheless other crops, along with rain-fed rice, are grown all across the Boulbi catchment during the rainy season. Both the increasing gully erosion and the urbanization of the capital city pushing from the North are significantly threatening the farming activities. By using aerial frames acquired with a 16 years' time interval (i.e., 1996, 2012), free satellite imagery, and field surveys, the base cartography of the investigated area was updated and the most active gullies were identified. Moreover a change detection analysis was performed on both artifacts and land use features. More than 200.000 square m of erosion areas and an increase of nearly 90% in built-up areas were detected. In addition, the importance of producing up-to-date base data was proven by the exploitation of the outcomes for the production of a catchment land and water management plan.

  4. Land use and climate variability amplify carbon, nutrient, and contaminant pulses: a review with management implications

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nonpoint source pollution from agriculture and urbanization is increasing globally at the same time that climate extremes have increased in frequency and intensity. We review over 160 studies and show how the interaction between land use and climate variability alters the magnit...

  5. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal communities in sub-Saharan savannas of Benin, West Africa, as affected by agricultural land use intensity and ecological zone.

    PubMed

    Tchabi, Atti; Coyne, Danny; Hountondji, Fabien; Lawouin, Louis; Wiemken, Andres; Oehl, Fritz

    2008-04-01

    The rapid decline of soil fertility of cultivated lands in the sub-Saharan savannas of West Africa is considered to be the main cause of the increasingly severe constraints of food production. The soils in this tropical area are highly fragile, and crop yields are limited by characteristically low levels of available phosphorus. Under such preconditions, the multiple benefits of the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis are likely to play a pivotal role for maintaining natural soil fertility by enhancing plant nutrient use efficiency, plant health, and stabilization of a favorable soil structure. Thus, it is important to explore the impact of the commonly applied farming practices on the native AM fungal community. In the present study, we determined the AM fungal species composition in three ecological zones differing by an increasingly prolonged dry season from South to North, from the Southern Guinea Savanna (SG), to the Northern Guinea Savanna (NG), to the Sudan Savanna (SU). In each zone, four "natural" and four "cultivated" sites were selected. "Natural" sites were three natural forest savannas (at least 25-30 years old) and a long-term fallow (6-7 years old). "Cultivated" sites comprised a field with yam (Dioscorea spp.) established during the first year after forest clearance, a field under mixed cropping with maize (Zea mays) and peanut (Arachis hypogaea), a field under peanut, and a field under cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) which was the most intensively managed crop. Soil samples were collected towards the end of the wet season in each zone. AM fungal spores were extracted and morphologically identified. Soil subsamples were used to inoculate AM fungal trap cultures using Stylosanthes guianensis and Brachiaria humidicola as host plants to monitor AM root colonization and spore formation over 10 and 24 months, respectively. A total of 60 AM fungal species were detected, with only seven species sporulating in the trap cultures. Spore density and species richness were generally higher in the natural savannas and under yam than at the other cultivated sites and lowest under the intensively managed cotton. In the fallows, species richness was intermediate, indicating that the high richness of the natural savannas was not restored. Surprisingly, higher species richness was observed in the SU than in the SG and NG, mainly due to a high proportion of species in the Gigasporaceae, Acaulosporaceae, and Glomeraceae. We conclude that the West African savannas contain a high natural AM fungal species richness, but that this natural richness is significantly affected by the common agricultural land use practices and appears not to be quickly restored by fallow. PMID:18386078

  6. Remote Sensing Application to Land Use Classification in a Rapidly Changing Agricultural/Urban Area: City of Virginia Beach, Virginia. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Odenyo, V. A. O.

    1975-01-01

    Remote sensing data on computer-compatible tapes of LANDSAT 1 multispectral scanner imager were analyzed to generate a land use map of the City of Virginia Beach. All four bands were used in both the supervised and unsupervised approaches with the LAYSYS software system. Color IR imagery of a U-2 flight of the same area was also digitized and two sample areas were analyzed via the unsupervised approach. The relationships between the mapped land use and the soils of the area were investigated. A land use land cover map at a scale of 1:24,000 was obtained from the supervised analysis of LANDSAT 1 data. It was concluded that machine analysis of remote sensing data to produce land use maps was feasible; that the LAYSYS software system was usable for this purpose; and that the machine analysis was capable of extracting detailed information from the relatively small scale LANDSAT data in a much shorter time without compromising accuracy.

  7. Land use planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The organization, objectives, and accomplishments of the panel on Land Use Planning are reported. Technology developments, and projected developments are discussed along with anticipated information requirements. The issues for users, recommended remote sensing programs, and space systems are presented. It was found that remote sensing systems are useful in future land use planning. It is recommended that a change detection system for monitoring land use and critical environmental areas be developed by 1979.

  8. An integrated multi-criteria scenario evaluation web tool for participatory land-use planning in urbanized areas: The Ecosystem Portfolio Model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Labiosa, Bill; Forney, William M.; Hearn,, Paul P., Jr.; Hogan, Dianna M.; Strong, David R.; Swain, Eric D.; Esnard, Ann-Margaret; Mitsova-Boneva, D.; Bernknopf, R.; Pearlstine, Leonard; Gladwin, Hugh

    2013-01-01

    Land-use land-cover change is one of the most important and direct drivers of changes in ecosystem functions and services. Given the complexity of the decision-making, there is a need for Internet-based decision support systems with scenario evaluation capabilities to help planners, resource managers and communities visualize, compare and consider trade-offs among the many values at stake in land use planning. This article presents details on an Ecosystem Portfolio Model (EPM) prototype that integrates ecological, socio-economic information and associated values of relevance to decision-makers and stakeholders. The EPM uses a multi-criteria scenario evaluation framework, Geographic Information Systems (GIS) analysis and spatially-explicit land-use/land-cover change-sensitive models to characterize changes in important land-cover related ecosystem values related to ecosystem services and functions, land parcel prices, and community quality-of-life (QoL) metrics. Parameters in the underlying models can be modified through the interface, allowing users in a facilitated group setting to explore simultaneously issues of scientific uncertainty and divergence in the preferences of stakeholders. One application of the South Florida EPM prototype reported in this article shows the modeled changes (which are significant) in aggregate ecological value, landscape patterns and fragmentation, biodiversity potential and ecological restoration potential for current land uses compared to the 2050 land-use scenario. Ongoing refinements to EPM, and future work especially in regard to modifiable sea level rise scenarios are also discussed.

  9. Using GIS to integrate the analysis of land-use, transportation, and the environment for managing urban growth based on transit oriented development in the metropolitan of Jabodetabek, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasibuan, H. S.; Moersidik, S.; Koestoer, R.; Soemardi, T. P.

    2014-02-01

    There is an interaction between land use, transportation, and environment in improving and managing urban quality. One of the concpets to integrate those three aspects is Transit Oriented Development (TOD). It is a concept for managing urban growth in transit corridors which have characteristics of mixed land use, compact, walkability, and development focused around public transit area. This research aims at utilizing GIS to organize, sort, and analyze spatial data including aspects of land use, transportation, and environment. Jabodetabek is a strategic metropolitan area in Indonesia, and consists of DKI Jakarta and the neighboring Bodetabek cities, with more than 27 million population in 2010. Approximately 1,105,000 people are entering Jakarta every workday from the negihboring Bodetabek region. The surge in the number of passenger cars and motorcycles is astonishing. In contrast, the usage of public transport has declined deeply. Public transport infrastructure development without the integration of TOD may not attain the objective of reducing car dependency. This paper discusses the study which was carried out to identify the applicability of TOD principles in Jabodetabek using GIS as a tool to analysis and create model.

  10. Global Consequences of Land Use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foley, Jonathan A.; DeFries, Ruth; Asner, Gregory P.; Barford, Carol; Bonan, Gordon; Carpenter, Stephen R.; Chapin, F. Stuart; Coe, Michael T.; Daily, Gretchen C.; Gibbs, Holly K.; Helkowski, Joseph H.; Holloway, Tracey; Howard, Erica A.; Kucharik, Christopher J.; Monfreda, Chad; Patz, Jonathan A.; Prentice, I. Colin; Ramankutty, Navin; Snyder, Peter K.

    2005-07-01

    Land use has generally been considered a local environmental issue, but it is becoming a force of global importance. Worldwide changes to forests, farmlands, waterways, and air are being driven by the need to provide food, fiber, water, and shelter to more than six billion people. Global croplands, pastures, plantations, and urban areas have expanded in recent decades, accompanied by large increases in energy, water, and fertilizer consumption, along with considerable losses of biodiversity. Such changes in land use have enabled humans to appropriate an increasing share of the planet's resources, but they also potentially undermine the capacity of ecosystems to sustain food production, maintain freshwater and forest resources, regulate climate and air quality, and ameliorate infectious diseases. We face the challenge of managing trade-offs between immediate human needs and maintaining the capacity of the biosphere to provide goods and services in the long term.

  11. Land Use Planning Workbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, Evelyn

    This document presents a rationale and procedures for a series of workshops on land use planning. It was developed initially as a response to the need for information and materials for land use planning in rural Alaska. A four cycle planning model is provided and a suggested format is offered for an individual workshop session. Each session…

  12. Quantitative analysis of urban sprawl in Tripoli using Pearson's Chi-Square statistics and urban expansion intensity index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-sharif, Abubakr A. A.; Pradhan, Biswajeet; Zulhaidi Mohd Shafri, Helmi; Mansor, Shattri

    2014-06-01

    Urban expansion is a spatial phenomenon that reflects the increased level of importance of metropolises. The remotely sensed data and GIS have been widely used to study and analyze the process of urban expansions and their patterns. The capital of Libya (Tripoli) was selected to perform this study and to examine its urban growth patterns. Four satellite imageries of the study area in different dates (1984, 1996, 2002 and 2010) were used to conduct this research. The main goal of this work is identification and analyzes the urban sprawl of Tripoli metropolitan area. Urban expansion intensity index (UEII) and degree of freedom test were used to analyze and assess urban expansions in the area of study. The results show that Tripoli has sprawled urban expansion patterns; high urban expansion intensity index; and its urban development had high degree of freedom according to its urban expansion history during the time period (1984-2010). However, the novel proposed hypothesis used for zones division resulted in very good insight understanding of urban expansion direction and the effect of the distance from central business of district (CBD).

  13. 24 CFR 1710.209 - Title and land use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Title and land use. 1710.209... URBAN DEVELOPMENT (INTERSTATE LAND SALES REGISTRATION PROGRAM) LAND REGISTRATION Reporting Requirements § 1710.209 Title and land use. (a) General information. (1) State whether the developer has reserved...

  14. 24 CFR 1710.209 - Title and land use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Title and land use. 1710.209... URBAN DEVELOPMENT (INTERSTATE LAND SALES REGISTRATION PROGRAM) LAND REGISTRATION Reporting Requirements § 1710.209 Title and land use. (a) General information. (1) State whether the developer has reserved...

  15. 24 CFR 1710.209 - Title and land use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Title and land use. 1710.209... URBAN DEVELOPMENT (INTERSTATE LAND SALES REGISTRATION PROGRAM) LAND REGISTRATION Reporting Requirements § 1710.209 Title and land use. (a) General information. (1) State whether the developer has reserved...

  16. 24 CFR 1710.209 - Title and land use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Title and land use. 1710.209... URBAN DEVELOPMENT (INTERSTATE LAND SALES REGISTRATION PROGRAM) LAND REGISTRATION Reporting Requirements § 1710.209 Title and land use. (a) General information. (1) State whether the developer has reserved...

  17. 24 CFR 1710.209 - Title and land use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Title and land use. 1710.209... URBAN DEVELOPMENT (INTERSTATE LAND SALES REGISTRATION PROGRAM) LAND REGISTRATION Reporting Requirements § 1710.209 Title and land use. (a) General information. (1) State whether the developer has reserved...

  18. A Comparison of Natural and Urban Characteristics and the Development of Urban Intensity Indices Across Six Geographic Settings

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Falcone, James A.; Stewart, Jana; Sobieszczyk, Steven; Dupree, Jean; McMahon, Gerard; Buell, Gary

    2007-01-01

    As part of the U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Assessment Program, the effects of urbanization on stream ecosystems have been intensively investigated in six metropolitan areas in the United States. Approximately 30 watersheds in each area, ranging in size from 4 to 560 square kilometers (median is 50 square kilometers), and spanning a development gradient from very low to very high urbanization, were examined near Atlanta, Georgia; Raleigh, North Carolina; Denver, Colorado; Dallas-Fort Worth, Texas; Portland, Oregon; and Milwaukee-Green Bay, Wisconsin. These six studies are a continuation of three previous studies in Boston, Massachusetts; Birmingham, Alabama; and Salt Lake City, Utah. In each study, geographic information system data for approximately 300 variables were assembled to (a) characterize the environmental settings of the areas and (b) establish a consistent multimetric urban intensity index based on locally important land-cover, infrastructure, and socioeconomic variables. This paper describes the key features of urbanization and the urban intensity index for the study watersheds within each area, how they differ across study areas, and the relation between the environmental setting and the characteristics of urbanization. A number of features of urbanization were identified that correlated very strongly to population density in every study area. Of these, road density had the least variability across diverse geographic settings and most closely matched the multimetric nature of the urban intensity index. A common urban intensity index was derived that ranks watersheds across all six study areas. Differences in local natural settings and urban geography were challenging in (a) identifying consistent urban gradients in individual study areas and (b) creating a common urban intensity index that matched the site scores of the local urban intensity index in all areas. It is intended that the descriptions of the similarities and differences in urbanization and environmental settings across these study areas will provide a foundation for understanding and interpreting the effects of urbanization on stream ecosystems in the studies being conducted as part of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program.

  19. Impact of Low-Level Jets on the Nocturnal Urban Heat Island Intensity in Oklahoma City

    E-print Network

    Xue, Ming

    Impact of Low-Level Jets on the Nocturnal Urban Heat Island Intensity in Oklahoma City XIAO-MING HU, Norman, Oklahoma JULIE K. LUNDQUIST Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences/Renewable that urban heat islands (UHIs) frequently formed at night and the observed UHI intensity was variable (18­48C

  20. Two Model Scenarios Illustrating the Effects of Land Use and Climate Change on Gravel Riverbeds of

    E-print Network

    Gruner, Daniel S.

    ) Scenario represents minimum effects of land use and climate change, while the Urban Sprawl/ Climate Change from agriculture to urban land uses, also influence storm discharges and sediment supply (Yorke converted to urban and suburban land uses (e.g. Irwin and Bockstael, 2004). The profound influence

  1. A Coupled SD and CLUE-S Model for Exploring the Impact of Land Use Change on Ecosystem Service Value: A Case Study in Baoshan District, Shanghai, China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Meng; Ren, Xiangyu; Che, Yue; Yang, Kai

    2015-08-01

    Most of the cities in developing countries are experiencing rapid urbanization. Land use change driven by urban sprawl, population growth, and intensified socio-economic activities have led to a steep decline of ecosystem service value (ESV) in rapid urbanization areas, and decision-makers often ignore some valuable ecosystem service functions and values in land use planning. In this paper, we attempt to build a modeling framework which integrated System Dynamics model with Conversion of Land Use and its Effects at Small Extent model to simulate the dynamics of ESV of landscape and explore the potential impacts of land use change on ESV. We take Baoshan district of Shanghai as an example which is a fast urbanization area of metropolitan in China. The results of the study indicate that: (1) The integrated methodology can improve the characterization and presentation of the dynamics of ESV, which may give insight into understanding the possible impacts of land use change on ESV and provide information for land use planning. (2) Land use polices can affect the magnitude and location of ESV both directly and indirectly. Land use changes tend to weaken and simplify ecosystem service functions and values of landscape at urban rural fringe where land use change is more intensive. (3) The application of the methodology has proved that the integration of currently existing models within a single modeling framework could be a beneficial exploration, and should be encouraged and enhanced in the future research on the changing dynamics of ESV due to the complexity of ecosystem services and land use system. PMID:25924787

  2. A Coupled SD and CLUE-S Model for Exploring the Impact of Land Use Change on Ecosystem Service Value: A Case Study in Baoshan District, Shanghai, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Meng; Ren, Xiangyu; Che, Yue; Yang, Kai

    2015-08-01

    Most of the cities in developing countries are experiencing rapid urbanization. Land use change driven by urban sprawl, population growth, and intensified socio-economic activities have led to a steep decline of ecosystem service value (ESV) in rapid urbanization areas, and decision-makers often ignore some valuable ecosystem service functions and values in land use planning. In this paper, we attempt to build a modeling framework which integrated System Dynamics model with Conversion of Land Use and its Effects at Small Extent model to simulate the dynamics of ESV of landscape and explore the potential impacts of land use change on ESV. We take Baoshan district of Shanghai as an example which is a fast urbanization area of metropolitan in China. The results of the study indicate that: (1) The integrated methodology can improve the characterization and presentation of the dynamics of ESV, which may give insight into understanding the possible impacts of land use change on ESV and provide information for land use planning. (2) Land use polices can affect the magnitude and location of ESV both directly and indirectly. Land use changes tend to weaken and simplify ecosystem service functions and values of landscape at urban rural fringe where land use change is more intensive. (3) The application of the methodology has proved that the integration of currently existing models within a single modeling framework could be a beneficial exploration, and should be encouraged and enhanced in the future research on the changing dynamics of ESV due to the complexity of ecosystem services and land use system.

  3. Land-use Leakage

    SciTech Connect

    Calvin, Katherine V.; Edmonds, James A.; Clarke, Leon E.; Bond-Lamberty, Benjamin; Kim, Son H.; Wise, Marshall A.; Thomson, Allison M.; Kyle, G. Page

    2009-12-01

    Leakage occurs whenever actions to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions in one part of the world unleash countervailing forces elsewhere in the world so that reductions in global emissions are less than emissions mitigation in the mitigating region. While many researchers have examined the concept of industrial leakage, land-use policies can also result in leakage. We show that land-use leakage is potentially as large as or larger than industrial leakage. We identify two potential land-use leakage drivers, land-use policies and bioenergy. We distinguish between these two pathways and run numerical experiments for each. We also show that the land-use policy environment exerts a powerful influence on leakage and that under some policy designs leakage can be negative. International “offsets” are a potential mechanism to communicate emissions mitigation beyond the borders of emissions mitigating regions, but in a stabilization regime designed to limit radiative forcing to 3.7 2/m2, this also implies greater emissions mitigation commitments on the part of mitigating regions.

  4. Future land use plan

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-31

    The US Department of Energy`s (DOE) changing mission, coupled with the need to apply appropriate cleanup standards for current and future environmental restoration, prompted the need for a process to determine preferred Future Land Uses for DOE-owned sites. DOE began the ``Future Land Use`` initiative in 1994 to ensure that its cleanup efforts reflect the surrounding communities` interests in future land use. This plan presents the results of a study of stakeholder-preferred future land uses for the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), located in central Long Island, New York. The plan gives the Laboratory`s view of its future development over the next 20 years, as well as land uses preferred by the community were BNL ever to cease operations as a national laboratory (the post-BNL scenario). The plan provides an overview of the physical features of the site including its history, topography, geology/hydrogeology, biological inventory, floodplains, wetlands, climate, and atmosphere. Utility systems and current environmental operations are described including waste management, waste water treatment, hazardous waste management, refuse disposal and ground water management. To complement the physical descriptions of the site, demographics are discussed, including overviews of the surrounding areas, laboratory population, and economic and non-economic impacts.

  5. An analysis of Milwaukee county land use

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Todd, W. J.; Mausel, P. E.

    1973-01-01

    The identification and classification of urban and suburban phenomena through analysis of remotely-acquired sensor data can provide information of great potential value to many regional analysts. Such classifications, particularly those using spectral data obtained from satellites such as the first Earth Resources Technology Satellite (ERTS-1) orbited by NASA, allow rapid frequent and accurate general land use inventories that are of value in many types of spatial analyses. In this study, Milwaukee County, Wisconsin was classified into several broad land use categories on the basis of computer analysis of four bands of ERTS spectral data (ERTS Frame Number E1017-16093). Categories identified were: (1) road-central business district, (2) grass (green vegetation), (3) suburban, (4) wooded suburb, (5) heavy industry, (6) inner city, and (7) water. Overall, 90 percent accuracy was attained in classification of these urban land use categories.

  6. Ecologically based municipal land use planning

    SciTech Connect

    Honachefsky, W.B.

    2000-07-01

    The book presents compelling evidence and sound arguments that make the case for sound land use policies that will reduce sprawl. The book provides easily understood solutions for municipal land planners dealing with urban sprawl; discusses ecological resources; emphasizes the use of new environmental indicators; and includes the use of the Geographic Information System (GIS) to problem solving.

  7. RESEARCH FOR MANAGING URBAN WATERSHED MICROBIAL CONTAMINATION (PROJECT 1: MANAGING URBAN WATERSHED PATHOGEN CONTAMINATION: 2. EFFECT OF LAND USE AND SEASON ON MICROORGANISM CONCENTRATION ON URBAN STORMWATER RUNOFF; 3. MICROORGANISM DIE-OFF RATES UNDER VARIOUS CONDITIONS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Water Supply and Water Resources Division (WSWRD) developed a document entitled Managing Urban Watershed Pathogen Contamination (EPA 600/R-03/111). This document provides information to support specific steps of the total maximum daily load (TMDL) process for meeting water q...

  8. Land Use in Saskatchewan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saskatchewan Dept. of the Environment, Regina. Public Information and Education Branch.

    Information on land use in Saskatchewan is provided in this updated report by the Policy, Planning, and Research Branch of Saskatchewan Environment. Chapter I discusses the physical, economic, and cultural geography of Saskatchewan and traces the history of settlement in this province. Chapter II provides information on the province's resource…

  9. Comparison of land use change models with focus on spatial and temporal frameworks and data issues

    E-print Network

    Clarke, Keith

    Comparison of land use change models with focus on spatial and temporal frameworks and data issues of spatial land use pattern, especially urban land use § Model on generalized level (regional/historical growth pattern in a fixed time frame to project future land use pattern for the same time frame Spatial

  10. Long-term water monitoring in two Mediterranean lagoons as an indicator of land-use changes and intense precipitation events (Adra, Southeastern Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Miguel; Benavente, José; Alcalá, Francisco J.; Paracuellos, Mariano

    2011-02-01

    During recent historical times the Adra river delta, a detrital coastal aquifer of nearly 32 km 2 located in a semi-arid, mountainous area of SE Spain, has undergone different changes caused by human activity. Within this context, both the river dynamics in the plain and the geomorphology of the coastline have at various times resulted in the formation of small lagoons. At present only two small (<0.5 km 2) lagoons exist, at the eastern edge of the aquifer, which, although closely surrounded by commercial market-garden greenhouses, are protected under international agreements. During the last 30 years of the twentieth century traditional agricultural irrigation techniques have undergone significant changes to improve their efficiency. Surface-water resources in the Adra river basin are regulated via the Beninar reservoir. In addition, the use of groundwater is increasing progressively. Both these factors affect the recharge of the coastal aquifer. To monitor these changes measurements of electrical conductivity and water level fluctuations have been recorded in these lagoons for the last 35 years (1975-2010). A comparison of the hydrochemical characteristics of the water in the lagoons and of the surrounding groundwater from 2003 to 2010 shows marked differences induced by the different hydrological dynamics in each lagoon, as well as by the hydrogeological impact of changes in land use in the delta. The increase in water demand is a consequence of the extension of irrigated areas from the fluvio-deltaic plain to its slopes, originally occupied by unirrigated crops. A reduction in irrigation return-flow is linked to the use of new irrigation techniques. These modifications affect both the recharge regime of the aquifer and its water quality. Moreover, extreme precipitation events, which are characteristic of Mediterranean semi-arid environments, can affect the lagoons' hydrological dynamics to a considerable extent. One such example is the unusually rainy period from January to March 2010 (>600 mm). This event, along with other effects, has dramatically lowered the salinity of the water in both lagoons. This case study reveals the extreme vulnerability of deltaic environments and also how lagoons can reflect anthropogenic changes over the whole river basin.

  11. USING THE EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERING INTENSITY SCALE TO IMPROVE URBAN AREA EARTHQUAKE EMERGENCY RESPONSE

    E-print Network

    Irfanoglu, Ayhan

    USING THE EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERING INTENSITY SCALE TO IMPROVE URBAN AREA EARTHQUAKE EMERGENCY distribution estimation of earthquake damage in building stocks is presented. The purpose is to start a strong urban area earthquake. We used a pair of ground motion and building-tag color databases

  12. Urban and regional land use analysis: CARETS and Census Cities experiment package. [Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, District of Columbia, Washington, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, R. (principal investigator); Lins, H. F., Jr.; Wray, J. R.

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. A number of likely applications and follow-on analyses are suggested by the census cities evaluation of ERTS-1 and Skylab data. Some of these applications are: (1) estimate water use requirements; (2) define urban expansion; (3) document the pattern of residential development and assess quality of residential environment: (4) project future population densities, and estimate changes in population distribution between censuses; (5) assess environmental impact resulting from gradual as well as catastrophic changes.

  13. Modeling historical changes in nutrient delivery and water quality of the Zenne River (1790s-2010): The role of land use, waterscape and urban wastewater management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garnier, Josette; Brion, Natacha; Callens, Julie; Passy, Paul; Deligne, Chloé; Billen, Gilles; Servais, Pierre; Billen, Claire

    2013-12-01

    The Seneque/Riverstrahler model has been used to explore the effect of human-induced changes in drainage network morphology and land use on organic and nutrient pollutions, for the last 20 years and back to the 1890s and 1790s. With the development of human civilization, past environmental constraints differed compared to today. Research has sought to reconstruct (i) point sources (domestic and industrial), using statistics and archives from these periods, and (ii) diffuse sources via landscape and riverscape analysis based both on maps and agricultural statistics from the periods concerned.This study shows that a maximum of pollution occurred in the 1890s at the height of the industrial period, due more to the industrial load than to the domestic load. This substantial organic and nutrient pollution might have lasted up to very recently, when the Brussels Northern wastewater treatment plant began operation in 2007, significantly reducing the organic and nutrient load of the Zenne River, returning to a background pollution level assessed herein for the 1790s before industrialization expanded.

  14. Land use and energy

    SciTech Connect

    Robeck, K.E.; Ballou, S.W.; South, D.W.; Davis, M.J.; Chiu, S.Y.; Baker, J.E.; Dauzvardis, P.A.; Garvey, D.B.; Torpy, M.F.

    1980-07-01

    This report provides estimates of the amount of land required by past and future energy development in the United States and examines major federal legislation that regulates the impact of energy facilities on land use. An example of one land use issue associated with energy development - the potential conflict between surface mining and agriculture - is illustrated by describing the actual and projected changes in land use caused by coal mining in western Indiana. Energy activities addressed in the report include extraction of coal, oil, natural gas, uranium, oil shale, and geothermal steam; uranium processing; preparation of synfuels from coal; oil refineries; fossil-fuel, nuclear, and hydro-electric power plants; biomass energy farms; and disposal of solid wastes generated during combustion of fossil fuels. Approximately 1.1 to 3.3 x 10/sup 6/ acres were devoted to these activities in the United States in 1975. As much as 1.8 to 2.0 x 10/sup 6/ additional acres could be required by 1990 for new, nonbiomass energy development. The production of grain for fuel ethanol could require an additional 16.9 to 55.7 x 10/sup 6/ acres by 1990. Federal laws that directly or indirectly regulate the land-use impacts of energy facilities include the National Environmental Protection Act, Clean Air Act, Federal Water Pollution Control Act, Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act, and Coastal Zone Management Act. The major provisions of these acts, other relevant federal regulations, and similar state and local regulatons are described in this report. Federal legislation relating to air quality, water quality, and the management of public lands has the greatest potential to influence the location and timing of future energy development in the United States.

  15. Development and Applications of a Comprehensive Land Use Classification and Map for the US

    PubMed Central

    Theobald, David M.

    2014-01-01

    Land cover maps reasonably depict areas that are strongly converted by human activities, but typically are unable to resolve low-density but widespread development patterns. Data products specifically designed to resolve land uses complement land cover datasets and likely improve our ability to understand the extent and complexity of human modification. Methods for developing a comprehensive land use classification system are described, and a map of land use for the conterminous United States is presented to reveal what we are doing on the land. The comprehensive, detailed and high-resolution dataset was developed through spatial analysis of nearly two-dozen publicly-available, national spatial datasets – predominately based on census housing, employment, and infrastructure, as well as land cover from satellite imagery. This effort resulted in 79 land use classes that fit within five main land use groups: built-up, production, recreation, conservation, and water. Key findings from this study are that built-up areas occupy 13.6% of mainland US, but that the majority of this occurs as low-density exurban/rural residential (9.1% of the US), while more intensive built-up land uses occupy 4.5%. For every acre of urban and suburban residential land, there are 0.13 commercial, 0.07 industrial, 0.48 institutional, and 0.29 acres of interstates/highways. This database can be used to address a variety of natural resource applications, and I provide three examples here: an entropy index of the diversity of land uses for smart-growth planning, a power-law scaling of metropolitan area population to developed footprint, and identifying potential conflict areas by delineating the urban interface. PMID:24728210

  16. Energy and land use

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-12-01

    This report addresses the land use impacts of past and future energy development and summarizes the major federal and state legislation which influences the potential land use impacts of energy facilities and can thus influence the locations and timing of energy development. In addition, this report describes and presents the data which are used to measure, and in some cases, predict the potential conflicts between energy development and alternative uses of the nation's land resources. The topics section of this report is divided into three parts. The first part describes the myriad of federal, state and local legislation which have a direct or indirect impact upon the use of land for energy development. The second part addresses the potential land use impacts associated with the extraction, conversion and combustion of energy resources, as well as the disposal of wastes generated by these processes. The third part discusses the conflicts that might arise between agriculture and energy development as projected under a number of DOE mid-term (1990) energy supply and demand scenarios.

  17. Land Use Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Conventional Oil

    E-print Network

    Turetsky, Merritt

    intensity of fossil fuels. When contrasting land use GHG intensity of fossil fuel and biofuel production by fossil fuels can be comparable or higher than biofuels, the energyyieldofoilproductionistypically2 to similar emissions from fossil fuel development. Studies that exam- ined the land use impacts of oil

  18. Land use change and human health

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patz, Jonathan A.; Norris, Douglas E.

    Disease emergence events have been documented following several types of land use change. This chapter reviews several health-relevant land use changes recognized today, including: 1) urbanization and urban sprawl; 2) water projects and agricultural development; 3) road construction and deforestation in the tropics; and 4) regeneration of temperate forests. Because habitat or climatic change substantially affects intermediate invertebrate hosts involved in many prevalent diseases, this chapter provides a basic description of vector-borne disease biology as a foundation for analyzing the effects of land use change. Urban sprawl poses health challenges stemming from heat waves exacerbated by the "urban heat island" effect, as well as from water contamination due to expanses of impervious road and concrete surfaces. Dams, irrigation and agricultural development have long been associated with diseases such as schistosomiasis and filariasis. Better management methods are required to address the trade-offs between expanded food production and altered habitats promoting deadly diseases. Deforestation can increase the nature and number of breeding sites for vector-borne diseases, such as malaria and onchocerciasis. Human host and disease vector interaction further increases risk, as can a change in arthropod-vector species composition.

  19. Effects of grass species and grass growth on atmospheric nitrogen deposition to a bog ecosystem surrounded by intensive agricultural land use.

    PubMed

    Hurkuck, Miriam; Brümmer, Christian; Mohr, Karsten; Spott, Oliver; Well, Reinhard; Flessa, Heinz; Kutsch, Werner L

    2015-07-01

    We applied a (15)N dilution technique called "Integrated Total Nitrogen Input" (ITNI) to quantify annual atmospheric N input into a peatland surrounded by intensive agricultural practices over a 2-year period. Grass species and grass growth effects on atmospheric N deposition were investigated using Lolium multiflorum and Eriophorum vaginatum and different levels of added N resulting in increased biomass production. Plant biomass production was positively correlated with atmospheric N uptake (up to 102.7 mg N pot(-1)) when using Lolium multiflorum. In contrast, atmospheric N deposition to Eriophorum vaginatum did not show a clear dependency to produced biomass and ranged from 81.9 to 138.2 mg N pot(-1). Both species revealed a relationship between atmospheric N input and total biomass N contents. Airborne N deposition varied from about 24 to 55 kg N ha(-1) yr(-1). Partitioning of airborne N within the monitor system differed such that most of the deposited N was found in roots of Eriophorum vaginatum while the highest share was allocated in aboveground biomass of Lolium multiflorum. Compared to other approaches determining atmospheric N deposition, ITNI showed highest airborne N input and an up to fivefold exceedance of the ecosystem-specific critical load of 5-10 kg N ha(-1) yr(-1). PMID:26257870

  20. Effects of grass species and grass growth on atmospheric nitrogen deposition to a bog ecosystem surrounded by intensive agricultural land use

    PubMed Central

    Hurkuck, Miriam; Brümmer, Christian; Mohr, Karsten; Spott, Oliver; Well, Reinhard; Flessa, Heinz; Kutsch, Werner L

    2015-01-01

    We applied a 15N dilution technique called “Integrated Total Nitrogen Input” (ITNI) to quantify annual atmospheric N input into a peatland surrounded by intensive agricultural practices over a 2-year period. Grass species and grass growth effects on atmospheric N deposition were investigated using Lolium multiflorum and Eriophorum vaginatum and different levels of added N resulting in increased biomass production. Plant biomass production was positively correlated with atmospheric N uptake (up to 102.7 mg N pot?1) when using Lolium multiflorum. In contrast, atmospheric N deposition to Eriophorum vaginatum did not show a clear dependency to produced biomass and ranged from 81.9 to 138.2 mg N pot?1. Both species revealed a relationship between atmospheric N input and total biomass N contents. Airborne N deposition varied from about 24 to 55 kg N ha?1 yr?1. Partitioning of airborne N within the monitor system differed such that most of the deposited N was found in roots of Eriophorum vaginatum while the highest share was allocated in aboveground biomass of Lolium multiflorum. Compared to other approaches determining atmospheric N deposition, ITNI showed highest airborne N input and an up to fivefold exceedance of the ecosystem-specific critical load of 5–10 kg N ha?1 yr?1. PMID:26257870

  1. Incorporating Land-Use Mapping Uncertainty in Remote Sensing Based Calibration of Land-Use Change Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cockx, K.; Van de Voorde, T.; Canters, F.; Poelmans, L.; Uljee, I.; Engelen, G.; de Jong, K.; Karssenberg, D.; van der Kwast, J.

    2013-05-01

    Building urban growth models typically involves a process of historic calibration based on historic time series of land-use maps, usually obtained from satellite imagery. Both the remote sensing data analysis to infer land use and the subsequent modelling of land-use change are subject to uncertainties, which may have an impact on the accuracy of future land-use predictions. Our research aims to quantify and reduce these uncertainties by means of a particle filter data assimilation approach that incorporates uncertainty in land-use mapping and land-use model parameter assessment into the calibration process. This paper focuses on part of this work, more in particular the modelling of uncertainties associated with the impervious surface cover estimation and urban land-use classification adopted in the land-use mapping approach. Both stages are submitted to a Monte Carlo simulation to assess their relative contribution to and their combined impact on the uncertainty in the derived land-use maps. The approach was applied on the central part of the Flanders region (Belgium), using a time-series of Landsat/SPOT-HRV data covering the years 1987, 1996, 2005 and 2012. Although the most likely land-use map obtained from the simulation is very similar to the original classification, it is shown that the errors related to the impervious surface sub-pixel fraction estimation have a strong impact on the land-use map's uncertainty. Hence, incorporating uncertainty in the land-use change model calibration through particle filter data assimilation is proposed to address the uncertainty observed in the derived land-use maps and to reduce uncertainty in future land-use predictions.

  2. Land Use and Change

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Irwin, Daniel E.

    2004-01-01

    The overall purpose of this training session is to familiarize Central American project cooperators with the remote sensing and image processing research that is being conducted by the NASA research team and to acquaint them with the data products being produced in the areas of Land Cover and Land Use Change and carbon modeling under the NASA SERVIR project. The training session, therefore, will be both informative and practical in nature. Specifically, the course will focus on the physics of remote sensing, various satellite and airborne sensors (Landsat, MODIS, IKONOS, Star-3i), processing techniques, and commercial off the shelf image processing software.

  3. IDAHO LAND USE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Use groupings are: Surface gravity irrigation, Sprinkler irrigation, Dryland agriculture, Rangeland, Forest, Exposed rock, Riparian, Urban, Water. Easily incorporated into maps at the region to watershed level. Too coarse for site-scale applications. Scale: 1:500,000. Major ...

  4. Characterization of streamflow, salinity, and selenium loading and land-use change in Montrose Arroyo, western Colorado, from 1992 to 2013

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Richards, Rodney J.; Moore, Jennifer L.

    2015-01-01

    Land use was characterized for 1992, 2002, and 2009 for site MA3. The common land-use change in the MA3 subwatershed was a conversion from previously irrigated agricultural land to urban land use. The MA3 subwatershed had 124 acres of irrigated land use converted to urban land use and 27.1 acres of unirrigated desert converted to urban land use from 1992 to 2009. Consistent with findings in previous land-use change reports, salinity and dissolved-selenium loading at site MA3 showed significant decreases as irrigated land was converted to urban land use.

  5. Unraveling Landscape Complexity: Land Use/Land Cover Changes and Landscape Pattern Dynamics (1954-2008) in Contrasting Peri-Urban and Agro-Forest Regions of Northern Italy.

    PubMed

    Smiraglia, D; Ceccarelli, T; Bajocco, S; Perini, L; Salvati, L

    2015-10-01

    This study implements an exploratory data analysis of landscape metrics and a change detection analysis of land use and population density to assess landscape dynamics (1954-2008) in two physiographic zones (plain and hilly-mountain area) of Emilia Romagna, northern Italy. The two areas are characterized by different landscape types: a mixed urban-rural landscape dominated by arable land and peri-urban settlements in the plain and a traditional agro-forest landscape in the hilly-mountain area with deciduous and conifer forests, scrublands, meadows, and crop mosaic. Urbanization and, to a lesser extent, agricultural intensification were identified as the processes underlying landscape change in the plain. Land abandonment determining natural forestation and re-forestation driven by man was identified as the process of change most representative of the hilly-mountain area. Trends in landscape metrics indicate a shift toward more fragmented and convoluted patterns in both areas. Number of patches, the interspersion and juxtaposition index, and the large patch index are the metrics discriminating the two areas in terms of landscape patterns in 1954. In 2008, mean patch size, edge density, interspersion and juxtaposition index, and mean Euclidean nearest neighbor distance were the metrics with the most different spatial patterns in the two areas. The exploratory data analysis of landscape metrics contributed to link changes over time in both landscape composition and configuration providing a comprehensive picture of landscape transformations in a wealthy European region. Evidence from this study are hoped to inform sustainable land management designed for homogeneous landscape units in similar socioeconomic contexts. PMID:25975440

  6. Unraveling Landscape Complexity: Land Use/Land Cover Changes and Landscape Pattern Dynamics (1954-2008) in Contrasting Peri-Urban and Agro-Forest Regions of Northern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smiraglia, D.; Ceccarelli, T.; Bajocco, S.; Perini, L.; Salvati, L.

    2015-10-01

    This study implements an exploratory data analysis of landscape metrics and a change detection analysis of land use and population density to assess landscape dynamics (1954-2008) in two physiographic zones (plain and hilly-mountain area) of Emilia Romagna, northern Italy. The two areas are characterized by different landscape types: a mixed urban-rural landscape dominated by arable land and peri-urban settlements in the plain and a traditional agro-forest landscape in the hilly-mountain area with deciduous and conifer forests, scrublands, meadows, and crop mosaic. Urbanization and, to a lesser extent, agricultural intensification were identified as the processes underlying landscape change in the plain. Land abandonment determining natural forestation and re-forestation driven by man was identified as the process of change most representative of the hilly-mountain area. Trends in landscape metrics indicate a shift toward more fragmented and convoluted patterns in both areas. Number of patches, the interspersion and juxtaposition index, and the large patch index are the metrics discriminating the two areas in terms of landscape patterns in 1954. In 2008, mean patch size, edge density, interspersion and juxtaposition index, and mean Euclidean nearest neighbor distance were the metrics with the most different spatial patterns in the two areas. The exploratory data analysis of landscape metrics contributed to link changes over time in both landscape composition and configuration providing a comprehensive picture of landscape transformations in a wealthy European region. Evidence from this study are hoped to inform sustainable land management designed for homogeneous landscape units in similar socioeconomic contexts.

  7. Analysis of urban land use in the megacity of Dhaka, Bangladesh: Roof-top detection in the context of assessing solar photovoltaic potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaegermeyr, J.; Kabir, H.; Endlicher, W.

    2009-12-01

    The megacity of Dhaka, Bangladesh is considered to be one of the world’s fastest growing urban centers. With nearly 14 million people Dhaka currently faces tremendous power crisis. The available power supply of Dhaka Megacity is currently 1000-1200 MW against the maximum demand of nearly 2000 MW. The objective of this study is to classify land cover of Dhaka to locate roof-top areas which are adequate for solar photovoltaic applications. Usually this task is performed with additional building-heights data. With lack of that, we present an object-based classification approach which is based on high resolution Quickbird data only. Extensive formal buildings in Dhaka mostly have flat roof-tops made from concrete which are well suited for PV applications. The classification is focused to detect these ‘Bright Roof-Tops’ to assess a lower limit for potential PV areas. With that conservative approach bright roof-top areas of 10.554 km2 out of the city’s 134.282 km2 could be found. The overall classification accuracy is 0.918, the producer’s accuracy of ‘Bright Roof-Tops’ is 0.833. Preliminary result of the PhD work of Humayun Kabir indicates that the application of only 75 Wp stand-alone solar modules on these available bright roof-tops can generate nearly 1,000 MW of electricity. The application of solar modules with high capacity (i.e., >200 Wp) preferably through grid-connected PV systems can substantially meet-up the city’s power demand, although several techno-economic and socio-political factors are certainly involved.

  8. Land use habits impair US waters

    SciTech Connect

    Selzer, L.A.; Wilcher, L.S.

    1994-08-01

    Preventing nonpoint source pollution begins with personal responsiblity. Land use practices, including construction, agriculture, urban runoff and chemical use in both rural and urban areas, are among the principal causes of nonpoint source pollution. In April 1993, approximately 370,000 Milwaukee, Wis., residents fell ill after ingesting contaminated drinking water. Some people with compromised immune systems died. The culprit was a tiny parasitic microorganism that breeds in the intestines and manure of cattle. Health officials speculate that the parasite hitchhiked across the floor of the watershed to the city`s water supply-a classic example of nonpoint source pollution. This paper describes several efforts to reduce nonpoint source pollution.

  9. Change in agricultural land use constrains adaptation of national wildlife refuges to climate change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hamilton, Christopher M.; Thogmartin, Wayne E.; Radeloff, Volker C.; Plantinga, Andrew J.; Heglund, Patricia J.; Martinuzzi, Sebastian; Pidgeon, Anna M.

    2015-01-01

    Land-use change around protected areas limits their ability to conserve biodiversity by altering ecological processes such as natural hydrologic and disturbance regimes, facilitating species invasions, and interfering with dispersal of organisms. This paper informs USA National Wildlife Refuge System conservation planning by predicting future land-use change on lands within 25 km distance of 461 refuges in the USA using an econometric model. The model contained two differing policy scenarios, namely a ‘business-as-usual’ scenario and a ‘pro-agriculture’ scenario. Regardless of scenario, by 2051, forest cover and urban land use were predicted to increase around refuges, while the extent of range and pasture was predicted to decrease; cropland use decreased under the business-as-usual scenario, but increased under the pro-agriculture scenario. Increasing agricultural land value under the pro-agriculture scenario slowed an expected increase in forest around refuges, and doubled the rate of range and pasture loss. Intensity of land-use change on lands surrounding refuges differed by regions. Regional differences among scenarios revealed that an understanding of regional and local land-use dynamics and management options was an essential requirement to effectively manage these conserved lands. Such knowledge is particularly important given the predicted need to adapt to a changing global climate.

  10. [Spatiotemporal characteristics of urban land expansion in central area of Shanghai, China].

    PubMed

    Hu, Han-Wen; Wei, Ben-Sheng; Shen, Xing-Hua; Li, Jun-Xiang

    2013-12-01

    Using the high spatial resolution (2.5 m) color-infrared aerial photos acquired in 1989, 1994, 2000 and 2005, this paper analyzed the spatiotemporal characteristics of rapid urban expansion in central Shanghai with urban expansion intensity index and gradient analysis. Results showed that urban land use in Shanghai increased rapidly in a "pancake" style during the study period, and the anisotropic urban expansion moved the urban center 2.62 km toward southwest. The urban land use expansion intensity doubled and showed a rural-urban gradient. The most intensive urban expansion zone fell in the rural-urban transition zone, indicating the dominance of peripheral expansion as the primary urban expansion mode in Shanghai. However, the urban land use intensity decreased with time at the urban center. The primary driving forces of urban expansion included support from government policies and decision-making, enhanced economic activities, societal fixed assets investment, urban infrastructure investment, extension of transportation routes, as well as increase in urban population. PMID:24697062

  11. 1 Introduction The settlement patterns of urban areas have been at the center of an intense debate in

    E-print Network

    Brown, Daniel G.

    in this relationship. doi:10.1068/b35053 #12;disciplinary perspective. For example, some economists regard urban sprawl1 Introduction The settlement patterns of urban areas have been at the center of an intense debate Zellner Urban Planning and Policy Program, and Institute for Environmental Science and Policy, University

  12. New methods to assess severity and likelihood of urban flood risk from intense rainfall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fewtrell, Tim; Foote, Matt; Bates, Paul; Ntelekos, Alexandros

    2010-05-01

    Flooding from intense local rainfall can contribute a significant proportion of total damages and losses experienced, particularly in urban areas, where sewerage overcharging, localised river flooding, and overland flow, can conspire to cause significant loss potential to concentrations of assets and populations. Events such as the Summer 2007 floods in the UK have shown that there is a significant risk to key urban centres. However, current approaches to the quantitative assessment of flood risk, and the estimation of the potential frequency and severity of events, poorly represent flood risk from intense, localised rainfall. This causes problems not only for insurers and reinsurers, but also for urban planners, local authorities and emergency services where assessment of localised impacts from intense rainfall flooding form a key component of risk assessment needs. The localised nature of pluvial flooding, and the importance of complex terrain, drainage and pathways in determining water ponding within urban areas, makes the modelling of urban pluvial flood risk particularly problematic. Current approaches, usually through statistical means, or simple flood risk ‘maps' based on conventional topographic information, provide some information to assist risk decisions, but lack the level of detail necessary for accurate representation of the flood extents and depths in relation to the properties and other assets exposed. New techniques including ground based lasers-canner (LIDAR) provide a potential source for ultra-high resolution (centimetre) terrain information, which can be incorporated within urban scale hydrological-hydraulic model to provide appropriate resolution flood models. The corresponding development of new, efficient hydraulic models [Paul, Tim to add a bit here] with the ability to handle the high spatial and temporal resolutions required of urban flood provides a new modelling environment with which to tackle urban flood risk assessment, including the construction of appropriate probabilistic flood models. This paper will describe new research being undertaken to assess the practicality of ultra-high resolution, ground based laser-scanner data for flood modelling in urban centres, using new hydraulic propagation methods to determine the feasibility of such data to be applied within stochastic event models. Results from the collection of ‘point cloud' data collected from a mobile terrestrial laser-scanner system in a key urban centre, combined with appropriate datasets, will be summarized here and an initial assessment of the potential for the use of such data in stochastic event sets will be made. Conclusions are drawn from comparisons with previous studies and underlying DEM products of similar resolutions in terms of computational time, flood extent and flood depth. Based on the above, the study provides some current recommendations on the most appropriate resolution of input data for urban hydraulic modelling.

  13. Impact of Urbanization on Precipitation Distribution and Intensity over Lake Victoria Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gudoshava, M.; Semazzi, F. H. M.

    2014-12-01

    In this study, sensitivity simulations on the impact of rapid urbanization over Lake Victoria Basin in East Africa were done using a Regional Climate Model (RegCM4.4-rc29) with the Hostetler lake model activated. The simulations were done for the rainy seasons that is the long rains (March-April-May) and short rains (October-November-December). Africa is projected to have a surge in urbanization with an approximate rate of 590% in 2030 over their 2000 levels. The Northern part of Lake Victoria Basin and some parts of Rwanda and Burundi are amongst the regions with high urbanization projections. Simulations were done with the land cover for 2000 and the projected 2030 urbanization levels. The results showed that increasing the urban fraction over the northern part of the basin modified the physical parameters such as albedo, moisture and surface energy fluxes, aerodynamic roughness and surface emissivity, thereby altering the precipitation distribution, intensity and frequency in the region. The change in the physical parameters gave a response of an average increase in temperature of approximately 2oC over the urbanized region. A strong convergence zone was formed over the urbanized region and thereby accelerating the lake-breeze front towards the urbanized region center. Precipitation in the urbanized region and regions immediate to the area increased by approximately 4mm/day, while drying up the southern (non-urbanized) side of the basin. The drying up of the southern side of the basin could be a result of divergent flow and subsidence that suppresses vertical development of storms.

  14. Temperature trends and Urban Heat Island intensity mapping of the Las Vegas valley area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Black, Adam Leland

    Modified urban climate regions that are warmer than rural areas at night are referred to as Urban Heat Islands or UHI. Islands of warmer air over a city can be 12 degrees Celsius greater than the surrounding cooler air. The exponential growth in Las Vegas for the last two decades provides an opportunity to detect gradual temperature changes influenced by an increasing presence of urban materials. This thesis compares ground based thermometric observations and satellite based remote sensing temperature observations to identify temperature trends and UHI areas caused by urban development. Analysis of temperature trends between 2000 and 2010 at ground weather stations has revealed a general cooling trend in the Las Vegas region. Results show that urban development accompanied by increased vegetation has a cooling effect in arid climates. Analysis of long term temperature trends at McCarran and Nellis weather stations show 2.4 K and 1.2 K rise in temperature over the last 60 years. The ground weather station temperature data is related to the land surface temperature images from the Landsat Thematic Mapper to estimate and evaluate urban heat island intensity for Las Vegas. Results show that spatial and temporal trends of temperature are related to the gradual change in urban landcover. UHI are mainly observed at the airport and in the industrial areas. This research provides useful insight into the temporal behavior of the Las Vegas area.

  15. How Will America Grow? A Citizen Guide to Land-Use Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Citizens Advisory Committee on Environmental Quality.

    Citizens are encouraged to learn about and become involved in land use and growth issues in their communities. Intended as a follow-up of an earlier report by the Committee's Task Force on Land Use and Urban Growth which outlined philosophical, legal, and policy aspects of land-use planning, the document suggests planning guidelines for citizen…

  16. A Basic Introduction to Land Use Control Law and Doctrine. Publication 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, E. F.

    Divided into four sections, this paper discusses the historical development of land-use control law and doctrine. Entitled "Genesis of the Zoning Mechanism", Part 1 discusses zoning in terms of: a by-product of urbanization: common law land-use controls (public and private nuisance laws); private property as restraint on land-use legislation…

  17. 24 CFR 1710.109 - Title to the property and land use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Title to the property and land use... Requirements § 1710.109 Title to the property and land use. (a) General instructions. (1) Below the heading “Title to the Property and Land Use” insert the following introductory paragraphs: “A person with...

  18. 24 CFR 1710.109 - Title to the property and land use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Title to the property and land use... Requirements § 1710.109 Title to the property and land use. (a) General instructions. (1) Below the heading “Title to the Property and Land Use” insert the following introductory paragraphs: “A person with...

  19. 24 CFR 1710.109 - Title to the property and land use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Title to the property and land use... Requirements § 1710.109 Title to the property and land use. (a) General instructions. (1) Below the heading “Title to the Property and Land Use” insert the following introductory paragraphs: “A person with...

  20. 24 CFR 1710.109 - Title to the property and land use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Title to the property and land use... Requirements § 1710.109 Title to the property and land use. (a) General instructions. (1) Below the heading “Title to the Property and Land Use” insert the following introductory paragraphs: “A person with...

  1. 24 CFR 1710.109 - Title to the property and land use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Title to the property and land use... Requirements § 1710.109 Title to the property and land use. (a) General instructions. (1) Below the heading “Title to the Property and Land Use” insert the following introductory paragraphs: “A person with...

  2. Land Use and Land Cover Change in Guangzhou, China, from 1998 to 2003, Based on Landsat TM /ETM+ Imagery

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Fenglei; Weng, Qihao; Wang, Yunpeng

    2007-01-01

    Land use and land cover change is a major issue in global environment change, and is especially significant in rapidly developing regions in the world. With its economic development, population growth, and urbanization, Guangzhou, a major metropolitan in South China, have experienced a dramatic land use and land cover (LULC) change over the past 30 years. Fast LULC change have resulted in degradation of its ecosystems and affected adversely the environment. It is urgently needed to monitor its LULC changes and to analyses the consequences of these changes in order to provide information for policymakers to support sustainable development. This study employed two Landsat TM/ETM+ images in the dry season to detect LULC patterns in 1998 and 2003, and to examine LULC changes during the period from 1998 to 2003. The type, rate, and pattern of the changes among five counties of Guangzhou Municipality were analyzed in details by post-classification method. LULC conversion matrix was produced for each county in order to explore and explain the urban expansion and cropland loss, the most significant types of LULC change. Land use conversion matrixes of five counties were discussed respectively in order to explore and explain the inherence of land use change. The results showed that urban expansion in these five counties kept an even rate of increase, while substantial amount of cropland vanished during the period. It is also noted that the conversion between cropland and orchard land was intensive. Forest land became the main source of new croplands.

  3. Comparing and modeling land use organization in cities

    E-print Network

    Lenormand, Maxime; Cantú-Ros, Oliva G; Louail, Thomas; Herranz, Ricardo; Barthelemy, Marc; Frías-Martínez, Enrique; Miguel, Maxi San; Ramasco, José J

    2015-01-01

    The advent of geolocated ICT technologies opens the possibility of exploring how people use space in cities, bringing an important new tool for urban scientists and planners, especially for regions where data is scarce or not available. Here we apply a functional network approach to determine land use patterns from mobile phone records. The versatility of the method allows us to run a systematic comparison between Spanish cities of various sizes. The method detects four major land use types that correspond to different temporal patterns. The proportion of these types, their spatial organization and scaling show a strong similarity between all cities that breaks down at a very local scale, where land use mixing is specific to each urban area. Finally, we introduce a model inspired by Schelling's segregation, able to explain and reproduce these results with simple interaction rules between different land uses.

  4. Distribution patterns and sources of metals and PAHs in an intensely urbanized area: The Acerra-Pomigliano-Marigliano conurbation (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albanese, Stefano; Lima, Annamaria; Rezza, Carmela; Ferullo, Giampiero; De Vivo, Benedetto; Chen, Wei; Qi, Shihua

    2014-05-01

    The main objective of the URGE (URban GEochemistry) project is to define, map and interpretate the geochemical baseline patterns of potentially harmful elements and compounds in the soils of 12 european urban areas using shared procedures for both sampling and analytical techniques. In Italy, in the framework of the URGE project, the north-eastern sector of the Napoli metropolitan area, namely the Acerra-Pomigliano-Marigliano conurbation, has undergone a geochemical characterization based on 145 soil samples collected over an area of 90 sq km. This area has been selected on the basis of the results obtained from previous regional studies [1, 2, 3] and because of the presence on its territory of an historical industrial settlement (formerly devoted to plastic materials and synthetic fibres production) which was partly dismantled and party converted to a power plant fuelled by palm oil. Furthermore, in March 2009 also an incinerator came into operation in the northern sector of the study area. The main objective of the study carried out for the Acerra-Pomigliano-Marigliano conurbation was to define the local geochemical baselines for both 53 elements (among which the toxic ones) and some organic compounds, including PAHs and OCPs. The study also aimed at supporting epidemiological researches at local scale and at establishing a record of the actual environmental conditions to evaluate the future impact of the incinerator on both the territory and the public health. Results obtained showed that Pb, Zn and V exceed the trigger limits established by the Italian Environmental law (D.Lgs. 152/2006) especially in correspondence with the most densely populated areas of the conurbation and where the traffic load is higher (Road junctions and fast lanes). Furthermore, most of the soils collected in the surroundings of the urbanized areas resulted to be generally enriched in Cu, Co, Cd, Be, Ni and P suggesting the presence of a relevant influence on their chemistry of an agricultural intensive land use. PAHs distribution pattern showed anomalous values across the whole study area. Especially, Benzo[a]pyrene values exceeds the trigger limits established by the Italian Environmental law (D.Lgs. 152/2006) in most of the analyzed soils and the diagnostic ratios calculated among several PAHs compounds suggested that the biomass burning in the rural sector of the study area could be a relevant source of pollution. The palm oil fuelled power plant in the northern sector of Acerra could not be excluded as a source of PAHs in the environment. [1] Albanese et al (2007) JGE 93, 21-34. [2] Cicchella et al (2008) GEEA 8 (1), 19-29. [3] De Vivo et al (2006) Aracne Editrice, Roma. 324 pp.

  5. ORIGINAL PAPER Urbanization, urban land expansion and environmental change

    E-print Network

    Wei, Yehua Dennis

    ORIGINAL PAPER Urbanization, urban land expansion and environmental change in China Yehua Dennis research. An understanding of urbanization and land use change in China is required for appropriate on urbanization, land use and sustainable development in China with a focus on land use change. We argue that land

  6. Model-based study of the role of rainfall and land use land cover in the changes in Niger Red floods occurrence and intensity in Niamey between 1953 and 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casse, C.; Gosset, M.; Vischel, T.; Quantin, G.; Tanimoun, B. A.

    2015-11-01

    Since 1950, the Niger River basin went through 3 main climatic periods: a wet period (1950-1960), an extended drought (1970-1980) and since 1990 a partial recovery of the rainfall. Hydrological changes co-occur with these rainfall fluctuations. In most of the basin the rainfall deficit caused an enhanced discharge deficit, but in the Sahelian region the runoff increased despite the rainfall deficit. Since 2000, the Sahelian part of the Niger has been hit by an increase of flood hazards during the so-called Red flood period. In Niamey city, the highest river levels and the longest flooded period ever recorded occurred in 2003, 2010, 2012 and 2013, with heavy casualties and property damage. The reasons for these changes, and the relative role of climate vs. Land Use Land Cover (LULC) changes are still debated and are investigated in this paper. The evolution of the Niger Red flood in Niamey from 1950 to 2012 is analysed based on long term records of rainfall (three data sets based on in situ and/or satellite data) and discharge, and a hydrological model. The model is first run with present LULC conditions in order to analyse solely the effect of rainfall variability. The impact of LULC and drainage area modification is investigated in a second step. The simulations based on the current surface conditions are able to reproduce the observed trend in Red flood occurrence and intensity since the 1980s. This has been verified with three independent rainfall data sets and implies that rainfall variability is the main driver for the Red flood intensification observed over the last 30 years. The simulation results since 1953 reveals that LULC and drainage area changes need to be invoked to explain the changes over a 60 year period.

  7. Land-use Effect on Stream Organic Matter Composition in Two Metropolitan Areas in USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, S.; Kaushal, S.; Amon, R. M.; Brinkmeyer, R.

    2011-12-01

    Urbanization is a form of land-use change that is increasing in coastal watersheds and may affect the quantity and quality of organic carbon delivered to streams and coastal ocean. Here, we examine the changes in optical and isotopic characteristics of organic matter in streams (Gwynns Fall and Buffalo Bayou) draining Baltimore and Houston Metropolitan Areas (USA), relative to nearby less affected forested watersheds. A summer longitudinal sampling in Gwynns Fall along a rural-urban gradient showed increases in dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and fluorescent protein to humic ratio but a decrease in specific UV absorption (SUVA). Parallel Factor modeling shows dominance of terrestrial component of DOC, and the ratio of an unknown component to the component of humic substance was high in urban watersheds and it was positively correlated impervious surface cover (an index of urbanization). Incubation experiments with leaves and stream algae suggest origin of decayed leaf leachate of this component. Conversely, DOM in Buffalo Bayou showed higher intensity of protein-like fluorescence, and the intensity increased longitudinal along a rural-urban gradient but decreased from low-flows to a flooding event. The difference in fluorescent organic matter composition between the two streams probably reflected different management of wastewater in watersheds. Surface sediment collected at sites of sub-watersheds of Gwynns Fall showed changes in particle size, elemental and isotopic composition with land use. Sediment incubations showed that higher temperature (due to urban heat island effect) enhanced loss of labile organic matter and release of refractory organic matter into stream water. Release of reactive soluble phosphorus, loss of nitrogen and reduction of sulfate also occurred at high incubating temperatures, along with mineralization of sediment organic matter. Bed sediment collected along Buffalo Bayou displayed a longitudinal decrease in N-15, probably reflecting the displacement of waste water treatment plant in upper watershed. Organic matter compositions of suspended sediment, however, were more related to abundance of phytoplankton biomass.

  8. Influences of upland and riparian land use patterns on stream biotic integrity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snyder, C.D.; Young, J.A.; Villella, R.; Lemarie, D.P.

    2003-01-01

    We explored land use, fish assemblage structure, and stream habitat associations in 20 catchments in Opequon Creek watershed, West Virginia. The purpose was to determine the relative importance of urban and agriculture land use on stream biotic integrity, and to evaluate the spatial scale (i.e., whole-catchment vs riparian buffer) at which land use effects were most pronounced. We found that index of biological integrity (IBI) scores were strongly associated with extent of urban land use in individual catchments. Sites that received ratings of poor or very poor based on IBI scores had > 7% of urban land use in their respective catchments. Habitat correlations suggested that urban land use disrupted flow regime, reduced water quality, and altered stream channels. In contrast, we found no meaningful relationship between agricultural land use and IBI at either whole-catchment or riparian scales despite strong correlations between percent agriculture and several important stream habitat measures, including nitrate concentrations, proportion of fine sediments in riffles, and the abundance of fish cover. We also found that variation in gradient (channel slope) influenced responses of fish assemblages to land use. Urban land use was more disruptive to biological integrity in catchments with steeper channel slopes. Based on comparisons of our results in the topographically diverse Opequon Creek watershed with results from watersheds in flatter terrains, we hypothesize that the potential for riparian forests to mitigate effects of deleterious land uses in upland portions of the watershed is inversely related to gradient.

  9. Modeling land-use change

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    Tropical land-use change is generally considered to be the greatest net contributor of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere after fossil-fuel burning. However, estimates vary widely, with one major cause of variation being that terrestrial ecosystems are both a source and a sink for carbon. This article describes two spatially explicit models which simulate rates and patterns of tropical land-use change: GEOMOD1, based on intuitive assumptions about how people develop land over time, and GEOMOD2, based on a statistical analysis of how people have actually used the land. The models more closely estimate the connections between atmospheric carbon dioxide, deforestation, and other land use changes.

  10. The influence of atmospheric circulation on the intensity of urban heat island and urban cold island in Pozna?, Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pó?rolniczak, Marek; Kolendowicz, Leszek; Majkowska, Agnieszka; Czernecki, Bartosz

    2015-10-01

    The study has analyzed influence of an atmospheric circulation on urban heat island (UHI) and urban cold island (UCI) in Pozna?. Analysis was conducted on the basis of temperature data from two measurement points situated in the city center and in the ?awica airport (reference station) and the data concerning the air circulation (Nied?wied?'s calendar of circulation types and reanalysis of National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP)/National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR)). The cases with UHI constitute about 85 % of all data, and UCI phenomena appear with a frequency of 14 % a year. The intensity of UHI phenomenon is higher in the anticyclonic circulation types. During the year in anticyclonic circulation, intensity of UHI is 1.2 °C on average while in cyclonic is only 0.8 °C. The occurring of UHI phenomena is possible throughout all seasons of the year in all hours of the day usually in anticyclonic circulation types. The cases with highest UHI intensity are related mostly to nighttime. The cases of UCI phenomena occurred almost ever on the daytime and the most frequently in colder part of the year together with cyclonic circulation. Study based on reanalysis data indicates that days with large intensity of UHI (above 4, 5, and 6 °C) are related to anticyclonic circulation. Anticyclonic circulation is also promoting the formation of the strongest UCI. Results based on both reanalysis and the atmospheric circulation data (Nied?wied?'s circulation type) confirm that cases with the strongest UHI and UCI during the same day occur in strong high-pressure system with the center situated above Poland or central Europe.

  11. Land use mapping and modelling for the Phoenix Quadrangle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Place, J. L. (principal investigator)

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The mapping of generalized land use (level 1) from ERTS 1 images was shown to be feasible with better than 95% accuracy in the Phoenix quadrangle. The accuracy of level 2 mapping in urban areas is still a problem. Updating existing maps also proved to be feasible, especially in water categories and agricultural uses; however, expanding urban growth has presented with accuracy. ERTS 1 film images indicated where areas of change were occurring, thus aiding focusing-in for more detailed investigation. ERTS color composite transparencies provided a cost effective source of information for land use mapping of very large regions at small map scales.

  12. Threats and opportunities for freshwater conservation under future land use change scenarios in the

    E-print Network

    Turner, Monica G.

    that are currently stressed by low water quality, while discouraging urban sprawl diminished urban expansion in areas, yet are severely threatened throughout the world. The expansion of human land uses, such as urban experience higher stress from human activities. Future urban expansion emerged as a major threat in regions

  13. Recent Changes in Floodplain Urban Development and in Intense Rainfall Patterns: Evidence and Effects for the Reclamation Network in North-Eastern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarolli, P.; Sofia, G.; Prosdocimi, M.; Dalla Fontana, G.

    2014-12-01

    Within the wide approach of watershed management, the crucial role of floodplains in hydrological processes and runoff generation, in particular during flood events, is well known. The recent changes in land use and/or intense rainfall patterns associated to climate changes, however, add complexity to the analysis of the hydrologic response. This study investigates and displays evidences and effects of land use changes and climatic changes in a small floodplain area in the north east of Italy. As in other countries in Europe, over the past half-century, intense urban and agricultural land uses changed the drainage networks, causing serious hydraulic dysfunctions. In this work we focused the research on the network drainage density and storage capacity, considering that they are the main requirements for hydraulic infrastructures and that the storage of water is crucial for any water management strategy. The effects of the changes in the network parameters have been then further investigated using the Network Saturation Index (NSI) that quantifies how fast an area is saturated by a design rainfall and can give an idea of the delay of the watershed response respect to the rainfall peak. Over the past half-century, the study site witnessed a drastic reduction of the storage volume, resulting in shorter times for saturation especially for storm events having a shorter return period and for events that were less critical in the past. For our case study, climatic evidence shows that the rainfall regime is highly irregular, with intense events taking an increasing role in determining the total precipitation over the past half-century. Considering this climatic trend that cannot be controlled, our study suggests to carefully plan the changes in the drainage networks, as these changes might seriously constrain the functionality of the reclamation system, especially for rather frequent rainfall events not necessarily associated with extreme meteorological conditions or with the worst case scenarios. Sofia, G., Prosdocimi, M., Dalla Fontana, G., Tarolli, P. (2014). Evidences and effects of changes in the artificial drainage network during the past half-century: a case study in the Veneto floodplain (Italy), Anthropocene, doi:10.1016/j.ancene.2014.06.005.

  14. Influence of land use on hyporheos in catchment of the Jarama River (central Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iepure, S.; Martínez-Hernández, V.; Herrera, S.; de Bustamante, I.; Rasines, R.

    2012-04-01

    The Water Framework Directive (2000) requires integrated assessment of water bodies based on water resources but also the evaluation of land-use catchment effect on chemical and ecological conditions of aquatic ecosystems. The hyporheic zone (HZ) supporting obligate subterranean species are particularly vulnerable in river ecosystems when environmental stress occurs at surface and require management strategies to protect both the stream catchment and the aquifer that feed the stream channel. The influence of catchment land-use in the Jarama basin (central Spain) on river geomorphology and hyporheic zone granulometry, chemical and biological variables inferred from crustacean community biodiversity (species richness, taxonomic distinctness) and ecology was assessed. The study was conducted in four streams from the Madrid metropolitan area under distinct local land-use and water resource protection: i) a preserved forested natural sites where critical river ecosystem processes were unaltered or less altered by human activities, and ii) different degree of anthropogenic impact sites from agriculture, urban industrial and mining activities. The river bed permeability reduction and the increase of low sediment size input associated with changes in geomorphology of the stream channels are greatly affected by land-use changes in the Jarama watershed. Water chemical parameters linked to land-use increase from the natural stream to the urban industrial and agricultural dominated catchment. Principal coordinate analysis (PCO) and multidimensional scaling (MDS) clearly discriminate the pristine sites from forested areas by those under anthropogenic stressors. In streams draining forested areas, groundwater discharge and regular exchange between groundwater and surface water occur due to relatively high permeability of the sediments. Consequently, forested land-use produce sites of high water quality and crustacean richness (both groundwater dwellers and surface-benthos species), as indicate the expected diversity pattern after the simulation procedure for taxonomic distinctness. Crustacean diversity (Shannon index) was greatest in less extensive agricultural land-use sites where riparian zone is slightly developed, while intensive agricultural activities cause a decline of water quality and therefore of crustacean richness. Intensively urban industrial land-use yield highly contaminated hyporheic water with heavy metals and VOC (i.e. toluene, benzene). Complementarily, the streams geomorphology and low rates of water flow favour the deposition of fine sediments that clog the interstices, generate a reverse dynamic of river channel and induce a reduction of groundwater discharge. In results, the hyporheic is unsuitable for hyporheos that are missing or harbour reduced populations of exclusively surface-water taxa. There are sites of intermediate biodiversity including hypogeans, located in natural regional parks thriving well-established riparian zone and relatively good water quality. The differences among sites in the Jarama basin indicate the impact that changes in land-use have upon the hyporheic ecology as shown the pattern of crustacean community distribution, diversity and ecological structure. We suggest that in rehabilitation processes of streams sectors require the understanding and recognition of the potential roles of the hyporheic zone and its biota in the whole stream ecosystem.

  15. Land-Use Change Trends in the Interior Lowland Ecoregion

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Varanka, Dalia E.; Shaver, David K.

    2007-01-01

    This report describes land-cover trends in the Interior River Lowland ecoregion, located primarily in southern Illinois and includes the confluence areas of the Mississippi, Missouri, Ohio, Illinois, and Wabash Rivers, and their tributaries. Land-cover change statistics were tabulated from forty 10 kilometers (km) by 10-km multi-spectral remote-sensing sample areas collected from 1973 to 2000 and classified into nine primary land-cover categories. The results indicated stable land use. Agricultural land use increased, but acreage was lost to urbanization, especially in the St. Louis area. Recreational and conservation land uses are underrepresented relative to population demand. Findings were comparable to results of other land use research.

  16. Experiments in Globalisation, Food Security and Land Use Decision Making

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Calum; Murray-Rust, Dave; van Vliet, Jasper; Alam, Shah Jamal; Verburg, Peter H.; Rounsevell, Mark D.

    2014-01-01

    The globalisation of trade affects land use, food production and environments around the world. In principle, globalisation can maximise productivity and efficiency if competition prompts specialisation on the basis of productive capacity. In reality, however, such specialisation is often constrained by practical or political barriers, including those intended to ensure national or regional food security. These are likely to produce globally sub-optimal distributions of land uses. Both outcomes are subject to the responses of individual land managers to economic and environmental stimuli, and these responses are known to be variable and often (economically) irrational. We investigate the consequences of stylised food security policies and globalisation of agricultural markets on land use patterns under a variety of modelled forms of land manager behaviour, including variation in production levels, tenacity, land use intensity and multi-functionality. We find that a system entirely dedicated to regional food security is inferior to an entirely globalised system in terms of overall production levels, but that several forms of behaviour limit the difference between the two, and that variations in land use intensity and functionality can substantially increase the provision of food and other ecosystem services in both cases. We also find emergent behaviour that results in the abandonment of productive land, the slowing of rates of land use change and the fragmentation or, conversely, concentration of land uses following changes in demand levels. PMID:25437010

  17. Experiments in globalisation, food security and land use decision making.

    PubMed

    Brown, Calum; Murray-Rust, Dave; van Vliet, Jasper; Alam, Shah Jamal; Verburg, Peter H; Rounsevell, Mark D

    2014-01-01

    The globalisation of trade affects land use, food production and environments around the world. In principle, globalisation can maximise productivity and efficiency if competition prompts specialisation on the basis of productive capacity. In reality, however, such specialisation is often constrained by practical or political barriers, including those intended to ensure national or regional food security. These are likely to produce globally sub-optimal distributions of land uses. Both outcomes are subject to the responses of individual land managers to economic and environmental stimuli, and these responses are known to be variable and often (economically) irrational. We investigate the consequences of stylised food security policies and globalisation of agricultural markets on land use patterns under a variety of modelled forms of land manager behaviour, including variation in production levels, tenacity, land use intensity and multi-functionality. We find that a system entirely dedicated to regional food security is inferior to an entirely globalised system in terms of overall production levels, but that several forms of behaviour limit the difference between the two, and that variations in land use intensity and functionality can substantially increase the provision of food and other ecosystem services in both cases. We also find emergent behaviour that results in the abandonment of productive land, the slowing of rates of land use change and the fragmentation or, conversely, concentration of land uses following changes in demand levels. PMID:25437010

  18. Development of Sub-Daily Intensity Duration Frequency (IDF) Curves for Major Urban Areas in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, H.; Mishra, V.

    2014-12-01

    Extreme precipitation events disrupt urban transportation and cause enormous damage to infrastructure. Urban areas are fast responding catchments due to significant impervious surface. Stormwater designs based on daily rainfall data provide inadequate information. We, therefore, develop intensity-duration-frequency curves using sub-daily (1 hour to 12 hour) rainfall data for 57 major urban areas in India. While rain gage stations data from urban areas are most suitable, but stations are unevenly distributed and their data have gaps and inconsistencies. Therefore, we used hourly rainfall data from the Modern Era Retrospective-analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA), which provides a long term data (1979 onwards). Since reanalysis products have uncertainty associated with them we need to enhance their accuracy before their application. We compared daily rain gage station data obtained from Global Surface Summary of Day Data (GSOD) available for 65 stations for the period of 2000-2010 with gridded daily rainfall data provided by Indian Meteorological Department (IMD). 3-hourly data from NOAA/Climate Prediction Center morphing technique (CMORPH), Precipitation Estimation from Remotely Sensed Information using Artificial Neural Networks (PERSIANN), and the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Multisatellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA) were aggregated to daily for comparison with GSOD station data . TMPA is found to be best correlated with GSOD data. We used TMPA data to correct MERRA's hourly precipitation, which were applied to develop IDF curves. We compared results with IDF curves from empirical methods and found substantial disparities in the existing stormwater designs in India.

  19. Projecting Global Land-Use Change and Its Effect on Ecosystem Service Provision and Biodiversity with

    E-print Network

    Thomas, David D.

    Projecting Global Land-Use Change and Its Effect on Ecosystem Service Provision and Biodiversity and techniques used to spatially allocate land-use/land-cover (LULC) change and evaluate its impact on ecosystems more strategic in its allocation of intensively managed land uses. Here we illustrate a method

  20. Clug; Community Land Use Game. Player's Manual with Selected Readings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldt, Allan G.

    CLUG (Community Land Use Game) is designed to provide players with an understanding of several underlying factors affecting the growth of an urban region. It has been used with players from junior high to graduate school and also with non-students. It unites concepts from sociology, economics, and geography. Players invest in land, construct…

  1. Incorporating Land Use Planning into Your Environmental Science Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Terri K.

    1982-01-01

    Summarized is a land use planning unit which culminates an environmental science course and focuses on inventory and data collection, data reduction, data synthesis, and decision making. Mini units address issues related to natural areas, urban systems, model cities, and future growth. (DC)

  2. The Biogeohydroclimatology of Land Use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, R. B.

    2008-05-01

    When John Donne wrote his Meditation XVII, which includes the famous"No man is an island" passage, he was thinking about connections between people; no human being is isolated from another. Donne might just as well have been writing about the science of land use, however. What happens on one plot of land clearly affects what happens on another, whether downhill, downstream, or downwind. I will explore the consequences of land use for mass and energy fluxes, focusing on pasture, crop, and forest transitions in the Americas. I'll discuss my own work, some work of collaborators, and a few examples from the literature. No man is an island.

  3. Constructing land-use maps of the Netherlands in 2030.

    PubMed

    de Nijs, Ton C M; de Niet, R; Crommentuijn, L

    2004-08-01

    The National Environmental Assessment Agency of the RIVM in the Netherlands is obliged to report on future trends in the environment and nature every 4 years. The last report, Nature Outlook 2, evaluated the effects of four alternative socio-economic and demographic scenarios on nature and the landscape. Spatially detailed land-use maps are needed to assess effects on nature and landscape. The objective of the study presented here was how to create spatially detailed land-use maps of the Netherlands in 2030 using the Environment Explorer, a Cellular Automata-based land-use model to construct land-use maps from four scenarios. One of these is discussed in great detail to show how the maps were constructed from the various scenario elements, story lines and additional data and assumptions on national, regional and local land-use developments. It was the first time in the history of our outlooks that consistent, spatially detailed land-use maps of the Netherlands for 2030 were constructed from national economic and demographic scenarios. Each map represents a direct reflection of model input and assumptions. The maps do not show the most probable developments in the Netherlands but describe the possible change in land use if Dutch society were to develop according to one of the four scenarios. The large (societal) uncertainties are reflected in the total set of future land-use maps. The application of a land-use model such as the Environment Explorer ensures that all relevant aspects of a scenario, i.e. economic and demographic developments, zoning policies and urban growth, are integrated systematically into one consistent framework. PMID:15246572

  4. Spatiotemporal trends of terrestrial vegetation activity along the urban development intensity gradient in China's 32 major cities.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Decheng; Zhao, Shuqing; Liu, Shuguang; Zhang, Liangxia

    2014-08-01

    Terrestrial vegetation plays many pivotal roles in urban systems. However, the impacts of urbanization on vegetation are poorly understood. Here we examined the spatiotemporal trends of the vegetation activity measured by MODIS Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) along Urban Development Intensity (UDI) gradient in 32 major Chinese cities from 2000 to 2012. We also proposed to use a new set of concepts (i.e., actual, theoretical, and positive urbanization effects) to better understand and quantify the impacts of urbanization on vegetation activities. Results showed that the EVI decreased significantly along a rising UDI for 28 of 32 cities (p<0.05) in linear, convex or concave form, signifying the urbanization impacts on vegetation varied across cities and UDI zones within a city. Further, the actual urbanization effects were much weaker than the theoretical estimates because of the offsetting positive effects generated by multiple urban environmental and anthropogenic factors. Examining the relative changes of EVI in various UDI zones against that in the rural area (?EVI), which effectively removed the effects of climate variability, demonstrated that ?EVI decreased markedly from 2000 to 2012 for about three-quarters of the cities in the exurban (0.05urban (0.5urban core (0.75urban and urban core of many cities could primarily be attributed to the importance of positive effects derived from the urban environment and the improvement of management and maintenance of urban green space. More work is needed to quantify mechanistically the detailed negative and positive effects of urban environmental factors and management practices on vegetation activities. PMID:24829041

  5. Remote sensing. [land use mapping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jinich, A.

    1979-01-01

    Various imaging techniques are outlined for use in mapping, land use, and land management in Mexico. Among the techniques discussed are pattern recognition and photographic processing. The utilization of information from remote sensing devices on satellites are studied. Multispectral band scanners are examined and software, hardware, and other program requirements are surveyed.

  6. Ground-Water Quality and its Relation to Land Use on Oahu, Hawaii, 2000-01

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hunt, Charles D., Jr.

    2003-01-01

    Water quality in the main drinking-water source aquifers of Oahu was assessed by a one-time sampling of untreated ground water from 30 public-supply wells and 15 monitoring wells. The 384 square-mile study area, which includes urban Honolulu and large tracts of forested, agricultural, and suburban residential lands in central Oahu, accounts for 93 percent of the island's ground-water withdrawals. Organic compounds were detected in 73 percent of public-supply wells, but mostly at low concentrations below minimum reporting levels. Concentrations exceeded drinking-water standards in just a few cases: the solvent trichloroethene and the radionuclide radon-222 exceeded Federal standards in one public-supply well each, and the fumigants 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane (DBCP) and 1,2,3-trichloropropane (TCP) exceeded State standards in three public-supply wells each. Solvents, fumigants, trihalomethanes, and herbicides were prevalent (detected in more than 30 percent of samples) but gasoline components and insecticides were detected in few wells. Most water samples contained complex mixtures of organic compounds: multiple solvents, fumigants, or herbicides, and in some cases compounds from two or all three of these classes. Characteristic suites of chemicals were associated with particular land uses and geographic locales. Solvents were associated with central Oahu urban-military lands whereas fumigants, herbicides, and fertilizer nutrients were associated with central Oahu agricultural lands. Somewhat unexpectedly, little contamination was detected in Honolulu where urban density is highest, most likely as a consequence of sound land-use planning, favorable aquifer structure, and less intensive application of chemicals (or of less mobile chemicals) over recharge zones in comparison to agricultural areas. For the most part, organic and nutrient contamination appear to reflect decades-old releases and former land use. Most ground-water ages were decades old, with recharge dates ranging from pre-1940 to the present, and with most dates falling within the 1950s to 1980s time span. Several widely detected compounds were discontinued as long ago as the 1970s but have yet to be flushed from the ground-water system. Although large tracts of land in central Oahu have been converted from agriculture to residential urban use since the 1950s, water quality in the converted areas still more closely reflects the former agricultural land. It appears to be too early to detect a distinct water-quality signature characteristic of the newer urban use, although several urban turfgrass herbicides in use for just 10 years or so were detected in monitoring wells and may represent early arrivals of urban contaminants at the water table.

  7. Study of USGS/NASA land use classification system. [compatibility of land use classification system with computer processing techniques employed for land use mapping from ERTS data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spann, G. W.; Faust, N. L.

    1974-01-01

    It is known from several previous investigations that many categories of land-use can be mapped via computer processing of Earth Resources Technology Satellite data. The results are presented of one such experiment using the USGS/NASA land-use classification system. Douglas County, Georgia, was chosen as the test site for this project. It was chosen primarily because of its recent rapid growth and future growth potential. Results of the investigation indicate an overall land-use mapping accuracy of 67% with higher accuracies in rural areas and lower accuracies in urban areas. It is estimated, however, that 95% of the State of Georgia could be mapped by these techniques with an accuracy of 80% to 90%.

  8. Web-GIS Based System for the Management of Objections to a Comprehensive Municipal Land Use Plan

    E-print Network

    Tourińo, Juan

    Web-GIS Based System for the Management of Objections to a Comprehensive Municipal Land Use Plan of a comprehensive municipal land use plan is a long and arduous process that requires great effort from local of urban information and to enable citizens to register objections to the land use plan during

  9. Land Use and Land Cover Baseline Report

    E-print Network

    Columbia University

    Land Use and Land Cover Baseline Report September 2012 Data and analysis of land use and land cover of the findings of land use and land cover mapping in the South Department of Haiti a baseline measurement of land cover and land use conditions in the region

  10. Land use mapping and change detection using ERTS imagery in Montgomery County, Alabama

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilms, R. P.

    1973-01-01

    The feasibility of using remotely sensed data from ERTS-1 for mapping land use and detecting land use change was investigated. Land use information was gathered from 1964 air photo mosaics and from 1972 ERTS data. The 1964 data provided the basis for comparison with ERTS-1 imagery. From this comparison, urban sprawl was quite evident for the city of Montgomery. A significant trend from forestland to agricultural was also discovered. The development of main traffic arteries between 1964 and 1972 was a vital factor in the development of some of the urban centers. Even though certain problems in interpreting and correlating land use data from ERTS imagery were encountered, it has been demonstrated that remotely sensed data from ERTS is useful for inventorying land use and detecting land use change.

  11. Some findings on the applications of ERTS and Skylab imagery for metropolitan land use analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, R. H. (principal investigator); Milazzo, V. A.

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Work undertaken on a three-sensor land use data evaluation for a portion of the Phoenix area is reported. Analyses between land use data generated from 1970 high altitude photography and that detectable from ERTS and Skylab, especially in terms of changes in land use indicate that ERTS and Skylab imagery can be used effectively to detect and identify areas of post-1970 land use change, especially those documenting urban expansion at the rural-urban fringe. Significant preliminary findings on the utility of ERTS and Skylab data for metropolitan land use analysis, substantiated by evaluation with 1970 and 1972 ground control land use data are reported.

  12. Open and reproducible global land use classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nüst, Daniel; Václavík, Tomáš; Pross, Benjamin

    2015-04-01

    Researchers led by the Helmholtz Centre for Environmental research (UFZ) developed a new world map of land use systems based on over 30 diverse indicators (http://geoportal.glues.geo.tu-dresden.de/stories/landsystemarchetypes.html) of land use intensity, climate and environmental and socioeconomic factors. They identified twelve land system archetypes (LSA) using a data-driven classification algorithm (self-organizing maps) to assess global impacts of land use on the environment, and found unexpected similarities across global regions. We present how the algorithm behind this analysis can be published as an executable web process using 52°North WPS4R (https://wiki.52north.org/bin/view/Geostatistics/WPS4R) within the GLUES project (http://modul-a.nachhaltiges-landmanagement.de/en/scientific-coordination-glues/). WPS4R is an open source collaboration platform for researchers, analysts and software developers to publish R scripts (http://www.r-project.org/) as a geo-enabled OGC Web Processing Service (WPS) process. The interoperable interface to call the geoprocess allows both reproducibility of the analysis and integration of user data without knowledge about web services or classification algorithms. The open platform allows everybody to replicate the analysis in their own environments. The LSA WPS process has several input parameters, which can be changed via a simple web interface. The input parameters are used to configure both the WPS environment and the LSA algorithm itself. The encapsulation as a web process allows integration of non-public datasets, while at the same time the publication requires a well-defined documentation of the analysis. We demonstrate this platform specifically to domain scientists and show how reproducibility and open source publication of analyses can be enhanced. We also discuss future extensions of the reproducible land use classification, such as the possibility for users to enter their own areas of interest to the system and generate summary statistics relating the particular area to the land system archetype. Such an extension demonstrates the advantages of open geoprocesses, because the user does not need to replicate the whole workflow, which included considerable data preparation steps, and can still access an analysis result tailored to his needs. The LSAs are the basis for science-based policy recommendations for sustainable land management and yield improvement at a global scale. The reproducibility of the study strengthens the scientific work and the open source platform allows scientists to adapt and extend it to provide new original contributions to sustainable land use management.

  13. Aerosol accumulation intensity and composition variations under different weather conditions in urban environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinberga, Iveta; Bikshe, Janis; Eindorfa, Aiva

    2014-05-01

    During the last decade aerosol (PM10, PM2.5) mass and composition measurements were done in different urban environments - parallel street canyons, industrial sites and at the background level in Riga, Latvia. Effect of meteorological parameters on the accumulation and ventilation intensity was investigated in order to understand microclimatological parameters affecting aerosol pollution level and chemical composition changes. In comparison to industrial sites (shipping activities, bulk cargo, oil and naphtha processing), urban street canyon aerosol mass concentration was significantly higher, for PM10 number of daily limit exceedances are higher by factor 3.4 - 3.9 in street canyons. Exceedances of PM2.5 annual limits were identified only in street canyons as well. Precipitation intensity, wind speed, days with mist highly correlates with aerosol concentration; in average during the year about 1 - 2 % presence of calm wind days, 20 - 30 days with mist facilitate accumulation of aerosols and mitigating growing of secondary aerosols. It has been assessed that about 25 % of daily exceedances in street canyons are connected with sea salt/street sanding factor. Strong dependency of wind speed and direction were identified in winter time - low winds (0.4 - 1.7 m/s) blowing from south, south-east (cross section of the street) contributing to PM10 concentrations over 100 - 150 ug/m3. Seasonal differences in aerosol concentrations were identified as a result of recombination of direct source impact, specific meteorological and synoptical conditions during the period from January until April when usually dominates extremely high aerosol concentrations. While aerosol mass concentration levels in monitoring sites significantly differs, concentrations of heavy metals (Pb, Ni, Cd, and As) are almost at the same level, even more - concentration of Cd for some years was higher in industrial area where main pollution is caused by oil processing and storage, heavy traffic activities and transportation by rail. The type of prevailing secondary aerosol formation was estimated by linear regression analysis which shows NOx prevalence in street canyons and urban background and SO2 associated reactions in industrial sites. Linear regression of traffic intensity in connection with aerosol pollution level shows domination of exhaust emissions during traffic jams and resuspension intensity during middle of the week.

  14. Global Agricultural Land use Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramankutty, N.; Foley, J.; Leff, B.

    2003-12-01

    The conversion of natural ecosystems to agriculture has been the dominant mode of land conversion over the last three centuries. To understand the ecosystem consequences of global agriculture, we need global data sets of the spatial extent of agricultural land cover, as well as the management practices occurring on those landscapes. We are developing contemporary and historical datasets of global agricultural land use and land cover using a combination of remotely-sensed land cover data sets and agricultural land use census data. In particular, we are mapping the extent of croplands and pastures, the distribution of major crop types, the yield and production of various crops around the world, the fertilizer application rates, etc. The methodology as well as maps of several of these data sets will be presented.

  15. Estimating Demand for Industrial and Commercial Land Use Given Economic Forecasts

    PubMed Central

    Batista e Silva, Filipe; Koomen, Eric; Diogo, Vasco; Lavalle, Carlo

    2014-01-01

    Current developments in the field of land use modelling point towards greater level of spatial and thematic resolution and the possibility to model large geographical extents. Improvements are taking place as computational capabilities increase and socioeconomic and environmental data are produced with sufficient detail. Integrated approaches to land use modelling rely on the development of interfaces with specialized models from fields like economy, hydrology, and agriculture. Impact assessment of scenarios/policies at various geographical scales can particularly benefit from these advances. A comprehensive land use modelling framework includes necessarily both the estimation of the quantity and the spatial allocation of land uses within a given timeframe. In this paper, we seek to establish straightforward methods to estimate demand for industrial and commercial land uses that can be used in the context of land use modelling, in particular for applications at continental scale, where the unavailability of data is often a major constraint. We propose a set of approaches based on ‘land use intensity’ measures indicating the amount of economic output per existing areal unit of land use. A base model was designed to estimate land demand based on regional-specific land use intensities; in addition, variants accounting for sectoral differences in land use intensity were introduced. A validation was carried out for a set of European countries by estimating land use for 2006 and comparing it to observations. The models’ results were compared with estimations generated using the ‘null model’ (no land use change) and simple trend extrapolations. Results indicate that the proposed approaches clearly outperformed the ‘null model’, but did not consistently outperform the linear extrapolation. An uncertainty analysis further revealed that the models’ performances are particularly sensitive to the quality of the input land use data. In addition, unknown future trends of regional land use intensity widen considerably the uncertainty bands of the predictions. PMID:24647587

  16. Applications of Skylab data to land use and climatological analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, R. H. (principal investigator); Lewis, J. E., Jr.; Lins, H. F., Jr.; Jenner, C. B.; Outcalt, S. I.; Pease, R. W.

    1976-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Skylab study in Central Atlantic Regional Ecological Test Site encompassed two separate but related tasks: (1) evaluation of photographic sensors S190A and B as sources of land use data for planning and managing land resources in major metropolitan regions, and (2) evaluation of the multispectral scanner S192 used in conjunction with associated data and analytical techniques as a data source on urban climates and the surface energy balance. Photographs from the Skylab S190B earth terrain camera were of greatest interest in the land use analysis task; they were of sufficiently high resolution to identify and map many level 2 and 3 land use categories. After being corrected to allow for atmosphere effects, output from thermal and visible bands of the S192 was employed in constructing computer map plots of albedo and surface temperature.

  17. Micro-level land use impacts of bioconversion

    SciTech Connect

    Parsons, V.

    1980-01-01

    The energy crisis has prompted research and development of renewable energy sources, among which are the bioconversion technologies. Crops, crop residues, manure and other organic wastes are potential sources of liquid, solid and gaseous fuels. These feedstocks originate on the farm or in the forest and therefore are land intensive. Implementation of the bioconversion technologies will involve actions which will impact existing land use patterns. Because of differences in crop type, yield per acre, existing land use conditions and agricultural practices, an aggregated national approach to the assessment of land use is not sufficient. If energy policy regarding bioconversion is to be successful, then it must be sensitive to micro-level information. This paper demonstrates the land use assessment work at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) in support of the Department of Energy's Technical Assessment of Solar Energy Program, (TASE). Local Biomass potential, existing and use and potential land use impacts from bio-energy implementation for three of the fifteen counties selected for the TASE study will be presented. The methodology creased for the evaluation is useful in determining the biomass potential for any community or county, and in identifying regional differences inherent in the trade-offs between existing land use and energy production.

  18. Risk assessment of flash floods in central Pyrenees (Spain) through land use change analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serrano-Notivoli, Roberto; Mora, Daniel; Sánchez-Fabre, Miguel; Ángel Saz, Miguel; Ollero, Alfredo

    2015-04-01

    Nowadays, the main cause of the damages to human areas is the increased risk exposure. The urbanization in touristic areas in Pyrenees has increased enormously in last 25 years, and the most of urban development have been made on land occupied by the stream channel. We present two different case studies in central Pyrenees: one in Aragón river and one in Ésera river. We made a land use analysis from 1956 to 2013 in the headwaters of these two rivers delimiting the channel in different flash floods events, and analysing the amount and distribution of precipitation at the same time. The results show that the risk exposure is one of the main factors of the impact of flash floods. We found that most of the damage on urbanization and human activities was caused by the urban occupation of areas that were located on the floodplain of the river. For both Aragon and Esera headwaters precipitation events were considered extreme in their time series. However, the amount of precipitation of these extreme events does not support the consequences in geomorphological and human environments. The events of high intensity rainfall over the last years could be expected, yet, it had unexpected consequences that could be predictable by land managers through an appropriate regional planning.

  19. Investigation of land use of northern megalopolis using ERTS-1 imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simpson, R. B.; Lindgren, D. T.; Ruml, D. J.; Goldstein, W.

    1974-01-01

    Primary objective was to produce a color-coded land use map and digital data base for the northern third of Megalopolis. Secondary objective was to investigate possible applications of ERTS products to land use planning. Many of the materials in this report already have received national, dissemination as a result of unexpected interest in land use surveys from ERTS. Of special historical interest is the first comprehensive urban-type land use map from space imagery, which covered the entire state of Rhode Island and was made from a single image taken on 28 July 1972.

  20. Database Development of Land Use Characteristics along Major U.S. Highways

    SciTech Connect

    Xiong, D

    2000-06-06

    The major objective of the effort reported here is to develop methods to measure transportation land use at the national level (i.e., how much land and what types of lands are used by transportation systems) and to track changes over time. Data for transportation-related land use are important for environmental analysis, climate change studies, transportation-land use interaction research, policy decisions related to urban sprawl, and more. Transportation systems have direct effects on the environment through modification of vegetation, impacts on wildlife habitats, changes in local climate and alternation of drainage patterns (U.S. DOT/BTS, 1996; U.S. DOT/BTS, 1998; U.S. EPA, 1999; Maggi, 1994; Verhoef, 1994). However, without accurate and complete land use data, it is extremely difficult to study and evaluate these effects. Transportation systems also induce land use changes. Such indirect effects, while not the subject of this study, may be more significant than the direct land-use impacts of transportation infrastructure. Establishing an inventory of transportation infrastructure and adjacent land use and maintaining the inventory over time is an important first step towards understanding the full range of interactions between transportation and land use. While current and historic land use data are essential for investigating the relationships between transportation and land use, so far, no technological or institutional mechanisms have been established to systematically collect such data at the national level. The lack of long-term planning in land use data acquisition can be a major setback for future research in transportation land use studies. Land use data also play a key role in the understanding of problems related to urban sprawl and in policy decisions in dealing with these problems.

  1. BIODIVERSITY Global patterns of agricultural land-use

    E-print Network

    Kreft, Holger

    BIODIVERSITY RESEARCH Global patterns of agricultural land-use intensity and vertebrate diversity, Unter den Linden 6, 10099 Berlin, Germany, 3 Free Floater Research Group Biodiversity, Macroecology-use change is the single biggest cause of biodiversity loss. With a rising demand for resources

  2. Future land-use scenarios and the loss of wildlife habitats in the southeastern United States.

    PubMed

    Martinuzzi, Sebastián; Withey, John C; Pidgeon, Anna M; Plantinga, Andrew J; McKerrow, Alexa J; Williams, Steven G; Helmers, David P; Radeloff, Volker C

    2015-01-01

    Land-use change is a major cause of wildlife habitat loss. Understanding how changes in land-use policies and economic factors can impact future trends in land use and wildlife habitat loss is therefore critical for conservation efforts. Our goal here was to evaluate the consequences of future land-use changes under different conservation policies and crop market conditions on habitat loss for wildlife species in the southeastern United States. We predicted the rates of habitat loss for 336 terrestrial vertebrate species by 2051. We focused on habitat loss due to the expansion of urban, crop, and pasture. Future land-use changes following business-as-usual conditions resulted in relatively low rates of wildlife habitat loss across the entire Southeast, but some ecoregions and species groups experienced much higher habitat loss than others. Increased crop commodity prices exacerbated wildlife habitat loss in most ecoregions, while the implementation of conservation policies (reduced urban sprawl, and payments for land conservation) reduced the projected habitat loss in some regions, to a certain degree. Overall, urban and crop expansion were the main drivers of habitat loss. Reptiles and wildlife species associated with open vegetation (grasslands, open woodlands) were the species groups most vulnerable to future land-use change. Effective conservation of wildlife habitat in the Southeast should give special consideration to future land-use changes, regional variations, and the forces that could shape land-use decisions. PMID:26255365

  3. Locational Determinants of Emissions from Pollution-Intensive Firms in Urban Areas

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Min; Tan, Shukui; Guo, Mingjing; Zhang, Lu

    2015-01-01

    Industrial pollution has remained as one of the most daunting challenges for many regions around the world. Characterizing the determinants of industrial pollution should provide important management implications. Unfortunately, due to the absence of high-quality data, rather few studies have systematically examined the locational determinants using a geographical approach. This paper aimed to fill the gap by accessing the pollution source census dataset, which recorded the quantity of discharged wastes (waste water and solid waste) from 717 pollution-intensive firms within Huzhou City, China. Spatial exploratory analysis was applied to analyze the spatial dependency and local clusters of waste emissions. Results demonstrated that waste emissions presented significantly positive autocorrelation in space. The high-high hotspots generally concentrated towards the city boundary, while the low-low clusters approached the Taihu Lake. Their locational determinants were identified by spatial regression. In particular, firms near the city boundary and county road were prone to discharge more wastes. Lower waste emissions were more likely to be observed from firms with high proximity to freight transfer stations or the Taihu Lake. Dense populous districts saw more likelihood of solid waste emissions. Firms in the neighborhood of rivers exhibited higher waste water emissions. Besides, the control variables (firm size, ownership, operation time and industrial type) also exerted significant influence. The present methodology can be applicable to other areas, and further inform the industrial pollution control practices. Our study advanced the knowledge of determinants of emissions from pollution-intensive firms in urban areas. PMID:25927438

  4. The Effect of Land Use Policies and

    E-print Network

    California at Davis, University of

    The Effect of Land Use Policies and Infrastructure Investments on How Much We Drive: A Practitioner versions of this white paper. #12;i The Effect of Land Use Policies and Infrastructure Investments on How................................................................................................................................1 How Land Use Planning and Transport System Investments Can Help

  5. Land-Use Change and Bioenergy

    SciTech Connect

    2011-07-01

    This publication describes the Biomass Program’s efforts to examine the intersection of land-use change and bioenergy production. It describes legislation requiring land-use change assessments, key data and modeling challenges, and the research needs to better assess and understand the impact of bioenergy policy on land-use decisions.

  6. Response of ecosystem services to land use change in Xiamen Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, L.

    2009-12-01

    : Land use change was a major factor affecting ecosystem services. Taken Xiamen Island as an example, by integrating remote sensing data to examine land use patterns from 1950 to 2007, the regional ecosystem services of Xiamen Island were evaluated based on two revised methods aiming to identify the stress effects and mechanisms of land use change on ecosystem services. The results showed that during 1950~2007, in general, Xiamen Island’s land use intensity had been annually rising. The trends of Xiamen Island’s ecosystem services value acquired by two methods were both consistent with decreasing along with the growth of land use intensity. Before 1987, the ecosystem service value of Xiamen Island had increased by 1.07 million yuan, due to the expanding of 12.87 km2 water and wetland. After the establishment of Xiamen special economic zone in 1984, the rapid urbanization has resulted a sharp decline in ecosystem service value, the average annual loss reached by 619,773 yuan after 1987. As the utilization of land reaching saturation and the launching of ecological projects, such as the Xiamen Eastern Sea Comprehensive Improvement Project, it could be predicted that the decreasing trend of ecosystem services value was going to be slowed down in the near future. The first revised method referencing four eco-system services solved the problem of overestimated value caused by the second revised method based on provisioning service alone. By applying the ESV total correction method, the problem of over counting service value by correction made from a single aspect could be solved.Equivalent value per unit area of ecosystem services in China 2007 and revised value by second method Note: The modified coefficient of crop, orchard & forest, wetland and inland water provisioning ESV revised by the second method is 2.858, 2.405, 1.523, 1.843 respectively; for regulating, ultural and supporting ESV, the coefficient is 2.339, 15.339, 2.339 respectively.

  7. Impact of Recent Land Use Changes in the Great Plains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parton, W. J.; Gutmann, M. P.; Ojima, D.

    2004-12-01

    During the last fifty years there has been substantial changes in agricultural land use practices and loss of agricultural land due to urbanization in the Great Plains. The major changes in land use include expansion of irrigated agriculture during the 1960's and 1970's, changes in dryland tillage practices, use of improved crop varieties, and increases in the amount of fertilizer applied to both dryland and irrigated crops. Selected regions like the Front Range of Colorado have experienced large population growth and a resulting decrease in agricultural land area and increased irrigated lawn area. The Daycent ecosystem model was used to simulate the impact of these land use changes on total system carbon and trace gas fluxes. We will highlight recent model results for the urban and rural regions in Eastern Colorado. Model results suggest that adding 4 million ha of irrigated land since the 1960's has resulted in a net carbon storage of 0.43 Tg C and a dramatic increase( 3 to 4 times higher compared to dryland agriculture ) in N2O soil emissions. Conversion agricultural land to urban lawns ( > 40000. Ha ) since the 1950's has resulted in a significant storage of carbon in the soil and a dramatic increase in NO3 leaching and N2O soil emissions ( 3 to 10 times higher compared to natural grasslands and dryland agriculture ). Results for the simulated historical changes in the net green house budgets for selected counties in Colorado will also be presented.

  8. Evaluating the Effects of Land Use Planning for Non-Point Source Pollution Based on a System Dynamics Approach in China.

    PubMed

    Kuai, Peng; Li, Wei; Liu, Nianfeng

    2015-01-01

    Urbanization is proceeding rapidly in several developing countries such as China. This accelerating urbanization alters the existing land use types in a way that results in more Non-Point Source (NPS) pollution to local surface waters. Reasonable land use planning is necessary. This paper compares seven planning scenarios of a case study area, namely Wulijie, China, from the perspective of NPS pollution. A System Dynamics (SD) model was built for the comparison to adequately capture the planning complexity. These planning scenarios, which were developed by combining different land use intensities (LUIs) and construction speeds (CSs), were then simulated. The results show that compared to scenario S1 (business as usual) all other scenarios will introduce more NPS pollution (with an incremental rate of 22%-70%) to Wulijie. Scenario S6 was selected as the best because it induced relatively less NPS pollution while simultaneously maintaining a considerable development rate. Although LUIs represent a more critical factor compared to CSs, we conclude that both LUIs and CSs need to be taken into account to make the planning more environmentally friendly. Considering the power of SD in decision support, it is recommended that land use planning should take into consideration findings acquired from SD simulations. PMID:26267482

  9. Evaluating the Effects of Land Use Planning for Non-Point Source Pollution Based on a System Dynamics Approach in China

    PubMed Central

    Kuai, Peng; Li, Wei; Liu, Nianfeng

    2015-01-01

    Urbanization is proceeding rapidly in several developing countries such as China. This accelerating urbanization alters the existing land use types in a way that results in more Non-Point Source (NPS) pollution to local surface waters. Reasonable land use planning is necessary. This paper compares seven planning scenarios of a case study area, namely Wulijie, China, from the perspective of NPS pollution. A System Dynamics (SD) model was built for the comparison to adequately capture the planning complexity. These planning scenarios, which were developed by combining different land use intensities (LUIs) and construction speeds (CSs), were then simulated. The results show that compared to scenario S1 (business as usual) all other scenarios will introduce more NPS pollution (with an incremental rate of 22%-70%) to Wulijie. Scenario S6 was selected as the best because it induced relatively less NPS pollution while simultaneously maintaining a considerable development rate. Although LUIs represent a more critical factor compared to CSs, we conclude that both LUIs and CSs need to be taken into account to make the planning more environmentally friendly. Considering the power of SD in decision support, it is recommended that land use planning should take into consideration findings acquired from SD simulations. PMID:26267482

  10. Ecological influence and pathways of land use in sagebrush

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knick, Steven T.; Hanser, Steven E.; Miller, Richard F.; Pyke, David A.; Wisdom, Michael J.; Finn, Sean P.; Rinkes, E. Thomas; Henny, Charles J.

    2011-01-01

    Land use in sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) landscapes influences all sage-grouse (Centrocer-cus spp.) populations in western North America. Croplands and the network of irrigation canals cover 230,000 km2 and indirectly influence up to 77% of the Sage-Grouse Conservation Area and 73% of sagebrush land cover by subsidizing synanthropic predators on sage-grouse. Urbanization and the demands of human population growth have created an extensive network of con-necting infrastructure that is expanding its influence on sagebrush landscapes. Over 2,500 km2 are now covered by interstate highways and paved roads; when secondary roads are included, 15% of the Sage-Grouse Conservation Area and 5% of existing sagebrush habitats are 2.5 km from roads. Density of secondary roads often exceeds 5 km/km2, resulting in widespread motorized access for recreation, creating extensive travel corridors for management actions and resource development, subsidizing predators adapted to human presence, and facilitating spread of exotic or invasive plants. Sagebrush lands also are being used for their wilderness and recreation values, including off highway vehicle use. Approximately 12,000,000 animal use months (AUM amount of forage to support one livestock unit per month) are permitted for grazing livestock on public lands in the western states. Direct effects of grazing on sage-grouse populations or sagebrush landscapes are not possible to assess from current data. However, management of lands grazed by livestock has influenced sagebrush ecosystems by vegetation treatments to increase forage and reduce sagebrush and other plant species unpalatable to livestock. Fences (2 km/km2 in some regions), roads, and water developments to manage livestock movements further modify the landscape. Oil and gas development influences 8% of the sagebrush habitats with the highest intensities occurring in the eastern range of sage-grouse; 20% of the sagebrush distribution is indirectly influenced in the Great Plains, Wyoming Basin, and Colorado Plateau SMZs. Energy development physically removes habitat to construct well pads, roads, power lines, and pipelines; indirect effects include habitat fragmentation, soil disturbance, and facilitation of exotic plant and animal spread. More recent development of alternative energy, such as wind and geothermal, creates infrastructure in new regions of the sage-grouse distribution. Land use will continue to be a dominant stressor on sage-brush systems; its individual and cumulative effects will challenge long-term conservation of sage-grouse populations.

  11. Resilience of Groundwater Impacted by Land Use and Climate Change in a Karst Aquifer, South China.

    PubMed

    Guo, Fang; Jiang, Guanghui; Polk, Jason S; Huang, Xiufeng; Huang, Siyu

    2015-11-01

    Changes of groundwater flow and quality were investigated in a subtropical karst aquifer to determine the driving mechanism. Decreases in groundwater flow are more distinct in discharge zones than those in recharge and runoff zones. Long-term measurement of the represented regional groundwater outlet reveals that groundwater discharge decrease by nearly 50% during the dry season. The hydrochemistry of groundwater in the runoff and discharge zones is of poorer quality than in the recharge zone. Indications of intensive land resource exploitation and changes in land use patterns were attributed to changes in groundwater conditions since 1990, but the influence of climate change was likely from 2001, because the water temperature exhibited increasing trends at a mean rate of 0.02 °C/yr even though groundwater depth was high in the aquifer. These conclusions imply the need for further groundwater monitoring and reevaluation to understand the resilience of aquifer during urbanization and development. PMID:26564587

  12. Landsat sattelite multi-spectral image classification of land cover and land use changes for GIS-based urbanization analysis in irrigation districts of lower Rio Grande Valley of Texas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Lower Rio Grande Valley in the south of Texas is experiencing rapid increase of population to bring up urban growth that continues influencing on the irrigation districts in the region. This study evaluated the Landsat satellite multi-spectral imagery to provide information for GIS-based urbaniz...

  13. Urbanization and watershed sustainability: Collaborative simulation modeling of future development states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Randhir, Timothy O.; Raposa, Sarah

    2014-11-01

    Urbanization has a significant impact on water resources and requires a watershed-based approach to evaluate impacts of land use and urban development on watershed processes. This study uses a simulation with urban policy scenarios to model and strategize transferable recommendations for municipalities and cities to guide urban decisions using watershed ecohydrologic principles. The watershed simulation model is used to evaluation intensive (policy in existing built regions) and extensive (policy outside existing build regions) urban development scenarios with and without implementation of Best Management practices (BMPs). Water quantity and quality changes are simulated to assess effectiveness of five urban development scenarios. It is observed that optimal combination of intensive and extensive strategies can be used to sustain urban ecosystems. BMPs are found critical to reduce storm water and water quality impacts on urban development. Conservation zoning and incentives for voluntary adoption of BMPs can be used in sustaining urbanizing watersheds.

  14. Long-Term Effects of Changing Land Use Practices on Surface Water Quality in a Coastal River and Lagoonal Estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rothenberger, Meghan B.; Burkholder, Joann M.; Brownie, Cavell

    2009-09-01

    The watershed of the Neuse River, a major tributary of the largest lagoonal estuary on the U.S. mainland, has sustained rapid growth of human and swine populations. This study integrated a decade of available land cover and water quality data to examine relationships between land use changes and surface water quality. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) analysis was used to characterize 26 subbasins throughout the watershed for changes in land use during 1992-2001, considering urban, agricultural (cropland, animal as pasture, and densities of confined animal feed operations [CAFOs]), forested, grassland, and wetland categories and numbers of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). GIS was also used together with longitudinal regression analysis to identify specific land use characteristics that influenced surface water quality. Total phosphorus concentrations were significantly higher during summer in subbasins with high densities of WWTPs and CAFOs. Nitrate was significantly higher during winter in subbasins with high numbers of WWTPs, and organic nitrogen was higher in subbasins with higher agricultural coverage, especially with high coverage of pastures fertilized with animal manure. Ammonium concentrations were elevated after high precipitation. Overall, wastewater discharges in the upper, increasingly urbanized Neuse basin and intensive swine agriculture in the lower basin have been the highest contributors of nitrogen and phosphorus to receiving surface waters. Although nonpoint sources have been emphasized in the eutrophication of rivers and estuaries such as the Neuse, point sources continue to be major nutrient contributors in watersheds sustaining increasing human population growth. The described correlation and regression analyses represent a rapid, reliable method to relate land use patterns to water quality, and they can be adapted to watersheds in any region.

  15. Pollutant export from various land uses in the upper Neuse River Basin.

    PubMed

    Line, Daniel E; White, Nancy M; Osmond, Deanna L; Jennings, Gregory D; Mojonnier, Carolyn B

    2002-01-01

    Because of the relatively high variability of pollutant export from urban land uses, a significant number of monitoring studies, including data from many storms, are needed to adequately characterize export from urban land uses. Pollutant runoff from six small drainage areas with different land uses was monitored for at least 20 storm events over the course of more than 1 year. The land uses included single-family residential, golf course, industrial, dairy cow pasture, construction site, and wooded site. Average event mean concentrations and total annual load were computed for nitrogen forms, total phosphorus, and sediment from the land uses. Annual total nitrogen export was greatest for the construction land use during the house-building phase, followed closely by the residential and golf course land uses. Total phosphorus export was greatest for the golf course site followed by the pasture and residential land uses. Sediment export was greatest for the construction site during the rough grading phase, which averaged more than 10 times more sediment export than any of the other sites. To estimate export from a multiuse urban watershed, total nitrogen, phosphorus, and sediment export from the residential, golf course, and construction sites were averaged. The average total nitrogen, phosphorus, and sediment export from the three land uses was, respectively, 269, 302, and 256% greater than the corresponding exports from the wooded site, which was considered similar to the predevelopment land use. Additionally, analyses of rainfall samples indicated that a considerable portion of the nitrogen export from these sites likely comes from nitrogen in rainfall. PMID:11995863

  16. Current and future land use around a nationwide protected area network.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Christopher M; Martinuzzi, Sebastian; Plantinga, Andrew J; Radeloff, Volker C; Lewis, David J; Thogmartin, Wayne E; Heglund, Patricia J; Pidgeon, Anna M

    2013-01-01

    Land-use change around protected areas can reduce their effective size and limit their ability to conserve biodiversity because land-use change alters ecological processes and the ability of organisms to move freely among protected areas. The goal of our analysis was to inform conservation planning efforts for a nationwide network of protected lands by predicting future land use change. We evaluated the relative effect of three economic policy scenarios on land use surrounding the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service's National Wildlife Refuges. We predicted changes for three land-use classes (forest/range, crop/pasture, and urban) by 2051. Our results showed an increase in forest/range lands (by 1.9% to 4.7% depending on the scenario), a decrease in crop/pasture between 15.2% and 23.1%, and a substantial increase in urban land use between 28.5% and 57.0%. The magnitude of land-use change differed strongly among different USFWS administrative regions, with the most change in the Upper Midwestern US (approximately 30%), and the Southeastern and Northeastern US (25%), and the rest of the U.S. between 15 and 20%. Among our scenarios, changes in land use were similar, with the exception of our "restricted-urban-growth" scenario, which resulted in noticeably different rates of change. This demonstrates that it will likely be difficult to influence land-use change patterns with national policies and that understanding regional land-use dynamics is critical for effective management and planning of protected lands throughout the U.S. PMID:23383275

  17. Current and future land use around a nationwide protected area network

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hamilton, Christopher M.; Martinuzzi, Sebastian; Plantinga, Andrew J.; Radeloff, Volker C.; Lewis, David J.; Thogmartin, Wayne E.; Heglund, Patricia J.; Pidgeon, Anna M.

    2013-01-01

    Land-use change around protected areas can reduce their effective size and limit their ability to conserve biodiversity because land-use change alters ecological processes and the ability of organisms to move freely among protected areas. The goal of our analysis was to inform conservation planning efforts for a nationwide network of protected lands by predicting future land use change. We evaluated the relative effect of three economic policy scenarios on land use surrounding the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service's National Wildlife Refuges. We predicted changes for three land-use classes (forest/range, crop/pasture, and urban) by 2051. Our results showed an increase in forest/range lands (by 1.9% to 4.7% depending on the scenario), a decrease in crop/pasture between 15.2% and 23.1%, and a substantial increase in urban land use between 28.5% and 57.0%. The magnitude of land-use change differed strongly among different USFWS administrative regions, with the most change in the Upper Midwestern US (approximately 30%), and the Southeastern and Northeastern US (25%), and the rest of the U.S. between 15 and 20%. Among our scenarios, changes in land use were similar, with the exception of our “restricted-urban-growth” scenario, which resulted in noticeably different rates of change. This demonstrates that it will likely be difficult to influence land-use change patterns with national policies and that understanding regional land-use dynamics is critical for effective management and planning of protected lands throughout the U.S.

  18. An analysis of urban thermal characteristics and associated land cover in Tampa Bay and Las Vegas using Landsat satellite data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Xian, G.; Crane, M.

    2006-01-01

    Remote sensing data from both Landsat 5 and Landsat 7 systems were utilized to assess urban area thermal characteristics in Tampa Bay watershed of west-central Florida, and the Las Vegas valley of southern Nevada. To quantitatively determine urban land use extents and development densities, sub-pixel impervious surface areas were mapped for both areas. The urban-rural boundaries and urban development densities were defined by selecting certain imperviousness threshold values and Landsat thermal bands were used to investigate urban surface thermal patterns. Analysis results suggest that urban surface thermal characteristics and patterns can be identified through qualitatively based urban land use and development density data. Results show the urban area of the Tampa Bay watershed has a daytime heating effect (heat-source), whereas the urban surface in Las Vegas has a daytime cooling effect (heat-sink). These thermal effects strongly correlated with urban development densities where higher percent imperviousness is usually associated with higher surface temperature. Using vegetation canopy coverage information, the spatial and temporal distributions of urban impervious surface and associated thermal characteristics are demonstrated to be very useful sources in quantifying urban land use, development intensity, and urban thermal patterns. ?? 2006 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The Impact of Future Land Use Scenarios on Runoff Volumes in the Muskegon River Watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ray, Deepak K.; Duckles, Jonah M.; Pijanowski, Bryan C.

    2010-09-01

    In this article we compared the response of surface water runoff to a storm event for different rates of urbanization, reforestation and riparian buffer setbacks across forty subwatersheds of the Muskegon River Watershed located in Michigan, USA. We also made these comparisons for several forecasted and one historical land use scenarios (over 140 years). Future land use scenarios to 2040 for forest regrowth, urbanization rates and stream setbacks were developed using the Land Transformation Model (LTM). Historical land use information, from 1900 at 5-year time step intervals, was created using a Backcast land use change model configured using artificial neural network and driven by agriculture and housing census information. We show that (1) controlling the rate of development is the most effective policy option to reduce runoff; (2) establishing setbacks along the mainstem are not as effective as controlling urban growth; (3) reforestation can abate some of the runoff effects from urban growth but not all; (4) land use patterns of the 1970s produced the least amount of runoff in most cases in the Muskegon River Watershed when compared to land use maps from 1900 to 2040; and, (5) future land use patterns here not always lead to increased (worse) runoff than the past. We found that while ten of the subwatersheds contained futures that were worse than any past land use configuration, twenty-five (62.5%) of the subwatersheds produced the greatest amount of runoff in 1900, shortly after the entire watershed was clear-cut. One third (14/40) of the subwatersheds contained the minimum amount of runoff in the 1960s and 1970s, a period when forest amounts were greatest and urban amounts relatively small.

  20. Dynamic integration of land use changes in a hydrologic assessment of a rapidly developing Indian catchment.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Paul D; Bhallamudi, S Murty; Narasimhan, Balaji; Kantakumar, Lakshmi N; Sudheer, K P; Kumar, Shamita; Schneider, Karl; Fiener, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Rapid land use and land-cover changes strongly affect water resources. Particularly in regions that experience seasonal water scarcity, land use scenario assessments provide a valuable basis for the evaluation of possible future water shortages. The objective of this study is to dynamically integrate land use model projections with a hydrologic model to analyze potential future impacts of land use change on the water resources of a rapidly developing catchment upstream of Pune, India. For the first time projections from the urban growth and land use change model SLEUTH are employed as a dynamic input to the hydrologic model SWAT. By this means, impacts of land use changes on the water balance components are assessed for the near future (2009-2028) employing four different climate conditions (baseline, IPCC A1B, dry, wet). The land use change modeling results in an increase of urban area by +23.1% at the fringes of Pune and by +12.2% in the upper catchment, whereas agricultural land (-14.0% and -0.3%, respectively) and semi-natural area (-9.1% and -11.9%, respectively) decrease between 2009 and 2028. Under baseline climate conditions, these land use changes induce seasonal changes in the water balance components. Water yield particularly increases at the onset of monsoon (up to +11.0mm per month) due to increased impervious area, whereas evapotranspiration decreases in the dry season (up to -15.1mm per month) as a result of the loss of irrigated agricultural area. As the projections are made for the near future (2009-2028) land use change impacts are similar under IPCC A1B climate conditions. Only if more extreme dry years occur, an exacerbation of the land use change impacts can be expected. Particularly in rapidly changing environments an implementation of both dynamic land use change and climate change seems favorable to assess seasonal and gradual changes in the water balance. PMID:26360457

  1. Land Use and Land Cover Change

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Daniel; Polsky, Colin; Bolstad, Paul V.; Brody, Samuel D.; Hulse, David; Kroh, Roger; Loveland, Thomas; Thomson, Allison M.

    2014-05-01

    A contribution to the 3rd National Climate Assessment report, discussing the following key messages: 1. Choices about land-use and land-cover patterns have affected and will continue to affect how vulnerable or resilient human communities and ecosystems are to the effects of climate change. 2. Land-use and land-cover changes affect local, regional, and global climate processes. 3. Individuals, organizations, and governments have the capacity to make land-use decisions to adapt to the effects of climate change. 4. Choices about land use and land management provide a means of reducing atmospheric greenhouse gas levels.

  2. Remote sensing of effects of land use practices on water quality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graves, D. H.; Colthrap, G. B.

    1977-01-01

    An intensive study was conducted to determine the utility of manual densitometry and color additive viewing of aircraft and LANDSAT transparencies for monitoring land use and land use change. The relationship between land use and selected water quality parameters was also evaluated. Six watersheds located in the Cumberland Plateau region of eastern Kentucky comprised the study area for the project. Land uses present within the study area were reclaimed surface mining and forestry. Fertilization of one of the forested watersheds also occurred during the study period.

  3. Systemic change increases forecast uncertainty of land use change models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verstegen, J. A.; Karssenberg, D.; van der Hilst, F.; Faaij, A.

    2013-12-01

    Cellular Automaton (CA) models of land use change are based on the assumption that the relationship between land use change and its explanatory processes is stationary. This means that model structure and parameterization are usually kept constant over time, ignoring potential systemic changes in this relationship resulting from societal changes, thereby overlooking a source of uncertainty. Evaluation of the stationarity of the relationship between land use and a set of spatial attributes has been done by others (e.g., Bakker and Veldkamp, 2012). These studies, however, use logistic regression, separate from the land use change model. Therefore, they do not gain information on how to implement the spatial attributes into the model. In addition, they often compare observations for only two points in time and do not check whether the change is statistically significant. To overcome these restrictions, we assimilate a time series of observations of real land use into a land use change CA (Verstegen et al., 2012), using a Bayesian data assimilation technique, the particle filter. The particle filter was used to update the prior knowledge about the parameterization and model structure, i.e. the selection and relative importance of the drivers of location of land use change. In a case study of sugar cane expansion in Brazil, optimal model structure and parameterization were determined for each point in time for which observations were available (all years from 2004 to 2012). A systemic change, i.e. a statistically significant deviation in model structure, was detected for the period 2006 to 2008. In this period the influence on the location of sugar cane expansion of the driver sugar cane in the neighborhood doubled, while the influence of slope and potential yield decreased by 75% and 25% respectively. Allowing these systemic changes to occur in our CA in the future (up to 2022) resulted in an increase in model forecast uncertainty by a factor two compared to the assumption of a stationary system. This means that the assumption of a constant model structure is not adequate and largely underestimates uncertainty in the forecast. Non-stationarity in land use change projections is challenging to model, because it is difficult to determine when the system will change and how. We believe that, in sight of these findings, land use change modelers should be more aware, and communicate more clearly, that what they try to project is at the limits, and perhaps beyond the limits, of what is still projectable. References Bakker, M., Veldkamp, A., 2012. Changing relationships between land use and environmental characteristics and their consequences for spatially explicit land-use change prediction. Journal of Land Use Science 7, 407-424. Verstegen, J.A., Karssenberg, D., van der Hilst, F., Faaij, A.P.C., 2012. Spatio-Temporal Uncertainty in Spatial Decision Support Systems: a Case Study of Changing Land Availability for Bioenergy Crops in Mozambique. Computers , Environment and Urban Systems 36, 30-42.

  4. Reconstruction assessment of historical land use: A case study in the Kamo River basin, Kyoto, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Pingping; Takara, Kaoru; Apip; He, Bin; Nover, Daniel

    2014-02-01

    Reconstruction assessment of historical land use can be useful for understanding historical conditions and the impact of long-term land-use change. This study establishes a new method to estimate historical land use based on a set of basic rules generated from the comparison of present land-use and historical documents. This method has been formalized in the paleo-land-use reconstruction (PLUR) program, allowing users to quickly reconstruct historical land use using historical information. The 1843, 1902 and 1927 historical land use conditions were generated using the PLUR model for the Kamo River basin (KRB). Our results show that between 1902 and 1976, three golf courses (Ohara Public course, Kamigamo course and Funayama course) replaced forest land in the KRB. As a result of agricultural development, the area occupied by paddy fields in 1843 was 2.48 km2 less than that in 1902. Urban areas increased from 1843 to 1976, mainly reflecting declining coverage of paddy fields after 1902. The approach presented in this study can be used to support land-use change analyses and reconstruction of paleo-hydrology. This study also provides a discussion of the major drivers of land use change.

  5. Artificial neural network modeling of the water quality index using land use areas as predictors.

    PubMed

    Gazzaz, Nabeel M; Yusoff, Mohd Kamil; Ramli, Mohammad Firuz; Juahir, Hafizan; Aris, Ahmad Zaharin

    2015-02-01

    This paper describes the design of an artificial neural network (ANN) model to predict the water quality index (WQI) using land use areas as predictors. Ten-year records of land use statistics and water quality data for Kinta River (Malaysia) were employed in the modeling process. The most accurate WQI predictions were obtained with the network architecture 7-23-1; the back propagation training algorithm; and a learning rate of 0.02. The WQI forecasts of this model had significant (p < 0.01), positive, very high correlation (?s = 0.882) with the measured WQI values. Sensitivity analysis revealed that the relative importance of the land use classes to WQI predictions followed the order: mining > rubber > forest > logging > urban areas > agriculture > oil palm. These findings show that the ANNs are highly reliable means of relating water quality to land use, thus integrating land use development with river water quality management. PMID:25790513

  6. Upper Little Tennessee River aerial inventory of land uses and nonpoint pollution sources

    SciTech Connect

    Hagerman, J.R.

    1992-06-01

    Local residents have expressed concern about water quality in the Little Tennessee River, and the possibility of nonpoint source pollution was identified. In response, TVA conducted an analysis of land uses and nonpoint pollution sources in the upper Little Tennessee River watershed. Aerial photography, taken in March 1988 and March 1989, was analyzed for the 197,000 acre watershed upstream of Porters Bend Dam (Lake Emory). In the analysis, the land surface was divided into four urban land use classes, nine agricultural land use classes, four forest land use classes, and a class for disturbed areas; livestock operations and critical sites, such as eroding roads and stream banks were located. Soil erosion rate estimates were calculated for all land uses except closed-canopy forest.

  7. [Land Use Unit, Edmonds School District.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edmonds School District 15, Lynnwood, WA.

    This interdisciplinary program, developed for secondary students, contains 18 land use activities that can either be used directly in, or as a supplement to, curriculum in Science, Biology, Horticulture, Mathematics, Social Studies, English, Industrial Arts and Physical Education. The topics to be investigated include: land use simulation games,…

  8. Education for Land Use Planning: Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordahl, Harold C., Ed.

    The two-part manual is designed as a source of information to aid University of Wisconsin Extension Faculty in helping citizens understand land use problems and to assist in the development of work plans, resource allocation, program priorities, and budget preparation. Part I describes the rationale for land use planning and identifies and…

  9. LAND USE AND WATER QUALITY MANAGEMENT

    E-print Network

    #12;LAND USE AND WATER QUALITY MANAGEMENT IN THE BRIDGE CREEK BASIN Prepared for: Water Quality Branch Environmental Protection Dept. BC Environment Victoria, B.C. and Fraser Pollution Abatement Office ..................................................... WATER QUALITY OF UNDISTURBED AREAS ....................... LAND USE EFFECTS ON WATER QUALITY

  10. Sustainable land use and agricultural soil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sustainable land use is the management of the natural environment and the built environment to conserve the resources that help to sustain the current human population of the area and that of future generations. This concept of sustainable land use requires an analysis of the existing resources, the...

  11. Land Use Management for Solid Waste Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Sanford M., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    The author discusses the problems of solid waste disposal and examines various land use management techniques. These include the land use plan, zoning, regionalization, land utilities, and interim use. Information concerning solid waste processing site zoning and analysis is given. Bibliography included. (MA)

  12. PLACES: A Tool For Sustainable Land Use

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rapid development of the human made environment to meet human needs and expand the economy is largely responsible for environmental losses. Because all land uses will incrementally and cumulatively degrade ecosystems that sustain human life, site-level land use decisions must ac...

  13. Understanding the global land-use marketplace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belward, Alan

    2013-04-01

    Over 7 billion humans inhabit Earth and our population increases by more than a hundred per minute. Satisfying the resource demands of seven-plus billion people whilst sustaining the Earth System is a delicate balancing act. We need to balance resource use with regenerative capacity and this balance must avoid tipping points beyond which return and recovery are impossible. Tipping points in the physical, biogeochemical and ecological components of the Earth System have all been proposed - adding the global land-use marketplace to such a list may not be obvious but it undeniably deserves attention. The land is where most humans live most of the time. It meets most food, fuel, freshwater and fibre requirements and shapes Earth's climate. As land is essentially a finite resource this leads to intense competition. Monetizing land resources is nothing new. Choice of agricultural practice has long been governed in part by economics. But in recent years monetization has extended to include new dimensions such as carbon trading and biodiversity offsetting. Our land-use marketplace now has to optimise food, fibre and fuel production whilst maintaining and enhancing land's role as a carbon sink, a hydrologic reservoir and a support for biological diversity. International (and national) environmental policies aim to find a balance between such competing uses. These policies call for accurate, accountable and timely evidence concerning how, when and where land resources are changing. In 2013 the European Space Agency will launch the first of the Copernicus programme's Earth Observing Sentinel satellites. These technologically advanced systems are matched to data acquisition and processing strategies that should provide scientific evidence concerning the land on an unprecedented scale. This paper provides one vision of how Earth science will benefit from the Sentinels and their associated services and how this science will subsequently inform and shape policies, especially those linked to Multilateral Environmental Agreements. Examples will show how the science can promote transparency and good governance, help build knowledge-bases, capacity and markets and illustrates how Copernicus services and the Sentinels are an important component of EU international co-operation.

  14. Introduction to Land Use Decision Making Kit and Economics of Land Use. [2 Units].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haakonsen, Harry O., Ed.; Schaefer, Larry, Ed.

    Included in this set of materials are two units: (1) Introduction to Land Use Decision Making Kit, and (2) Economics of Land Use. Each unit includes student guide sheets, reference material, and tape script. A set of 35mm slides and audiotapes are usually used with the materials. The introductory unit provides an overview of land use and suggested…

  15. CARETS: A prototype regional environmental information system. Volume 2, parts A and B: Norfolk and environs; a land use perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, R. H. (principal investigator); Buzzanell, P. J.; Fitzpatrick, K. A.; Lins, H. F., Jr.; Mcginty, H. K., III

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The Norfolk-Portsmouth metropolitan statistical area in southeastern Virginia was the site of intensive testing of a number of land resources assessment methods. Land use and land cover data at three levels of detail were derived by manual image interpretation from both aircraft and satellite sources and used to characterize the 1,766 sq km (682 sq mi) area from the perspective of its various resource-related activities and problems. Measurements at level 1 from 1:100, 000 scale maps revealed 42 percent of the test area (excluding bays and estuaries) to be forest, 28 percent agriculture, 23 percent urban and built-up, 4 percent nonforested wetlands, and 2 percent water. At the same scale and level of detail, 10 percent of the area underwent change from one land use category to another in the period 1959-70, 62 percent of which involved the relatively irreversible change from forest or agriculture to urban uses.

  16. Evaluation of land use regression models (LURs) for nitrogen dioxide and benzene in four U.S. Cities.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Spatial analysis studies have included application of land use regression models (LURs) for health and air quality assessments. Recent LUR studies have collected nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) using passive samplers at urban air monitoring networks ...

  17. The “sowing of concrete”: Peri-urban smallholder perceptions of rural–urban land change in the Central Peruvian Andes?

    PubMed Central

    Haller, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Policy makers concerned with the peri-urban interface find their greatest challenges in the rapid urban growth of developing mountain regions, since limitations caused by relief and altitude often lead to an increased competition between rural and urban land use at the valley floors. In this context, little attention has been paid to the affected agriculturalists’ perceptions of peri-urban growth—important information required for the realization of sustainable land use planning. How is the process of rural–urban land change perceived and assessed by peri-urban smallholder communities? Which are the major difficulties to be overcome? By what means are the affected people reacting and how are these adaptation strategies linked with the ongoing landscape transformations of the hinterland? By using the example of Huancayo Metropolitano, an emerging Peruvian mountain city, it is shown that rural–urban land change is intensively discussed within peri-urban smallholder groups. Although urbanization also leads to infrastructure investments by public institutions—an advantage perceived throughout the study area—the negative impacts of rural–urban land use change prevail. The perceptions’ analysis reveals that the decrease of fertile and irrigated agricultural land at the quechua valley floor is especially considered to threaten subsistence, food and income security. In order to compensate the loss of production capacities, many smallholders try to expand or intensify their land use at the suni altitudinal belt: an agro-ecological zone characterized by steep and nonirrigated slopes that can actually not be used for the year-round production of crops previously cultivated at the quechua zone. PMID:25844006

  18. Automatic photointerpretation for land use management in Minnesota

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swanlund, G. D. (principal investigator); Pile, D. R.

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The Minnesota Iron Range area was selected as one of the land use areas to be evaluated. Six classes were selected: (1) hardwood; (2) conifer; (3) water (including in mines); (4) mines, tailings and wet areas; (5) open area; and (6) urban. Initial classification results show a correct classification of 70.1 to 95.4% for the six classes. This is extremely good. It can be further improved since there were some incorrect classifications in the ground truth.

  19. Refining 1970's Land-Use Data With 1990 Population Data to Indicate New Residential Development

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hitt, Kerie J.

    1994-01-01

    A procedure using a geographic information system was developed to define urban land use representative of the 1990's by overlaying U.S. Bureau of the Census 1990 population density at the block group level on 1970's digital land-use data from 1:250,000-and 1: 100,000scale maps. Any area having a population density of 1,000 or more people per square mile is re-classified as "urban" land use in the derivative product. The procedure was applied to 20 study units of the National Water-Quality Assessment program to provide what are considered reasonable indications of urbanization that has occurred since the 1970's.

  20. Inconsistent definitions of "urban" result in different conclusions about the size of urban carbon and nitrogen stocks.

    PubMed

    Raciti, Steve M; Hutyra, Lucy R; Rao, Preeti; Finzi, Adrien C

    2012-04-01

    There is conflicting evidence about the importance of urban soils and vegetation in regional C budgets that is caused, in part, by inconsistent definitions of "urban" land use. We quantified urban ecosystem contributions to C stocks in the Boston (Massachusetts, USA) Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) using several alternative urban definitions. Development altered aboveground and belowground C and N stocks, and the sign and magnitude of these changes varied by land use and development intensity. Aboveground biomass (live trees, dbh > or = 5 cm) for the MSA was 7.2 +/- 0.4 kg C/m2 (mean +/- SE), reflecting a high proportion of forest cover. Vegetation C was highest in forest (11.6 +/- 0.5 kg C/m2), followed by residential (4.6 +/- 0.5 kg C/m2), and then other developed (2.0 +/- 0.4 kg C/m2) land uses. Soil C (0-10 cm depth) followed the same pattern of decreasing C concentration from forest, to residential, to other developed land uses (4.1 +/- 0.1, 4.0 +/- 0.2, and 3.3 +/- 0.2 kg C/m2, respectively). Within a land use type, urban areas (which we defined as > 25% impervious surface area [ISA] within a 1-km(2) moving window) generally contained less vegetation C, but slightly more soil C, than nonurban areas. Soil N concentrations were higher in urban areas than nonurban areas of the same land use type, except for residential areas, which had similarly high soil N concentrations. When we compared our definition of urban to other commonly used urban extents (U.S. Census Bureau, Global Rural-Urban Mapping Project [GRUMP], and the MSA itself), we found that urban soil (1 m depth) and vegetation C stocks spanned a wide range, from 14.4 +/- 0.8 to 54.5 +/- 3.4 Tg C and from 4.2 +/- 0.4 to 27.3 +/- 3.2 Tg C, respectively. Conclusions about the importance of urban soils and vegetation to regional C and N stocks are very sensitive to the definition of urban used by the investigators. Urban areas, regardless of definition, are rapidly expanding in their extent; a systematic understanding of how our development patterns influence ecosystems is necessary to inform future development choices. PMID:22645829

  1. A landscape-scale study of land use and parent material effects on soil organic carbon and total nitrogen in the Konya Basin, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayes, M. T.; Marin-Spiotta, E.; Ozdogan, M.; Erdogan, M. A.

    2011-12-01

    In ecosystems where intensive farming and grazing have been occurring for millennia, there is poor understanding of how present-day soil biogeochemical properties relate to factors associated with soil parent materials (e.g. texture, mineralogy), and the net effects of long-term land use practices. Soil organic carbon (SOC) and total soil nitrogen (TN) are important for their roles in maintaining soil structure, moisture, fertility and contributing to carbon sequestration. Our research used a state factor approach (Jenny 1981) to study effects of soil parent materials and land use practices on SOC, TN, and other properties across thirty-five sites in the Konya Basin, an arid region in south-central Turkey farmed and grazed for over 8,000 years. This project is one of the first to study land use impacts on soils at a landscape scale (500 km2) in south-central Turkey, and incorporate geospatial data (e.g. a satellite imagery-derived land cover map we developed) to aid selection of field sites. Focusing on the plough layer (0-25cm) in two depth intervals, we compared effects of agriculture, orchard cultivation and grazing land use practices and clay-loam alluvial, sandy-loam volcanic and lacustrine clay soils on soil properties using standard least squares regression analyses. SOC and TN depended strongly on parent materials, but not on land use. Averaged across both depth intervals, alluvial soil SOC and TN concentrations (19.4 ± 1.32 Mg/ha SOC, 2.86 ± 1.23 Mg/ha TN) were higher and significantly different than lacustrine (9.72 ± 3.01 Mg/ha SOC, 1.57 ± 0.69 Mg/ha TN) and volcanic soil concentrations (7.40 ± 1.72 Mg/ha SOC, 1.02 ± 0.35 Mg/ha TN). Land use significantly affected SOC and TN on alluvial soils, but not on volcanic or lacustrine soils. Our results demonstrate the potential for land use to have different effects on different soils in this region. Our data on SOC, TN and other soil properties illustrate patterns in regional SOC and TN variability not shown by previous modeling or soil survey efforts. We provide baseline information on SOC and TN that can inform benchmarks for future soil monitoring and land use planning in an arid region that is likely to be highly impacted by future climatic changes, agricultural intensification and urban development. Our results suggest the importance of accounting for soil physical properties, and land use effects that are dependent on soil parent materials in future efforts to model or account for SOC and TN in similar ancient agricultural landscapes.

  2. Economic-based projections of future land use in the conterminous United States under alternative policy scenarios.

    PubMed

    Radeloff, V C; Nelson, E; Plantinga, A J; Lewis, D J; Helmers, D; Lawler, J J; Withey, J C; Beaudry, F; Martinuzzi, S; Butsic, V; Lonsdorf, E; White, D; Polasky, S

    2012-04-01

    Land-use change significantly contributes to biodiversity loss, invasive species spread, changes in biogeochemical cycles, and the loss of ecosystem services. Planning for a sustainable future requires a thorough understanding of expected land use at the fine spatial scales relevant for modeling many ecological processes and at dimensions appropriate for regional or national-level policy making. Our goal was to construct and parameterize an econometric model of land-use change to project future land use to the year 2051 at a fine spatial scale across the conterminous United States under several alternative land-use policy scenarios. We parameterized the econometric model of land-use change with the National Resource Inventory (NRI) 1992 and 1997 land-use data for 844 000 sample points. Land-use transitions were estimated for five land-use classes (cropland, pasture, range, forest, and urban). We predicted land-use change under four scenarios: business-as-usual, afforestation, removal of agricultural subsidies, and increased urban rents. Our results for the business-as-usual scenario showed widespread changes in land use, affecting 36% of the land area of the conterminous United States, with large increases in urban land (79%) and forest (7%), and declines in cropland (-16%) and pasture (-13%). Areas with particularly high rates of land-use change included the larger Chicago area, parts of the Pacific Northwest, and the Central Valley of California. However, while land-use change was substantial, differences in results among the four scenarios were relatively minor. The only scenario that was markedly different was the afforestation scenario, which resulted in an increase of forest area that was twice as high as the business-as-usual scenario. Land-use policies can affect trends, but only so much. The basic economic and demographic factors shaping land-use changes in the United States are powerful, and even fairly dramatic policy changes, showed only moderate deviations from the business-as-usual scenario. Given the magnitude of predicted land-use change, any attempts to identify a sustainable future or to predict the effects of climate change will have to take likely land-use changes into account. Econometric models that can simulate land-use change for broad areas with fine resolution are necessary to predict trends in ecosystem service provision and biodiversity persistence. PMID:22645830

  3. Effects of Land Use on Lake Nutrients: The Importance of Scale, Hydrologic Connectivity, and Region

    PubMed Central

    Soranno, Patricia A.; Cheruvelil, Kendra Spence; Wagner, Tyler; Webster, Katherine E.; Bremigan, Mary Tate

    2015-01-01

    Catchment land uses, particularly agriculture and urban uses, have long been recognized as major drivers of nutrient concentrations in surface waters. However, few simple models have been developed that relate the amount of catchment land use to downstream freshwater nutrients. Nor are existing models applicable to large numbers of freshwaters across broad spatial extents such as regions or continents. This research aims to increase model performance by exploring three factors that affect the relationship between land use and downstream nutrients in freshwater: the spatial extent for measuring land use, hydrologic connectivity, and the regional differences in both the amount of nutrients and effects of land use on them. We quantified the effects of these three factors that relate land use to lake total phosphorus (TP) and total nitrogen (TN) in 346 north temperate lakes in 7 regions in Michigan, USA. We used a linear mixed modeling framework to examine the importance of spatial extent, lake hydrologic class, and region on models with individual lake nutrients as the response variable, and individual land use types as the predictor variables. Our modeling approach was chosen to avoid problems of multi-collinearity among predictor variables and a lack of independence of lakes within regions, both of which are common problems in broad-scale analyses of freshwaters. We found that all three factors influence land use-lake nutrient relationships. The strongest evidence was for the effect of lake hydrologic connectivity, followed by region, and finally, the spatial extent of land use measurements. Incorporating these three factors into relatively simple models of land use effects on lake nutrients should help to improve predictions and understanding of land use-lake nutrient interactions at broad scales. PMID:26267813

  4. [Land use pattern and its dynamic changes in Amur tiger distribution region].

    PubMed

    Li, Zhong-wen; Wu, Jian-guo; Kou, Xiao-jun; Tian, Yu; Wang, Tian-ming; Mu, Pu; Ge, Jian-ping

    2009-03-01

    Land use and land cover change has been the primary cause for the habitat loss and fragmentation in the distribution region of Amur tiger (Panthera tigris altaica). Based on the spatiotemporal changes of land use and land cover in the distribution region, as well as their effects on the population dynamics of Amur tiger, this paper analyzed the development process and its characteristics of the main land use types (agricultural land, forest land, and construction land) in this region, with the land use change history being divided chronically into three distinctive periods, i.e., ancient times (prior to 1860), modern times (1860-1949), and contemporary times (after 1949). The results showed that the sporadic land use in ancient times had no significant effects on the survival of Amur tiger, while the extensive and intensive land use after the 1860s was mainly responsible for the decrease of Amur tiger population and its living space. Since 1949, the Amur tiger distribution region has been divided into two parts, i.e., Northeast China and Russia Far East. The differences in land use pattern, policy, and intensity between these two parts led to different survival status of Amur tiger. The key driving forces for the land use change in Amur tiger distribution region were human population increase, policy change, and increased productivity. PMID:19637615

  5. Land use classification utilizing remote multispectral scanner data and computer analysis techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leblanc, P. N.; Johannsen, C. J.; Yanner, J. E.

    1973-01-01

    An airborne multispectral scanner was used to collect the visible and reflective infrared data. A small subdivision near Lafayette, Indiana was selected as the test site for the urban land use study. Multispectral scanner data were collected over the subdivision on May 1, 1970 from an altitude of 915 meters. The data were collected in twelve wavelength bands from 0.40 to 1.00 micrometers by the scanner. The results indicated that computer analysis of multispectral data can be very accurate in classifying and estimating the natural and man-made materials that characterize land uses in an urban scene.

  6. An analysis of metropolitan land-use by machine processing of earth resources technology satellite data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mausel, P. W.; Todd, W. J.; Baumgardner, M. F.

    1976-01-01

    A successful application of state-of-the-art remote sensing technology in classifying an urban area into its broad land use classes is reported. This research proves that numerous urban features are amenable to classification using ERTS multispectral data automatically processed by computer. Furthermore, such automatic data processing (ADP) techniques permit areal analysis on an unprecedented scale with a minimum expenditure of time. Also, classification results obtained using ADP procedures are consistent, comparable, and replicable. The results of classification are compared with the proposed U. S. G. S. land use classification system in order to determine the level of classification that is feasible to obtain through ERTS analysis of metropolitan areas.

  7. Watershed land use influences on river discharge and channel characteristics across northern New Jersey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galster, J. C.; Palmer, K.; Birrer, M.; Espinosa, S.; Pope, G. A.; Feng, H.; Wu, M. S.

    2012-12-01

    River characteristics such as sediment size, channel dimensions, and discharges can be strongly controlled by watershed land use. This project investigated three watersheds in northern New Jersey with varying degrees of forested, agriculture, and urban land uses to determine the effects of land use on these rivers. The watersheds are the Flatbrook, the Wallkill, and the Rockaway rivers and are predominantly forested, forested/agricultural, and forested/urban respectively. Eight sites across these fourth and fifth-order watersheds were investigated including: 1) the grain size using the Wolman pebble count method, 2) channel dimensions (slope, width, depth) with a total station, and 3) channel stability using the rapid geomorphic assessment (RGA). Channel width changes from 1930 to present were determined using historic aerial photographs, and river discharge characteristics were compiled using custom software to determine the flashiness (as measured by the Reynolds-Baker Index) and the Baseflow Index. The three adjacent watersheds have minimal variations in potential confounding variables such as watershed slope, climate, and precipitation, allowing for the isolation of the effects of land use changes. While some of the general relationship between how land use changes affect rivers (e.g., urban streams typically have larger grain sizes and flashier discharges), studies such as this one are important in determining how rivers respond locally. Across the studied watersheds, forested land uses are positively associated with rapid geomorphic assessments scores, indicating the influence of upstream land use and the importance of vegetation. Forested land use is also associated with efficient discharges as measured by hydraulic radius, although there were not significant changes in channel width from 1930 to present. The flashiness of all rivers has increased over time while the baseflow index has decreased, which may be a climatic signal as opposed to being influenced by land use since the trend occurs in all studied watersheds. Although not as strong of a trend as others the median grain size surprisingly decreased with increased urban land use. These results can aid land use managers, water resource engineers, and other scientists involved with river management and restoration. This area is also important as the Wallkill watershed will have future development concentrated in it to preserve the water resources of the adjacent Highlands Region.

  8. Integrating life-cycle environmental and economic assessment with transportation and land use planning.

    PubMed

    Chester, Mikhail V; Nahlik, Matthew J; Fraser, Andrew M; Kimball, Mindy A; Garikapati, Venu M

    2013-01-01

    The environmental outcomes of urban form changes should couple life-cycle and behavioral assessment methods to better understand urban sustainability policy outcomes. Using Phoenix, Arizona light rail as a case study, an integrated transportation and land use life-cycle assessment (ITLU-LCA) framework is developed to assess the changes to energy consumption and air emissions from transit-oriented neighborhood designs. Residential travel, commercial travel, and building energy use are included and the framework integrates household behavior change assessment to explore the environmental and economic outcomes of policies that affect infrastructure. The results show that upfront environmental and economic investments are needed (through more energy-intense building materials for high-density structures) to produce long run benefits in reduced building energy use and automobile travel. The annualized life-cycle benefits of transit-oriented developments in Phoenix can range from 1.7 to 230 Gg CO2e depending on the aggressiveness of residential density. Midpoint impact stressors for respiratory effects and photochemical smog formation are also assessed and can be reduced by 1.2-170 Mg PM10e and 41-5200 Mg O3e annually. These benefits will come at an additional construction cost of up to $410 million resulting in a cost of avoided CO2e at $16-29 and household cost savings. PMID:24053574

  9. Monitoring Stream Nutrient Concentration Trends in a Mixed-Land-Use Watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeiger, S. J.; Hubbart, J. A.

    2014-12-01

    Mixed-land use watersheds are often a complex patchwork of forested, agricultural, and urban land-uses where differential land-use mediated non-point source pollution can significantly impact water quality. Stream nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations serve as important variables for quantifying land use effects on non-point source pollution in receiving waters and relative impacts on aquatic biota. The Hinkson Creek Watershed (HCW) is a representative mixed land use urbanizing catchment (231 km2) located in central Missouri, USA. A nested-scale experimental watershed study including five permanent hydroclimate stations was established in 2009 to provide quantitative understanding of multiple land use impacts on nutrient loading. Spectrophotometric analysis was used to quantify total inorganic nitrogen (TIN) and total phosphorus (TP as PO4) regimes. Results (2010 - 2013) indicate average nitrate (NO3-) concentration (mg/l) range of 0.28 to 0.46 mg/l, nitrite (NO2-) range of 0.02 to 0.03 mg/l, ammonia (NH3) ranged from 0.04 to 0.08 mg/l, and TP range of 0.26 to 0.39 mg/l. With n=858, NO3-, NO2-, NH3, and TP concentrations were significantly (CI=95%, p=0.00) higher in the subbasin with the greatest percent cumulative agricultural land use (57%). NH3 and TP concentrations were significantly (CI=95%, p=0.00) higher (with the exception of the agricultural subbasin) in the subbasin with the greatest percent cumulative urban land use (26%). Results from multiple regression analyses showed percent cumulative agricultural and urban land uses accounted for 85% and 96% of the explained variance in TIN loading (CI=95%, p=0.08) and TP loading (CI=95%, p=0.02), respectively, between gauging sites. These results improve understanding of agricultural and urban land use impacts on nutrient concentrations in mixed use watersheds of the Midwest and have implications for nutrient reduction programs in the Mississippi River Basin and hypoxia reductions in the Gulf of Mexico, USA.

  10. Threats and opportunities for freshwater conservation under future land use change scenarios in the United States.

    PubMed

    Martinuzzi, Sebastián; Januchowski-Hartley, Stephanie R; Pracheil, Brenda M; McIntyre, Peter B; Plantinga, Andrew J; Lewis, David J; Radeloff, Volker C

    2014-01-01

    Freshwater ecosystems provide vital resources for humans and support high levels of biodiversity, yet are severely threatened throughout the world. The expansion of human land uses, such as urban and crop cover, typically degrades water quality and reduces freshwater biodiversity, thereby jeopardizing both biodiversity and ecosystem services. Identifying and mitigating future threats to freshwater ecosystems requires forecasting where land use changes are most likely. Our goal was to evaluate the potential consequences of future land use on freshwater ecosystems in the coterminous United States by comparing alternative scenarios of land use change (2001-2051) with current patterns of freshwater biodiversity and water quality risk. Using an econometric model, each of our land use scenarios projected greater changes in watersheds of the eastern half of the country, where freshwater ecosystems already experience higher stress from human activities. Future urban expansion emerged as a major threat in regions with high freshwater biodiversity (e.g., the Southeast) or severe water quality problems (e.g., the Midwest). Our scenarios reflecting environmentally oriented policies had some positive effects. Subsidizing afforestation for carbon sequestration reduced crop cover and increased natural vegetation in areas that are currently stressed by low water quality, while discouraging urban sprawl diminished urban expansion in areas of high biodiversity. On the other hand, we found that increases in crop commodity prices could lead to increased agricultural threats in areas of high freshwater biodiversity. Our analyses illustrate the potential for policy changes and market factors to influence future land use trends in certain regions of the country, with important consequences for freshwater ecosystems. Successful conservation of aquatic biodiversity and ecosystem services in the United States into the future will require attending to the potential threats and opportunities arising from policies and market changes affecting land use. PMID:24022881

  11. Agriculture, land use, and commercial biomass energy

    SciTech Connect

    Edmonds, J.A.; Wise, M.A.; Sands, R.D.; Brown, R.A.; Kheshgi, H.

    1996-06-01

    In this paper we have considered commercial biomass energy in the context of overall agriculture and land-use change. We have described a model of energy, agriculture, and land-use and employed that model to examine the implications of commercial biomass energy or both energy sector and land-use change carbon emissions. In general we find that the introduction of biomass energy has a negative effect on the extent of unmanaged ecosystems. Commercial biomass introduces a major new land use which raises land rental rates, and provides an incentive to bring more land into production, increasing the rate of incursion into unmanaged ecosystems. But while the emergence of a commercial biomass industry may increase land-use change emissions, the overall effect is strongly to reduce total anthropogenic carbon emissions. Further, the higher the rate of commercial biomass energy productivity, the lower net emissions. Higher commercial biomass energy productivity, while leading to higher land-use change emissions, has a far stronger effect on fossil fuel carbon emissions. Highly productive and inexpensive commercial biomass energy technologies appear to have a substantial depressing effect on total anthropogenic carbon emissions, though their introduction raises the rental rate on land, providing incentives for greater rates of deforestation than in the reference case.

  12. Reconnecting cities to the biosphere: stewardship of green infrastructure and urban ecosystem services.

    PubMed

    Andersson, Erik; Barthel, Stephan; Borgström, Sara; Colding, Johan; Elmqvist, Thomas; Folke, Carl; Gren, Ĺsa

    2014-05-01

    Within-city green infrastructure can offer opportunities and new contexts for people to become stewards of ecosystem services. We analyze cities as social-ecological systems, synthesize the literature, and provide examples from more than 15 years of research in the Stockholm urban region, Sweden. The social-ecological approach spans from investigating ecosystem properties to the social frameworks and personal values that drive and shape human interactions with nature. Key findings demonstrate that urban ecosystem services are generated by social-ecological systems and that local stewards are critically important. However, land-use planning and management seldom account for their role in the generation of urban ecosystem services. While the small scale patchwork of land uses in cities stimulates intense interactions across borders much focus is still on individual patches. The results highlight the importance and complexity of stewardship of urban biodiversity and ecosystem services and of the planning and governance of urban green infrastructure. PMID:24740616

  13. Analyzing the effect of urbanization on flood characteristics at catchment levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, X.; Tian, C.; Meng, X.; Xu, Q.; Cui, G.; Zhang, Q.; Xiang, L.

    2015-06-01

    It is increasingly recognized that the land-use change, especially urbanization has influenced hydrological attributes intensely. Flood characteristics variation could likewise increase flood risks and pose higher demand on water management. The paper aims to evaluate temporal and spatial processes of urbanization affecting flood events at catchment level. The study sites were Xiaoqinhe catchment and its sub-catchments, a part of lower Yellow river basin in northern China. Historic cities Jinan and Zibo in the area have experienced dramatic urban expansion in recent decades, about 5% growth of urban build-up area annually from 1990s to 2010s, and also pressed alarm for increasing flood disasters. In the paper, a HEC-HMS model was set up to simulate flood processes for different land-use scenarios. The possible effects of urbanization on flood characteristics were checked in study catchment and its sub-catchments.

  14. Quantitative analysis and simulation of land use changes in the Pearl River Delta, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Honghui; Zeng, Yongnian; Zou, Bin; Xiao, Pengfeng; Hu, Deyong; Peng, Jianchao

    2007-06-01

    This paper analyzes and simulates the land use changes in the Pearl River Delta, China, using Longgang City as a case study. The region has pioneered the nation in economic development and urbanization process. Tremendous land use changes have been witnessed since the economic reform in 1978. Land use changes are analyzed and simulated by using stochastic cellular automata model, land use trajectories analysis, spatial indices and multi-temporal TM images of Longgang City (TM1987, TM1991, TM1995, TM1999, TM2003, TM2005) in order to understand how urbanization has transformed the non-urban land to urban land and estimate the consequent environment and ecological impacts in this region. The analysis and simulation results show that urban land continues to sprawl along road and fringe of towns, and concomitant to this development is the loss of agricultural land, orchards and fish ponds. This study provides new evidence with spatial details about the uneven land development in the Pearl River Delta.

  15. [Influence of urbanization level on the lethal load and on the intensity of natural selection in the Turkmen population].

    PubMed

    Turaeva, S H; Bol'shakova, L P; Revazov, A A; Nekrasova, E P; Orazova, G A; Kirova, M A

    1991-09-01

    Dynamics of genetic load in aboriginal population of the Turkmen SSR was studied using two approaches to calculate "lethal" equivalents. Intensity and structure of natural selection were measured using the Crow's index and its components. All statistics indicated were determined using the data obtained in Ashkhabad city and in two rural populations of Ashkhabad region (Yasman and Nokhur) within the time interval prior to 60s and after 70s. The results obtained made it possible to subdivide the populations under study into three different groups according to different stages of demographic process: 1) urbanized population; 2) rural (transient) population; 3) "relict" rural population. PMID:1838095

  16. Pervasive transition of the Brazilian land-use system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapola, David M.; Martinelli, Luiz A.; Peres, Carlos A.; Ometto, Jean P. H. B.; Ferreira, Manuel E.; Nobre, Carlos A.; Aguiar, Ana Paula D.; Bustamante, Mercedes M. C.; Cardoso, Manoel F.; Costa, Marcos H.; Joly, Carlos A.; Leite, Christiane C.; Moutinho, Paulo; Sampaio, Gilvan; Strassburg, Bernardo B. N.; Vieira, Ima C. G.

    2014-01-01

    Agriculture, deforestation, greenhouse gas emissions and local/regional climate change have been closely intertwined in Brazil. Recent studies show that this relationship has been changing since the mid 2000s, with the burgeoning intensification and commoditization of Brazilian agriculture. On one hand, this accrues considerable environmental dividends including a pronounced reduction in deforestation (which is becoming decoupled from agricultural production), resulting in a decrease of ~40% in nationwide greenhouse gas emissions since 2005, and a potential cooling of the climate at the local scale. On the other hand, these changes in the land-use system further reinforce the long-established inequality in land ownership, contributing to rural-urban migration that ultimately fuels haphazard expansion of urban areas. We argue that strong enforcement of sector-oriented policies and solving long-standing land tenure problems, rather than simply waiting for market self-regulation, are key steps to buffer the detrimental effects of agricultural intensification at the forefront of a sustainable pathway for land use in Brazil.

  17. Nitrate stable isotopes: Tools for determining nitrate sources among different land uses in the Mississippi River Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chang, Cecily C.Y.; Kendall, C.; Silva, S.R.; Battaglin, W.A.; Campbell, D.H.

    2002-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine whether NO3- stable isotopes (??15N and ??18O), at natural abundance levels, could discriminate among NO3- sources from sites with different land uses at the basin scale. Water samples were collected from 24 sites in the Mississippi River Basin from five land-use categories: (1) large river basins (>34 590 km2) draining multiple land uses and smaller basins in which the predominant land use was (2) urban (3) undeveloped, (4) crops, or (5) crops and livestock. Our data suggest that riverine nitrates from different land uses have overlapping but moderately distinct isotopic signatures. ??18O data were critical in showing abrupt changes in NO3- source with discharge. The isotopic values of large rivers resembled crop sites, sites with livestock tended to have ??15N values characteristic of manure, and urban sites tended to have high ??18O values characteristic of atmospheric nitrate.

  18. Isolating the impacts of land use and climate change on streamflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chawla, I.; Mujumdar, P. P.

    2015-08-01

    Quantifying the isolated and integrated impacts of land use (LU) and climate change on streamflow is challenging as well as crucial to optimally manage water resources in river basins. This paper presents a simple hydrologic modeling-based approach to segregate the impacts of land use and climate change on the streamflow of a river basin. The upper Ganga basin (UGB) in India is selected as the case study to carry out the analysis. Streamflow in the river basin is modeled using a calibrated variable infiltration capacity (VIC) hydrologic model. The approach involves development of three scenarios to understand the influence of land use and climate on streamflow. The first scenario assesses the sensitivity of streamflow to land use changes under invariant climate. The second scenario determines the change in streamflow due to change in climate assuming constant land use. The third scenario estimates the combined effect of changing land use and climate over the streamflow of the basin. Based on the results obtained from the three scenarios, quantification of isolated impacts of land use and climate change on streamflow is addressed. Future projections of climate are obtained from dynamically downscaled simulations of six general circulation models (GCMs) available from the Coordinated Regional Downscaling Experiment (CORDEX) project. Uncertainties associated with the GCMs and emission scenarios are quantified in the analysis. Results for the case study indicate that streamflow is highly sensitive to change in urban areas and moderately sensitive to change in cropland areas. However, variations in streamflow generally reproduce the variations in precipitation. The combined effect of land use and climate on streamflow is observed to be more pronounced compared to their individual impacts in the basin. It is observed from the isolated effects of land use and climate change that climate has a more dominant impact on streamflow in the region. The approach proposed in this paper is applicable to any river basin to isolate the impacts of land use change and climate change on the streamflow.

  19. The Land Gini Coefficient and Its Application for Land Use Structure Analysis in China

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Xinqi; Xia, Tian; Yang, Xin; Yuan, Tao; Hu, Yecui

    2013-01-01

    We introduce the Gini coefficient to assess the rationality of land use structure. The rapid transformation of land use in China provides a typical case for land use structure analysis. In this study, a land Gini coefficient (LGC) analysis tool was developed. The land use structure rationality was analyzed and evaluated based on statistical data for China between 1996 and 2008. The results show: (1)The LGC of three major land use types–farmland, built-up land and unused land–was smaller when the four economic districts were considered as assessment units instead of the provinces. Therefore, the LGC is spatially dependent; if the calculation unit expands, then the LGC decreases, and this relationship does not change with time. Additionally, land use activities in different provinces of a single district differed greatly. (2) At the national level, the LGC of the three main land use types indicated that during the 13 years analyzed, the farmland and unused land were evenly distributed across China. However, the built-up land distribution was relatively or absolutely unequal and highlights the rapid urbanization in China. (3) Trends in the distribution of the three major land use types are very different. At the national level, when using a district as the calculation unit, the LGC of the three main land use types increased, and their distribution became increasingly concentrated. However, when a province was used as the calculation unit, the LGC of the farmland increased, while the LGC of the built-up and unused land decreased. These findings indicate that the distribution of the farmland became increasingly concentrated, while the built-up land and unused land became increasingly uniform. (4) The LGC analysis method of land use structure based on geographic information systems (GIS) is flexible and convenient. PMID:24130764

  20. An assessment of a collaborative mapping approach for exploring land use patterns for several European metropolises

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jokar Arsanjani, Jamal; Vaz, Eric

    2015-03-01

    Until recently, land surveys and digital interpretation of remotely sensed imagery have been used to generate land use inventories. These techniques however, are often cumbersome and costly, allocating large amounts of technical and temporal costs. The technological advances of web 2.0 have brought a wide array of technological achievements, stimulating the participatory role in collaborative and crowd sourced mapping products. This has been fostered by GPS-enabled devices, and accessible tools that enable visual interpretation of high resolution satellite images/air photos provided in collaborative mapping projects. Such technologies offer an integrative approach to geography by means of promoting public participation and allowing accurate assessment and classification of land use as well as geographical features. OpenStreetMap (OSM) has supported the evolution of such techniques, contributing to the existence of a large inventory of spatial land use information. This paper explores the introduction of this novel participatory phenomenon for land use classification in Europe's metropolitan regions. We adopt a positivistic approach to assess comparatively the accuracy of these contributions of OSM for land use classifications in seven large European metropolitan regions. Thematic accuracy and degree of completeness of OSM data was compared to available Global Monitoring for Environment and Security Urban Atlas (GMESUA) datasets for the chosen metropolises. We further extend our findings of land use within a novel framework for geography, justifying that volunteered geographic information (VGI) sources are of great benefit for land use mapping depending on location and degree of VGI dynamism and offer a great alternative to traditional mapping techniques for metropolitan regions throughout Europe. Evaluation of several land use types at the local level suggests that a number of OSM classes (such as anthropogenic land use, agricultural and some natural environment classes) are viable alternatives for land use classification. These classes are highly accurate and can be integrated into planning decisions for stakeholders and policymakers.

  1. Effect of land use on the seasonal variation of streamwater quality in the Wei River basin, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, S.; Xu, Z.; Wu, W.; Zuo, D.

    2015-05-01

    The temporal effect of land use on streamwater quality needs to be addressed for a better understanding of the complex relationship between land use and streamwater quality. In this study, GIS and Pearson correlation analysis were used to determine whether there were correlations of land-use types with streamwater quality at the sub-basin scale in the Wei River basin, China, during dry and rainy seasons in 2012. Temporal variation of these relations was observed, indicating that relationships between water quality variables and proportions of different land uses were weaker in the rainy season than that in the dry season. Comparing with other land uses, agriculture and urban lands had a stronger relationship with water quality variables in both the rainy and dry seasons. These results suggest that the aspect of temporal effects should be taken into account for better land-use management.

  2. Land use in the Paraiba Valley through remotely sensed data. [Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dejesusparada, N. (principal investigator); Lombardo, M. A.; Novo, E. M. L. D.; Niero, M.; Foresti, C.

    1980-01-01

    A methodology for land use survey was developed and land use modification rates were determined using LANDSAT imagery of the Paraiba Valley (state of Sao Paulo). Both visual and automatic interpretation methods were employed to analyze seven land use classes: urban area, industrial area, bare soil, cultivated area, pastureland, reforestation and natural vegetation. By means of visual interpretation, little spectral differences are observed among those classes. The automatic classification of LANDSAT MSS data using maximum likelihood algorithm shows a 39% average error of omission and a 3.4% error of inclusion for the seven classes. The complexity of land uses in the study area, the large spectral variations of analyzed classes, and the low resolution of LANDSAT data influenced the classification results.

  3. Land-use Changes and Bioenergy ORNL History of Exploring Changes in Land Use in the United States

    E-print Network

    Pennycook, Steve

    Land-use Changes and Bioenergy ORNL History of Exploring Changes in Land Use in the United States the processes responsible for land-use change and the implications of those changes. Building from their work Land-Use Change ORNL has decades of field expertise investigating the complex forces driving land-use

  4. Forests and competing land uses in Kenya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allaway, James; Cox, Pamela M. J.

    1989-03-01

    Indigenous forests in Kenya, as in other developing countries, are under heavy pressure from competing agricultural land uses and from unsustainable cutting. The problem in Kenya is compounded by high population growth rates and an agriculturally based economy, which, even with efforts to control birth rates and industrialize, will persist into the next century. Both ecological and economic consequences of these pressures need to be considered in land-use decision making for land and forest management to be effective. This paper presents one way to combine ecological and economic considerations. The status of principal forest areas in Kenya is summarized and competing land uses compared on the basis of ecological functions and economic analysis. Replacement uses do not match the ecological functions of forest, although established stands of tree crops (forest plantations, fuel wood, tea) can have roughly comparable effects on soil and water resources. Indigenous forests have high, although difficult to estimate, economic benefits from tourism and protection of downstream agricultural productivity. Economic returns from competing land uses range widely, with tea having the highest and fuel wood plantations having returns comparable to some annual crops and dairying. Consideration of ecological and economic factors together suggests some trade-offs for improving land allocation decisions and several management opportunities for increasing benefits or reducing costs from particular land uses. The evaluation also suggests a general strategy for forest land management in Kenya.

  5. The possible impact of urbanization on a heavy rainfall event in Beijing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Miao; Liu, Yimin

    2015-08-01

    The impact of urbanization on a heavy rainfall event that occurred in Beijing on 21 July 2012 was investigated using version 3.6.1 of the Weather Research and Forecasting Model coupled with a multilayer urban canopy model. High-resolution land use data for Beijing in 2010 with modified urban parameterization were introduced into the model. Evaluation showed that the simulation result generally agreed well with observations. Two sensitivity tests with different urban high-resolution land use scenarios were employed to analyze the impact of urban expansion on this rainfall event. The simulation results confirmed that urbanization expansion played an important role in the distribution and intensity of precipitation for this extreme event. Urbanization led to total precipitation increasing in upstream and downstream directions. The start time of the precipitation process was advanced by 1 h, and the duration became longer due to the influence of urbanization. Moreover, urbanization caused the spatial distribution of precipitation to become more concentrated. The total precipitation amount above 250 mm and the frequency of precipitation intensity above 40 h-1 mm are both increased. The results of this study show that urbanization plays a significant role in frontal-type rainfall.

  6. Organic matter breakdown in streams in a region of contrasting anthropogenic land use.

    PubMed

    Voß, K; Fernández, D; Schäfer, R B

    2015-09-15

    Streams provide ecosystem services to humans that depend on ecosystem functions, such as organic matter breakdown (OMB). OMB can be affected by land use-related disturbance. We measured OMB in 29 low-order streams in a region of contrasting land use in south-west Germany to quantify land use effects on OMB. We deployed fine and coarse mesh leaf bags in streams of forest, agricultural, vinicultural and urban catchments to determine the microbial and invertebrate-mediated OMB, respectively. Furthermore, we monitored physicochemical, geographical and habitat parameters to explain potential differences in OMB among land use types and sites. Only microbial OMB differed between land use types. Microbial OMB was negatively correlated with pH and invertebrate-mediated OMB was positively correlated with tree cover. Generally, OMB responded to stressor gradients rather than directly to land use. Therefore, the monitoring of specific stressors may be more relevant than land use to detect effects on ecosystem functions, and to extrapolate effects on functions, e.g. in the context of assessing ecosystem services. PMID:25958365

  7. Projected land-use change impacts on ecosystem services in the United States.

    PubMed

    Lawler, Joshua J; Lewis, David J; Nelson, Erik; Plantinga, Andrew J; Polasky, Stephen; Withey, John C; Helmers, David P; Martinuzzi, Sebastián; Pennington, Derric; Radeloff, Volker C

    2014-05-20

    Providing food, timber, energy, housing, and other goods and services, while maintaining ecosystem functions and biodiversity that underpin their sustainable supply, is one of the great challenges of our time. Understanding the drivers of land-use change and how policies can alter land-use change will be critical to meeting this challenge. Here we project land-use change in the contiguous United States to 2051 under two plausible baseline trajectories of economic conditions to illustrate how differences in underlying market forces can have large impacts on land-use with cascading effects on ecosystem services and wildlife habitat. We project a large increase in croplands (28.2 million ha) under a scenario with high crop demand mirroring conditions starting in 2007, compared with a loss of cropland (11.2 million ha) mirroring conditions in the 1990s. Projected land-use changes result in increases in carbon storage, timber production, food production from increased yields, and >10% decreases in habitat for 25% of modeled species. We also analyze policy alternatives designed to encourage forest cover and natural landscapes and reduce urban expansion. Although these policy scenarios modify baseline land-use patterns, they do not reverse powerful underlying trends. Policy interventions need to be aggressive to significantly alter underlying land-use change trends and shift the trajectory of ecosystem service provision. PMID:24799685

  8. Characterization of salinity and selenium loading and land-use change in Montrose Arroyo, western Colorado, from 1992 to 2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moore, Jennifer L.

    2011-01-01

    Salinity and selenium are naturally occurring and perva-sive in the lower Gunnison River Basin of Colorado, includ-ing the watershed of Montrose Arroyo. Although some of the salinity and selenium loading in the Montrose Arroyo study area is from natural sources, additional loading has resulted from the introduction of intensive irrigation in the water-shed. With increasing land-use change and the conversion from irrigated agricultural to urban land, land managers and stakeholders need information about the long-term effects of land-use change on salinity and selenium loading. In response to the need to advance salinity and selenium science, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Bureau of Reclamation, Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Forum, and Colorado River Water Conservation District, developed a study to characterize salinity and selenium loading and how salinity and selenium sources may relate to land-use change in Montrose Arroyo. This report characterizes changes in salinity and selenium loading to Montrose Arroyo from March 1992 to February 2010 and the magnitude of land-use change between unirrigated desert, irrigated agricultural, and urban land-use/land-cover types, and discusses how the respective loads may relate to land-use change. Montrose Arroyo is an approximately 8-square-mile watershed in Montrose County in western Colorado. Salinity and selenium were studied in Montrose Arroyo in a 2001 study as part of a salinity- and selenium-control lateral project. The robust nature of the historical dataset indicated that Montrose Arroyo was a prime watershed for a follow-up study. Two sites from the 2001 study were used to monitor salinity and selenium loads in Montrose Arroyo in the follow-up study. Over the period of 2 water years and respective irrigation seasons (2008-2010), 27 water-quality samples were collected and streamflow measurements were made at the historical sites MA2 and MA4. Salinity and selenium concen-trations, loads, and streamflow were compared between the pre-lateral-project and post-growth periods and between the post-lateral-project and post-growth periods. No significant differences in streamflow, salinity (concen-tration and load), or selenium (concentration and load) were found at MA4 between the pre-lateral project and post-growth periods or between the post-lateral-project and post-growth periods. The statistical analysis indicated no significant dif-ferences in streamflow or salinity (both concentration and load) between the pre-lateral-project and post-growth periods or between the post-lateral-project and post-growth periods at MA2; however, selenium concentrations and loads were significantly greater between the pre-lateral-project and post-growth periods and between the post-lateral-project and post-growth periods at MA2. Land-use change between MA4 and MA2 may have contributed to the determined differences in selenium values, but the specific mechanisms causing the increases between periods are unknown. The size of the urbanized area in Montrose Arroyo was quantified for 1993, 2002, and 2009 by using a geographic information system (GIS) with imagery from the specified years. The greatest change in land use from 1993 to 2009 was the increase of urban land due to conversion from irrigated agricultural land. The conversion of previously unirrigated desert to urban land or irrigated agriculture could become more common if urbanization and development expands into the eastern part of the watershed because a majority of the un-urbanized land in eastern Montrose Arroyo is unirrigated desert. By applying GIS to the City of Montrose 2008 com-prehensive growth plan, it was estimated that approximately 786 acres of previously irrigated agricultural land will be converted to urban land and 689 acres of unirrigated desert will be converted to urban land under the plan scenario. New development on previously unirrigated land in shale areas would likely increase the potential for mobilization of sele-nium and salinity from new sources to Montrose Arroyo and the Lower Gunnis

  9. 40 CFR 52.784 - Transportation and land use controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false Transportation and land use controls. 52.784 Section 52... § 52.784 Transportation and land use controls. (a) To complete...15, 1973, transportation and/or land use control strategies and a...

  10. 30 CFR 780.23 - Reclamation plan: Land use information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 false Reclamation plan: Land use information. 780.23 Section... § 780.23 Reclamation plan: Land use information. (a) The plan...productivity, which analyzes the land-use description under paragraph...

  11. 40 CFR 52.784 - Transportation and land use controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false Transportation and land use controls. 52.784 Section 52... § 52.784 Transportation and land use controls. (a) To complete...15, 1973, transportation and/or land use control strategies and a...

  12. 40 CFR 52.784 - Transportation and land use controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 false Transportation and land use controls. 52.784 Section 52... § 52.784 Transportation and land use controls. (a) To complete...15, 1973, transportation and/or land use control strategies and a...

  13. 40 CFR 52.784 - Transportation and land use controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false Transportation and land use controls. 52.784 Section 52... § 52.784 Transportation and land use controls. (a) To complete...15, 1973, transportation and/or land use control strategies and a...

  14. 30 CFR 780.23 - Reclamation plan: Land use information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false Reclamation plan: Land use information. 780.23 Section... § 780.23 Reclamation plan: Land use information. (a) The plan...productivity, which analyzes the land-use description under paragraph...

  15. 30 CFR 784.15 - Reclamation plan: Land use information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 false Reclamation plan: Land use information. 784.15 Section... § 784.15 Reclamation plan: Land use information. (a) The plan...productivity, which analyzes the land-use description under paragraph...

  16. 30 CFR 780.23 - Reclamation plan: Land use information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false Reclamation plan: Land use information. 780.23 Section... § 780.23 Reclamation plan: Land use information. (a) The plan...productivity, which analyzes the land-use description under paragraph...

  17. 30 CFR 784.15 - Reclamation plan: Land use information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Reclamation plan: Land use information. 784.15 Section... § 784.15 Reclamation plan: Land use information. (a) The plan...productivity, which analyzes the land-use description under paragraph...

  18. 30 CFR 784.15 - Reclamation plan: Land use information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false Reclamation plan: Land use information. 784.15 Section... § 784.15 Reclamation plan: Land use information. (a) The plan...productivity, which analyzes the land-use description under paragraph...

  19. 30 CFR 784.15 - Reclamation plan: Land use information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false Reclamation plan: Land use information. 784.15 Section... § 784.15 Reclamation plan: Land use information. (a) The plan...productivity, which analyzes the land-use description under paragraph...

  20. 30 CFR 780.23 - Reclamation plan: Land use information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false Reclamation plan: Land use information. 780.23 Section... § 780.23 Reclamation plan: Land use information. (a) The plan...productivity, which analyzes the land-use description under paragraph...

  1. 30 CFR 780.23 - Reclamation plan: Land use information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Reclamation plan: Land use information. 780.23 Section... § 780.23 Reclamation plan: Land use information. (a) The plan...productivity, which analyzes the land-use description under paragraph...

  2. 30 CFR 784.15 - Reclamation plan: Land use information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false Reclamation plan: Land use information. 784.15 Section... § 784.15 Reclamation plan: Land use information. (a) The plan...productivity, which analyzes the land-use description under paragraph...

  3. 40 CFR 52.784 - Transportation and land use controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Transportation and land use controls. 52.784 Section 52... § 52.784 Transportation and land use controls. (a) To complete...15, 1973, transportation and/or land use control strategies and a...

  4. Land use changes assessment using spatial data: Case study in Cong river basin - Thai Nguyen City - Viet Nam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Hieu

    Land use changes are being interested in most countries, especially in developing countries. Because land use changes always impacts on sustainable development not only in a region or a country but also in whole the world. Viet Nam is a developing country, in the last 10 years, land uses have rapidly changed in most provinces. Many of agriculture areas, forest areas have changed for various purposes as urban sprawl, establishing new industrial parks, public areas, mining and other land uses relate to human activities or economic function associated with a specific piece of land. Beside efficiencies of economic and society, then environment issues have been threatening serious pollution, are from land use changes. Remote sensing images application on studying land use changes, has been done in many countries around the world, and has brought high efficiencies. However, this application is still very new and limited in Viet Nam due to lacking of materials, tools, experts of remote sensing. This study used spatial data as Landsat TM images, SPOT5 images and land use planning maps to rapidly assess on happenings of land uses in the period 2000 -2010 in Cong river basin (Thai Nguyen City, Viet Nam), and to forecast the changes of land uses in the period 2010 - 2020. The results had a good accuracy and to be important references for authorities, policy makers in local land use.

  5. The 2011 heat wave in Greater Houston: Effects of land use on temperature.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Weihe; Ji, Shuang; Chen, Tsun-Hsuan; Hou, Yi; Zhang, Kai

    2014-11-01

    Effects of land use on temperatures during severe heat waves have been rarely studied. This paper examines land use-temperature associations during the 2011 heat wave in Greater Houston. We obtained high resolution of satellite-derived land use data from the US National Land Cover Database, and temperature observations at 138 weather stations from Weather Underground, Inc (WU) during the August of 2011, which was the hottest month in Houston since 1889. Land use regression and quantile regression methods were applied to the monthly averages of daily maximum/mean/minimum temperatures and 114 land use-related predictors. Although selected variables vary with temperature metric, distance to the coastline consistently appears among all models. Other variables are generally related to high developed intensity, open water or wetlands. In addition, our quantile regression analysis shows that distance to the coastline and high developed intensity areas have larger impacts on daily average temperatures at higher quantiles, and open water area has greater impacts on daily minimum temperatures at lower quantiles. By utilizing both land use regression and quantile regression on a recent heat wave in one of the largest US metropolitan areas, this paper provides a new perspective on the impacts of land use on temperatures. Our models can provide estimates of heat exposures for epidemiological studies, and our findings can be combined with demographic variables, air conditioning and relevant diseases information to identify 'hot spots' of population vulnerability for public health interventions to reduce heat-related health effects during heat waves. PMID:25262079

  6. Impacts of climate and land use change on future water resources in the Yadkin River Basin, North Carolina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, K. L.; Vose, J. M.; Hwang, T.; Coulston, J.; Band, L. E.; Wear, D. N.

    2014-12-01

    Rapid changes in climate and socio-economic systems are affecting hydrologic processes and fresh water availability. In particular, temperatures, population growth and urban development are all expected to increase in the Southern United States over the next 50 years, which will further stress regional water resources. With improved knowledge of the interactions among land use-land cover (LULC), climate change, and hydrologic processes, decision makers and natural resource managers can explore opportunities to increase the resilience of water resources to future changes. To address this need, we investigated the impacts of climate and LULC changes on water resources throughout the Yadkin River watershed in North Carolina. From forested headwaters in the Blue Ridge Mountains, the Yadkin River flows through agricultural areas and regions of expanding urbanization in the Piedmont. We selected small watersheds representative of each region for detailed analyses, including changes in LULC, climate, and stream flow. We found no significant trends in water yield, precipitation, or evapotranspiration in representative watersheds dominated by forest, agriculture, or medium intensity development using historic climate and USGS stream gauge data. This suggests that precipitation and LULC have been relatively stable throughout the Yadkin watershed over the last two to three decades. However, our approach melding the National Land Cover Data and U.S. Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis Plots indicate that the watershed will experience rapid and substantial changes in land use over the next 50 years, particularly as forest is replaced by urban development. Preliminary analyses with a distributed ecohydroloic model (RHESSys), suggest water yield is sensitive to LULC even without climate change. We will present results that quantify the impact of these changes on hydrologic processes by applying projections of future climate (9 scenarios) and multiple realizations of LULC change projections using RHESSys.

  7. Projecting Global Land-Use Change and Its Effect on Ecosystem Service Provision and Biodiversity with Simple Models

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Erik; Sander, Heather; Hawthorne, Peter; Conte, Marc; Ennaanay, Driss; Wolny, Stacie; Manson, Steven; Polasky, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    Background As the global human population grows and its consumption patterns change, additional land will be needed for living space and agricultural production. A critical question facing global society is how to meet growing human demands for living space, food, fuel, and other materials while sustaining ecosystem services and biodiversity [1]. Methodology/Principal Findings We spatially allocate two scenarios of 2000 to 2015 global areal change in urban land and cropland at the grid cell-level and measure the impact of this change on the provision of ecosystem services and biodiversity. The models and techniques used to spatially allocate land-use/land-cover (LULC) change and evaluate its impact on ecosystems are relatively simple and transparent [2]. The difference in the magnitude and pattern of cropland expansion across the two scenarios engenders different tradeoffs among crop production, provision of species habitat, and other important ecosystem services such as biomass carbon storage. For example, in one scenario, 5.2 grams of carbon stored in biomass is released for every additional calorie of crop produced across the globe; under the other scenario this tradeoff rate is 13.7. By comparing scenarios and their impacts we can begin to identify the global pattern of cropland and irrigation development that is significant enough to meet future food needs but has less of an impact on ecosystem service and habitat provision. Conclusions/Significance Urban area and croplands will expand in the future to meet human needs for living space, livelihoods, and food. In order to jointly provide desired levels of urban land, food production, and ecosystem service and species habitat provision the global society will have to become much more strategic in its allocation of intensively managed land uses. Here we illustrate a method for quickly and transparently evaluating the performance of potential global futures. PMID:21179509

  8. Land use inventory of Salt Lake County, Utah from color infrared aerial photography 1982

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Price, K. P.; Willie, R. D.; Wheeler, D. J.; Ridd, M. K.

    1983-01-01

    The preparation of land use maps of Salt Lake County, Utah from high altitude color infrared photography is described. The primary purpose of the maps is to aid in the assessment of the effects of urban development on the agricultural land base and water resources. The first stage of map production was to determine the categories of land use/land cover and the mapping unit detail. The highest level of interpretive detail was given to the land use categories found in the agricultural or urbanized portions of the county; these areas are of primary interest with regard to the consumptive use of water from surface streams and wells. A slightly lower level of mapping detail was given to wetland environments; areas to which water is not purposely diverted by man but which have a high consumptive rate of water use. Photos were interpreted on the basis of color, tone, texture, and pattern, together with features of the topographic, hydrologic, and ecological context.

  9. Analyzing simulated patterns of land use change

    SciTech Connect

    Dale, V.H.; O`Neill, R.V.; Southworth, F.; Loureiro, F.

    1992-07-01

    Land use change is one of major factors affecting global environmental conditions. Modeling land use change requires combining spatially-explicit ecological information with socioeconomic factors. A modeling system is being developed that integrates sub-models of human colonization with submodels of ecological interactions to estimate patterns and rates of deforestation under different immigration and land management scenarios. The model projects maps of land use change that can be compared to remote sensing measures using spatial statistics. The simulation modeling system is being applied to the Brazilian state of Rondonia where deforestation has increased at a faster rate over the past two decades than anywhere else in the world. The model projections suggest that land management can both reduce carbon release and improve the length of time farmers are able to remain on the land. The model provides a tool to evaluate the spatial and temporal implications of various land management options.

  10. Analyzing simulated patterns of land use change

    SciTech Connect

    Dale, V.H.; O'Neill, R.V.; Southworth, F. ); Loureiro, F. )

    1992-01-01

    Land use change is one of major factors affecting global environmental conditions. Modeling land use change requires combining spatially-explicit ecological information with socioeconomic factors. A modeling system is being developed that integrates sub-models of human colonization with submodels of ecological interactions to estimate patterns and rates of deforestation under different immigration and land management scenarios. The model projects maps of land use change that can be compared to remote sensing measures using spatial statistics. The simulation modeling system is being applied to the Brazilian state of Rondonia where deforestation has increased at a faster rate over the past two decades than anywhere else in the world. The model projections suggest that land management can both reduce carbon release and improve the length of time farmers are able to remain on the land. The model provides a tool to evaluate the spatial and temporal implications of various land management options.

  11. Selecting reasonable future land use scenarios

    SciTech Connect

    Allred, W.E.; Smith, R.W.

    1995-12-31

    This paper examines a process to help select the most reasonable future land use scenario for hazardous waste and/or low-level radioactive waste disposal sites. The process involves evaluating future land use scenarios ab applying selected criteria currently used by commercial mortgage companies to determine the feasibility of obtaining a loan for purchasing such land. The basis for the process is that only land use activities for which a loan can be obtained well be considered. To examine the process, a low-level radioactive waste site, the Radioactive Waste Management Complex at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, is used as an example. The authors suggest that the process is a very precise, comprehensive, and systematic approach for determining reasonable future use of land. Implementing such a process will help enhance the planning, decisionmaking, safe management, and cleanup of present and future disposal facilities.

  12. Land Use Change Modelling in R

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moulds, S.; Buytaert, W.

    2014-12-01

    Land use activities, through the provision of natural resources, are essential to human existence. In many regions land use change is degrading biodiversity and threatening the sustainability of ecosystem services upon which communities and livelihoods depend. Spatially explicit land use change models are widely used to understand and quantify key processes that affect land use change and make predictions about past and future change. These models typically include a module to estimate the suitability of different locations to particular land use types based on biophysical and socioeconomic predictor variables and a module to allocate change spatially. They are commonly implemented in languages such as C/C++ and Fortran and made available as standalone applications or through proprietary GIS. In many cases the models are released under closed source licences, limiting the reproducibility of scientific results and making model comparison difficult. This work presents a new R package providing methods and classes to support land use change modelling and model development and comparison within the open source R statistical computing environment. The package makes use of existing R implementations of methods such as random forests and recursive partitioning and regression trees to estimate location suitability, as well as providing methods for statistical model building and evaluation. Currently two spatial allocation methods are provided: the first based on the widely used and tested CLUE-S algorithm and the second a novel stochastic procedure developed for large scale applications. Some common tools for evaluating allocation results are implemented. It is hoped that the package will provide a framework for the development of new routines that can be incorporated into future releases of the code.

  13. Interaction between land use and climate variability amplifies stream nitrate export

    EPA Science Inventory

    We investigated regional effects of urban land use change on nitrate concentrations in approximately 1,000 small streams in Maryland, U.S.A. during record drought and wet years in 2001-2003. We also investigated changes in nitrate-N export during the same time period in 8 intens...

  14. ASSESSMENT OF LAND USE CHANGE IMPACTS ON FLOW CHARACTERISTICS IN AN EASTERN PENNSYLVANIA WATERSHED

    EPA Science Inventory

    The impacts of changes in land use/cover due to urbanization on the hydrologic regime of the watershed have long been recognized and have been the subject of many studies. Distributed hydrologic models are one means of assessing such impacts. In this study we evaluated the potent...

  15. Emerging land use practices rapidly increase soil organic matter.

    PubMed

    Machmuller, Megan B; Kramer, Marc G; Cyle, Taylor K; Hill, Nick; Hancock, Dennis; Thompson, Aaron

    2015-01-01

    The loss of organic matter from agricultural lands constrains our ability to sustainably feed a growing population and mitigate the impacts of climate change. Addressing these challenges requires land use activities that accumulate soil carbon (C) while contributing to food production. In a region of extensive soil degradation in the southeastern United States, we evaluated soil C accumulation for 3 years across a 7-year chronosequence of three farms converted to management-intensive grazing. Here we show that these farms accumulated C at 8.0?Mg?ha(-1)?yr(-1), increasing cation exchange and water holding capacity by 95% and 34%, respectively. Thus, within a decade of management-intensive grazing practices soil C levels returned to those of native forest soils, and likely decreased fertilizer and irrigation demands. Emerging land uses, such as management-intensive grazing, may offer a rare win-win strategy combining profitable food production with rapid improvement of soil quality and short-term climate mitigation through soil C-accumulation. PMID:25925997

  16. Interim Land Use Control Implementation Plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Applegate, Joseph L.

    2014-01-01

    This Interim Land Use Control Implementation Plan (LUCIP) has been prepared to inform current and potential future users of the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Contractors Road Heavy Equipment (CRHE) Area (SWMU 055; "the Site") of institutional controls that have been implemented at the Site1. Although there are no current unacceptable risks to human health or the environment associated with the CRHE Area, an interim institutional land use control (LUC) is necessary to prevent human health exposure to volatile organic compound (VOC)-affected groundwater at the Site. Controls will include periodic inspection, condition certification, and agency notification.

  17. The Savannah River: Site Description, Land Use and Management History

    SciTech Connect

    White, D.L.; Gaines, K.F.

    2000-10-01

    Aboriginal and early European settlement were primarily along streams where much of the farming and timber cutting occurred. Woodland grazing occurred in the upland and lowlands. Land use intensity increased after the Civil War and peaked in the 1920's. The impact of agricultural and timber cutting practices left little land untouched. Grazing and the reduction in fire limited reproduction of longleaf pine. After 1951, a massive reforestation effort was implemented. Over the last decades efforts have shifted to recovering the red-cockaded woodpecker and restoring other habitats.

  18. GLOBAL CHANGE RESEARCH NEWS #3: IPCC SPECIAL REPORT ON "LAND USE, LAND USE CHANGE, AND FORESTRY"

    EPA Science Inventory

    ORD is participating in the development of an Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Special Report on "Land Use, Land Use Change and Forestry." Preparation of the Special Report was requested by the Conference of the Parties(COP) to the United Nations Framework Conve...

  19. Water quality changes in response to urban expansion: spatially varying relations and determinants.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Wenjun; Zhu, Xiaodong; Sun, Xiang; Shu, Yunqiao; Li, Yangfan

    2015-11-01

    Urban expansion is an important stressor to water bodies, and the spatial variations of their relations are increasingly highlighted by recent studies. What remain unclear, however, are the underlying drivers to the spatial variability. The paper was not limited to modeling spatially varying linkages but also drew attention to the local anthropogenic influential factors that shape land-water relations. We employed geographically weighted regression to examine the relationships between urban expansion (measured by land use change intensity) and water quality changes (focusing on six water quality indicators) in a recently fast-growing Chinese city, Lianyungang. Specifically, we analyzed how the local characteristics including urbanization level, environmental management, industrial zone expansion, and land use composition, attributed to the varying responses of water quality changes. Results showed that urbanization level significantly affects land-water linkages. Remarkable water quality improvement was accompanied by urbanization in highly developed watersheds, primarily due to strong influence from extensive water management practices (particularly for COD, BOD, NH3-N, and TP). By contrast, water qualities of less-urbanized watersheds were more sensitive and negatively responsive to land use changes. Clustering industrial activities acted as distinct contributor to Hg contamination, while boosted organic pollution control in highly urbanized areas. The approach proposed in the study can locate and further zoom into the hot-spots of human-water interactions, thereby contributing to better solutions for mitigating undesirable impacts of urbanization on water environment. PMID:26122567

  20. Inter-regional comparison of land-use effects on stream metabolism

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bernot, M.J.; Sobota, D.J.; Hall, R.O.; Mulholland, P.J.; Dodds, W.K.; Webster, J.R.; Tank, J.L.; Ashkenas, L.R.; Cooper, L.W.; Dahm, C. N.; Gregory, S.V.; Grimm, N. B.; Hamilton, S.K.; Johnson, S.L.; McDowell, W.H.; Meyer, J.L.; Peterson, B.; Poole, G.C.; Maurice, Valett H.M.; Arango, C.; Beaulieu, J.J.; Burgin, A.J.; Crenshaw, C.; Helton, A.M.; Johnson, L.; Merriam, J.; Niederlehner, B.R.; O'Brien, J. M.; Potter, J.D.; Sheibley, R.W.; Thomas, S.M.; Wilson, K.

    2010-01-01

    1. Rates of whole-system metabolism (production and respiration) are fundamental indicators of ecosystem structure and function. Although first-order, proximal controls are well understood, assessments of the interactions between proximal controls and distal controls, such as land use and geographic region, are lacking. Thus, the influence of land use on stream metabolism across geographic regions is unknown. Further, there is limited understanding of how land use may alter variability in ecosystem metabolism across regions.2. Stream metabolism was measured in nine streams in each of eight regions (n = 72) across the United States and Puerto Rico. In each region, three streams were selected from a range of three land uses: agriculturally influenced, urban-influenced, and reference streams. Stream metabolism was estimated from diel changes in dissolved oxygen concentrations in each stream reach with correction for reaeration and groundwater input.3. Gross primary production (GPP) was highest in regions with little riparian vegetation (sagebrush steppe in Wyoming, desert shrub in Arizona/New Mexico) and lowest in forested regions (North Carolina, Oregon). In contrast, ecosystem respiration (ER) varied both within and among regions. Reference streams had significantly lower rates of GPP than urban or agriculturally influenced streams.4. GPP was positively correlated with photosynthetically active radiation and autotrophic biomass. Multiple regression models compared using Akaike's information criterion (AIC) indicated GPP increased with water column ammonium and the fraction of the catchment in urban and reference land-use categories. Multiple regression models also identified velocity, temperature, nitrate, ammonium, dissolved organic carbon, GPP, coarse benthic organic matter, fine benthic organic matter and the fraction of all land-use categories in the catchment as regulators of ER.5. Structural equation modelling indicated significant distal as well as proximal control pathways including a direct effect of land-use on GPP as well as SRP, DIN, and PAR effects on GPP; GPP effects on autotrophic biomass, organic matter, and ER; and organic matter effects on ER.6. Overall, consideration of the data separated by land-use categories showed reduced inter-regional variability in rates of metabolism, indicating that the influence of agricultural and urban land use can obscure regional differences in stream metabolism. ?? 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  1. Inter-regional comparison of land-use effects on stream metabolism

    SciTech Connect

    Bernot, Melody; Sobota, Daniel; Hall, Robert; Mulholland, Patrick J; Dodds, Walter; Webster, Jackson; Tank, Jennifer; Ashkenas, Linda; Cooper, Lee W; Dahm, Cliff; Gregory, Stanley; Grimm, Nancy; Hamilton, Stephen; Johnson, Sherri; McDowell, William; Meyer, Judy; Peterson, Bruce; Poole, Geoffrey C.; Valett, H. Maurice; Arango, Clay; Beaulieu, Jake; Burgin, Amy; Crenshaw, Chelsea; Helton, Ashley; Johnson, Laura; Merriam, Jeffrey; Niederlehner, Bobbie; O'Brien, Jon; Potter, Jody; Sheibley, Rich; Thomas, Suzanne; Wilson, Kym

    2010-01-01

    Rates of whole-system metabolism (production and respiration) are fundamental indicators of ecosystem structure and function. Although first-order, proximal controls are well understood, assessments of the interactions between proximal controls and distal controls, such as land use and geographic region, are lacking. Thus, the influence of land use on stream metabolism across geographic regions is unknown. Further, there is limited understanding of how land use may alter variability in ecosystem metabolism across regions. 2. Stream metabolism was measured in nine streams in each of eight regions (n = 72) across the United States and Puerto Rico. In each region, three streams were selected from a range of three land uses: agriculturally influenced, urban-influenced, and reference streams. Stream metabolism was estimated from diel changes in dissolved oxygen concentrations in each stream reach with correction for reaeration and groundwater input. 3. Gross primary production (GPP) was highest in regions with little riparian vegetation (sagebrush steppe in Wyoming, desert shrub in Arizona/New Mexico) and lowest in forested regions (North Carolina, Oregon). In contrast, ecosystem respiration (ER) varied both within and among regions. Reference streams had significantly lower rates of GPP than urban or agriculturally influenced streams. 4. GPP was positively correlated with photosynthetically active radiation and autotrophic biomass. Multiple regression models compared using Akaike's information criterion (AIC) indicated GPP increased with water column ammonium and the fraction of the catchment in urban and reference land-use categories. Multiple regression models also identified velocity, temperature, nitrate, ammonium, dissolved organic carbon, GPP, coarse benthic organic matter, fine benthic organic matter and the fraction of all land-use categories in the catchment as regulators of ER. 5. Structural equation modelling indicated significant distal as well as proximal control pathways including a direct effect of land-use on GPP as well as SRP, DIN, and PAR effects on GPP; GPP effects on autotrophic biomass, organic matter, and ER; and organic matter effects on ER. 6. Overall, consideration of the data separated by land-use categories showed reduced inter-regional variability in rates of metabolism, indicating that the influence of agricultural and urban land use can obscure regional differences in stream metabolism.

  2. Land use changing and land use optimization of Lake Baikal basin on the example of two key areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solodyankina, S.

    2012-04-01

    Lake Baikal contains roughly 20% of the world's unfrozen surface fresh water. It was declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1996. Today levels of urbanization and economic stress on environmental resources is increasing on the shorts of the lake Baikal. The potential of economic development (industry, local tourism, and mining) of the Severobaykalsky and Sludyansky districts is rather high although they are characterized not only by beneficial features for local economy but also by considerable disadvantages for nature of this world valuable territory. This investigation show human-caused landscape changes during economic development of the two key areas in Baikal water catchment basin during 10 years (point of reference is 2000 year). Key areas are 1) the Baikalo-Patomskoe highland in the north of the Baikal catchment basin (Severobaykalsky district, Republic of Buryatia); 2) Khamar-Daban mountain system in the south of the Baikal catchment basin (Sludyansky districy, Irkutsk region). Since 2000 year land use of the territory has changed. Areas of agriculture were reduced but recreation activity on the bank of the lake was increased. Methods of GIS analysis and local statistic analysis of landscape characteristic were used. Nature, rural and urban areas ratio are estimated. Vegetation and soil condition assessment were made. The essence of this research is in helping to make decisions linked to upcoming problems: situation identification, evaluation and forecasting of the potential landscape condition, optimization of land use, mitigation of impact and mapping of territories and nature resources which have a high ecological value or endangered by industrial impact. For this purpose landscape maps of the territories on the base of the remote sensing information and field investigations were created. They used to calculate potential landscape functions of the territory without taking into account present impact of anthropogenic actions. Land use maps for years 2000 and 2010 were created to show: 1) how many landscape functions (ecosystem services) have been missed in time period of 2000-2010 years; 2) trends of land use changing. The nature-anthropogenic landscapes classification is developed, where natural and anthropogenic factors are taken into account in one system. It used to considerate of cumulative impacts of anthropogenic actions for each relevant resource, and to analyse of all past, present, and reasonably foreseeable future condition of whole landscape and its components (parent rock, surface and ground water, soil, flora and fauna, air).

  3. A GIS approach to urban heat island research: The case of Huntsville, Alabama

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lo, Chor Pong

    1994-01-01

    The urban heat island represents a case of inadvertent human modification of climate in an urban environment. Urbanization changes the nature of the surface and atmospheric properties of a region. As a result, radiation balance in the urban areas is altered and sensible heat is added to the point that urban areas are warmer than surrounding rural areas. At the boundary between the rural and urban area, a sharp rise in temperature occurs, culminating to a peak temperature at the central business district of the city, hence the name 'urban heat island'. The extent and intensity of the urban heat island are a function of population size, land use, and topography. Because the urban heat island exhibits spatial variations of temperatures, the use of Geographic Information System (GIS) is appropriate. The research on the urban heat island focuses on the acquisition of 15 bands of visible and thermal infrared data (ranging from 0.45 to 12.2 microns) from an aerial platform using NASA's ATLAS (Airborne Thermal/Visible Land Application Sensor) over Huntsville, Alabama. The research reported in this paper is an analysis of the impact of population, land use, and topography on the shape of the urban heat island that could be developed in Huntsville using the GIS approach. The outcome of this analysis can then be verified using the acquired remotely sensed data.

  4. Social Organization, Population, and Land Use*

    PubMed Central

    Axinn, William G.; Ghimire, Dirgha J.

    2011-01-01

    We present a new approach to the investigation of human influences on environmental change that explicitly adds consideration of social organization. This approach identifies social organization as an influence on the environment that is independent of population size, affluence, and technology. The framework we present also identifies population events, such as births, that are likely to influence environmental outcomes beyond the consequences of population size. The theoretical framework we construct explains that explicit attention to social organization is necessary for micro-level investigation of the population-environment relationship because social organization influences both. We use newly available longitudinal, multilevel, mixed-method measures of local land use changes, local population dynamics, and social organization from the Nepalese Himalayas to provide empirical tests of this new framework. These tests reveal that measures of change in social organization are strongly associated with measures of change in land use, and that the association is independent of common measures of population size, affluence, and technology. Also, local birth events shape local land use changes and key proximate determinants of land use change. Together the empirical results demonstrate key new scientific opportunities arising from the approach we present. PMID:21876607

  5. National Land Use Policy: Objectives, Components, Implementation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soil Conservation Society of America, Ankeny, IA.

    Proceedings of a special conference sponsored by the Soil Conservation Society of America, are compiled in this report. The conference served as a forum for those involved in land use planning and implementation at all levels of government and private enterprise. Comments were directed to four main topics: (1) Objectives and Need for a National…

  6. Land Use Baseline Report Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Noah, J.C.

    1995-06-29

    This document is to serve as a resource for Savannah River Site managers, planners, and SRS stakeholders by providing a general description of the site and land-use factors important to future use decisions and plans. The intent of this document is to be comprehensive in its review of SRS and the surrounding area.

  7. Eurasian land use impacts on rangeland productivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ojima, Dennis S.; Chuluun, Togtohyn; Bolortsetseg, Boldyn; Tucker, Compton J.; Hicke, Jeff

    Dramatic changes have occurred in pastoral systems of East and Central Asia covering the steppe ecosystems of Mongolia, China, Kazakhstan, and Russia over the past several decades. The socio-economic changes over the past decades have markedly shaped the land use patterns in the region. Evaluation of these pastoral systems is the focus of this paper. These pastoral systems have existed for thousands of years; however, in recent decades a decline in nomadic movements has led to greater vulnerability of the pastoralists. The nomadic pastoral systems developed to cope with arid or semi-arid climate variability. Interactions between ecosystems and nomadic land use systems co-shaped them in mutually adaptive ways for hundreds of years, thus making both the Mongolian rangeland ecosystem and nomadic pastoral system resilient and sustainable. The pervasive role of demographic, political and economic driving forces during the past 50 years has greatly altered the pastoral systems. The general trend involves greater intensification of resource exploitation at the expense of traditional patterns of range utilization. This set of drivers is orthogonal to the described climate drivers. Thus we expect climate-land use interactions to be modified by socio-economic forces. Nevertheless, the complex relationship between climate variability and pastoral exploitation patterns will still form the environmental framework for overall patterns of land use change. Integration of knowledge and delivery of this knowledge to scientists, policy makers and land users is critical for regionally sustainable development.

  8. Periurban Pleasure Horses: A Land Use Dilemma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Charles O.

    1978-01-01

    Traces the upsurge of the horse population in the United States during the last two decades. Included are the psychological and recreational aspects of horse ownership; the redistribution of the horse population from farm to suburb; horses as an industry; and the land use problems and potentials attributed to the horse. (JK)

  9. Community Context, Land Use, and First Birth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghimire, Dirgha J.; Axinn, William G.

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the influence of community context and land use on the monthly odds of first birth in a society in the midst of dramatic fertility transition. The theoretical framework guiding our work predicts that proximity to nonfamily services should delay first births by creating opportunities for competing nonfamily activities and…

  10. Current Research in Land Use Impact Assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is a continuing debate on how to best evaluate land use impacts within the LCA framework. While this problem is spatially and temporally complex, recent advances in tool development are providing options to allow a GIS-based analysis of various ecosystem services given the...

  11. Evaluating Impacts of climate and land use changes on streamflow using SWAT and land use models based CESM1-CAM5 Climate scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Tzu Ping; Lin, Yu Pin; Lien, Wan Yu

    2015-04-01

    Climate change projects have various levels of impacts on hydrological cycles around the world. The impact of climate change and uncertainty of climate projections from general circulation models (GCMs) from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) which has been just be released in Taiwan, 2014. Since the streamflow run into ocean directly due to the steep terrain and the rainfall difference between wet and dry seasons is apparent; as a result, the allocation water resource reasonable is very challenge in Taiwan, particularly under climate change. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impacts of climate and land use changes on a small watershed in Taiwan. The AR5 General Circulation Models(GCM) output data was adopted in this study and was downscaled from the monthly to the daily weather data as the input data of hydrological model such as Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model in this study. The spatially explicit land uses change model, the Conservation of Land Use and its Effects at Small regional extent (CLUE-s), was applied to simulate land use scenarios in 2020-2039. Combined climate and land use change scenarios were adopted as input data of the hydrological model, the SWAT model, to estimate the future streamflows. With the increasing precipitation, increasing urban area and decreasing agricultural and grass land, the annual streamflow in the most of twenty-three subbasins were also increased. Besides, due to the increasing rainfall in wet season and decreasing rainfall in dry season, the difference of streamflow between wet season and dry season are also increased. This result indicates a more stringent challenge on the water resource management in future. Therefore, impacts on water resource caused by climate change and land use change should be considered in water resource planning for the Datuan river watershed. Keywords: SWAT, GCM, CLUE-s, streamflow, climate change, land use change

  12. Occurrence and distribution of volatile organic compounds and pesticides in ground water in relation to hydrogeologic characteristics and land use in the Santa Ana basin, southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hamlin, Scott N.; Belitz, Kenneth; Johnson, Tyler D.

    2005-01-01

    This report presents an evaluation of the occurrence and distribution of VOCs and pesticides in the Santa Ana ground-water basins in relation to two types of explanatory factors: hydrogeologic characteristics and land use. The Santa Ana Basin is subdivided into the San Jacinto, the Inland, and the Coastal ground-water basins. Most wells sampled were deep and used for public supply. Data from regional studies were used to evaluate the occurrence and distribution of pesticides and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in relation to hydrogeologic characteristics and land uses that could potentially explain variations between basins. Additional data from special studies (flow path and aquifer susceptibility) were used to evaluate potential factors affecting water quality for individual basins. The hydrogeologic characteristics evaluated in this report were hydrogeologic setting, ground-water age, depth to the top of the well screen (top of well perforations), and proximity to engineered recharge facilities. Urban land use, agricultural land use, and population density were characterized within a 500-meter radius of sampled wells and at the basin scale. Aquifers in the San Jacinto Basin are generally unconfined, and major land-use categories are urban (33 percent), agricultural (37 percent), and undeveloped (25 percent). Recharge is primarily from the overlying landscape, but engineered recharge is locally important in the Hemet area. VOCs and pesticides were detected more frequently in younger ground water (less than 50 years old) than in older ground water, and more frequently in shallower wells than deeper wells; the numbers of VOCs and pesticides detected also were significantly higher in the younger ground water and in the shallower wells. In the Hemet area of the San Jacinto Basin, VOCs and pesticides were detected more frequently in wells proximal to engineered recharge facilities than in distal wells. These patterns illustrate the importance of proximity to sources of recharge in relation to the occurrence and distribution of VOCs and pesticides in ground water. Aquifers in the Inland Basin also are generally unconfined, and the major land-use category is urban (58 percent), with lesser amounts of agricultural (13 percent) and undeveloped (28 percent) land. Recharge is from engineered facilities that utilize local runoff and imported water and from vertical infiltration. VOCs and pesticides were detected more frequently in younger ground water than in older ground water, and more frequently in shallower wells than deeper wells. The number of VOCs detected per well also was significantly higher in the younger ground water and in the shallower wells. Several solvent plumes extending between 5 and 10 kilometers illustrate the large distances that contaminants travel in basins with intensive use of ground water. Aquifers in the Coastal Basin, in contrast to the other basins, are generally confined. Land use in the basin is largely urban (80 percent), with lesser amounts of agricultural (7 percent) and undeveloped (12 percent) land. Recharge is primarily from engineered facilities that utilize water diverted from the Santa Ana River and imported water. Consequently, VOCs and pesticides were detected more frequently in wells proximal to engineered recharge facilities than in distal wells. These compounds were also detected more frequently in the unconfined area than in the confined area of the basin. In the confined area, the numbers of VOCs and pesticides detected per well were not significantly different in wells with shallower and deeper screens. This distribution reflects the dominance of lateral flow and insulation from overlying land use in the confined aquifers of the Coastal Basin. In the unconfined area of the Coastal Basin, the numbers of VOCs and pesticides detected per well were significantly higher in shallower wells than in deeper wells. VOC and pesticide detections were not statist

  13. Land use mapping and modelling for the Phoenix Quadrangle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Place, J. L. (principal investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. In comparing the land use changes from the overlay as detected from ERTS-1 and the high altitude change overlay, total areas of change were of the same magnitude. The greatest variations were a result of differences in dates and areas of coverage between ERTS-1 images and aerial photographs. Separation of citrus from other agricultural land has been moderately successful in the ERTS-1 1:100,000 scale Level 2 land use mapping around Phoenix, although accuracy estimates are not yet available. No feeding operations have been detected from ERTS-1 so far. Preliminary indications are that commercial and services, industrial, and institutional land are not separable from each other using present image interpretation techniques. Urban open areas such as parks and golf courses are readily detectable, particularly when local maps are consulted even though out-of-date. Strip and clustered settlements may be detected depending upon their size and contrast with the surrounding area on the ERTS-1 image.

  14. The Role of the Health Official in Land Use Planning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riley, Ann L.

    1977-01-01

    The need for the health profession's increased participation in long-term land use planning is detailed. The relationship between land use and environmental quality is stressed and current land use planning activities are summarized. A joint health and land use project initiated by the Johnson County, Iowa Health Department is described. (BT)

  15. 43 CFR 3425.2 - Land use plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Land use plans. 3425.2 Section 3425...Leasing on Application § 3425.2 Land use plans. No lease shall be offered...have been included in a comprehensive land use plan or a land use analysis,...

  16. 43 CFR 4100.0-8 - Land use plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Land use plans. 4100.0-8 Section 4100...Alaska; General § 4100.0-8 Land use plans. The authorized officer...and in accordance with applicable land use plans. Land use plans shall...

  17. 43 CFR 4100.0-8 - Land use plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Land use plans. 4100.0-8 Section 4100...Alaska; General § 4100.0-8 Land use plans. The authorized officer...and in accordance with applicable land use plans. Land use plans shall...

  18. 43 CFR 3425.2 - Land use plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Land use plans. 3425.2 Section 3425...Leasing on Application § 3425.2 Land use plans. No lease shall be offered...have been included in a comprehensive land use plan or a land use analysis,...

  19. 43 CFR 4100.0-8 - Land use plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Land use plans. 4100.0-8 Section 4100...Alaska; General § 4100.0-8 Land use plans. The authorized officer...and in accordance with applicable land use plans. Land use plans shall...

  20. 43 CFR 3425.2 - Land use plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Land use plans. 3425.2 Section 3425...Leasing on Application § 3425.2 Land use plans. No lease shall be offered...have been included in a comprehensive land use plan or a land use analysis,...

  1. 43 CFR 4100.0-8 - Land use plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Land use plans. 4100.0-8 Section 4100...Alaska; General § 4100.0-8 Land use plans. The authorized officer...and in accordance with applicable land use plans. Land use plans shall...

  2. 43 CFR 3425.2 - Land use plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Land use plans. 3425.2 Section 3425...Leasing on Application § 3425.2 Land use plans. No lease shall be offered...have been included in a comprehensive land use plan or a land use analysis,...

  3. 43 CFR 3425.2 - Land use plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Land use plans. 3425.2 Section 3425.2... Land use plans. No lease shall be offered for sale under this subpart unless the lands have been included in a comprehensive land use plan or a land use analysis, as required in § 3420.1-4 of this...

  4. 43 CFR 4100.0-8 - Land use plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Land use plans. 4100.0-8 Section 4100.0-8... Administration-Exclusive of Alaska; General § 4100.0-8 Land use plans. The authorized officer shall manage... with applicable land use plans. Land use plans shall establish allowable resource uses (either...

  5. Illinois State University Gregory Street Property Land Use Plan

    E-print Network

    Branoff, Theodore J.

    Illinois State University Gregory Street Property Land Use Plan Loebl Schlossman & Hackl with FarrAssociates April 6, 2005 #12;#12;GREGORY STREET PROPERTY LAND USE PLAN Table of Contents Introduction 1. Executive Summary 2. Program Goals Facts Concepts Needs 3. Land Use Plan Planning Concepts Land Use Plan Ultimate

  6. 43 CFR 3425.2 - Land use plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Land use plans. 3425.2 Section 3425.2... Land use plans. No lease shall be offered for sale under this subpart unless the lands have been included in a comprehensive land use plan or a land use analysis, as required in § 3420.1-4 of this...

  7. 43 CFR 3425.2 - Land use plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Land use plans. 3425.2 Section 3425.2... Land use plans. No lease shall be offered for sale under this subpart unless the lands have been included in a comprehensive land use plan or a land use analysis, as required in § 3420.1-4 of this...

  8. 43 CFR 4100.0-8 - Land use plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Land use plans. 4100.0-8 Section 4100.0-8... Administration-Exclusive of Alaska; General § 4100.0-8 Land use plans. The authorized officer shall manage... with applicable land use plans. Land use plans shall establish allowable resource uses (either...

  9. 43 CFR 4100.0-8 - Land use plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Land use plans. 4100.0-8 Section 4100.0-8... Administration-Exclusive of Alaska; General § 4100.0-8 Land use plans. The authorized officer shall manage... with applicable land use plans. Land use plans shall establish allowable resource uses (either...

  10. Transport and land-use policies in Delhi.

    PubMed Central

    Tiwari, Geetam

    2003-01-01

    Current transportation policies in mega-cities worldwide lead to major threats to health through traffic injuries, air pollution, noise, reduction in physical activities, and adverse impact on urban quality of life. In addition, a large section of the population in cities in low-income countries has to live in informal-sector, substandard housing. Many transportation policies fail to take enough account of their impacts on poverty and social exclusion, and they neglect the access and transportation demands of the more economically disadvantaged groups of society, who rely mostly on public transportation, walking, and cycling. Delhi, the capital city of India, is an interesting case because failure to consider the broad spectrum of health effects that may result from transport and land-use policies and investments has resulted in decisions that penalize the least affluent groups of the population and make it more difficult for them to get to jobs, education, health care, amenities, and services. PMID:12894330

  11. Application of Skylab EREP data for land use management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simonett, D. S. (principal investigator)

    1976-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The 1.09-1.19 micron band proved to be very valuable for discriminating a variety of land use categories, including agriculture, forest, and urban classes. The 1.55-1.75 micron band proved very useful in combination with the 1.09-1.19 micron band. Misregistration between spectral bands, even by as little as 1/2 pixel, may degrade classification accuracy. Identification accuracy of boundary or border pixels was as much as 13% lower than the accuracy for identifying internal field pixels. The principal conclusion with respect to the S190B camera system is that the higher resolution of the S190B system in comparison to previous space photography (Gemini, Apollo), to the S190A system (Skylab), and to LANDSAT imagery significantly increases the range of additional discrimination achievable.

  12. Evaluation of an Urban Canopy Parameterization in a Mesoscale Model

    SciTech Connect

    Chin, H S; Leach, M J; Sugiyama, G A; Leone, Jr., J M; Walker, H; Nasstrom, J; Brown, M J

    2004-03-18

    A modified urban canopy parameterization (UCP) is developed and evaluated in a three-dimensional mesoscale model to assess the urban impact on surface and lower atmospheric properties. This parameterization accounts for the effects of building drag, turbulent production, radiation balance, anthropogenic heating, and building rooftop heating/cooling. USGS land-use data are also utilized to derive urban infrastructure and urban surface properties needed for driving the UCP. An intensive observational period with clear-sky, strong ambient wind and drainage flow, and the absence of land-lake breeze over the Salt Lake Valley, occurring on 25-26 October 2000, is selected for this study. A series of sensitivity experiments are performed to gain understanding of the urban impact in the mesoscale model. Results indicate that within the selected urban environment, urban surface characteristics and anthropogenic heating play little role in the formation of the modeled nocturnal urban boundary layer. The rooftop effect appears to be the main contributor to this urban boundary layer. Sensitivity experiments also show that for this weak urban heat island case, the model horizontal grid resolution is important in simulating the elevated inversion layer. The root mean square errors of the predicted wind and temperature with respect to surface station measurements exhibit substantially larger discrepancies at the urban locations than the rural counterparts. However, the close agreement of modeled tracer concentration with observations fairly justifies the modeled urban impact on the wind direction shift and wind drag effects.

  13. Land use and land cover change detection in Isfahan, Iran using remote sensing techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alavi, Niloofar

    Rapid urban growth and unprecedented rural to urban transition, along with a huge population growth are new phenomena for both high and low income countries, which started in the mid-20th century. However, urban growth rates and patterns are different in developed countries and developing ones. In less developed countries, urbanization and rural to urban transition usually takes place in an unmanaged way and they are associated with a series of socioeconomical and environmental issues and problems. Identification of the city growth trends in past decades can help urban planners and managers to minimize these negative impacts. In this research, urban growth in the city of Isfahan, Iran, is the subject of study. Isfahan the third largest city in Iran has experienced a huge urban growth and population boom during the last three decades. This transition led to the destruction of natural and agricultural lands and environmental pollutions. Historical and recent remotely sensed data, along with different remote sensing techniques and methods have been used by researchers for urban land use and land cover change detection. In this study three Landsat TM and ETM+ images of the study site, acquired in 1985, 2000 and 2009 are used. Before starting processing, radiometric normalization is done to minimize the atmospheric effects. Then, processing methods including principal component analysis (PCA), vegetation indices and supervised classification are implemented on the images. Accuracy assessment of the PCA method showed that the first PC was responsible for more than 81% of the total variance, and therefore used for analysis of PCA differencing. DeltaPC1t1-t2 shows the amount of changes in land use and land cover during the period of study. In this study ten vegetation indices were selected to be applied to the 1985 image. Accuracy assessments showed that Transformed Differencing Vegetation Index (TDVI) is the most sensitive and accurate index for mapping vegetation in arid and semi-arid urban areas. Hence, TDVI was applied to the 2000 and 2009 images. DeltaTDVIt1-t2 showed the changes in land use and land cover especially the land use transformation from vegetation cover into the urban class. Supervised classification is the last method applied to the images. Training sites were assigned for the selected classes and accuracy was monitored during the process of training site selection. The results of classification show the expansion of urban class and diminishment in natural and agricultural lands.

  14. Simulation of Land Use Changes in Metropolitan Suburban Area: A Case Study of Sholinganallur

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanchanamala, S.; Sekar, S. P.

    2015-01-01

    Land use planning for a city is a complex activity involving assumptions on likely development. It is also a complex system wherein the planners need to recognize various influencing parameters. Verifying the factors influencing development over a period of time, that too for a vast area of metropolitan city is a herculean task. In order to keep them in control, planners need tools and techniques which may be handy to operate, allowing the planners at the beginning itself to have alternative plans as well as interim evaluation of the achievement of a plan. Absence of such a tool in the hands of the planners forces a plan to be monolithic and left with no interim evaluation. This research has identified four variables which highly influence land use change namely accessibility to transportation network; physical quality and land availability; proximity to work places; and plans and policies. A simulation model is developed to validate these variables for the suburbs of Chennai Metropolitan Area. Land use scenario for residential land use are simulated for the sub urban area-Sholinganallur for the years 1980, 1991, 2006 and 2011. Over 65 % agreement is observed in residential land use between the actual land use and the simulated extents.

  15. Watershed land use and aquatic ecosystem response: Ecohydrologic approach to conservation policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Randhir, Timothy O.; Hawes, Ashley G.

    2009-01-01

    SummaryLand use activities change the natural functions of a watershed impacting the flow of water and water quality, and impair aquatic ecosystems. Optimal allocation of land use depends on attributes related to terrestrial and aquatic environments. A dynamic model that links land use, overland flow, suspended sediment, and an aquatic species is used to evaluate alternate land use policies. The dwarf wedge mussel that is classified as endangered in the region is used as an indicator species of aquatic health in a watershed in Massachusetts. The simulation model is used to evaluate spatial nature of processes and land use policies. Spatial and temporal changes in runoff, sediment loading, and mussel population are modeled over a period of 4 years. Ten policy scenarios represent combinations of best management practices and development of agriculture and urban land at spatial locations of headwaters, main stem regions, riparian, and entire watershed. Increasing the proportion of agriculture and high density residential land use increased runoff, while increasing the frequency and magnitude of peak flows in the watershed. Sediment loading increased with an increased proportion of agriculture area and decreased with an expansion of high density residential area. Scenarios with an increase in sediment loading above the baseline mean exhibited an irregular recovery of the mussel population from high loading events. Policy implications include the need for best management practices to decrease runoff and sediment loading in the watershed, through education and incentive programs.

  16. Evaluation of nonpoint-source contamination, Wisconsin: Land-use and Best-Management-Practices inventory, selected streamwater-quality data, urban-watershed quality assurance and quality control, constituent loads in rural streams, and snowmelt-runoff analysis, water year 1994

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walker, J.F.; Graczyk, D.J.; Corsi, S.R.; Owens, D.W.; Wierl, J.A.

    1995-01-01

    The objective of the watershed-management evaluation monitoring program in Wisconsin is to evaluate the effectiveness of best-management practices (BMP) for controlling nonpoint-source contamination in rural and urban watersheds. This report is an annual summary of the data collected for the program by the U.S Geological Survey and a report of the results of several different detailed analyses of the data. A land-use and BMP inventory is ongoing for 12 evaluation monitoring projects to track the sources of nonpoint-source pollution in each watershed and to document implementation of BMP's that may cause changes in the water quality of streams. Updated information is gathered each year, mapped, and stored in a geographic-information-system data base. Summaries of data collected during water years 1989-94 are presented. A water year is the period beginning October 1 and ending September 30; the water year is designated by the calendar year in which it ends. Suspended-sediment and total-phosphorus data (storm loads and annual loads) are summarized for eight rural sites. For all sites, the annual suspended-sediment or suspended-solids load for water year 1993 exceeded the average for the period of data collection; the minimum annual loads were transported in water year 1991 or 1992. Continuous dissolved-oxygen data were collected at seven rural sites during water year 1994. Data for water years 1990-93 are summarized and plotted in terms of percentage of time that a particular concentration is equaled or exceeded. Dissolved-oxygen concentrations in four streams were less than 9 mg/L at least 50 percent of the time, a condition that fails to meet suggested criterion for coldwater streams. The dissolved-oxygen probability curve for one of the coldwater streams is markedly different than the curves for the other streams, perhaps because of differences in aquatic biomass. Blank quality-assurance samples were collected at two of the urban evaluation monitoring sites to isolate contamination in the sample bottle, the automatic sampler and splitter, and the filtration system. Significant contamination caused excessive concentrations of dissolved chloride, alkalinity, and biochemical oxygen demand. The level of contamination may be large enough to affect data for water samples in which these analytes are present at low concentration. Further investigation is being done to determine the source of contamination and take measures to minimize its effect on the sampling. A preliminary regression analysis was done for the rural sites using data collected during water years 1989-93. Loads of suspended solids and total phosphorus in stormflow were regressed against various precipitation-related measures. The results indicate that, for most sites, changes in constituent load on the order of 40 to 50 percent could be detected with a statistical test. For two sites, the change would have to be 60 to 70 percent to be detected. A detailed comparison of snowmelt runoff and rainfall stormflow in urban and rural areas was done using data collected during water years 1985-93. For the rural sites where statistically significant differences were found between constituent loads in snowmelt and storm runoff, the loads of suspended solids and total phosphorus in snowmelt runoff were greater than those in storm runoff. For the urban sites where statistically significant differences were found between snowmelt and storm runoff, the loads of suspended solids and total phosphorus in storm runoff were greater than those in snowmelt runoff. The importance of including snowmelt runoff in designing and analyzing the effects of BMP's on streamwater quality, particularly in rural areas, is emphasized by these results.

  17. Climate, Agriculture, Energy and the Optimal Allocation of Global Land Use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinbuks, J.; Hertel, T. W.

    2011-12-01

    The allocation of the world's land resources over the course of the next century has become a pressing research question. Continuing population increases, improving, land-intensive diets amongst the poorest populations in the world, increasing production of biofuels and rapid urbanization in developing countrie