These are representative sample records from Science.gov related to your search topic.
For comprehensive and current results, perform a real-time search at Science.gov.
1

Pattern analysis and intensity evaluation of urban land use in east peral river dleta, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using four classified Landsat images and two vector land use map that covered the study area, the change of urban land use, urban land patterns, and urban land intensity were quantized. After urban expansion analysis, changes of landscape pattern were then quantified by a series of landscape metrics. Additionally, two indices, IULU and LOE, were proposed by us to evaluate

Zhi-qiang Lv

2010-01-01

2

Assessing the Intensity of Urban Land Use Based on Radial Basis Function Network  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urban land intensive use is very important to China.Traditional intensity evalua- tion methods of land use is highly influenced by man's subjective impact,thus the evaluation result is not accurate enough. In this paper, Radial Basis Function Network (RBFN) was set up to assess the urban land intensive use.Ezhou Municipal in Hubei province was taken as a case study. The results

Weisheng Xu; Sheng Chang; Jiangfeng Li

2010-01-01

3

Relationships between urban heat island intensity and land use\\/cover factors based on Landsat ETM+ in urban agglomeration of Guangdong, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ten cities with different urban sizes located in the Pearl River Delta, Guangdong Province, China were selected to study the relationships between surface urban heat island (S-UHI) intensity and land use\\/cover factors like urban size, development area, water proportion and mean NDVI, etc. All the cities are almost at the same latitude, show similar climate and have the same solar

Jinqu Zhang; Yunpeng Wang

2008-01-01

4

Analyzing Land Use Change In Urban Environments  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This four-page fact sheet provides a brief summary of the analysis of land use in urban environments. Topics include the rapid growth in urban populations, some of the methods used to analyze land use change (mapping, databases, time series documents), and some of the concerns and possible consequences created by the rapid shift of human populations to urban centers.

5

Noise levels associated with urban land use.  

PubMed

Recent trends towards the intensification of urban development to increase urban densities and avoid sprawl should be accompanied by research into the potential for related health impacts from environmental exposure. The objective of the current study was to examine the effect of the built environment and land use on levels of environmental noise. Two different study areas were selected using a combination of small area census geography, land use information, air photography, and ground-truthing. The first study area represented residential land use and consisted of two- to three-story single-family homes. The second study area was characteristic of mixed-use urban planning with apartment buildings as well as commercial and institutional development. Study areas were subdivided into six grids, and a location was randomly selected within each grid for noise monitoring. Each location was sampled four times over a 24-h day, resulting in a total of 24 samples for each of the two areas. Results showed significant variability in noise within study areas and significantly higher levels of environmental noise in the mixed-use area. Both study areas exceeded recommended noise limits when evaluated against World Health Organization guidelines and yielded average noise events values in the moderate to serious annoyance range with the potential to obscure normal conversation and cause sleep disturbance. PMID:22707308

King, Gavin; Roland-Mieszkowski, Marek; Jason, Timothy; Rainham, Daniel G

2012-12-01

6

[Spatial heterogeneity of land use intensity].  

PubMed

To approach the spatial heterogeneity of human disturbance is of significance in researching the dynamics of land cover change, especially the characteristics of its directional structure. Jinjiang City is a "hot" region of land use change in Fujian Province, and the land has experienced intense human disturbance. This paper studied the spatial heterogeneity of land use intensity and human disturbance in this city in 1989 - 2001, with systematic grid sampling method and geostatistics in application. The results revealed that there was an obvious spatial heterogeneity of human disturbance in the study area, especially the directional structure of NE-SW caused by the traffic line from Qingyang-Anhai. Human disturbance was grown in the whole area, and the administrative centers served as the growth poles. Because of the associated influence of traffic lines and administrative centers, human disturbance was of a pole-axis structure. PMID:16836088

Wang, Guojie; Liao, Shangang

2006-04-01

7

Urban Dynamics: Analyzing Land Use Change in Urban Environments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In FY99, the Earth Resource Observation System (EROS) staff at Ames continued managing the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) Urban Dynamics Research program, which has mapping and analysis activities at five USGS mapping centers. Historic land use reconstruction work continued while activities in geographic analysis and modeling were expanded. Retrospective geographic information system (GIS) development - the spatial reconstruction of a region's urban land-use history - focused on the Detroit River Corridor, California's Central Valley, and the city of Sioux Falls, South Dakota.

Acevedo, William; Richards, Lora R.; Buchanan, Janis T.; Wegener, Whitney R.

2000-01-01

8

Agent-based modeling of urban land-use change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ABM (Agent-Based Modeling) is a newly developed method of computer simulation. It has characteristics such as active, dynamic, and operational. Urban land-use change has been a focus problem all over the world, especially for the developing countries. We try to use ABM to model the urban land-use changes. By studying the mechanism of urban land use evolvement, we put forwards the thinking of modeling. And an urban land-use change model is built primarily based on the RePast software and GIS spatial database.

Li, Xinyan; Li, Deren

2005-10-01

9

Land Use Intensity Module: Land Use in Rural New Zealand Version 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

This document outlines the development of the dynamic functions and simple algorithms that make up the Land Use in Rural New Zealand (LURNZ) land-use intensity module. The module includes stocking rate functions for dairy, sheep, and beef livestock; fertiliser intensity functions for dairy and sheep\\/beef; and algorithms for the evolution of the age classes of the plantation forestry estate, and

Joanna Hendy; Suzi Kerr

2006-01-01

10

Challenges and opportunities in mapping land use intensity globally?  

PubMed Central

Future increases in land-based production will need to focus more on sustainably intensifying existing production systems. Unfortunately, our understanding of the global patterns of land use intensity is weak, partly because land use intensity is a complex, multidimensional term, and partly because we lack appropriate datasets to assess land use intensity across broad geographic extents. Here, we review the state of the art regarding approaches for mapping land use intensity and provide a comprehensive overview of available global-scale datasets on land use intensity. We also outline major challenges and opportunities for mapping land use intensity for cropland, grazing, and forestry systems, and identify key issues for future research. PMID:24143157

Kuemmerle, Tobias; Erb, Karlheinz; Meyfroidt, Patrick; Muller, Daniel; Verburg, Peter H; Estel, Stephan; Haberl, Helmut; Hostert, Patrick; Jepsen, Martin R.; Kastner, Thomas; Levers, Christian; Lindner, Marcus; Plutzar, Christoph; Verkerk, Pieter Johannes; van der Zanden, Emma H; Reenberg, Anette

2013-01-01

11

Using land use change trajectories to quantify the effects of urbanization on urban heat island  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper proposed a quantitative method of land use change trajectory, which means the succession among different land use types across time, to examine the effects of urbanization on an urban heat island (UHI). To accomplish this, multi-temporal images from Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper (TM) and Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) of Xiamen City in China from 1987 to 2007 were selected. First, the land use change trajectories were extracted based on the classified images from different years. Then the land surface temperatures (LST) were retrieved and the magnitudes of the UHI were evaluated using the UHI intensity (UHII) indicator. Finally, the indices of the contribution to UHI intensity (CUHII) were constructed and calculated to quantify the effects of each land use change trajectory on the UHI during urbanization. The results demonstrated that the land use change trajectories and CUHII are effective and useful in quantifying the effects of urbanization on UHI. In Xiamen City, a total of 2218 land use change trajectories were identified and 530 of them were the existing urban or urbanization trajectories. The UHII presents a trend of continuous increase from 0.83 °C in 1987 to 2.14 °C in 2007. With respect to the effects of urban growth on UHI, the contribution of existing urban area to UHI decreased during urbanization. Prior to 2007, the existing urban area of trajectory NO. 44444 had the most significant effect on UHI with the greatest CUHII, while the value has decreased from 55.00% in 1987 to 13.03% in 2007 because of the addition of new urbanized area. In 2007, the greatest CUHII was replaced by a trajectory from farmland to built-up area (NO. 22224) with the CUHII of 21.98%, followed by the existing urban area of trajectory NO. 44444 with the CUHII of 13.03%. These results provide not only a new methodology to assess the environmental effects of urbanization, but also decision-supports for the planning and management of cities.

Feng, Huihui; Zhao, Xiaofeng; Chen, Feng; Wu, Lichun

2014-02-01

12

Street centrality and land use intensity in Baton Rouge, Louisiana  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the relationship between street centrality and land use intensity in Baton Rouge, Louisiana. Street centrality is calibrated in terms of a node’s closeness, betweenness and straightness on the road network. Land use intensity is measured by population (residential) and employment (business) densities in census tracts, respectively and combined. Two GIS-based methods are used to transform data sets

Fahui Wang; Anzhelika Antipova; Sergio Porta

2011-01-01

13

Cities and Urban Land Use in Advanced Placement Human Geography.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the cities and urban land use section of the Advanced Placement (AP) human geography course, focusing on the: (1) definitions of urbanism; (2) origin and evolution of cities; (3) functional character of contemporary cities; (4) built environment and social space; and (5) responses to urban growth. (CMK)

Ford, Larry R.

2000-01-01

14

Without zoning: Urban development and land use controls in Houston  

Microsoft Academic Search

Houston is the only major city in North America without zoning. The growth of Houston illustrates a traditional free market philosophy in which land use zoning is seen as a violation of private property and personal liberty. This paper explores how the lack of zoning has an impact on land use controls and urban development in Houston. Using a theoretical

Zhu Qian

2010-01-01

15

Urban Transportation, Land Use, and the Environment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Part of MIT's innovative OpenCourseWare Project, that provides materials from MIT classes to the public on the web, the site contains materials from a seminar studying the interactions of urban systems and the environment. Along with general topics, the seminar provides in-depth case studies of three Central and South American urban areas: Mexico City, Curitiba, and Santiago. The site provides a syllabus, calendar, references for readings, assignments, project ideas, in-depth lecture presentations, and class assignments.

Zegras, P. C.

2008-10-13

16

Role of urban land use on mesoscale circulations and precipitation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A high resolution mesoscale meteorological model (MM5) was employed to study urban effects on rainfall over Oklahoma City, U.S.A. and Chennai, India. Numerical modeling results for Oklahoma City show that urban land use increases the daytime sensible heat flux while it decreases the latent heat flux over the city. Height of the level of free convection (LFC) is reduced by

Matthew Drennan Simpson

2006-01-01

17

Urban Land Use and Surface Cover: Effects on Soil Temperatures  

E-print Network

Urban Land Use and Surface Cover: Effects on Soil Temperatures Sarah B. Celestian and Chris A. In the root zone within 30 cm of the ground surface, temperature fluctuations strongly influence biotic different surface cover types impact diel patterns of soil root-zone temperatures in an urban Southwest

Hall, Sharon J.

18

Impact of urbanization and land-use change on climate  

Microsoft Academic Search

The most important anthropogenic influences on climate are the emission of greenhouse gases and changes in land use, such as urbanization and agriculture. But it has been difficult to separate these two influences because both tend to increase the daily mean surface temperature. The impact of urbanization has been estimated by comparing observations in cities with those in surrounding rural

Eugenia Kalnay; Ming Cai

2003-01-01

19

Nathaniel E. Roth Urban Land Use and Transportation Center (ULTRANS)  

E-print Network

Nathaniel E. Roth Urban Land Use and Transportation Center (ULTRANS) Institute of Transportation with personal and departmental computers. Recent Publications: · Beardsley, K., Thorne, J. H., Roth, N on biological resources. Landscape and Urban Planning, 93(2009), 172183. · Johnston, R. A., Roth, N

California at Davis, University of

20

Impact of Urbanization and Land Use Changes on Climate  

E-print Network

The study examines the effects of urbanization and land use changes on climatic environment of Visakhapatnam city. A detailed study was carried out with regard to urban heat islands and to examine the nature and intensity of heat islands in the city. This study is very important in city planning for the avoidance of air pollution hazards. Trend analysis of the temperatures has been carried out in order to assess the effects of urbanization on thermal climate. The regression analysis gives an indication of overall tendency of the temperature. The mean annual temperature varies from 23.5°c to 30.9°c; mean maximum summer (April-June) temperature varies from 32.8°c – 34.0°c and mean minimum winter (Dec – Feb) temperature ranges from 17.5°c – 19.3°c. The mean annual rainfall is 954mm and Visakhapatnam receives maximum amount of rainfall during post monsoon period (Oct-Nov) due to cyclonic activity. The trends of both annual and monsoonal rainfall at Visakhapatnam over a period of 50 years, from 1951 to 2000 are also examined.

Govindu Vanum

21

Impacts of land use on riparian forest along an urban – rural gradient in southern Manitoba  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extensive landscape modification by humans has led to the fragmentation of riparian forests across North America. We compared\\u000a the vegetation of extant riparian forest along an urban-rural disturbance gradient. In 1999, twenty-five sites along Assiniboine\\u000a River in Manitoba, Canada were categorized according to land use: urban, suburban, high intensity rural, low intensity rural,\\u000a and relatively high quality reference forest. Differences

S. F. Moffatt; S. M. McLachlan; N. C. Kenkel

2004-01-01

22

Land-use suitability analysis for urban development in Beijing.  

PubMed

Land-use suitability analyses are of considerable use in the planning of mega-cities. An Urban Development Land-use Suitability Mapping (UDLSM) approach has been constructed, based on opportunity and constraint criteria. Two Multi-criteria Evaluation (MCE) methods, the Ideal Point Method (IPM) and Ordered Weighted Averaging (OWA), were used to generate the opportunity map. The protection map was obtained by means of constraint criteria, utilizing the Boolean union operator. A suitability map was then generated by overlaying the opportunity and protection maps. By applying the UDLSM approach to Beijing, its urban development land-use suitability was mapped, and a sensitivity analysis undertaken to examine the robustness of the proposed approach. Indirect validation was achieved by mutual comparisons of suitability maps resulting from the two MCE methods, where the overall agreement of 91% and kappa coefficient of 0.78 indicated that both methods provide very similar spatial land-use suitability distributions. The suitability level decreases from central Beijing to its periphery, and the area classed as suitable amounts to 28% of the total area. Leading attributes of each opportunity factor for suitability were revealed, with 2256 km(2), i.e. 70%, of existing development land being overlaid by suitable areas in Beijing. Conflicting parcels of land were identified by overlaying the resultant map with two previous development blueprints for Beijing. The paper includes several recommendations aimed at improving the long-term urban development plans for Beijing. PMID:25036557

Liu, Renzhi; Zhang, Ke; Zhang, Zhijiao; Borthwick, Alistair G L

2014-12-01

23

New Norms for Multiple Intensive Land-Use  

Microsoft Academic Search

Places of globalisation often turn out to be mono functional places. Airports, shopping malls and business districts seem to evolve towards privatised, controlled and regulated spaces. As a possible counterforce, the normative planning concept of multiple intensive land use is introduced in this paper: planning to create integrated spaces with a mixture of uses. The case study is the Amsterdam

Stan J. H. Majoor

2003-01-01

24

Effects of Urban Land-Use Change on Biogeochemical Cycles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urban land-use change can affect biogeochemical cycles through altered disturbance regimes, landscape management practices (e.g., irrigation and fertilization), built structures, and changes in environment (heat island effect, pollution, introduction of non-native species, loss of native species). These changes have created novel ecosystems, which have the potential to significantly affect biogeochemical cycles at local, regional, and global scales. In this presentation

R. V. Pouyat; D. E. Pataki; K. T. Belt; P. M. Groffman; L. E. Band; J. Hom

2006-01-01

25

Interannual variation in land-use intensity enhances grassland multidiversity  

PubMed Central

Although temporal heterogeneity is a well-accepted driver of biodiversity, effects of interannual variation in land-use intensity (LUI) have not been addressed yet. Additionally, responses to land use can differ greatly among different organisms; therefore, overall effects of land-use on total local biodiversity are hardly known. To test for effects of LUI (quantified as the combined intensity of fertilization, grazing, and mowing) and interannual variation in LUI (SD in LUI across time), we introduce a unique measure of whole-ecosystem biodiversity, multidiversity. This synthesizes individual diversity measures across up to 49 taxonomic groups of plants, animals, fungi, and bacteria from 150 grasslands. Multidiversity declined with increasing LUI among grasslands, particularly for rarer species and aboveground organisms, whereas common species and belowground groups were less sensitive. However, a high level of interannual variation in LUI increased overall multidiversity at low LUI and was even more beneficial for rarer species because it slowed the rate at which the multidiversity of rare species declined with increasing LUI. In more intensively managed grasslands, the diversity of rarer species was, on average, 18% of the maximum diversity across all grasslands when LUI was static over time but increased to 31% of the maximum when LUI changed maximally over time. In addition to decreasing overall LUI, we suggest varying LUI across years as a complementary strategy to promote biodiversity conservation. PMID:24368852

Allan, Eric; Bossdorf, Oliver; Dormann, Carsten F.; Prati, Daniel; Gossner, Martin M.; Tscharntke, Teja; Bluthgen, Nico; Bellach, Michaela; Birkhofer, Klaus; Boch, Steffen; Bohm, Stefan; Borschig, Carmen; Chatzinotas, Antonis; Christ, Sabina; Daniel, Rolf; Diekotter, Tim; Fischer, Christiane; Friedl, Thomas; Glaser, Karin; Hallmann, Christine; Hodac, Ladislav; Holzel, Norbert; Jung, Kirsten; Klein, Alexandra Maria; Klaus, Valentin H.; Kleinebecker, Till; Krauss, Jochen; Lange, Markus; Morris, E. Kathryn; Muller, Jorg; Nacke, Heiko; Pasalic, Esther; Rillig, Matthias C.; Rothenwohrer, Christoph; Schall, Peter; Scherber, Christoph; Schulze, Waltraud; Socher, Stephanie A.; Steckel, Juliane; Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf; Turke, Manfred; Weiner, Christiane N.; Werner, Michael; Westphal, Catrin; Wolters, Volkmar; Wubet, Tesfaye; Gockel, Sonja; Gorke, Martin; Hemp, Andreas; Renner, Swen C.; Schoning, Ingo; Pfeiffer, Simone; Konig-Ries, Birgitta; Buscot, Francois; Linsenmair, Karl Eduard; Schulze, Ernst-Detlef; Weisser, Wolfgang W.; Fischer, Markus

2014-01-01

26

Interannual variation in land-use intensity enhances grassland multidiversity.  

PubMed

Although temporal heterogeneity is a well-accepted driver of biodiversity, effects of interannual variation in land-use intensity (LUI) have not been addressed yet. Additionally, responses to land use can differ greatly among different organisms; therefore, overall effects of land-use on total local biodiversity are hardly known. To test for effects of LUI (quantified as the combined intensity of fertilization, grazing, and mowing) and interannual variation in LUI (SD in LUI across time), we introduce a unique measure of whole-ecosystem biodiversity, multidiversity. This synthesizes individual diversity measures across up to 49 taxonomic groups of plants, animals, fungi, and bacteria from 150 grasslands. Multidiversity declined with increasing LUI among grasslands, particularly for rarer species and aboveground organisms, whereas common species and belowground groups were less sensitive. However, a high level of interannual variation in LUI increased overall multidiversity at low LUI and was even more beneficial for rarer species because it slowed the rate at which the multidiversity of rare species declined with increasing LUI. In more intensively managed grasslands, the diversity of rarer species was, on average, 18% of the maximum diversity across all grasslands when LUI was static over time but increased to 31% of the maximum when LUI changed maximally over time. In addition to decreasing overall LUI, we suggest varying LUI across years as a complementary strategy to promote biodiversity conservation. PMID:24368852

Allan, Eric; Bossdorf, Oliver; Dormann, Carsten F; Prati, Daniel; Gossner, Martin M; Tscharntke, Teja; Blüthgen, Nico; Bellach, Michaela; Birkhofer, Klaus; Boch, Steffen; Böhm, Stefan; Börschig, Carmen; Chatzinotas, Antonis; Christ, Sabina; Daniel, Rolf; Diekötter, Tim; Fischer, Christiane; Friedl, Thomas; Glaser, Karin; Hallmann, Christine; Hodac, Ladislav; Hölzel, Norbert; Jung, Kirsten; Klein, Alexandra Maria; Klaus, Valentin H; Kleinebecker, Till; Krauss, Jochen; Lange, Markus; Morris, E Kathryn; Müller, Jörg; Nacke, Heiko; Pasalic, Esther; Rillig, Matthias C; Rothenwöhrer, Christoph; Schall, Peter; Scherber, Christoph; Schulze, Waltraud; Socher, Stephanie A; Steckel, Juliane; Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf; Türke, Manfred; Weiner, Christiane N; Werner, Michael; Westphal, Catrin; Wolters, Volkmar; Wubet, Tesfaye; Gockel, Sonja; Gorke, Martin; Hemp, Andreas; Renner, Swen C; Schöning, Ingo; Pfeiffer, Simone; König-Ries, Birgitta; Buscot, François; Linsenmair, Karl Eduard; Schulze, Ernst-Detlef; Weisser, Wolfgang W; Fischer, Markus

2014-01-01

27

Urban land use predicts West Nile virus exposure in songbirds.  

PubMed

Urbanization is a widespread phenomenon that is likely to influence the prevalence and impact of wildlife pathogens, with implications for wildlife management and public health policies toward zoonotic pathogens. In this study, wild songbird populations were sampled at 14 sites along an urban rural gradient in the greater metropolitan Atlanta (Georgia, USA) area and tested for antibodies to West Nile virus (WNV). The level of urbanization among sites was quantitatively assessed using a principal component analysis of key land use characteristics. In total, 499 individual birds were tested during the spring and summer over three years (2004-2006). Antibody prevalence of WNV increased from rural to urban sites, and this trend was stronger among adult birds relative to juveniles. Furthermore, antibody prevalence among Northern Cardinals (Cardinalis cardinalis) was significantly higher than in other songbird species along the urban gradient. Findings reported here indicate that ecological factors associated with urbanization can influence infection patterns of this vector-borne viral disease, with likely mechanisms including changes in host species diversity and the tolerance or recovery of infected animals. PMID:18686573

Bradley, Catherine A; Gibbs, Samantha E J; Altizer, Sonia

2008-07-01

28

Land Use in the Wildland-Urban Interface: Urban Sprawl and Smart Growth1  

Microsoft Academic Search

As urban populations grow and more people want privacy and greenspace, development inevitably creeps beyond city limits into natural and agricultural areas, creating the wildland-urban interface. The wildland-urban interface is an area of changing land uses - often an increasing amount of development leading to increasingly fragmented natural areas. If the development occurs without consideration for infrastructure, commercial needs, efficient

Lauren McDonell; Martha C. Monroe; Gene Boles; Terri Mashour

29

Role of urban land use on mesoscale circulations and precipitation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A high resolution mesoscale meteorological model (MM5) was employed to study urban effects on rainfall over Oklahoma City, U.S.A. and Chennai, India. Numerical modeling results for Oklahoma City show that urban land use increases the daytime sensible heat flux while it decreases the latent heat flux over the city. Height of the level of free convection (LFC) is reduced by 100 hPa downwind of Oklahoma City because of increased vertical mixing. Increased friction over the city reduced the near surface wind speed by up to 30% as compared to that over the surrounding rural regions during the simulation period. Surface stress over an urban area is shown to increase convergence on the wind ward side of the city and decrease convergence on the lee side of the city. Simulated maximum vertical velocity associated with a line of thunderstorms is enhanced by 1.4 m s-1 by the urban effect of Oklahoma City. Increased rainfall amounts of 25 mm were simulated around 55 km downwind of Oklahoma City. Rainfall observations and numerical modeling results were used to investigate the impact of Chennai urban land use on the sea breeze circulation and rainfall amounts during the southwest monsoon. Simulated wind speeds show that the urban region of Chennai increases onshore flow associated with the sea breeze by 4.0 m s-1. Inland propagation of the sea breeze front is reduced over and immediately downwind of the city due to higher friction. During the research period, positive vertical velocity is enhanced along the leading edge of the sea breeze front by more than 1.0 m s-1 because of increased low-level convergence over the city. Rainfall amounts were increased up to 25 mm well inland due to urban effects. Observations indicate occurrence of rainfall over the city during late evening and nocturnal hours, possibly due to the interaction between receding sea breeze circulation and the urban heat island. This process could not be simulated due to possible deficiencies in the model physics.

Simpson, Matthew Drennan

30

Are agricultural land-use models able to predict changes in land-use intensity?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Land-use and land-cover change research needs to pay more attention to processes of land-cover modification, and especially to agricultural land intensification. The objective of this paper is to review the different modelling approaches that have been used in land-use\\/land-cover change research from the perspective of their utility for the study and prediction of changes in land-use intensification. After clarifying the

E. F. Lambin; M. D. A Rounsevell; H. J Geist

2000-01-01

31

Effects of Land Use Development on Urban Open Spaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

City of Aydin has grown extremely due to immigration from the eastern part of Turkey, immigration from rural areas to urban areas of the city and alterations in economic and social structure of the nation. The rapid expansion of the urban area results in dramatic change in the open space system of the town. Understanding this transformation is important to generate sustainable planning in the area. The purpose of this study is to elaborate the different open space opportunities in Aydin and to detect the change in these areas. Black and white aerial photographs from 1977 and 1993 and Ikonos 2002 images are utilized for the analysis in GIS environment. First, 14 different open space types are defined and the open spaces are delineated from the aerials and satellite images. Second, the change in the area of these patches is analyzed. The results indicate that urban open spaces are negatively affected by historic land use development. The natural and agricultural patches diminished while semi-natural or man made open space patches increased. Opportunities to increase the variability in the open space types should be embraced to promote sustainability in the urban matrix. Ecological design of the man made open spaces is necessary to increase their contribution in this endeavor.

Esbah, Hayriye; Deniz, Bulent

32

DC WRRC REPORT NO. 125 URBAN LAND USE ACTIVITIES AND THE GROUND  

E-print Network

paid to ground water protection in urban settings. Pollutants due to urban land use activities create to be compiled on land use and the hydrogeologic conditions in the District of Columbia. The ranking of pollution sources and land use categories according to their potential pollution impact provides a tool to assess

District of Columbia, University of the

33

Urban Land Use Decouples Plant-Herbivore-Parasitoid Interactions at Multiple Spatial Scales  

PubMed Central

Intense urban and agricultural development alters habitats, increases fragmentation, and may decouple trophic interactions if plants or animals cannot disperse to needed resources. Specialist insects represent a substantial proportion of global biodiversity and their fidelity to discrete microhabitats provides a powerful framework for investigating organismal responses to human land use. We sampled site occupancy and densities for two plant-herbivore-parasitoid systems from 250 sites across a 360 km2 urban/agricultural landscape to ask whether and how human development decouples interactions between trophic levels. We compared patterns of site occupancy, host plant density, herbivory and parasitism rates of insects at two trophic levels with respect to landcover at multiple spatial scales. Geospatial analyses were used to identify landcover characters predictive of insect distributions. We found that herbivorous insect densities were decoupled from host tree densities in urban landcover types at several spatial scales. This effect was amplified for the third trophic level in one of the two insect systems: despite being abundant regionally, a parasitoid species was absent from all urban/suburban landcover even where its herbivore host was common. Our results indicate that human land use patterns limit distributions of specialist insects. Dispersal constraints associated with urban built development are specifically implicated as a limiting factor. PMID:25019962

Nelson, Amanda E.; Forbes, Andrew A.

2014-01-01

34

Gravel resources, urbanization, and future land use, Front Range Urban Corridor, Colorado  

USGS Publications Warehouse

An assessment of gravel needs in Front Range Urban Corridor markets to 2000 A.D., based on forecast population increases and urbanization, indicates that adequate resources to meet anticipated needs are potentially available, if future land use does not preclude their extraction. Because of urban encroachment onto gravel-bearing lands, this basic construction material is in short supply nationally and in the Front Range Urban Corridor. Longer hauls, increased prices, and use of alternatives, especially crushed rock aggregate, have resulted. An analysis of possible sequential land uses following gravel mining indicates that a desirable use is for 'real estate' ponds and small lakes. A method for computing gravel reserves, based on planimeter measurement of area of resource-bearing lands and statistical analysis of reliability of thickness and size distribution data, was developed to compute reserves in individual markets. A discussion of the qualitative 'usability' of these reserves is then made for the individual markets.

Soule, James M.; Fitch, Harold R.

1974-01-01

35

Rates, trends, causes, and consequences of urban land-use change in the United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Over the past 200 years, changes to the Nation's urban areas have been dramatic. Changes that have occurred relate both to the location of urban centers, as well as to the spatial extent of land dedicated to urban uses. Urban areas at the beginning of the 19th century were located primarily along major rivers or bodies of water, as waterways provided the most efficient means for transporting goods and people. As railroads became prominent, urban areas were able to expand or develop away from the water's edge. Geographic features such as steep slopes, wetlands, and lack of freshwater impeded settlement. In 1902, the National Reclamation Act was passed and with it came funding for the construction of water storage and transportation systems. This encouraged urban expansion in the arid west. After World War II, the Nation's urban areas continued to expand outward away from the city center as populations migrated to the margins of urban areas, where land was less expensive and the environment was less polluted. In 1956, the Federal Highway Act and the building of Interstate highways further facilitated urban expansion across the Unite States. Rural towns, small industrial centers, and farmland were engulfed by expanding urban centers. Over the past 200 years, numerous social, cultural, economic, and political incentives have encouraged urban expansion. In the 1800s, the industrial revolution influenced where people lived and worked. Many people shifted from agricultural production in rural areas to factory work in urban centers. Advances in transportation systems, such as rail transport in the 19th and early 20th centuries, followed by the mass production of the automobile and convenient air travel, facilitated a mobile society and a national economy. Economic growth and a population boom after World War II spurred increased suburbanization-the shifting of residential areas to the outlying section of a city or to a separate municipality-on the fringe of urban areas. Other economic and political incentives that shaped the urban environment included Federally backed home loans, credit and tax mechanisms that encouraged new development, and less restrictive municipal ordinances regarding building codes, environmental laws, and zoning regulations. Throughout the past two centuries land use changes associated with increasing urbanization have had impacts that resonate at local, regional, and even national scales. Landscape changes resulting from urbanization can be mapped and studied over time. Understanding these changes requires a study of the causes of change as related to social, economic, and political influences. Understanding these changes also requires analysis of how urbanization physically spreads across the landscape. The knowledge gained from studying urban land-use change can be helpful when it flows into local, regional, and national decisionmaking that relates to land-use decisions that impact the people, the economy, and the environment. Deriving a correlation between physical change and the explanations of the causes of change can help anticipate and mitigate the impacts of future change. Throughout the past two centuries changes to the Nation's urban areas are inextricably linked to population changes. The Nation's population started growing slowly along the eastern seaboard during the 17th and 18th centuries, accelerated in the second half of the 19th century, and then continued steadily spreading westward throughout the next hundred years. Currently, nearly 80 percent of the U.S. population resides in urban areas. Land area dedicated to urban use continues to expand, although differently than it has in the past. Most newly urbanized areas are much less densely populated and less intensively developed than they were 50 to 100 years ago.

Edited by Acevedo, William; Taylor, Janis L.; Hester, Dave J.; Mladinich, Carol S.; Glavac, Sonya

2006-01-01

36

Rates, Trends, Causes, and Consequences of Urban Land-Use Change in the United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Introduction: Over the past 200 years, changes to the Nation's urban areas have been dramatic. Changes that have occurred relate both to the location of urban centers, as well as to the spatial extent of land dedicated to urban uses. Urban areas at the beginning of the 19th century were located primarily along major rivers or bodies of water, as waterways provided the most efficient means for transporting goods and people. As railroads became prominent, urban areas were able to expand or develop away from the water's edge. Geographic features such as steep slopes, wetlands, and lack of freshwater impeded settlement. In 1902, the National Reclamation Act was passed and with it came funding for the construction of water storage and transportation systems. This encouraged urban expansion in the arid west. After World War II, the Nation's urban areas continued to expand outward away from the city center as populations migrated to the margins of urban areas, where land was less expensive and the environment was less polluted. In 1956, the Federal Highway Act and the building of Interstate highways further facilitated urban expansion across the Unite States. Rural towns, small industrial centers, and farmland were engulfed by expanding urban centers. Over the past 200 years, numerous social, cultural, economic, and political incentives have encouraged urban expansion. In the 1800s, the industrial revolution influenced where people lived and worked. Many people shifted from agricultural production in rural areas to factory work in urban centers. Advances in transportation systems, such as rail transport in the 19th and early 20th centuries, followed by the mass production of the automobile and convenient air travel, facilitated a mobile society and a national economy. Economic growth and a population boom after World War II spurred increased suburbanization-the shifting of residential areas to the outlying section of a city or to a separate municipality-on the fringe of urban areas. Other economic and political incentives that shaped the urban environment included Federally backed home loans, credit and tax mechanisms that encouraged new development, and less restrictive municipal ordinances regarding building codes, environmental laws, and zoning regulations. Throughout the past two centuries land use changes associated with increasing urbanization have had impacts that resonate at local, regional, and even national scales. Landscape changes resulting from urbanization can be mapped and studied over time. Understanding these changes requires a study of the causes of change as related to social, economic, and political influences. Understanding these changes also requires analysis of how urbanization physically spreads across the landscape. The knowledge gained from studying urban land-use change can be helpful when it flows into local, regional, and national decisionmaking that relates to land-use decisions that impact the people, the economy, and the environment. Deriving a correlation between physical change and the explanations of the causes of change can help anticipate and mitigate the impacts of future change. Throughout the past two centuries changes to the Nation's urban areas are inextricably linked to population changes. The Nation's population started growing slowly along the eastern seaboard during the 17th and 18th centuries, accelerated in the second half of the 19th century, and then continued steadily spreading westward throughout the next hundred years. Currently, nearly 80 percent of the U.S. population resides in urban areas. Land area dedicated to urban use continues to expand, although differently than it has in the past. Most newly urbanized areas are much less densely populated and less intensively developed than they were 50 to 100 years ago.

Edited by Acevedo, William; Taylor, Janis L.; Hester, Dave J.; Mladinich, Carol S.; Glavac, Sonya

2006-01-01

37

An evaluation framework for the sustainability of urban land use: A study of capital cities and municipalities in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The urban land use involves more severe sustainability challenges than agricultural land use. An effective approach for evaluating urban land use is essential for meeting this challenge to improve efficient land use management. This approach must fit into a coherent conceptual and analytical framework covering different aspects, including social, economic, environmental and rational land use structure. A major problem with

Xiaoling Zhang; Yuzhe Wu; Liyin Shen

2011-01-01

38

describe composition and turnover of arthropod communities in 4 types of urban land use in the  

E-print Network

· describe composition and turnover of arthropod communities in 4 types of urban land use of urban land use · explore how variation in physical habitat structure may explain variation in arthropod.9% data source: Maricopa Association of Governments, 1998 Arthropod collecting sites were chosen

Hall, Sharon J.

39

Geographic Patterns of Land Use and Land Intensity  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper uses census-tract-level data from the Censo Agropecuario 1995-96 to map indicators ofcurrent land use and agricultural productivity across the Legal Amazon of Brazil. These data permitgeographical resolution about 10 times freer than afforded by municipio data used in previousstudies. The paper focuses on the extent and productivity of pasture, the dominant land use inAmaz6nia today.

Kenneth M. Chomitz; Timothy S. Thomas

40

Regional soil erosion in response to land use and increased typhoon frequency and intensity, Taiwan  

E-print Network

Regional soil erosion in response to land use and increased typhoon frequency and intensity, Taiwan: Received 27 April 2013 Available online 15 November 2013 Keywords: Erosion Sedimentation Land use Typhoon in response to both 20th century changes in land use and a more recent increase in typhoon frequency

Montgomery, David R.

41

A novel index of land use intensity for organic and conventional farming of Mediterranean cereal fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

The conservation of biodiversity in agro-ecosystems is closely related to land use. Intensive land use is considered to be\\u000a a major cause of biodiversity loss. Most studies addressing the effect of land use intensity on biodiversity have compared\\u000a organic and conventional systems. However, little is known about the heterogeneity of the management intensity within each\\u000a farming system. We hypothesise that

Laura Armengot; Laura José-María; José M. Blanco-Moreno; Montserrat Bassa; Lourdes Chamorro; F. Xavier Sans

42

Green Infrastructure & Sustainable Urban Land Use Decision Analysis Workshop  

EPA Science Inventory

Introduce green infrastructure, concepts and land use alternatives, to City of Cleveland operations staff. Discuss potential of green alternatives to impact daily operations and routine maintenance activities. Tie in sustainability concepts to long-term City planning and discu...

43

Diversity and abundance of earthworms across an agricultural land-use intensity gradient  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understanding how communities of important soil invertebrates vary with land use may lead to the development of more sustainable land-use strategies. We assessed the abundance and species composition of earthworm communities across six replicated long-term experimental ecosystems that span a gradient in agricultural land-use intensity. The experimental systems include a conventional row-crop agricultural system, two lower-intensity row-crop systems (no-till and

Richard G. Smith; Claire P. McSwiney; A. Stuart Grandy; Pongthep Suwanwaree; Renate M. Snider; G. Philip Robertson

2008-01-01

44

A conceptual framework for analysing and measuring land-use intensity?  

PubMed Central

Large knowledge gaps currently exist that limit our ability to understand and characterise dynamics and patterns of land-use intensity: in particular, a comprehensive conceptual framework and a system of measurement are lacking. This situation hampers the development of a sound understanding of the mechanisms, determinants, and constraints underlying changes in land-use intensity. On the basis of a review of approaches for studying land-use intensity, we propose a conceptual framework to quantify and analyse land-use intensity. This framework integrates three dimensions: (a) input intensity, (b) output intensity, and (c) the associated system-level impacts of land-based production (e.g. changes in carbon storage or biodiversity). The systematic development of indicators across these dimensions would provide opportunities for the systematic analyses of the trade-offs, synergies and opportunity costs of land-use intensification strategies. PMID:24143156

Erb, Karl-Heinz; Haberl, Helmut; Jepsen, Martin Rudbeck; Kuemmerle, Tobias; Lindner, Marcus; Müller, Daniel; Verburg, Peter H; Reenberg, Anette

2013-01-01

45

On the relationship between farmland biodiversity and land-use intensity in Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Worldwide agriculture is one of the main drivers of biodiversity decline. Effective conservation strategies depend on the type of relationship between biodiversity and land-use intensity, but to date the shape of this relationship is unknown. We linked plant species richness with nitrogen (N) input as an indicator of land-use intensity on 130 grasslands and 141 arable fields in six European

D. Kleijn; F. Kohler; A. Báldi; P. Batáry; E. D. Concepción; Y. Clough; M. Diaz; D. Gabriel; A. Holzschuh; E. Knop; E. J. P. Marshall; T. Tscharntke; J. Verhulst

2009-01-01

46

The influence of agricultural land-use intensity on bryophyte species richness  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study is a quantitative approach to the estimation of bryophyte species richness in relation to land-use intensity at three spatial scales in highly cultivated areas. A total of 460 randomly selected habitats and their various substrates within 29 study sites were investigated with regard to their land-use intensity and their bryophyte species richness in an agricultural region of eastern

Harald Gustav Zechmeister; Dietmar Moser

2001-01-01

47

Land-use intensity affects range condition in arid to semi-arid Namibia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Range condition at sites of differing land-use intensity at a communal farm was assessed. Vegetation, soil and termite parameters were tested for their potential as indicators. The vegetation indicators did not discriminate between two sites of high and low land-use intensity. However, the soil fertility parameters provided interesting results. The phosphorus (P), nitrogen (N), organic carbon (OC), light fraction (LF),

J. Zeidler; S. Hanrahan; M. Scholes

2002-01-01

48

The impact study of urban heat island effect caused by surface land use changes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urban heat island (UHI) effect can be characterized by increasing surface and atmospheric temperature and decreasing rainfall amount in urban area. This research detected the impact of urban land use changes to UHI effect in Taichung city at Taiwan by temporal ASTER and MODIS satellite images and measured data from ground thermometer stations. From spatially analyzed data output, the results

Tien-Yin Chou; Lung-Shih Yang; Chih-Hung Liu; Yuanling Chang

2009-01-01

49

Analytical solutions to trade-offs between size of protected areas and land-use intensity.  

PubMed

Land-use change is affecting Earth's capacity to support both wild species and a growing human population. The question is how best to manage landscapes for both species conservation and economic output. If large areas are protected to conserve species richness, then the unprotected areas must be used more intensively. Likewise, low-intensity use leaves less area protected but may allow wild species to persist in areas that are used for market purposes. This dilemma is present in policy debates on agriculture, housing, and forestry. Our goal was to develop a theoretical model to evaluate which land-use strategy maximizes economic output while maintaining species richness. Our theoretical model extends previous analytical models by allowing land-use intensity on unprotected land to influence species richness in protected areas. We devised general models in which species richness (with modified species-area curves) and economic output (a Cobb-Douglas production function) are a function of land-use intensity and the proportion of land protected. Economic output increased as land-use intensity and extent increased, and species richness responded to increased intensity either negatively or following the intermediate disturbance hypothesis. We solved the model analytically to identify the combination of land-use intensity and protected area that provided the maximum amount of economic output, given a target level of species richness. The land-use strategy that maximized economic output while maintaining species richness depended jointly on the response of species richness to land-use intensity and protection and the effect of land use outside protected areas on species richness within protected areas. Regardless of the land-use strategy, species richness tended to respond to changing land-use intensity and extent in a highly nonlinear fashion. PMID:22809426

Butsic, Van; Radeloff, Volker C; Kuemmerle, Tobias; Pidgeon, Anna M

2012-10-01

50

Procedural Modeling of Urban Land Use Tom Lechner1  

E-print Network

of this research develops highly automated (procedural) modeling tools [Ebert et al. 2002]. To date most, recreational park and road land uses, including age and density of development. Artists can interact with the map via a painting interface to establish global developmental behavior, guide local development

Wilensky, Uri

51

The influence of land use on the urban heat island in Singapore  

Microsoft Academic Search

The urban air temperature is gradually rising in all cities in the world. One of the possible causes is the drastic reduction in the greenery area in cities. It means that land use planning becomes critical in determining the environment quality.This study tries to investigate and identify land use types which have the most influence to the increase of ambient

Steve Kardinal Jusuf; N. H. Wong; Emlyn Hagen; Roni Anggoro; Yan Hong

2007-01-01

52

EFFECTS OF LAND USE AND SEASON ON MICROORGANISM CONCENTRATIONS IN URBAN STORMWATER RUNOFF  

EPA Science Inventory

This study investigated differences in pathogen and indicator organism concentrations in stormwater runoff between different urban land uses and seasons. Stormwater samples collected from storm sewers draining small municipal separate storm sewer systems shown to be free of cros...

53

Quantifying uncertainty in remote sensing-based urban land-use mapping  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Land-use/land-cover information constitutes an important component in the calibration of many urban growth models. Typically, the model building involves a process of historic calibration based on time series of land-use maps. Medium-resolution satellite imagery is an interesting source for obtaining data on land-use change, yet inferring information on the use of urbanised spaces from these images is a challenging task that is subject to different types of uncertainty. Quantifying and reducing the uncertainties in land-use mapping and land-use change model parameter assessment are therefore crucial to improve the reliability of urban growth models relying on these data. In this paper, a remote sensing-based land-use mapping approach is adopted, consisting of two stages: (i) estimating impervious surface cover at sub-pixel level through linear regression unmixing and (ii) inferring urban land use from urban form using metrics describing the spatial structure of the built-up area, together with address data. The focus lies on quantifying the uncertainty involved in this approach. Both stages of the land-use mapping process are subjected to Monte Carlo simulation to assess their relative contribution to and their combined impact on the uncertainty in the derived land-use maps. The robustness to uncertainty of the land-use mapping strategy is addressed by comparing the most likely land-use maps obtained from the simulation with the original land-use map, obtained without taking uncertainty into account. The approach was applied on the Brussels-Capital Region and the central part of the Flanders region (Belgium), covering the city of Antwerp, using a time series of SPOT data for 1996, 2005 and 2012. Although the most likely land-use map obtained from the simulation is very similar to the original land-use map - indicating absence of bias in the mapping process - it is shown that the errors related to the impervious surface sub-pixel fraction estimation have a strong impact on the land-use map's uncertainty. Hence, uncertainties observed in the derived land-use maps should be taken into account when using these maps as an input for modelling of urban growth.

Cockx, Kasper; Van de Voorde, Tim; Canters, Frank

2014-09-01

54

Exotic plant invasions in forested wetlands: effects of adjacent urban land use type  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are a variety of land use types in urbanized areas that may have different effects on the ecological characteristics\\u000a of patches of natural vegetation. In particular, residential housing and industrial land-use may have different effects on\\u000a adjacent forest communities. We tested this hypothesis by examining the vegetation of forested wetlands in a densely urban\\u000a region, northeastern New Jersey. Wetlands

Heather Bowman Cutway; Joan G. Ehrenfeld

2009-01-01

55

Relationships between human disturbance and wildlife land use in urban habitat fragments.  

PubMed

Habitat remnants in urbanized areas typically conserve biodiversity and serve the recreation and urban open-space needs of human populations. Nevertheless, these goals can be in conflict if human activity negatively affects wildlife. Hence, when considering habitat remnants as conservation refuges it is crucial to understand how human activities and land uses affect wildlife use of those and adjacent areas. We used tracking data (animal tracks and den or bed sites) on 10 animal species and information on human activity and environmental factors associated with anthropogenic disturbance in 12 habitat fragments across San Diego County, California, to examine the relationships among habitat fragment characteristics, human activity, and wildlife presence. There were no significant correlations of species presence and abundance with percent plant cover for all species or with different land-use intensities for all species, except the opossum (Didelphis virginiana), which preferred areas with intensive development. Woodrats (Neotoma spp.) and cougars (Puma concolor) were associated significantly and positively and significantly and negatively, respectively, with the presence and prominence of utilities. Woodrats were also negatively associated with the presence of horses. Raccoons (Procyon lotor) and coyotes (Canis latrans) were associated significantly and negatively and significantly and positively, respectively, with plant bulk and permanence. Cougars and gray foxes (Urocyon cinereoargenteus) were negatively associated with the presence of roads. Roadrunners (Geococcyx californianus) were positively associated with litter. The only species that had no significant correlations with any of the environmental variables were black-tailed jackrabbits (Lepus californicus) and mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus). Bobcat tracks were observed more often than gray foxes in the study area and bobcats correlated significantly only with water availability, contrasting with results from other studies. Our results appear to indicate that maintenance of habitat fragments in urban areas is of conservation benefit to some animal species, despite human activity and disturbance, as long as the fragments are large. PMID:18254856

Markovchick-Nicholls, Lisa; Regan, Helen M; Deutschman, Douglas H; Widyanata, Astrid; Martin, Barry; Noreke, Lani; Hunt, Timothy Ann

2008-02-01

56

Spatial variability of the Rotterdam urban heat island as influenced by urban land use  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

bicycle traverse meteorological measurements were made in Rotterdam to assess the spatial variation of temperature during a tropical day. Nocturnal spatial urban temperature differences of 7 K were found to be related to city morphology. During midday measurements, the downtown was up to 1.2 K warmer than the surrounding rural area while a city park was 4.0 K cooler than downtown. A regression analysis showed that the nocturnal measured urban heat island (UHI) can be linked to land use, namely vegetation, built-up area, and water and is most significant for vegetation. From the traverse observation data, a multiple linear regression model was constructed and independently validated with 3 year summertime UHI statistics derived from four urban fixed meteorological stations and two fixed rural stations. Wind rose analysis shows that UHI is strongest from easterly directions and that the temperature signal of the WMO station is influenced from urban directions. A regression model reproduced the nighttime spatial variability of the UHI within a fractional bias of 4.3% and was used to derive an UHI map of Rotterdam and surroundings. This map shows that high-density urban configurations lacking greenery or close to large water bodies are vulnerable to high nocturnal temperatures during heat waves. The UHI map can be used as a valuable planning tool for mitigating nocturnal urban heat stress or identifying neighborhoods at risk during heat waves.

Heusinkveld, Bert G.; Steeneveld, G. J.; Hove, L. W. A.; Jacobs, C. M. J.; Holtslag, A. A. M.

2014-01-01

57

Urban land use, air toxics and public health: Assessing hazardous exposures at the neighborhood scale  

SciTech Connect

Land use data are increasingly understood as important indicators of potential environmental health risk in urban areas where micro-scale or neighborhood level hazard exposure data are not routinely collected. This paper aims to offer a method for estimating the distribution of air toxics in urban neighborhoods using land use information because actual air monitoring data rarely exist at this scale. Using Geographic Information System spatial modeling tools, we estimate air toxics concentrations across neighborhoods in New York City and statistically compare our model with the US Environmental Protection Agency's National Air Toxic Assessment and air monitoring data across three NYC neighborhoods. We conclude that land use data can act as a good proxy for estimating neighborhood scale air toxics, particularly in the absence of monitoring data. In addition, the paper suggests that land use data can expand the reach of environmental impact assessments that routinely exclude analyses of potential exposures to urban air toxics at the neighborhood scale.

Corburn, Jason [Columbia University, Graduate School of Architecture, Planning and Preservation and School of International and Public Affairs, 400 Avery Hall, 1172 Amsterdam Ave. New York, NY 10027 (United States)]. E-mail: jtc2105@columbia.edu

2007-03-15

58

Quantifying Land Use and Land Cover Effects on Urban Runoff Water Quality.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The impact of non-point source pollution on urban storm runoff is of major concern in the Southwest where water resources are scarce, episodic rainfall is intense and runoff recharge is a water management strategy. The objectives of this study are to 1) determine the extent to which specific types of urban land use impact the quality of monsoonal rainfall-runoff, and 2) identify pollutant source and modification during transport within urban washes of different types. We installed autosamplers at the outlet of four watersheds in the Tucson, AZ basin, with land uses representative of growing urban centers in the southwest U.S.: 1) commercial; 2) medium and high density residential; 3) low density residential; and 4) mixed use. At each outlet, storm runoff samples were collected at 20 minute intervals during several monsoonal storms. To characterize how pollutants were modified during transport, we installed autosamplers at upstream and downstream locations of a wash. Samples were analyzed for nutrients, organic pollutants, metals, anions, cations and fecal indicator bacteria (E. coli). Preliminary data show that nitrate concentrations were highest in the commercial and low density watersheds (median = 2.53 mg/L and 2.81 mg/L NO3-N, respectively) and lowest in the medium density watershed (median = 1.68 mg/L). Ammonium concentrations were also highest in the commercial and low density watersheds (median = 1.84 mg/L and 1.75 mg/L NH4-N, respectively) and lowest in the medium density watershed (1.28 mg/L). E. coli counts were highest in the commercial (median = 4500 CFU/ml) and lowest in the medium density watershed (median = 61.26 CFU/ml). Over the season, E. coli concentrations decreased in all except the mixed density watershed where they increased as the monsoon progressed. We observed distinct pollutant concentration response patterns to storm events among watersheds. Pollutant concentrations in runoff from commercial and low density watersheds peaked within the first 40 minutes of a storm event and subsequently tapered, whereas concentrations in the middle density watershed increased throughout a storm event. Our study demonstrates that land use type directly and distinctly impacts storm runoff chemical composition, which has significant implications for basin wide pollutant fate and transport. Our data also suggests that the type of runoff drainage system may play an important role in contaminant degradation and subsequent transport.

Gallo, E. L.; Snyder, M. A.; Dejwakh, N. R.; Lohse, K.; Brooks, P. D.; McLain, J. E.; McIntosh, J.; Meixner, T.

2007-12-01

59

Functional Analysis of the Land-use System in Urban Residential Areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

According to Maslow's hierarchy of needs, the Sustainable Development Theory and the Theory of Urban Growth, this article which is based on the theoretical analysis of the function of the land-use system in urban residential areas has sorted out the function of it by using FAST technology and has preliminarily studied the calculation method of the functional level. This article

Liu Ling; Tan Shu-kui

2010-01-01

60

LAND USE CHANGE DUE TO URBANIZATION FOR THE NEUSE RIVER BASIN  

EPA Science Inventory

The Urban Growth Model (UGM) was applied to analysis of land use change in the Neuse River Basin as part of a larger project for estimating the regional and broader impact of urbanization. UGM is based on cellular automation (CA) simulation techniques developed at the University...

61

Agricultural and urban land use change analysis in Changping County, Beijing, using remote sensing and GIS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Urban growth is regarded as a necessary transitional stage for a sustainable economy, but uncontrolled or arbitrary urban growth rapidly consumes rural resources and causes environmental pollution, ecological deterioration. In this paper, we developed a remote sensing and GIS-based integrated approach to monitor and analyze agricultural and urban spatial land use and ecological landscape change characteristics. In the proposed approach, multi-temporal satellite images from 1995 to 2010 were selected and classified to obtain land cover and use spatial changes. And GIS was used to analyze variation tendency for land use and ecological landscape indices. Experiments were performed in the Changping County, north of Beijing to analyze rapid urbanization effects in the past two decades, especially during the Beijing 2008 Olympic Games. The results indicate that there has been a notable urban growth and a visible loss about 38.8% in cropland, meanwhile dominated landscape structures and patterns have greatly changed from agriculture to urban in the study area.

Guo, Meng; Huang, Xiaoxia; Li, Hongga; Li, Xia; Ming, An

62

Assessment of industrial land use intensity: A case study of Beijing economic-technological development area  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, great economic output of land has been achieved in economic-technological development areas in China, but\\u000a the intensity of land use in some of these areas is very low. The degree of the low intensity of land use needs to be evaluated.\\u000a The current method of comprehensive evaluation and grading by one index system has the limitations due

Daquan Huang; Wei Wan; Teqi Dai; Jinshe Liang

2011-01-01

63

Are landscape complexity and farm specialisation related to land-use intensity of annual crop fields?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little is known about the predictive value of landscape complexity and farm specialisation for land-use intensity, although this is critical for regional agri–environmental schemes and conservation of biodiversity. Here, we analysed land-use intensity of annual crop fields of 30 farms in northern Germany that were located in 15 landscapes differing in structural complexity ranging from 65% non-crop habitats. The proportion

Indra Roschewitz; Carsten Thies; Teja Tscharntke

2005-01-01

64

Classification of Urban Areas: Inferring Land Use from the Interpretation of Land Cover  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Ancillary data are vital for successful image classification of urban areas. This chapter explores the role of ancillary data\\u000a (information from beyond remote sensing) for improving the contextual interpretation of satellite sensor imagery during spectral-based\\u000a and spatial-based classification. In addition, careful consideration is given to the crucial distinctions between urban land\\u000a cover and urban land use, and how the inherent

Victor Mesev

65

Perfluoroalkyl acids in urban stormwater runoff: influence of land use.  

PubMed

Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are persistent organic pollutants in the environment and have been reported to have nonpoint sources. In this study, six PFAAs with different chain lengths were monitored in stormwater runoff from seven storm events (2009-2011) at various outfall locations corresponding to different watershed land uses. We found PFAA(s) in 100% of stormwater runoff samples. Monitoring results and statistical analysis show that PFAAs in stormwater runoff from residential areas mainly came from rainfall. On the other hand, non-atmospheric sources at both industrial and commercial areas contributed PFAAs in stormwater runoff. The mass flux of PFAAs from stormwater runoff in the Twin Cities (Minneapolis and St. Paul, MN) metropolitan area is estimated to be about 7.86 kg/year. In addition, for the first time, we monitored PFAAs on the particles/debris in stormwater runoff and found high-level PFOS on the particulate matter in runoff collected from both industrial and commercial areas; the levels were so high that the finding could not be explained by the solid-water partitioning or adsorption. PFOS on the particulate matter is suspected to have originated from industrial/commercial products, entering the waste stream as PFOS containing particles. PMID:22154107

Xiao, Feng; Simcik, Matt F; Gulliver, John S

2012-12-15

66

Study on coordination of land intensive use and urbanization in korla city  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urbanization is a necessary requirement and result for industrial development. The urban land intensive use is a natural way for urban development. Land use and urban development interacts. This paper selected the perspective of a reasonable quantitative evaluation of land intensive use and the comprehensive level of urbanization of Korla City, analyzing the relationship between the two systems. According to

Xin Tian; Xiaolei Zhang; Hongru Du

2011-01-01

67

Conversion of prime agricultural land to urban land uses in Kansas City  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In an expanding urban environment, agriculture and urban land uses are the two primary competitors for regional land resources. As a result of an increasing awareness of the effects which urban expansion has upon the regional environment, the conversion of prime agricultural land to urban land uses has become a point of concern to urban planners. A study was undertaken for the Kansas City Metropolitan Region, to determine the rate at which prime agricultural land has been converted to urban land uses over a five year period from 1969 to 1974. Using NASA high altitude color infrared imagery acquired over the city in October, 1969 and in May, 1974 to monitor the extent and location of urban expansion in the interim period, it was revealed that 42% of that expansion had occurred upon land classified as having prime agricultural potential. This involved a total of 10,727 acres of prime agricultural land and indicated a 7% increase over the 1969 which showed that 35% of the urban area had been developed on prime agricultural land.

Shaklee, R. V.

1976-01-01

68

Urban land use and ground water vulnerability in Washington, DC: Environmental equity by city ward  

SciTech Connect

The DC WRRC initiated a USGS-funded study on impacts of urban land use on the city's ground water. Its main objective is the development of pollution potential maps using available physical and land use data for the District of Columbia. A second goal is the design of a ground water protection strategy applicable to a heterogeneous urban setting. The multitude of data required for this project were compiled using a Geographic Information System (GIS). GIS maps show the four hydrogeologic settings, traditional land use categories, specific urban pollution sources, and management units. A coding matrix was developed to create a rating hierarchy of the pollution potential of various land use/pollution source combinations. Subsequent superposition with the ground water vulnerability map allowed the city-wide spatial assessment of land use impacts on ground water quality. Preliminary results can be displayed by voting ward and used to educate residents on environmental conditions. Field trips and technical notes coupled with exposure to new laws and historic maps can heighten public and political awareness of the ground water resource. A city-wide GIS based on voting wards can enhance understanding of the dynamic urban hydrologic cycle and thus aid in establishing environmental equity.

Schneider, J.; O'Conner, J.V.; Wade, C.; Chang, F.M. (Univ. of the District of Columbia, Washington, DC (United States))

1992-01-01

69

Impact of land-use on water pollution in a rapidly urbanizing catchment in China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many catchments in developing countries are undergoing fast urbanization which is usually characterized by population increase, economic growth as well as drastic changes of land-use from natural/rural to urban area. During the urbanization process, some catchments experience water quality deterioration due to rapid increase of pollution loads. Nonpoint source pollution resulting from storm water runoff has been recognized as one of the major causes of pollutants in many cities in developing countries. The composition of land-use for a rapidly urbanizing catchment is usually heterogeneous, and this may result in significant spatial variations of storm runoff pollution and increase the difficulties of water quality management in the catchment. The Shiyan Reservoir catchment, a typical rapidly urbanizing area in China, is chosen as the study area, and temporary monitoring sites were set at the outlets of its 6 sub-catchments to synchronously measured rainfall, runoff and water quality during 4 storm events. Three indicators, event pollutant loads per unit area (EPL), event mean concentration (EMC) and pollutant loads transported by the first 50% of runoff volume (FF50), were used to describe the runoff pollution for different pollutants (such as COD, BOD, NH3-N, TN, TP and SS) in each sub-catchment during the storm events; and the correlations between runoff pollution spatial variations and land-use patterns were tested by Spearman's rank correlation analysis. The results indicated that similar spatial variation trends were found for different pollutants (EPL or EMC) in light storm events, which strongly correlate with the proportion of residential land-use; however, they have different trends in heavy storm events, which correlate with the different proportional combination of residential, industrial, agricultural and bare land-use. It is also shown that it is necessary to consider some pervious land-use types in runoff pollution monitoring or management for a rapidly urbanizing area, particularly in heavy storm.

Khu, Soon-Thiam; Qin, Huapeng

2010-05-01

70

Urban and regional land use analysis: CARETS and Census Cities experiment package  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author has identified the following significant results. Areas of post 1970 and 1972 land use changes were identified solely from the Skylab imagery from comparisons with 1970 land use maps. Most land use changes identified involved transition from agriculture to single family residential land use. The second most prominent changes identified from the Skylab imagery were areas presently under construction. Post 1970 changes from Skylab were compared with the 1972 changes noted from the high altitude photographs. A good correlation existed between the change polygons mapped from Skylab and those mapped from the 1972 high altitude aerial photos. In addition, there were a number of instances where additional built-up land use not noted in the 1972 aerial photo as being developed were identified on the Skylab imagery. While these cases have not been documented by field observation, by correlating these areas with the appearance of similar land use areas whose identity has been determined, we can safely say that we have been able to map further occurrences of land use change beyond existing high altitude photo coverage from the Skylab imagery. It was concluded that Skylab data can be used to detect areas of land use change within an urban setting.

Alexander, R. H. (principal investigator); Milazzo, V. A.

1973-01-01

71

Evaluating Spatial Patterns of Land Use and urban Heat Island in The Fast Growing Metropolitan Shanghai, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Remotely sensed data (Landsat TM5) were used to quantitatively characterize the patterns of land use and urban heat island (UHI) in the fast growing Metropolitan Shanghai, China. Results showed that, with dramatic change in land use and land cover driven by substantial economic growth since the 1990s, rapid expansion of the urbanized and urbanizing areas occurred at regional level during

H. Zhang; W. Ma; J. Li; X. Wang

2007-01-01

72

Land Use/Cover Change Detection and Urban Sprawl Analysis in Bandar Abbas City, Iran  

PubMed Central

The process of land use change and urban sprawl has been considered as a prominent characteristic of urban development. This study aims to investigate urban growth process in Bandar Abbas city, Iran, focusing on urban sprawl and land use change during 1956–2012. To calculate urban sprawl and land use changes, aerial photos and satellite images are utilized in different time spans. The results demonstrate that urban region area has changed from 403.77 to 4959.59 hectares between 1956 and 2012. Moreover, the population has increased more than 30 times in last six decades. The major part of population growth is related to migration from other parts the country to Bandar Abbas city. Considering the speed of urban sprawl growth rate, the scale and the role of the city have changed from medium and regional to large scale and transregional. Due to natural and structural limitations, more than 80% of barren lands, stone cliffs, beach zone, and agricultural lands are occupied by built-up areas. Our results revealed that the irregular expansion of Bandar Abbas city must be controlled so that sustainable development could be achieved.

Mohd Shafri, Helmi Zulhaidi; Ahmad, Noordin; Pradhan, Biswajeet; Safarpour, Sahabeh

2014-01-01

73

Preliminary Analysis of the efficacy of Artificial neural Network (ANN) and Cellular Automaton (CA) based Land Use Models in Urban Land-Use Planning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This research provides an opportunity of collaboration between urban planners and modellers by providing a clear theoretical foundations on the two most widely used urban land use models, and assessing the effectiveness of applying the models in urban planning context. Understanding urban land cover change is an essential element for sustainable urban development as it affects ecological functioning in urban ecosystem. Rapid urbanization due to growing inclination of people to settle in urban areas has increased the complexities in predicting that at what shape and size cities will grow. The dynamic changes in the spatial pattern of urban landscapes has exposed the policy makers and environmental scientists to great challenge. But geographic science has grown in symmetry to the advancements in computer science. Models and tools are developed to support urban planning by analyzing the causes and consequences of land use changes and project the future. Of all the different types of land use models available in recent days, it has been found by researchers that the most frequently used models are Cellular Automaton (CA) and Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) models. But studies have demonstrated that the existing land use models have not been able to meet the needs of planners and policy makers. There are two primary causes identified behind this prologue. First, there is inadequate understanding of the fundamental theories and application of the models in urban planning context i.e., there is a gap in communication between modellers and urban planners. Second, the existing models exclude many key drivers in the process of simplification of the complex urban system that guide urban spatial pattern. Thus the models end up being effective in assessing the impacts of certain land use policies, but cannot contribute in new policy formulation. This paper is an attempt to increase the knowledge base of planners on the most frequently used land use model and also assess the relative effectiveness of the two models, ANN and CA, in urban planning. The questions that are addressed in this research are: a) What makes ANN models different from CA models?; b) Which model has higher accuracy in predicting future urban land use change?; and c) Are the models effective enough in guiding urban land use policies and strategies? The models that are used for this research are Multilayer Perceptron (MLP) and CA model, available in IDRISI Taiga. Since, the objective is to perform a comparative analysis and draw general inferences irrespective of specific urban policies, the availability of data was given more emphasis over the selection of particular location. Urban area in Massachusetts was chosen to conduct the study due to data availability. Extensive literature review was performed to understand the functionality of the two models. The models were applied to predict future changes and the accuracy assessment was performed using standard matrix. Inferences were drawn about the applicability of the models in urban planning context along with recommendations. This research will not only develop understanding of land use models among urban planners, but also will create an environment of coupled research between planners and modellers.

Harun, R.

2013-05-01

74

A zone-based approach to identifying urban land uses using nationally-available data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Accurate identification of urban land use is essential for many applications in environmental study, ecological assessment, and urban planning, among other fields. However, because physical surfaces of land cover types are not necessarily related to their use and economic function, differentiating among thematically-detailed urban land uses (single-family residential, multi-family residential, commercial, industrial, etc.) using remotely-sensed imagery is a challenging task, particularly over large areas. Because the process requires an interpretation of tone/color, size, shape, pattern, and neighborhood association elements within a scene, it has traditionally been accomplished via manual interpretation of aerial photography or high-resolution satellite imagery. Although success has been achieved for localized areas using various automated techniques based on high-spatial or high-spectral resolution data, few detailed (Anderson Level II equivalent or greater) urban land use mapping products have successfully been created via automated means for broad (multi-county or larger) areas, and no such product exists today for the United States. In this study I argue that by employing a zone-based approach it is feasible to map thematically-detailed urban land use classes over large areas using appropriate combinations of non-image based predictor data which are nationally and publicly available. The approach presented here uses U.S. Census block groups as the basic unit of geography, and predicts the percent of each of ten land use types---nine of them urban---for each block group based on a number of data sources, to include census data, nationally-available point locations of features from the USGS Geographic Names Information System, historical land cover, and metrics which characterize spatial pattern, context (e.g. distance to city centers or other features), and measures of spatial autocorrelation. The method was demonstrated over a four-county area surrounding the city of Boston. A generalized version of the method (six land use classes) was also developed and cross-validated among additional geographic settings: Atlanta, Los Angeles, and Providence. The results suggest that even with the thematically-detailed ten-class structure, it is feasible to map most urban land uses with reasonable accuracy at the block group scale, and results improve with class aggregation. When classified by predicted majority land use, 79% of block groups correctly matched the actual majority land use with the ten-class models. Six-class models typically performed well for the geographic area they were developed from, however models had mixed performance when transported to other geographic settings. Contextual variables, which characterized a block group's spatial relationship to city centers, transportation routes, and other amenities, were consistently strong predictors of most land uses, a result which corresponds to classic urban land use theory. The method and metrics derived here provide a prototype for mapping urban land uses from readily-available data over broader geographic areas than is generally practiced today using current image-based solutions.

Falcone, James A.

75

Structural change of agricultural land use intensity and its regional disparity in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on the data from the Cost-benefit Data of Farm Produce and the China Agricultural Yearbook, this paper divided the intensity\\u000a of cultivated land use into labor intensity and capital intensity, and then analyzed their temporal and spatial change at\\u000a both national and provincial levels between 1980 and 2006. The results showed that: (1) At the national level, labor intensity

Yuqi Chen; Xiubin Li; Yujun Tian; Minghong Tan

2009-01-01

76

Land use intensity in grasslands: Changes in biodiversity, species composition and specialisation in flower visitor networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between resource availability and biodiversity of consumers has gained particular attention with the increasing loss of biodiversity. We evaluated resource availability on meadows of low intensity (low\\/unfertilised, mown once or twice per year) and meadows of high-intensity land use (high fertilisation, mown twice or thrice) before and after the first mowing in relation to network specialisation, species richness

Christiane Natalie Weiner; Michael Werner; Karl Eduard Linsenmair; Nico Blüthgen

2011-01-01

77

Agricultural land use intensity and its determinants: A case study in Taibus Banner, Inner Mongolia, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Based on rural household survey data from Taibus Banner, in the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, China, this study separately categorizes agricultural land use intensity into labor intensity, capital intensity, the intensity of labor-saving inputs, and the intensity of yield-increasing inputs, and then analyzes their determinants at the household level. The findings reveal that within the study area: (1) labor intensity is higher and capital intensity is lower than in the major grain-producing and economically developed areas of eastern and central China; (2) the most widely planted crops are those with the lowest labor intensity (oats) and capital intensity (benne); (3) there are marked differences in agricultural land use intensity among households; a major factor affecting land use decision-making is the reduced need for labor intensity for those households with high opportunity costs, such as those with income earned from non-farming activities which alleviates financial constraints and allows for increased capital intensity. As a result, these households invest more in labor-saving inputs; (4) households with a larger number of workers will allocate adequate time to manage their land and thus they will not necessarily invest more in labor-saving inputs. Those households with more land to manage tend to adopt an extensive cultivation strategy. Total income has a positive impact on capital intensity and a negative impact on labor intensity. Households that derive a higher proportion of their total income through farming are more reliant upon agriculture, which necessitates significant labor and yield-increasing inputs. Finally, the authors contend that policy makers should clearly recognize the impacts of non-farming employment on agricultural land use intensity. In order to ensure long-term food security and sustainable agricultural development in China, income streams from both farming and non-farming employment should be balanced.

Hao, Haiguang; Li, Xiubin; Tan, Minghong; Zhang, Jiping; Zhang, Huiyuan

2014-11-01

78

Urban land use of the Sao Paulo metropolitan area by automatic analysis of LANDSAT data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The separability of urban land use classes in the metropolitan area of Sao Paulo was studied by means of automatic analysis of MSS/LANDSAT digital data. The data were analyzed using the media K and MAXVER classification algorithms. The land use classes obtained were: CBD/vertical growth area, residential area, mixed area, industrial area, embankment area type 1, embankment area type 2, dense vegetation area and sparse vegetation area. The spectral analysis of representative samples of urban land use classes was done using the "Single Cell" analysis option. The classes CBD/vertical growth area, residential area and embankment area type 2 showed better spectral separability when compared to the other classes.

Parada, N. D. J. (principal investigator); Niero, M.; Foresti, C.

1983-01-01

79

Mapping of the CO2 and anthropogenic heat emission under spatially explicit urban land use scenarios  

Microsoft Academic Search

The serious further efforts on CO2 and other green house gases emission reduction by global climate change mitigation remain as an urgent global issue to be solved. From the viewpoint of urban land use measures, the realization of low-carbon city is the key to change people's behavior to reduce CO2 emission. In this respect, a lot of studies aimed at

K. Nakamichi; Y. Yamagata; H. Seya

2010-01-01

80

Urban travel CO 2 emissions and land use: A case study for Quebec City  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper examines the determinants of urban travel greenhouse gas emissions. Specifically, we examine the impact of individual and household socio-economic characteristics as well as the effect of land use and transit supply characteristics around the residence and work place. The analysis uses an activity-based longitudinal panel survey in the Quebec City region of Canada. We find that emissions vary

Philippe Barla; Luis F. Miranda-Moreno; Martin Lee-Gosselin

2011-01-01

81

The Major Environmentally-Based Land Use Issues on the Urban Fringe.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Types of land-use issues which form current problems in urban areas are discussed in this paper. The majority of these environmentally based issues revolve around the management of water. The five most often encountered water-oriented issues are denoted in rank order of importance. First, an ample water supply which is free from contamination must…

Hordon, Robert M.

82

LAND USE AND SEASONAL EFFECTS ON URBAN STORMWATER RUNOFF MICROORGANISM CONCENTRATIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

Stormwater samples collected from storm sewers draining small municipal separate storm sewer systems shown to be free of cross connections within an urban watershed dominated by a single land use were analyzed for pathogens (Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus) and i...

83

Health Impact Assessment for Urban and Land-use Planning and Policy Development: Lessons from Practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is increased interest in, and awareness of, the health impacts of urban and land-use planning. At the same time, health impact assessment (HIA) has emerged internationally as an approach to strengthening the possible positive impacts of a proposed development or plan and mitigating the possible negative health impacts. This article first provides an overview of HIA, focusing on the

Patrick Harris; Ben Harris-Roxas; Marilyn Wise; Liz Harris

2010-01-01

84

Interactive Effects of Urban Land Use and Climate Change on Biogeochemical Cycles (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Urban land-use change can affect biogeochemical cycles through altered disturbance regimes, landscape management practices (e.g., irrigation and fertilization), built structures, and altered environments (heat island effect, pollution, introduction of non-native species, loss of native species). As a result, the conversion of native to urban ecological systems has been shown to significantly affect carbon, nitrogen, and water cycles at local, regional, and global scales. These changes have created novel habitats and ecosystems, which have no analogue in the history of life. Nonetheless, some of the environmental changes occurring in urban areas are analogous to the changes expected in climate by the end of the century, e.g. atmospheric increase in CO2 and an increase in air temperatures, which can be utilized as a “natural experiment” to investigate global change effects on large scale ecosystem processes. Moreover, as analogues of expected future environments, urban ecological systems may act as reservoirs of plant and animal species for adjoining landscapes that are expected to undergo relatively rapid climate changes in the next 100 years. Urban land-use change by itself may contribute to changes in regional weather patterns and long-term changes in global climate, which will depend on the net effect of converting native systems to urban systems and the comparison of per capita “footprints” between urban, suburban, and rural inhabitants. My objectives are to 1) assess the impact of changes in urban land-use on climate change and in turn how climate change may affect urban biogeochemical cycles and 2) discuss the potential for urban ecosystems to mitigate green house gas emissions.

Pouyat, R. V.

2009-12-01

85

Adjusting measured peak discharges from an urbanizing watershed to reflect a stationary land use signal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A procedure to adjust gauged streamflow data from watersheds urbanized during or after their gauging period is presented. The procedure adjusts streamflow to be representative of a fixed land use condition, which may reflect current or future development conditions. Our intent is to determine what an event resulting in a peak discharge in, for example, 1950 (i.e., before urbanization) would produce on the current urban watershed. While past approaches assumed uniform spatial and temporal changes in urbanization, this study focuses on the use of geographic information systems (GIS) based methodologies for precisely locating in space and time where land use change has occurred. This information is incorporated into a hydrologic model to simulate the change in discharge as a result of changing land use conditions. In this paper, we use historical aerial photographs, GIS linked tax-map data, and recent land use/land cover data to recreate the spatial development history of eight gauged watersheds in the Baltimore-Washington, D. C., metropolitan area. Using our procedure to determine discharge series representative of the current urban watersheds, we found that the increase of the adjusted 2-year discharge ranged from 16 to 70 percent compared with the measured annual maximum discharge series. For the 100-year discharge the adjusted values ranged from 0 to 47 percent greater than the measured values. Additionally, relationships between the increase in flood flows and four measures of urbanization (increase in urban land, decrease in forested land, increase in high-density development, and the spatial development pattern) are investigated for predicting the increase in flood flows for ungauged watersheds. Watersheds with the largest increases in flood flows typically had more extensive development in the areas far removed from the outlet. In contrast, watersheds with development located nearer to the outlet typically had the smallest increases in peak discharge.

Beighley, R. Edward; Moglen, Glenn E.

2003-04-01

86

CORINE Land Cover 2000 in Nation-wide and Regional Monitoring of Urban Land Use and Land Consumption  

Microsoft Academic Search

Whereas remarkable efforts have been made to implement environmental information sys- tems, the observation of urban land use change within nation-wide or regional monitoring approaches still remains dissatisfying. One key problem is the absence of land use data which allows the analysis of land use trends over longer periods of time and with appropriate spatial resolution. This paper asks to

Stefan Siedentop; Gotthard Meinel

87

Ecological traits affect the response of tropical forest bird species to land-use intensity  

PubMed Central

Land-use change is one of the main drivers of current and likely future biodiversity loss. Therefore, understanding how species are affected by it is crucial to guide conservation decisions. Species respond differently to land-use change, possibly related to their traits. Using pan-tropical data on bird occurrence and abundance across a human land-use intensity gradient, we tested the effects of seven traits on observed responses. A likelihood-based approach allowed us to quantify uncertainty in modelled responses, essential for applying the model to project future change. Compared with undisturbed habitats, the average probability of occurrence of bird species was 7.8 per cent and 31.4 per cent lower, and abundance declined by 3.7 per cent and 19.2 per cent in habitats with low and high human land-use intensity, respectively. Five of the seven traits tested affected the observed responses significantly: long-lived, large, non-migratory, primarily frugivorous or insectivorous forest specialists were both less likely to occur and less abundant in more intensively used habitats than short-lived, small, migratory, non-frugivorous/insectivorous habitat generalists. The finding that species responses to land use depend on their traits is important for understanding ecosystem functioning, because species' traits determine their contribution to ecosystem processes. Furthermore, the loss of species with particular traits might have implications for the delivery of ecosystem services. PMID:23173205

Newbold, Tim; Scharlemann, Jorn P. W.; Butchart, Stuart H. M.; Sekercioglu, Cagan H.; Alkemade, Rob; Booth, Hollie; Purves, Drew W.

2013-01-01

88

Preparation of urban land use inventories by machine processing of ERTS MSS data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Spectral classes of urban phenomena identified from Earth Resources Technology Satellite (ERTS) multispectral scanner data in Milwaukee included suburban inner city, industry, grassy (open area), road, wooded suburb, water cloud, and shadow. The Milwaukee spectral class statistics were used to classify the Chicago area, within the same ERTS frame, and similar results were achieved. In another ERTS frame, Marion County (Indianapolis) data were classified into similar classes. The Marion County ERTS study was supported by a land use classification of an area near downtown Indianapolis that utilized 12-band MSS data collected by aircraft from 3000 feet. The results of the ERTS analyses suggest that satellite data will be a useful tool for the urban planner for monitoring urban land use.

Todd, W.; Mausel, P. E.; Wenner, K. A.

1973-01-01

89

Preparation of urban land use inventories by machine-processing of ERTS MSS data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Spectral classes of urban phenomena identified from ERTS multispectral scanner data in Milwaukee included Surburban, Inner City, Industry, Grassy (open area), Road, Wooded Suburb, Water, Cloud, and Shadow. The Milwaukee spectral class statistics were used to classify the Chicago area, within the same ERTS frame, and similar results were achieved. In another ERTS frame, Marion County (Indianapolis) data were classified into similar classes. The Marion County ERTS study was supported by a land use classification of an area near downtown Indianapolis that utilized 12-band MSS data collected by aircraft from 3000 feet. The results of the ERTS analyses suggest that satellite data will be a useful tool for the urban planner for monitoring urban land use.

Todd, W.; Mausel, P. E.; Wenner, K. A.

1973-01-01

90

AN ASSESSMENT OF URBAN AGRICULTURAL LAND USE CHANGES USING GEOSPATIAL INFORMATION SYSTEM: A CASE STUDY OF JOS-BUKURU  

Microsoft Academic Search

The urban agricultural land use change of Jos-Bukuru between 1961 and 2002 is assessed. The aim is to generate relevant, accurate and timely data that would enhance the quality of decisions and actions in an attempt to ensure the survival, expansion and the sustainability of urban agricultural land use. A geospatial information system approach was adopted in the mapping and

E. Omomoh; C. O. Adeofun

2005-01-01

91

Landscaping practices, land use patterns and stormwater quantity and quality in urban watersheds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Increasing quantity and decreasing quality of urban stormwater threatens biodiversity in local streams and reservoirs, jeopardizes water supplies, and ultimately contributes to estuarine eutrophication. To estimate the effects that present and alternative landscaping practices and land use patterns may have on urban stormwater quantity and quality, simulations of existing land use/land cover using the Regional Hydro-Ecologic Simulation System (RHESSys), a process-based surface hydrology and biogeochemistry model, were developed for watersheds in Baltimore, MD (as part of the Baltimore Ecosystem Study (BES) NSF Long-Term Ecological Research (LTER) site) and Durham, NC (as part of the NSF Urban Long-Term Research Area (ULTRA) program). The influence of land use patterns and landscaping practices on nutrient export in urban watersheds has been explored as part of the BES; this work has focused on improving our understanding of how residential landscaping practices (i.e. lawn fertilization rates) vary across land use and socioeconomic gradients. Elsewhere, others have explored the political ecology of residential landscaping practices - seeking to understand the economic, political, and cultural influences on the practice of high-input residential turf-grass management. Going forward, my research will synthesize and extend this prior work. Rather than pre-supposing predominant residential land use patterns and landscaping practices (i.e. lower-density periphery development incorporating high-input turf landscapes) alternate land use and landscaping scenarios (e.g. higher-density/transit-oriented development, rain gardens, vegetable gardens, native plant/xeriscaping) will be developed through interviews/focus groups with stakeholders (citizens, public officials, developers, non-profits). These scenarios will then be applied to the RHESSys models already developed for catchments in Baltimore and Durham. The modeled scenario results will be used to identify alternate land use patterns and landscaping practices that would: (1) help to reduce non-point sources of nutrient pollution in urban watersheds; and (2) be likely to gain public support. This research will inform sustainable development policy while furthering interdisciplinary research in the fields of planning and water resource management.

Miles, B.; Band, L. E.

2011-12-01

92

The development and application of land use\\/land use intensity data from SPOT\\/VEGETATION and Census of Agriculture data  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this research is to develop the first Canada-wide, integrated land use\\/land cover database with supplemental land use intensity data within agricultural regions. We combined the 1998 growing season composite of Canada from processed SPOT4\\/Vegetation (VGT) data with thematically detailed, coarse resolution Census of Agriculture data from 1996. An enhanced, unsupervised classification procedure was applied to the VGT

Jeremy T. Kerr; Josef Cihlar

2002-01-01

93

Database design of urban land prices and intensive use  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper firstly studies the stratification and organization of the urban land prices and intensive use data, in order to design data model based on Geodatabase for the city land use and intensive use; Secondly, designs a four in one database structure for basic information database, analysis and evaluation databases, information release databases and meta-databases; finally, studies the database establishment

Xiwang Zhang; Jianfeng Liu

2010-01-01

94

Land-use intensity modifies spatial distribution and function of soil microorganisms in grasslands  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the present study was to investigate whether land-use intensity (LUI) contributes to spatial variation in microbial abundance and function in grassland ecosystems. At one time point, three sites at low (unfertilized pastures), at intermediate (fertilized mown pastures) and at high (fertilized mown meadows) LUIs were selected in southern Germany. Within each of these nine grassland sites, 54

Doreen Berner; Sven Marhan; Daniel Keil; Christian Poll; André Schützenmeister; Hans-Peter Piepho; Ellen Kandeler

2011-01-01

95

Climate Change, Pacific Ocean and Land Use Influences on Los Angeles' Urban Heat Islands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Los Angeles urban heat island (UHI) is a complex entity that is changing in time, space and intensity. The major influences on its characteristics appear to be population, landuse, and Pacific Ocean variability. Since 1950, the city of Los Angeles has nearly tripled in population from 1,333,300 to 3,792,621 in 2010. The downtown skyline has also changed as more high-rises replace lower density buildings and parking lots. Downtown average temperatures have increased rapidly, rising over 3oC in the last century. Tmin values have increased faster than Tmax similar to other UHI cities. However the Los Angeles UHI is unique among most cities, with its complex terrain and dominant land/sea breeze circulations. Also, the city is part of a regional megalopolis, where the surrounding rural areas are distant and ill-defined, in contrast to most UHIs. Our study looks at the diurnal and seasonal patterns in the urban thermal regime and how they have changed over recent decades. Temporal changes in land use, particularly vegetation, coastal sea surface temperatures, Pacific climatic indices such as the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) and coastal upwelling all seem to contribute to the changes in city temperatures. The PDO especially correlates well with Los Angeles temperatures. The spatial changes in an UHI are described combining surface met data and aircraft remote sensing, using the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) and the MODIS/ASTER Airborne Simulator (MASTER) sensors at spatial resolutions of 30 and 50 m, respectively. In our study recent sea breeze enhancement will be investigated in its influence on coastal cooling. Implications of the role of the intensifying UHI in the increases in Los Angeles heat waves will also be discussed.

Gamelin, B.; Hsu, F.; LaDochy, S.; Ramirez, P. C.; Ye, H.; Sequera, P.; Gonzalez, J.; McDonald, K.; Patzert, W. C.

2013-12-01

96

Modeling Coupled Climate and Urban Land Use Change in the Eastern United States  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Urban land cover and associated impervious surface area are expected to increase by as much as 50% over the next few decades across substantial portions of the coterminous U.S. In combination with urban expansion, increases in temperature and precipitation are expected to impact ecosystems through changes in productivity, disturbance and hydrological properties. In this study, we use land cover predictions from SERGoM through the year 2030 and an ensemble of climate projections (Bias Corrected and Downscaled WCRP CMIP3) for large watersheds of the eastern United States to explore the impacts of urbanization and climate change on hydrologic dynamics (runoff) and vegetation carbon uptake (gross productivity). We use the Terrestrial Observation and Prediction System (TOPS), an ecosystem modeling framework, to simulate the influence of potential adaptation actions associated with land use. We present the modeling approach, and the component and cumulative impacts of climate and land use changes forecast to occur in the region. We also present results from an evaluation of simulated scenarios to characterize the mitigation potential of various best management practices for land use planning, such as urban afforestation and replacement of asphalt with permeable surfaces.

Melton, F. S.; Goetz, S. J.; Wang, W.; Milesi, C.; Theobald, D. M.; Nemani, R. R.

2010-12-01

97

Urbanization suitability maps: a dynamic spatial decision support system for sustainable land use  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent developments in land consumption assessment identify the need to implement integrated evaluation approaches, with particular attention to the development of multidimensional tools for guiding and managing sustainable land use. Land use policy decisions are implemented mostly through spatial planning and its related zoning. This involves trade-offs between many sectorial interests and conflicting challenges seeking win-win solutions. In order to identify a decision-making process for land use allocation, this paper proposes a methodological approach for developing a Dynamic Spatial Decision Support System (DSDSS), denominated Integrated Spatial Assessment (ISA), supported by Geographical Information Systems (GIS) combined with the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP). Through empirical investigation in an operative case study, an integrated evaluation approach implemented in a DSDSS helps produce "urbanization suitability maps" in which spatial analysis combined with multi-criteria evaluation methods proved to be useful for both facing the main issues relating to land consumption as well as minimizing environmental impacts of spatial planning.

Cerreta, M.; De Toro, P.

2012-11-01

98

a Quantitative Procedure for the Spatial Characterization of Urban Land Use  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have developed a procedure that characterizes the land use pattern of an urban system using: (a) Spatial entropy that measures the extent of spread of residential, business and industrial sectors; and (b) Index of dissimilarity that quantifies the degree of mixing in space of different sectors. The approach is illustrated by using the land use zoning maps of the city state of Singapore and a selection of North American cities. We show that a common feature of most cities is for the industrial areas to be highly clustered while at the same time segregated from the residential or business districts. We also demonstrate that the combination of entropy of residential and dissimilarity index between residential and business areas provides a quantitative and potentially useful means of differentiating the land use pattern of different cities.

Decraene, James; Monterola, Christopher; Lee, Gary Kee Khoon; Hung, Terence Gih Guang

2013-02-01

99

KH-series satellite imagery and Landsat MSS data fusion in support of assessing urban land use growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multi-temporal land use data, circa 1990 and 2000, have been analyzed an our urban growth model which identifies three levels of the urban extent - the impervious surface, the urbanized area, and the urban footprint - to account for the differing degrees of open space degradation associated with the city. The model also generates metrics such as cohesion, proximity, population

Daniel Civco; Anna Chabaeva; Jason Parent

2009-01-01

100

Regional disparity in the changes of agricultural land use intensity in China during 1980–2002  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on the cost-benefit data (1980–2002) of farm products and China Agriculture Yearbooks, this paper studies the regional\\u000a disparity in the changes of the agricultural land use in China during the period 1980–2002 from three aspects such as the\\u000a degree of intensity, the sown area and the abandoned farmland. The results show that: (1) The degree of intensity of land

Chengwu Liu; Xiubin Li

2006-01-01

101

ICCLP: An Inexact Chance-Constrained Linear Programming Model for Land-Use Management of Lake Areas in Urban Fringes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lake areas in urban fringes are under increasing urbanization pressure. Consequently, the conflict between rapid urban development and the maintenance of water bodies in such areas urgently needs to be addressed. An inexact chance-constrained linear programming (ICCLP) model for optimal land-use management of lake areas in urban fringes was developed. The ICCLP model was based on land-use suitability assessment and land evaluation. The maximum net economic benefit (NEB) was selected as the objective of land-use allocation. The total environmental capacity (TEC) of water systems and the public financial investment (PFI) at different probability levels were considered key constraints. Other constraints included in the model were land-use suitability, governmental requirements on the ratios of various land-use types, and technical constraints. A case study implementing the system was performed for the lake area of Hanyang at the urban fringe of Wuhan, central China, based on our previous study on land-use suitability assessment. The Hanyang lake area is under significant urbanization pressure. A 15-year optimal model for land-use allocation is proposed during 2006 to 2020 to better protect the water system and to gain the maximum benefits of development. Sixteen constraints were set for the optimal model. The model results indicated that NEB was between 1.48 × 109 and 8.76 × 109 or between 3.98 × 109 and 16.7 × 109, depending on the different urban-expansion patterns and land demands. The changes in total developed area and the land-use structure were analyzed under different probabilities ( q i ) of TEC. Changes in q i resulted in different urban expansion patterns and demands on land, which were the direct result of the constraints imposed by TEC and PFI. The ICCLP model might help local authorities better understand and address complex land-use systems and develop optimal land-use management strategies that better balance urban expansion and grassland conservation.

Liu, Yong; Qin, Xiaosheng; Guo, Huaicheng; Zhou, Feng; Wang, Jinfeng; Lv, Xiaojian; Mao, Guozhu

2007-12-01

102

Solute Sourcing and Hydrologic Response to Monsoon Precipitation Along a Gradient of Urban Land Use  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Urban storm runoff in arid and semiarid areas is used as a potential groundwater recharge resource, but knowledge gaps remain in our understanding on the underlying hydrologic and biogeochemical processes that control the water quality of urban runoff. This study addresses this gap by evaluating how hydrologic and biogeochemical processes interact to produce distinct storm runoff chemistry. We hypothesized that transport processes dominate the solute chemistry of highly urbanized watersheds with large impervious cover; whereas biogeochemical reactions dominate solute responses in less urbanized watersheds with potentially more vegetation and longer flow paths. Utilizing automatic water samplers, we collected urban storm runoff from five distinct urban land use watersheds: 1) low density residential (least urbanized), 2) old medium density residential, 3) new medium density residential, 4) mixed land use and 5) commercial (most urbanized). We coupled a conservative tracer (chloride, Cl-) with stable isotope data (?D and ?18O) to infer physical and biogeochemical processes contributing to the solute chemistry observed. Solute response was similar in the least and most urbanized watersheds, which had the highest mean seasonal concentrations of Cl-, DOC, fecal indicator bacteria (E. coli), Na, Hg and Cu among others, and had the lowest As, Ca and Ni concentrations. The low density site exhibited weak seasonal chloride flushing, contrasting with the commercial site's stronger flushing response. Coupling of Cl-, ?D and ?18O data, and comparing it across sites demonstrates solute flushing and evapoconcentration in the commercial site as inferred by ?18O and ?D values that plot along an evaporation trend (from -34 to -24 ‰ ?D, and -5.3 to -3.5 ‰ ?18O) with increasing Cl- concentrations (from 1.8 to 7.4 mg L-1) during the runoff event. In contrast, high ?D values (-27 to -22 ‰) of runoff and a simultaneous decrease in Cl- concentrations (from 11.5 to 3.7 mg L-1) at the low density site suggest watershed solute retention despite runoff evaporation which should concentrate Cl-. Lower ?D values of runoff, closer to the meteoric water line, in the commercial site may indicate a shorter flow path when compared to the higher ?D values (more evaporated signature) in the low density site. Our study demonstrates that the urban storm runoff quality can not be predicted by land use alone, and supports the study's hypothesis of transport controls on solutes at the most urbanized sites, and flow path and biogeochemical controls at least impervious sites.

Gallo, E. L.; Brooks, P. D.; Lohse, K.; McIntosh, J.; McLain, J. E.; Meixner, T.

2008-12-01

103

Estimating Land Use Impacts on Regional Scale Urban Water Balance and Groundwater Recharge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anthropogenic activities have exerted increasingly large-scale influences on terrestrial ecological systems from the past\\u000a century, primarily through agriculture; however, the impact of such changes on the hydrologic cycle is poorly understood.\\u000a As one of the important land use (LU) in the coastal Dogo Plain of the Seto Inland Sea, Japan, paddy fields have been decreasing\\u000a with the increase in urbanization

Bin He; Yi Wang; Keiji Takase; Goro Mouri; Bam H. N. Razafindrabe

2009-01-01

104

Urban Land Intensive Utilization Appraisal  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main problems, such as evaluation index is not unified, standard worth evaluation is not unified and evaluation result is also not unified, are existing in the study of China's urban land intensive use evaluation. This paper aims to provide a new approach for the evaluation of China's urban land intensive use according to the problems above. In this paper,

Shang Tian-cheng; Li Xiangpeng; Liu Pei-hong; Liu Pei-jie

2009-01-01

105

Hydro-ecologic responses to land use in small urbanizing watersheds within the Chesapeake Bay watershed  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Urbanization in the Chesapeake Bay watershed is having dramatic impacts on the streams and rivers that feed the Bay. Increasing imperviousness has led to higher peak flows and lower base flows. The movement of pollutants and other materials to receiving waters has increased and stream water temperatures have risen. These changes alter the structure and functioning of rivers, streams, and associated riparian corridors and result in changes in ecosystem services. We define a hydrologic disturbance index that indicates varying degrees of disturbance on a reach-by-reach basis, dependent on the aggregate amount of urbanization upstream of each reach. For current conditions this index is more variable than for future conditions, because current land use in the study watershed is more variable, containing mixtures of urban, agricultural, and forested land. In contrast, future land use is projected to be more uniformly urban, leading to a less variable but greater overall degree of hydrologic disturbance. Two effects of urbanization on fish are explored through ecological modeling: effects of streambed disturbance on food availability and effects of stream temperature on spawning. We tabulate food availability as a function of bed-mobility for 30 different fish species. We show that additional stress occurs with additional urbanization of the watershed. We show that the urban-related increase in stream temperatures may cause several warm-water species to actually gain opportunities to spawn in some cases. However, combining food availability and spawning day availability into a single index reveals highly stressful conditions for all fish species under the fully developed scenario.

Moglen, Glenn E.; Nelson, Kären C.; Palmer, Margaret A.; Pizzuto, James E.; Rogers, Catriona E.; Hejazi, Mohamad I.

106

Geographically explicit urban land use change scenarios for Mega cities: a case study in Tokyo  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In preparation for the IPCC 5th assessment report, the international modeling community is developing four Representative Concentration Paths employing the scenarios developed by four different Integrated Assessment Models. These RCPs will be employed as an input to climate models, such as Earth System Models. In these days, the importance of assessment of not only global but also local (city/zone level) impacts of global change has gradually been recognized, thereby downscaling climate models are one of the urgent problems to be solved. Needless to say, reliable downscaling requires spatially high resolution land use change scenarios. So far, there has been proposed a lot of methods for constructing land use change scenarios with considering economic behavior of human, such as agent-based model (e.g., Parker et al., 2001), and land use transport (LUT) model (e.g., Anas and Liu, 2007). The latter approach in particular has widely been applied to actual urban/transport policy; hence modeling the interaction between them is very important for creating reliable land use change scenarios. However, the LUT models are usually built based on the zones of cities/municipalities whose spatial resolutions are too low to derive sensible parameters of the climate models. Moreover, almost all of the works which attempt to build spatially high resolution LUT model employs very small regions as the study area. The objective of this research is deriving various input parameters to climate models such as population density, fractional green vegetation cover, and anthropogenic heat emission with spatially high resolution land use change scenarios constructed with LUT model. The study area of this research is Tokyo metropolitan area, which is the largest urban area in the world (United Nations., 2010). Firstly, this study employs very high ground resolution zones composed of micro districts around 1km2. Secondly, the research attempt to combine remote sensing techniques and LUT models to derive future distribution of fractional green vegetation cover. The study has created two extreme land-use scenarios: urban concentration (compact city) and dispersion scenarios in order to show possible range of future land use change, and derives the input parameters for the climate models. The authors are planning to open the scenarios and derived parameters to relate researches. Anas, A. and Y. Liu. (2007). A Regional Economy, Land Use, and Transportation Model (REULU-TRAN): Formulation, Algorithm Design, and Testing. Journal of Regional Science, 47, 415-455. Parker, D.C., T. Berger, S.M. Manson, Editors (2001). Agent-Based Models of Land-Use and Land-Cover Change. LUCC Report Series No. 6, (Accessed: 27 AUG. 2009; http://www.globallandproject.org/Documents/LUCC_No_6.pdf) United Nations. (2010). World urbanization prospects: City population.

Yamagata, Y.; Bagan, H.; Seya, H.; Nakamichi, K.

2010-12-01

107

Monitoring and Predicting Land-use Changes and the Hydrology of the Urbanized Paochiao Watershed in Taiwan Using Remote Sensing Data, Urban Growth Models and a Hydrological Model  

PubMed Central

Monitoring and simulating urban sprawl and its effects on land-use patterns and hydrological processes in urbanized watersheds are essential in land-use and water-resource planning and management. This study applies a novel framework to the urban growth model Slope, Land use, Excluded land, Urban extent, Transportation, and Hillshading (SLEUTH) and land-use change with the Conversion of Land use and its Effects (CLUE-s) model using historical SPOT images to predict urban sprawl in the Paochiao watershed in Taipei County, Taiwan. The historical and predicted land-use data was input into Patch Analyst to obtain landscape metrics. This data was also input to the Generalized Watershed Loading Function (GWLF) model to analyze the effects of future urban sprawl on the land-use patterns and watershed hydrology. The landscape metrics of the historical SPOT images show that land-use patterns changed between 1990–2000. The SLEUTH model accurately simulated historical land-use patterns and urban sprawl in the Paochiao watershed, and simulated future clustered land-use patterns (2001–2025). The CLUE-s model also simulated land-use patterns for the same period and yielded historical trends in the metrics of land-use patterns. The land-use patterns predicted by the SLEUTH and CLUE-s models show the significant impact urban sprawl will have on land-use patterns in the Paochiao watershed. The historical and predicted land-use patterns in the watershed tended to fragment, had regular shapes and interspersion patterns, but were relatively less isolated in 2001–2025 and less interspersed from 2005–2025 compared with land-use pattern in 1990. During the study, the variability and magnitude of hydrological components based on the historical and predicted land-use patterns were cumulatively affected by urban sprawl in the watershed; specifically, surface runoff increased significantly by 22.0% and baseflow decreased by 18.0% during 1990–2025. The proposed approach is an effective means of enhancing land-use monitoring and management of urbanized watersheds.

Lin, Yu-Pin; Lin, Yun-Bin; Wang, Yen-Tan; Hong, Nien-Ming

2008-01-01

108

Land-Use Intensity Effects on Soil Organic Carbon Accumulation Rates and Mechanisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Restoring soil C pools by reducing land use intensity is a potentially high impact, rapidly deployable strategy for partially\\u000a offsetting atmospheric CO2 increases. However, rates of C accumulation and underlying mechanisms have rarely been determined for a range of managed\\u000a and successional ecosystems on the same soil type. We determined soil organic matter (SOM) fractions with the highest potential\\u000a for

A. Stuart Grandy; G. Philip Robertson

2007-01-01

109

Fish Assemblage Responses to Urban Intensity Gradients in Contrasting Metropolitan Areas: Birmingham, Alabama and Boston, Massachusetts  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined fish assemblage responses to urban intensity gradients in two contrasting metropolitan areas: Birmingham, Alabama (BIR) and Boston, Massachusetts (BOS). Urbanization was quantified by using an urban intensity index (UII) that included multiple stream buffers and basin land uses, human population density, and road density variables. We evaluated fish assemblage responses by using species richness metrics and detrended correspondence

MICHAEL R. MEADOR; HUMBERT ZAPPIA

110

A study on the spatial relationship between agricultural land use intensity and agro-climatic suitability in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes an index system to calculate the agricultural land use intensity of 30 provinces, autonomous regions, and municipalities in mainland China, and calculates the agro-climatic suitability by spatial interpolation. Based on this, by comparing the spatial relationship between them the obtained conclusions are as follows? ?1? In general, the agricultural land use intensity in Eastern China is higher

Y. A. N. Qun; X. U. Jianhua; Chen Gongde

2008-01-01

111

Abstracting of suspected illegal land use in urban areas using case-based classification of remote sensing images  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposed a method that uses a case-based classification of remote sensing images and applied this method to abstract the information of suspected illegal land use in urban areas. Because of the discrete cases for imagery classification, the proposed method dealt with the oscillation of spectrum or backscatter within the same land use category, and it not only overcame

Fulong Chen; Chao Wang; Chengyun Yang; Hong Zhang; Fan Wu; Wenjuan Lin; Bo Zhang

2008-01-01

112

Changes in Urban Climate due to Future Land-Use Changes based on Population Changes in the Nagoya Region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Severe hot weather in summer season becomes a big social problem in metropolitan areas, including the Nagoya region in Japan. Surface air temperature warming is projected in the future. Therefore, the reduction of surface air temperature is an urgent issue in the urban area. Although there are several studies dealing with the effects of global climate change and urbanization to the local climate in the future, these studies tend to ignore the future population changes. This study estimates future land-use scenarios associated with the multi-projections of future population and investigates the impacts of these scenarios on the surface temperature change. The Weather Research and Forecast model ver. 3.3.1 (hereafter, WRF) was used in this study. The horizontal resolutions were 20km, 4km, and 2km, for outer, middle, and inner domains, respectively. The results from the inner domain, covering the Nagoya region, were used for the analysis. The Noah land surface model and the single-layer urban canopy model were applied to calculate the land surface processes and urban surface processes, respectively. The initial and boundary conditions were given from the NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data in August 2010. The urban area ratio used in the WRF model was calculated from the future land-use data provided by the S8 project. The land-use data was created as follows. (1) Three scenarios of population, namely, with high-fertility assumption and low-mortality assumption (POP-high), with medium-fertility assumption and medium-mortality assumption (POP-med), and with low-fertility assumption and high-mortality assumption (POP-low), are estimated using the method proposed by Ariga and Matsuhashi (2012). These scenarios are based on the future projections provided by the National Institute of Population and Social Security Research. (2) The future changes in urban area ratio were assumed to be proportional to the population change (Hanasaki et al., 2012). The averaged urban area ratio in the Nagoya region was 0.37 in 2010. The area ratios were projected to reach a peak in 2010 to 2020, and then to decrease in the future in all of scenarios. The urban heat island intensity in the Nagoya region is about 1.5°C in 2010. In contrast, the differences of surface temperature is -0.17°C, -0.21°C, and -0.30°C in POP-high, POP-med, and POP-low, from the current situation in 2010. These impacts correspond to the 10% to 20% of current urban heat island intensity. However, the changes in the efficiency of energy consumption were not considered. Considering that the future surface temperature change is projected to be about 1.2°C to 4°C in 2070, it is required to quantitatively evaluate future urban scenarios including the mitigation strategies for urban heat island such as the improvement of energy consumption, greening, and so on. Acknowledgments. This study was supported by the Research Program on Climate Change Adaptation (RECCA) Fund by Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT) of Japan and the Global Environment Research Fund (S-8) of the Ministry of the Environment of Japan.

Adachi, S. A.; Hara, M.; Takahashi, H. G.; Ma, X.; Yoshikane, T.; Kimura, F.

2013-12-01

113

EVALUATION OF LAND USE/LAND COVER DATASETS FOR URBAN WATERSHED MODELING  

SciTech Connect

Land use/land cover (LULC) data are a vital component for nonpoint source pollution modeling. Most watershed hydrology and pollutant loading models use, in some capacity, LULC information to generate runoff and pollutant loading estimates. Simple equation methods predict runoff and pollutant loads using runoff coefficients or pollutant export coefficients that are often correlated to LULC type. Complex models use input variables and parameters to represent watershed characteristics and pollutant buildup and washoff rates as a function of LULC type. Whether using simple or complex models an accurate LULC dataset with an appropriate spatial resolution and level of detail is paramount for reliable predictions. The study presented in this paper compared and evaluated several LULC dataset sources for application in urban environmental modeling. The commonly used USGS LULC datasets have coarser spatial resolution and lower levels of classification than other LULC datasets. In addition, the USGS datasets do not accurately represent the land use in areas that have undergone significant land use change during the past two decades. We performed a watershed modeling analysis of three urban catchments in Los Angeles, California, USA to investigate the relative difference in average annual runoff volumes and total suspended solids (TSS) loads when using the USGS LULC dataset versus using a more detailed and current LULC dataset. When the two LULC datasets were aggregated to the same land use categories, the relative differences in predicted average annual runoff volumes and TSS loads from the three catchments were 8 to 14% and 13 to 40%, respectively. The relative differences did not have a predictable relationship with catchment size.

S.J. BURIAN; M.J. BROWN; T.N. MCPHERSON

2001-08-01

114

Tempo-Spatial Patterns of Land Use Changes and Urban Development in Globalizing China: A Study of Beijing  

PubMed Central

This study examines the temporal and spatial changes in land use as a consequence of rapid urban development in the city of Beijing. Using a combination of techniques of remote sensing and GIS, the study identifies a substantial loss of plain dryland and a phenomenal expansion of urban construction land over the recent decade. Geographically, there is a clear shifting of urban construction land from the inner city to the outskirts as a consequence of suburbanization. The outward expansion of the ring-road system is found to be one of the most important driving forces explaining the temporal and spatial pattern of land use change. The uneven distribution of population stands as another factor with significant correlation with land use change. The application of the techniques of remote sensing and GIS can enhance the precision and comparability of research on land use change and urban transformation in China.

Xie, Yichun; Fang, Chuanglin; Lin, George C.S.; Gong, Hongmian; Qiao, Biao

2007-01-01

115

Detection of the urban heat island in Mexicali, B. C., México and its relationship with land use  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper the urban heat islands (UHI), both atmospheric and surface, and their relationship with the land use in the city of Mexicali, Baja California, México, were examined by means of direct in situ measurements

O. R. GARCÍA-CUETO; D. TOUDERT

2007-01-01

116

Density of insect-pollinated grassland plants decreases with increasing surrounding land-use intensity.  

PubMed

Pollinator declines have raised concerns about the persistence of plant species that depend on insect pollination, in particular by bees, for their reproduction. The impact of pollinator declines remains unknown for species-rich plant communities found in temperate seminatural grasslands. We investigated effects of land-use intensity in the surrounding landscape on the distribution of plant traits related to insect pollination in 239 European seminatural grasslands. Increasing arable land use in the surrounding landscape consistently reduced the density of plants depending on bee and insect pollination. Similarly, the relative abundance of bee-pollination-dependent plants increased with higher proportions of non-arable agricultural land (e.g. permanent grassland). This was paralleled by an overall increase in bee abundance and diversity. By isolating the impact of the surrounding landscape from effects of local habitat quality, we show for the first time that grassland plants dependent on insect pollination are particularly susceptible to increasing land-use intensity in the landscape. PMID:25040328

Clough, Yann; Ekroos, Johan; Báldi, András; Batáry, Péter; Bommarco, Riccardo; Gross, Nicolas; Holzschuh, Andrea; Hopfenmüller, Sebastian; Knop, Eva; Kuussaari, Mikko; Lindborg, Regina; Marini, Lorenzo; Öckinger, Erik; Potts, Simon G; Pöyry, Juha; Roberts, Stuart Pm; Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf; Smith, Henrik G

2014-09-01

117

Three-dimensional Woody Vegetation Structure across Different Land-use Types and -land-use Intensities in a Semi-arid Savanna  

Microsoft Academic Search

Factors influencing woody savanna vegetation structure across a land-use gradient of intensity (highly and lightly utilized communal rangeland) and type (national protected area, private game reserve and communal rangelands) were investigated. Small-footprint discrete return LiDAR data (1.12 m point spacing) from the Carnegie Airborne Observatory (CAO) `Alpha system' were used to measure three-dimensional vegetation structure across the different treatments. A

Jolene Fisher; Barend Erasmus; Edward Witkowski; Jan van Aardt; Gregory Asner; Ty Kennedy-Bowdoin; David Knapp; Ruth Emerson; James Jacobson; Renaud Mathieu; Konrad J. Wessels

2009-01-01

118

A study of the relation between the land use types and urban heat island effect in Guangzhou city based on remote sensing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urban heat island effect refers to the phenomenon of urban temperatures being higher than the suburban. relation of the city land use and the urban heat island effect has gradually become an important environmental problem that arousing general concern. Remote sensed data has been an effective measure monitoring and analyzing the land use change and the urban heat island effect.

Cui Haishan; Qian Lexiang

2010-01-01

119

Effects of Urban Land Use on Pollinator-Insect Community Mark E. Hostetler and Nancy E. McIntyre  

E-print Network

Effects of Urban Land Use on Pollinator-Insect Community Structure Mark E. Hostetler and Nancy E that pollinate flowering plants. This community may be threatened by habitat alteration in the form of urban development. We are currently conducting a study to examine how the pollinator community differs under

Hall, Sharon J.

120

Land use dynamics of the fast-growing Shanghai Metropolis, China (1979-2008) and its implications for land use and urban planning policy.  

PubMed

Through the integrated approach of remote sensing and geographic information system (GIS) techniques, four Landsat TM/ETM+ imagery acquired during 1979 and 2008 were used to quantitatively characterize the patterns of land use and land cover change (LULC) and urban sprawl in the fast-growing Shanghai Metropolis, China. Results showed that, the urban/built-up area grew on average by 4,242.06 ha yr(-1). Bare land grew by 1,594.66 ha yr(-1) on average. In contrast, cropland decreased by 3,286.26 ha yr(-1) on average, followed by forest and shrub, water, and tidal land, which decreased by 1,331.33 ha yr(-1), 903.43 ha yr(-1), and 315.72 ha yr(-1) on average, respectively. As a result, during 1979 and 2008 approximately 83.83% of the newly urban/built-up land was converted from cropland (67.35%), forest and shrub (9.12%), water (4.80%), and tidal land (2.19%). Another significant change was the continuous increase in regular residents, which played a very important role in contributing to local population growth and increase in urban/built-up land. This can be explained with this city's huge demand for investment and qualified labor since the latest industrial transformation. Moreover, with a decrease in cropland, the proportion of population engaged in farming decreased 13.84%. Therefore, significant socio-economic transformation occurred, and this would lead to new demand for land resources. However, due to very scarce land resources and overload of population in Shanghai, the drive to achieve economic goals at the loss of cropland, water, and the other lands is not sustainable. Future urban planning policy aiming at ensuring a win-win balance between sustainable land use and economic growth is urgently needed. PMID:22319382

Zhang, Hao; Zhou, Li-Guo; Chen, Ming-Nan; Ma, Wei-Chun

2011-01-01

121

Land Use Dynamics of the Fast-Growing Shanghai Metropolis, China (1979-2008) and its Implications for Land Use and Urban Planning Policy  

PubMed Central

Through the integrated approach of remote sensing and geographic information system (GIS) techniques, four Landsat TM/ETM+ imagery acquired during 1979 and 2008 were used to quantitatively characterize the patterns of land use and land cover change (LULC) and urban sprawl in the fast-growing Shanghai Metropolis, China. Results showed that, the urban/built-up area grew on average by 4,242.06 ha yr?1. Bare land grew by 1,594.66 ha yr?1 on average. In contrast, cropland decreased by 3,286.26 ha yr?1 on average, followed by forest and shrub, water, and tidal land, which decreased by 1,331.33 ha yr?1, 903.43 ha yr?1, and 315.72 ha yr?1 on average, respectively. As a result, during 1979 and 2008 approximately 83.83% of the newly urban/built-up land was converted from cropland (67.35%), forest and shrub (9.12%), water (4.80%), and tidal land (2.19%). Another significant change was the continuous increase in regular residents, which played a very important role in contributing to local population growth and increase in urban/built-up land. This can be explained with this city’s huge demand for investment and qualified labor since the latest industrial transformation. Moreover, with a decrease in cropland, the proportion of population engaged in farming decreased 13.84%. Therefore, significant socio-economic transformation occurred, and this would lead to new demand for land resources. However, due to very scarce land resources and overload of population in Shanghai, the drive to achieve economic goals at the loss of cropland, water, and the other lands is not sustainable. Future urban planning policy aiming at ensuring a win-win balance between sustainable land use and economic growth is urgently needed. PMID:22319382

Zhang, Hao; Zhou, Li-Guo; Chen, Ming-Nan; Ma, Wei-Chun

2011-01-01

122

Effects of land-use type on urban groundwater quality, Seoul metropolitan city, Korea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The progressive degradation of urban groundwater becomes an important environmental problem encountered in South Korea. This study aims to examine the relationships between land-use type and groundwater quality in Seoul metropolitan city, based on the results of hydrogeochemical monitoring. For this purpose, land-use type was divided into five categories (green zone, housing, agricultural, traffic, and industrialized). The mean concentrations of TDS (total dissolved solids) effectively reflect the degree of anthropogenic contamination and increase in the following order: green zone (152.5 mg/l), then agricultural (380.7 mg/l) and housing (384.2 mg/l), then traffic (457.0 mg/l), and finally industrialized area (554.5 mg/l). Among major dissolved solutes, the concentrations of Na, Ca, Mg, HCO3, and Cl increase with increasing TDS. In case of Na and Ca, de-icing salts and sewage are considered as major contamination sources. The corrosion of cements may also increase Ca. Nitrate concentration is characteristically very high in housing and agricultural areas, reflecting the severe contamination from domestic sewage and fertilizer. Sulfate and magnesium are enriched in industrialized area, possibly due to their derivation from industrial facilities. Chlorine ion is considered to be derived from de-chlorination of hydrocarbons as well as de-icing salts. Bicarbonate also increases with increasing TDS, for which cement dissolution and oxidation of organics are considered as source materials. However, enhanced water-rock(or construction materials) interaction also may increase the bicarbonate, because acidic wastewater in urban area is very corrosive. Trace metals and organic compounds generally does not show any distinct pattern of regional variation. However, Fe, Mn, Ni, Se, Zn, TCE, and PCE tend to increase locally in industrialized area, whereas high concentrations of Br, Ni, and Cu are found in traffic area. The groundwaters with very high concentrations of Fe, Zn, and Mn are presumed to be affected from decrepit pipelines under inproper management. The correlation matrix between hydrochemical data and local land-use data was examined, based on the areal calculation of land use (road, building for housing and official work, industrial building, forest, and agricultural land) within a circular (radius = 500 m) around a well. The results show that the areal percentage of road correlates positively with the concentrations of TDS, Na, Ca, HCO3, Br, Mn, and Ni, whereas the areal percentage of industrial building correlates well with Mg, SO4, Fe, TCE, and PCE. The present study suggests that urban groundwaters in Seoul are strongly affected by anthropogenic sources and show a strong effect by local land-use characteristics. As an useful guideline for evaluating the groundwater quality, we have obtained background water quality criteria as follows: Na (10.8 mg/l), K (1.2 mg/l), Ca (19.9 mg/l), Mg (1.6 mg/l), NO3 (8.3 mg/l), Cl (9.0 mg/l), SO4 (12.9 mg/l), and HCO3 (54.8 mg/l).

Yu, S.; Yun, S.; Chae, G.; So, C.; Kweon, S.; Lee, P.

2001-12-01

123

Abstracting of suspected illegal land use in urban areas using case-based classification of remote sensing images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper proposed a method that uses a case-based classification of remote sensing images and applied this method to abstract the information of suspected illegal land use in urban areas. Because of the discrete cases for imagery classification, the proposed method dealt with the oscillation of spectrum or backscatter within the same land use category, and it not only overcame the deficiency of maximum likelihood classification (the prior probability of land use could not be obtained) but also inherited the advantages of the knowledge-based classification system, such as artificial intelligence and automatic characteristics. Consequently, the proposed method could do the classifying better. Then the researchers used the object-oriented technique for shadow removal in highly dense city zones. With multi-temporal SPOT 5 images whose resolution was 2.5×2.5 meters, the researchers found that the method can abstract suspected illegal land use information in urban areas using post-classification comparison technique.

Chen, Fulong; Wang, Chao; Yang, Chengyun; Zhang, Hong; Wu, Fan; Lin, Wenjuan; Zhang, Bo

2008-11-01

124

Bayesian networks and agent-based modeling approach for urban land-use and population density change: a BNAS model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Land-use change models grounded in complexity theory such as agent-based models (ABMs) are increasingly being used to examine evolving urban systems. The objective of this study is to develop a spatial model that simulates land-use change under the influence of human land-use choice behavior. This is achieved by integrating the key physical and social drivers of land-use change using Bayesian networks (BNs) coupled with agent-based modeling. The BNAS model, integrated Bayesian network-based agent system, presented in this study uses geographic information systems, ABMs, BNs, and influence diagram principles to model population change on an irregular spatial structure. The model is parameterized with historical data and then used to simulate 20 years of future population and land-use change for the City of Surrey, British Columbia, Canada. The simulation results identify feasible new urban areas for development around the main transportation corridors. The obtained new development areas and the projected population trajectories with the“what-if” scenario capabilities can provide insights into urban planners for better and more informed land-use policy or decision-making processes.

Kocabas, Verda; Dragicevic, Suzana

2013-10-01

125

Microzonation in Urban Areas, Basic Element for Land-Use Planning, Risk Management and Sustainable Development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the results of microzonification of the natural hazards for different metropolitan areas and highlights the importance of integrating these results in urban planning. The cities that have been covered for the definition of danger in the state of Veracruz are: Orizaba, Veracruz and Xalapa, as part of the production of a Geological and Hydrometeorology Hazards Atlas for the state of Veracruz, financed by the Funds for the Prevention of Natural Disasters FOPREDEN and CONACYT. The general data of each metropolitan area was integrated in a geographic information system (GIS), obtaining different theme maps, and maps of dynamic characteristics of soils in each metropolitan area. For the planning of an urban area to aspire to promote sustainable development, it is essential to have a great deal of the details on the pertinent information and the most important is that that has to do with the degree of exposure to natural phenomena. In general, microzonation investigations consider all natural phenomena that could potentially affect an area of interest and hazard maps for each of potential hazards are prepared. With all the data collected and generated and fed into a SIG, models were generated which define the areas most threatened by earthquake, flood and landslide slopes. These results were compared with maps of the main features in the urban zones and a qualitative classification of areas of high to low hazard was established. It will have the basic elements of information for urban planning and land use. This information will be made available to the authorities and the general public through an Internet portal where people can download and view maps using free software available online.;

Torres Morales, G. F.; Dávalos Sotelo, R.; Castillo Aguilar, S.; Mora González, I.; Lermo Samaniego, J. F.; Rodriguez, M.; García Martínez, J.; Suárez, M. Leonardo; Hernández Juan, F.

2013-05-01

126

The impact of land use, season, age, and sex on the prevalence and intensity of Baylisascaris procyonis infections in raccoons (Procyon lotor) from Ontario, Canada.  

PubMed

We assessed the impact of land use, demographic factors, and season on the prevalence and intensity of Baylisascaris procyonis infections in raccoons (Procyon lotor) in Ontario, Canada. From March to October 2012, we recorded the number of B. procyonis in the intestinal tracts of raccoons submitted to the Canadian Cooperative Wildlife Health Centre for necropsy. Logistic regression models were used to examine associations between the presence of B. procyonis and age (adult, juvenile), sex, land use (suburban/urban, rural), and season (March-June and July-October); negative binomial regression models were used to examine associations between the number of worms and the same variables. We detected B. procyonis in 38% (95% confidence interval 30-47%) of raccoons examined (n=128). In univariable models, the presence of B. procyonis was significantly associated with age, land use, and season (P<0.05). Age was not retained in the multivariable model, and the impact of sex on the presence of B. procyonis varied with land use and season. For example, from March to June, suburban/urban male raccoons were significantly more likely to be infected with B. procyonis than suburban/urban female raccoons. However, later in the summer (July-October), the opposite was true. The median number of worms in the intestinal tracts of infected raccoons was 3 (range 1-116). Worm number was significantly associated with age and season in univariable models; in the multivariable model, juvenile raccoons had significantly more worms than adults, and the impact of season on the number of worms varied with land use and sex. A better understanding of the epidemiology of B. procyonis in raccoons is important for developing appropriate strategies to reduce the risk of human exposure to B. procyonis from the environment. PMID:25098302

Jardine, Claire M; Pearl, David L; Puskas, Kirstie; Campbell, Doug G; Shirose, Lenny; Peregrine, Andrew S

2014-10-01

127

Adaptation of Land-Use Demands to the Impact of Climate Change on the Hydrological Processes of an Urbanized Watershed  

PubMed Central

The adaptation of land-use patterns is an essential aspect of minimizing the inevitable impact of climate change at regional and local scales; for example, adapting watershed land-use patterns to mitigate the impact of climate change on a region’s hydrology. The objective of this study is to simulate and assess a region’s ability to adapt to hydrological changes by modifying land-use patterns in the Wu-Du watershed in northern Taiwan. A hydrological GWLF (Generalized Watershed Loading Functions) model is used to simulate three hydrological components, namely, runoff, groundwater and streamflow, based on various land-use scenarios under six global climate models. The land-use allocations are simulated by the CLUE-s model for the various development scenarios. The simulation results show that runoff and streamflow are strongly related to the precipitation levels predicted by different global climate models for the wet and dry seasons, but groundwater cycles are more related to land-use. The effects of climate change on groundwater and runoff can be mitigated by modifying current land-use patterns; and slowing the rate of urbanization would also reduce the impact of climate change on hydrological components. Thus, land-use adaptation on a local/regional scale provides an alternative way to reduce the impacts of global climate change on local hydrology. PMID:23202833

Lin, Yu-Pin; Hong, Nien-Ming; Chiang, Li-Chi; Liu, Yen-Lan; Chu, Hone-Jay

2012-01-01

128

Quantifying Outdoor Water Consumption of Urban Land Use/Land Cover: Sensitivity to Drought  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Outdoor water use is a key component in arid city water systems for achieving sustainable water use and ensuring water security. Using evapotranspiration (ET) calculations as a proxy for outdoor water consumption, the objectives of this research are to quantify outdoor water consumption of different land use and land cover types, and compare the spatio-temporal variation in water consumption between drought and wet years. An energy balance model was applied to Landsat 5 TM time series images to estimate daily and seasonal ET for the Central Arizona Phoenix Long-Term Ecological Research region (CAP-LTER). Modeled ET estimations were correlated with water use data in 49 parks within CAP-LTER and showed good agreement ( r 2 = 0.77), indicating model effectiveness to capture the variations across park water consumption. Seasonally, active agriculture shows high ET (>500 mm) for both wet and dry conditions, while the desert and urban land cover types experienced lower ET during drought (<300 mm). Within urban locales of CAP-LTER, xeric neighborhoods show significant differences from year to year, while mesic neighborhoods retain their ET values (400-500 mm) during drought, implying considerable use of irrigation to sustain their greenness. Considering the potentially limiting water availability of this region in the future due to large population increases and the threat of a warming and drying climate, maintaining large water-consuming, irrigated landscapes challenges sustainable practices of water conservation and the need to provide amenities of this desert area for enhancing quality of life.

Kaplan, Shai; Myint, Soe W.; Fan, Chao; Brazel, Anthony J.

2014-04-01

129

Effects of land use intensity on the full greenhouse gas balance in an Atlantic peat bog  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The assessment of emission factors for many peatlands is difficult, and reliable data on the exchange of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) between soil and atmosphere of these areas is particularly scarce. Reasons for this are the multitude of soil and land use combinations that control greenhouse gas exchange and the high effort associated with data acquisition. We investigated the greenhouse gas exchange of a peat bog restoration sequence over a period of 2 yr (July 2007-June 2009) in an Atlantic raised bog in Northwest Germany. We set up three sites representing different land use intensities: intensive grassland (mineral fertilizer, cattle manure and 4-5 cuts per year); extensive grassland (no fertilizer or manure, maximal 1 cutting per year); near-natural peat bog (almost no anthropogenic influence). We obtained seasonal and annual estimates of greenhouse gas exchange based on closed chamber measurements. CH4 and N2O fluxes were recorded bi-weekly, CO2 NEE determinations were carried out 3-4 weekly. To get annual sums the CH4 and N2O fluxes were interpolated linearly while NEE was modelled. The intensive grassland site emitted 548 ± 169 g CO2-C m-2 in the first and 817 ± 140 g CO2-C m-2 in the second year. The extensive grassland site showed a slight uptake in the first year (-148 ± 143 g CO2-C m-2), and a small emission of 88 ± 146 g CO2-C m-2 in the second year. In contrast to these agriculturally used sites, the near-natural site took up CO2-C in both years (-8 ± 68 g CO2-C m-2 and -127 ± 53 g CO2-C m-2). Under consideration of N2O and CH4 exchange, the total average greenhouse warming potential (GWP) for 2008 amounts to 441 ± 157 g m-2, 14 ± 152 g m-2 and 31 ± 68 g m-2 CO2-C-equivalent for the intensive grassland, the extensive grassland and the near-natural site, respectively. Despite inter-annual variability, rewetting contributes considerably to mitigating GHG emission from formerly drained peatlands. Already extensively used grassland on moderately drained peat approaches the carbon sequestration potential of near-natural sites, albeit it may oscillate between being a small sink and being a small source depending on interannual climatic variability.

Beetz, S.; Liebersbach, H.; Glatzel, S.; Jurasinski, G.; Buczko, U.; Höper, H.

2012-06-01

130

Urban Growth in a Fragmented Landscape: Estimating the Relationship between Landscape Pattern and Urban Land Use Change in Germany, 2000-2006  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the highest priorities in the conservation and management of biodiversity, natural resources and other vital ecosystem services is the assessment of the mechanisms that drive urban land use change. Using key landscape indicators, this study addresses why urban land increased 6 percent overall in Germany from 2000-2006. Building on regional science and economic geography research, I develop a model of landscape change that integrates remotely sensed and other geospatial data, and socioeconomic data in a spatial autoregressive model to explain the variance in urban land use change observed in German kreise (counties) over the past decade. The results reveal three key landscape mechanisms that drive urban land use change across Germany, aligning with those observed in US studies: (1) the level of fragmentation, (2) the share of designated protected areas, and (3) the share of prime soil. First, as fragmentation of once continuous habitats in the landscape increases, extensive urban growth follows. Second, designated protected areas have the perverse effect of hastening urbanization in surrounding areas. Third, greater shares of prime, productive soil experienced less urban land take over the 6 year period, an effect that is stronger in the former East Germany, where the agricultural sector remains large. The results suggest that policy makers concentrate their conservation efforts on preexisting fragmented land with high shares of protected areas in Germany to effectively stem urban land take. Given that comparative studies of land use change are vital for the scientific community to grasp the wider global process of urbanization and coincident ecological impacts, the methodology employed here is easily exportable to land cover and land use research programs in other fields and geographic areas. Key words: Urban land use change, Ecosystem services, Landscape fragmentation, Remote sensing, Spatial regression models, GermanyOLS and Spatial Autoregressive Model Results N = 439; Standard error in ( ) . *p < .1, **p < .01, ***p < .001

Keller, R.

2013-12-01

131

Changes in Collembola richness and diversity along a gradient of land-use intensity: a pan European study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changes in Collembola richness and diversity along a land-use intensity gradient were studied in eight European countries (Portugal, Spain, France, Switzerland, Hungary, UK, Ireland and Finland). In each country a set of six 1 km2 land-use units (LUUs) were selected forming a gradient ranging from natural forest to agricultural dominated landscapes, passing through mixed-use ones. In addition to data on

José Paulo Sousa; Thomas Bolger; Maria Manuela da Gama; Tuomas Lukkari; Jean-François Ponge; C. Simon; Georgy Traser; Adam J. Vanbergen; Aoife Brennan; Florence Dubs; E. Ivits; António Keating; Silvia Stofer; Allan D. Watt

2006-01-01

132

Understory plant species composition in remnant stands along an urban-to-rural land-use gradient  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We examined the understory species composition of 24 remnant forest stands along an urban-to-rural gradient in the metropolitan Milwaukee, Wisconsin region to determine the relationships between plant community composition, human disturbance, and contrasting types of land use along a gradient of urbanization. A significant difference was found in shrub species community composition among three contrasting land-use categories but no significant difference was found in herbaceous community composition. Significant differences in human activity existed among rural, urban, and urbanizing land-use categories, but this index of disturbance was not significantly correlated to gradients in species composition. All stands in this study had been subjected to various types of human activity and environmental disturbances in the past. Our data suggest that differences in the relative importance of understory species exist among stands but these differences may not be caused by the impacts of urbanization alone. Changes in the natural disturbance regime of this landscape, along with the impacts associated with urbanization, have led to an individualistic response in the compositional dynamics of forest stands.

Guntenspergen, G.R.; Levenson, J.B.

1997-01-01

133

Research on fractal model of urban land use considering the appropriate spatial resolution for remote sensing imagery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The spatial resolution is an important measure about spatial scales, which affects the accuracy of interpretation for remote sensing imagery and furtherer leads to some serious uncertain problems on fractal model of urban land use. In this paper, the average local variance model based on spatial sampling method is used to select the appropriate spatial resolution in order to improve fractal model of urban land use. The information entropy dimension is proposed to quantitatively express spatial balance for a certain urban land use type. An example of application research is experimented in Wuchang district through QuickBird remote sensing imagery in 2002. By scaling up with the initial spatial resolution, the appropriate spatial resolution is 10m in round numbers. The information entropy dimension of built-up area and water are 1.921 and 1.907, which are larger and imply more homogeneously spatial distribution. But the information entropy dimension of farmland and unused land are 1.291 and 1.218, which are lower and imply more concentrated spatial distribution. The results suggest that the average local variance is very advantageous to provide the appropriate resolution for remote sensing imagery, which can greatly improve the accuracy of interpretation in extracting feature information of urban land use.

Wu, Hao; Li, Yan; Li, Qingqing; Chen, Xiaoling

2009-10-01

134

Urban land use mapping by machine processing of ERTS-1 multispectral data: A San Francisco Bay area example  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The study is reported to develop computer produced urban land use maps using multispectral scanner data from a satellite is reported. Data processing is discussed along with the results of the San Francisco Bay area, which was chosen as the test area.

Ellefsen, R.; Swain, P. H.; Wray, J. R.

1973-01-01

135

Analyzing the relationship between urban heat island and land use\\/cover changes in Beijing using remote sensing images  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, three scenes of Landsat TM\\/ETM+ images covering Beijing area were used to examine the relationship between the UHI and land use and land cover (LULC) changes, as well as between the UHI and vegetation greenness. The brightness temperatures, LULC, and NDVI were retrieved from the calibrated images. The results showed that the urban or built-up area in

Xiaoyan Zhao; Shenbin Yang; Shuanghe Shen; Yulong Hai; Yongxia Fang

2009-01-01

136

Quantifying outdoor water consumption of urban land use/land cover: sensitivity to drought.  

PubMed

Outdoor water use is a key component in arid city water systems for achieving sustainable water use and ensuring water security. Using evapotranspiration (ET) calculations as a proxy for outdoor water consumption, the objectives of this research are to quantify outdoor water consumption of different land use and land cover types, and compare the spatio-temporal variation in water consumption between drought and wet years. An energy balance model was applied to Landsat 5 TM time series images to estimate daily and seasonal ET for the Central Arizona Phoenix Long-Term Ecological Research region (CAP-LTER). Modeled ET estimations were correlated with water use data in 49 parks within CAP-LTER and showed good agreement (r˛ = 0.77), indicating model effectiveness to capture the variations across park water consumption. Seasonally, active agriculture shows high ET (>500 mm) for both wet and dry conditions, while the desert and urban land cover types experienced lower ET during drought (<300 mm). Within urban locales of CAP-LTER, xeric neighborhoods show significant differences from year to year, while mesic neighborhoods retain their ET values (400-500 mm) during drought, implying considerable use of irrigation to sustain their greenness. Considering the potentially limiting water availability of this region in the future due to large population increases and the threat of a warming and drying climate, maintaining large water-consuming, irrigated landscapes challenges sustainable practices of water conservation and the need to provide amenities of this desert area for enhancing quality of life. PMID:24499870

Kaplan, Shai; Myint, Soe W; Fan, Chao; Brazel, Anthony J

2014-04-01

137

Water in urban planning, Salt Creek Basin, Illinois water management as related to alternative land-use practices  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Water management can be an integral part of urban comprehensive planning in a large metropolitan area. Water both imposes constraints on land use and offers opportunities for coordinated land and water management. Salt Creek basin in Cook and Du Page Counties of the Chicago metropolitan area is typical of rapidly developing suburban areas and has been selected to illustrate some of these constraints and opportunities and to suggest the effects of alternative solutions. The present study concentrates on the related problems of ground-water recharge, water quality, management of flood plains, and flood-control measures. Salt Creek basin has a drainage area of 150 square miles. It is in flat to. gently rolling terrain, underlain by glacial drift as much as 200 feet thick which covers a dolomite aquifer. In 1964, the population of the basin was about 400,000, and 40 percent of the land was in urban development. The population is expected to number 550,000 to 650,000 by 1990, and most of the land will be taken by urban development. Salt Creek is a sluggish stream, typical of small drainage channels in the headwaters area of northeastern Illinois. Low flows of 15 to 25 cubic feet per second in the lower part of the basin consist largely of sewage effluent. Nearly all the public water supplies in the basin depend on ground water. Of the total pumpage of 27.5 million gallons per day, 17.5 million gallons per day is pumped from the deep (Cambrian-Ordovician) aquifers and 10 million gallons per day is pumped from the shallow (Silurian dolomite and glacial drift) aquifers. The potential yield of the shallow aquifers, particularly glacial drift in the northern part of the basin, far exceeds present use. The largest concentration of pumpage from the shallow ,aquifers is in the Hinsdale-La Grange area. Salt Creek serves as an important source of recharge to these supplies, particularly just east of Hinsdale. The entire reach of Salt Creek south and east of Elmhurst can be regarded as an area of potential recharge to the shallow aquifers. Preservation of the effectiveness of these potential recharge areas should be considered in land-use planning. Salt Creek is polluted in times of both low and high flow. Most communities in the basin in Du Page County discharge their treated sewage into the creek, whereas those in Cook County transfer their sewage to plants of the Metropolitan Sanitary District outside the basin. During periods of high runoff, combined storm runoff and overflow from sanitary sewers enter the creek. Such polluted water detracts from the stream's esthetic and recreational potential and poses a threat to ground-water supplies owing to induced recharge of polluted water to shallow aquifers. Alternative approaches .to the pollution problem include improvement of the degree of sewage treatment, detention and treatment of storm runoff, dilution of sewage through flow augmentation, or transfer of sewage from the basin to a central treatment plant. To result in an enhanced environment, the streambed would have to be cleansed of accumulated sludge deposits. The overbank flooding in Salt Creek basin every 2 to 3 years presents problems because of encroachments and developments on the flood plains. Flood plains in an urban area can be managed by identifying them, by recognizing that either their natural storage capacity or equivalent artificial capacity is needed to accommodate floods, and by planning land use accordingly. Examples of effective floodplain management include (1) preservation of greenbelts or regional parks along stream courses, (2) use of flood plains for recreation, parking lots. or other low-intensity uses, (3) use of flood-proofed commercial buildings, and (4) provision for compensatory storage to replace natural storage capacity. Results of poor flood-plain management include uncontrolled residential development and encroachment by fill into natural storage areas where no compensatory storage has been

Spieker, Andrew Maute

1970-01-01

138

Streamwater phosphorus and nitrogen across a gradient in rural–agricultural land use intensity  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides an overview of the impacts of rural land use on lowland streamwater phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N) concentrations and P loads and sources in lowland streams. Based on weekly water quality monitoring, the impacts of agriculture on streamwater P and N hydrochemistry were examined along a gradient of rural–agricultural land use, by monitoring three sets of ‘paired’

H. P. Jarvie; P. J. A. Withers; M. J. Bowes; E. J. Palmer-Felgate; D. M. Harper; K. Wasiak; P. Wasiak; R. A. Hodgkinson; A. Bates; C. Stoate; M. Neal; H. D. Wickham; S. A. Harman; L. K. Armstrong

2010-01-01

139

Defining land use intensity based on roadway level of service targets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditionally, master planners develop an initial land use scenario for an undeveloped site, which is then forwarded to transportation planners for modeling purposes. On the basis of travel demand forecast, several alternatives are provided to master planners and, accordingly, different land use proposals are examined until, finally, a preferred option is chosen. Such trial and error process is inherently cumbersome,

Hamid Iravani; Arash Mirhoseini; Maziar Rasoolzadeh

2011-01-01

140

Effects of land use intensity on the full greenhouse gas balance in an Atlantic peat bog  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wetlands can either be net sinks or net sources of greenhouse gases (GHGs), depending on the mean annual water level and other factors like average annual temperature, vegetation development, and land use. Whereas drained and agriculturally used peatlands tend to be carbon dioxide (CO2) and nitrous oxide (N2O) sources but methane (CH4) sinks, restored (i.e. rewetted) peatlands rather incorporate CO2, tend to be N2O neutral and release CH4. One of the aims of peatland restoration is to decrease their global warming potential (GWP) by reducing GHG emissions. We estimated the greenhouse gas exchange of a peat bog restoration sequence over a period of 2 yr (1 July 2007-30 June 2009) in an Atlantic raised bog in northwest Germany. We set up three study sites representing different land use intensities: intensive grassland (deeply drained, mineral fertilizer, cattle manure and 4-5 cuts per year); extensive grassland (rewetted, no fertilizer or manure, up to 1 cutting per year); near-natural peat bog (almost no anthropogenic influence). Daily and annual greenhouse gas exchange was estimated based on closed-chamber measurements. CH4 and N2O fluxes were recorded bi-weekly, and net ecosystem exchange (NEE) measurements were carried out every 3-4 weeks. Annual sums of CH4 and N2O fluxes were estimated by linear interpolation while NEE was modelled. Regarding GWP, the intensive grassland site emitted 564 ± 255 g CO2-C equivalents m-2 yr-1 and 850 ± 238 g CO2-C equivalents m-2 yr-1 in the first (2007/2008) and the second (2008/2009) measuring year, respectively. The GWP of the extensive grassland amounted to -129 ± 231 g CO2-C equivalents m-2 yr-1 and 94 ± 200 g CO2-C equivalents m-2 yr-1, while it added up to 45 ± 117 g CO2-C equivalents m-2 yr-1 and -101 ± 93 g CO2-C equivalents m-2 yr-1 in 2007/08 and 2008/09 for the near-natural site. In contrast, in calendar year 2008 GWP aggregated to 441 ± 201 g CO2-C equivalents m-2 yr-1, 14 ± 162 g CO2-C equivalents m-2 yr-1 and 31 ± 75 g CO2-C equivalents m-2 yr-1 for the intensive grassland, extensive grassland, and near-natural site, respectively. Despite inter-annual variability, rewetting contributes considerably to mitigating GHG emission from formerly drained peatlands. Extensively used grassland on moderately drained peat approaches the carbon sequestration potential of near-natural sites, although it may oscillate between being a small sink and being a small source depending on inter-annual climatic variability.

Beetz, S.; Liebersbach, H.; Glatzel, S.; Jurasinski, G.; Buczko, U.; Höper, H.

2013-02-01

141

Different Land Use Intensities in Grassland Ecosystems Drive Ecology of Microbial Communities Involved in Nitrogen Turnover in Soil  

PubMed Central

Understanding factors driving the ecology of N cycling microbial communities is of central importance for sustainable land use. In this study we report changes of abundance of denitrifiers, nitrifiers and nitrogen-fixing microorganisms (based on qPCR data for selected functional genes) in response to different land use intensity levels and the consequences for potential turnover rates. We investigated selected grassland sites being comparable with respect to soil type and climatic conditions, which have been continuously treated for many years as intensely used meadows (IM), intensely used mown pastures (IP) and extensively used pastures (EP), respectively. The obtained data were linked to above ground biodiversity pattern as well as water extractable fractions of nitrogen and carbon in soil. Shifts in land use intensity changed plant community composition from systems dominated by s-strategists in extensive managed grasslands to c-strategist dominated communities in intensive managed grasslands. Along the different types of land use intensity, the availability of inorganic nitrogen regulated the abundance of bacterial and archaeal ammonia oxidizers. In contrast, the amount of dissolved organic nitrogen determined the abundance of denitrifiers (nirS and nirK). The high abundance of nifH carrying bacteria at intensive managed sites gave evidence that the amounts of substrates as energy source outcompete the high availability of inorganic nitrogen in these sites. Overall, we revealed that abundance and function of microorganisms involved in key processes of inorganic N cycling (nitrification, denitrification and N fixation) might be independently regulated by different abiotic and biotic factors in response to land use intensity. PMID:24039974

Meyer, Annabel; Focks, Andreas; Radl, Viviane; Keil, Daniel; Welzl, Gerhard; Schoning, Ingo; Boch, Steffen; Marhan, Sven; Kandeler, Ellen; Schloter, Michael

2013-01-01

142

Land Use and Land Cover Change, Urban Heat Island Phenomenon, and Health Implications: A Remote Sensing Approach  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Land use and land cover maps of Atlanta Metropolitan Area in Georgia were produced from Landsat MSS and TM images for 1973,1979,1983,1987,1992, and 1997, spanning a period of 25 years. Dramatic changes in land use and land cover have occurred with loss of forest and cropland to urban use. In particular, low-density urban use, which includes largely residential use, has increased by over 119% between 1973 and 1997. These land use and land cover changes have drastically altered the land surface characteristics. An analysis of Landsat images revealed an increase in surface temperature and a decline in NDVI from 1973 to 1997. These changes have forced the development of a significant urban heat island effect and an increase in ground level ozone production to such an extent, that Atlanta has violated EPA's ozone level standard in recent years. The urban heat island initiated precipitation events that were identified between 1996 and 2000 tended to occur near high-density urban areas but outside the I-285 loop that traverses around the Central Business District, i.e. not in the inner city area, but some in close proximity to the highways. The health implications were investigated by comparing the spatial patterns of volatile organic compounds (VOC) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions, the two ingredients that form ozone by reacting with sunlight, with those of rates of cardiovascular and chronic lower respiratory diseases. A clear core-periphery pattern was revealed for both VOC and NOx emissions, but the spatial pattern was more random in the cases of rates of cardiovascular and chronic lower respiratory diseases. Clearly, factors other than ozone pollution were involved in explaining the rates of these diseases. Further research is therefore needed to understand the health geography and its relationship to land use and land cover change as well as urban heat island effect. This paper illustrates the usefulness of a remote sensing approach for this purpose.

Lo, C. P.; Quattrochi, Dale A.

2003-01-01

143

Associations between land use and Perkinsus marinus infection of eastern oysters in a high salinity, partially urbanized estuary  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Infection levels of eastern oysters by the unicellular pathogen Perkinsus marinus have been associated with anthropogenic influences in laboratory studies. However, these relationships have been difficult to investigate in the field because anthropogenic inputs are often associated with natural influences such as freshwater inflow, which can also affect infection levels. We addressed P. marinus-land use associations using field-collected data from Murrells Inlet, South Carolina, USA, a developed, coastal estuary with relatively minor freshwater inputs. Ten oysters from each of 30 reefs were sampled quarterly in each of 2 years. Distances to nearest urbanized land class and to nearest stormwater outfall were measured via both tidal creeks and an elaboration of Euclidean distance. As the forms of any associations between oyster infection and distance to urbanization were unknown a priori, we used data from the first and second years of the study as exploratory and confirmatory datasets, respectively. With one exception, quarterly land use associations identified using the exploratory dataset were not confirmed using the confirmatory dataset. The exception was an association between the prevalence of moderate to high infection levels in winter and decreasing distance to nearest urban land use. Given that the study design appeared adequate to detect effects inferred from the exploratory dataset, these results suggest that effects of land use gradients were largely insubstantial or were ephemeral with duration less than 3 months.

Gray, Brian R.; Bushek, David; Drane, J. Wanzer; Porter, Dwayne

2009-01-01

144

How landscape structure, land-use intensity and habitat diversity affect components of total arthropod diversity in agricultural landscapes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary 1. Agricultural intensification poses a serious threat to biodiversity as a consequence of increased land-use intensity, decreased landscape heterogeneity and reduced habitat diversity. Although there is interest in the preservation of total species richness of an agricultural landscape ( ? diversity), the effects of intensification have been assessed primarily by species richness at a local scale ( ? diversity).

FREDERIK HENDRICKX; JEAN-PIERRE MAELFAIT; LTER VAN WINGERDEN; OLIVER SCHWEIGER; MARJAN SPEELMANS; STÉPHANIE AVIRON; ISABEL AUGENSTEIN; REGULA BILLETER; DEBRA BAILEY; ROMAN BUKACEK; FRANÇOISE BUREL; TIM DIEKÖTTER; JOLANDA DIRKSEN; FELIX HERZOG; JAAN LIIRA; MARTINA ROUBALOVA; VIKI VANDOMME; ROB BUGTER

2007-01-01

145

Influence of variations in land use intensity on species diversity and abundance of small mammals in the Nama Karoo, Namibia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of the intensity of land use on small mammals in the ecoregion Nama Karoo, Namibia was investigated within the biodiversity programme BIOTA. Changes in species diversity and abundance were investigated across a fence separating heavily grazed communal and lightly grazed government owned rangeland. Assessing and monitoring of the small mammal populations were done seasonally from 2001-2003 on each

Anke Hoffmann; Ulrich Zeller

2005-01-01

146

Response of vascular epiphyte diversity to different land-use intensities in a neotropical montane wet forest  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although vascular epiphytes contribute substantially to the biodiversity of tropical montane forests, it is unclear how their diversity and community composition is affected by forest alteration. We studied the response of vascular epiphyte assemblages to different intensities of land-use in a montane wet forest of northeastern Ecuador: (1) unmanaged mature forest; (2) mature forest with mid- and understorey opened for

Mario L. Larrea; Florian A. Werner

2010-01-01

147

Spatial distribution of ultrafine particles in urban settings: A land use regression model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

BackgroundThe toxic effects of ultrafine particles (UFP) are a public health concern. However, epidemiological studies on the long term effects of UFP are limited due to lacking exposure models. Given the high spatial variation of UFP, the assignment of exposure levels in epidemiological studies requires a fine spatial scale. The aim of this study was to assess the performance of a short-term measurement protocol used at a large number of locations to derive a land use regression (LUR) model of the spatial variation of UFP in Girona, Spain. MethodsWe measured UFP for 15 min on the sidewalk of 644 participants' homes in 12 towns of Girona province (Spain). The measurements were done during non-rush traffic hours 9:15-12:45 and 15:15-16:45 during 32 days between June 15 and July 31, 2009. In parallel, we counted the number of vehicles driving in both directions. Measurements were repeated on a different day for a subset of 25 sites in Girona city. Potential predictor variables such as building density, distance to bus lines and land cover were derived using geographic information systems. We adjusted for temporal variation using daily mean NOx concentrations at a central monitor. Land use regression models for the entire area (Core model) and for individual towns were derived using a supervised forward selection algorithm. ResultsThe best predictors of UFP were traffic intensity, distance to nearest major crossroad, area of high density residential land and household density. The LUR Core model explained 36% of UFP total variation. Adding sampling date and hour of the day to the Core model increased the R2 to 51% without changing the regression slopes. Local models included predictor variables similar to those in the Core model, but performed better with an R2 of 50% in Girona city. Independent LUR models for the first and second measurements at the subset of sites with repetitions had R2's of about 47%. When the mean of the two measurements was used R2 improved to 72%. ConclusionsLUR models for UFP were developed, based on a highly cost-effective short-term monitoring campaign at a large number of sites, with fair performance. Complementing the approach with further strategies to address sources of temporal variation of UFP is likely to result in improved models as indicated by the good performance of the model based on the subset of sites with one repeated measurement. Our approach is promising for UFP and possibly for other PM components requiring active sampling.

Rivera, Marcela; Basagańa, Xavier; Aguilera, Inmaculada; Agis, David; Bouso, Laura; Foraster, Maria; Medina-Ramón, Mercedes; Pey, Jorge; Künzli, Nino; Hoek, Gerard

2012-07-01

148

A Statistical Assessment of the Impact of Agricultural Land Use Intensity on Regional Surface Water Quality at Multiple Scales  

PubMed Central

Understanding the effects of intensive agricultural land use activities on water resources is essential for natural resource management and environmental improvement. In this paper, multi-scale nested watersheds were delineated and the relationships between two representative water quality indexes and agricultural land use intensity were assessed and quantified for the year 2000 using multi-scale regression analysis. The results show that the log-transformed nitrate-nitrogen (NO3-N) index exhibited a relationship with chemical fertilizer input intensity and several natural factors, including soil loss, rainfall and sunlight at the first order watershed scale, while permanganate index (CODMn) had a positive relationship with another two input intensities of pesticides and agricultural plastic mulch and organic manure at the fifth order watershed scale. The first order watershed and the fifth order watershed were considered as the watershed adaptive response units for NO3-N and CODMn, respectively. The adjustment of agricultural input and its intensity may be carried out inside the individual watershed adaptive response unit. The multiple linear regression model demonstrated the cause-and-effect relationship between agricultural land use intensity and stream water quality at multiple scales, which is an important factor for the maintenance of stream water quality. PMID:23202839

Zhang, Weiwei; Li, Hong; Sun, Danfeng; Zhou, Liandi

2012-01-01

149

Extraction of land use \\/ land cover - related information from very high resolution data in urban and suburban areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Very High Resolution (VHR) satellite images offer a great potential for the extraction of land- use and land-cover related information for urban areas. The available techniques are diverse and need to be further examined before operational use is possible. In this paper we applied two pixel-by-pixel classification techniques and the object-oriented image analysis approach (eCognition) for a land-cover classification of

T. Van de Voorde; W. De Genst; F. Canters; N. Stephenne; E. Wolff; M. Binard

2000-01-01

150

Urban land use monitoring from computer-implemented processing of airborne multispectral data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Machine processing techniques were applied to multispectral data obtained from airborne scanners at an elevation of 600 meters over central Indianapolis in August, 1972. Computer analysis of these spectral data indicate that roads (two types), roof tops (three types), dense grass (two types), sparse grass (two types), trees, bare soil, and water (two types) can be accurately identified. Using computers, it is possible to determine land uses from analysis of type, size, shape, and spatial associations of earth surface images identified from multispectral data. Land use data developed through machine processing techniques can be programmed to monitor land use changes, simulate land use conditions, and provide impact statistics that are required to analyze stresses placed on spatial systems.

Todd, W. J.; Mausel, P. W.; Baumgardner, M. F.

1976-01-01

151

VARIATIONS OF MICROORGANISM CONCENTRATIONS IN URBAN STORMWATER RUNOFF WITH LAND USE AND SEASONS  

EPA Science Inventory

Stormwater runoff samples were collected from outfalls draining small municipal separate storm sewer systems. The samples were collected from three different land use areas based on local designation (high-density residential, low-density residential, and landscaped commercial)....

152

Long-term effects of land use/land cover change on surface runoff in urban areas of Beijing, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objective of this paper is to present a case study to derive land use/land cover (LULC) maps and investigate the long-term effects of LULC change on surface runoff in the fast urbanizing Beijing city. The LULC maps were derived from Landsat TM/ETM+ imagery (acquired in 1992, 1999, 2006, and 2009) using support vector machine method. A long-term hydrologic impact assessment model was applied to assess the impact of LULC change on surface runoff. Results indicated that the selected study area experienced rapid urbanization from 1992 to 2009. Because of urbanization, from 1992 to 2009, modeled runoff increased 30% for the whole area and 35% for the urban portion. Our results also indicated that the runoff increase was highly correlated with urban expansion. A strong relationship (R2=0.849) was observed between the impervious surface percent and the modeled runoff depth in the study area. In addition, a strong positive relationship was observed between runoff increase and percentage of urban areas (R=0.997 for the whole area and R=0.930 for the urban portion). This research can provide a simple method for policy makers to assess potential hydrological impacts of future urban planning and development activities.

Sun, Zhongchang; Li, Xinwu; Fu, Wenxue; Li, Yingkui; Tang, Dongsheng

2014-01-01

153

SPECIAL FEATURE: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Land use and ecosystems Dynamics and sustainability of urban agriculture  

E-print Network

and the supply of adequate shelter, food, water and sanitation (UNFPA 2007; Hardoy et al. 2001). A response for Evaluating Sus- tainable Land Management (FESLM) developed by the Food and Agriculture Organization to urban food demands is urban and peri-urban agriculture, which can be broadly defined as the production

Richner, Heinz

154

Maximum Urban Heat Island Intensity in Seoul  

Microsoft Academic Search

The maximum urban heat island (UHI) intensity in Seoul, Korea, is investigated using data measured at two meteorological observatories (an urban site and a rural site) during the period of 1973-96. The average maximum UHI is weakest in summer and is strong in autumn and winter. Similar to previous studies for other cities, the maximum UHI intensity is more frequently

Yeon-Hee Kim; Jong-Jin Baik

2002-01-01

155

Linking land-use conversion and landscape-scale energy balance to explore the impact of the urban heat island (UHI) on the regional micrometeorological pattern  

Microsoft Academic Search

Linking land-use conversion and landscape-scale energy balance to explore the impact of the urban heat island (UHI) on the regional micrometeorological pattern Urban heat island (UHI) effect, which is recognized as a significant influence of anthropogenic environment modification, has been becoming one of the important issues for the urban climatology in many Asian mega- cities in the recent decades. The

J. Juang

2008-01-01

156

[Urban land use change detection based on high accuracy classification of multispectral remote sensing imagery].  

PubMed

In the present paper, the urban land change in Jiading district of Shanghai was studied on the basis of high accuracy classification for 4 epochs of multispectral remotely sensed imageries. A further improved genetic-algorithm optimized back propagation neural network approach was first employed in our study to obtain sorts of land cover types from the remotely sensed imageries. The urban land and non-urban land types were thus extracted based on the classification result. According to the 16 corresponding relationships between the pixel values in the four urban land imageries and the ones in the generated urban land change imagery, the amount of each type pixel in the generated imagery was calculated according to the four plates, and the situation of urban land change was analyzed and investigated for the study area in three year intervals. The urban development in the study area was also preliminarily revealed. PMID:19839324

Tong, Xiao-Hua; Zhang, Xue; Liu, Miao-Long

2009-08-01

157

Integrating Geospatial Technologies to Examine Urban Land Use Change: A Design Partnership  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes a design partnership that investigated how to integrate Google Earth, remotely sensed satellite and aerial imagery, with other instructional resources to investigate ground cover and land use in diverse middle school classrooms. Data analysis from the implementation study revealed that students acquired skills for…

Bodzin, Alec M.; Cirucci, Lori

2009-01-01

158

Hydro-Ecologic Responses to Land Use in Small Urbanizing Watersheds Within the Chesapeake Bay  

E-print Network

disturbance on food availability and effects of stream temper ature on spawning. We tabulate food availability, combining food availability and spawning day avail ability into a single index reveals highly stressful experienced profound land use change from the colonial period to the present. At their height, agricultural

Palmer, Margaret A.

159

Variation of microorganism concentrations in urban stormwater runoff with land use and seasons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stormwater runoff samples were collected from outfalls draining small municipal separate storm sewer systems. The samples were collected from three different land use areas based on local designation (high-density residential, low-density residential and landscaped commercial). The concentrations of microorganisms in the stormwater runoff were found to be similar in magnitude to, but less variable than, those reported in the stormwater

Ariamalar Selvakumar; Michael Borst

2006-01-01

160

A technical review of urban land use - transportation models as tools for evaluating vehicle travel reduction strategies  

SciTech Connect

The continued growth of highway traffic in the United States has led to unwanted urban traffic congestion as well as to noticeable urban air quality problems. These problems include emissions covered by the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) and 1991 Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act (ISTEA), as well as carbon dioxide and related {open_quotes}greenhouse gas{close_quotes} emissions. Urban travel also creates a major demand for imported oil. Therefore, for economic as well as environmental reasons, transportation planning agencies at both the state and metropolitan area level are focussing a good deal of attention on urban travel reduction policies. Much discussed policy instruments include those that encourage fewer trip starts, shorter trip distances, shifts to higher-occupancy vehicles or to nonvehicular modes, and shifts in the timing of trips from the more to the less congested periods of the day or week. Some analysts have concluded that in order to bring about sustainable reductions in urban traffic volumes, significant changes will be necessary in the way our households and businesses engage in daily travel. Such changes are likely to involve changes in the ways we organize and use traffic-generating and-attracting land within our urban areas. The purpose of this review is to evaluate the ability of current analytic methods and models to support both the evaluation and possibly the design of such vehicle travel reduction strategies, including those strategies involving the reorganization and use of urban land. The review is organized into three sections. Section 1 describes the nature of the problem we are trying to model, Section 2 reviews the state of the art in operational urban land use-transportation simulation models, and Section 3 provides a critical assessment of such models as useful urban transportation planning tools. A number of areas are identified where further model development or testing is required.

Southworth, F.

1995-07-01

161

Analysis of Urban-Rural Land-Use Change during 1995-2006 and Its Policy Dimensional Driving Forces in Chongqing, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyzes the urban-rural land-use change of Chongqing and its policy dimensional driving forces from 1995 to 2006, using high-resolution Landsat TM (Thematic Mapper) data of 1995, 2000 and 2006, and socio-economic data from both research institutes and government departments. The outcomes indicated that urban-rural land-use change in Chongqing can be characterized by two major trends: First, the non-agricultural

Hualou Long; Xiuqin Wu; Wenjie Wang; Guihua Dong

2008-01-01

162

The rebound of private zoning: property rights and local governance in urban land use  

Microsoft Academic Search

NIMBY and regulatory takings are two well-known phenomena associated with land-use change in US cities. I claim that both are manifestations of what economists refer to as a 'hold-up problem' and analyze how fast-growing private zoning, namely the ground-lease system and common interest developments, have evolved to respond to these problems. My argument is based on two spatial facts: the

F Frederic Deng

2003-01-01

163

Urban land use change of Nanjing, China, using multitemporal satellite data  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, two Landsat (TM\\/ETM) images acquired (1987, 1998) and maps in 1920, 1966, are being used to investigate urban growth in Nanjing using multitemporal change detection techniques. Also, change detection techniques may be tested and evaluated through the study to help in finding the appropriate method to monitor urban growth using remote sensing technology. The satellite images are

Chang-Qing Ke; Lu Xia; Ma Bai; Duoji Qimei

2008-01-01

164

Linking primary production, climate and land use along an urban-wildland transect: a satellite view  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Variation of green vegetation cover influences local climate dynamics, exchange of water-heat between land and atmosphere, and hydrological processes. However, the mechanism of interaction between vegetation and local climate change in subtropical areas under climate warming and anthropogenic disturbances is poorly understood. We analyzed spatial-temporal trends of vegetation with moderate-resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) vegetation index datasets over three sections, namely urban, urban-rural fringe and wildland along an urban-wildland transect in a southern mega-city area in China from 2000-2008. The results show increased photosynthetic activity occurred in the wildland and the stable urban landscape in correspondence to the rising temperature, and a considerable decrease of vegetation activity in the urban-rural fringe area, apparently due to urban expansion. On analyzing the controlling factors of climate change and human drivers of vegetation cover change, we found that temperature contributed to vegetation growth more than precipitation and that rising temperature accelerated plant physiological activity. Meanwhile, human-induced dramatic modification of land cover, e.g. conversion of natural forest and cropland to built-up areas in the urban-rural fringe, has caused significant changes of green vegetation fraction and overall primary production, which may further influence local climate.

Hu, Yonghong; Jia, Gensuo; Guo, Huadong

2009-10-01

165

Detecting agricultural to urban land use change from multi-temporal MSS digital data. [Salt Lake County, Utah  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Conversion of agricultural land to a variety of urban uses is a major problem along the Wasatch Front, Utah. Although LANDSAT MSS data is a relatively coarse tool for discriminating categories of change in urban-size plots, its availability prompts a thorough test of its power to detect change. The procedures being applied to a test area in Salt Lake County, Utah, where the land conversion problem is acute are presented. The identity of land uses before and after conversion was determined and digital procedures for doing so were compared. Several algorithms were compared, utilizing both raw data and preprocessed data. Verification of results involved high quality color infrared photography and field observation. Two data sets were digitally registered, specific change categories internally identified in the software, results tabulated by computer, and change maps printed at 1:24,000 scale.

Ridd, M. K.; Merola, J. A.; Jaynes, R. A.

1983-01-01

166

Remote sensing applications for urban planning - The LUMIS project. [Land Use Management Information System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Santa Monica mountains of Los Angeles consist primarily of complexly folded sedimentary marine strata with igneous and metamorphic rocks at the eastern end of the mountains. With the increased development of the Santa Monicas, a study was conducted to determine the critical land use data items in the mountains. Two information systems developed in parallel are described. One capitalizes on the City's present computer line printer system, and the second utilizes map overlay techniques on an interactive computer terminal. Results concerning population, housing, and land improvement illustrate the successful linking of ordinal and nominal data files in the interactive system.-

Paul, C. K.; Landini, A. J.; Diegert, C.

1975-01-01

167

Effects of Land-Use Intensity in Tropical Agroforestry Systems on Coffee Flower-Visiting and Trap-Nesting Bees and Wasps  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tropical landscapes are dominated by agroecosystems, and most species that survive in forest rem- nants interact with these agroecosystems. The potential value of agroecosystems for aiding species survival is often ignored. Essential ecosystem services may suffer when functional groups such as pollinators and preda- tors are affected by land use. We used agroforestry systems differing in land-use intensity to examine

Alexandra-Maria Klein; Ingolf Steffan-Dewenter; Damayanti Buchori; Teja Tscharntke

2002-01-01

168

Nutrient concentrations and fibre contents of plant community biomass reflect species richness patterns along a broad range of land-use intensities among agricultural grasslands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understanding changes in biodiversity in agricultural landscapes in relation to land-use type and intensity is a major issue in current ecological research. In this context nutrient enrichment has been identified as a key mechanism inducing species loss in Central European grassland ecosystems. At the same time, insights into the linkage between agricultural land use and plant nutrient status are largely

Valentin H. Klaus; Till Kleinebecker; Norbert Hölzel; Nico Blüthgen; Steffen Boch; Jörg Müller; Stephanie A. Socher; Daniel Prati; Markus Fischer

2011-01-01

169

Streambed phosphorus in paired catchments with different agricultural land use intensity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stream-bed sediments from three paired catchments, each draining a lower agricultural intensity system and a higher agricultural intensity system, were analysed for (a) total P (TP), (b) bioavailable-P (Resin-P), (c) equilibrium phosphorus concentration (EPC0), and (d) degree of phosphorus saturation (DPS). The influence of agriculture on sediment P was explored within the context of other key variables that may control

Elizabeth J. Palmer-Felgate; Helen P. Jarvie; Paul J. A. Withers; Robert J. G. Mortimer; Michael D. Krom

2009-01-01

170

The Implementation of a Geospatial Information Technology (GIT)-Supported Land Use Change Curriculum with Urban Middle School Learners to Promote Spatial Thinking  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated whether a geospatial information technology (GIT)-supported science curriculum helped students in an urban middle school understand land use change (LUC) concepts and enhanced their spatial thinking. Five 8th grade earth and space science classes in an urban middle school consisting of three different ability level tracks…

Bodzin, Alec M.

2011-01-01

171

Land-use and meteorological aspects of the urban heat island  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the influence of urban and meteorological factors on the surface air temperature field of the medium-sized city of Szeged, Hungary, using mobile and stationary measurements under different weather conditions between March and August 1999. This city, with a population of about 160 000, is situated on a low, flat flood plain. Efforts have been concentrated on investigating

J. Unger; Z. Sümeghy; Á. Gulyás; Z. Bottyán; L. Mucsi

2001-01-01

172

TECHNICAL REPORTS Urban landscapes contain a mix of land-use types with different  

E-print Network

of disturbance and fertilization in the grasslands. Carbon dioxide flux, organic matter, and microbial biomass2 O) flux in four urban grassland and eight forested long-term study plots in the Baltimore and was higher in grass than forest plots, except in a very dry year and when a disturbed forest plot

Berkowitz, Alan R.

173

Earthworm abundance and nitrogen mineralization rates along an urban-rural land use gradient  

Microsoft Academic Search

Preliminary observations of glaciated regions in North America suggest that forest stands associated with urban areas may support high populations of non-native species of earthworms relative to forests in rural areas. Moreover, the presence of these non-native species of worms may be moderating the effects of pollutant deposition on litter quality, or the decomposability of litter, and subsequently nutrient cycling

David A. Steinberg; Richard V. Pouyat; Robert W. Parmelee; Peter M. Groffman

1997-01-01

174

Protocols for the Evaluating the Effects of Land -use Patterns and Runoff Management on Urban Streams  

Microsoft Academic Search

The design of urban runoff management facilities generally includes peak shaving for flood control, and best management practices (BMPs) for removi ng pollutants from the runoff. A number of scientists have concluded that the combination of these two control practices, which were developed independently of one another, is not sufficient to protect aquatic ecosystems. But these conclusions have focu sed

Larry A. Roesner; Christine A. Rohrer

175

Rates, Trends, Causes, and Consequences of Urban Land-Use Change in the United States.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

There is little doubt that urban areas will continue to change and grow in size. Population growth, a driver of many of the changes, is not likely to cease or decrease in the near future. Associated with increasing population is an increase in the amount ...

C. S. Mladinich, D. J. Hester, J. L. Taylor, S. Glavac, W. Acevedo

2006-01-01

176

The urban heat island intensity in Hefei City  

Microsoft Academic Search

The urban heat island is a phenomenon that the atmosphere temperature of the sky of the city near the ground is higher than the one outside the city, and it has business with the land use. Based on the Mono-window algorithm, the urban surface temperature of two imagines is retrieved by using of the Landsat TM data. The urban temperature

Liangsong Zha; Yingying Wang; Xinyuan Wang

2009-01-01

177

Relationship between land-use intensity and species richness and abundance of birds in Hungary  

Microsoft Academic Search

When Hungary, together with nine other central and eastern European countries, enters the European Union in 2004 two major threats will arise to the birds inhabiting agricultural landscapes. Marginal agricultural land may be abandoned, while the remaining area may suffer from intensification. To assess the effects of these threats breeding birds were monitored in abandoned, extensively and intensively used vineyards

Jort Verhulst; András Báldi; David Kleijn

2004-01-01

178

PHOSPHORUS RUNOFF FROM SMALL AGRICULTURAL CATCHMENTS UNDER DIFFERENT LAND USE INTENSITY  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study was carried out in the hydrologic year 2006 and comprised two small agri- cultural catchments in the Masurian Lakeland. Both catchments possessed very large wa- ter retention potential (presence of buffer zones and surface waters in the catchments) but they differed in the intensity of agricultural production. The study has demonstrated that the concentration of phosphorus in the

Andrzej Skwierawski; Katarzyna Sobczyńska-Wójcik

2008-01-01

179

Impact of Land Use Intensity on the Species Diversity of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi in Agroecosystems of Central Europe  

PubMed Central

The impact of land use intensity on the diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) was investigated at eight sites in the “three-country corner” of France, Germany, and Switzerland. Three sites were low-input, species-rich grasslands. Two sites represented low- to moderate-input farming with a 7-year crop rotation, and three sites represented high-input continuous maize monocropping. Representative soil samples were taken, and the AMF spores present were morphologically identified and counted. The same soil samples also served as inocula for “AMF trap cultures” with Plantago lanceolata, Trifolium pratense, and Lolium perenne. These trap cultures were established in pots in a greenhouse, and AMF root colonization and spore formation were monitored over 8 months. For the field samples, the numbers of AMF spores and species were highest in the grasslands, lower in the low- and moderate-input arable lands, and lowest in the lands with intensive continuous maize monocropping. Some AMF species occurred at all sites (“generalists”); most of them were prevalent in the intensively managed arable lands. Many other species, particularly those forming sporocarps, appeared to be specialists for grasslands. Only a few species were specialized on the arable lands with crop rotation, and only one species was restricted to the high-input maize sites. In the trap culture experiment, the rate of root colonization by AMF was highest with inocula from the permanent grasslands and lowest with those from the high-input monocropping sites. In contrast, AMF spore formation was slowest with the former inocula and fastest with the latter inocula. In conclusion, the increased land use intensity was correlated with a decrease in AMF species richness and with a preferential selection of species that colonized roots slowly but formed spores rapidly. PMID:12732553

Oehl, Fritz; Sieverding, Ewald; Ineichen, Kurt; Mader, Paul; Boller, Thomas; Wiemken, Andres

2003-01-01

180

Project ATLANTA (Atlanta Land use Analysis: Temperature and Air Quality): Use of Remote Sensing and Modeling to Analyze How Urban Land Use Change Affects Meteorology and Air Quality Through Time  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents an overview of Project ATLANTA (ATlanta Land use ANalysis: Temperature and Air-quality) which is an investigation that seeks to observe, measure, model, and analyze how the rapid growth of the Atlanta, Georgia metropolitan area since the early 1970's has impacted the region's climate and air quality. The primary objectives for this research effort are: (1) To investigate and model the relationships between land cover change in the Atlanta metropolitan, and the development of the urban heat island phenomenon through time; (2) To investigate and model the temporal relationships between Atlanta urban growth and land cover change on air quality; and (3) To model the overall effects of urban development on surface energy budget characteristics across the Atlanta urban landscape through time. Our key goal is to derive a better scientific understanding of how land cover changes associated with urbanization in the Atlanta area, principally in transforming forest lands to urban land covers through time, has, and will, effect local and regional climate, surface energy flux, and air quality characteristics. Allied with this goal is the prospect that the results from this research can be applied by urban planners, environmental managers and other decision-makers, for determining how urbanization has impacted the climate and overall environment of the Atlanta area. Multiscaled remote sensing data, particularly high resolution thermal infrared data, are integral to this study for the analysis of thermal energy fluxes across the Atlanta urban landscape.

Quattrochi, Dale A.; Luvall, Jeffrey C.; Estes, Maurice G., Jr.

1999-01-01

181

Detecting land-use/land-cover change in rural-urban fringe areas using extended change-vector analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Detecting land-use/land-cover (LULC) changes in rural-urban fringe areas (RUFAs) timely and accurately using satellite imagery is essential for land-use planning and management in China. Although traditional spectral-based change-vector analysis (CVA) can effectively detect LULC change in many cases, it encounters difficulties in RUFAs because of deficiencies in the spectral information of satellite images. To detect LULC changes in RUFAs effectively, this paper proposes an extended CVA approach that incorporates textural change information into the traditional spectral-based CVA. The extended CVA was applied to three different pilot RUFAs in China with different remotely sensed data, including Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM), China-Brazil Earth Resources Satellite (CBERS) and Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS) images. The results demonstrated the improvement of the extended CVA compared to the traditional spectral-based CVA with the overall accuracy increased between 4.66% and 8.00% and the kappa coefficient increased between 0.10 and 0.15, respectively. The advantage of the extended CVA lies in its integration of both spectral and textural change information to detect LULC changes, allowing for effective discrimination of LULC changes that are spectrally similar but texturally different in RUFAs. The extended CVA has great potential to be widely used for LULC-change detection in RUFAs, which are often heterogeneous and fragmental in nature, with rich textural information.

He, Chunyang; Wei, Anni; Shi, Peijun; Zhang, Qiaofeng; Zhao, Yuanyuan

2011-08-01

182

Analysis of Urban-Rural Land-Use Change during 1995-2006 and Its Policy Dimensional Driving Forces in Chongqing, China  

PubMed Central

This paper analyzes the urban-rural land-use change of Chongqing and its policy dimensional driving forces from 1995 to 2006, using high-resolution Landsat TM (Thematic Mapper) data of 1995, 2000 and 2006, and socio-economic data from both research institutes and government departments. The outcomes indicated that urban-rural land-use change in Chongqing can be characterized by two major trends: First, the non-agricultural land increased substantially from 1995 to 2006, thus causing agricultural land especially farmland to decrease continuously. Second, the aggregation index of urban settlements and rural settlements shows that local urban-rural development experienced a process of changing from aggregation (1995-2000) to decentralization (2000-2006). Chongqing is a special area getting immersed in many important policies, which include the establishment of the municipality directly under the Central Government, the building of Three Gorges Dam Project, the Western China Development Program and the Grain-for-Green Programme, and bring about tremendous influences on its land-use change. By analyzing Chongqing's land-use change and its policy driving forces, some implications for its new policy of ‘Urban-rural Integrated Reform’ are obtained. That is more attentions need to be paid to curbing excessive and idle rural housing and consolidating rural construction land, and to laying out a scientific land-use plan for its rural areas taking such rural land-use issues as farmland occupation and rural housing land management into accounts, so as to coordinate and balance the urban-rural development.

Long, Hualou; Wu, Xiuqin; Wang, Wenjie; Dong, Guihua

2008-01-01

183

Assessment of urban heat island effect for different land use-land cover from micrometeorological measurements and remote sensing data for megacity Delhi  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Urban heat island intensities (UHI) have been assessed based on in situ measurements and satellite-derived observations for the megacity Delhi during a selected period in March 2010. A network of micrometeorological observational stations was set up across the city. Site selection for stations was based on dominant land use-land cover (LULC) classification. Observed UHI intensities could be classified into high, medium and low categories which overall correlated well with the LULC categories viz. dense built-up, medium dense built-up and green/open areas, respectively. Dense urban areas and highly commercial areas were observed to have highest UHI with maximum hourly magnitude peaking up to 10.7 °C and average daily maximum UHI reaching 8.3 °C. UHI obtained in the study was also compared with satellite-derived land surface temperatures (LST). UHI based on in situ ambient temperatures and satellite-derived land surface temperatures show reasonable comparison during nighttime in terms of UHI magnitude and hotspots. However, the relation was found to be poor during daytime. Further, MODIS-derived LSTs showed overestimation during daytime and underestimation during nighttime when compared with in situ skin temperature measurements. Impact of LULC was also reflected in the difference between ambient temperature and skin temperature at the observation stations as built-up canopies reported largest gradient between air and skin temperature. Also, a comparison of intra-city spatial temperature variations based UHI vis-ŕ-vis a reference rural site temperature-based UHI indicated that UHI can be computed with respect to the station measuring lowest temperature within the urban area in the absence of a reference station in the rural area close to the study area. Comparison with maximum and average UHI of other cities of the world revealed that UHI in Delhi is comparable to other major cities of the world such as London, Tokyo and Beijing and calls for mitigation action plans.

Mohan, Manju; Kikegawa, Yukihiro; Gurjar, B. R.; Bhati, Shweta; Kolli, Narendra Reddy

2013-05-01

184

Analysis of Land Use/Land Cover Changes Using Remote Sensing Data and GIS at an Urban Area, Tirupati, India  

PubMed Central

Land use/land cover (LU/LC) changes were determined in an urban area, Tirupati, from 1976 to 2003 by using Geographical Information Systems (GISs) and remote sensing technology. These studies were employed by using the Survey of India topographic map 57 O/6 and the remote sensing data of LISS III and PAN of IRS ID of 2003. The study area was classified into eight categories on the basis of field study, geographical conditions, and remote sensing data. The comparison of LU/LC in 1976 and 2003 derived from toposheet and satellite imagery interpretation indicates that there is a significant increase in built-up area, open forest, plantation, and other lands. It is also noted that substantial amount of agriculture land, water spread area, and dense forest area vanished during the period of study which may be due to rapid urbanization of the study area. No mining activities were found in the study area in 1976, but a small addition of mining land was found in 2003. PMID:23781152

Mallupattu, Praveen Kumar; Sreenivasula Reddy, Jayarama Reddy

2013-01-01

185

Dynamic modelling of future land use change under urbanization and climate change pressures: application to a case study in central Belgium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Projecting the future of the evolution of socio-ecological systems to analyse their sustainability under climate or other environmental changes is not straightforward. Current projections usually use process-oriented models describing the complex interactions within the physical/biological systems (ecosystems), while the socio-economic constraints are represented with the help of scenarios. However, the actual evolution can be expected to be much more complex, because of the mutual interactions between ecological and socio-economic systems. To represent these interactions, models must integrate the complex process of human decision at individual or society levels. Moreover, models must be spatially explicit, defining elementary spatial units on which can act both the physical factors and the human decision process. These spatial units (e.g., farm fields) must be described not only in terms of energy, water, carbon and nutrient flows, but also in terms of the flow of ecosystem goods and services (EGS) they provide to the society together with the management costs required to sustain them. The provision of EGS may be altered in the future in response to changes in the climate system and the environment, but also through various human pressures on the landscape such as urbanization, as well as through the reaction of human societies to these changes in EGS provision. In the VOTES ("Valuation Of Terrestrial Ecosystem Services in a multifunctional peri-urban space") project, we attempt to model this coupled socio-ecological system by combining a dynamic vegetation model (DVM) with an agent-based model (ABM). The DVM (CARAIB; Dury et al., iForest - Biogeosciences and Forestry, 4:82-99, 2011) model describes the evolution of physical and biological processes in the ecosystems, i.e. the impact of climate change and land management on the energy, water and carbon budgets, as well as the productivity of each simulated plant species present on each land unit. The original version of the model developed for natural vegetation has been upgraded to include crop systems and pastures. The ABM (Murray-Rust, Journal of Land Use Science, 6(2-3):83-99, 2011) describes the management choices (e.g., crop rotation, intensive agriculture or organic farming, etc) for each land plot, as well as the possible change in their affectation (e.g., conversion of farm fields to residential areas in response to urbanization), under different socio-economic contexts described in the storyline of three scenarios depicting general societal orientations (business-as-usual; market oriented; sustainability oriented). As a result, the ABM produces a dynamic evolution of land use and management options to be passed on to the DVM for further analysis. The outputs from the DVM allow evaluating quantitatively the provision of EGS by each land plot. This DVM-ABM modelling tool is thus able to describe the future evolution of land use and land cover, as well as of EGS production, in the context of socio-economic scenarios. The model is applied to a case study area covering four municipalities located in central Belgium close to Brussels and Leuven. The area is mostly composed of agricultural fields (crops and meadows), residential areas and a large protected forest (Meerdaalbos) and is subject to intense urbanization pressure due to the proximity to Brussels.

Jacquemin, I.; Fontaine, C. M.; Dendoncker, N.; François, L.; De Vreese, R.; Marek, A.; Mortelmans, D.; Van Herzele, A.; Devillet, G.

2012-04-01

186

Spatial Variations in the Relationships between Land Use and Water Quality across an Urbanization Gradient in the Watersheds of Northern Georgia, USA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A spatial statistical technique, Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR) is applied to study the spatial variations in the relationships between four land use indicators, including percentages of urban land, forest, agricultural land, and wetland, and eight water quality indicators including specific conductance (SC), dissolved oxygen, dissolved nutrients, and dissolved organic carbon, in the watersheds of northern Georgia, USA. The results show that GWR has better model performance than ordinary least squares regression (OLS) to analyze the relationships between land use and water quality. There are great spatial variations in the relationships affected by the urbanization level of watersheds. The relationships between urban land and SC are stronger in less-urbanized watersheds, while those between urban land and dissolved nutrients are stronger in highly-urbanized watersheds. Percentage of forest is an indicator of good water quality. Agricultural land is usually associated with good water quality in highly-urbanized watersheds, but might be related to water pollution in less-urbanized watersheds. This study confirms the results obtained from a similar study in eastern Massachusetts, and so suggest that GWR technique is a very useful tool in water environmental research and also has the potential to be applied to other fields of environmental studies and management in other regions.

Tu, Jun

2013-01-01

187

Mobile monitoring of particle light absorption coefficient in an urban area as a basis for land use regression.  

PubMed

Land use regression (LUR) is used to map spatial variability in air pollutant concentrations for risk assessment epidemiology, and air quality management. Conventional LUR requires long-term measurements at multiple locations, so application to particulate matter has been limited. Here we use mobile monitoring to characterize spatial variability in black carbon concentrations for LUR modeling. A particle soot absorption photometer in a moving vehicle was used to measure the absorption coefficient (sigma(ap)) during summertime periods of peak afternoon traffic at 39 locations. LUR was used to model the mean and 25th, 50th, 75th, and 90th percentile values of the distribution of 10 s measurements at each location. Model performance (measured by R2) was higher for the 25th and 50th percentiles (0.72 and 0.68, respectively) than for the mean, 75th and 90th percentiles (0.51, 0.55, and 0.54, respectively). Performance was similar to that reported for conventional LUR models of NO2 and NO in this region (116 sites) and better than that for mean sigma(ap) from fixed-location samplers (25 sites). Models of the mean, 75th, and 90th percentiles favored predictors describing truck, rather than total, traffic. This approach is applicable to other urban areas to facilitate the development of LUR models for particulate matter. PMID:19673250

Larson, Timothy; Henderson, Sarah B; Brauer, Michael

2009-07-01

188

Effects of urban land-use change on streamflow and water quality in Oakland County, Michigan, 1970-2003, as inferred from urban gradient and temporal analysis  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Various adverse hydrologic effects on streams have been attributed to urban development and expanded impervious surface area, including increased high flows, decreased low flows, increased variability (commonly referred to as flashiness), nutrient enrichment, and increased dissolved solids concentrations. These effects are often observed through the use of urban-gradient studies, which compare hydrologic characteristics among watersheds with different levels of development. This technique is frequently applied when comparable prior data are not available for the watersheds of interest. During 1966 - 1970, and again during 2001 - 2003, the U.S. Geological Survey collected a series of low-flow water-chemistry samples. Streamflow-gaging stations were operated throughout the period from 1966-2003 as part of ongoing monitoring operations. This study compares these two water-quality data sets; tests the streamflow data for trends in high flows, low flows, and flashiness; and correlates 2000 land use with water-quality and streamflow data collected during the 2001 - 2003 study. Despite substantial change in land use during 1980 - 2000, with urban land covers replacing open space, forest, and agriculture, little evidence is found in the time-series data of alteration of the daily streamflow characteristics or nutrient enrichment in the study watersheds. However, a distinct shift is observable in chloride concentrations. Strong positive correlations exist across the urban gradient between development and increased peak flows as well as between development and increased flashiness. Correlations of water-quality data to development metrics show strong positive correlations with increased dissolved solids and salt content, as well as increased concentrations of fecal indicator bacteria (Eschericia coli). This apparent contradiction may be caused by the differences in the changes measured in each analysis. The change-through-time approach describes change from a fixed starting point of approximately 1970; the gradient approach describes the cumulative effect of all change up to approximately 2000. These findings indicate that although urbanization in Oakland County results in most of the effects observed in the literature, as evidenced in the gradient approach, relatively few of the anticipated effects have been observed during the past three decades. This relative stability despite rapid land-cover change may be related to efforts to mitigate the effects of development and a general decrease in the density of new residential development. It may also be related to external factors such as climate variability and reduced atmospheric deposition of specific chemicals.

Aichele, Stephen S.

2005-01-01

189

Remote Sensing of Urban Land Cover/Land Use Change, Surface Thermal Responses, and Potential Meteorological and Climate Change Impacts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

City growth influences the development of the urban heat island (UHI), but the effect that local meteorology has on the UHI is less well known. This paper presents some preliminary findings from a study that uses multitemporal Landsat TM and ASTER data to evaluate land cover/land use change (LULCC) over the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MFSC) and its Huntsville, AL metropolitan area. Landsat NLCD data for 1992 and 2001 have been used to evaluate LULCC for MSFC and the surrounding urban area. Land surface temperature (LST) and emissivity derived from NLCD data have also been analyzed to assess changes in these parameters in relation to LULCC. Additionally, LULCC, LST, and emissivity have been identified from ASTER data from 2001 and 2011 to provide a comparison with the 2001 NLCD and as a measure of current conditions within the study area. As anticipated, the multi-temporal NLCD and ASTER data show that significant changes have occurred in land covers, LST, and emissivity within and around MSFC. The patterns and arrangement of these changes, however, is significant because the juxtaposition of urban land covers within and outside of MSFC provides insight on what impacts at a local to regional scale, the inter-linkage of these changes potentially have on meteorology. To further analyze these interactions between LULCC, LST, and emissivity with the lower atmosphere, a network of eleven weather stations has been established across the MSFC property. These weather stations provide data at a 10 minute interval, and these data are uplinked for use by MSFC facilities operations and the National Weather Service. The weather data are also integrated within a larger network of meteorological stations across north Alabama. Given that the MSFC weather stations will operate for an extended period of time, they can be used to evaluate how the building of new structures, and changes in roadways, and green spaces as identified in the MSFC master plan for the future, will potentially affect land cover LSTs across the Center. Moreover, the weather stations will also provide baseline data for developing a better understanding of how localized weather factors, such as extreme rainfall and heat events, affect micrometeorology. These data can also be used to model the interrelationships between LSTs and meteorology on a longer term basis to help evaluate how changes in these parameters can be quantified from satellite data collected in the future. In turn, the overall integration of multi-temporal meteorological information with LULCC, and LST data for MSFC proper and the surrounding Huntsville urbanized area can provide a perspective on how urban land surface types affect the meteorology in the boundary layer and ultimately, the UHI. Additionally, data such as this can be used as a foundation for modeling how climate change will potentially impact local and regional meteorology and conversely, how urban LULCC can or will influence changes on climate over the north Alabama area.

Quattrochi, Dale A.; Jedlovec, Gary; Meyer, Paul

2011-01-01

190

Effects of Urban Development on Water-Quality in the Piedmont of North Carolina-- The NAWQA Urban Land-Use Gradient Study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A study of urban basins located in the Piedmont of North Carolina is underway as part of the U. S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) to determine the relation between level of urban development and water quality. Data were collected from 30 basins on water chemistry (nutrient, pesticide, and ion concentrations), geomorphic and habitat characteristics, hydrologic stage, discharge, water temperature, pH, dissolved-oxygen concentration, specific conductance, benthic algae, invertebrate communities, and fish communities. Collection frequency for water chemistry ranged from 2 samples (at 20 sites) to 6 samples (at 10 sites). Biological data were collected in each basin twice. Investigation of the effects of urbanization on water quality must control for the effects of natural factors, while varying the degree of urbanization between study basins. A regional framework was used to control variability in natural factors that influence water-quality. The urban intensity in each basin was measured by using an index to integrate information on human influences. The Urban Index includes information about land cover, infrastructure, population, and socioeconomic characteristics. Sites were selected to represent the full gradient of undeveloped to fully urbanized basins. A preliminary review of the stream water-chemistry data indicates distinct relations between ionic composition and the Urban Index. Mean specific conductance was positively correlated with the Urban Index (Spearman correlation coefficient (r) = 0.77; 95-percent confidence limits (95CL) 0.61 - 0.93; probability (pr) <0.0001; N=30). Specific conductance ranged from 56 microsiemens (uS) at the least developed site to 607 uS at the most developed site. Dissolved sulfate (r=0.74; 95CL 0.57 - 0.91; pr <0.0001) and chloride (r=0.71; 95CL 0.52 - 0.90; pr <0.0001) were also positively correlated with the Urban Index. Sulfate ranged from 2.3 to 66 milligrams per liter (mg/L), and chloride ranged from 3.5 to 96 mg/L. Urban sources of sulfate include domestic sewage and emissions from the combustion of automotive and diesel fuels. Sources of chloride include sewage and road salting. pH was positively correlated with the Urban Index (r=0.60; 95CL 0.38 - 0.84; pr= 0.0005) with a range from 6.5 at the least urban site to 7.5 at the most urban site. The increase in pH may be due in part to conversion of organic forest soils to less acidic soils of urban lawns. The overall trend of increasing total dissolved nitrogen (r=0.46; 95CL 0.12 - 0.80; pr=0.0103) and nitrite plus nitrate (r=0.46; 95CL 0.09 - 0.83; pr=0.0109) concentrations, with increasing Urban Index may reflect sources such as sewage and lawn fertilizer use in the more urban basins. However, some of the least urban basins also had elevated nitrogen concentrations reflecting possible agricultural influences such as fertilizer use and animal waste. Total nitrogen concentration ranged from 0.31 to 14 mg/L. Unit-area stream discharge during low-flow periods was negatively correlated with the Urban Index (r= -0.56; 95CL -0.74 - -0.37; pr=0.0014). Reduced discharge with greater urban development may be a result of reduced infiltration caused by impervious surfaces. Unit discharge ranged from 0.47 to 2.27 cubic feet per second per square mile of drainage area.

Harned, D. A.; Cuffney, T. F.; Giddings, E. M.; McMahon, G.

2004-12-01

191

Evaluation of land-use regression models used to predict air quality concentrations in an urban area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cohort studies designed to estimate human health effects of exposures to urban pollutants require accurate determination of ambient concentrations in order to minimize exposure misclassification errors. However, it is often difficult to collect concentration information at each study subject location. In the absence of complete subject-specific measurements, land-use regression (LUR) models have frequently been used for estimating individual levels of exposures to ambient air pollution. The LUR models, however, have several limitations mainly dealing with extensive monitoring data needs and challenges involved in their broader applicability to other locations. In contrast, air quality models can provide high-resolution source-concentration linkages for multiple pollutants, but require detailed emissions and meteorological information. In this study, first we predicted air quality concentrations of PM 2.5, NO x, and benzene in New Haven, CT using hybrid modeling techniques based on CMAQ and AERMOD model results. Next, we used these values as pseudo-observations to develop and evaluate the different LUR models built using alternative numbers of (training) sites (ranging from 25 to 285 locations out of the total 318 receptors). We then evaluated the fitted LUR models using various approaches, including: 1) internal "Leave-One-Out-Cross-Validation" (LOOCV) procedure within the "training" sites selected; and 2) "Hold-Out" evaluation procedure, where we set aside 33-293 tests sites as independent datasets for external model evaluation. LUR models appeared to perform well in the training datasets. However, when these LUR models were tested against independent hold out (test) datasets, their performance diminished considerably. Our results confirm the challenges facing the LUR community in attempting to fit empirical response surfaces to spatially- and temporally-varying pollution levels using LUR techniques that are site dependent. These results also illustrate the potential benefits of enhancing basic LUR models by utilizing air quality modeling tools or concepts in order to improve their reliability or transferability.

Johnson, Markey; Isakov, V.; Touma, J. S.; Mukerjee, S.; Özkaynak, H.

2010-09-01

192

Simulation of Urban Heat Island Mitigation Strategies in Atlanta, GA Using High-Resolution Land Use/Land Cover Data Set to Enhance Meteorological Modeling  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The specification of land use/land cover (LULC) and associated land surface parameters in meteorological models at all scales has a major influence on modeled surface energy fluxes and boundary layer states. In urban areas, accurate representation of the land surface may be even more important than in undeveloped regions due to the large heterogeneity within the urban area. Deficiencies in the characterization of the land surface related to the spatial or temporal resolution of the data, the number of LULC classes defined, the accuracy with which they are defined, or the degree of heterogeneity of the land surface properties within each class may degrade the performance of the models. In this study, an experiment was conducted to test a new high-resolution LULC data set for meteorological simulations for the Atlanta, Georgia metropolitan area using a mesoscale meteorological model and to evaluate the effects of urban heat island (UHI) mitigation strategies on modeled meteorology for 2030. Simulation results showed that use of the new LULC data set reduced a major deficiency of the land use data used previously, specifically the poor representation of urban and suburban land use. Performance of the meteorological model improved substantially, with the overall daytime cold bias reduced by over 30%. UHI mitigation strategies were projected to offset much of a predicted urban warming between 2000 and 2030. In fact, for the urban core, the cooling due to UHI mitigation strategies was slightly greater than the warming associated with urbanization over this period. For the larger metropolitan area, cooling only partially offset the projected warming trend.

Crosson, William L.; Dembek, Scott; Estes, Maurice G., Jr.; Limaye, Ashutosh S.; Lapenta, William; Quattrochi, Dale A.; Johnson, Hoyt; Khan, Maudood

2006-01-01

193

Urban stream syndrome in a small, lightly developed watershed: a statistical analysis of water chemistry parameters, land use patterns, and natural sources.  

PubMed

The relationships among land use patterns, geology, soil, and major solute concentrations in stream water for eight tributaries of the Kayaderosseras Creek watershed in Saratoga County, NY, were investigated using Pearson correlation coefficients and multivariate regression analysis. Sub-watersheds corresponding to each sampling site were delineated, and land use patterns were determined for each of the eight sub-watersheds using GIS. Four land use categories (urban development, agriculture, forests, and wetlands) constituted more than 99 % of the land in the sub-watersheds. Eleven water chemistry parameters were highly and positively correlated with each other and urban development. Multivariate regression models indicated urban development was the most powerful predictor for the same eleven parameters (conductivity, TN, TP, NO[Formula: see text], Cl(-), HCO(-)3, SO9(2-)4, Na(+), K(+), Ca(2+), and Mg(2+)). Adjusted R(2) values, ranging from 19 to 91 %, indicated that these models explained an average of 64 % of the variance in these 11 parameters across the samples and 70 % when Mg(2+) was omitted. The more common R (2), ranging from 29 to 92 %, averaged 68 % for these 11 parameters and 72 % when Mg(2+) was omitted. Water quality improved most with forest coverage in stream watersheds. The strong associations between water quality variables and urban development indicated an urban source for these 11 water quality parameters at all eight sampling sites was likely, suggesting that urban stream syndrome can be detected even on a relatively small scale in a lightly developed area. Possible urban sources of Ca(2+) and HCO(-)3 are suggested. PMID:24554019

Halstead, Judith A; Kliman, Sabrina; Berheide, Catherine White; Chaucer, Alexander; Cock-Esteb, Alicea

2014-06-01

194

A study of the utilization of ERTS-1 data from the Wabash River Basin. [crop identification, water resources, urban land use, soil mapping, and atmospheric modeling  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author has identified the following significant results. The most significant results were obtained in the water resources research, urban land use mapping, and soil association mapping projects. ERTS-1 data was used to classify water bodies to determine acreages and high agreement was obtained with USGS figures. Quantitative evaluation was achieved of urban land use classifications from ERTS-1 data and an overall test accuracy of 90.3% was observed. ERTS-1 data classifications of soil test sites were compared with soil association maps scaled to match the computer produced map and good agreement was observed. In some cases the ERTS-1 results proved to be more accurate than the soil association map.

Landgrebe, D. A. (principal investigator)

1974-01-01

195

Project ATLANTA (ATlanta Land-use ANalysis: Temperature and Air quality): A Study of how the Urban Landscape Affects Meteorology and Air Quality Through Time  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is our intent through this investigation to help facilitate measures that can be Project ATLANTA (ATlanta Land-use ANalysis: applied to mitigate climatological or air quality Temperature and Air-quality) is a NASA Earth degradation, or to design alternate measures to sustain Observing System (EOS) Interdisciplinary Science or improve the overall urban environment in the future. investigation that seeks to observe, measure, model, and analyze how the rapid growth of the Atlanta. The primary objectives for this research effort are: 1) To In the last half of the 20th century, Atlanta, investigate and model the relationship between Atlanta Georgia has risen as the premier commercial, urban growth, land cover change, and the development industrial, and transportation urban area of the of the urban heat island phenomenon through time at southeastern United States. The rapid growth of the nested spatial scales from local to regional; 2) To Atlanta area, particularly within the last 25 years, has investigate and model the relationship between Atlanta made Atlanta one of the fastest growing metropolitan urban growth and land cover change on air quality areas in the United States. The population of the through time at nested spatial scales from local to Atlanta metropolitan area increased 27% between 1970 regional; and 3) To model the overall effects of urban and 1980, and 33% between 1980-1990 (Research development on surface energy budget characteristics Atlanta, Inc., 1993). Concomitant with this high rate of across the Atlanta urban landscape through time at population growth, has been an explosive growth in nested spatial scales from local to regional. Our key retail, industrial, commercial, and transportation goal is to derive a better scientific understanding of how services within the Atlanta region. This has resulted in land cover changes associated with urbanization in the tremendous land cover change dynamics within the Atlanta area, principally in transforming forest lands to metropolitan region, wherein urbanization has urban land covers through time, has, and will, effect consumed vast acreas of land adjacent to the city local and regional climate, surface energy flux, and air proper and has pushed the rural/urban fringe farther quality characteristics. Allied with this goal is the and farther away from the original Atlanta urban core. prospect that the results from this research can be An enormous transition of land from forest and applied by urban planners, environmental managers agriculture to urban land uses has occurred in the and other decision-makers, for determining how Atlanta area in the last 25 years, along with subsequent urbanization has impacted the climate and overall

Quattrochi, Dale A.; Luvall, Jeffrey C.; Estes, Maurice G.; Lo, C. P.; Kidder, Stanley Q.; Hafner, Jan; Taha, Haider; Bornstein, Robert D.; Gillies, Robert R.; Gallo, Kevin P.

1998-01-01

196

Urban land-use effects on groundwater phosphate distribution in a shallow aquifer, Nanfei River basin, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Groundwater, surface water, soil and river sediment samples, and information on land use in the Nanfei River basin (NRB) of\\u000a China have been analyzed to study the geochemistry, distribution, and mobilization of phosphorus. The distribution of phosphate\\u000a (PO43–) and the relationships between PO43– and several constituents in groundwater were studied. Partial correlation analysis relating PO43– to types of land use

Jiazhong Qian; Lulu Wang; Hongbin Zhan; Zhou Chen

197

Analyses of Nocturnal Temperature Cooling-Rate Response to Historical Local-Scale Urban Land-Use/Land Cover Change  

E-print Network

temperatures [i.e., the urban heat island (UHI) effect]. This effect is usually measured as the relative researched example of this is the urban heat island (UHI)--the phenomenon of warmer urban envi- ronments for construction), and urban metabolism (i.e., the anthropogenic genera- tion of excess heat, water, and pollutants

Sheridan, Scott

198

Impact of land-use intensity on evaporation and surface runoff : processes and parameters for Eastern Burkina Faso, West Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Land-use is one of the main factors affecting the hydrological cycle in the Volta river\\u000abasin, where two major projects (GLOWA-Volta and VinVal) are dealing with the\\u000aelaboration of a land-use planning and decision support system for sustainable\\u000aagricultural production and water resource management. Both projects, especially\\u000aGLOWA-Volta need information about the seasonal dynamics of the actual evaporation\\u000aand surface

F. Bagayoko

2006-01-01

199

Comparison of the performances of land use regression modelling and dispersion modelling in estimating small-scale variations in long-term air pollution concentrations in a Dutch urban area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The performance of a Land Use Regression (LUR) model and a dispersion model (URBIS - URBis Information System) was compared in a Dutch urban area. For the Rijnmond area, i.e. Rotterdam and surroundings, nitrogen dioxide (NO 2) concentrations for 2001 were estimated for nearly 70 000 centroids of a regular grid of 100 × 100 m. A LUR model based upon measurements carried out on 44 sites from the Dutch national monitoring network and upon Geographic Information System (GIS) predictor variables including traffic intensity, industry, population and residential land use was developed. Interpolation of regional background concentration measurements was used to obtain the regional background. The URBIS system was used to estimate NO 2 concentrations using dispersion modelling. URBIS includes the CAR model (Calculation of Air pollution from Road traffic) to calculate concentrations of air pollutants near urban roads and Gaussian plume models to calculate air pollution levels near motorways and industrial sources. Background concentrations were accounted for using 1 × 1 km maps derived from monitoring and model calculations. Moderate agreement was found between the URBIS and LUR in calculating NO 2 concentrations ( R = 0.55). The predictions agreed well for the central part of the concentration distribution but differed substantially for the highest and lowest concentrations. The URBIS dispersion model performed better than the LUR model ( R = 0.77 versus R = 0.47 respectively) in the comparison between measured and calculated concentrations on 18 validation sites. Differences can be understood because of the use of different regional background concentrations, inclusion of rather coarse land use category industry as a predictor variable in the LUR model and different treatment of conversion of NO to NO 2. Moderate agreement was found between a dispersion model and a land use regression model in calculating annual average NO 2 concentrations in an area with multiple sources. The dispersion model explained concentrations at validation sites better.

Beelen, Rob; Voogt, Marita; Duyzer, Jan; Zandveld, Peter; Hoek, Gerard

2010-11-01

200

Regional land use studies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Remote sensing technology and data from instrumented satellites and high altitude aircraft are proposed for mapping land use on a current national basis, for monitoring changes and trends, and for creating statistical models which can be manipulated to demonstrate the probable effects of proposed land use and of environmental changes over large areas. Both Apollo spacecraft and aircraft photography were used; the spacecraft pictures delineated the cropland and urban boundaries more clearly. A computer model is also proposed for statistical analysis and for printing out updated maps automatically; this model will include a data bank which can be updated rapidly with changes detected by the computer.

Place, J. L.

1970-01-01

201

The legacy of land-use is revealed in the biogeochemistry of urban streams - 3-4-2014  

EPA Science Inventory

Urban streams are among the most profoundly impacted aquatic ecosystems, characterized by altered hydrology or burial, increased sediment input, and myriad pollutants. We present results from a series of urban stream studies that revealed unique geochemical and biochemical patte...

202

An assessment of soil productivity loss caused by expanding urban land use using remote sensing and soil productivity models  

Microsoft Academic Search

An EOS IDS project has been recently designed to assess the loss of soil productivity resulting from expanding urbanization in the U.S. and selected regions in Mexico and the Middle East using remotely sensed data and soil productivity models. The extent of urbanization will be determined by generating urban land cover layers from DMSP\\/OLS (Defense Meteorological Satellite Program's Operational Linescan

Egide Nizeyimana; Gary W. Petersen; Eric D. Warner; Xuenzheng Shi; Marc L. Imhoff; William T. Lawrence; Joseph M. Russo

1997-01-01

203

Impact of land use intensity and temperature on the reproductive performance of Dactylis glomerata populations in the southeastern Alps  

Microsoft Academic Search

An understanding of the processes and environmental conditions governing spatial variation in reproductive performance of\\u000a plants can provide important information about the factors characterizing plant community structure and influencing fitness\\u000a in natural plant populations, especially in the context of climate and land use change. In this study, 60 mountain populations\\u000a of Dactylis glomerata distributed along a fertilization regime in varying

Matteo Dainese

2011-01-01

204

A two-sector model of land use and deforestation: Funding urban development with a tax on urban and rural employment  

Microsoft Academic Search

We model a small country with an urban manufacturing sector and a rural agricultural sector. Government taxes rural and urban employment to finance urban infrastructure which contributes to urban production. The manufacturing wage is fixed, leading to urban unemployment. Expansion of cultivated area involves deforestation at frontiers. An increment to urban infrastructure may draw resources into the city but a

D. W. Jones

1992-01-01

205

The Application of Satellite-Derived, High-Resolution Land Use/Land Cover Data to Improve Urban Air Quality Model Forecasts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Local and state agencies are responsible for developing state implementation plans to meet National Ambient Air Quality Standards. Numerical models used for this purpose simulate the transport and transformation of criteria pollutants and their precursors. The specification of land use/land cover (LULC) plays an important role in controlling modeled surface meteorology and emissions. NASA researchers have worked with partners and Atlanta stakeholders to incorporate an improved high-resolution LULC dataset for the Atlanta area within their modeling system and to assess meteorological and air quality impacts of Urban Heat Island (UHI) mitigation strategies. The new LULC dataset provides a more accurate representation of land use, has the potential to improve model accuracy, and facilitates prediction of LULC changes. Use of the new LULC dataset for two summertime episodes improved meteorological forecasts, with an existing daytime cold bias of approx. equal to 3 C reduced by 30%. Model performance for ozone prediction did not show improvement. In addition, LULC changes due to Atlanta area urbanization were predicted through 2030, for which model simulations predict higher urban air temperatures. The incorporation of UHI mitigation strategies partially offset this warming trend. The data and modeling methods used are generally applicable to other U.S. cities.

Quattrochi, D. A.; Lapenta, W. M.; Crosson, W. L.; Estes, M. G., Jr.; Limaye, A.; Kahn, M.

2006-01-01

206

Urban agricultural land use and characterization of mosquito larval habitats in a medium-sized town of Côte d'Ivoire.  

PubMed

Urban agriculture is common across Africa and contributes to the livelihoods of urban dwellers. Some crop systems create suitable mosquito breeding sites and thus might affect malaria transmission. The purpose of this study was to identify, map, and characterize potential mosquito breeding sites in agricultural land use zones in a medium-sized town of western Côte d'Ivoire and to assess risk factors for productive Anopheles breeding sites. Two surveys were carried out; one toward the end of the rainy season and the second one during the dry season. In all identified potential mosquito breeding sites, two experienced entomologists searched for the presence of Anopheles larvae and pupae with a standardized technique. Totals of 369 and 589 sites were found in the rainy and dry seasons, respectively, mainly in vegetable gardens and irrigated rice fields. Anopheles larvae were present in 50.7% and 42.4% of the sites investigated during the rainy and dry seasons, respectively. Typical Anopheles larval habitats were characterized by the presence of algae, the absence of floating vegetation, and the co-occurrence of Culex larvae. The highest Anopheles larval productivity was observed in rice paddies, agricultural trenches between vegetable patches, and irrigation wells. An indirect link could be established between the occurrence of productive Anopheles breeding sites and agricultural land use through specific man-made habitats, in particular agricultural trenches, irrigation wells, and rice paddies. Our findings have important bearings for the epidemiology and control of urban malaria in sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:17249350

Matthys, Barbara; N'Goran, Eliézer K; Koné, Moussa; Koudou, Benjamin G; Vounatsou, Penelope; Cissé, Guéladio; Tschannen, Andres B; Tanner, Marcel; Utzinger, Jürg

2006-12-01

207

An assessment of soil productivity loss caused by expanding urban land use using remote sensing and soil productivity models  

Microsoft Academic Search

An EOS IDS project has been recently designed to assess the loss of soil productivity resulting from expanding urbanization in the U.S. and selected regions in Mexico and the Middle East using remotely sensed data and soil productivity models. The extent of urbanization will be determined by generating urban land cover layers from DMSP\\/OLS (Defense Meteorological Satellite Program’s Operational Linescan

Egide Nizeyimana; Gary W. Petersen; Eric D. Warner; Xuenzheng Shi; Marc L. Imhoff; William T. Lawrence; Joseph M. Russo

1997-01-01

208

Assessing the effects of land use spatial structure on urban heat islands using HJ-1B remote sensing imagery in Wuhan, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Urban heat islands (UHIs) have attracted attention around the world because they profoundly affect biological diversity and human life. Assessing the effects of the spatial structure of land use on UHIs is essential to better understanding and improving the ecological consequences of urbanization. This paper presents the radius fractal dimension to quantify the spatial variation of different land use types around the hot centers. By integrating remote sensing images from the newly launched HJ-1B satellite system, vegetation indexes, landscape metrics and fractal dimension, the effects of land use patterns on the urban thermal environment in Wuhan were comprehensively explored. The vegetation indexes and landscape metrics of the HJ-1B and other remote sensing satellites were compared and analyzed to validate the performance of the HJ-1B. The results have showed that land surface temperature (LST) is negatively related to only positive normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) but to Fv across the entire range of values, which indicates that fractional vegetation (Fv) is an appropriate predictor of LST more than NDVI in forest areas. Furthermore, the mean LST is highly correlated with four class-based metrics and three landscape-based metrics, which suggests that the landscape composition and the spatial configuration both influence UHIs. All of them demonstrate that the HJ-1B satellite has a comparable capacity for UHI studies as other commonly used remote sensing satellites. The results of the fractal analysis show that the density of built-up areas sharply decreases from the hot centers to the edges of these areas, while the densities of water, forest and cropland increase. These relationships reveal that water, like forest and cropland, has a significant effect in mitigating UHIs in Wuhan due to its large spatial extent and homogeneous spatial distribution. These findings not only confirm the applicability and effectiveness of the HJ-1B satellite system for studying UHIs but also reveal the impacts of the spatial structure of land use on UHIs, which is helpful for improving the planning and management of the urban environment.

Wu, Hao; Ye, Lu-Ping; Shi, Wen-Zhong; Clarke, Keith C.

2014-10-01

209

Remote sensing image-based analysis of the relationship between urban heat island and land use\\/cover changes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Global warming has obtained more and more attention because the global mean surface temperature has increased since the late 19th century. As more than 50% of the human population lives in cities, urbanization has become an important contributor for global warming. Pearl River Delta (PRD) in Guangdong Province, southern China, is one of the regions experiencing rapid urbanization that has

Xiao-Ling Chen; Hong-Mei Zhao; Ping-Xiang Li; Zhi-Yong Yin

2006-01-01

210

Direct and indirect effects of land use on floral resources and flower-visiting insects across an urban landscape  

E-print Network

an urban landscape K. C. Matteson, J. B. Grace and E. S. Minor K. C. Matteson (kevmatteson@gmail.com) and E. Although urban areas are often considered to have uniformly negative effects on biodiversity, cities are most accurately characterized as heterogeneous mosaics of buildings, streets, parks, and gardens

Illinois at Chicago, University of

211

The impact of land use — land cover changes due to urbanization on surface microclimate and hydrology: a satellite perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vegetation cover, surface moisture availability (wetness) and radiant surface temperature constitute microclimatic variables derivable from multi-spectral satellite imagery. In addition, fraction impervious surface cover and urban-induced surface runoff (RO) are obtainable from such imagery when it is combined with a conventional image classification. Using AVHRR and Landsat TM data, we illustrate how these parameters respond to urbanization with a case

Toby N. Carlson; S. Traci Arthur

2000-01-01

212

Relation of urban land-use and dry-weather storm and snowmelt flow characteristics to stream-water quality, Shunganunga Creek basin, Topeka, Kansas  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Water-quality characteristics of streams draining Topeka, Kansas , and the Shunganunga Creek basin were investigated from October , 1979, through November 1981, to determine the effects of runoff from urban areas. Characteristics were determined at six sites and summarized statistically for three streamflow conditions-dry weather, storm, and snowmelt. Median concentrations of trace metals and nutrients were greater in storm streamflow than in dry-weather streamflow. Regression equations were developed to estimate median concentrations of total lead and zinc in storm streamflow from the percentage of drainage area in residential plus commercial land-use areas and from street density. Median concentrations of dissolved sodium, chloride, and solids were considerably greater in snowmelt streamflow than in dry-weather streamflow. Regression equations were also developed to estimate median concentrations of dissolved sodium, chloride, and solids from the summation of percentages of the drainage area in residential, commercial, and industrial land-use areas and from street density. Multiple-regression analysis relating storm-runoff volumes and average constituent concentrations to land-use and storm charactersitcs produced significant relations for storm-runoff volume, total lead, total zinc, and suspended sediment. (USGS)

Pope, L.M.; Bevans, H.E.

1984-01-01

213

Modeling urban growth and land use/land cover change in the Houston Metropolitan Area from 2002 - 2030  

E-print Network

spatially explicit cellular automata model, to simulate future (2002-2030) urban growth in the Houston metropolitan area, one of the fastest growing metropolises in the United States during the past decades. The model is calibrated with historical data...

Oguz, Hakan

2005-08-29

214

Resurrection of the Bombay trans-harbour link project by using Wheaton's monocentric models of urban land use  

E-print Network

BOMBAY TRANS-HARBOUR LINK PROJECT: A possible solution to Bombay's seemingly unsurmountable social problems. The primary idea behind this thesis is to present a new technique for the appraisal of large scale urban ...

Bhave, Shubhada

1987-01-01

215

Water- and sediment-quality effects on Pimephales promelas spawning vary along an agriculture-to-urban land-use gradient  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Many streams in the U.S. are "impaired" due to anthropogenic influence. For watershed managers to achieve practical understanding of these impairments, a multitude of factors must be considered, including point and nonpoint-source influence on water quality. A spawning assay was developed in this study to evaluate water- and sediment-quality effects that influenced Pimephales promelas (fathead minnow) egg production over a gradient of urban and agricultural land use in 27 small watersheds in Eastern Wisconsin. Six pairs of reproducing fathead minnows were contained in separate mesh cartridges within one larger flow-through chamber. Water- and sediment quality were sampled for an array of parameters. Egg production was monitored for each pair providing an assessment of spawning success throughout the 21-day test periods. Incidences of low dissolved oxygen (DO) in many of these streams negatively impacted spawning success. Nine of 27 streams experienced DO less than 3.1. mg/L and 15 streams experienced DO less than 4.8. mg/L. Low DO was observed in urban and agricultural watersheds, but the upper threshold of minimum DO decreased with increasing urban development. An increase in specific conductance was related to a decrease in spawning success. In previous studies for streams in this region, specific conductance had a linear relation with chloride, suggesting the possibility that chloride could be a factor in egg production. Egg production was lower at sites with substantial urban development, but sites with low egg production were not limited to urban sites. Degradation of water- and sediment-quality parameters with increasing urban development is indicated for multiple parameters while patterns were not detected for others. Results from this study indicate that DO must be a high priority watershed management consideration for this region, specific conductance should be investigated further to determine the mechanism of the relation with egg production, and water- and sediment-quality degrade in relation to urban influence. ?? 2011.

Corsi, S. R.; Klaper, R. D.; Weber, D. N.; Bannerman, R. T.

2011-01-01

216

Long-term energy consumptions of urban transportation: A prospective simulation of “transport–land uses” policies in Bangalore  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current trends of urban dynamics in the Third World are alarming with regard to climate change, because they are giving an increasingly important role to cars—to the detriment of public and non-motorized transportation. Yet this is the type of energy consumption that is expected to grow the fastest, in business-as-usual scenarios. How can these market-based urban trends be influenced?

Benoit Lefčvre

2009-01-01

217

Fish assemblage responses to urban intensity gradients in contrasting metropolitan areas: Birmingham, Alabama and Boston, Massachusetts  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We examined fish assemblage responses to urban intensify gradients in two contrasting metropolitan areas: Birmingham, Alabama (BIR) and Boston, Massachusetts (BOS). Urbanization was quantified by using an urban intensity index (UII) that included multiple stream buffers and basin land uses, human population density, and road density variables. We evaluated fish assemblage responses by using species richness metrics and detrended correspondence analyses (DCA). Fish species richness metrics included total fish species richness, and percentages of endemic species richness, alien species, and fluvial specialist species. Fish species richness decreased significantly with increasing urbanization in BIR (r = -0.82, P = 0.001) and BOS (r = -0.48, P = 0.008). Percentages of endemic species richness decreased significantly with increasing urbanization only in BIR (r = - 0.71, P = 0.001), whereas percentages of fluvial specialist species decreased significantly with increasing urbanization only in BOS (r = -0.56, P = 0.002). Our DCA results for BIR indicate that highly urbanized fish assemblages are composed primarily of largescale stoneroller Campostoma oligolepis, largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides, and creek chub Semotilus atromaculatus, whereas the highly urbanized fish assemblages in BOS are dominated by yellow perch Perca flavescens, bluegill Lefomis macrochirus, yellow bullhead Ameiurus natalis, largemouth bass, pumpkinseed L. gibbosus, brown bullhead A. nebulosus, and redfin pickerel Esox americanus. Differences in fish assemblage responses to urbanization between the two areas appear to be related to differences in nutrient enrichment, habitat alterations, and invasive species. Because species richness can increase or decrease with increasing urbanization, a general response model is not applicable. Instead, response models based on species' life histories, behavior, and autecologies offer greater potential for understanding fish assemblage responses to urbanization. ?? 2005 by the American Fisheries Society.

Meador, M. R.; Coles, J. F.; Zappia, H.

2005-01-01

218

Land Use Planning  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Computer technology, aerial photography and space imagery are being combined in a NASA community services program designed to help solve land use and natural resource planning problems. As urban areas grow, so grows the need for comprehensive, up-to-date information on which to base intelligent decisions regarding land use. State and local planners need information such as the nature of urban change, where the changes are occurring, how they affect public safety, transportation, the economy, tax assessment, sewer systems, water quality, flood hazard, noise impact and a great variety of other considerations. Most importantly they need continually updated maps. Preparing timely maps, gathering the essential data and maintaining it in orderly fashion are becoming matters of increasing difficulty. The NASA project, which has nationwide potential for improving efficiency in the planning process, is a pilot program focused on Tacoma, Washington and surrounding Pierce County. Its key element, developed by Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), is a computerized Land Use Management Information System (LUMIS).

1978-01-01

219

A two-sector model of land use and deforestation: Funding urban development with a tax on urban and rural employment  

SciTech Connect

We model a small country with an urban manufacturing sector and a rural agricultural sector. Government taxes rural and urban employment to finance urban infrastructure which contributes to urban production. The manufacturing wage is fixed, leading to urban unemployment. Expansion of cultivated area involves deforestation at frontiers. An increment to urban infrastructure may draw resources into the city but a large enough addition to infrastructure may cause the tax rate to rise by more than urban labor productivity, which would exacerbate frontier deforestation. Improvement of rural transportation raises rural wages, reduces the urban unemployment rate, and extends the area under cultivation, causing deforestation; it also reduces the employment tax rate, which permits expansion of fixed-wage urban manufacturing. Such a wide, sectoral distribution of benefits may help explain the popularity of such policies despite their damage to frontier forest resources.

Jones, D.W.; O`Neill, R.V.

1992-07-17

220

Concentration patterns of agricultural pesticides and urban biocides in surface waters of a catchment of mixed land use  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Organic pesticides and biocides that are found in surface waters, can originate from agricultural and urban sources. For a long time, agricultural pesticides have received substantially more attention than biocidal compounds from urban use like material protection or in-can preservatives (cosmetics etc.). Recent studies however revealed that the amounts of urban biocides used may exceed those of agricultural pesticides. This study aims at comparing the input of several important pesticides and biocides into a small Swiss stream with a special focus on loss events triggered by rainfall. A set of 16 substances was selected to represent urban and agricultural sources. The selected substances are either only used as biocides (irgarol, isothiazolinones, IPBC), as pesticides (atrazine, sulcotrione, dichlofluanid, tolylfluanid) or have a mixed use (isoproturon, terbutryn, terbutylazine, mecoprop, diazinon, carbendazim) The study catchment has an area of 25 km2 and is inhabited by about 12'000 people. Four sampling sites were selected in the river system in order to reflect different urban and agricultural sources. Additionally, we sampled a combined sewer overflow, a rain sewer and the outflow of a wastewater treatment plant. At each site discharge was measured continuously from March to November 2007. During 16 rain events samples were taken by automatic devices at a high temporal resolution. The results, based on more than 500 analyzed samples, revealed distinct concentration patterns for different compounds and sources. Agricultural pesticides exhibited a strong seasonality as expected based on the application periods. During the first one or two rain events after application the concentrations reached up to several thousand ng/l during peak flow (atrazine, isoproturon). The temporal patterns of urban biocides were more diverse. Some compounds obviously stem from permanent sources independent of rainfall because they were found mostly in the outlet of the wastewater treatment plant throughout the year. The insecticide diazinon for example showed a background concentration in treated waste water of approximately 50 ng/l. Substances like mecoprop, which are used in urban areas (roof protection, private gardens) and agriculture showed a mixed pattern. At the time scale of single events two concentration peaks have been observed. One of them was due to the fast reaction of sewer overflows or rain sewers carrying urban storm water. The delayed peak was caused by fast flow from agricultural soils. Overall, the study revealed complex concentration patterns for the different compounds. Source identification was only possible by means of a comprehensive approach including different nested measuring sites, a broad range of different compounds that were complemented by tracer substances like caffeine or drugs and their metabolites (sulfamethoxazole, N4-acetylsulfamethoxazole, diclofenac) that can be non-ambiguously attributed to sources like treated or untreated wastewater.

Stamm, C.; Wittmer, I.; Bader, H.-P.; Scheidegger, R.; Alder, A.; Lück, A.; Hanke, I.; Singer, H.

2009-04-01

221

Developing a framework to assess the water quality and quantity impacts of climate change, shifting land use, and urbanization in a Midwestern agricultural landscape  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dynamic hydrological processes play a critical role in the structure and functioning of agricultural watersheds undergoing urbanization. Developing a predictive understanding of the complex interaction between agricultural productivity, ecosystem health, water quality, urban development, and public policy requires an interdisciplinary effort that investigates the important biophysical and social processes of the system. Our research group has initiated such a framework that includes a coordinated program of integrated scenarios, model experiments to assess the effects of changing drivers on a broad set of ecosystem services, evaluations of governance and leverage points, outreach and public engagement, and information management. Our geographic focus is the Yahara River watershed in south-central Wisconsin, which is an exemplar of water-related issues in the Upper Midwest. This research addresses three specific questions. 1) How do different patterns of land use, land cover, land management, and water resources engineering practices affect the resilience and sensitivity of ecosystem services under a changing climate? 2) How can regional governance systems for water and land use be made more resilient and adaptive to meet diverse human needs? 3) In what ways are regional human-environment systems resilient and in what ways are they vulnerable to potential changes in climate and water resources? A comprehensive program of model experiments and biophysical measurements will be utilized to evaluate changes in five freshwater ecosystem services (flood regulation, groundwater recharge, surface water quality, groundwater quality, and lake recreation) and five related ecosystem services (food crop yields, bioenergy crop yields, carbon storage in soil, albedo, and terrestrial recreation). Novel additions to existing biophysical models will allow us to simulate all components of the hydrological cycle as well as agricultural productivity, nitrogen and phosphorus transport, and lake water quality. The integrated model will be validated using a comprehensive observational database that includes soil moisture, evapotranspiration, stomatal conductance, streamflow, stream and lake water quality, and crop yields and productivity. Integrated scenarios will be developed to synthesize decision-maker perspectives, alternative approaches to resource governance, plausible trends in demographic and economic drivers, and model projections under alternate climate and land use regimes to understand future conditions of the watershed and its ecosystem services. The quantitative data and integrated scenarios will then be linked to evaluate governance of water and land use.

Loheide, S. P.; Booth, E. G.; Kucharik, C. J.; Carpenter, S. R.; Gries, C.; Katt-Reinders, E.; Rissman, A. R.; Turner, M. G.

2011-12-01

222

Land use effects on water quality in the urban agglomeration of Cuiabá and Várzea Grande, Mato Grosso State, central Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates the relationship between spatial patterns of water quality and land occupation in the cities of Cuiabá and Várzea Grande, Mato Grosso state, Brazil, applying Geographic Information System (GIS) techniques and Polynomial Redundancy Analysis. The results show a strong relationship between water quality and population density, urbanization rate and regionalized low water runoff. Higher treatment rates improve oxygenation

Peter Zeilhofer; Eliana Beatriz Nunes Rondon Lima; Gilson Alberto Rosa Lima

2010-01-01

223

Effects of land use, topography and socio-economic factors on river water quality in a mountainous watershed with intensive agricultural production in East china.  

PubMed

Understanding the primary effects of anthropogenic activities and natural factors on river water quality is important in the study and efficient management of water resources. In this study, analysis of Variance (ANOVA), Principal component analysis (PCA), Pearson correlations, Multiple regression analysis (MRA) and Redundancy analysis (RDA) were applied as an integrated approach in a GIS environment to explore the temporal and spatial variations in river water quality and to estimate the influence of watershed land use, topography and socio-economic factors on river water quality based on 3 years of water quality monitoring data for the Cao-E River system. The statistical analysis revealed that TN, pH and temperature were generally higher in the rainy season, whereas BOD5, DO and turbidity were higher in the dry season. Spatial variations in river water quality were related to numerous anthropogenic and natural factors. Urban land use was found to be the most important explanatory variable for BOD5, CODMn, TN, DN, NH4+-N, NO3--N, DO, pH and TP. The animal husbandry output per capita was an important predictor of TP and turbidity, and the gross domestic product per capita largely determined spatial variations in EC. The remaining unexplained variance was related to other factors, such as topography. Our results suggested that pollution control of animal waste discharge in rural settlements, agricultural runoff in cropland, industrial production pollution and domestic pollution in urban and industrial areas were important within the Cao-E River basin. Moreover, the percentage of the total overall river water quality variance explained by an individual variable and/or all environmental variables (according to RDA) can assist in quantitatively identifying the primary factors that control pollution at the watershed scale. PMID:25090375

Chen, Jiabo; Lu, Jun

2014-01-01

224

Determination of the effects of temporal change in urban and agricultural land uses as seen in the example of the town of Akhisar, using remote sensing techniques.  

PubMed

Today, as a result of erratic and unplanned urbanization, towns are rapidly becoming a mass of concrete and town-dwellers are suffocated by their busy and stressful professional lives. They feel a need for places where they can find breathing-space in their free time. Green areas within towns are important spaces where townspeople are able to carry out recreational activities. These places form a link between townspeople and nature. The importance of urban green areas is increasing with every passing day due to their social, psychological, ecological, physical and economic functions and their impact on the quality of towns. In this study it has been attempted to demonstrate the pressures of urban development on agricultural land by determining the changing land use situation over the years in the district of Akhisar. In this research, an aerial photograph from year 1939 and satellite images of the town from the years 2000 and 2007 were used. Land use changes in the region were determined spatially. As a result of this study, which aims to determine in which direction urbanization is progressing in the district, the importance of town planning emerges. This study will be informative for the local authorities in their future town planning projects. With its flat and almost flat fertile arable land, the district of Akhisar occupies an important position within the province of Manisa. From the point of view of olive production the region is one of Turkey's important centres. Fifty-five percent of the olive production in the province of Manisa is realized in Akhisar. However, the results of the present study show that while agricultural areas comprised 2.5805 km(2) in 1939, these had diminished to 1.5146 km(2) in the year 2000 and had diminished to 1.0762 km(2) in the year 2007 and residential area (dense) 0.449 km(2) occupied in 1939, in the year 2000 this had risen to 1.9472 and 2.3238 km(2) in the year 2007. This planless urbanization in the study area has led to great losses of farmland. PMID:18404409

Gulgun, Bahriye; Yörük, Ismail; Turkyilmaz, Bahar; Bolca, Mustafa; Güne?, Asli

2009-03-01

225

Land use intensity and landscape complexity—Analysis of landscape characteristics in an agricultural region in Southern Sweden  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is generally recognised that agricultural intensification has lead to simplification of landscape structure, but it has not been clarified if this is a ubiquitous relationship. That is, it has been an open question whether agricultural intensity and landscape simplicity should be regarded as one single or as two separate dimensions. To evaluate this we analysed landscape data in 136

Anna S. Persson; Ola Olsson; Maj Rundlöf; Henrik G. Smith

2010-01-01

226

Numerical Modelling of Urban Heat-Island Intensity  

Microsoft Academic Search

A three-dimensional, non-hydrostatic, high-resolution numerical model was used toanalyse urban heat-island (UHI) intensity in an idealised but realistic configuration.The urban area was 20 km square and lay on flat land at about latitude 50° Nin a maritime climate. In the model the urban area was represented by anomalies ofalbedo, anthropogenic heat flux, emissivity, roughness length, sky-view factor (SVF),surface resistance to

B. W. Atkinson

2003-01-01

227

Catchment export of carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus across an agro-urban land use gradient, Swan-Canning River system, southwestern Australia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coastal regions in many regions of the world are under increasing pressure from the expansion of agriculture and urbanization associated with elevated N and P loading and eutrophication of coastal estuaries. I compared how mixed land use catchments deliver dissolved and particulate forms of C, N, and P in streamflow to the Swan-Canning estuary that bisects Perth, Western Australia. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) composed the majority of the total C and N load, particulate C and N fluxes were minor, and P fluxes were evenly split between soluble reactive phosphorus and particulate/organic P. In contrast to current biogeochemical theory, DON export was dominant in urban and agricultural catchments in the low-gradient environment of the Swan Coastal Plain, whereas NO3 export was a greater factor in higher-gradient, forested catchments on the urban fringe. This trend suggests that hydrologic conditions that supported coastal wetlands prior to human development may still promote DON mobilization as well as dissolved inorganic nitrogen loss along hydrologic flow paths. Substantial variability in export of C, N, and P across catchments highlights the unique hydrologic properties of Australian catchments. Areal C, N, and P export was significantly related to catchment runoff which was lowest in a catchment with inland drainage, but greatest in urban catchments with impervious surfaces and shallow groundwater. The effective delivery of DOC and DON to aquatic ecosystems in urbanizing coastal catchments underscores the importance of restoration efforts that address hydrologic retention as well as the source and bioavailability of dissolved organic matter.

Petrone, Kevin C.

2010-03-01

228

Estimating material and energy intensities of urban areas  

E-print Network

The objective of this thesis is to develop methods to estimate, analyze and visualize the resource intensity of urban areas. Understanding the resource consumption of the built environment is particularly relevant in cities ...

Quinn, David James, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2012-01-01

229

Land use effects on soil carbon fractions in the southeastern United States. I. Management-intensive versus extensive grazing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changes in grassland management intended to increase productivity can lead to sequestration of substantial amounts of atmospheric C in soils. Management-intensive grazing (MiG) can increase forage production in mesic pastures, but potential impacts on soil C have not been evaluated. We sampled four pastures (to 50 cm depth) in Virginia, USA, under MiG and neighboring pastures that were extensively grazed or

Richard T. Conant; Johan Six; Keith Paustian

2003-01-01

230

An evaluation of machine processing techniques of ERTS-1 data for user applications. [urban land use and soil association mapping in Indiana  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A broad study is described to evaluate a set of machine analysis and processing techniques applied to ERTS-1 data. Based on the analysis results in urban land use analysis and soil association mapping together with previously reported results in general earth surface feature identification and crop species classification, a profile of general applicability of this procedure is beginning to emerge. Put in the hands of a user who knows well the information needed from the data and also is familiar with the region to be analyzed it appears that significantly useful information can be generated by these methods. When supported by preprocessing techniques such as the geometric correction and temporal registration capabilities, final products readily useable by user agencies appear possible. In parallel with application, through further research, there is much potential for further development of these techniques both with regard to providing higher performance and in new situations not yet studied.

Landgrebe, D.

1974-01-01

231

On the statistics of urban heat island intensity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We perform a systematic study of all cities in Europe to assess the Urban Heat Island (UHI) intensity by means of remotely sensed land surface temperature data. Defining cities as spatial clusters of urban land cover, we investigate the relationships of the UHI intensity, with the cluster size and the temperature of the surroundings. Our results show that in Europe, the UHI intensity in summer has a strong correlation with the cluster size, which can be well fitted by an empirical sigmoid model. Furthermore, we find a novel seasonality of the UHI intensity for individual clusters in the form of hysteresis-like curves. We characterize the shape and identify apparent regional patterns.

Zhou, B.; Rybski, D.; Kropp, J. P.

2013-10-01

232

Characterization of potential larval habitats for Anopheles mosquitoes in relation to urban land-use in Malindi, Kenya  

PubMed Central

Background This study characterized Anopheles mosquito larval habitats in relation to ecological attributes about the habitat and community-level drainage potential, and investigated whether agricultural activities within or around urban households increased the probability of water body occurrence. Malindi, a city on the coast of Kenya, was mapped using global positioning system (GPS) technology, and a geographic information system (GIS) was used to overlay a measured grid, which served as a sampling frame. Grid cells were stratified according to the level of drainage in the area, and 50 cells were randomly selected for the study. Cross-sectional household and entomological surveys were conducted during November and December 2002 within the 50 grid cells. Chi-square analysis was used to test whether water bodies differed fundamentally between well and poorly drained areas, and multi-level logistic regression was used to test whether household-level agricultural activity increased the probability of water body occurrence in the grid cell. Results Interviews were conducted with one adult in 629 households. A total of 29 water bodies were identified within the sampled areas. This study found that characteristics of water bodies were fundamentally the same in well and poorly drained areas. This study also demonstrated that household-level urban agriculture was not associated with the occurrence of water bodies in the grid cell, after controlling for potential confounders associated with distance to the city center, drainage, access to resources, and population density. Conclusions Household-level urban agricultural activity may be less important than the other types of human perturbation in terms of mosquito larval habitat creation. The fact that many larvae were coming from few sites, and few sites in general were found under relatively dry conditions suggests that mosquito habitat reduction is a reasonable and attainable goal in Malindi. PMID:15125778

Keating, Joseph; Macintyre, Kate; Mbogo, Charles M; Githure, John I; Beier, John C

2004-01-01

233

How do land use intensity, experimentally increased temperature and water level affect methane and nitrous oxide emissions from a drained fen peatland?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rewetting and extensification of peatlands is widely discussed and practiced to reduce losses of CO2 and N2O from drained peat soils. But rewetting is known to carry the risk of increased CH4 emissions. Up to now it is not completely clear how the predicted temperature increase in the face of climate change will alter the N2O and CH4 exchange of grasslands on drained peatland soils in the temperate zone. Therefore we investigated the effects of land use intensity, increased groundwater level, increased temperature and the combination of warming and increased groundwater level on CH4 and N2O exchange of two grassland sites (intensive and extensive grassland) in a drained fen peatland in southern Germany. We set up a factorial design on both land use types, on each three treatments, warming, increased water table level and the combination of warming and increased water table level as well as a control site were established. Temperature was manipulated with open-top chambers (OTCs) and water level manipulation was performed using a pumping system and sheet pile walls. The intensive grassland was cut three times in the year, the extensive grassland once in autumn 2011. Cattle slurry and mineral fertilizer (CAN) were deployed on the intensive grassland. Fluxes of CH4 and N2O were measured biweekly from December 2010 to January 2012 using opaque static closed chambers. The annual mean groundwater level (GWL) of the sites without water level manipulation was -41.5 cm b. g. and -30 cm b. g. at the water level manipulated sites on the intensive grassland. On the extensive grassland the GWL of the sites without water level manipulation was -32 cm b. g. and -21.5 cm b. g. at the water level manipulated sites. Air temperature in 0.2 m was increased in 2011 by 0.7 ° C at the treatments with OTCs on the intensive grassland and by 1.0 ° C at the treatments with OTCs on the extensive grassland respectively. The annual cumulative CH4 exchange ranged from 8.1 ± 3.8 kg C ha-1 yr-1 to 36.3 ± 8.6 kg C ha-1 yr-1on the extensive grassland and from -0.1 ± 0.3 kg C ha-1 yr-1 to 15.0 ± 1.9 kg C ha-1 yr-1 on the intensive grassland. The CH4 emissions of the treatments with increased water level on the intensive grassland were significantly higher compared to the control and warming sites. No significant differences could be observed between CH4 emissions of the treatments on the extensive grassland. However, we found a general significant relationship between CH4 fluxes, groundwater level and temperature. All sites on the intensive grassland show higher annual emissions of N2O compared to the sites on the extensive grassland. The annual cumulative N2O exchange ranged from 3.1 ± 0.5 kg N ha-1 yr-1 to 6.1 ± 0.4 kg N ha-1 yr-1on the intensive grassland and from 0.7 ± 0.1 kg N ha-1 yr-1 to 1.3 ± 0.2 kg N ha-1 yr-1 on the extensive grassland. Significant treatment effects could not be observed for N2O exchange on both land use types.

Heinichen, Jan; Eickenscheidt, Tim; Drösler, Matthias

2014-05-01

234

Remote Detection of Urban Intensity for Climate Change Impact Assessments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Integration of human and earth system models for climate change impact assessments requires consistent projections of urban extent and accurate representation of urban intensity. In this study, a map of urban extent created for the Community Land Model (CLM) from LandScan 2004 population densities is compared to a map of percent impervious surface area (IMPSA) and satellite-derived normalized difference built-up index (NDBI), land surface temperature (LST), and impervious surface area derived from the fractional vegetation cover (Fr). Săo Paulo, Brazil and surrounding areas are selected for initial evaluation of four categories of urban intensity, including Tall Building District, High Density, Medium Density, and Low Density. Indices derived from MODIS may provide a more rapid and reliable way to map urban and periurban areas for global climate modeling.

Cochran, F. V.; Brunsell, N. A.

2013-12-01

235

Effects of Urban Development on Water-Quality in the Piedmont of North Carolina The NAWQA Urban Land-Use Gradient Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study of urban basins located in the Piedmont of North Carolina is underway as part of the U. S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) to determine the relation between level of urban development and water quality. Data were collected from 30 basins on water chemistry (nutrient, pesticide, and ion concentrations), geomorphic and habitat characteristics, hydrologic stage, discharge, water

D. A. Harned; T. F. Cuffney; E. M. Giddings; G. McMahon

2004-01-01

236

Urban Heat Island Connections to Neighborhood Microclimates in Phoenix, Arizona: Defining the Influences of Land Use and Social Variables on Temperature  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Phoenix, AZ is known to have an urban heat island that significantly increases minimum and maximum temperatures, which continue to climb as the city grows and becomes denser. We present a study that investigates "neighborhood" scale (1 square km) microclimate and its potential connections to the regional heat island. The purpose of our study is to: 1) identify social factors/ behaviors that influence temperature on a neighborhood scale and relate fluctuations to the overall heat island; 2) determine the effect of land use on temperature at the neighborhood and regional scales; 3) evaluate a range of thermal infrared (TIR) remotely sensed (RS) data and compare the RS surface temperatures to air temperature. Neighborhoods in both the urban core and fringe were delineated within Phoenix for our study. The neighborhoods represent a range of income levels and ethnicities. Daytime TIR data from Landsat sensors (TM, ETM+) and the airborne MASTER sensor were used to obtain surface temperatures for the neighborhoods. Nighttime surface temperature data were obtained from the ASTER sensor. Vegetation indices (SAVI) were created from Landsat and MASTER imagery. Climate monitors installed in each neighborhood recorded air temperature and dew point readings every 5 minutes. Land use was obtained from an expert systems classification of Landsat imagery and from aerial photos. Our results indicate surface temperatures correlate strongly with air temperatures. The 12.5m/pixel MASTER and 30m/pixel Landsat thermal data can highlight surface temperature gradients within a neighborhood while nighttime ASTER data provides better mean surface temperature discrimination between neighborhoods, and allows for quantification of local diurnal temperature variation. Neighborhoods with a low mean income, high percentage of Hispanics, and low educational attainment are significantly hotter than their high-income, non-Hispanic, highly educated counterparts. Urban core neighborhoods with high income also correlate strongly with high amounts of vegetation (R= -.637) and have significantly lower surface and air temperatures than regional heat island models predict. This suggests that neighborhoods with the means to alter their environments with vegetation can also produce more amenable microclimates. Conversely, neighborhoods with a high area percentage of concrete, asphalt roadways, and built materials exhibit a strong positive correlation with increased surface and air temperature.

Prashad, L. C.; Stefanov, W. L.; Brazel, A.; Harlan, S.

2003-12-01

237

Linking Nocturnal Eddy Fluxes to Land Use-Land Cover in a Heterogeneous Landscape Surrounding the Urban-suburban Tower near Baltimore, Maryland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Anthropogenic activities in urban ecosystems represent the key driving force for local and regional climate change scenarios, producing the various pollutants that cause environmental change at the global scale: elevated carbon dioxide (CO2), increased ozone and nitrogen deposition, and elevated temperatures. Measurements of eddy fluxes in an urban-suburban landscape pose technical difficulties as sinks and sources of CO2 surrounding the tower are non-uniform. In a recent study, we stratified half-hourly values of eddy fluxes, i.e., carbon dioxide (Fco2), latent energy (LE), and sensible heat (H), according to wind sectors. Additionally, remotely sensed (spatial) data were stratified according to wind sectors around the Cub Hill tower near Baltimore, Maryland. We found that diurnal eddy fluxes were empirically dependent on remotely sensed metrics within the two-kilometer radius surrounding the tower. We hypothesized that nocturnal eddy fluxes, as stratified into wind sectors, will be similarly dependent on the land use-land cover (LULC). In the present study, we pooled the nocturnal half-hourly eddy fluxes during a 6-year period (2004-09) into a single data set, and stratified the data according to 24 wind sectors representing the wind direction during each half-hourly eddy flux measurement. We ask the following questions: 1) Are the nocturnal eddy fluxes inter-dependent with each other? 2) Do the average nocturnal eddy fluxes on a daily basis differ between wind sectors? 3) Which micrometeorological variables determine the differences in eddy fluxes between wind sectors? 4) Do differences in nocturnal eddy fluxes among wind sectors depend upon LULC? 5) Are the relationships between nocturnal eddy fluxes and LULC consistent during Winter, Spring, Summer, and Fall? and 6) How do these nocturnal urban-suburban eddy fluxes compare with the nocturnal eddy fluxes in a nearby mixed deciduous rural forest? Results from the data analyses will be presented and discussed.

Saliendra, N. Z.; Hom, J. L.; Pouyat, R.; Nowak, D.; Heisler, G. M.; Patterson, M.; Yesilonis, I.

2010-12-01

238

RESIDENTIAL LAND USE AND THE URBAN HEAT ISLAND EFFECT: HOW THE AMERICAN DREAM IS CHANGING REGIONAL CLIMATE  

E-print Network

Consuming forest and farmland at a rate of over 500 acres per week, the Atlanta, Georgia, metropolitan region has been characterized as the most rapidly spreading human settlement in history (Lacayo 1999, 45). While such growth has been credited with economic development and a high rate of single-family home ownership, rapid decentralization has also come at a substantial cost to the natural and human environments. Between the years of 1974 and 1988, the Atlanta region lost an alarming 20 percent of its forest canopy and experienced an increase in mean annual temperature of approximately two degrees Celsius (Cardelino and Chameides 1990, 13975). Coupled with increasing rates of per capita vehicle travel, the emergence of an intense regional heat island has exacerbated air quality in a region ranked behind only Southern California and Houston, Texas, for annual violations of the national ozone standard (USEPA 2001). 1 Once ranked among the country’s most livable cities, Atlanta is now classified as one of the top five heat stress cities nationally (Davies 2000, 13) and boasts one of the highest rates of childhood asthma in the country (American Lung Association 2001).

Brian Stone

239

Influence of fipronil compounds and rice-cultivation land-use intensity on macroinvertebrate communities in streams of southwestern Louisiana, USA  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Laboratory tests of fipronil and its degradation products have revealed acute lethal toxicity at very low concentrations (LC50) of <0.5 ??g/L to selected aquatic macroinvertebrates. In streams draining basins with intensive rice cultivation in southwestern Louisiana, USA, concentrations of fipronil compounds were an order of magnitude larger than the LC50. The abundance (?? = -0.64; p = 0.015) and taxa richness (r2 = 0.515, p < 0.005) of macroinvertebrate communities declined significantly with increases in concentrations of fipronil compounds and rice-cultivation land-use intensity. Macroinvertebrate community tolerance scores increased linearly (r2 = 0.442, p < 0.005) with increases in the percentage of rice cultivation in the basins, indicating increasingly degraded stream conditions. Similarly, macroinvertebrate community-tolerance scores increased rapidly as fipronil concentrations approached about 1 ??g/L. Pesticide toxicity index determinations indicated that aquatic macroinvertebrates respond to a gradient of fipronil compounds in water although stream size and habitat cannot be ruled out as contributing influences.

Mize, S. V.; Porter, S. D.; Demcheck, D. K.

2008-01-01

240

Analysis of the effect of evergreen and deciduous trees on urban nitrogen dioxide levels in the U.S. using land-use regression  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nitrogen dioxide (NO2), an atmospheric pollutant generated primarily by anthropogenic combustion processes, is typically found at higher concentrations in urban areas compared to non-urbanized environments. Elevated NO2 levels have multiple ecosystem effects at different spatial scales. At the local scale, elevated levels affect human health directly and through the formation of secondary pollutants such as ozone and aerosols; at the regional scale secondary pollutants such as nitric acid and organic nitrates have deleterious effects on non-urbanized areas; and, at the global scale, nitrogen oxide emissions significantly alter the natural biogeochemical nitrogen cycle. As cities globally become larger and larger sources of nitrogen oxide emissions, it is important to assess possible mitigation strategies to reduce the impact of emissions locally, regionally and globally. In this study, we build a national land-use regression (LUR) model to compare the impacts of deciduous and evergreen trees on urban NO2 levels in the United States. We use the EPA monitoring network values of NO2 levels for 2006, the 2006 NLCD tree canopy data for deciduous and evergreen canopies, and the US Census Bureau's TIGER shapefiles for roads, railroads, impervious area & population density as proxies for NO2 sources on-road traffic, railroad traffic, off-road and area sources respectively. Our preliminary LUR model corroborates previous LUR studies showing that the presence of trees is associated with reduced urban NO2 levels. Additionally, our model indicates that deciduous and evergreen trees reduce NO2 to different extents, and that the amount of NO2 reduced varies seasonally. The model indicates that every square kilometer of deciduous canopy within a 2km buffer is associated with a reduction in ambient NO2 levels of 0.64 ppb in summer and 0.46ppb in winter. Similarly, every square kilometer of evergreen tree canopy within a 2 km buffer is associated with a reduction in ambient NO2 by 0.53 ppb in summer and 0.84 ppb in winter. Thus, the model indicates that deciduous trees are associated with a 30% smaller reduction in NO2 in winter as compared to summer, while evergreens are associated with a 60% increase in the reduction of NO2 in winter, for every square kilometer of deciduous or evergreen canopy within a 2 km buffer. Leaf- and local canopy-level studies have shown that trees are a sink for urban NO2 through deposition as well as stomatal and cuticular uptake. The winter time versus summer time effects suggest that leaf-level deposition may not be the only uptake mechanism and points to the need for a more holistic analysis of tree and canopy-level deposition for urban air pollution models. Since deposition velocities for NO2 vary by tree species, the reduction may also vary by species. These findings have implications for designing cities to reduce the impact of air pollution.

Rao, M.; George, L. A.

2012-12-01

241

The Effects of Changes in Land Cover/Land Use on Nutrient Loadings to the Chesapeake Bay Estuary Using Forecasts of Future Urbanization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effects of short-term and projected long-term changes in spatially explicit land cover/land use (LC/LU) on nutrient loadings (total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) in kg/ha/yr) were studied in the Chesapeake Bay watershed (164,000 km2) estuary. Version 3.0 of the USGS Chesapeake Bay's SPAtially Referenced Regressions on Watershed Attributes (SPARROW) model was implemented for the widely studied Patuxent River Basin in Maryland. Probabilities of LC change were estimated using projections of impervious surface locations at the LANDSAT (30m) scale and the Slope, Land use, Exclusion, Urban extent, Transportation, and Hillshade (SLEUTH) model for three development scenarios: current trends, smart growth, and ecologically sustainable to the Year 2030. Six Maryland Hydrologic Unit Code (HUC)-11 watersheds (three within and three outside of the basin) with verified (published) TN/TP nutrient loadings based on Year 2000 data from the Maryland Department of Natural Resources (DNR) were analyzed to see how they compared with the aggregated smaller catchments estimate of TN/TP that were contained within the larger boundaries of the HUC-11 watersheds and based on Year 2000 LC/LC and imperviousness data. The aggregated SPARROW TN always overpredicted the published values, whereas the SPARROW TP underpredicted the published DNR TP in three watersheds and overpredicted the DNR in the others. TN R2 = 0.90, whereas TP R2 = 0.69 in comparing DNR with SPARROW. Since the regression results just reported are only potential nutrient loadings for catchments independent of any other processes based on the model TN/TP general equations, when allowed to run in the true nonlinear structure of the SPARROW models that account for stream/catchment connectivity and water/land chemistry, even better nutrient estimates should able to be purported over larger watersheds throughout the Chesapeake Bay. In addition, TN/TP loadings from 85 of the smaller SPARROW reach catchments associated with the basin were developed for Years 1997, 2000, and the 2030 three scenarios. Early results show that TN, especially in the lower tidal stretches of the basin, have increased in the short-term (Year 1997 to 2000), would get progressively worse under the current trends, and would improve gradually under smart growth and ecological sustainable. The 1997 and 2000 TP estimates were quite similar, however under current trends; TP would increase throughout the middle/lower portions of the basin, before becoming progressive lower under smart growth to ecologically sustainable.

Prince, S.; Roberts, A. D.

2006-12-01

242

Study of the impact of land use and hydrogeological settings on the shallow groundwater quality in a peri-urban area of Kampala, Uganda.  

PubMed

A study to assess the impacts of land use and hydrogeological characteristics on the shallow groundwater in one of Kampala's peri-urban areas (Bwaise III Parish) was undertaken for a period of 19 months. Water quality monitoring was carried out for 16 installed wells and one operational protected spring to ascertain the seasonal variation. The aspects of hydrogeological setting investigated in the study were the subsurface unconsolidated material characteristics (stratigraphy, lithology, hydraulic conductivity, porosity and chemical content), seasonal groundwater depths and spring discharge, topography and rainfall of the area. Both laboratory and field measurements were carried out to determine the soil and water characteristics. Field surveys were also undertaken to identify and locate the various land use activities that may potentially pollute. The results demonstrate that the water table in the area responds rapidly to short rains (48 h) due to the pervious (10(-5)-10(-3) ms(-1)) and shallow (<1 mbgl) vadose zone, which consists of foreign material (due to reclamation). This anthropogenically influenced vadose zone has a limited contaminant attenuation capacity resulting in water quality deterioration following the rains. There is widespread contamination of the groundwater with high organic (up to 370 mgTKN/l and 779 mgNO-3/l), thermotolerant coliforms (TTCs) and faecal streptococci (FS) (median values as high as 126E3 cfu/100 ml and 154E3 cfu/100 ml respectively) and total phosphorus (up to 13 mg/l) levels originating from multiple sources of contamination. These include animal rearing, solid waste dumping, pit latrine construction and greywater/stormwater disposal in unlined channels leading to increased localised microbial (faecal) and organic (TKN/NO-3) contamination during the rains. The spring discharge (range 1.22-1.48 m3/h) with high nitrate levels (median values of 117 and 129 mg/l in the wet and dry seasons) did not vary significantly with season (p=0.087) suggesting that this source is fed by regional base flow. However, the microbial quality deterioration observed in the spring discharge after a rain event (median values of 815TTCs cfu /100 ml and 433 FS cfu/100 ml) was attributed to the poor maintenance of the protection structure. Identification and selection of appropriate management solutions for the protection of shallow groundwater in informal settlements should not only be based on water quality problems and the causal physical characteristics as demonstrated by this study, but also institutional and socio-economic factors. PMID:17512037

Kulabako, N R; Nalubega, M; Thunvik, R

2007-08-01

243

Regional land use schemes generated by TOPAZ  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dickey J. W. and Najafi F. T. (1973) Regional land use schemes generated by TOPAZ, Reg. Studies7, 373–386. TOPAZ, which is the Technique for the Optimal Placement of Activities in Zones, was developed to provide the urban planner with a series of alternative solutions from which he could determine the land use pattern with the least amount of cost involved.

J. W. Dickey; F. T. Najafi

1973-01-01

244

Land-use history and management intensity as drivers of spatial variability in soil greenhouse gas fluxes in a poplar bioenergy plantation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bioenergy crops are considered to be carbon-neutral because biomass combustion releases only carbon which has previously been extracted from the atmosphere by the plants. However, during crop growth, a significant amount of the greenhouse gases (GHG) CO2, CH4 and N2O can be produced by soil microorganisms and released to the atmosphere. Depending on crop type and management intensity, soil GHG fluxes might be so substantial that bioenergy crops could overall emit more GHG than the same amount of fossil fuels. The present knowledge about soil GHG fluxes from bioenergy crops is not sufficient to accurately quantify them. This is especially true for short rotation woody crops (SRWC) which might become more important in the future because they have a relatively high GHG mitigation potential. However, before pursuing the use of SRWC plantations for carbon sequestration and fossil fuel replacement, it is necessary to accurately assess their uptake and release of all major GHG to prevent the unconscious widespread deployment of unsustainable cultivation practices. The aim of this project is to identify drivers of spatial variability in soil GHG fluxes in a poplar SRWC plantation with special emphasis on the legacy effect of former land-use. The plantation has been established partly on former pasture and partly on former cropland, offering the unique opportunity to study soil GHG flux dynamics with respect to their dependency on former land-use type under identical climate and management conditions. The plantation is currently in its fifth vegetation season and in the first year of its third rotation. Simultaneous monitoring of soil CO2, CH4 and N2O fluxes will take place with a custom-made automated chamber system throughout the entire third rotation (three years) accompanied by soil gas concentration profile measurements. In parallel, community composition of functional groups of soil microorganisms (denitrifiers, ammonia oxidizers, methanogens) and total soil microbial biomass will be quantified at different developmental stages of the poplar plantation as well as in adjacent long-established and newly converted agricultural fields. The microbial community data will give a quantitative overview of the spatial variability of these functional groups in a highly patterned agricultural landscape and new insights into the effect of different types of disturbance events (e.g. land-use change, harvest) on the composition of functional groups of soil microorganisms and the time duration of possible acclimation effects. In combination with the soil GHG flux dataset, this research will result in new significant insights into the importance of environmental controls versus microbial community composition for soil GHG flux dynamics in bioenergy crops. The interpretation of the data will be aided by a vast database containing information on ecosystem GHG fluxes, soil CO2 fluxes, above-ground and below-ground biomass development, as well as groundwater chemistry, which has been collected since the establishment of the plantation in 2010 in the POPFULL project (http://webh01.ua.ac.be/popfull/). Funding from ERC Advanced Grant agreement (# 233366) POPFULL under the EC 7th Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013), from the Flemish Hercules Foundation as Infrastructure contract # ZW09-06, and from the Methusalem Programme of the Flemish Government.

Görres, Carolyn-Monika; Ceulemans, Reinhart

2014-05-01

245

Norfolk and environs: A land use perspective  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Norfolk-Portsmouth Standard Metropolitan Statistical Area (SMSA) in southeastern Virginia was the site of intensive testing of a number of land resources assessment methods, built around the availability of remotely sensed data from the Earth Resources Technology Satellite (ERTS-I), later renamed LANDSAT I. The Norfolk tests were part of a larger experiment known as the Central Atlantic Regional Ecological Test Site (CARETS), designed to test the extent to which LANDSAT and associated high-altitude aircraft data could be used as cost-effective inputs to a regional land use information system. The Norfolk SMSA contains a variety of land uses typical of the urbanized eastern seaboard, along with typical associated problems: rapid urbanization; heavy recreational, commercial, and residential demands on fragile beaches and coastal marsh environments; industrial, transportation, and governmental land and water uses impacting on residential and agricultural areas; drainage and land stability difficulties affecting construction and other uses; and increasing difficulties in maintaining satisfactory air and water quality.

Alexander, Robert H.; Buzzanell, Peter J.; Fitzpatrick, Katherine A.; Lins, Harry F.; McGinty, Herbert K., III

1975-01-01

246

Hydrological impacts of land use change in three diverse South African catchments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SummaryIn order to meet society's needs for water, food, fuel and fibre, the earth's natural land cover and land use have been significantly changed. These changes have impacted on the hydrological responses and thus available water resources, as the hydrological responses of a catchment are dependent upon, and sensitive to, changes in the land use. The degree of anthropogenic modification of the land cover, the intensity of the land use changes and location of land uses within a catchment determines the extent to which land uses influences hydrological response of a catchment. The objective of the study was to improve understanding of the complex interactions between hydrological response and land use to aid in water resources planning. To achieve this, a hydrological model, viz. the ACRU agrohydrological model, which adequately represents hydrological processes and is sensitive to land use changes, was used to generate hydrological responses from three diverse, complex and operational South African catchments under both current land use and a baseline land cover. The selected catchments vary with respect to both land use and climate. The semi-arid sub-tropical Luvuvhu catchment has a large proportion of subsistence agriculture and informal residential areas, whereas in the winter rainfall Upper Breede catchment the primary land uses are commercial orchards and vineyards. The sub-humid Mgeni catchment is dominated by commercial plantation forestry in the upper reaches, commercial sugarcane and urban areas in the middle reaches, with the lower reaches dominated by urban areas. The hydrological responses of the selected catchments to land use change were complex. Results showed that the contributions of different land uses to the streamflow generated from a catchment is not proportional to the relative area of that land use, and the relative contribution of the land use to the catchment streamflow varies with the mean annual rainfall of the catchment. Furthermore, it was shown that the location of specific land uses within a catchment has a role in the response of the streamflow of the catchment to that land use change. From the Mgeni catchment, the significant role of the water engineered system on catchment streamflow was evident. Hydrological models have drawbacks associated with them due to inherent uncertainties. However, in this study the ACRU model proved to be a useful tool to assess the impacts of land use change on the hydrological response as impacts from the local scale to catchment scale could be assessed as well as the progression of impacts of land use changes as the streamflow cascades downstream through the catchment.

Warburton, Michele L.; Schulze, Roland E.; Jewitt, Graham P. W.

2012-01-01

247

Numerical Modelling of Urban Heat-Island Intensity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A three-dimensional, non-hydrostatic, high-resolution numerical model was used toanalyse urban heat-island (UHI) intensity in an idealised but realistic configuration.The urban area was 20 km square and lay on flat land at about latitude 50° Nin a maritime climate. In the model the urban area was represented by anomalies ofalbedo, anthropogenic heat flux, emissivity, roughness length, sky-view factor (SVF),surface resistance to evaporation (SRE) and thermal inertia. A control simulationincluded all these factors and the resultant UHI structure, energetics and intensitywere validated against observations. The results also compared favourably withearlier simulations.A series of experiments was conducted in which successively one of the anomaliesthat represented the urban area was omitted from the control simulation so as toprovide the basis for an assessment of its effect. In daytime the individual effectsdue to albedo, anthropogenic heat, emissivity, SVF and thermal inertia ranged from0.2 to 0.8 °C. In common with albedo, anthropogenic heat, emissivity andSVF, the SRE aided the formation of a UHI; it was also the most important factorin increasing its intensity. The roughness length had the opposite effect. At nightemissivity, roughness length, SVF and SRE had effects ranging from 0.3 to0.75 °C, but the largest effect (2 °C) was due to the anthropogenicheat. These results showed a difference in the causes of daytime and nighttime UHIs.In daytime the roughness length and SRE were the most important factors affectingUHI intensity; at night the anthropogenic heat was the most important. The simulationssuggested that the size of the urban area had a minimal effect on UHI intensity.

Atkinson, B. W.

248

Quantifying urban heat island intensity in Hong Kong SAR, China.  

PubMed

This paper addresses the methodological concerns in quantifying urban heat island (UHI) intensity in Hong Kong SAR, China. Although the urban heat island in Hong Kong has been widely investigated, there is no consensus on the most appropriate fixed point meteorological sites to be used to calculate heat island intensity. This study utilized the Local Climate Zones landscape classification system to classify 17 weather stations from the Hong Kong Observatory's extensive fixed point meteorological observation network. According to the classification results, the meteorological site located at the Hong Kong Observatory Headquarters is the representative urban weather station in Hong Kong, whereas sites located at Tsak Yue Wu and Ta Kwu Ling are appropriate rural or nonurbanized counterparts. These choices were validated and supported quantitatively through comparison of long-term annual and diurnal UHI intensities with rural stations used in previous studies. Results indicate that the rural stations used in previous studies are not representative, and thus, the past UHI intensities calculated for Hong Kong may have been underestimated. PMID:23007798

Siu, Leong Wai; Hart, Melissa A

2013-05-01

249

An evaluation on land intensive use in urbanized region a case of Chengdu Xindu  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urbanization is the key to solve the problem of urban-rural dual structure. In the process of current urbanization acceleration development, it has great practical significance to evaluate the saving and intensive utilization level of land resource in urbanization area and discuss on the improvement measures of its land intensive use level. This paper, selecting typical regional -Xindu area of Chengdu

Song Liu; You Zhou; Wenkuan Chen; Xuanzi Wei

2011-01-01

250

Remote Sensing Application to Land Use Classification in a Rapidly Changing Agricultural/Urban Area: City of Virginia Beach, Virginia. Ph.D. Thesis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Remote sensing data on computer-compatible tapes of LANDSAT 1 multispectral scanner imager were analyzed to generate a land use map of the City of Virginia Beach. All four bands were used in both the supervised and unsupervised approaches with the LAYSYS software system. Color IR imagery of a U-2 flight of the same area was also digitized and two sample areas were analyzed via the unsupervised approach. The relationships between the mapped land use and the soils of the area were investigated. A land use land cover map at a scale of 1:24,000 was obtained from the supervised analysis of LANDSAT 1 data. It was concluded that machine analysis of remote sensing data to produce land use maps was feasible; that the LAYSYS software system was usable for this purpose; and that the machine analysis was capable of extracting detailed information from the relatively small scale LANDSAT data in a much shorter time without compromising accuracy.

Odenyo, V. A. O.

1975-01-01

251

Can we measure ecological sustainability? Landscape pattern as an indicator for naturalness and land use intensity at regional, national and European level  

Microsoft Academic Search

European landscapes have been shaped over the centuries by processes related to human land use, which are reflected in regionally distinct landscape patterns. Since landscape pattern has been linked to biodiversity and other ecological values of the landscapes, this paper explores landscape pattern as a tool for ecological sustainability assessments at the regional (Austrian Cultural Landscapes), national (Austria) and European

Christa Renetzeder; Stefan Schindler; Johannes Peterseil; Martin A. Prinz; Sander Mücher; Thomas Wrbka

2010-01-01

252

Global Consequences of Land Use  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Land use has generally been considered a local environmental issue, but it is becoming a force of global importance. Worldwide changes to forests, farmlands, waterways, and air are being driven by the need to provide food, fiber, water, and shelter to more than six billion people. Global croplands, pastures, plantations, and urban areas have expanded in recent decades, accompanied by large increases in energy, water, and fertilizer consumption, along with considerable losses of biodiversity. Such changes in land use have enabled humans to appropriate an increasing share of the planet's resources, but they also potentially undermine the capacity of ecosystems to sustain food production, maintain freshwater and forest resources, regulate climate and air quality, and ameliorate infectious diseases. We face the challenge of managing trade-offs between immediate human needs and maintaining the capacity of the biosphere to provide goods and services in the long term.

Foley, Jonathan A.; DeFries, Ruth; Asner, Gregory P.; Barford, Carol; Bonan, Gordon; Carpenter, Stephen R.; Chapin, F. Stuart; Coe, Michael T.; Daily, Gretchen C.; Gibbs, Holly K.; Helkowski, Joseph H.; Holloway, Tracey; Howard, Erica A.; Kucharik, Christopher J.; Monfreda, Chad; Patz, Jonathan A.; Prentice, I. Colin; Ramankutty, Navin; Snyder, Peter K.

2005-07-01

253

Land use management in Minnesota  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author has identified the following significant results. Preliminary analysis of bulk imagery suggests that the forty-acre data cell used in the Minnesota Land Management Information Systems (MLMIS) can be utilized in interpretation of ERTS-1 data. High quality bulk images of the Twin Cities metropolitan area suggest that detail in urban land use patterns is much greater than originally anticipated. This implies a greater work effort in this area than was planned. Furthermore, the forest classes of land use can also be usefully divided into subcategories. Preliminary analysis of one rather low quality image also indicates that subclasses of wetlands can be identified. Prospects are bright for improving the potential detail that ERTS-1 can contribute to MLMIS.

Sizer, J. E. (principal investigator)

1972-01-01

254

1 Mapping carbon storage in urban trees with multi-source remote sensing 2 data: Relationships between biomass, land use, and demographics in  

E-print Network

seeking to reduce rates of urban runoff, moderate urban heat island effects, and mitigate the effectsU N C O R R E C T E D P R O O F 1 Mapping carbon storage in urban trees with multi-source remote ďż˝ Used imagery and LiDAR to develop a high resolution urban biomass map for Boston, MA 11 ďż˝ Tree carbon

Hutyra, Lucy R.

255

Using GIS to integrate the analysis of land-use, transportation, and the environment for managing urban growth based on transit oriented development in the metropolitan of Jabodetabek, Indonesia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is an interaction between land use, transportation, and environment in improving and managing urban quality. One of the concpets to integrate those three aspects is Transit Oriented Development (TOD). It is a concept for managing urban growth in transit corridors which have characteristics of mixed land use, compact, walkability, and development focused around public transit area. This research aims at utilizing GIS to organize, sort, and analyze spatial data including aspects of land use, transportation, and environment. Jabodetabek is a strategic metropolitan area in Indonesia, and consists of DKI Jakarta and the neighboring Bodetabek cities, with more than 27 million population in 2010. Approximately 1,105,000 people are entering Jakarta every workday from the negihboring Bodetabek region. The surge in the number of passenger cars and motorcycles is astonishing. In contrast, the usage of public transport has declined deeply. Public transport infrastructure development without the integration of TOD may not attain the objective of reducing car dependency. This paper discusses the study which was carried out to identify the applicability of TOD principles in Jabodetabek using GIS as a tool to analysis and create model.

Hasibuan, H. S.; Moersidik, S.; Koestoer, R.; Soemardi, T. P.

2014-02-01

256

Planning Standards for Urban Land Use Planning for Effective Land Management in Tanzania: An Analytical Framework for Its Adoptability in Infrastructure Provisioning in Informal Settlements  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Urban planning standards in Tanzania have an historical evolution on the use and adoptability regarding Master plan and land regularization planning approaches for effective urban land management in informal settlements. The evolution and adoptability of planning standards observed influenced by changes in socio-economic and investment aspirations in urban settlements. These standards, also seems to be influencing upgrading of infrastructure

B. B. K. MAJANI

2005-01-01

257

THE CO-EVOLUTION OF LAND USE AND ROAD NETWORKS  

E-print Network

1 THE CO-EVOLUTION OF LAND USE AND ROAD NETWORKS David Levinson, Feng Xie, and Shanjiang Zhu of urban form. First, changes in land use alter travel demand patterns, which determine traffic flows to as hierarchical systems in this study. In the context of the co-evolution of land use and road networks

Levinson, David M.

258

An intensive field study on CO2, CH4, and N2O emissions from soils at four land-use types in Sumatra, Indonesia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We measured gas fluxes of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and nitrous oxide (N2O) from the soil surface to the atmosphere under various land uses in Sumatra, Indonesia, from September 1997. Four land-use types, i.e., old-growth forest, logged-over forest, burned site after logging, and rubber plantation site, were selected. One logged-over forest was clear-cut and burned in the middle of the experiment. An incubation experiment was also performed to measure the potential of these three gases' emissions by using intact soil cores. The ranges of flux for 1 year for CO2, CH4, and N2O were 51.3-93.7 mg C m-2 h-1, -21.2-4.2 ?g C m-2 h-1, and 0.74-26.34 ?g N m-2 h-1, respectively. The N2O and CO2 fluxes were among the smallest values in all tropical regions. Clear-cutting and burning of residual trees after logging caused an increase in N2O emissions. N2O emissions correlated highly with the nitrification rate at 0-10 cm soil layer (R2 = 0.7834, p < 0.01). CH4 fluxes correlated with the clay content of 0-10 cm soil layer (R2 = 0.6071, p < 0.15). The results of flux measurements and core incubation strongly suggest that the regeneration of vegetation reduces the impact of land-use/cover changes on trace gas emissions.

Ishizuka, Shigehiro; Tsuruta, Haruo; Murdiyarso, Daniel

2002-09-01

259

Land-use type changes the belowground food-web in an arid, urban ecosystem. Karl A. Wyant, Yevgeniy Y. Marusenko, Sharon J. Hall, and John L. Sabo  

E-print Network

-use modifications affect belowground soil food webs in arid, urban areas. 2. Research Question and Hypothesis · Who (water and SOM) in mesic lawns will lead to an increase in soil food web biomass and functional groups -1[5] · Unclear whether urban soil food webs are structured primarily by SM or SOM 4. Results · Fig

Hall, Sharon J.

260

Changes in Community Rhetoric and Imagery of Rural Land Uses at the Urban Fringe: Douglas County from Strong to Slow Growth  

E-print Network

Growth and change at the rural-urban fringe of any urbanizing area creates heated debate. The way in which people talk about change is oftentimes through stories, using rhetoric and imagery to paint a picture of what is or ought to be. In this case...

Cowan, Kristen Michele

2011-08-30

261

Urban Heat Island Connections to Neighborhood Microclimates in Phoenix, Arizona: Defining the Influences of Land Use and Social Variables on Temperature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phoenix, AZ is known to have an urban heat island that significantly increases minimum and maximum temperatures, which continue to climb as the city grows and becomes denser. We present a study that investigates \\

L. C. Prashad; W. L. Stefanov; A. Brazel; S. Harlan

2003-01-01

262

Deregionalization of Neonatal Intensive Care in Urban Areas  

PubMed Central

Objectives. This report describes the extent of deregionalization of neonatal intensive care in urban areas of the United States in the 1980s and 1990s and the factors associated with it. Methods. We conducted a 15-year retrospective analysis of secondary data from US metropolitan statistical areas. Primary outcome measures are number of neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) beds, number of NICU hospitals, and number of small NICUs. Results. Growth in the supply of NICU care has outpaced the need. During the study period (1980–1995), the number of hospitals grew by 99%, the number of NICU beds by 138%, and the number of neonatologists by 268%. In contrast, the growth in needed bed days was only 84%. Of greater concern, the number of beds in small NICU facilities continues to grow. Local regulatory and practice characteristics are important in explaining this growth. Conclusions. Local policymakers should examine the factors that facilitate the proliferation of services, especially the development of small NICUs. Policies that encourage cooperative efforts by hospitals should be developed. Eliminating small NICUs would not restrict the NICU bed supply in most metropolitan statistical areas. PMID:11772774

Howell, Embry M.; Richardson, Douglas; Ginsburg, Paul; Foot, Barbara

2002-01-01

263

An analysis of Milwaukee county land use  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The identification and classification of urban and suburban phenomena through analysis of remotely-acquired sensor data can provide information of great potential value to many regional analysts. Such classifications, particularly those using spectral data obtained from satellites such as the first Earth Resources Technology Satellite (ERTS-1) orbited by NASA, allow rapid frequent and accurate general land use inventories that are of value in many types of spatial analyses. In this study, Milwaukee County, Wisconsin was classified into several broad land use categories on the basis of computer analysis of four bands of ERTS spectral data (ERTS Frame Number E1017-16093). Categories identified were: (1) road-central business district, (2) grass (green vegetation), (3) suburban, (4) wooded suburb, (5) heavy industry, (6) inner city, and (7) water. Overall, 90 percent accuracy was attained in classification of these urban land use categories.

Todd, W. J.; Mausel, P. E.

1973-01-01

264

Energy-Intensive Urban Growth and the Quality of Life. Field Test Version.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This module seeks to develop teachers' awareness and understanding of the problems of energy-intensive urban growth and its impact on quality-of-life. It seeks to develop understanding of the city as a system; understanding of quality-of-life as applied to the urban ecosystem; and skills in studying and planning for quality urban settings. It also…

Aaron, Cathy; And Others

265

Ecologically based municipal land use planning  

SciTech Connect

The book presents compelling evidence and sound arguments that make the case for sound land use policies that will reduce sprawl. The book provides easily understood solutions for municipal land planners dealing with urban sprawl; discusses ecological resources; emphasizes the use of new environmental indicators; and includes the use of the Geographic Information System (GIS) to problem solving.

Honachefsky, W.B.

2000-07-01

266

The Transportation Land Use Connection Bibliography  

E-print Network

-73. Handy, Susan, Scott Kubly, and Michael Oden. 2002. "Economic Impacts of Highway Relief Routes on Small. "Smart Growth and the Transportation ­ Land Use Connection: What Does the Research Tell Us?" Prepared for "New Urbanism and Smart Growth: A Research Symposium," National Center for Smart Growth Research

Handy, Susan L.

267

Land Use in Saskatchewan.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Information on land use in Saskatchewan is provided in this updated report by the Policy, Planning, and Research Branch of Saskatchewan Environment. Chapter I discusses the physical, economic, and cultural geography of Saskatchewan and traces the history of settlement in this province. Chapter II provides information on the province's resource…

Saskatchewan Dept. of the Environment, Regina. Public Information and Education Branch.

268

Land use and energy  

SciTech Connect

This report provides estimates of the amount of land required by past and future energy development in the United States and examines major federal legislation that regulates the impact of energy facilities on land use. An example of one land use issue associated with energy development - the potential conflict between surface mining and agriculture - is illustrated by describing the actual and projected changes in land use caused by coal mining in western Indiana. Energy activities addressed in the report include extraction of coal, oil, natural gas, uranium, oil shale, and geothermal steam; uranium processing; preparation of synfuels from coal; oil refineries; fossil-fuel, nuclear, and hydro-electric power plants; biomass energy farms; and disposal of solid wastes generated during combustion of fossil fuels. Approximately 1.1 to 3.3 x 10/sup 6/ acres were devoted to these activities in the United States in 1975. As much as 1.8 to 2.0 x 10/sup 6/ additional acres could be required by 1990 for new, nonbiomass energy development. The production of grain for fuel ethanol could require an additional 16.9 to 55.7 x 10/sup 6/ acres by 1990. Federal laws that directly or indirectly regulate the land-use impacts of energy facilities include the National Environmental Protection Act, Clean Air Act, Federal Water Pollution Control Act, Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act, and Coastal Zone Management Act. The major provisions of these acts, other relevant federal regulations, and similar state and local regulatons are described in this report. Federal legislation relating to air quality, water quality, and the management of public lands has the greatest potential to influence the location and timing of future energy development in the United States.

Robeck, K.E.; Ballou, S.W.; South, D.W.; Davis, M.J.; Chiu, S.Y.; Baker, J.E.; Dauzvardis, P.A.; Garvey, D.B.; Torpy, M.F.

1980-07-01

269

Energy and land use  

SciTech Connect

This report addresses the land use impacts of past and future energy development and summarizes the major federal and state legislation which influences the potential land use impacts of energy facilities and can thus influence the locations and timing of energy development. In addition, this report describes and presents the data which are used to measure, and in some cases, predict the potential conflicts between energy development and alternative uses of the nation's land resources. The topics section of this report is divided into three parts. The first part describes the myriad of federal, state and local legislation which have a direct or indirect impact upon the use of land for energy development. The second part addresses the potential land use impacts associated with the extraction, conversion and combustion of energy resources, as well as the disposal of wastes generated by these processes. The third part discusses the conflicts that might arise between agriculture and energy development as projected under a number of DOE mid-term (1990) energy supply and demand scenarios.

Not Available

1981-12-01

270

Urban land use/land cover mapping with high-resolution SAR imagery by integrating support vector machines into object-based analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper investigates the capability of high-resolution SAR data for urban landuse/land-cover mapping by integrating support vector machines (SVMs) into object-based analysis. Five-date RADARSAT fine-beam C-HH SAR images with a pixel spacing of 6.25 meter were acquired over the rural-urban fringe of the Great Toronto Area (GTA) during May to August in 2002. First, the SAR images were segmented using multi-resolution segmentation algorithm and two segmentation levels were created. Next, a range of spectral, shape and texture features were selected and calculated for all image objects on both levels. The objects on the lower level then inherited features of their super objects. In this way, the objects on the lower level received detailed descriptions about their neighbours and contexts. Finally, SVM classifiers were used to classify the image objects on the lower level based on the selected features. For training the SVM, sample image objects on the lower level were used. One-against-one approach was chosen to apply SVM to multiclass classification of SAR images in this research. The results show that the proposed method can achieve a high accuracy for the classification of high-resolution SAR images over urban areas.

Hu, Hongtao; Ban, Yifang

2008-10-01

271

Effects of bioenergy crop cultivation on earthworm communities—A comparative study of perennial ( Miscanthus) and annual crops with consideration of graded land-use intensity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Energy crops are of growing importance in agriculture worldwide. This field study aimed to investigate earthworm communities of different intensively cultivated soils during a 2-year period, with special emphasis on annual and perennial energy crops like rapeseed, maize, and Miscanthus. These were compared with cereals, grassland, and fallow sites. Distribution patterns of earthworm abundance, species, and ecological categories were analysed

Daniel Felten; Christoph Emmerling

2011-01-01

272

Long-term water monitoring in two Mediterranean lagoons as an indicator of land-use changes and intense precipitation events (Adra, Southeastern Spain)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During recent historical times the Adra river delta, a detrital coastal aquifer of nearly 32 km 2 located in a semi-arid, mountainous area of SE Spain, has undergone different changes caused by human activity. Within this context, both the river dynamics in the plain and the geomorphology of the coastline have at various times resulted in the formation of small lagoons. At present only two small (<0.5 km 2) lagoons exist, at the eastern edge of the aquifer, which, although closely surrounded by commercial market-garden greenhouses, are protected under international agreements. During the last 30 years of the twentieth century traditional agricultural irrigation techniques have undergone significant changes to improve their efficiency. Surface-water resources in the Adra river basin are regulated via the Beninar reservoir. In addition, the use of groundwater is increasing progressively. Both these factors affect the recharge of the coastal aquifer. To monitor these changes measurements of electrical conductivity and water level fluctuations have been recorded in these lagoons for the last 35 years (1975-2010). A comparison of the hydrochemical characteristics of the water in the lagoons and of the surrounding groundwater from 2003 to 2010 shows marked differences induced by the different hydrological dynamics in each lagoon, as well as by the hydrogeological impact of changes in land use in the delta. The increase in water demand is a consequence of the extension of irrigated areas from the fluvio-deltaic plain to its slopes, originally occupied by unirrigated crops. A reduction in irrigation return-flow is linked to the use of new irrigation techniques. These modifications affect both the recharge regime of the aquifer and its water quality. Moreover, extreme precipitation events, which are characteristic of Mediterranean semi-arid environments, can affect the lagoons' hydrological dynamics to a considerable extent. One such example is the unusually rainy period from January to March 2010 (>600 mm). This event, along with other effects, has dramatically lowered the salinity of the water in both lagoons. This case study reveals the extreme vulnerability of deltaic environments and also how lagoons can reflect anthropogenic changes over the whole river basin.

Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Miguel; Benavente, José; Alcalá, Francisco J.; Paracuellos, Mariano

2011-02-01

273

Influence of fipronil compounds and rice-cultivation land-use intensity on macroinvertebrate communities in streams of southwestern Louisiana, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laboratory tests of fipronil and its degradation products have revealed acute lethal toxicity at very low concentrations (LC50) of <0.5?g\\/L to selected aquatic macroinvertebrates. In streams draining basins with intensive rice cultivation in southwestern Louisiana, USA, concentrations of fipronil compounds were an order of magnitude larger than the LC50. The abundance (?=?0.64; p=0.015) and taxa richness (r2=0.515, p<0.005) of macroinvertebrate

Scott V. Mize; Stephen D. Porter; Dennis K. Demcheck

2008-01-01

274

Understorey indicators of disturbance for riparian forests along an urban–rural gradient in Manitoba  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extensive agricultural and urban development has contributed to the decline of riparian forests across North America. An urban–rural gradient was used to identify species- and guild-level indicators of riparian forest degradation in southern Manitoba. Twenty-five sites were categorized according to urban, suburban, high-intensity rural, low-intensity rural, and relatively high quality reference land use. Generalists, which frequented all land use types,

S. F. Moffatt; S. M. McLachlan

2004-01-01

275

Evaluation on land intensive use based on the sustainable development theory in Tianjin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The contradiction between the presences of extensively use of urban land and the existence of tight supply and excess demand for land becomes more and more fierce. Consequently, how to improve the intensively use of urban land becomes a hotspot. Based on definition of sustainable and intensive use of urban land and the fact of land using in Tianjin, this

Liming Xia; Shuping Chen

2010-01-01

276

AIR QUALITY IMPACTS OF TRANSPORTATION AND LAND USE POLICIES: A CASE STUDY IN AUSTIN, TEXAS  

E-print Network

, emissions modeling, land use-transport models, urban systems modeling ABSTRACT The impacts of land use to urbanization impact air quality through changes in biogenic and anthropogenic emissions, heat and energy1 AIR QUALITY IMPACTS OF TRANSPORTATION AND LAND USE POLICIES: A CASE STUDY IN AUSTIN, TEXAS Elena

Kockelman, Kara M.

277

Land use change and human health  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Disease emergence events have been documented following several types of land use change. This chapter reviews several health-relevant land use changes recognized today, including: 1) urbanization and urban sprawl; 2) water projects and agricultural development; 3) road construction and deforestation in the tropics; and 4) regeneration of temperate forests. Because habitat or climatic change substantially affects intermediate invertebrate hosts involved in many prevalent diseases, this chapter provides a basic description of vector-borne disease biology as a foundation for analyzing the effects of land use change. Urban sprawl poses health challenges stemming from heat waves exacerbated by the "urban heat island" effect, as well as from water contamination due to expanses of impervious road and concrete surfaces. Dams, irrigation and agricultural development have long been associated with diseases such as schistosomiasis and filariasis. Better management methods are required to address the trade-offs between expanded food production and altered habitats promoting deadly diseases. Deforestation can increase the nature and number of breeding sites for vector-borne diseases, such as malaria and onchocerciasis. Human host and disease vector interaction further increases risk, as can a change in arthropod-vector species composition.

Patz, Jonathan A.; Norris, Douglas E.

278

Application of IKONOS image and BP model to evaluate potential of urban land intensive use  

Microsoft Academic Search

The evaluation index system of urban land intensive use potential is built with IKONOS remote sensing data as the main data source. Based on this, quantitative evaluation model of land intensive use potential is constructed through BP neural network method. This model is applied to evaluate the potential of land intensive use in Shijiazhuang. It has been proved that this

Li Wang; Zheng Niu; Jun Yin; Jinguo Yuan

2006-01-01

279

Development and applications of a comprehensive land use classification and map for the US.  

PubMed

Land cover maps reasonably depict areas that are strongly converted by human activities, but typically are unable to resolve low-density but widespread development patterns. Data products specifically designed to resolve land uses complement land cover datasets and likely improve our ability to understand the extent and complexity of human modification. Methods for developing a comprehensive land use classification system are described, and a map of land use for the conterminous United States is presented to reveal what we are doing on the land. The comprehensive, detailed and high-resolution dataset was developed through spatial analysis of nearly two-dozen publicly-available, national spatial datasets--predominantly based on census housing, employment, and infrastructure, as well as land cover from satellite imagery. This effort resulted in 79 land use classes that fit within five main land use groups: built-up, production, recreation, conservation, and water. Key findings from this study are that built-up areas occupy 13.6% of mainland US, but that the majority of this occurs as low-density exurban/rural residential (9.1% of the US), while more intensive built-up land uses occupy 4.5%. For every acre of urban and suburban residential land, there are 0.13 commercial, 0.07 industrial, 0.48 institutional, and 0.29 acres of interstates/highways. This database can be used to address a variety of natural resource applications, and I provide three examples here: an entropy index of the diversity of land uses for smart-growth planning, a power-law scaling of metropolitan area population to developed footprint, and identifying potential conflict areas by delineating the urban interface. PMID:24728210

Theobald, David M

2014-01-01

280

USING THE EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERING INTENSITY SCALE TO IMPROVE URBAN AREA EARTHQUAKE EMERGENCY RESPONSE  

E-print Network

USING THE EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERING INTENSITY SCALE TO IMPROVE URBAN AREA EARTHQUAKE EMERGENCY distribution estimation of earthquake damage in building stocks is presented. The purpose is to start a strong urban area earthquake. We used a pair of ground motion and building-tag color databases

Irfanoglu, Ayhan

281

Land Use History  

E-print Network

This study focuses on the cultural-historical environment of the 88,900-acre (35,560-ha) Valles Caldera National Preserve (VCNP) over the past four centuries of Spanish, Mexican, and U.S. governance. It includes a review and synthesis of available published and unpublished historical, ethnohistorical, and ethnographic literature about the human occupation of the area now contained within the VCNP. Documents include historical maps, texts, letters, diaries, business records, photographs, land and mineral patents, and court testimony. This study presents a cultural-historical framework of VCNP land use that will be useful to land managers and researchers in assessing the historical ecology of the property. It provides VCNP administrators and agents the cultural-historical background needed to develop management plans that acknowledge traditional associations with the Preserve, and offers managers additional background for structuring and acting on consultations with affiliated communities.

United States; Forest Service; Kurt F. Anschuetz

2007-01-01

282

Agri-environmental policy and urban sprawl patterns: A general equilibrium analysis  

E-print Network

have little in common. Farm- ing at the urban fringe is intensive in terms of non-land inputs. In a neoclassical framework, land use and crop management are more intensive close to the city (Beckmann, 1972 mixed land-use area where households and farmers share space. We provide theoretical evidence that agri

Boyer, Edmond

283

Modeling enzootic raccoon rabies from land use patterns - Georgia (USA) 2006-2010  

PubMed Central

We analyzed how land-use patterns and changes in urbanization influence reported rabid raccoons in Georgia from 2006 - 2010.  Using Geographical Information Systems and rabies surveillance data, multivariate analysis was conducted on 15 land-use variables that included natural topography, agricultural development, and urbanization to model positive raccoon rabies cases while controlling for potential raccoon submission bias associated with higher human population densities.  Low intensity residential development was positively associated with reported rabid raccoons while a negative association was found with evergreen forest.  Evergreen forests may offer a barrier effect where resources are low and raccoon populations are not supported.  Areas with pure stands of upland evergreen forest might be utilized in baiting strategies for oral rabies vaccination programs where fewer or no baits may be needed.  Their use as a barrier should be considered carefully in a cost-effective strategy for oral rabies vaccination (ORV) programs to contain the western spread of this important zoonotic disease. PMID:24715971

Duke, John E.

2014-01-01

284

Land use of northern megalopolis from ERTS-1 imagery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author has identified the following significant results. The preliminary map of land use of Rhode Island is believed to be the first urban-type land use map ever made from satellite imagery, and its preparation a significant scientific result for ERTS-1. Eight categories of land use were differentiated at a scale of 1:250,000 including 3 categories of residential area: single family and multiple/mixed urban types, plus a residential and open space rural one. This compares favorably with RB-57 mapping experience in which, mapping at 1:120,000 from photography taken from 60,000 feet, 11 basic categories of land use were discriminated. From ERTS, the urban cores of cities down to 7,000 population, and commercial and industrial sites down to 800 feet square, were consistently discriminated.

Simpson, R. B. (principal investigator)

1972-01-01

285

Modelling the impacts of coastal hazards on land-use development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Approximately 10% of the world's population live in close proximity to the coast and are potentially susceptible to tropical or extra-tropical storm-surge events. These events will be exacerbated by projected sea-level rise (SLR) in the 21st century. Accelerated SLR is one of the more certain impacts of global warming and can have major effects on humans and ecosystems. Of particular vulnerability are densely populated coastal urban centres containing globally important commercial resources, with assets in the billions USD. Moreover, the rates of growth of coastal populations, which are reported to be growing faster than the global means, are leading to increased human exposure to coastal hazards. Consequently, potential impacts of coastal hazards can be significant in the future and will depend on various factors but actual impacts can be considerably reduced by appropriate human decisions on coastal land-use management. At the regional scale, it is therefore necessary to identify which coastal areas are vulnerable to these events and explore potential long-term responses reflected in land usage. Land-use change modelling is a technique which has been extensively used in recent years for studying the processes and mechanisms that govern the evolution of land use and which can potentially provide valuable information related to the future coastal development of regions that are vulnerable to physical forcings. Although studies have utilized land-use classification maps to determine the impact of sea-level rise, few use land-use projections to make these assessments, and none have considered adaptive behaviour of coastal dwellers exposed to hazards. In this study a land-use change model, which is based on artificial neural networks (ANN), was employed for predicting coastal urban and agricultural development. The model uses as inputs a series of spatial layers, which include information on population distribution, transportation networks, existing urban centres, and which are assumed as proxies for the natural, environmental and socio-economic parameters that drive the development of land use. Furthermore, using projected sea-level rise estimates, tropical storm surge maps, and tropical storm records rule sets are constructed, whereby frequently flooded urban residents may employ adaptive spatial behaviour leading to the abandonment of exposed land and migration to more suitable areas. In this context, different responses of residents to frequent flooding are explored and the impact of these responses to future land-use development is assessed. The model has been applied to the region of south Florida, USA, which is heavily impacted by tropical storm-surge events and is particularly vulnerable to sea-level rise. A large number of simulations were performed exploring the evolution of land use in the next 100 years under different scenarios of possible increases in hurricane intensity, and local relative sea-level rise. Furthermore, various rule sets were employed reflecting urban residents' willingness to migrate based on the intensity and frequency of flooding and the availability of economic resources to rebuild. The results of this application are expected to give insights into the response, in terms of land-use development, of the natural and socio-economic system to these hazards and thus to provide useful information for land-use planning at regional scale.

Ramirez, J.; Vafeidis, A. T.

2009-04-01

286

Land Use Intensity Controls Actinobacterial Community Structure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Actinobacteria are major producers of secondary metabolites; however, it is unclear how they are distributed in the environment.\\u000a DNA was extracted from forest, pasture and cultivated soils, street sediments (dust and material in place), and sediments\\u000a affected by animal activity (e.g. guano, vermicompost) and characterised with two actinobacterial and a bacterial-specific\\u000a 16S rDNA primer set. Amplicons (140\\/156) generated with the

Patrick Hill; Václav Krišt?fek; Lubbert Dijkhuizen; Christopher Boddy; David Kroetsch; Jan Dirk van Elsas

2011-01-01

287

Daily maximum urban heat island intensity in large cities of Korea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary This study investigates the characteristics of the daily maximum urban heat island (UHI) intensity in the six largest cities of South Korea (Seoul, Incheon, Daejeon, Daegu, Gwangju, and Busan) during the period 1973–2001. The annually-averaged daily maximum UHI intensity in all cities tends to increase with time, but the rate of increase differs. It is found that the average

Y.-H. Kim; J.-J. Baik

2004-01-01

288

Change in agricultural land use constrains adaptation of national wildlife refuges to climate change  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Land-use change around protected areas limits their ability to conserve biodiversity by altering ecological processes such as natural hydrologic and disturbance regimes, facilitating species invasions, and interfering with dispersal of organisms. This paper informs USA National Wildlife Refuge System conservation planning by predicting future land-use change on lands within 25 km distance of 461 refuges in the USA using an econometric model. The model contained two differing policy scenarios, namely a ‘business-as-usual’ scenario and a ‘pro-agriculture’ scenario. Regardless of scenario, by 2051, forest cover and urban land use were predicted to increase around refuges, while the extent of range and pasture was predicted to decrease; cropland use decreased under the business-as-usual scenario, but increased under the pro-agriculture scenario. Increasing agricultural land value under the pro-agriculture scenario slowed an expected increase in forest around refuges, and doubled the rate of range and pasture loss. Intensity of land-use change on lands surrounding refuges differed by regions. Regional differences among scenarios revealed that an understanding of regional and local land-use dynamics and management options was an essential requirement to effectively manage these conserved lands. Such knowledge is particularly important given the predicted need to adapt to a changing global climate.

Hamilton, Christopher M.; Thogmartin, Wayne E.; Radeloff, Volker C.; Plantinga, Andrew J.; Heglund, Patricia J.; Martinuzzi, Sebastian; Pidgeon, Anna M.

2014-01-01

289

Land UseLand Use inimizing the risk of foodborne illness from produce begins on the farm itself. Whether you are  

E-print Network

Land UseLand Use M inimizing the risk of foodborne illness from produce begins on the farm itself to as pathogens. The land uses listed below may need to undergo soil testing or a waiting period before crops are planted. Land with intensive animal use. Areas that have been used for intensive animal production

Liskiewicz, Maciej

290

The potential for hail and intense rainfall enhancement over urban areas: improving urban extreme weather risk assessment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Urban communities and their infrastructure are particularly vulnerable to the impacts of organized thunderstorm systems. Current models of urban extreme weather risk do not fully represent the complexity of the hydrometeorological processes involved, particularly in relation to intense convective precipitation and severe weather. Hail is a severe thunderstorm hazard that can be extremely damaging to property (especially automobiles, buildings and agriculture) over and in proximity to urban environments. This study identifies some of the mechanisms that future generations of catastrophe models should consider incorporating in their representation of hydrometeorlogical hazards in urban areas. In addition, such information could help to inform planning policy and improve urban resilience to extreme events. Evidence is provided that urban environments, through the existence of high-rise buildings and densely build-up areas, but also through air-pollution (aerosols) can potentially lead to an enhancement of both flooding and hail. Conclusions are drawn from two separate studies over the heavily urbanized corridor of the northeastern United States but could be expanded to apply to other urban areas. Observational and modelling (Weather Research and Forecasting - WRF) analyses of an extreme thunderstorm over the Baltimore, Maryland metropolitan area on 7 July 2004 provided evidence that the urban canopy redistributed heavy rainfall and convergence centres in the vicinity of the urban environment. Modelling analyses suggest that convective rainfall around the urban core was increased by about 30% due to the heterogeneities of land surface processes associated with the city of Baltimore. Chesapeake Bay also played an important role in rainfall distribution by acting as a divergence zone for northerly winds. Cloud-to-ground lightning analyses show that the city of Baltimore and the Chesapeake Bay combined played a role in the distribution of lightning in the periphery of the urban core. Detailed modelling analyses (WRF-Chem) of a series of convective storms over the New York City metropolitan area, suggest that under certain meteorological conditions, increased concentrations of aerosols can lead to better organization of convection, higher vertical velocities and significantly increased convective rainfall accumulations. Higher vertical velocities were more widespread and reached deeper atmospheric levels when meteorological conditions were favourable, under increased aerosol concentrations. Areas that are downstream of sources of aerosols (i.e. New York City) are more prone to experience convective enhancement.

Ntelekos, A. A.; Smith, J. A.; Krajewski, W. F.; Foote, M.

2009-04-01

291

Assessing the consequence of land use change on agricultural productivity in China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

China's cultivated land has been undergoing dramatic changes along with its rapidly growing economy and population. The impacts of land use transformation on food production at the national scale, however, have been poorly understood due to the lack of detailed spatially explicit agricultural productivity information on cropland change and crop productivity. This study evaluates the effect of the cropland transformation on agricultural productivity by combining the land use data of China for the period of 1990-2000 from TM images and a satellite-based NPP (net primary production) model driven with NOAA/AVHRR data. The cropland area of China has a net increase of 2.79 Mha in the study period, which causes a slightly increased agricultural productivity (6.96 Mt C) at the national level. Although the newly cultivated lands compensated for the loss from urban expansion, but the contribution to production is insignificant because of the low productivity. The decrease in crop production resulting from urban expansion is about twice of that from abandonment of arable lands to forests and grasslands. The productivity of arable lands occupied by urban expansion was 80% higher than that of the newly cultivated lands in the regions with unfavorable natural conditions. Significance of cropland transformation impacts is spatially diverse with the differences in land use change intensity and land productivity across China. The increase in arable land area and yet decline in land quality may reduce the production potential and sustainability of China's agro-ecosystems.

Yan, Huimin; Liu, Jiyuan; Huang, He Qing; Tao, Bo; Cao, Mingkui

2009-05-01

292

Influences of upland and riparian land use patterns on stream biotic integrity  

Microsoft Academic Search

We explored land use, fish assemblage structure, and stream habitat associations in 20 catchments in Opequon Creek watershed, West Virginia. The purpose was to determine the relative importance of urban and agriculture land use on stream biotic integrity, and to evaluate the spatial scale (i.e., whole-catchment vs riparian buffer) at which land use effects were most pronounced. We found that

C. D. Snyder; J. A. Young; R. Villella; D. P. Lemarié

2003-01-01

293

Identifying Stormwater Pollution Sources from Land Use Deconstruction Using Digital Image Processing  

E-print Network

Identifying Stormwater Pollution Sources from Land Use Deconstruction Using Digital Image affecting stormwater pollution concentrations in order to identify major pollution sources of the land uses. The results will identify the actual sources of stormwater pollution from urban land uses and provide

Mountziaris, T. J.

294

A Basic Introduction to Land Use Control Law and Doctrine. Publication 6.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Divided into four sections, this paper discusses the historical development of land-use control law and doctrine. Entitled "Genesis of the Zoning Mechanism", Part 1 discusses zoning in terms of: a by-product of urbanization: common law land-use controls (public and private nuisance laws); private property as restraint on land-use legislation…

Roberts, E. F.

295

How Will America Grow? A Citizen Guide to Land-Use Planning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Citizens are encouraged to learn about and become involved in land use and growth issues in their communities. Intended as a follow-up of an earlier report by the Committee's Task Force on Land Use and Urban Growth which outlined philosophical, legal, and policy aspects of land-use planning, the document suggests planning guidelines for citizen…

Citizens Advisory Committee on Environmental Quality.

296

A Comparison of the Influences of Urbanization in Contrasting Environmental Settings on Stream Benthic Algal Assemblages  

Microsoft Academic Search

Patterns of stream benthic algal assemblages along urbanization gradients were investi- gated in three metropolitan areas—Boston (BOS), Massachusetts; Birmingham (BIR), Alabama; and Salt Lake City (SLC), Utah. An index of urban intensity derived from socioeconomic, infrastruc- ture, and land-use characteristics was used as a measure of urbanization. Of the various attributes of the algal assemblages, species composition changed along gradients

MARINA P OTAPOVA; ELISE M. P. GIDDINGS; HUMBERT ZAPPIA

2005-01-01

297

High resolution scenarios of land-use and land-cover change for the conterminous United States  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe a series of high resolution maps of past and projected changes in land use and land cover (LULC) for the conterminous United States for the period 1992 to 2100. Four scenarios from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's (IPCC) Special Report on Emission Scenarios (SRES) were used to create annual maps showing spatially explicit change in 15 LULC classes at a spatial resolution of 250 meters. A modular land-use modeling approach was utilized with distinct demand and spatial allocation components. To quantify demand for future LULC change (i.e. the quantity of changes in land use and land cover classes), a scenario downscaling model was developed to extend global scenarios from the IPCC to hierarchically nested ecoregions of the U.S. The Forecasting Scenarios (FORE-SCE) land use model was then employed to allocate scenario demand on the landscape. Both models were parameterized at the ecoregion scale and relied extensively on land use histories and expert knowledge. Results reveal large differences across IPCC-SRES scenarios. Scenarios prioritizing economic development over environmental protection result in the highest rates of LULC change, particularly in regions with extensive forest management, large urban areas, and/or large investments in agricultural land. Scenarios where environmental protection is emphasized result in slower rates of change and less intensity in regional land use patterns.

Sleeter, B. M.; Sohl, T. L.; Bouchard, M. A.; Reker, R. R.; Sayler, K.; Sleeter, R.; Soulard, C. E.; Wilson, T. S.

2012-12-01

298

[Urban heat island intensity and its grading in Liaoning Province of Northeast China].  

PubMed

According to the recorded air temperature data and their continuity of each weather station, the location of each weather station, the numbers of and the distances among the weather stations, and the records on the weather stations migration, several weather stations in Liaoning Province were selected as the urban and rural representative stations to study the characteristics of urban heat island (UHI) intensity in the province. Based on the annual and monthly air temperature data of the representative stations, the ranges and amplitudes of the UHI intensity were analyzed, and the grades of the UHI intensity were classified. The Tieling station, Dalian station, Anshan station, Chaoyang station, Dandong station, and Jinzhou station and the 18 stations including Tai' an station were selected as the representative urban and rural weather stations, respectively. In 1980-2009, the changes of the annual UHI intensity in the 6 representative cities differed. The annual UHI intensity in Tieling was in a decreasing trend, while that in the other five cities was in an increasing trend. The UHI intensity was strong in Tieling but weak in Dalian. The changes of the monthly UHI intensity in the 6 representative cities also differed. The distribution of the monthly UHI intensity in Dandong, Jinzhou and Tieling took a "U" shape, with the maximum and minimum appeared in January and in May-August, respectively, indicating that the monthly UHI intensity was strong in winter and weak in summer. The ranges of the annual and monthly UHI intensity in the 6 cities were 0.57-2.15 degrees C and -0.70-4.60 degrees C, and the ranges of 0.5-2.0 degrees C accounted for 97.8% and 72.3%, respectively. The UHI intensity in the province could be classified into 4 grades, i. e., weak, strong, stronger and strongest. PMID:22919847

Li, Li-Guang; Wang, Hong-Bo; Jia, Qing-Yu; Lü, Guo-Hong; Wang, Xiao-Ying; Zhang, Yu-Shu; Ai, Jing-Feng

2012-05-01

299

Modeling land-use change  

SciTech Connect

Tropical land-use change is generally considered to be the greatest net contributor of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere after fossil-fuel burning. However, estimates vary widely, with one major cause of variation being that terrestrial ecosystems are both a source and a sink for carbon. This article describes two spatially explicit models which simulate rates and patterns of tropical land-use change: GEOMOD1, based on intuitive assumptions about how people develop land over time, and GEOMOD2, based on a statistical analysis of how people have actually used the land. The models more closely estimate the connections between atmospheric carbon dioxide, deforestation, and other land use changes.

NONE

1995-12-31

300

[Spatiotemporal characteristics of urban land expansion in central area of Shanghai, China].  

PubMed

Using the high spatial resolution (2.5 m) color-infrared aerial photos acquired in 1989, 1994, 2000 and 2005, this paper analyzed the spatiotemporal characteristics of rapid urban expansion in central Shanghai with urban expansion intensity index and gradient analysis. Results showed that urban land use in Shanghai increased rapidly in a "pancake" style during the study period, and the anisotropic urban expansion moved the urban center 2.62 km toward southwest. The urban land use expansion intensity doubled and showed a rural-urban gradient. The most intensive urban expansion zone fell in the rural-urban transition zone, indicating the dominance of peripheral expansion as the primary urban expansion mode in Shanghai. However, the urban land use intensity decreased with time at the urban center. The primary driving forces of urban expansion included support from government policies and decision-making, enhanced economic activities, societal fixed assets investment, urban infrastructure investment, extension of transportation routes, as well as increase in urban population. PMID:24697062

Hu, Han-Wen; Wei, Ben-Sheng; Shen, Xing-Hua; Li, Jun-Xiang

2013-12-01

301

Statistical and dynamical characteristics of the urban heat island intensity in Seoul  

Microsoft Academic Search

The statistical and dynamical characteristics of the urban heat island (UHI) intensity in Seoul are investigated for non-precipitation\\u000a days and precipitation days using 4-year surface meteorological data with 1-h time intervals. Furthermore, the quantitative\\u000a influence of synoptic pressure pattern on the UHI intensity is examined using a synoptic condition clustering method. The\\u000a statistical analysis shows that the daily maximum UHI

Sang-Hyun Lee; Jong-Jin Baik

2010-01-01

302

Temperature trends and Urban Heat Island intensity mapping of the Las Vegas valley area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Modified urban climate regions that are warmer than rural areas at night are referred to as Urban Heat Islands or UHI. Islands of warmer air over a city can be 12 degrees Celsius greater than the surrounding cooler air. The exponential growth in Las Vegas for the last two decades provides an opportunity to detect gradual temperature changes influenced by an increasing presence of urban materials. This thesis compares ground based thermometric observations and satellite based remote sensing temperature observations to identify temperature trends and UHI areas caused by urban development. Analysis of temperature trends between 2000 and 2010 at ground weather stations has revealed a general cooling trend in the Las Vegas region. Results show that urban development accompanied by increased vegetation has a cooling effect in arid climates. Analysis of long term temperature trends at McCarran and Nellis weather stations show 2.4 K and 1.2 K rise in temperature over the last 60 years. The ground weather station temperature data is related to the land surface temperature images from the Landsat Thematic Mapper to estimate and evaluate urban heat island intensity for Las Vegas. Results show that spatial and temporal trends of temperature are related to the gradual change in urban landcover. UHI are mainly observed at the airport and in the industrial areas. This research provides useful insight into the temporal behavior of the Las Vegas area.

Black, Adam Leland

303

Impact of Low-Level Jets on the Nocturnal Urban Heat Island Intensity in Oklahoma City  

E-print Network

the radiation and surface energy balance. As a result, cities are known to affect weather and climateImpact of Low-Level Jets on the Nocturnal Urban Heat Island Intensity in Oklahoma City XIAO-MING HU/Renewable and Sustainable Energy Institute, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado FUQING ZHANG Department of Meteorology

Xue, Ming

304

Land-use Effect on Stream Organic Matter Composition in Two Metropolitan Areas in USA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Urbanization is a form of land-use change that is increasing in coastal watersheds and may affect the quantity and quality of organic carbon delivered to streams and coastal ocean. Here, we examine the changes in optical and isotopic characteristics of organic matter in streams (Gwynns Fall and Buffalo Bayou) draining Baltimore and Houston Metropolitan Areas (USA), relative to nearby less affected forested watersheds. A summer longitudinal sampling in Gwynns Fall along a rural-urban gradient showed increases in dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and fluorescent protein to humic ratio but a decrease in specific UV absorption (SUVA). Parallel Factor modeling shows dominance of terrestrial component of DOC, and the ratio of an unknown component to the component of humic substance was high in urban watersheds and it was positively correlated impervious surface cover (an index of urbanization). Incubation experiments with leaves and stream algae suggest origin of decayed leaf leachate of this component. Conversely, DOM in Buffalo Bayou showed higher intensity of protein-like fluorescence, and the intensity increased longitudinal along a rural-urban gradient but decreased from low-flows to a flooding event. The difference in fluorescent organic matter composition between the two streams probably reflected different management of wastewater in watersheds. Surface sediment collected at sites of sub-watersheds of Gwynns Fall showed changes in particle size, elemental and isotopic composition with land use. Sediment incubations showed that higher temperature (due to urban heat island effect) enhanced loss of labile organic matter and release of refractory organic matter into stream water. Release of reactive soluble phosphorus, loss of nitrogen and reduction of sulfate also occurred at high incubating temperatures, along with mineralization of sediment organic matter. Bed sediment collected along Buffalo Bayou displayed a longitudinal decrease in N-15, probably reflecting the displacement of waste water treatment plant in upper watershed. Organic matter compositions of suspended sediment, however, were more related to abundance of phytoplankton biomass.

Duan, S.; Kaushal, S.; Amon, R. M.; Brinkmeyer, R.

2011-12-01

305

Land use mapping and modelling for the Phoenix Quadrangle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author has identified the following significant results. The mapping of generalized land use (level 1) from ERTS 1 images was shown to be feasible with better than 95% accuracy in the Phoenix quadrangle. The accuracy of level 2 mapping in urban areas is still a problem. Updating existing maps also proved to be feasible, especially in water categories and agricultural uses; however, expanding urban growth has presented with accuracy. ERTS 1 film images indicated where areas of change were occurring, thus aiding focusing-in for more detailed investigation. ERTS color composite transparencies provided a cost effective source of information for land use mapping of very large regions at small map scales.

Place, J. L. (principal investigator)

1974-01-01

306

Development of Evaluation on Urban Land Intensive Use System Based on the Distributional Structure of Client\\/Serve  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study is to develop an information system for evaluation of urban land Intensive use, so as to make the evaluating processes modeled and automated. Evaluation of Intensive urban land (EIUL) is considers as research object, and the methods and index system of EIUL is confirmed. To deal with the problems and the shortages of EIUL, this

Pan Hongyi; Gu Jirong; He Wei; Jiang Guiguo

2012-01-01

307

Generated using V3.0 of the official AMS LATEX templatejournal page layout FOR AUTHOR USE ONLY, NOT FOR SUBMISSION! Measurement and statistical modeling of the urban heat island of the city of Utrecht  

E-print Network

, NOT FOR SUBMISSION! Measurement and statistical modeling of the urban heat island of the city of Utrecht (the) and 77 daytime (afternoon) profiles. It is shown how the intensity of the urban heat island depends and maximum nighttime urban heat island intensity profiles to area-averaged sky-view factors and land use

Brandsma, Theo

308

Large-eddy simulation of an idealized urban heat island  

Microsoft Academic Search

The surface-atmosphere interactions processes play an important role in the microclimatic conditions of a region, through the moment and heat exchanges in the Planetary Boundary-Layer (PBL). Particularly, the human activities depend and modify these microclimatic conditions by the intensive land use, deforestation, burning fossil fuels and urbanization processes. The urbanization is one of the most visible anthropogenic changes of the

E. P. Marques Filho; M. Cassol; H. A. Karam; U. Rizza

2009-01-01

309

The Biogeohydroclimatology of Land Use  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When John Donne wrote his Meditation XVII, which includes the famous"No man is an island" passage, he was thinking about connections between people; no human being is isolated from another. Donne might just as well have been writing about the science of land use, however. What happens on one plot of land clearly affects what happens on another, whether downhill, downstream, or downwind. I will explore the consequences of land use for mass and energy fluxes, focusing on pasture, crop, and forest transitions in the Americas. I'll discuss my own work, some work of collaborators, and a few examples from the literature. No man is an island.

Jackson, R. B.

2008-05-01

310

Biodiversity across a Rural Land-Use Gradient  

Microsoft Academic Search

Private lands in the American West are undergoing a land-use conversion from agriculture to ex- urban development, although little is known about the ecological consequences of this change. Some nongov- ernmental organizations are working with ranchers to keep their lands out of development and in ranching, ostensibly because they believe biodiversity is better protected on ranches than on exurban developments.

Jeremy D. Maestas; Richard L. Knight; Wendell C. Gilgert

2003-01-01

311

Clug; Community Land Use Game. Player's Manual with Selected Readings.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

CLUG (Community Land Use Game) is designed to provide players with an understanding of several underlying factors affecting the growth of an urban region. It has been used with players from junior high to graduate school and also with non-students. It unites concepts from sociology, economics, and geography. Players invest in land, construct…

Feldt, Allan G.

312

Spatial and temporal variability of urban heat island intensity in Brno (Czech Republic)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Detailed air temperature measurements from a network of 14 stations distributed in urbanized area of Brno, Czech Republic (380 ths. inhabitants, complex terrain) are analyzed with the aim to describe spatial and temporal variability in atmospheric Urban Heat Island (UHI). Each station environment was characterized with a set of parameters such as altitude, Sky View Factor (SVF), amount of vegetation (NDVI) and density of buildings (DENS) in station's neighborhood. Temperature measurements made in 10 min. intervals from a set of 64 calm and sunny days (DJF-6, MAM-26, JJA-21, SON-11) made between March 2010-May 2011 were used to characterize each station with several air temperature characteristics. Difference between temperature measurement at individual station and average temperature measurements of rural stations was used as a simple measure of UHI intensity. We found that in all seasons UHI clearly develops during night hours and also around noon while in morning and evening hours the temperature differences between urban and rural stations are close to zero. Maximum UHI intensity (about 2.5°C) appears in summer midday, typical UHI intensities in night hours reach 1.0-1.5°C in all seasons. From correlation analysis it follows that independent variables (SVF, NDVI, DENS) significantly correlate with minimum temperature (Tmin) and UHI intensity (?T) and altogether they explain about 60% of ?T. Spatial variability of UHI intensity is compared with Land Surface Temperature fields derived for Brno region from thermal satellite imagery. We demonstrate that the highest LST values typically occur in industrial and commercial areas, which contribute significantly to UHI intensity.

Dobrovolný, P.; Šezní?ková, L.; Krahula, L.

2012-04-01

313

LAND USE AND NATURAL RESOURCES  

E-print Network

: Design Tools for Non-Design Professionals LEED Building Certification Overview of Environmental and community design, renewable energy, environmental quality and climate change. Yet, here I was, driving more in a white Cadillac. It was worth the trip. We in the Land Use and Natural Resources and Sustainability

Ferrara, Katherine W.

314

Biological consequences of land use.  

PubMed

The primary goals of land-use planning are enunciated. A plea is made for consideration of the total biosphere and not just its separate components. The environmental impact statement process is reviewed and some suggestions made for its strengthening. Moves for international adoption of this process are noted, as well as the concept of eco-development currently under examination by UN agencies. PMID:1157793

Munn, R E

1975-04-01

315

Estimation of urban heat island intensity using biases in surface air temperature simulated by a nonhydrostatic regional climate model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study demonstrates that urban heat island (UHI) intensity can be estimated by comparing observational data and the outputs of a well-developed high-resolution regional climate model. Such an estimate is possible because the observations include the effects of UHI, whereas the model used does not include urban effects. Therefore, the errors in the simulated surface air temperature, defined as the difference between simulated and observed temperatures (simulated minus observed), are negative in urban areas but 0 in rural areas. UHI intensity is estimated by calculating the difference in temperature error between urban and rural areas. Our results indicate that overall UHI intensity in Japan is 1.5 K and that the intensity is greater in nighttime than in daytime, consistent with the previous studies. This study also shows that root mean square error and the magnitude of systematic error for the annual mean temperature are small (within 1.0 K).

Murata, Akihiko; Sasaki, Hidetaka; Hanafusa, Mizuki; Kurihara, Kazuo

2013-04-01

316

Simulating land-use dynamics under planning policies by integrating artificial immune systems with cellular automata  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cellular automata (CA) have been increasingly used in simulating urban expansion and land-use dynamics. However, most urban CA models rely on empirical data for deriving transition rules, assuming that the historical trend will continue into the future. Such inertia CA models do not take into account possible external interventions, particularly planning policies, and thus have rarely been used in urban

Xiaoping Liu; Xia Li; Xun Shi; Xiaohu Zhang; Yimin Chen

2010-01-01

317

Effects of land use on water quality and aquatic biota of three North Carolina Piedmont streams  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three streams in the Piedmont ecoregion of North Carolina were studied to evaluate the effect of land use (forested, agricultural, urban) on water quality and aquatic biota. In comparison with the forested stream, there were few changes in water quality at the agricultural and urban streams. Suspended-sediment yield was greatest for the urban catchment and least at the forested catchment.

David R. Lenat; J. Kent Crawford

1994-01-01

318

Derivation of Nationally Consistent Indices Representing Urban Intensity Within and Across Nine Metropolitan Areas of the Conterminous United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Two nationally consistent multimetric indices of urban intensity were developed to support studies of the effects of urbanization on streams in nine metropolitan areas of the conterminous United States: Atlanta, Georgia; Birmingham, Alabama; Boston, Massachusetts; Dallas-Fort Worth, Texas; Denver, Colorado; Milwaukee-Green Bay, Wisconsin; Portland, Oregon; Raleigh, North Carolina; and Salt Lake City, Utah. These studies were conducted as a part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program. These urban intensity indices were used to define gradients of urbanization and to interpret biological, physical, and chemical changes along these gradients. Ninety census, land-cover, and infrastructure variables obtained from nationally available databases were evaluated. Only variables that exhibited a strong and consistent linear relation with 2000 population density were considered for use in the indices. Housing-unit density (HUDEN), percentage of basin area in developed land (P_NLCD1_2), and road density (ROADDEN) were selected as the best representatives of census, land-cover, and infrastructure variables. The metropolitan area national urban intensity index (MA-NUII) was scaled to represent urban intensity within each metropolitan area and ranged from 0 (little or no urban) to 100 (maximum urban) for sites within each metropolitan area. The national urban intensity index (NUII) was scaled to represent urban intensity across all nine metropolitan areas and ranged from 0 to 100 for all sites. The rates at which HUDEN, P_NLCD1_2, and ROADDEN changed with changes in population density varied among metropolitan areas. Therefore, these variables were adjusted to obtain a more uniform rate of response across metropolitan areas in the derivation of the NUII. The NUII indicated that maximum levels of urban intensity occurred in the West and Midwest rather than in the East primarily because small inner-city streams in eastern metropolitan areas are buried and converted to storm drains or sewers and because of higher density development in the Western and Central United States. The national indices (MA-NUII, NUII) were compared to indices that were derived independently for each metropolitan area (MA-UII) based on variables that were of local interest. The MA-UIIs, which were based on 5 to 40 variables, tended to overestimate urban intensity relative to the national indices particularly when the MA-UII was composed of large numbers of variables that were not linearly related to population density as in Denver, Dallas-Fort Worth, and Milwaukee-Green Bay.

Cuffney, Thomas F.; Falcone, James A.

2009-01-01

319

RURAL LAND-USE TRENDS IN THE CONTERMINOUS UNITED STATES, 1950–2000  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to understand the magnitude, direction, and geographic distribution of land-use changes, we evaluated land-use trends in U.S. counties during the latter half of the 20th century. Our paper synthesizes the dominant spatial and temporal trends in population, agriculture, and urbanized land uses, using a variety of data sources and an ecoregion classification as a frame of reference. A

Daniel G. Brown; Kenneth M. Johnson; Thomas R. Loveland; David M. Theobald

2005-01-01

320

Spatiotemporal trends of terrestrial vegetation activity along the urban development intensity gradient in China's 32 major cities.  

PubMed

Terrestrial vegetation plays many pivotal roles in urban systems. However, the impacts of urbanization on vegetation are poorly understood. Here we examined the spatiotemporal trends of the vegetation activity measured by MODIS Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) along Urban Development Intensity (UDI) gradient in 32 major Chinese cities from 2000 to 2012. We also proposed to use a new set of concepts (i.e., actual, theoretical, and positive urbanization effects) to better understand and quantify the impacts of urbanization on vegetation activities. Results showed that the EVI decreased significantly along a rising UDI for 28 of 32 cities (p<0.05) in linear, convex or concave form, signifying the urbanization impacts on vegetation varied across cities and UDI zones within a city. Further, the actual urbanization effects were much weaker than the theoretical estimates because of the offsetting positive effects generated by multiple urban environmental and anthropogenic factors. Examining the relative changes of EVI in various UDI zones against that in the rural area (?EVI), which effectively removed the effects of climate variability, demonstrated that ?EVI decreased markedly from 2000 to 2012 for about three-quarters of the cities in the exurban (0.05urban (0.5urban core (0.75urban and urban core of many cities could primarily be attributed to the importance of positive effects derived from the urban environment and the improvement of management and maintenance of urban green space. More work is needed to quantify mechanistically the detailed negative and positive effects of urban environmental factors and management practices on vegetation activities. PMID:24829041

Zhou, Decheng; Zhao, Shuqing; Liu, Shuguang; Zhang, Liangxia

2014-08-01

321

DECEMBER 2008 WATER QUALITY AND LAND USE: IMPLICATIONS FOR REGULATION AND  

E-print Network

DECEMBER 2008 WATER QUALITY AND LAND USE: IMPLICATIONS FOR REGULATION AND URBAN PLANNING WRRI Technical Completion Report No. 346 Gwendolyn A. Aldrich Janie Chermak Jennifer A. Thacher NEW MEXICO WATER-0001 Telephone (505) 646-4337 FAX (505) 646-6418 email: nmwrri@wrri.nmsu.edu #12;WATER QUALITY AND LAND USE

Johnson, Eric E.

322

Land-use planning in the vicinity of major accident hazard installations in Greece  

Microsoft Academic Search

Land-use planning, as concerns the prevention and limitation of the consequences of possible major accidents from industrial installations, is an essential mechanism for dealing with actual or potential conflicts between sources of risk, such as potentially hazardous industrial developments, and surrounding land-uses. The objective of this paper is to present a decision making methodology that is suitable for assisting urban

Ioannis Sebos; Athena Progiou; Panagiotis Symeonidis; Ioannis Ziomas

2010-01-01

323

Impact of land use and precipitation changes on surface temperature trends in Argentina  

E-print Network

due to land use changes such as urbanization, agricultural practices, deforestation, etc with the introduction of satellite data. [5] It is not clear what causes this lack of apparent warming in this region

Kalnay, Eugenia

324

Evaluation of Urban Land Intensive Use Based on Analytic Hierarchy Process - A Case of Zhongxiang City, Hubei Province, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Taking Zhongxiang City, Hubei Province, China as an example, evaluation index system of urban land intensive use is established from four aspects of land economic benefit, land utilization degree, investment intensity, and sustainable utilization. Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) is used to determine the weight of evaluation index in research region. Taking the index numerical value of Hubei Province as the

Xinmao Luo; Hongwei He; Xinli Ke

2009-01-01

325

Impervious Surface Area Mapping using Landsat Imagery: Applications to Hydrology and Land Use Change Monitoring  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Impervious surfaces include rooftops, roads, parking lots and other areas that are impermeable to moisture. As the amount of built environment around urban areas has increased, it has been widely recognized that more impervious surface area (ISA) results in greater volume and intensity of stream flow, which can degrade stream health and require expensive modifications to flood control structures. Other effects include increased urban "heat island" influences and changes in local weather. If impervious areas could be accurately mapped using satellite imagery, it would provide valuable input to many applications, from hydrologic modeling to land use planning. We have developed a method to map subpixel ISA with Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) imagery and classification - regression tree algorithms. This approach provides highly accurate (90+ percent) maps of ISA, but also permits estimation of the proportion of each cell occupied by impervious materials (between 0-100 percent). We report on a recently completed a map of ISA for the entire 163,000 km2 Chesapeake Bay watershed, a region of highly altered land cover and rapid land use change. We also report on the mapping of change patterns, indicated by ISA changes between 1986 - 2001, in an 18,000 km2 area centered on Baltimore - Washington, D.C. We review the methods, issues, technical challenges, results, accuracy, and advantages of this approach, and provide an overview of various applications for which the products are currently being used.

Smith, A.; Goetz, S. J.; Mazzacato, M. E.; Jantz, C.; Wright, R.

2002-12-01

326

The use of LiDAR-derived high-resolution DSM and intensity data to support modelling of urban flooding  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper addresses the issue of a detailed representation of an urban catchment in terms of hydraulic and hydrologic attributes. Modelling of urban flooding requires a detailed knowledge of urban surface characteristics. The advancement in spatial data acquisition technology such as airborne LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) has greatly facilitated the collection of high-resolution topographic information. While the use of the LiDAR-derived Digital Surface Model (DSM) has gained popularity over the last few years as input data for a flood simulation model, the use of LiDAR intensity data has remained largely unexplored in this regard. LiDAR intensity data are acquired along with elevation data during the data collection mission by an aircraft. The practice of using of just aerial images with RGB (Red, Green and Blue) wavebands is often incapable of identifying types of surface under the shadow. On the other hand, LiDAR intensity data can provide surface information independent of sunlight conditions. The focus of this study is the use of intensity data in combination with aerial images to accurately map pervious and impervious urban areas. This study presents an Object-Based Image Analysis (OBIA) framework for detecting urban land cover types, mainly pervious and impervious surfaces in order to improve the rainfall-runoff modelling. Finally, this study shows the application of highresolution DSM and land cover maps to flood simulation software in order to visualize the depth and extent of urban flooding phenomena.

Aktaruzzaman, Md.; Schmitt, Theo G.

2011-11-01

327

Estimating demand for industrial and commercial land use given economic forecasts.  

PubMed

Current developments in the field of land use modelling point towards greater level of spatial and thematic resolution and the possibility to model large geographical extents. Improvements are taking place as computational capabilities increase and socioeconomic and environmental data are produced with sufficient detail. Integrated approaches to land use modelling rely on the development of interfaces with specialized models from fields like economy, hydrology, and agriculture. Impact assessment of scenarios/policies at various geographical scales can particularly benefit from these advances. A comprehensive land use modelling framework includes necessarily both the estimation of the quantity and the spatial allocation of land uses within a given timeframe. In this paper, we seek to establish straightforward methods to estimate demand for industrial and commercial land uses that can be used in the context of land use modelling, in particular for applications at continental scale, where the unavailability of data is often a major constraint. We propose a set of approaches based on 'land use intensity' measures indicating the amount of economic output per existing areal unit of land use. A base model was designed to estimate land demand based on regional-specific land use intensities; in addition, variants accounting for sectoral differences in land use intensity were introduced. A validation was carried out for a set of European countries by estimating land use for 2006 and comparing it to observations. The models' results were compared with estimations generated using the 'null model' (no land use change) and simple trend extrapolations. Results indicate that the proposed approaches clearly outperformed the 'null model', but did not consistently outperform the linear extrapolation. An uncertainty analysis further revealed that the models' performances are particularly sensitive to the quality of the input land use data. In addition, unknown future trends of regional land use intensity widen considerably the uncertainty bands of the predictions. PMID:24647587

Batista e Silva, Filipe; Koomen, Eric; Diogo, Vasco; Lavalle, Carlo

2014-01-01

328

Climatology (communication arising): Rural land-use change and climate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Kalnay and Cai claim that urbanization and land-use change have a major effect on the climate in the United States. They used surface temperatures obtained from NCEP/NCAR 50-year reanalyses (NNR) and their difference compared with observed station surface temperatures as the basis for their conclusions, on the grounds that the NNR did not include these anthropogenic effects. However, we note that the NNR also overlooked other factors, such as known changes in clouds and in surface moisture, which are more likely to explain Kalnay and Cai's findings. Although urban heat-island effects are real in cities, direct estimates of the effects of rural land-use change indicate a cooling rather than a warming influence that is due to a greater reflection of sunlight.

Trenberth, Kevin E.

2004-01-01

329

Climatology (communication arising): rural land-use change and climate.  

PubMed

Kalnay and Cai claim that urbanization and land-use change have a major effect on the climate in the United States. They used surface temperatures obtained from NCEP/NCAR 50-year reanalyses (NNR) and their difference compared with observed station surface temperatures as the basis for their conclusions, on the grounds that the NNR did not include these anthropogenic effects. However, we note that the NNR also overlooked other factors, such as known changes in clouds and in surface moisture, which are more likely to explain Kalnay and Cai's findings. Although urban heat-island effects are real in cities, direct estimates of the effects of rural land-use change indicate a cooling rather than a warming influence that is due to a greater reflection of sunlight. PMID:14724627

Trenberth, Kevin E

2004-01-15

330

Micro-level land use impacts of bioconversion  

SciTech Connect

The energy crisis has prompted research and development of renewable energy sources, among which are the bioconversion technologies. Crops, crop residues, manure and other organic wastes are potential sources of liquid, solid and gaseous fuels. These feedstocks originate on the farm or in the forest and therefore are land intensive. Implementation of the bioconversion technologies will involve actions which will impact existing land use patterns. Because of differences in crop type, yield per acre, existing land use conditions and agricultural practices, an aggregated national approach to the assessment of land use is not sufficient. If energy policy regarding bioconversion is to be successful, then it must be sensitive to micro-level information. This paper demonstrates the land use assessment work at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) in support of the Department of Energy's Technical Assessment of Solar Energy Program, (TASE). Local Biomass potential, existing and use and potential land use impacts from bio-energy implementation for three of the fifteen counties selected for the TASE study will be presented. The methodology creased for the evaluation is useful in determining the biomass potential for any community or county, and in identifying regional differences inherent in the trade-offs between existing land use and energy production.

Parsons, V.

1980-01-01

331

Land use planning in India.  

PubMed

India was the first country to provide for the protection and improvement of environment in its constitution. Land use planning (LUP) or siting of industries has been taken up at the State and Central (Federal) levels over the last few decades. LUP is critical for all types of industries and new residential colonies, but is especially so for the chemical industries. With the experience gained, more coherence in LUP policies is emerging. A few prominent cases of siting of industry, some mixed with public outcry, that have affected the policies are noted in the text. Various factors which affect LUP in India are: population density, infrastructure (roads, power, communication, etc.), level of industrialization in different parts, need for creation of jobs, eco-sensitive regions, tribal regions, historical monuments, etc. This paper discusses the current scene in India and the near future aspects. PMID:16111811

Gupta, J P

2006-03-31

332

LAND USE, COVER AND FORMS CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM  

E-print Network

FLORIDA LAND USE, COVER AND FORMS CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM HANDBOOK JANUARY 1999 DEPARTMENT CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SURVEYING AND MAPPING OFFICE GEOGRPAHIC MAPPING LAND USE, COVER AND FORMS CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM ABOUT THIS EDITION: This is an updated FLORIDA LAND USE

Binford, Michael W.

333

Land use dynamics and the environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

We build a model to study optimal land use, encompassing land use activities, pollution and climate change. This benchmark set-up allows us to identify the spatial drivers behind the interaction between land use and the environment. Pollution generates local and global damages since it flows across locations following a Gaussian Plume. In constrast to the previous literature on spatial dynamics,

Carmen Camacho; Agustín Pérez-Barahona

2012-01-01

334

Database Development of Land Use Characteristics along Major U.S. Highways  

SciTech Connect

The major objective of the effort reported here is to develop methods to measure transportation land use at the national level (i.e., how much land and what types of lands are used by transportation systems) and to track changes over time. Data for transportation-related land use are important for environmental analysis, climate change studies, transportation-land use interaction research, policy decisions related to urban sprawl, and more. Transportation systems have direct effects on the environment through modification of vegetation, impacts on wildlife habitats, changes in local climate and alternation of drainage patterns (U.S. DOT/BTS, 1996; U.S. DOT/BTS, 1998; U.S. EPA, 1999; Maggi, 1994; Verhoef, 1994). However, without accurate and complete land use data, it is extremely difficult to study and evaluate these effects. Transportation systems also induce land use changes. Such indirect effects, while not the subject of this study, may be more significant than the direct land-use impacts of transportation infrastructure. Establishing an inventory of transportation infrastructure and adjacent land use and maintaining the inventory over time is an important first step towards understanding the full range of interactions between transportation and land use. While current and historic land use data are essential for investigating the relationships between transportation and land use, so far, no technological or institutional mechanisms have been established to systematically collect such data at the national level. The lack of long-term planning in land use data acquisition can be a major setback for future research in transportation land use studies. Land use data also play a key role in the understanding of problems related to urban sprawl and in policy decisions in dealing with these problems.

Xiong, D

2000-06-06

335

Are extreme rainfall intensities more frequent? Analysis of trends in rainfall patterns relevant to urban drainage systems.  

PubMed

The fact that climate change is affecting the intensity and frequency of rainfall is well accepted in the scientific community. This is backed by a multitude of reports on the basis of daily rainfall series analysis; however, little research is available for short duration intensities. Due to its significant influence on the behaviour of urban drainage, it is critical to investigate the changes in short duration rainfall intensities. In this study different intensities relevant for the urban drainage and the total rainfall per rain event are analysed. The trend is investigated using the Mann-Kendall test. The rainfall series analysed are from the alpine region Tyrol. The results present differences depending on the duration of the intensity and the series considered, however an increase in the number of extreme events is detectable for short durations for the most series. PMID:19448312

De Toffol, S; Laghari, A N; Rauch, W

2009-01-01

336

The urban market of Açaí fruit ( Euterpe oleracea Mart.) and rural land use change: Ethnographic insights into the role of price and land tenure constraining agricultural choices in the Amazon estuary  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the recent development of the açaí fruit economy in regional Amazonian urban markets (as a staple food) and more recently among national and international consumers (as a fashion food) and the consequences for agroforestry intensification by Caboclo communities in the Amazon estuary. The paper is based on long-term ethnographic research and field experiments; the açaí fruit economy

Eduardo S. Brondízio; Carolina A. M. Safar; Andréa D. Siqueira

2002-01-01

337

Ecological influence and pathways of land use in sagebrush  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Land use in sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) landscapes influences all sage-grouse (Centrocer-cus spp.) populations in western North America. Croplands and the network of irrigation canals cover 230,000 km2 and indirectly influence up to 77% of the Sage-Grouse Conservation Area and 73% of sagebrush land cover by subsidizing synanthropic predators on sage-grouse. Urbanization and the demands of human population growth have created an extensive network of con-necting infrastructure that is expanding its influence on sagebrush landscapes. Over 2,500 km2 are now covered by interstate highways and paved roads; when secondary roads are included, 15% of the Sage-Grouse Conservation Area and 5% of existing sagebrush habitats are 2.5 km from roads. Density of secondary roads often exceeds 5 km/km2, resulting in widespread motorized access for recreation, creating extensive travel corridors for management actions and resource development, subsidizing predators adapted to human presence, and facilitating spread of exotic or invasive plants. Sagebrush lands also are being used for their wilderness and recreation values, including off highway vehicle use. Approximately 12,000,000 animal use months (AUM amount of forage to support one livestock unit per month) are permitted for grazing livestock on public lands in the western states. Direct effects of grazing on sage-grouse populations or sagebrush landscapes are not possible to assess from current data. However, management of lands grazed by livestock has influenced sagebrush ecosystems by vegetation treatments to increase forage and reduce sagebrush and other plant species unpalatable to livestock. Fences (2 km/km2 in some regions), roads, and water developments to manage livestock movements further modify the landscape. Oil and gas development influences 8% of the sagebrush habitats with the highest intensities occurring in the eastern range of sage-grouse; 20% of the sagebrush distribution is indirectly influenced in the Great Plains, Wyoming Basin, and Colorado Plateau SMZs. Energy development physically removes habitat to construct well pads, roads, power lines, and pipelines; indirect effects include habitat fragmentation, soil disturbance, and facilitation of exotic plant and animal spread. More recent development of alternative energy, such as wind and geothermal, creates infrastructure in new regions of the sage-grouse distribution. Land use will continue to be a dominant stressor on sage-brush systems; its individual and cumulative effects will challenge long-term conservation of sage-grouse populations.

Knick, Steven T.; Hanser, Steven E.; Miller, Richard F.; Pyke, David A.; Wisdom, Michael J.; Finn, Sean P.; Rinkes, E. Thomas; Henny, Charles J.

2011-01-01

338

Agricultural land-use mapping using very high resolution satellite images in Canary Islands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Crop maps are a basic tool for rural planning and a way to asses the impact of politics and infrastructures in the rural environment. Thus, they must be accurate and updated. Because of the small size of the land fields in Canary Islands, until now the crop maps have been made by means of an intense and expensive field work. The tiny crop terraces do not allow the use of traditional medium-size resolution satellite images. The launch of several satellites with sub-meter spatial resolutions in the last years provides an opportunity to update land use maps in these fragmented areas. SATELMAC is a project financed by the PCT-MAC 2007-2013 (FEDER funds). One of the main objectives of this project is to develop a methodology that allows the use of very high resolution satellite images to automate as much as possible the updating of agricultural land use maps. The study was carried out in 3 different areas of the two main islands of the Canarian Archipelago, Tenerife and Gran Canaria. The total area is about 550 km2 , which includes both urban and rural areas. Multitemporal images from Geo-Eye 1 were acquired during a whole agricultural season to extract information about annual and perennial crops. The work includes a detailed geographic correction of the images and dealing with many adverse factors like cloud shadows, variability of atmospheric conditions and the heterogeneity of the land uses within the study area. Different classification methods, including traditional pixel-based methods and object-oriented approach, were compared in order to obtain the best accuracy. An intensive field work was carried out to obtain the ground truth, which is the base for the classification procedures and the validation of the results. The final results will be integrated into a cadastral vector layer.

Labrador Garcia, Mauricio; Arbelo, Manuel; Evora Brondo, Juan Antonio; Hernandez-Leal, Pedro A.; Alonso-Benito, Alfonso

339

Friend or Foe? Urbanization and the Biosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The environmental influence of urban areas is still often assumed to be negligible at global scales. Although local environmental conditions such as the urban heat island effect are well-documented, surprisingly little work has focused on cross-scale interactions, or the ways in which local urban processes cumulatively impact global changes. Given the rapid rates of rural-urban migration, economic development and urban spatial expansion, improved systems for measuring, monitoring and modeling the global environmental impacts of cities should receive far greater scientific attention. This presentation will summarize urban environmental issues and impacts at local, regional and global scales and introduce the fundamental concepts and tools needed to measure and respond to these problems. Newly available datasets for the distribution and intensity of urban land use will be introduced, demonstrating the importance of clearly defining 'urbanized' land for empirical studies at the global scale. The negative environmental impacts of urban development will be compared with the often over-looked "positives" of urban growth from a global environmental perspective. Progress in understanding and forecasting the global impacts of urban areas will require systematic global urban research designs that treat cities as urban systems, anthropogenic biomes and urban ecoregions. The challenges and opportunities of global environmental research on urban areas have important implications not only for current research but also for educating the next generation of earth system scientists.

Schneider, A.

2008-12-01

340

Dynamic study of land-use in Yining City  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Based on models of land-use, the paper analyzes urban sprawl from the macroscopic to the micro level, predicts the demand for construction land in the city expansion, and presents the law between total amount of urban land demand and urban space expansion. Then by combining the data with current urban land and natural resources round the city, the paper appraises the rationality of the developed-land which will have changed their use-nature, to appraisal the feasibility and utilization ratio of the undeveloped land and nature resource which will be developed in nearly future, find out the irrationality that may appear in the urban space expanding, thus restrain through planning and policy. With the rapid develop of western regions in recent years, different with the eastern coastal zone; the western city is beginning its own urbanization process. Yili Prefecture, as the window of the development of western regions, is expected to see fast development within a few years. Meanwhile, to Yili Prefecture, the topographical ground form condition is complicated, the natural resources is extremely abundant, once it is destroyed will cause irretrievable losses. Under this background, how to handle the relation between city's development and natural environment and resources well, taking the urban development path that can be constant becomes the important subject that we can't avoid. So this paper uses linear regression mode and dynamics, offer valuable reference for smooth development of the city.

Wang, Jiangping; Wei, Lu

2009-10-01

341

The built environment, activity space, and time allocation| An activity-based framework for modeling the land use and travel connection.  

E-print Network

?? Cities and metropolitan regions face several challenges including rising urban populations, sprawled land use patterns, and related auto dependence, energy consumption, greenhouse emissions, and… (more)

Fan, Yingling

2007-01-01

342

Modeling Land Use Change in the Chesapeake Bay Watershed  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Low density, decentralized residential and commercial development is increasingly the dominant pattern of exurban land use in many developed countries, particularly the United States. The term "sprawl" is now commonly used to describe this form of development, the environmental and quality-of-life impacts of which are becoming central to debates over land use in urban and suburban areas. Continued poor health of the Chesapeake Bay, located in the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States, is due in part to disruptions in the hydrological system caused by urban and suburban development throughout the 167,000 square kilometer watershed. We present results of a spatial predictive model of land use change based on cellular automata (SLEUTH), which was calibrated using high resolution (30m cell size) maps of the built environment derived from Landsat ETM+ imagery for the period 1986-2000. The model was applied to a 23,740 square kilometer area centered on Washington DC - Baltimore MD, and predictions were made out to 2030 assuming three different policy scenarios (current trends, managed growth, and "sustainable"). Accuracy of the model was assessed at three scales (pixel, watershed and county) and overall strengths and weaknesses of the model are presented, particularly in comparison to other econometric modeling approaches.

Claire, J. A.; Goetz, S. J.; Bockstael, N.

2003-12-01

343

Pollutant export from various land uses in the upper Neuse River Basin.  

PubMed

Because of the relatively high variability of pollutant export from urban land uses, a significant number of monitoring studies, including data from many storms, are needed to adequately characterize export from urban land uses. Pollutant runoff from six small drainage areas with different land uses was monitored for at least 20 storm events over the course of more than 1 year. The land uses included single-family residential, golf course, industrial, dairy cow pasture, construction site, and wooded site. Average event mean concentrations and total annual load were computed for nitrogen forms, total phosphorus, and sediment from the land uses. Annual total nitrogen export was greatest for the construction land use during the house-building phase, followed closely by the residential and golf course land uses. Total phosphorus export was greatest for the golf course site followed by the pasture and residential land uses. Sediment export was greatest for the construction site during the rough grading phase, which averaged more than 10 times more sediment export than any of the other sites. To estimate export from a multiuse urban watershed, total nitrogen, phosphorus, and sediment export from the residential, golf course, and construction sites were averaged. The average total nitrogen, phosphorus, and sediment export from the three land uses was, respectively, 269, 302, and 256% greater than the corresponding exports from the wooded site, which was considered similar to the predevelopment land use. Additionally, analyses of rainfall samples indicated that a considerable portion of the nitrogen export from these sites likely comes from nitrogen in rainfall. PMID:11995863

Line, Daniel E; White, Nancy M; Osmond, Deanna L; Jennings, Gregory D; Mojonnier, Carolyn B

2002-01-01

344

Current and Future Land Use around a Nationwide Protected Area Network  

PubMed Central

Land-use change around protected areas can reduce their effective size and limit their ability to conserve biodiversity because land-use change alters ecological processes and the ability of organisms to move freely among protected areas. The goal of our analysis was to inform conservation planning efforts for a nationwide network of protected lands by predicting future land use change. We evaluated the relative effect of three economic policy scenarios on land use surrounding the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service's National Wildlife Refuges. We predicted changes for three land-use classes (forest/range, crop/pasture, and urban) by 2051. Our results showed an increase in forest/range lands (by 1.9% to 4.7% depending on the scenario), a decrease in crop/pasture between 15.2% and 23.1%, and a substantial increase in urban land use between 28.5% and 57.0%. The magnitude of land-use change differed strongly among different USFWS administrative regions, with the most change in the Upper Midwestern US (approximately 30%), and the Southeastern and Northeastern US (25%), and the rest of the U.S. between 15 and 20%. Among our scenarios, changes in land use were similar, with the exception of our “restricted-urban-growth” scenario, which resulted in noticeably different rates of change. This demonstrates that it will likely be difficult to influence land-use change patterns with national policies and that understanding regional land-use dynamics is critical for effective management and planning of protected lands throughout the U.S. PMID:23383275

Hamilton, Christopher M.; Martinuzzi, Sebastian; Plantinga, Andrew J.; Radeloff, Volker C.; Lewis, David J.; Thogmartin, Wayne E.; Heglund, Patricia J.; Pidgeon, Anna M.

2013-01-01

345

Current and future land use around a nationwide protected area network  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Land-use change around protected areas can reduce their effective size and limit their ability to conserve biodiversity because land-use change alters ecological processes and the ability of organisms to move freely among protected areas. The goal of our analysis was to inform conservation planning efforts for a nationwide network of protected lands by predicting future land use change. We evaluated the relative effect of three economic policy scenarios on land use surrounding the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service's National Wildlife Refuges. We predicted changes for three land-use classes (forest/range, crop/pasture, and urban) by 2051. Our results showed an increase in forest/range lands (by 1.9% to 4.7% depending on the scenario), a decrease in crop/pasture between 15.2% and 23.1%, and a substantial increase in urban land use between 28.5% and 57.0%. The magnitude of land-use change differed strongly among different USFWS administrative regions, with the most change in the Upper Midwestern US (approximately 30%), and the Southeastern and Northeastern US (25%), and the rest of the U.S. between 15 and 20%. Among our scenarios, changes in land use were similar, with the exception of our “restricted-urban-growth” scenario, which resulted in noticeably different rates of change. This demonstrates that it will likely be difficult to influence land-use change patterns with national policies and that understanding regional land-use dynamics is critical for effective management and planning of protected lands throughout the U.S.

Hamilton, Christopher M.; Martinuzzi, Sebastian; Plantinga, Andrew J.; Radeloff, Volker C.; Lewis, David J.; Thogmartin, Wayne E.; Heglund, Patricia J.; Pidgeon, Anna M.

2013-01-01

346

Current and future land use around a nationwide protected area network.  

PubMed

Land-use change around protected areas can reduce their effective size and limit their ability to conserve biodiversity because land-use change alters ecological processes and the ability of organisms to move freely among protected areas. The goal of our analysis was to inform conservation planning efforts for a nationwide network of protected lands by predicting future land use change. We evaluated the relative effect of three economic policy scenarios on land use surrounding the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service's National Wildlife Refuges. We predicted changes for three land-use classes (forest/range, crop/pasture, and urban) by 2051. Our results showed an increase in forest/range lands (by 1.9% to 4.7% depending on the scenario), a decrease in crop/pasture between 15.2% and 23.1%, and a substantial increase in urban land use between 28.5% and 57.0%. The magnitude of land-use change differed strongly among different USFWS administrative regions, with the most change in the Upper Midwestern US (approximately 30%), and the Southeastern and Northeastern US (25%), and the rest of the U.S. between 15 and 20%. Among our scenarios, changes in land use were similar, with the exception of our "restricted-urban-growth" scenario, which resulted in noticeably different rates of change. This demonstrates that it will likely be difficult to influence land-use change patterns with national policies and that understanding regional land-use dynamics is critical for effective management and planning of protected lands throughout the U.S. PMID:23383275

Hamilton, Christopher M; Martinuzzi, Sebastian; Plantinga, Andrew J; Radeloff, Volker C; Lewis, David J; Thogmartin, Wayne E; Heglund, Patricia J; Pidgeon, Anna M

2013-01-01

347

Relationships between aerodynamic roughness and land use and land cover in Baltimore, Maryland  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Urbanization changes the radiative, thermal, hydrologic, and aerodynamic properties of the Earth's surface. Knowledge of these surface characteristics, therefore, is essential to urban climate analysis. Aerodynamic or surface roughness of urban areas is not well documented, however, because of practical constraints in measuring the wind profile in the presence of large buildings. Using an empirical method designed by Lettau, and an analysis of variance of surface roughness values calculated for 324 samples averaging 0.8 hectare (ha) of land use and land cover sample in Baltimore, Md., a strong statistical relation was found between aerodynamic roughness and urban land use and land cover types. Assessment of three land use and land cover systems indicates that some of these types have significantly different surface roughness characteristics. The tests further indicate that statistically significant differences exist in estimated surface roughness values when categories (classes) from different land use and land cover classification systems are used as surrogates. A Level III extension of the U.S. Geological Survey Level II land use and land cover classification system provided the most reliable results. An evaluation of the physical association between the aerodynamic properties of land use and land cover and the surface climate by numerical simulation of the surface energy balance indicates that changes in surface roughness within the range of values typical of the Level III categories induce important changes in the surface climate.

Nicholas, F.W.; Lewis, J.E., Jr.

1980-01-01

348

Systemic change increases forecast uncertainty of land use change models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cellular Automaton (CA) models of land use change are based on the assumption that the relationship between land use change and its explanatory processes is stationary. This means that model structure and parameterization are usually kept constant over time, ignoring potential systemic changes in this relationship resulting from societal changes, thereby overlooking a source of uncertainty. Evaluation of the stationarity of the relationship between land use and a set of spatial attributes has been done by others (e.g., Bakker and Veldkamp, 2012). These studies, however, use logistic regression, separate from the land use change model. Therefore, they do not gain information on how to implement the spatial attributes into the model. In addition, they often compare observations for only two points in time and do not check whether the change is statistically significant. To overcome these restrictions, we assimilate a time series of observations of real land use into a land use change CA (Verstegen et al., 2012), using a Bayesian data assimilation technique, the particle filter. The particle filter was used to update the prior knowledge about the parameterization and model structure, i.e. the selection and relative importance of the drivers of location of land use change. In a case study of sugar cane expansion in Brazil, optimal model structure and parameterization were determined for each point in time for which observations were available (all years from 2004 to 2012). A systemic change, i.e. a statistically significant deviation in model structure, was detected for the period 2006 to 2008. In this period the influence on the location of sugar cane expansion of the driver sugar cane in the neighborhood doubled, while the influence of slope and potential yield decreased by 75% and 25% respectively. Allowing these systemic changes to occur in our CA in the future (up to 2022) resulted in an increase in model forecast uncertainty by a factor two compared to the assumption of a stationary system. This means that the assumption of a constant model structure is not adequate and largely underestimates uncertainty in the forecast. Non-stationarity in land use change projections is challenging to model, because it is difficult to determine when the system will change and how. We believe that, in sight of these findings, land use change modelers should be more aware, and communicate more clearly, that what they try to project is at the limits, and perhaps beyond the limits, of what is still projectable. References Bakker, M., Veldkamp, A., 2012. Changing relationships between land use and environmental characteristics and their consequences for spatially explicit land-use change prediction. Journal of Land Use Science 7, 407-424. Verstegen, J.A., Karssenberg, D., van der Hilst, F., Faaij, A.P.C., 2012. Spatio-Temporal Uncertainty in Spatial Decision Support Systems: a Case Study of Changing Land Availability for Bioenergy Crops in Mozambique. Computers , Environment and Urban Systems 36, 30-42.

Verstegen, J. A.; Karssenberg, D.; van der Hilst, F.; Faaij, A.

2013-12-01

349

Effects of Precipitation and Land Use on Storm Runoff  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Storm-runoff quantity and quality were studied in three watersheds located near St. Paul in Ramsey County, Minnesota, from April 15 through September 15 of 1984, 1985, and 1986 to qualitatively determine the effects of precipitation and selected land uses on storm runoff. In respect to precipitation effects, differences in storm-runoff quantity between years in an urban watershed that lacks wetlands appear to be related to the average storm size (amount of precipitation) during the study period of each year. In contrast, the differences in storm-runoff quantity from watersheds that contain wetlands appear to be related to total precipitation during study period of each year. In respect to land use, the differences in storm-runoff quantity appear to be related to the amounts of impervious and wetland area. The watershed that contains the largest amount of impervious area and smallest amount of wetland area has the largest amount of storm runoff.

Brown, R.G.

1988-01-01

350

Land-Use History as Long-Term BroadScale Disturbance: Regional Forest Dynamics in Central New England  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human land-use activities differ from natural disturbance processes and may elicit novel biotic responses and disrupt existing\\u000a biotic-environmental relationships. The widespread prevalence of land use requires that human activity be addressed as a fundamental\\u000a ecological process and that lessons from investigations of land-use history be applied to landscape conservation and management.\\u000a Changes in the intensity of land use and extent

David R. Foster; Glenn Motzkin; Benjamin Slater

1998-01-01

351

Urbanization and watershed sustainability: Collaborative simulation modeling of future development states  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Urbanization has a significant impact on water resources and requires a watershed-based approach to evaluate impacts of land use and urban development on watershed processes. This study uses a simulation with urban policy scenarios to model and strategize transferable recommendations for municipalities and cities to guide urban decisions using watershed ecohydrologic principles. The watershed simulation model is used to evaluation intensive (policy in existing built regions) and extensive (policy outside existing build regions) urban development scenarios with and without implementation of Best Management practices (BMPs). Water quantity and quality changes are simulated to assess effectiveness of five urban development scenarios. It is observed that optimal combination of intensive and extensive strategies can be used to sustain urban ecosystems. BMPs are found critical to reduce storm water and water quality impacts on urban development. Conservation zoning and incentives for voluntary adoption of BMPs can be used in sustaining urbanizing watersheds.

Randhir, Timothy O.; Raposa, Sarah

2014-11-01

352

Biofuels and indirect land use change  

E-print Network

Biofuels and indirect land use change The case for mitigation October 2011 #12;About this study), Malaysian Palm Oil Board, National Farmers Union, Novozymes, Northeast Biofuels Collaborative, Patagonia Bio contributed views on a confidential basis. #12;1Biofuels and indirect land use change The case for mitigation

353

LAND USE AND OWNERSHIP, POWDER RIVER BASIN  

E-print Network

Chapter PM LAND USE AND OWNERSHIP, POWDER RIVER BASIN By T.T. Taber and S.A. Kinney In U........................................PM-1 Map Information for the Powder River Basin Land Use and Land Cover map...........................................................PM-2 Map Information for the Powder River Basin Subsurface Ownership map

354

Land Use and Marriage Timing in Nepal  

Microsoft Academic Search

I examine the relationship between patterns of land use and marriage timing in the Chitwan Valley, a rural area in south-central Nepal. In this setting, I conceptualize a relevant dimension of land use as the portion of land in each neighborhood devoted to agriculture. Using discrete-time event history models, I examine the relationship between the proportion of land devoted to

Scott T. Yabiku

2006-01-01

355

[Land Use Unit, Edmonds School District.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This interdisciplinary program, developed for secondary students, contains 18 land use activities that can either be used directly in, or as a supplement to, curriculum in Science, Biology, Horticulture, Mathematics, Social Studies, English, Industrial Arts and Physical Education. The topics to be investigated include: land use simulation games,…

Edmonds School District 15, Lynnwood, WA.

356

A land use and environmental impact analysis of the Norfolk-Portsmouth SMSA  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The feasibility of using remote sensing techniques for land use and environmental assessment in the Norfolk-Portsmouth area is discussed. Data cover the use of high altitude aircraft and satellite remote sensing data for: (1) identifying various heirarchial levels of land use, (2) monitoring land use changes for repetitive basis, (3) assessing the impact of competing land uses, and (4) identifying areas of potential environmental deterioration. High altitude aircraft photographs (scale 1:120,000) acquired in 1959, 1970, and 1972, plus Earth Resources Technology Satellite (ERTS-1) color composite images acquired in 1972 were used for the land use and environmental assessments. The high altitude aircraft photography, as expected, was successfully used to map Level 1, Level 2, as well as some urban Level 3 land use categories. However, the detail of land use analysis obtainable from the ERTS imagery exceeded the expectations for the U.S. Geological Survey's land use classification scheme. Study results are consistent with the initial investigation which determined Level 1 land use change to be 16.7 square km per year.

Mitchel, W. B.; Berlin, G. L.

1973-01-01

357

Changes in Land Cover and Land Use in the Pearl River Delta, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the last two decades, land-use changes in China have been dominated by an urban transformation unprecedented in human\\u000a history. The Chinese landscape, which for thousands of years was mainly rural, is becoming increasingly urban. Natural ecosystems,\\u000a farms, rangelands, towns, and villages are being converted into, or enveloped by, extended metropolitan regions. This urban\\u000a revolution has profound environmental impacts, including

Karen C. Seto; Curtis E. Woodcock; Robert K. Kaufmann

358

Understanding the global land-use marketplace  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over 7 billion humans inhabit Earth and our population increases by more than a hundred per minute. Satisfying the resource demands of seven-plus billion people whilst sustaining the Earth System is a delicate balancing act. We need to balance resource use with regenerative capacity and this balance must avoid tipping points beyond which return and recovery are impossible. Tipping points in the physical, biogeochemical and ecological components of the Earth System have all been proposed - adding the global land-use marketplace to such a list may not be obvious but it undeniably deserves attention. The land is where most humans live most of the time. It meets most food, fuel, freshwater and fibre requirements and shapes Earth's climate. As land is essentially a finite resource this leads to intense competition. Monetizing land resources is nothing new. Choice of agricultural practice has long been governed in part by economics. But in recent years monetization has extended to include new dimensions such as carbon trading and biodiversity offsetting. Our land-use marketplace now has to optimise food, fibre and fuel production whilst maintaining and enhancing land's role as a carbon sink, a hydrologic reservoir and a support for biological diversity. International (and national) environmental policies aim to find a balance between such competing uses. These policies call for accurate, accountable and timely evidence concerning how, when and where land resources are changing. In 2013 the European Space Agency will launch the first of the Copernicus programme's Earth Observing Sentinel satellites. These technologically advanced systems are matched to data acquisition and processing strategies that should provide scientific evidence concerning the land on an unprecedented scale. This paper provides one vision of how Earth science will benefit from the Sentinels and their associated services and how this science will subsequently inform and shape policies, especially those linked to Multilateral Environmental Agreements. Examples will show how the science can promote transparency and good governance, help build knowledge-bases, capacity and markets and illustrates how Copernicus services and the Sentinels are an important component of EU international co-operation.

Belward, Alan

2013-04-01

359

Health input into land use planning experiences in a land use program.  

PubMed Central

The experiences of a health professional in a land use program in a California County are described: providing health input into the land use planning process by counseling elected and appointed government officials, individual developers, and citizen groups; interpreting existing standards and evaluating proposed ordinances and land use proposals. The significance of such input and the need for guiding standards are emphasized. PMID:645998

Kaplan, O B

1978-01-01

360

An analysis of urban thermal characteristics and associated land cover in Tampa Bay and Las Vegas using Landsat satellite data  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Remote sensing data from both Landsat 5 and Landsat 7 systems were utilized to assess urban area thermal characteristics in Tampa Bay watershed of west-central Florida, and the Las Vegas valley of southern Nevada. To quantitatively determine urban land use extents and development densities, sub-pixel impervious surface areas were mapped for both areas. The urban-rural boundaries and urban development densities were defined by selecting certain imperviousness threshold values and Landsat thermal bands were used to investigate urban surface thermal patterns. Analysis results suggest that urban surface thermal characteristics and patterns can be identified through qualitatively based urban land use and development density data. Results show the urban area of the Tampa Bay watershed has a daytime heating effect (heat-source), whereas the urban surface in Las Vegas has a daytime cooling effect (heat-sink). These thermal effects strongly correlated with urban development densities where higher percent imperviousness is usually associated with higher surface temperature. Using vegetation canopy coverage information, the spatial and temporal distributions of urban impervious surface and associated thermal characteristics are demonstrated to be very useful sources in quantifying urban land use, development intensity, and urban thermal patterns. ?? 2006 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Xian, G.; Crane, M.

2006-01-01

361

Application of spatial features to satellite land-use analysis. [spectral signature variations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A Level I land-use analysis of selected training areas of the Colorado Front Range was carried out using digital ERTS-A satellite imagery. Level I land-use categories included urban, agriculture (irrigated and dryland farming), rangeland, and forests. The spatial variations in spectral response for these land-use classes were analyzed using discrete two-dimensional Fourier transforms to isolate and extract spatial features. Analysis was performed on ERTS frame 1352-17134 (July 10, 1973) and frame number 1388-17131 (August 15, 1973). On training sets, spatial features yielded 80 to 100 percent classification accuracies with commission errors ranging from 0 to 20 percent.

Smith, J.; Hornung, R.; Berry, J.

1975-01-01

362

Population pressure, intensification of agriculture, and rural-urban migration.  

PubMed

"In this paper I provide an analytical basis for why labor absorption [in agriculture] may improve with higher population density. My argument is in two parts. First, analysing agriculture in isolation, I use the Boserup insight to show that higher population density is associated with more intensive techniques of land use. Second, using a two-sector model, I show that the rate of labor absorption (defined as the rate of natural population growth minus the rate of rural-urban migration) increases with the intensity of land use." Cross-sectional data for Iran are used to illustrate the model. PMID:12345244

Salehi-isfahani, D

1993-04-01

363

Using geographic information systems and regression analysis to evaluate relationships between land use and fecal coliform bacterial pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and regression modeling techniques were used to evaluate relationships between land use and fecal pollution in Murrells Inlet, a small, urbanized, high-salinity estuary located between Myrtle Beach and Georgetown, SC. GIS techniques were used to identify and calculate land use and spatial variables to be used in a regression model. The regression analysis was performed to

H. Kelsey; D. E. Porter; G. Scott; M. Neet; D. White

2004-01-01

364

Land use change analysis in the Zhujiang Delta of China using satellite remote sensing, GIS and stochastic modelling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rapid land use change has taken place in many coastal regions of China such as the Zhujiang Delta over the past two decades due to accelerated industrialization and urbanization. In this paper, land use change dynamics were investigated by the combined use of satellite remote sensing, geographic information systems (GIS), and stochastic modelling technologies. The results indicated that there has

Qihao Weng

2002-01-01

365

Urban NPS Measures Thomas Davenport  

E-print Network

Urban NPS Measures Thomas Davenport davenport.thomas@epa.goc #12;#12;Typical Pollutant Loadings from Runoff by Urban Land Use (lbs/acre-yr) Land Use TSS Total P TKN NH3-N NO2+NO3 -N BOD COD Pb Zn Cu Model Urban Drainage Generalized Relationship Between Impervious Cover and Stream Quality Center

366

Refining 1970's Land-Use Data With 1990 Population Data to Indicate New Residential Development  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A procedure using a geographic information system was developed to define urban land use representative of the 1990's by overlaying U.S. Bureau of the Census 1990 population density at the block group level on 1970's digital land-use data from 1:250,000-and 1: 100,000scale maps. Any area having a population density of 1,000 or more people per square mile is re-classified as "urban" land use in the derivative product. The procedure was applied to 20 study units of the National Water-Quality Assessment program to provide what are considered reasonable indications of urbanization that has occurred since the 1970's.

Hitt, Kerie J.

1994-01-01

367

Land-use intensification reduces functional redundancy and response diversity in plant  

E-print Network

, Turrialba 30501, Costa Rica 4 CSIRO Sustainable Ecosystems, Atherton, Queensland 4883, Australia 5 Griffith communities, using data from 18 land-use intensity gradients that represent five biomes and > 2800 species. We

Fraterrigo, Jennifer

368

The Urban Heat Island Intensity and Eco-Environmental Effect in Hefei City  

Microsoft Academic Search

Remote Sensing dominates over traditional research methods because of speediness, mpersonality, macroscopical features,strong periodicity so that remote sensing becomes a kind of good tool to study urban heat island.Based on the review of the studies of urban heat island,the bightness temperature is retrieved and the urban construction land is extracted in the study by using of the TM data. The

Liangsong Zha; Yingying Wang

2009-01-01

369

Evaluation of land use regression models (LURs) for nitrogen dioxide and benzene in four U.S. Cities.  

EPA Science Inventory

Spatial analysis studies have included application of land use regression models (LURs) for health and air quality assessments. Recent LUR studies have collected nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) using passive samplers at urban air monitoring networks ...

370

CARETS: A prototype regional environmental information system. Volume 2, parts A and B: Norfolk and environs; a land use perspective  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author has identified the following significant results. The Norfolk-Portsmouth metropolitan statistical area in southeastern Virginia was the site of intensive testing of a number of land resources assessment methods. Land use and land cover data at three levels of detail were derived by manual image interpretation from both aircraft and satellite sources and used to characterize the 1,766 sq km (682 sq mi) area from the perspective of its various resource-related activities and problems. Measurements at level 1 from 1:100, 000 scale maps revealed 42 percent of the test area (excluding bays and estuaries) to be forest, 28 percent agriculture, 23 percent urban and built-up, 4 percent nonforested wetlands, and 2 percent water. At the same scale and level of detail, 10 percent of the area underwent change from one land use category to another in the period 1959-70, 62 percent of which involved the relatively irreversible change from forest or agriculture to urban uses.

Alexander, R. H. (principal investigator); Buzzanell, P. J.; Fitzpatrick, K. A.; Lins, H. F., Jr.; Mcginty, H. K., III

1975-01-01

371

Urban design factors influencing heat island intensity in high-rise high-density environments of Hong Kong  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous research on Urban Heat Island Intensity (UHI) in Hong Kong was limited to 4 weeks of field measurements during the summer in 3 major coastal housing estates. The current study extends this work to 6 months enveloping 3 “seasons” and 7 different locations within the coastal area. Variations in UHI in the range ?1.3° to 3.4°C were recorded. The

R. Giridharan; S. S. Y. Lau; S. Ganesan; B. Givoni

2007-01-01

372

Land use changes contribute to climate extremes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Temperature extremes such as severe heat waves and cold spells are likely to occur more frequently in a warming climate as carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations rise. But land use change, such as clearing forests for agriculture, also has a large impact on extreme temperature events. To determine the relative contribution of the two effects, Avila et al. ran simulations using a climate model coupled to a sophisticated land surface model. They found that land use changes can have a significant effect on temperature extreme indices. On regional scales, land use changes in some cases amplified the effects of increased CO2 concentrations, while land use changes in other cases masked their effects. In some regions, the effects of land use changes on temperature extremes were similar in magnitude to those of doubling CO2. The authors conclude that land use changes are a major source of human influence on the climate. (Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres, doi:10.1029/2011JD016382, 2012)

Balcerak, Ernie

2012-04-01

373

Economic-based projections of future land use in the conterminous United States under alternative policy scenarios.  

PubMed

Land-use change significantly contributes to biodiversity loss, invasive species spread, changes in biogeochemical cycles, and the loss of ecosystem services. Planning for a sustainable future requires a thorough understanding of expected land use at the fine spatial scales relevant for modeling many ecological processes and at dimensions appropriate for regional or national-level policy making. Our goal was to construct and parameterize an econometric model of land-use change to project future land use to the year 2051 at a fine spatial scale across the conterminous United States under several alternative land-use policy scenarios. We parameterized the econometric model of land-use change with the National Resource Inventory (NRI) 1992 and 1997 land-use data for 844 000 sample points. Land-use transitions were estimated for five land-use classes (cropland, pasture, range, forest, and urban). We predicted land-use change under four scenarios: business-as-usual, afforestation, removal of agricultural subsidies, and increased urban rents. Our results for the business-as-usual scenario showed widespread changes in land use, affecting 36% of the land area of the conterminous United States, with large increases in urban land (79%) and forest (7%), and declines in cropland (-16%) and pasture (-13%). Areas with particularly high rates of land-use change included the larger Chicago area, parts of the Pacific Northwest, and the Central Valley of California. However, while land-use change was substantial, differences in results among the four scenarios were relatively minor. The only scenario that was markedly different was the afforestation scenario, which resulted in an increase of forest area that was twice as high as the business-as-usual scenario. Land-use policies can affect trends, but only so much. The basic economic and demographic factors shaping land-use changes in the United States are powerful, and even fairly dramatic policy changes, showed only moderate deviations from the business-as-usual scenario. Given the magnitude of predicted land-use change, any attempts to identify a sustainable future or to predict the effects of climate change will have to take likely land-use changes into account. Econometric models that can simulate land-use change for broad areas with fine resolution are necessary to predict trends in ecosystem service provision and biodiversity persistence. PMID:22645830

Radeloff, V C; Nelson, E; Plantinga, A J; Lewis, D J; Helmers, D; Lawler, J J; Withey, J C; Beaudry, F; Martinuzzi, S; Butsic, V; Lonsdorf, E; White, D; Polasky, S

2012-04-01

374

An analysis of metropolitan land-use by machine processing of earth resources technology satellite data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A successful application of state-of-the-art remote sensing technology in classifying an urban area into its broad land use classes is reported. This research proves that numerous urban features are amenable to classification using ERTS multispectral data automatically processed by computer. Furthermore, such automatic data processing (ADP) techniques permit areal analysis on an unprecedented scale with a minimum expenditure of time. Also, classification results obtained using ADP procedures are consistent, comparable, and replicable. The results of classification are compared with the proposed U. S. G. S. land use classification system in order to determine the level of classification that is feasible to obtain through ERTS analysis of metropolitan areas.

Mausel, P. W.; Todd, W. J.; Baumgardner, M. F.

1976-01-01

375

Land use classification utilizing remote multispectral scanner data and computer analysis techniques  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An airborne multispectral scanner was used to collect the visible and reflective infrared data. A small subdivision near Lafayette, Indiana was selected as the test site for the urban land use study. Multispectral scanner data were collected over the subdivision on May 1, 1970 from an altitude of 915 meters. The data were collected in twelve wavelength bands from 0.40 to 1.00 micrometers by the scanner. The results indicated that computer analysis of multispectral data can be very accurate in classifying and estimating the natural and man-made materials that characterize land uses in an urban scene.

Leblanc, P. N.; Johannsen, C. J.; Yanner, J. E.

1973-01-01

376

Integrating life-cycle environmental and economic assessment with transportation and land use planning.  

PubMed

The environmental outcomes of urban form changes should couple life-cycle and behavioral assessment methods to better understand urban sustainability policy outcomes. Using Phoenix, Arizona light rail as a case study, an integrated transportation and land use life-cycle assessment (ITLU-LCA) framework is developed to assess the changes to energy consumption and air emissions from transit-oriented neighborhood designs. Residential travel, commercial travel, and building energy use are included and the framework integrates household behavior change assessment to explore the environmental and economic outcomes of policies that affect infrastructure. The results show that upfront environmental and economic investments are needed (through more energy-intense building materials for high-density structures) to produce long run benefits in reduced building energy use and automobile travel. The annualized life-cycle benefits of transit-oriented developments in Phoenix can range from 1.7 to 230 Gg CO2e depending on the aggressiveness of residential density. Midpoint impact stressors for respiratory effects and photochemical smog formation are also assessed and can be reduced by 1.2-170 Mg PM10e and 41-5200 Mg O3e annually. These benefits will come at an additional construction cost of up to $410 million resulting in a cost of avoided CO2e at $16-29 and household cost savings. PMID:24053574

Chester, Mikhail V; Nahlik, Matthew J; Fraser, Andrew M; Kimball, Mindy A; Garikapati, Venu M

2013-11-01

377

Analysis of land use and land cover change in a coastal area of Rio de Janeiro using  

E-print Network

opportunities, but require intensive resource management and environmental protection. Land use and land cover interaction areas between the land and the ocean, suffer from intense human activity and can quickly become1 Analysis of land use and land cover change in a coastal area of Rio de Janeiro using high

378

Pervasive transition of the Brazilian land-use system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Agriculture, deforestation, greenhouse gas emissions and local/regional climate change have been closely intertwined in Brazil. Recent studies show that this relationship has been changing since the mid 2000s, with the burgeoning intensification and commoditization of Brazilian agriculture. On one hand, this accrues considerable environmental dividends including a pronounced reduction in deforestation (which is becoming decoupled from agricultural production), resulting in a decrease of ~40% in nationwide greenhouse gas emissions since 2005, and a potential cooling of the climate at the local scale. On the other hand, these changes in the land-use system further reinforce the long-established inequality in land ownership, contributing to rural-urban migration that ultimately fuels haphazard expansion of urban areas. We argue that strong enforcement of sector-oriented policies and solving long-standing land tenure problems, rather than simply waiting for market self-regulation, are key steps to buffer the detrimental effects of agricultural intensification at the forefront of a sustainable pathway for land use in Brazil.

Lapola, David M.; Martinelli, Luiz A.; Peres, Carlos A.; Ometto, Jean P. H. B.; Ferreira, Manuel E.; Nobre, Carlos A.; Aguiar, Ana Paula D.; Bustamante, Mercedes M. C.; Cardoso, Manoel F.; Costa, Marcos H.; Joly, Carlos A.; Leite, Christiane C.; Moutinho, Paulo; Sampaio, Gilvan; Strassburg, Bernardo B. N.; Vieira, Ima C. G.

2014-01-01

379

Threats and opportunities for freshwater conservation under future land use change scenarios in the United States.  

PubMed

Freshwater ecosystems provide vital resources for humans and support high levels of biodiversity, yet are severely threatened throughout the world. The expansion of human land uses, such as urban and crop cover, typically degrades water quality and reduces freshwater biodiversity, thereby jeopardizing both biodiversity and ecosystem services. Identifying and mitigating future threats to freshwater ecosystems requires forecasting where land use changes are most likely. Our goal was to evaluate the potential consequences of future land use on freshwater ecosystems in the coterminous United States by comparing alternative scenarios of land use change (2001-2051) with current patterns of freshwater biodiversity and water quality risk. Using an econometric model, each of our land use scenarios projected greater changes in watersheds of the eastern half of the country, where freshwater ecosystems already experience higher stress from human activities. Future urban expansion emerged as a major threat in regions with high freshwater biodiversity (e.g., the Southeast) or severe water quality problems (e.g., the Midwest). Our scenarios reflecting environmentally oriented policies had some positive effects. Subsidizing afforestation for carbon sequestration reduced crop cover and increased natural vegetation in areas that are currently stressed by low water quality, while discouraging urban sprawl diminished urban expansion in areas of high biodiversity. On the other hand, we found that increases in crop commodity prices could lead to increased agricultural threats in areas of high freshwater biodiversity. Our analyses illustrate the potential for policy changes and market factors to influence future land use trends in certain regions of the country, with important consequences for freshwater ecosystems. Successful conservation of aquatic biodiversity and ecosystem services in the United States into the future will require attending to the potential threats and opportunities arising from policies and market changes affecting land use. PMID:24022881

Martinuzzi, Sebastián; Januchowski-Hartley, Stephanie R; Pracheil, Brenda M; McIntyre, Peter B; Plantinga, Andrew J; Lewis, David J; Radeloff, Volker C

2014-01-01

380

Mapping Global Urban Extent and Intensity for Environmental Monitoring and Modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The human dimensions of global environmental change have received increased attention in policy, decision- making, research, and even the media. However, the influence of urban areas in global change processes is still often assumed to be negligible. Although local environmental conditions such as the urban heat island effect are well-documented, little or no work has focused on cross-scale interactions, or the ways in which local urban processes cumulatively impact global changes. Given the rapid rates of rural-urban migration, economic development and urban spatial expansion, it is becoming increasingly clear that the `ecological footprint' of cities may play a critical role in environmental changes at regional and global scales. Our understanding of the cumulative impacts of urban areas on natural systems has been limited foremost by a lack of reliable, accurate data on current urban form and extent at the global scale. The data sets that have emerged to fill this gap (LandScan, GRUMP, nighttime lights) suffer from a number of limitations that prevent widespread use. Building on our early efforts with MODIS data, our current work focuses on: (1) completing a new, validated map of global urban extent; and (2) developing methods to estimate the subpixel fraction of impervious surface, vegetation, and other land cover types within urbanized areas using coarse resolution satellite imagery. For the first task, a technique called boosting is used to improve classification accuracy and provides a means to integrate 500 m resolution MODIS data with ancillary data sources. For the second task, we present an approach for estimating percent cover that relies on continuous training data for a full range of city types. These exemplars are used as inputs to fuzzy neural network and regression tree algorithms to predict fractional amounts of land cover types with increased accuracy. Preliminary results for a global sample of 100 cities (which vary in population size, level of economic development, and spatial extent) show good agreement with the expected morphology in each region.

Schneider, A.; Friedl, M. A.

2007-05-01

381

Inconsistent definitions of "urban" result in different conclusions about the size of urban carbon and nitrogen stocks.  

PubMed

There is conflicting evidence about the importance of urban soils and vegetation in regional C budgets that is caused, in part, by inconsistent definitions of "urban" land use. We quantified urban ecosystem contributions to C stocks in the Boston (Massachusetts, USA) Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) using several alternative urban definitions. Development altered aboveground and belowground C and N stocks, and the sign and magnitude of these changes varied by land use and development intensity. Aboveground biomass (live trees, dbh > or = 5 cm) for the MSA was 7.2 +/- 0.4 kg C/m2 (mean +/- SE), reflecting a high proportion of forest cover. Vegetation C was highest in forest (11.6 +/- 0.5 kg C/m2), followed by residential (4.6 +/- 0.5 kg C/m2), and then other developed (2.0 +/- 0.4 kg C/m2) land uses. Soil C (0-10 cm depth) followed the same pattern of decreasing C concentration from forest, to residential, to other developed land uses (4.1 +/- 0.1, 4.0 +/- 0.2, and 3.3 +/- 0.2 kg C/m2, respectively). Within a land use type, urban areas (which we defined as > 25% impervious surface area [ISA] within a 1-km(2) moving window) generally contained less vegetation C, but slightly more soil C, than nonurban areas. Soil N concentrations were higher in urban areas than nonurban areas of the same land use type, except for residential areas, which had similarly high soil N concentrations. When we compared our definition of urban to other commonly used urban extents (U.S. Census Bureau, Global Rural-Urban Mapping Project [GRUMP], and the MSA itself), we found that urban soil (1 m depth) and vegetation C stocks spanned a wide range, from 14.4 +/- 0.8 to 54.5 +/- 3.4 Tg C and from 4.2 +/- 0.4 to 27.3 +/- 3.2 Tg C, respectively. Conclusions about the importance of urban soils and vegetation to regional C and N stocks are very sensitive to the definition of urban used by the investigators. Urban areas, regardless of definition, are rapidly expanding in their extent; a systematic understanding of how our development patterns influence ecosystems is necessary to inform future development choices. PMID:22645829

Raciti, Steve M; Hutyra, Lucy R; Rao, Preeti; Finzi, Adrien C

2012-04-01

382

Implications of temporal change in urban heat island intensity observed at Beijing and Wuhan stations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Temporal change in urbanization-induced warming at two national basic meteorological stations of China and its contribution to the overall warming are analyzed. Annual and seasonal mean surface air temperature for time periods of 1961~2000 and 1981~2000 at the two stations of Beijing and Wuhan Cities and their nearby rural stations all significantly increase. Annual and seasonal urbanization-induced warming for the

G. Y. Ren; Z. Y. Chu; Z. H. Chen; Y. Y. Ren

2007-01-01

383

Implications of temporal change in urban heat island intensity observed at Beijing and Wuhan stations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Temporal change in urbanization-induced warming at two national basic meteorological stations of China and its contribution to the overall warming are analyzed. Annual and seasonal mean surface air temperature for time periods of 1961?2000 and 1981?2000 at the two stations of Beijing and Wuhan Cities and their nearby rural stations all significantly increase. Annual and seasonal urbanization-induced warming for the

G. Y. Ren; Z. Y. Chu; Z. H. Chen; Y. Y. Ren

2007-01-01

384

The Land Gini Coefficient and Its Application for Land Use Structure Analysis in China  

PubMed Central

We introduce the Gini coefficient to assess the rationality of land use structure. The rapid transformation of land use in China provides a typical case for land use structure analysis. In this study, a land Gini coefficient (LGC) analysis tool was developed. The land use structure rationality was analyzed and evaluated based on statistical data for China between 1996 and 2008. The results show: (1)The LGC of three major land use types–farmland, built-up land and unused land–was smaller when the four economic districts were considered as assessment units instead of the provinces. Therefore, the LGC is spatially dependent; if the calculation unit expands, then the LGC decreases, and this relationship does not change with time. Additionally, land use activities in different provinces of a single district differed greatly. (2) At the national level, the LGC of the three main land use types indicated that during the 13 years analyzed, the farmland and unused land were evenly distributed across China. However, the built-up land distribution was relatively or absolutely unequal and highlights the rapid urbanization in China. (3) Trends in the distribution of the three major land use types are very different. At the national level, when using a district as the calculation unit, the LGC of the three main land use types increased, and their distribution became increasingly concentrated. However, when a province was used as the calculation unit, the LGC of the farmland increased, while the LGC of the built-up and unused land decreased. These findings indicate that the distribution of the farmland became increasingly concentrated, while the built-up land and unused land became increasingly uniform. (4) The LGC analysis method of land use structure based on geographic information systems (GIS) is flexible and convenient. PMID:24130764

Zheng, Xinqi; Xia, Tian; Yang, Xin; Yuan, Tao; Hu, Yecui

2013-01-01

385

Analyzing simulated patterns of land use change  

SciTech Connect

Land use change is one of major factors affecting global environmental conditions. Modeling land use change requires combining spatially-explicit ecological information with socioeconomic factors. A modeling system is being developed that integrates sub-models of human colonization with submodels of ecological interactions to estimate patterns and rates of deforestation under different immigration and land management scenarios. The model projects maps of land use change that can be compared to remote sensing measures using spatial statistics. The simulation modeling system is being applied to the Brazilian state of Rondonia where deforestation has increased at a faster rate over the past two decades than anywhere else in the world. The model projections suggest that land management can both reduce carbon release and improve the length of time farmers are able to remain on the land. The model provides a tool to evaluate the spatial and temporal implications of various land management options.

Dale, V.H.; O'Neill, R.V.; Southworth, F. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Loureiro, F. (Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States))

1992-01-01

386

Analyzing simulated patterns of land use change  

SciTech Connect

Land use change is one of major factors affecting global environmental conditions. Modeling land use change requires combining spatially-explicit ecological information with socioeconomic factors. A modeling system is being developed that integrates sub-models of human colonization with submodels of ecological interactions to estimate patterns and rates of deforestation under different immigration and land management scenarios. The model projects maps of land use change that can be compared to remote sensing measures using spatial statistics. The simulation modeling system is being applied to the Brazilian state of Rondonia where deforestation has increased at a faster rate over the past two decades than anywhere else in the world. The model projections suggest that land management can both reduce carbon release and improve the length of time farmers are able to remain on the land. The model provides a tool to evaluate the spatial and temporal implications of various land management options.

Dale, V.H.; O`Neill, R.V.; Southworth, F. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Loureiro, F. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States)

1992-07-01

387

Land use changes affect extreme temperatures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Days with extreme hot and cold temperatures—the extremes that tend to be associated with serious socioeconomic consequences—are predicted to occur more often as Earth's climate changes due to human activity. These changes in extreme temperature days are affected by anthropogenic forcings, including greenhouse gas emission as well as land use change. The land use change effects on temperature extremes have been less well studied. Changes such as clearing forests for grassland can alter the climate through changing reflectivity (albedo) of the surface, through hydrological effects, and through changes in carbon dioxide emission or uptake.

Balcerak, Ernie

2013-03-01

388

Irrigation cooling effect: Regional climate forcing by land-use change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Regional detection of a greenhouse warming signal relies on extensive, long-term measurements of temperature. The potentially confounding impact of land-cover and land-use change on trends in temperature records has mostly focused on the influence of urban heat islands. Here we use a regional climate model to show that a regional irrigation cooling effect (ICE) exists, opposite in sign to urban

Lara M. Kueppers; Mark A. Snyder; Lisa C. Sloan

2007-01-01

389

Land-use planning in the Valencian Mediterranean Region: Using LUPIS to generate issue relevant plans  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Valencian Mediterranean Region is one of the most dynamic regions of Spain in terms of industrial–urban development, population growth and agrarian activity. Consequently, land-use conflicts (agrarian usesvs. industrial–urban uses vs. conservation uses) and environmental issues (surface and underground water pollution, soil and air pollution, soil erosion and salinisation, landscape degradation and deterioration of areas of high conservation value) are

L. Recatalá; J. R. Ive; I. A. Baird; J. Sánchez

2000-01-01

390

Projected land-use change impacts on ecosystem services in the United States  

PubMed Central

Providing food, timber, energy, housing, and other goods and services, while maintaining ecosystem functions and biodiversity that underpin their sustainable supply, is one of the great challenges of our time. Understanding the drivers of land-use change and how policies can alter land-use change will be critical to meeting this challenge. Here we project land-use change in the contiguous United States to 2051 under two plausible baseline trajectories of economic conditions to illustrate how differences in underlying market forces can have large impacts on land-use with cascading effects on ecosystem services and wildlife habitat. We project a large increase in croplands (28.2 million ha) under a scenario with high crop demand mirroring conditions starting in 2007, compared with a loss of cropland (11.2 million ha) mirroring conditions in the 1990s. Projected land-use changes result in increases in carbon storage, timber production, food production from increased yields, and >10% decreases in habitat for 25% of modeled species. We also analyze policy alternatives designed to encourage forest cover and natural landscapes and reduce urban expansion. Although these policy scenarios modify baseline land-use patterns, they do not reverse powerful underlying trends. Policy interventions need to be aggressive to significantly alter underlying land-use change trends and shift the trajectory of ecosystem service provision. PMID:24799685

Lawler, Joshua J.; Lewis, David J.; Nelson, Erik; Plantinga, Andrew J.; Polasky, Stephen; Withey, John C.; Helmers, David P.; Martinuzzi, Sebastián; Pennington, Derric; Radeloff, Volker C.

2014-01-01

391

Land use/land cover change in Yellow River Delta, China during fast development period  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Terrestrial eco-system in coastal zones is unstable and land-use and Land-cover of its land resource are crucial for its sustainability. Therefore it is necessary to understand distribution of land use/cover changes in those tender areas. This paper was to analyze changes of land use/cover in Yellow River Delta in China during recent ten years, which was its fast development period, by remote sensing monitoring. Two Landsat TM images in October of 1995 and 2004 were processed using ERDAS software and supervised classification method in study for the land use and land cover of those two years. The two land use/cover maps were overlaid to discover the changes. It was showed that lots of land use/cover changes in the Yellow River Delta had taken place in past ten years. Because abundant sand that carried by river water filled up at estuary of the Yellow River, new land increased fleetly. The rates that foreshore were turned into fishery land was high for aquaculture with salt water had been developed quickly. Another important effect of human activity was that part of waste land and grassland had been cultivated for crops. With industry and economy development, land for urbanization had been outspreaded. Although fast exploitation had been carried out in Yellow River Delta going though those years, some human activities on land use were inharmonious for sustainable development of land resource in this area. This must be pay attention to by local government and people.

Zhou, Wenzuo; Tian, Yongzhong; Zhu, Lifen

2007-09-01

392

Projected land-use change impacts on ecosystem services in the United States.  

PubMed

Providing food, timber, energy, housing, and other goods and services, while maintaining ecosystem functions and biodiversity that underpin their sustainable supply, is one of the great challenges of our time. Understanding the drivers of land-use change and how policies can alter land-use change will be critical to meeting this challenge. Here we project land-use change in the contiguous United States to 2051 under two plausible baseline trajectories of economic conditions to illustrate how differences in underlying market forces can have large impacts on land-use with cascading effects on ecosystem services and wildlife habitat. We project a large increase in croplands (28.2 million ha) under a scenario with high crop demand mirroring conditions starting in 2007, compared with a loss of cropland (11.2 million ha) mirroring conditions in the 1990s. Projected land-use changes result in increases in carbon storage, timber production, food production from increased yields, and >10% decreases in habitat for 25% of