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1

Remotely sensed indicators or urban land use intensity: Comparison of sub-pixel analysis techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The goal of this dissertation is to investigate novel methods of remote sensing/geographic information system (GIS) technologies to improve the accuracy of mapping urban land cover. Medium spatial resolution remotely sensed imagery is comparatively very cheap, but has a critical drawback "mixed" pixels (i.e., mixtures of impervious surface, lawn and tree cover with a single pixel) in the complex urban landscape. Accordingly, there are two major research areas that I propose to address: (1) Improving the specificity and accuracy of remotely sensed indicators of human land use, with a focus on impervious surface, lawn and urban tree cover; and (2) Testing the utility of newly available high (IKONOS) and medium (Landsat ETM) resolution remotely sensed image data for such purposes. While previous studies have focused on the estimation of impervious surface, this study is the first to thoroughly investigate the lawn and tree cover as separate urban green space components. I tested three different sub-pixel analysis methods: Linear Mixture Model (LMM), Fuzzy c-means Clustering (FCM), and Self-Organizing Map Neural Network (SOM). Overall, the SOM method provided the best estimates of the three land cover components: impervious surface estimated ranged from +/-4˜12%, lawn ranged from +/-8˜11%, and tree ranged from +/-11˜19% as compared to reference data. The linear mixture assumption of the endmember spectra of LMM is upheld to a large extent as evidenced by the rather high accuracy of impervious surface estimation, but the spectral reflectance of lawn and urban tree are not linearly mixed. LMM and FCM do not correctly estimate pure pixels of lawn and urban tree, while SOM_LVQ estimates these pure pixels quite accurately. Providing higher spatial resolution by the merging of higher spatial resolution panchromatic and lower spatial resolution multispectral Landsat ETM imagery did not improve the estimation of urban land cover components. The results of this study provide comprehensive information of the utility of sub-pixel analysis for the estimation of urban land cover components and suggest that the comparatively accurate land cover estimation of urban land cover components is attainable from medium resolution satellite imagery. These results are significant in that they demonstrate that medium resolution remotely sensed imagery such as Landsat ETM can provide a cost effective image data source for urban monitoring.

Lee, Sangbum

2

Urban Transportation and Land Use: A Bibliography.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This bibliographic reference guide to urban transportation and land use literature contains publications that synthesize the relationships among people, movement systems, and land uses in medium-size urban areas. It also samples literature on diverse topi...

S. B. Edwins J. A. Deacon H. M. Leggett R. B. Harris

1975-01-01

3

Remotely sensed indicators or urban land use intensity: Comparison of sub-pixel analysis techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of this dissertation is to investigate novel methods of remote sensing\\/geographic information system (GIS) technologies to improve the accuracy of mapping urban land cover. Medium spatial resolution remotely sensed imagery is comparatively very cheap, but has a critical drawback \\

Sangbum Lee

2003-01-01

4

A spatial panel ordered-response model with application to the analysis of urban land-use development intensity patterns  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper proposes and estimates a spatial panel ordered-response probit model with temporal autoregressive error terms to analyze changes in urban land development intensity levels over time. Such a model structure maintains a close linkage between the land owner's decision (unobserved to the analyst) and the land development intensity level (observed by the analyst) and accommodates spatial interactions between land owners that lead to spatial spillover effects. In addition, the model structure incorporates spatial heterogeneity as well as spatial heteroscedasticity. The resulting model is estimated using a composite marginal likelihood (CML) approach that does not require any simulation machinery and that can be applied to data sets of any size. A simulation exercise indicates that the CML approach recovers the model parameters very well, even in the presence of high spatial and temporal dependence. In addition, the simulation results demonstrate that ignoring spatial dependency and spatial heterogeneity when both are actually present will lead to bias in parameter estimation. A demonstration exercise applies the proposed model to examine urban land development intensity levels using parcel-level data from Austin, Texas.

Ferdous, Nazneen; Bhat, Chandra R.

2013-01-01

5

Urban Land-Use and Respiratory Symptoms in Infants  

PubMed Central

Background Children’s respiratory health has been linked to many factors, including air pollution. The impacts of urban land-use on health are not fully understood, although these relationships are of key importance given the growing populations living in urban environments. Objectives We investigated whether the degree of urban land-use near a family’s residence is associated with severity of respiratory symptoms like wheeze among infants. Methods Wheeze occurrence was recorded for the first year of life for 680 infants in Connecticut for 1996–1998 from a cohort at risk for asthma development. Land-use categories were obtained from the National Land Cover Database. The fraction of urban land-use near each subject’s home was related to severity of wheeze symptoms using ordered logistic regression, adjusting for individual-level data including smoking in the household, race, gender, and socio-economic status. Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) exposure was estimated using integrated traffic exposure modeling. Different levels of urban land-use intensity were included in separate models to explore intensity-response relationships. A buffer distance was selected based on the log-likelihood value of models with buffers of 100–2,000m by 10m increments. Results A 10% increase in urban land-use within the selected 1,540m buffer of each infant’s residence was associated with 1.09-fold increased risk of wheeze severity (95% confidence interval, 1.02–1.16). Results were robust to alternate buffer sizes. When NO2, representing traffic pollution, was added to the model, results for urban land-use were no longer statistically significant, but had similar central estimates. Higher urban intensity showed higher risk of prevalence and severity of wheeze symptoms. Conclusions Urban land-use was associated with severity of wheeze symptoms in infants. Findings indicate that health effect estimates for urbanicity incorporate some effects of traffic-related emissions, but also involve other factors. These may include differences in housing characteristics or baseline healthcare status.

Ebisu, Keita; Holford, Theodore R.; Belanger, Kathleen D.; Leaderer, Brian P.; Bell, Michelle L.

2011-01-01

6

Noise levels associated with urban land use.  

PubMed

Recent trends towards the intensification of urban development to increase urban densities and avoid sprawl should be accompanied by research into the potential for related health impacts from environmental exposure. The objective of the current study was to examine the effect of the built environment and land use on levels of environmental noise. Two different study areas were selected using a combination of small area census geography, land use information, air photography, and ground-truthing. The first study area represented residential land use and consisted of two- to three-story single-family homes. The second study area was characteristic of mixed-use urban planning with apartment buildings as well as commercial and institutional development. Study areas were subdivided into six grids, and a location was randomly selected within each grid for noise monitoring. Each location was sampled four times over a 24-h day, resulting in a total of 24 samples for each of the two areas. Results showed significant variability in noise within study areas and significantly higher levels of environmental noise in the mixed-use area. Both study areas exceeded recommended noise limits when evaluated against World Health Organization guidelines and yielded average noise events values in the moderate to serious annoyance range with the potential to obscure normal conversation and cause sleep disturbance. PMID:22707308

King, Gavin; Roland-Mieszkowski, Marek; Jason, Timothy; Rainham, Daniel G

2012-12-01

7

Challenges and opportunities in mapping land use intensity globally?  

PubMed Central

Future increases in land-based production will need to focus more on sustainably intensifying existing production systems. Unfortunately, our understanding of the global patterns of land use intensity is weak, partly because land use intensity is a complex, multidimensional term, and partly because we lack appropriate datasets to assess land use intensity across broad geographic extents. Here, we review the state of the art regarding approaches for mapping land use intensity and provide a comprehensive overview of available global-scale datasets on land use intensity. We also outline major challenges and opportunities for mapping land use intensity for cropland, grazing, and forestry systems, and identify key issues for future research.

Kuemmerle, Tobias; Erb, Karlheinz; Meyfroidt, Patrick; Muller, Daniel; Verburg, Peter H; Estel, Stephan; Haberl, Helmut; Hostert, Patrick; Jepsen, Martin R.; Kastner, Thomas; Levers, Christian; Lindner, Marcus; Plutzar, Christoph; Verkerk, Pieter Johannes; van der Zanden, Emma H; Reenberg, Anette

2013-01-01

8

Alternative land use regulations and environmental impacts: assessing future land use in an urbanizing watershed  

Microsoft Academic Search

Land use models provide a way to examine the impacts of future urbanization and alternative land use regulations on the environment before irreversible changes are made. A simple spatially-explicit model was used to explore potential build-out conditions under different sets of regulations for the Barnegat Bay watershed, New Jersey, USA. Four build-out scenarios were created based on: (1) current regulations,

Tenley M. Conway; Richard G. Lathrop

2005-01-01

9

Alternative land use regulations and environmental impacts: assessing future land use in an urbanizing watershed  

Microsoft Academic Search

Land use models provide a way to examine the impacts of future urbanization and alternative land use regulations on the environment before irreversible changes are made. A simple spatially-explicit model was used to explore potential build-out conditions under different sets of regulations for the Barnegat Bay watershed, New Jersey, USA. Four build-out scenarios were created based on: (1) current regulations,

Tenley M. Conwaya; Richard G. Lathrop

2004-01-01

10

Effects of urban land-use change on biogeochemical cycles  

Treesearch

... Employment, Fire and Aviation, International Forestry, Just for Kids, Maps and Brochures ... Title: Effects of urban land-use change on biogeochemical cycles ... than half of the global population is expected to live in urban areas (United Nations 2004). Yet, urban settlements and surrounding areas are complex ecological ...

11

Evaluating Urban Sustainability Using Land-Use Transport Interaction Models  

Microsoft Academic Search

Land Use and Transport for Increasing Urban Sustainability) was to assess urban strategies and to demonstrate their long-term effects in European cities. To reach this goal, a comprehensive framework of methodologies including integrated land-use, transport and environmental models as well as indicator, evaluation and presentation systems was developed. Sustainable development is viewed as comprising the environmental, socio-cultural and economic dimension.

Klaus Spiekermann; Michael Wegener

12

Urban Transportation, Land Use, and the Environment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Part of MIT's innovative OpenCourseWare Project, that provides materials from MIT classes to the public on the web, the site contains materials from a seminar studying the interactions of urban systems and the environment. Along with general topics, the seminar provides in-depth case studies of three Central and South American urban areas: Mexico City, Curitiba, and Santiago. The site provides a syllabus, calendar, references for readings, assignments, project ideas, in-depth lecture presentations, and class assignments.

Zegras, P. C.

2008-10-13

13

Impact of urbanization and land-use change on climate  

Microsoft Academic Search

The most important anthropogenic influences on climate are the emission of greenhouse gases and changes in land use, such as urbanization and agriculture. But it has been difficult to separate these two influences because both tend to increase the daily mean surface temperature. The impact of urbanization has been estimated by comparing observations in cities with those in surrounding rural

Eugenia Kalnay; Ming Cai

2003-01-01

14

Land use intensity controls actinobacterial community structure.  

PubMed

Actinobacteria are major producers of secondary metabolites; however, it is unclear how they are distributed in the environment. DNA was extracted from forest, pasture and cultivated soils, street sediments (dust and material in place), and sediments affected by animal activity (e.g. guano, vermicompost) and characterised with two actinobacterial and a bacterial-specific 16S rDNA primer set. Amplicons (140/156) generated with the two actinobacterial-specific and amplicons (471) generated with bacterial-specific primers were analysed. Amplicons from actinobacterial-specific primer were disproportionately actinomycetal from animal-affected (soil) samples and street sediments and either verrucomicrobial (i.e. non-actinobacterial) and from a novel non-actinomycetal actinobacterial group for soils. Actinobacterial amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis and terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism fingerprints clustered by land use, with cultivated soils clustering apart from uncultivated soils. Actinobacterial amplicons generated with eubacterial primers were overwhelmingly from (116/126) street sediments; acidobacterial amplicons from soils (74/75). In two street samples, >90% of clones were actinomycetal. Actinomycetes are selected in terrestrial soils and sediments by cultivation, urbanisation and animal activity. PMID:20924760

Hill, Patrick; Krišt?fek, Václav; Dijkhuizen, Lubbert; Boddy, Christopher; Kroetsch, David; van Elsas, Jan Dirk

2010-10-05

15

Land use externalities, open space preservation, and urban sprawl  

Microsoft Academic Search

Parcel data on residential land conversion are used to investigate how land use externalities influence the rate of development and modify policies designed to manage urban growth and preserve open space. Several “smart growth” policies are found to significantly influence land conversion, including a development clustering policy that concentrates development and generates preserved open space. In addition to directly affecting

Elena G. Irwin; Nancy E. Bockstael

2004-01-01

16

Analysis of urban land use growth in Su-Xi-Chang cities in China during 1979-2001  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Suzhou, Wuxi and Changzhou are located in Yangtze River delta which is a hot spot for socio-economic development in China. With the rapid economy development, the urbanization of those three cities keeps a high level. Growth of urban land use is an important feature of the procession of urbanization. The urban land use growth of Suzhou, Wuxi and Changzhou during the year of 1979-2001 was studied on the base of RS and GIS methods. The growth area of urban land use and the features of spatial pattern of urban land use growth were analyzed. The study shows that since the opening and reforming of china, the urban land use of these three cities has a significant growth; the total area of urban land use in 2001 is 2.7 times bigger than that in 1979, while the rate of land use change is 7.7% and the growth intensity index is 1.08%. Local nature, traffic, economy condition and policy decision making dominate the direction of land use growth. During 1979-1991, extending directions are accordant with main rivers and major roads. During 1991-2001, extending direction has a significant tend towards the development zone.

Wang, Li; Ke, Changqing

2007-08-01

17

Sediment sources in an urbanizing, mixed land-use watershed  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Issaquah Creek watershed is a rapidly urbanizing watershed of 144km2 in western Washington, where sediment aggradation of the main channel and delivery of fine sediment into a large downstream lake have raised increasingly frequent concerns over flooding, loss of fish habitat, and degraded water quality. A watershed-scale sediment budget was evaluated to determine the relative effects of land-use practices,

Erin J. Nelson; Derek B. Booth

2002-01-01

18

Towards a set of IPCC SRES urban land use scenarios: modelling urban land use in the Madrid region  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives of this study are to test the applicability of urban land use change models for the simulation of climate change\\u000a scenarios for large regions and to define the future research needs in this topic. Specifically, the scenarios A1, A2 and\\u000a B2 produced by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) in the Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES)

JI Barredo; M Delgado Gómez

19

A bi-level programming model of urban land use and network design problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

Corresponding with urban land use plan and network design is helpful for the sustainable development of the city. Beginning with the traffic distribution decided by urban land use composition and floor area ratio (FAR), the bi-level programming model of urban land use and network design problem was put forward. In this model, the problem was described as the game, which

Xie Hui; Yan Kefei

2009-01-01

20

Urban spill over vs. local urban sprawl: Entangling land-use regulations in the urban growth of China's megacities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rather than a bad case of urban sprawl, the physical expansion of China's megacities may be viewed as a combination of ‘urban spill over’ and ‘local urban sprawl’. This paper reviews land use regulations in their institutional context and argues that conflicts in land use regulation are related to ideologies of land ownership and embedded in different planning doctrines. These

Wei Yaping; Zhao Min

2009-01-01

21

Role of urban land use on mesoscale circulations and precipitation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A high resolution mesoscale meteorological model (MM5) was employed to study urban effects on rainfall over Oklahoma City, U.S.A. and Chennai, India. Numerical modeling results for Oklahoma City show that urban land use increases the daytime sensible heat flux while it decreases the latent heat flux over the city. Height of the level of free convection (LFC) is reduced by 100 hPa downwind of Oklahoma City because of increased vertical mixing. Increased friction over the city reduced the near surface wind speed by up to 30% as compared to that over the surrounding rural regions during the simulation period. Surface stress over an urban area is shown to increase convergence on the wind ward side of the city and decrease convergence on the lee side of the city. Simulated maximum vertical velocity associated with a line of thunderstorms is enhanced by 1.4 m s-1 by the urban effect of Oklahoma City. Increased rainfall amounts of 25 mm were simulated around 55 km downwind of Oklahoma City. Rainfall observations and numerical modeling results were used to investigate the impact of Chennai urban land use on the sea breeze circulation and rainfall amounts during the southwest monsoon. Simulated wind speeds show that the urban region of Chennai increases onshore flow associated with the sea breeze by 4.0 m s-1. Inland propagation of the sea breeze front is reduced over and immediately downwind of the city due to higher friction. During the research period, positive vertical velocity is enhanced along the leading edge of the sea breeze front by more than 1.0 m s-1 because of increased low-level convergence over the city. Rainfall amounts were increased up to 25 mm well inland due to urban effects. Observations indicate occurrence of rainfall over the city during late evening and nocturnal hours, possibly due to the interaction between receding sea breeze circulation and the urban heat island. This process could not be simulated due to possible deficiencies in the model physics.

Simpson, Matthew Drennan

22

Measuring Urban Concentration and Land-use Diversity in Maps of Simulated Future Land Use  

Microsoft Academic Search

Future land use is an important theme in the preparation and evaluation of spatial planning reports. These studies typically look several decades ahead and describe the outlook of the future by means of a set of scenarios with different socio-economic conditions. Land-use models are commonly used to indicate possible future land-use patterns according to the scenario conditions. In order to

E. Koomen; Ritsema Eck van J

2007-01-01

23

Modeling conversion of rural-urban land use based on cellular automa and genetic algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understanding the complexity of urban expansion requires the analysis of the factors influencing the spatial rural- urban land conversion. This study aims to develop and evaluate a cellular automata (CA) spatial model to assist in understanding land use change patterns. Specifically, our CA simulation model is utilized to explore the effects of various factors on rural-urban land use conversion, including

Kai Cao; Shaowen Wang; Xia Li; Ran Chen

2011-01-01

24

Heuristic policy analysis of regional land use, transit, and travel pricing scenarios using two urban models  

Microsoft Academic Search

To address some of the uncertainties inherent in large-scale models, two very different urban models, an advanced travel demand model and an integrated land use and transportation model, are applied to evaluate land use, transit, and auto pricing policies in the Sacramento, CA (US), region. The empirical and modeling literature is reviewed to identify effective land use, transit, and pricing

Caroline J. Rodier; Robert A. Johnston; John E. Abraham

2002-01-01

25

Citizen Participation, the Knowledge Problem and Urban Land Use Planning: An Austrian Perspective on Institutional Choice  

Microsoft Academic Search

At the forefront of the argument for government-directed land use planning is the notion that -citizen participation- in urban land use decisions can avoid the problems associated with bureaucratic governance and tackle widespread instances of -market failure-. Using illustrations from the British land use planning system this paper argues that participatory planning models are insufficiently attuned to the problems of

Mark Pennington

2004-01-01

26

Rates, Trends, Causes, and Consequences of Urban Land-Use Change in the United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Introduction: Over the past 200 years, changes to the Nation's urban areas have been dramatic. Changes that have occurred relate both to the location of urban centers, as well as to the spatial extent of land dedicated to urban uses. Urban areas at the beginning of the 19th century were located primarily along major rivers or bodies of water, as waterways provided the most efficient means for transporting goods and people. As railroads became prominent, urban areas were able to expand or develop away from the water's edge. Geographic features such as steep slopes, wetlands, and lack of freshwater impeded settlement. In 1902, the National Reclamation Act was passed and with it came funding for the construction of water storage and transportation systems. This encouraged urban expansion in the arid west. After World War II, the Nation's urban areas continued to expand outward away from the city center as populations migrated to the margins of urban areas, where land was less expensive and the environment was less polluted. In 1956, the Federal Highway Act and the building of Interstate highways further facilitated urban expansion across the Unite States. Rural towns, small industrial centers, and farmland were engulfed by expanding urban centers. Over the past 200 years, numerous social, cultural, economic, and political incentives have encouraged urban expansion. In the 1800s, the industrial revolution influenced where people lived and worked. Many people shifted from agricultural production in rural areas to factory work in urban centers. Advances in transportation systems, such as rail transport in the 19th and early 20th centuries, followed by the mass production of the automobile and convenient air travel, facilitated a mobile society and a national economy. Economic growth and a population boom after World War II spurred increased suburbanization-the shifting of residential areas to the outlying section of a city or to a separate municipality-on the fringe of urban areas. Other economic and political incentives that shaped the urban environment included Federally backed home loans, credit and tax mechanisms that encouraged new development, and less restrictive municipal ordinances regarding building codes, environmental laws, and zoning regulations. Throughout the past two centuries land use changes associated with increasing urbanization have had impacts that resonate at local, regional, and even national scales. Landscape changes resulting from urbanization can be mapped and studied over time. Understanding these changes requires a study of the causes of change as related to social, economic, and political influences. Understanding these changes also requires analysis of how urbanization physically spreads across the landscape. The knowledge gained from studying urban land-use change can be helpful when it flows into local, regional, and national decisionmaking that relates to land-use decisions that impact the people, the economy, and the environment. Deriving a correlation between physical change and the explanations of the causes of change can help anticipate and mitigate the impacts of future change. Throughout the past two centuries changes to the Nation's urban areas are inextricably linked to population changes. The Nation's population started growing slowly along the eastern seaboard during the 17th and 18th centuries, accelerated in the second half of the 19th century, and then continued steadily spreading westward throughout the next hundred years. Currently, nearly 80 percent of the U.S. population resides in urban areas. Land area dedicated to urban use continues to expand, although differently than it has in the past. Most newly urbanized areas are much less densely populated and less intensively developed than they were 50 to 100 years ago.

Edited by Acevedo, William; Taylor, Janis L.; Hester, Dave J.; Mladinich, Carol S.; Glavac, Sonya

2006-01-01

27

ANTHROPOGENIC MODIFICATION OF THE PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT ASSOCIATED WITH URBAN LAND USE CONVERSION  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was conducted to analyze urban climatologic modification associated with desert development and changing land use. Specifically, an analysis of surface temperature, as portrayed on thermal remotely-sensed imagery, was compared to current land use in regions of rapidly expanding urban landscape near, and including, Phoenix, Arizona. Modem techniques of remote sensing and geographic information systems (GIS) have been employed

Joshua D. Curley; Ray Lougeay

28

Land use patterns and urbanization in the holy city of Varanasi, India: a scenario.  

PubMed

Rapid urbanization and increasing land use changes due to population and economic growth in selected landscapes is being witnessed of late in India and other developing countries. The cities are expanding in all directions resulting in large-scale urban sprawl and changes in urban land use. The spatial pattern of such changes is clearly noticed on the urban fringes or city peripheral rural areas than in the city center. In fact, this is reflected in changing urban land use patterns. There is an urgent need to accurately describe land use changes for planning and sustainable management. In the recent times, remote sensing is gaining importance as vital tool in the analysis and integration of spatial data. This study intends to estimate land use pattern in a planned and unplanned urban setup and also to analyze the impact of change in land use pattern in the Varanasi urban environment. The results indicate that the planned urban setup had a higher tree cover to that of unplanned area in the Varanasi City, although a considerable disparity existed within the planned urban setups. The results emphasize the need to critically review concepts of urban planning and give more consideration to the preservation and management of urban tree cover/greenspace. PMID:19562495

Kumar, Manoj; Mukherjee, Nivedita; Sharma, Gyan Prakash; Raghubanshi, A S

2009-06-27

29

Analysis of land-use scenarios for urban sustainable development: a case study of Lijiang City  

Microsoft Academic Search

A scientific approach to urban planning is required to ensure environmental protection and ecological sustainability. This paper presents a range of urban land-use scenarios and their implications for urban development and economic demand in the Old Town of Lijiang. Using geographic information system (GIS) and questionnaire analysis, three future urban planning scenarios were created based on data and storylines for

Rencai Dong; Hong Xu; Yaqing Gou; Xiao Fu; Gang Wu

2011-01-01

30

Land use and land cover mapping from diverse data sources for an arid urban environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accurate and up-to-date data describing land use and land cover change support studies of urban growth such as quantifying the amount of rural to urban change and identifying change trajectories. This paper compares three methods for identifying urban land use\\/land cover, based on aerial photography, satellite imagery, and ground observations. While it might be natural to assume that classification based

Elizabeth A. Wentz; William L. Stefanov; Corinna Gries; Diane Hope

2006-01-01

31

Simulating the terrestrial carbon stock based on land-use change in urban forest area using MC1 model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Forests are considered as one of major sinks of greenhouse gases, such as carbon, to mitigate global warming. While many studies have been conducted on the carbon-fluxes in forest, its dynamics related to the land-use changes in urban forest were not intensively studied. The objective of this study was to predict the terrestrial carbon stock depending on the land-use changes of urban forests in Korea using the MAPSS-CENTURY (MC1) model. The future climate data were prepared under the A1B scenario of Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). The soil data were derived from the Digital World Soil Map from the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). Prepared data were interpolated by the ArcGIS software. Also, we prepared land-use change scenario in urban forest using the ArcGIS as if people extend or diminish the urban forest due to the urban planning. Through each change rate of simulations, we could check the terrestrial carbon-fluxes depending on the rate of land cover changes. The results can be used as basic information for sustainable urban forest management and it will be useful to detect the carbon stock changes under the different land use change circumstance.

Oh, S.; Lee, W.; Choi, S.; Byun, J.

2011-12-01

32

Green Infrastructure & Sustainable Urban Land Use Decision Analysis Workshop  

EPA Science Inventory

Introduce green infrastructure, concepts and land use alternatives, to City of Cleveland operations staff. Discuss potential of green alternatives to impact daily operations and routine maintenance activities. Tie in sustainability concepts to long-term City planning and discu...

33

A novel index of land use intensity for organic and conventional farming of Mediterranean cereal fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

The conservation of biodiversity in agro-ecosystems is closely related to land use. Intensive land use is considered to be\\u000a a major cause of biodiversity loss. Most studies addressing the effect of land use intensity on biodiversity have compared\\u000a organic and conventional systems. However, little is known about the heterogeneity of the management intensity within each\\u000a farming system. We hypothesise that

Laura Armengot; Laura José-María; José M. Blanco-Moreno; Montserrat Bassa; Lourdes Chamorro; F. Xavier Sans

34

City-wide relationships between green spaces, urban land use and topography  

Microsoft Academic Search

The growing proportion of human populations living in urban areas, and consequent trends of increasing urban expansion and\\u000a densification fuel a need to understand how urban form and land use affect environmental quality, including the availability\\u000a of urban green spaces. Here we use Sheffield as a case study of city-wide relationships between urban green space extent,\\u000a quality (vegetation cover and

Richard G. Davies; Olga Barbosa; Richard A. Fuller; Jamie Tratalos; Nicholas Burke; Daniel Lewis; Philip H. Warren; Kevin J. Gaston

2008-01-01

35

UrbanSim: Modeling Urban Development for Land Use, Transportation and Environmental Planning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Metropolitan areas have come under intense pressure to respond to federal mandates to link planningof land use, transportation, and environmental quality; and from citizen concerns about managing theside effects of growth such as sprawl, congestion, housing affordability, and loss of open space. Theplanning models used by Metropolitan Planning Organizations (MPOs) were generally not designedto address these questions, creating a gap

Paul Waddell

2002-01-01

36

Evaluating urban expansion and land use change in Shijiazhuang, China, by using GIS and remote sensing  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an integrated study of urbanization trends in Shijiazhuang City, Hebei Province of China, by using Geographical Information Systems (GIS) and remote sensing. The study explores the temporal and spatial characteristics of urban expansion from 1934 to 2001, and land use\\/cover change from 1987 to 2001. Temporally, urban expansion shows fast and slow growth stages, with the high-speed

Jieying Xiao; Yanjun Shen; Jingfeng Ge; Ryutaro Tateishi; Changyuan Tang; Yanqing Liang; Zhiying Huang

2006-01-01

37

Impacts of urban transportation and land use policies on transportation energy consumption  

Microsoft Academic Search

This dissertation explores relationships between energy consumption in urban passenger transportation, land use, transportation system characteristics, and travel behavior. The research was conducted to develop analytical techniques to predict the consequences of some of the alternative urban transportation energy conservation strategies currently being contemplated. Several policies were identified which could result in urban growth and transportation systems usage patterns having

Peskin

1977-01-01

38

Land development, land use, and urban sprawl in Puerto Rico ...  

Treesearch

Description: The island of Puerto Rico has both a high population density and a long ... This study integrates geospatial technology and population census data to understand ... Half of the urban development occurs outside of urban centers.

39

An improved cellular automata forecasting model for urban land use spatial structure changes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Though the urban land use spatial dynamic simulation and forecasting based on cellular automata (CA) model have achieved remarkable progress, the CA model still has some problems and drawbacks in forecasting urban land use changes. In view of the deficiencies of traditional urban CA, an improved CA model based on spatial dynamic data mining and random forecast is proposed in this paper, which establishes an operable CA method to forecast and simulate the discrete status attribute. This improved CA model is examined in analyzing the urban land use structure changes in Jinan 2002-2006 and testified both feasible and effective. Based on the remote sensing images in Jinan 2002 and 2006, the urban land use spatial structures are classified into five types, commercial land, residential land, education facility, industrial land and the other. With the improved CA model, the urban land use framework in Jinan in 2010 was calculated, the result of which can be used as a reliable reference information for the following urban land use planning.

Wang, Yan; Wu, Peilin; Song, Zhenbai; Cao, Junru

2008-11-01

40

The new equine sector and its influence on multifunctional land use in peri-urban areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The equine sector is increasingly influencing land use, especially in peri-urban areas where the demand for land is already\\u000a high. The sector not only influences traditional farming and land use, but also social, legal and economic development, and\\u000a thus demands new interpretations of rural and urban. However, there is currently a lack of information on the consequences\\u000a of this sector

Hanna Elisabeth Elgåker

41

Monitoring and Modeling Urban Land-Use Change with Multitemporal Satellite Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

For Central Europe urbanization and urban sprawl are the major processes concerning land-use and land-cover change that alter the characteristic and functioning of the landscape permanently. Against the background of the current sustainable development debate there is an increasing demand of reliable information about the future trends of these land-use developments. Remote Sensing provides the required data and methods for

Roland Goetzke; Matthias Braun; Hans-Peter Thamm; Gunter Menz

2008-01-01

42

A conceptual framework for analysing and measuring land-use intensity?  

PubMed Central

Large knowledge gaps currently exist that limit our ability to understand and characterise dynamics and patterns of land-use intensity: in particular, a comprehensive conceptual framework and a system of measurement are lacking. This situation hampers the development of a sound understanding of the mechanisms, determinants, and constraints underlying changes in land-use intensity. On the basis of a review of approaches for studying land-use intensity, we propose a conceptual framework to quantify and analyse land-use intensity. This framework integrates three dimensions: (a) input intensity, (b) output intensity, and (c) the associated system-level impacts of land-based production (e.g. changes in carbon storage or biodiversity). The systematic development of indicators across these dimensions would provide opportunities for the systematic analyses of the trade-offs, synergies and opportunity costs of land-use intensification strategies.

Erb, Karl-Heinz; Haberl, Helmut; Jepsen, Martin Rudbeck; Kuemmerle, Tobias; Lindner, Marcus; Muller, Daniel; Verburg, Peter H; Reenberg, Anette

2013-01-01

43

Determining urban land uses through building-associated element attributes derived from lidar and aerial photographs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Urban land-use research is a key component in analyzing the interactions between human activities and environmental change. Researchers have conducted many experiments to classify urban or built-up land, forest, water, agriculture, and other land-use and land-cover types. Separating residential land uses from other land uses within urban areas, however, has proven to be surprisingly troublesome. Although high-resolution images have recently become more available for land-use classification, an increase in spatial resolution does not guarantee improved classification accuracy by traditional classifiers due to the increase of class complexity. This research presents an approach to detect and separate residential land uses on a building scale directly from remotely sensed imagery to enhance urban land-use analysis. Specifically, the proposed methodology applies a multi-directional ground filter to generate a bare ground surface from lidar data, then utilizes a morphology-based building detection algorithm to identify buildings from lidar and aerial photographs, and finally separates residential buildings using a supervised C4.5 decision tree analysis based on the seven selected building land-use indicators. Successful execution of this study produces three independent methods, each corresponding to the steps of the methodology: lidar ground filtering, building detection, and building-based object-oriented land-use classification. Furthermore, this research provides a prototype as one of the few early explorations of building-based land-use analysis and successful separation of more than 85% of residential buildings based on an experiment on an 8.25-km2 study site located in Austin, Texas.

Meng, Xuelian

44

The study on dynamic extraction of urban land use cover with remote sensing image based on AdaBoost algorithm  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In China, the contradiction of urban land use and cultivated land use is predominant, it's important to detect the urban land use cover for the guide of urban development. The primary problem of dynamic detecting on urban land use cover is how to get accurate classification of remote sensing data. Theoretically, if combining several low precision classifiers, a better classification result can be made and this paper introduces how to combine the low precision urban land use cover classifiers. We use CBERS (China-Brazil Earth Resources Satellite) remote sensing images of the year 2007 for Shanghai's urban land use cover. We adopt the AdaBoost combination classifier, which combines spectral feature information, texture structure information and improved Normalized Difference Built-up Index (NDBI) to improve the individual classification precision. The experiment results show that a notable improvement of classification precision of urban land use cover is achieved after using AdaBoost algorithm.

Li, Rui; Sun, Jiulin; Wang, Juanle; Zhu, Lijun; Liu, Rui

2009-10-01

45

Urban land use, air toxics and public health: Assessing hazardous exposures at the neighborhood scale  

SciTech Connect

Land use data are increasingly understood as important indicators of potential environmental health risk in urban areas where micro-scale or neighborhood level hazard exposure data are not routinely collected. This paper aims to offer a method for estimating the distribution of air toxics in urban neighborhoods using land use information because actual air monitoring data rarely exist at this scale. Using Geographic Information System spatial modeling tools, we estimate air toxics concentrations across neighborhoods in New York City and statistically compare our model with the US Environmental Protection Agency's National Air Toxic Assessment and air monitoring data across three NYC neighborhoods. We conclude that land use data can act as a good proxy for estimating neighborhood scale air toxics, particularly in the absence of monitoring data. In addition, the paper suggests that land use data can expand the reach of environmental impact assessments that routinely exclude analyses of potential exposures to urban air toxics at the neighborhood scale.

Corburn, Jason [Columbia University, Graduate School of Architecture, Planning and Preservation and School of International and Public Affairs, 400 Avery Hall, 1172 Amsterdam Ave. New York, NY 10027 (United States)]. E-mail: jtc2105@columbia.edu

2007-03-15

46

Riparian woody plant traits across an urban–rural land use gradient and implications for watershed function with urbanization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Worldwide riparian forests are increasingly threatened by urbanization and land use change. Plant trait-based analyses provide a useful approach for comparing and describing distinct plant communities and may offer a more general understanding of the influences and consequences of disturbance associated with land use on riparian vegetation. This research addressed two primary questions focusing on nine plant traits that may

Michele L. Burton; Lisa J. Samuelson; Mark D. Mackenzie

2009-01-01

47

Application of GIS and Land Use Models - Artificial Neural Network based Land Transformation Model for Future Land Use Forecast and Effects of Urbanization within the Vermillion River Watershed  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Vermillion River Watershed is an important natural and economic resource for Dakota County, Minnesota due to its scenic beauty, water quality, and recreational opportunities. As the county continues to develop, the watershed is also undergoing rapid urbanization as a result of land use changes. Land use changes result from complex interactions of many factors including policy, management, economics, culture,

Olaniyi Oyebode

48

Quantifying Land Use and Land Cover Effects on Urban Runoff Water Quality.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The impact of non-point source pollution on urban storm runoff is of major concern in the Southwest where water resources are scarce, episodic rainfall is intense and runoff recharge is a water management strategy. The objectives of this study are to 1) determine the extent to which specific types of urban land use impact the quality of monsoonal rainfall-runoff, and 2) identify pollutant source and modification during transport within urban washes of different types. We installed autosamplers at the outlet of four watersheds in the Tucson, AZ basin, with land uses representative of growing urban centers in the southwest U.S.: 1) commercial; 2) medium and high density residential; 3) low density residential; and 4) mixed use. At each outlet, storm runoff samples were collected at 20 minute intervals during several monsoonal storms. To characterize how pollutants were modified during transport, we installed autosamplers at upstream and downstream locations of a wash. Samples were analyzed for nutrients, organic pollutants, metals, anions, cations and fecal indicator bacteria (E. coli). Preliminary data show that nitrate concentrations were highest in the commercial and low density watersheds (median = 2.53 mg/L and 2.81 mg/L NO3-N, respectively) and lowest in the medium density watershed (median = 1.68 mg/L). Ammonium concentrations were also highest in the commercial and low density watersheds (median = 1.84 mg/L and 1.75 mg/L NH4-N, respectively) and lowest in the medium density watershed (1.28 mg/L). E. coli counts were highest in the commercial (median = 4500 CFU/ml) and lowest in the medium density watershed (median = 61.26 CFU/ml). Over the season, E. coli concentrations decreased in all except the mixed density watershed where they increased as the monsoon progressed. We observed distinct pollutant concentration response patterns to storm events among watersheds. Pollutant concentrations in runoff from commercial and low density watersheds peaked within the first 40 minutes of a storm event and subsequently tapered, whereas concentrations in the middle density watershed increased throughout a storm event. Our study demonstrates that land use type directly and distinctly impacts storm runoff chemical composition, which has significant implications for basin wide pollutant fate and transport. Our data also suggests that the type of runoff drainage system may play an important role in contaminant degradation and subsequent transport.

Gallo, E. L.; Snyder, M. A.; Dejwakh, N. R.; Lohse, K.; Brooks, P. D.; McLain, J. E.; McIntosh, J.; Meixner, T.

2007-12-01

49

Modeling the Effects of Land Use Change on the Water Temperature in Unregulated Urban Streams  

Microsoft Academic Search

Streams, in their natural state, are typically diverse and biologically productive environments. Streams subject to urbanization often experience degradation brought about by the cumulative effects of flow alteration, unsanitary discharge and channelization. One of the water quality parameters affected by urbanization is stream temperature. This study offers a model for predicting the impact of land use change on the temperature

Robert T. LeBlanc; Robert D. Brown; John E. FitzGibbon

1997-01-01

50

Urban Policy, Local Administration and Land Use Planning in LilleImplementing the Contrat De Ville  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urban policy initiatives are a characteristic of most European countries. These initiatives have developed within the context of existing legislative frameworks, particularly relating to public administration and land use. The Contrat de Ville, recently introduced as a mechanism for urban policy coordination and im plementation, has developed within an administrative structure based on 36,000 communes, Schémas Dir ecteur and Plans

Howard Green; Philip Booth

1996-01-01

51

Uncertainty in Urban Flooding Assessment under Climate and Land Use Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

According to IPCC AR4 projections, the frequency of heavy precipitation events is likely to increase over the Pacific Northwestern (PNW) of USA during the 21st century. Consequently, flood risk is expected to increase in this region. Additionally, the land use change, such as urban development exacerbates the flood risk. We investigate potential changes in urban flood frequency and their uncertainty

Il Won Jung; Heejun Chang; Hamid Moradkhani

2010-01-01

52

Impacts of land-use change on the water cycle of urban areas within the Upper Great Lakes drainage basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Urbanization is altering the global landscape at an unprecedented rate. This form of land cover/land-use change (LCLUC) can significantly reduce infiltration and runoff response times, and alter heat and water vapor fluxes, which can further alter surface-forced regional circulation patterns and modulate precipitation volume and intensity. Spatial patterns of future LCLUC are projected using the Land Transformation Model (LTM), enhanced to incorporate dynamic landcover, economics and policy using Bayesian Belief Networks (LTM- BBN). Different land use scenarios predicted by the LTM-BBN as well as a pre-development scenario are represented through the Unified Noah Land Surface Model (LSM) with an enhanced urban canopy model, embedded in the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. The coupled WRF-Noah LSM model will be used to investigate the connections between land-use, hydrometeorology and the atmosphere, through analysis of water and energy balances over several urbanized watersheds within the Upper Great Lakes region. Preliminary results focus on a single watershed, the White River in Indiana, which includes the city of Indianapolis. Coupled WRF-Noah simulations made using pre and post-development land use maps provide a 7 year climatology of convective storm morphology around the urban center. Precipitation and other meteorological variables from the WRF-Noah simulations are used to drive simulations of the White River watershed using the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) macroscale hydrologic model. The VIC model has been modified to represent urban areas and has been calibrated for modern flow regimes in the White River watershed. Pre- and post-development VIC simulations are used to assess the impact of Indianapolis area infiltration changes. Finally, VIC model simulations utilizing projected land use change from 2005 through 2040 for the Indianapolis metropolitan area explore the magnitude of future hydrologic change, especially peak flow response to extreme precipitation events.

Bowling, L. C.; Cherkauer, K. A.; Pijanowski, B. C.; Niyogi, D.

2006-12-01

53

Study on temporal and spatial variations of urban land use based on land change data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the rapid development of urbanization, demands of urban land increase in succession, hence, to analyze temporal and spatial variations of urban land use becomes more and more important. In this paper, the principle of trend surface analysis and formula of urban land sprawl index ( ULSI) are expatiated at first, and then based on land change data of Jiayu county, the author fits quadratic trend surface by choosing urban land area as dependent variable and urbanization and GDP as independent variables from 1996 to 2006, draws isoline of trend surface and residual values; and then urban land sprawl indexes of towns are calculated on the basis of urban land area of 1996 and 2006 and distribution map of ULSI is plotted. After analyzing those results, we can conclude that there is consanguineous relationship between urban land area and urbanization, economic level etc.

Jiang, Ping; Liu, Yanfang; Fan, Min; Zhang, Yang

2009-10-01

54

Agricultural and urban land use change analysis in Changping County, Beijing, using remote sensing and GIS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Urban growth is regarded as a necessary transitional stage for a sustainable economy, but uncontrolled or arbitrary urban growth rapidly consumes rural resources and causes environmental pollution, ecological deterioration. In this paper, we developed a remote sensing and GIS-based integrated approach to monitor and analyze agricultural and urban spatial land use and ecological landscape change characteristics. In the proposed approach, multi-temporal satellite images from 1995 to 2010 were selected and classified to obtain land cover and use spatial changes. And GIS was used to analyze variation tendency for land use and ecological landscape indices. Experiments were performed in the Changping County, north of Beijing to analyze rapid urbanization effects in the past two decades, especially during the Beijing 2008 Olympic Games. The results indicate that there has been a notable urban growth and a visible loss about 38.8% in cropland, meanwhile dominated landscape structures and patterns have greatly changed from agriculture to urban in the study area.

Guo, Meng; Huang, Xiaoxia; Li, Hongga; Li, Xia; Ming, An

55

On the Parametrization of Urban Land Use in Mesoscale Models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effects of urban structures on the distribution of meteorological variables can be included in mesoscale models by an appropriate parametrization. The different approaches are conventionally tested against wind profiles in the centre of the urban area while flow distortions around are not considered. In this study, the quality of different parametrizations in capturing the main wind-field modifications in, as well as around, a complex obstacle is investigated. The method applied consists of a building resolved microscale model and a mesoscale model including a suitable parametrization. The results demonstrate that a drag or a porosity approach can reproduce very satisfactorily the main characteristics of the airflow completely, while a simpler roughness length concept in general approximates the mean flow unsatisfactorily.

Gross, Günter

2013-10-01

56

Evaluating sources of PAHs in urban streams based on land use and biomonitors.  

PubMed

Toxic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) can be found in wastewaters and sewages released from industries and/or urban areas. When discharged untreated to stream waters, they can be a problem to human health. This work represents the first attempt to use PAH and metal concentrations in aquatic moss transplants together with land-use information to identify water pollution sources in urban areas. To do this, the moss Fontinalis antipyretica was collected from a natural stream and transplanted to four different streams in a densely populated area of Lisbon, Portugal. After three months of exposure, mosses were collected and analyzed for metals and for the 16 priority PAHs recommended by the U.S. EPA. Urban streams seem to have a scattered contamination of 6-ring PAHs. Correlations among land-use, metal concentrations, and PAH concentrations indicated that areas occupied by activities of tertiary and industrial sectors had higher PAH concentrations in transplanted mosses, mainly for the sum of the 16 EPA-PAHs and for the 2-, 3- and 5-ringed PAHs, than areas occupied by urban and wooded areas. These PAHs were associated with enhanced Zn and Cu and land use activities that linked the sites to high traffic density. Industrial land use influences PAH concentration in water up to 1000 m of distance from the stream, whereas tertiary sector land use influences it up to 500 m. PMID:21410193

Augusto, Sofia; Gonzalez, Carla; Vieira, Rute; Máguas, Cristina; Branquinho, Cristina

2011-03-16

57

Land Use Planning in Metro Manila and the Urban Fringe: Implications on the Land and Real Estate Market  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines land use planning in Metro Manila and the urban fringe and analyzes its effect on transactions in the urban land and real estate market. The analysis begins with a historical review of land use planning strategies in the metropolitan area and the attendant bureaucratic changes that occurred. The effects of these planning strategies on the urban land

Marife Magno Ballesteros

2000-01-01

58

Spatial dynamic modeling and urban land use transformation: a simulation approach to assessing the costs of urban sprawl  

Microsoft Academic Search

Assessing the economic impacts of urban land use transformation has become complex and acrimonious. Although community planners are beginning to comprehend the economic trade-offs inherent in transforming the urban fringe, they find it increasingly difficult to analyze and assess the trade-offs expediently and in ways that can influence local decision making. New and sophisticated spatial modeling techniques are now being

Brian Deal; Daniel Schunk

2004-01-01

59

Downscaling climate change scenarios in an urban land use change model.  

PubMed

The objective of this paper is to describe the process through which climate change scenarios were downscaled in an urban land use model and the results of this experimentation. The land use models (Urban Growth Model [UGM] and the Land Cover Deltatron Model [LCDM]) utilized in the project are part of the SLEUTH program which uses a probabilistic cellular automata protocol. The land use change scenario experiments were developed for the 31-county New York Metropolitan Region (NYMR) of the US Mid-Atlantic Region. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), regional greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions scenarios (Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES) A2 and B2 scenarios) were used to define the narrative scenario conditions of future land use change. The specific research objectives of the land use modeling work involving the SLEUTH program were threefold: (1) Define the projected conversion probabilities and the amount of rural-to-urban land use change for the NYMR as derived by the UGM and LCDM for the years 2020 and 2050, as defined by the pattern of growth for the years 1960-1990; (2) Down-scale the IPCC SRES A2 and B2 scenarios as a narrative that could be translated into alternative growth projections; and, (3) Create two alternative future growth scenarios: A2 scenario which will be associated with more rapid land conversion than found in initial projections, and a B2 scenario which will be associated with a slower level of land conversion. The results of the modeling experiments successfully illustrate the spectrum of possible land use/land cover change scenarios for the years 2020 and 2050. The application of these results into the broader scale climate and health impact study is discussed, as is the general role of land use/land cover change models in climate change studies and associated environmental management strategies. PMID:15246577

Solecki, William D; Oliveri, Charles

2004-08-01

60

Enzyme activities of urban soils under different land use in the Shenzhen city, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urbanization has drastically changed soil properties, and an assessment of these changes is essential for soil man- agement and soil health. The activities of urease, acid phosphatase, invertase and catalase, soil organic matter, pH, electrical conductivity (EC) and clay (< 0.01 mm) content of urban soils under two land-uses in the central built-up area of the Shenzhen city were investigated,

Z. J. Shi; Y. Lu; Z. G. Xu; S. L. Fu

2008-01-01

61

The Major Environmentally-Based Land Use Issues on the Urban Fringe.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Types of land-use issues which form current problems in urban areas are discussed in this paper. The majority of these environmentally based issues revolve around the management of water. The five most often encountered water-oriented issues are denoted in rank order of importance. First, an ample water supply which is free from contamination must…

Hordon, Robert M.

62

Containing Urban Sprawl: Trends in Land Use and Spatial Planning in the Metropolitan Region of Barcelona  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent decades, there has been considerable debate in the Metropolitan Region of Barcelona regarding the role of spatial planning in influencing general land-use trends. There is a widespread belief amongst geographers, environmentalists, planners and some politicians that spatial planning of the metropolitan region has not been particularly successful in reducing urban pressures on rural areas. The aim of this

Valerià Paül; Matthew Tonts

2005-01-01

63

The Major Environmentally-Based Land Use Issues on the Urban Fringe.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Types of land-use issues which form current problems in urban areas are discussed in this paper. The majority of these environmentally based issues revolve around the management of water. The five most often encountered water-oriented issues are denoted in rank order of importance. First, an ample water supply which is free from contamination…

Hordon, Robert M.

64

Interactive Effects of Urban Land Use and Climate Change on Biogeochemical Cycles (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Urban land-use change can affect biogeochemical cycles through altered disturbance regimes, landscape management practices (e.g., irrigation and fertilization), built structures, and altered environments (heat island effect, pollution, introduction of non-native species, loss of native species). As a result, the conversion of native to urban ecological systems has been shown to significantly affect carbon, nitrogen, and water cycles at local, regional, and global scales. These changes have created novel habitats and ecosystems, which have no analogue in the history of life. Nonetheless, some of the environmental changes occurring in urban areas are analogous to the changes expected in climate by the end of the century, e.g. atmospheric increase in CO2 and an increase in air temperatures, which can be utilized as a “natural experiment” to investigate global change effects on large scale ecosystem processes. Moreover, as analogues of expected future environments, urban ecological systems may act as reservoirs of plant and animal species for adjoining landscapes that are expected to undergo relatively rapid climate changes in the next 100 years. Urban land-use change by itself may contribute to changes in regional weather patterns and long-term changes in global climate, which will depend on the net effect of converting native systems to urban systems and the comparison of per capita “footprints” between urban, suburban, and rural inhabitants. My objectives are to 1) assess the impact of changes in urban land-use on climate change and in turn how climate change may affect urban biogeochemical cycles and 2) discuss the potential for urban ecosystems to mitigate green house gas emissions.

Pouyat, R. V.

2009-12-01

65

Does land use under ecological constraints emerge a compensation between urban and rural areas? Some explorative considerations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rural areas are characterised in terms of land use by spatially ecological potentials whereas urban areas concentrate the land use on economic activities with higher productivity neglecting the local spatially relevant ecological potentials. This common view seems to be deepened on the background of an increasing demand for restrictions in land use in order to maintain the ecological potentials under

Thiemo W. Eser; Regina Gaitsch

66

Implications of urban land-use standards for geothermal district heating feasibilities  

SciTech Connect

The relationship between typical urban land-use standards and geothermal district heating feasibilities is examined. It is suggested that district heating, as a major commercialization mode for geothermal energy, will be considerably impeded outside of central business districts by land-use standards which are generally too low in density for cost-effective geothermal distribution; and by locational and spatial inconsistencies between resource production areas and overlying land-use energy requirements. A case example is given for Klamath Falls, Oregon, where a geothermal district heating system is presently under construction. A majority of the municipal residential density standards are calculated as being marginally within minimum thermal load density requirements for district heating. As a result, expansion of the system beyond the central business district may depend largely on revised land-use standards and patterns. Recommendations are suggested for employing such revised land-use standards and patterns as incentives for district heating, including higher allowable residential densities, mixed-use zoning for higher load factors, and locational designations based on a geothermal reservoir-heat load match among land-uses.

Allen, E.M.

1981-10-01

67

Spatial variations of storm runoff pollution and their correlation with land-use in a rapidly urbanizing catchment in China.  

PubMed

The composition of land use for a rapidly urbanizing catchment is usually heterogeneous, and this may result in significant spatial variations of storm runoff pollution and increase the difficulties of water quality management. The Shiyan Reservoir catchment, a typical rapidly urbanizing area in China, is chosen as a study area, and temporary monitoring sites were set at the downstream of its 6 sub-catchments to synchronously measure rainfall, runoff and water quality during 4 storm events in 2007 and 2009. Due to relatively low frequency monitoring, the IHACRES and exponential pollutant wash-off simulation models are used to interpolate the measured data to compensate for data insufficiency. Three indicators, event pollutant loads per unit area (EPL), event mean concentration (EMC) and pollutant loads transported by the first 50% of runoff volume (FF50), were used to describe the runoff pollution for different pollutants in each sub-catchment during the storm events, and the correlations between runoff pollution spatial variations and land-use patterns were tested by Spearman's rank correlation analysis. The results indicated that similar spatial variation trends were found for different pollutants (EPL or EMC) in light storm events, which strongly correlate with the proportion of residential land use; however, they have different trends in heavy storm events, which correlate with not only the residential land use, but also agricultural and bare land use. And some pairs of pollutants (such as COD/BOD, NH(3)-N/TN) might have the similar source because they have strong or moderate positive spatial correlation. Moreover, the first flush intensity (FF50) varies with impervious land areas and different interception ratio of initial storm runoff volume should be adopted in different sub-catchments. PMID:20667581

Qin, Hua-Peng; Khu, Soon-Thiam; Yu, Xiang-Ying

2010-07-29

68

Responsiveness of Rural and Urban Land Uses to Land Rent Determinants in the U.S. South  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ricardian and von Thunen land rent models are combined into a single land use share model including farm, forest, and urban land uses. The land share model is applied to the Southern United States, and elasticities are extracted that measure land share response to changes in population, income, land values, prices, and costs in counties with different degrees of urbanizationT.

Ian Hat-die; Peter Parks; Peter Gottleib; David Wear

2000-01-01

69

Increasing land-use intensity decreases floral colour diversity of plant communities in temperate grasslands.  

PubMed

To preserve biodiversity and ecosystem functions in a globally changing world it is crucial to understand the effect of land use on ecosystem processes such as pollination. Floral colouration is known to be central in plant-pollinator interactions. To date, it is still unknown whether land use affects the colouration of flowering plant communities. To assess the effect of land use on the diversity and composition of flower colours in temperate grasslands, we collected data on the number of flowering plant species, blossom cover and flower reflectance spectra from 69 plant communities in two German regions, Schwäbische Alb (SA) and Hainich-Dün (HD). We analysed reflectance data of flower colours as they are perceived by honeybees and studied floral colour diversity based upon spectral loci of each flowering plant species in the Maxwell triangle. Before the first mowing, flower colour diversity decreased with increasing land-use intensity in SA, accompanied by a shift of mean flower colours of communities towards an increasing proportion of white blossom cover in both regions. By changing colour characteristics of grasslands, we suggest that increasing land-use intensity can affect the flower visitor fauna in terms of visitor behaviour and diversity. These changes may in turn influence plant reproduction in grassland plant communities. Our results indicate that land use is likely to affect communication processes between plants and flower visitors by altering flower colour traits. PMID:23568710

Binkenstein, Julia; Renoult, Julien P; Schaefer, H Martin

2013-04-09

70

KH-series satellite imagery and Landsat MSS data fusion in support of assessing urban land use growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multi-temporal land use data, circa 1990 and 2000, have been analyzed an our urban growth model which identifies three levels of the urban extent - the impervious surface, the urbanized area, and the urban footprint - to account for the differing degrees of open space degradation associated with the city. The model also generates metrics such as cohesion, proximity, population

Daniel Civco; Anna Chabaeva; Jason Parent

2009-01-01

71

Urbanization susceptibility maps: a dynamic spatial decision support system for sustainable land use  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent developments in land consumption assessment identify the need to implement integrated evaluative approaches, with particular attention to the identification of multidimensional tools for guiding and managing sustainable land use. Policy decisions defining land use are mostly implemented through spatial planning and related zoning, and this involves trade-offs between many sectoral interests and conflicting challenges aimed at win-win solutions. In order to identify a decision-making process for land use allocation, the paper proposes a methodological approach for a Dynamic Spatial Decision Support System (DSDSS), named Integrated Spatial Assessment (ISA), supported by Geographical Information Systems (GIS) combined with Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP). Through the empirical investigation in an operative case study, an integrated evaluative approach implemented in a DSDSS helps to elaborate "urbanization susceptibility maps", where spatial analysis combined with a multi-criteria method proved to be useful for facing the main issues related to land consumption and minimizing environmental impacts of spatial planning.

Cerreta, M.; De Toro, P.

2012-10-01

72

ICCLP: An Inexact Chance-Constrained Linear Programming Model for Land-Use Management of Lake Areas in Urban Fringes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lake areas in urban fringes are under increasing urbanization pressure. Consequently, the conflict between rapid urban development and the maintenance of water bodies in such areas urgently needs to be addressed. An inexact chance-constrained linear programming (ICCLP) model for optimal land-use management of lake areas in urban fringes was developed. The ICCLP model was based on land-use suitability assessment and land evaluation. The maximum net economic benefit (NEB) was selected as the objective of land-use allocation. The total environmental capacity (TEC) of water systems and the public financial investment (PFI) at different probability levels were considered key constraints. Other constraints included in the model were land-use suitability, governmental requirements on the ratios of various land-use types, and technical constraints. A case study implementing the system was performed for the lake area of Hanyang at the urban fringe of Wuhan, central China, based on our previous study on land-use suitability assessment. The Hanyang lake area is under significant urbanization pressure. A 15-year optimal model for land-use allocation is proposed during 2006 to 2020 to better protect the water system and to gain the maximum benefits of development. Sixteen constraints were set for the optimal model. The model results indicated that NEB was between 1.48 × 109 and 8.76 × 109 or between 3.98 × 109 and 16.7 × 109, depending on the different urban-expansion patterns and land demands. The changes in total developed area and the land-use structure were analyzed under different probabilities ( q i ) of TEC. Changes in q i resulted in different urban expansion patterns and demands on land, which were the direct result of the constraints imposed by TEC and PFI. The ICCLP model might help local authorities better understand and address complex land-use systems and develop optimal land-use management strategies that better balance urban expansion and grassland conservation.

Liu, Yong; Qin, Xiaosheng; Guo, Huaicheng; Zhou, Feng; Wang, Jinfeng; Lv, Xiaojian; Mao, Guozhu

2007-12-01

73

Modeling Coupled Climate And Urban Land Use Change In The United States  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the coming decades, population growth and changes in consumption are expected to substantially alter regional land use. These changes in land use are expected to interact with projected changes in climate, resulting in significant impacts on ecosystems. In this study we use the Terrestrial Observation and Prediction System (TOPS), an ecosystem modeling framework, to evaluate the effects of coupled land use and climate change on hydrologic dynamics (runoff) and vegetation carbon uptake (gross productivity) on a number of watersheds projected to undergo significant urban expansion across the United States. TOPS simulations at 1 km spatial resolution are based on land cover predictions from the Spatially Explicit Regional Growth Model (SERGoM) through the year 2100 and an ensemble of climate projections (Bias Corrected and Downscaled WCRP CMIP3). We also present results from an evaluation of simulated scenarios to characterize the mitigation potential of various best management practices for land use planning, such as urban afforestation and replacement of asphalt with permeable surfaces.

Milesi, C.; Goetz, S. J.; Wang, W.; Melton, F. S.; Theobald, D.; Nemani, R. R.

2011-12-01

74

Spatial resolution and detection limit considerations for low light imaging of urban land use patterns  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A nighttime satellite image and an International Space Station (ISS) photograph of Los Angeles, California are compared to a land use map of Los Angeles and assessed for their ability to distinguish different intra-urban land use patterns. Imagery derived from the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program's Operational Linescan System (DMSP OLS) has coarse spatial resolution (~1 km2). The ISS photograph of Los Angeles has a spatial resolution of approximately 20 meters. The ISS image was aggregated to several coarser spatial resolutions including the spatial resolution of the VIIRS instrument (742 m) scheduled for launch in the coming year (2012?). We analyzed both the spatial and radiometric resolution needed to distinguish the following land uses from one another: Single family residential, Multi-family residential, commercial, industrial, and transportation. We found that spatial resolutions coarser than 100 meters have limited ability to discriminate urban land use types. In addition, we found that the detection limits of this ISS camera (8 x 10-6 watts/Steradian*cm2*micron) were incapable of observing many single family residential areas within the Los Angeles area.

Anderson, S.; Elvidge, C.; Sutton, P. C.

2011-12-01

75

Interactivity with the urban information users in the land-use\\/land-cover information extraction from VHR data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Very High Resolution (VHR) satellite imagery offers a great potential for extracting land-use and land-cover related information for urban areas, but do they meet the requirements of present day urban planners? Assessing user needs for urban land use\\/land cover data, and investigating the potential of VHR data to better meet these needs is therefore essential. These two parts lead to

Nathalie R. Stephenne; Eleonore Wolff; William De Genst; Frank Canters

2004-01-01

76

Concentrations of potentially toxic metals in urban soils of seville: relationship with different land uses.  

PubMed

Fifty-two samples of surface soils were taken in the urban area of Seville, to assess the possible influence of different land uses on their metal contents and their relationship with several soil properties. The samples corresponded to five categories or land uses: agricultural, parks, ornamental gardens, riverbanks, and roadsides. Sequential extraction of metal according to the procedure proposed by the former Community Bureau of Reference (BCR) was carried out, and pseudo-total (aqua regia soluble) metal contents were determined. Lower organic C, total N and available P and K contents were found in riverbank samples, probably due to the lack of manuring of those sites, left in a natural status. In contrast, significantly higher electrical conductivity was found in those sites, due to the tidal influence of the nearby Atlantic Ocean. Other land uses did not show significant differences in the general properties. Concentrations of Cu, Pb and Zn, both aqua-regia soluble and sequentially extracted, were clearly higher in soils from ornamental gardens, whereas the concentrations in the riverbank samples were slightly lower than the other categories. In contrast, other metals (Cd, Cr, Fe, Mn, Ni) were uniformly distributed throughout all land uses. A strong statistical association is found among the concentrations of Cu, Pb, Zn and organic C, suggesting that the larger contents of these metals in ornamental gardens are partly due to organic amendments added to those sites more frequently than to other kinds of sites. Considering the conclusions of previous studies, heavy traffic can also contribute to those ;urban' metals in urban soils. Periodic monitoring of the concentrations of urban metals in busy city centres and of the quality of amendments added to soils of recreational areas are recommended. PMID:16237602

Ruiz-Cortés, E; Reinoso, R; Díaz-Barrientos, E; Madrid, L

2005-09-01

77

Land use change scenarios and associated groundwater impacts in a protected peri-urban area  

Microsoft Academic Search

Land use changes in peri-urban areas are usually associated with significant impacts on groundwater resources due to alteration\\u000a of the recharge regime as well as through the establishment of pollution sources. Quantifying the aforementioned impacts and\\u000a assessing the vulnerability of the groundwater resources is an important step for the better management and protection of\\u000a the aquifers. In the present study,

Elias Dimitriou; Elias Moussoulis

78

Estimating Land Use Impacts on Regional Scale Urban Water Balance and Groundwater Recharge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anthropogenic activities have exerted increasingly large-scale influences on terrestrial ecological systems from the past\\u000a century, primarily through agriculture; however, the impact of such changes on the hydrologic cycle is poorly understood.\\u000a As one of the important land use (LU) in the coastal Dogo Plain of the Seto Inland Sea, Japan, paddy fields have been decreasing\\u000a with the increase in urbanization

Bin He; Yi Wang; Keiji Takase; Goro Mouri; Bam H. N. Razafindrabe

2009-01-01

79

The advantages of a high density, mixed land use, linear urban development  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the land use and transport characteristics of a strip of urban development located along the northern shore of Hong Kong Island. The strip of land, with an area of 22.5 sq. km, is 17 km long and has an average width of 1.3 km. It has a population of approximately one million and provides over 700,000 jobs.

C. O. Tong; S. C. Wong

1997-01-01

80

Effects of landscape structure and land-use intensity on similarity of plant and animal communities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim Species richness in itself is not always sufficient to evaluate land management strategies for nature conservation. The exchange of species between local communities may be affected by landscape structure and land-use intensity. Thus, species turnover, and its inverse, community similarity, may be useful measures of landscape integrity from a diversity perspective. Location A European transect from France to Estonia.

Carsten F. Dormann; Oliver Schweiger; Isabel Augenstein; Debra Bailey; Regula Billeter; Geert de Blust; Riccardo DeFilippi; Mark Frenzel; Frederik Hendrickx; Felix Herzog; Stefan Klotz; Jaan Liira; Jean-Pierre Maelfait; Torsten Schmidt; Marjan Speelmans; Wingerden van W. K. R. E; Martin Zobel

2007-01-01

81

Geographically explicit urban land use change scenarios for Mega cities: a case study in Tokyo  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In preparation for the IPCC 5th assessment report, the international modeling community is developing four Representative Concentration Paths employing the scenarios developed by four different Integrated Assessment Models. These RCPs will be employed as an input to climate models, such as Earth System Models. In these days, the importance of assessment of not only global but also local (city/zone level) impacts of global change has gradually been recognized, thereby downscaling climate models are one of the urgent problems to be solved. Needless to say, reliable downscaling requires spatially high resolution land use change scenarios. So far, there has been proposed a lot of methods for constructing land use change scenarios with considering economic behavior of human, such as agent-based model (e.g., Parker et al., 2001), and land use transport (LUT) model (e.g., Anas and Liu, 2007). The latter approach in particular has widely been applied to actual urban/transport policy; hence modeling the interaction between them is very important for creating reliable land use change scenarios. However, the LUT models are usually built based on the zones of cities/municipalities whose spatial resolutions are too low to derive sensible parameters of the climate models. Moreover, almost all of the works which attempt to build spatially high resolution LUT model employs very small regions as the study area. The objective of this research is deriving various input parameters to climate models such as population density, fractional green vegetation cover, and anthropogenic heat emission with spatially high resolution land use change scenarios constructed with LUT model. The study area of this research is Tokyo metropolitan area, which is the largest urban area in the world (United Nations., 2010). Firstly, this study employs very high ground resolution zones composed of micro districts around 1km2. Secondly, the research attempt to combine remote sensing techniques and LUT models to derive future distribution of fractional green vegetation cover. The study has created two extreme land-use scenarios: urban concentration (compact city) and dispersion scenarios in order to show possible range of future land use change, and derives the input parameters for the climate models. The authors are planning to open the scenarios and derived parameters to relate researches. Anas, A. and Y. Liu. (2007). A Regional Economy, Land Use, and Transportation Model (REULU-TRAN): Formulation, Algorithm Design, and Testing. Journal of Regional Science, 47, 415-455. Parker, D.C., T. Berger, S.M. Manson, Editors (2001). Agent-Based Models of Land-Use and Land-Cover Change. LUCC Report Series No. 6, (Accessed: 27 AUG. 2009; http://www.globallandproject.org/Documents/LUCC_No_6.pdf) United Nations. (2010). World urbanization prospects: City population.

Yamagata, Y.; Bagan, H.; Seya, H.; Nakamichi, K.

2010-12-01

82

Additive effects of exotic plant abundance and land-use intensity on plant-pollinator interactions.  

PubMed

The continuing spread of exotic plants and increasing human land-use are two major drivers of global change threatening ecosystems, species and their interactions. Separate effects of these two drivers on plant-pollinator interactions have been thoroughly studied, but we still lack an understanding of combined and potential interactive effects. In a subtropical South African landscape, we studied 17 plant-pollinator networks along two gradients of relative abundance of exotics and land-use intensity. In general, pollinator visitation rates were lower on exotic plants than on native ones. Surprisingly, while visitation rates on native plants increased with relative abundance of exotics and land-use intensity, pollinator visitation on exotic plants decreased along the same gradients. There was a decrease in the specialization of plants on pollinators and vice versa with both drivers, regardless of plant origin. Decreases in pollinator specialization thereby seemed to be mediated by a species turnover towards habitat generalists. However, contrary to expectations, we detected no interactive effects between the two drivers. Our results suggest that exotic plants and land-use promote generalist plants and pollinators, while negatively affecting specialized plant-pollinator interactions. Weak integration and high specialization of exotic plants may have prevented interactive effects between exotic plants and land-use. Still, the additive effects of exotic plants and land-use on specialized plant-pollinator interactions would have been overlooked in a single-factor study. We therefore highlight the need to consider multiple drivers of global change in ecological research and conservation management. PMID:23817775

Grass, Ingo; Berens, Dana Gertrud; Peter, Franziska; Farwig, Nina

2013-07-02

83

Simulating the impacts of ecological protection policies on urban land use sustainability in Shenyang-Fushun, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chinese cities are undergoing rapid urban sprawl, dramatic landscape change, industrialisation, and ecological damage, which threaten urban sustainable development. The aim of our research was to answer the following question: is it possible to achieve sustainable development through rational ecological protection policies that harmonise future urbanisation, re?industrialisation, economic development, and sustainable urban land use in these cities? To answer the

Fengming Xi; Hong S. He; Yuanman Hu; Rencang Bu; Yu Chang; Xiaoqing Wu; Miao Liu; Tiemao Shi

2010-01-01

84

SPATIALLY EXPLICIT MICRO-LEVEL MODELLING OF LAND USE CHANGE AT THE RURAL-URBAN INTERFACE. (R828012)  

EPA Science Inventory

This paper describes micro-economic models of land use change applicable to the rural–urban interface in the US. Use of a spatially explicit micro-level modelling approach permits the analysis of regional patterns of land use as the aggregate outcomes of many, disparate...

85

Application of Earth Science Information in Urban Land-Use Planning, State-of-the-Art Review and Analysis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report is an assessment of the state of the art (1974) in the application of earth science information to urban land-use planning and decision making. It includes an overview of the land use planning process, a discussion of natural resources and haza...

1974-01-01

86

Quantifying Spatiotemporal Patterns of Urban Land-use Change in Four Cities of China with Time Series Landscape Metrics  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides a dynamic inter- and intra-city analysis of spatial and temporal patterns of urban land-use change. It is the first comparative analysis of a system of rapidly developing cities with landscape pattern metrics. Using ten classified Landsat Thematic Mapper images acquired from 1988 to 1999, we quantify the annual rate of urban land-use change for four cities in

Karen C. Seto; Michail Fragkias

2005-01-01

87

Variation in Stormwater Characteristics Depending on Urban Land Uses Using Remote- Sensing and GIS in Conjunction to Hydro-Chemical Monitoring  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Urban Hydrology has attracted growing attention in the last decades due to the environmental implications resulting from the expansion of built-up areas. Understanding stormwater characteristics and potential can be beneficial in contributing to sustainable urban water resources management. Studying stormwater in relation to the various urban land uses (residential ,industrial, roods, parking areas ,etc) using remote sensing and GIS coupled with hydrological and chemical monitoring is an advanced practice which is used in this study. The study area covers the growing cities of Herzlia and Ra'anana which site along the Israeli Coastal Plain. High resolution GIS data, Air Photo images combine with LIDAR, and hyper-spectral remote sensing data were used to study land-use distribution within the highly developed urban setting (45%-87% paved areas). Temporal variations in the runoff coefficient and chemical compositions of urban stormwater under different land uses, and their dependence on physical parameters such as precipitation intensity, stormwater discharge, cumulative stormwater volumes and the size of paved areas were analyzed. Results indicate that runoff coefficient is directly correlated to the percentage of paved areas. Fluxes of major ions and trace elements were highest in industrial areas. The concentrations and variety of semi- volatile organic compounds were significantly higher in stormwater generated in the industrial areas than in that draining from residential areas. Concentrations of fecal coliform bacteria from all land-uses exceeded the drinking water standards and displayed a random pattern. The results of this work suggest that while stormwater can contribute to urban water resources it must be treated accordingly with regard to its land uses origin within the city.

Asaf, L.; Goldshlger, N.; Ben Dor, E.; Filin, S.; Shoshany, M.

2008-12-01

88

Significance of urban and agricultural land use for biocide and pesticide dynamics in surface waters.  

PubMed

Biocides and pesticides are designed to control the occurrence of unwanted organisms. From their point of application, these substances can be mobilized and transported to surface waters posing a threat to the aquatic environment. Historically, agricultural pesticides have received substantially more attention than biocidal compounds from urban use, despite being used in similar quantities. This study aims at improving our understanding of the influence of mixed urban and agricultural land use on the overall concentration dynamics of biocides and pesticides during rain events throughout the year. A comprehensive field study was conducted in a catchment within the Swiss plateau (25 km(2)). Four surface water sampling sites represented varying combinations of urban and agricultural sources. Additionally, the urban drainage system was studied by sampling the only wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) in the catchment, a combined sewer overflow (CSO), and a storm sewer (SS). High temporal resolution sampling was carried out during rain events from March to November 2007. The results, based on more than 600 samples analyzed for 23 substances, revealed distinct and complex concentration patterns for different compounds and sources. Five types of concentration patterns can be distinguished: a) compounds that showed elevated background concentrations throughout the year (e.g. diazinon >50 ng L(-1)), indicating a constant household source; b) compounds that showed elevated concentrations driven by rain events throughout the year (e.g. diuron 100-300 ng L(-1)), indicating a constant urban outdoor source such as facades; c) compounds with seasonal peak concentrations driven by rain events from urban and agricultural areas (e.g. mecoprop 1600 ng L(-1) and atrazine 2500 ng L(-1) respectively); d) compounds that showed unpredictably sharp peaks (e.g. atrazine 10,000 ng L(-1), diazinon 2500 ng L(-1)), which were most probably due to improper handling or even disposal of products; and finally, e) compounds that were used in high amounts but were not detected in surface waters (e.g. isothiazolinones). It can be safely concluded that in catchments of mixed land use, the contributions of biocide and pesticide inputs into surface waters from urban areas are at least as important as those from agricultural areas. PMID:20188390

Wittmer, I K; Bader, H-P; Scheidegger, R; Singer, H; Lück, A; Hanke, I; Carlsson, C; Stamm, C

2010-02-01

89

Relationship study on land use spatial distribution structure and energy-related carbon emission intensity in different land use types of Guangdong, China, 1996-2008.  

PubMed

This study attempts to discuss the relationship between land use spatial distribution structure and energy-related carbon emission intensity in Guangdong during 1996-2008. We quantized the spatial distribution structure of five land use types including agricultural land, industrial land, residential and commercial land, traffic land, and other land through applying spatial Lorenz curve and Gini coefficient. Then the corresponding energy-related carbon emissions in each type of land were calculated in the study period. Through building the reasonable regression models, we found that the concentration degree of industrial land is negatively correlated with carbon emission intensity in the long term, whereas the concentration degree is positively correlated with carbon emission intensity in agricultural land, residential and commercial land, traffic land, and other land. The results also indicate that land use spatial distribution structure affects carbon emission intensity more intensively than energy efficiency and production efficiency do. These conclusions provide valuable reference to develop comprehensive policies for energy conservation and carbon emission reduction in a new perspective. PMID:23476128

Huang, Yi; Xia, Bin; Yang, Lei

2013-02-07

90

Relationship Study on Land Use Spatial Distribution Structure and Energy-Related Carbon Emission Intensity in Different Land Use Types of Guangdong, China, 1996-2008  

PubMed Central

This study attempts to discuss the relationship between land use spatial distribution structure and energy-related carbon emission intensity in Guangdong during 1996–2008. We quantized the spatial distribution structure of five land use types including agricultural land, industrial land, residential and commercial land, traffic land, and other land through applying spatial Lorenz curve and Gini coefficient. Then the corresponding energy-related carbon emissions in each type of land were calculated in the study period. Through building the reasonable regression models, we found that the concentration degree of industrial land is negatively correlated with carbon emission intensity in the long term, whereas the concentration degree is positively correlated with carbon emission intensity in agricultural land, residential and commercial land, traffic land, and other land. The results also indicate that land use spatial distribution structure affects carbon emission intensity more intensively than energy efficiency and production efficiency do. These conclusions provide valuable reference to develop comprehensive policies for energy conservation and carbon emission reduction in a new perspective.

Huang, Yi; Yang, Lei

2013-01-01

91

Geomorphic effects of rural-to-urban land use conversion on three streams in the Central Redbed Plains of Oklahoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research evaluates the impact of rural-to-urban land use conversion on channel morphology and riparian vegetation for three streams in the Central Redbed Plains geomorphic province (central Great Plains ecoregion) of Oklahoma. The Deep Fork Creek watershed is largely urbanized; the Skeleton Creek watershed is largely rural; and the Stillwater Creek watershed is experiencing a rapid transition from rural to

Ranbir S. Kang; Richard A. Marston

2006-01-01

92

Land Use Dynamics of the Fast-Growing Shanghai Metropolis, China (1979-2008) and its Implications for Land Use and Urban Planning Policy  

PubMed Central

Through the integrated approach of remote sensing and geographic information system (GIS) techniques, four Landsat TM/ETM+ imagery acquired during 1979 and 2008 were used to quantitatively characterize the patterns of land use and land cover change (LULC) and urban sprawl in the fast-growing Shanghai Metropolis, China. Results showed that, the urban/built-up area grew on average by 4,242.06 ha yr?1. Bare land grew by 1,594.66 ha yr?1 on average. In contrast, cropland decreased by 3,286.26 ha yr?1 on average, followed by forest and shrub, water, and tidal land, which decreased by 1,331.33 ha yr?1, 903.43 ha yr?1, and 315.72 ha yr?1 on average, respectively. As a result, during 1979 and 2008 approximately 83.83% of the newly urban/built-up land was converted from cropland (67.35%), forest and shrub (9.12%), water (4.80%), and tidal land (2.19%). Another significant change was the continuous increase in regular residents, which played a very important role in contributing to local population growth and increase in urban/built-up land. This can be explained with this city’s huge demand for investment and qualified labor since the latest industrial transformation. Moreover, with a decrease in cropland, the proportion of population engaged in farming decreased 13.84%. Therefore, significant socio-economic transformation occurred, and this would lead to new demand for land resources. However, due to very scarce land resources and overload of population in Shanghai, the drive to achieve economic goals at the loss of cropland, water, and the other lands is not sustainable. Future urban planning policy aiming at ensuring a win-win balance between sustainable land use and economic growth is urgently needed.

Zhang, Hao; Zhou, Li-Guo; Chen, Ming-Nan; Ma, Wei-Chun

2011-01-01

93

Land use dynamics of the fast-growing Shanghai Metropolis, China (1979-2008) and its implications for land use and urban planning policy.  

PubMed

Through the integrated approach of remote sensing and geographic information system (GIS) techniques, four Landsat TM/ETM+ imagery acquired during 1979 and 2008 were used to quantitatively characterize the patterns of land use and land cover change (LULC) and urban sprawl in the fast-growing Shanghai Metropolis, China. Results showed that, the urban/built-up area grew on average by 4,242.06 ha yr(-1). Bare land grew by 1,594.66 ha yr(-1) on average. In contrast, cropland decreased by 3,286.26 ha yr(-1) on average, followed by forest and shrub, water, and tidal land, which decreased by 1,331.33 ha yr(-1), 903.43 ha yr(-1), and 315.72 ha yr(-1) on average, respectively. As a result, during 1979 and 2008 approximately 83.83% of the newly urban/built-up land was converted from cropland (67.35%), forest and shrub (9.12%), water (4.80%), and tidal land (2.19%). Another significant change was the continuous increase in regular residents, which played a very important role in contributing to local population growth and increase in urban/built-up land. This can be explained with this city's huge demand for investment and qualified labor since the latest industrial transformation. Moreover, with a decrease in cropland, the proportion of population engaged in farming decreased 13.84%. Therefore, significant socio-economic transformation occurred, and this would lead to new demand for land resources. However, due to very scarce land resources and overload of population in Shanghai, the drive to achieve economic goals at the loss of cropland, water, and the other lands is not sustainable. Future urban planning policy aiming at ensuring a win-win balance between sustainable land use and economic growth is urgently needed. PMID:22319382

Zhang, Hao; Zhou, Li-Guo; Chen, Ming-Nan; Ma, Wei-Chun

2011-01-31

94

Abstracting of suspected illegal land use in urban areas using case-based classification of remote sensing images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper proposed a method that uses a case-based classification of remote sensing images and applied this method to abstract the information of suspected illegal land use in urban areas. Because of the discrete cases for imagery classification, the proposed method dealt with the oscillation of spectrum or backscatter within the same land use category, and it not only overcame the deficiency of maximum likelihood classification (the prior probability of land use could not be obtained) but also inherited the advantages of the knowledge-based classification system, such as artificial intelligence and automatic characteristics. Consequently, the proposed method could do the classifying better. Then the researchers used the object-oriented technique for shadow removal in highly dense city zones. With multi-temporal SPOT 5 images whose resolution was 2.5×2.5 meters, the researchers found that the method can abstract suspected illegal land use information in urban areas using post-classification comparison technique.

Chen, Fulong; Wang, Chao; Yang, Chengyun; Zhang, Hong; Wu, Fan; Lin, Wenjuan; Zhang, Bo

2008-11-01

95

Effects of land-use type on urban groundwater quality, Seoul metropolitan city, Korea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The progressive degradation of urban groundwater becomes an important environmental problem encountered in South Korea. This study aims to examine the relationships between land-use type and groundwater quality in Seoul metropolitan city, based on the results of hydrogeochemical monitoring. For this purpose, land-use type was divided into five categories (green zone, housing, agricultural, traffic, and industrialized). The mean concentrations of TDS (total dissolved solids) effectively reflect the degree of anthropogenic contamination and increase in the following order: green zone (152.5 mg/l), then agricultural (380.7 mg/l) and housing (384.2 mg/l), then traffic (457.0 mg/l), and finally industrialized area (554.5 mg/l). Among major dissolved solutes, the concentrations of Na, Ca, Mg, HCO3, and Cl increase with increasing TDS. In case of Na and Ca, de-icing salts and sewage are considered as major contamination sources. The corrosion of cements may also increase Ca. Nitrate concentration is characteristically very high in housing and agricultural areas, reflecting the severe contamination from domestic sewage and fertilizer. Sulfate and magnesium are enriched in industrialized area, possibly due to their derivation from industrial facilities. Chlorine ion is considered to be derived from de-chlorination of hydrocarbons as well as de-icing salts. Bicarbonate also increases with increasing TDS, for which cement dissolution and oxidation of organics are considered as source materials. However, enhanced water-rock(or construction materials) interaction also may increase the bicarbonate, because acidic wastewater in urban area is very corrosive. Trace metals and organic compounds generally does not show any distinct pattern of regional variation. However, Fe, Mn, Ni, Se, Zn, TCE, and PCE tend to increase locally in industrialized area, whereas high concentrations of Br, Ni, and Cu are found in traffic area. The groundwaters with very high concentrations of Fe, Zn, and Mn are presumed to be affected from decrepit pipelines under inproper management. The correlation matrix between hydrochemical data and local land-use data was examined, based on the areal calculation of land use (road, building for housing and official work, industrial building, forest, and agricultural land) within a circular (radius = 500 m) around a well. The results show that the areal percentage of road correlates positively with the concentrations of TDS, Na, Ca, HCO3, Br, Mn, and Ni, whereas the areal percentage of industrial building correlates well with Mg, SO4, Fe, TCE, and PCE. The present study suggests that urban groundwaters in Seoul are strongly affected by anthropogenic sources and show a strong effect by local land-use characteristics. As an useful guideline for evaluating the groundwater quality, we have obtained background water quality criteria as follows: Na (10.8 mg/l), K (1.2 mg/l), Ca (19.9 mg/l), Mg (1.6 mg/l), NO3 (8.3 mg/l), Cl (9.0 mg/l), SO4 (12.9 mg/l), and HCO3 (54.8 mg/l).

Yu, S.; Yun, S.; Chae, G.; So, C.; Kweon, S.; Lee, P.

2001-12-01

96

Proliferation of nonconforming land uses in agricultural envelope of urban Hong Kong  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Until the late 1960s rural Hong Kong had an attractive rustic landscape and a small but active farming population. The recent widespread agricultural decline provided opportunities for urban-oriented activities to invade, mainly as open storage and workshops unsuitable in city areas. Rapid container-port expansion and cross-border China trade generate demands for cheap and accessible land for non-conforming uses (NCU). Rural development control and land-use planning are inherently weak, and formal provision for such uses is lacking. An unfavorable landmark court judgement allows landowners to degrade the countryside. The activities have caused acute environmental problems, telescoped into a small territory, including visual blight, pollution, drainage blockage, loss of wetland habitats, and increased flooding hazard. The distinction between urban and rural has been blurred in the destruction of the valuable countryside heritage. An interim legislative amendment fails to stop unauthorized conversion of farmland. In the long term, an integrated and comprehensive rural planning strategy to conserve inherent elements, as well as accommodating selected urban spillover in properly located and serviced sites, is needed.

Jim, C. Y.

1996-07-01

97

Proliferation of Nonconforming Land Uses in Agricultural Envelope of Urban Hong Kong  

PubMed

Until the late 1960s rural Hong Kong had an attractive rustic landscape and a small but active farming population. The recent widespread agricultural decline provided opportunities for urban-oriented activities to invade, mainly as open storage and workshops unsuitable in city areas. Rapid container-port expansion and cross-border China trade generate demands for cheap and accessible land for non-conforming uses (NCU). Rural development control and land-use planning are inherently weak, and formal provision for such uses is lacking. An unfavorable landmark court judgement allows landowners to degrade the countryside. The activities have caused acute environmental problems, telescoped into a small territory, including visual blight, pollution, drainage blockage, loss of wetland habitats, and increased flooding hazard. The distinction between urban and rural has been blurred in the destruction of the valuable countryside heritage. An interim legislative amendment fails to stop unauthorized conversion of farmland. In the long term, an integrated and comprehensive rural planning strategy to conserve inherent elements, as well as accommodating selected urban spillover in properly located and serviced sites, is needed. PMID:8661615

Jim

1996-07-01

98

Deer-vehicle collisions, deer density, and land use in Iowa's urban deer herd management zones.  

PubMed

Many states are striving to keep their deer population to a sustainable and controllable level, while maximizing public safety. In Iowa, measures to control the deer population include annual deer hunts and special deer herd management plans in urban areas. While these plans may in effect reduce the deer population, traffic safety in these areas has not been fully assessed. Using deer population data from the Iowa Department of Natural Resources and data on deer-vehicle crashes and deer carcass removals from the Iowa Department of Transportation, we examine the relationship between deer-vehicle collisions, deer density, and land use in select urban deer management zones in Iowa. Further, we estimate models to investigate the factors that influence the frequency and severity of deer-vehicle crashes in these zones. The estimation results showed that multiple factors affect deer-vehicle crashes and corresponding injury outcomes in urban management zones. The identified roadway and non-roadway factors could be useful for identifying locations on the transportation system that significantly impact deer species and safety, and determining appropriate countermeasures for mitigation. PMID:20728643

Gkritza, Konstantina; Baird, Michael; Hans, Zachary N

2010-06-09

99

Building Temporal Topology in a GIS Database to Study the Land-Use Changes in a Rural-Urban Environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article addresses the issue of linking temporal and spatial information into a GIS database structure to investigate the land-use changes in a rural-urban region over a thirty-five-year period. More specifically, it describes the application of a programming package developed to build temporal topology in an historical land-use GIS database to efficiently perform spatiotemporal queries. The program was created within

Danielle J. Marceau; Luc Guindon; Mireille Bruel; Claude Marois

2001-01-01

100

Bayesian networks and agent-based modeling approach for urban land-use and population density change: a BNAS model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Land-use change models grounded in complexity theory such as agent-based models (ABMs) are increasingly being used to examine evolving urban systems. The objective of this study is to develop a spatial model that simulates land-use change under the influence of human land-use choice behavior. This is achieved by integrating the key physical and social drivers of land-use change using Bayesian networks (BNs) coupled with agent-based modeling. The BNAS model, integrated Bayesian network-based agent system, presented in this study uses geographic information systems, ABMs, BNs, and influence diagram principles to model population change on an irregular spatial structure. The model is parameterized with historical data and then used to simulate 20 years of future population and land-use change for the City of Surrey, British Columbia, Canada. The simulation results identify feasible new urban areas for development around the main transportation corridors. The obtained new development areas and the projected population trajectories with the"what-if" scenario capabilities can provide insights into urban planners for better and more informed land-use policy or decision-making processes.

Kocabas, Verda; Dragicevic, Suzana

2012-06-01

101

Bayesian networks and agent-based modeling approach for urban land-use and population density change: a BNAS model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Land-use change models grounded in complexity theory such as agent-based models (ABMs) are increasingly being used to examine evolving urban systems. The objective of this study is to develop a spatial model that simulates land-use change under the influence of human land-use choice behavior. This is achieved by integrating the key physical and social drivers of land-use change using Bayesian networks (BNs) coupled with agent-based modeling. The BNAS model, integrated Bayesian network-based agent system, presented in this study uses geographic information systems, ABMs, BNs, and influence diagram principles to model population change on an irregular spatial structure. The model is parameterized with historical data and then used to simulate 20 years of future population and land-use change for the City of Surrey, British Columbia, Canada. The simulation results identify feasible new urban areas for development around the main transportation corridors. The obtained new development areas and the projected population trajectories with the"what-if" scenario capabilities can provide insights into urban planners for better and more informed land-use policy or decision-making processes.

Kocabas, Verda; Dragicevic, Suzana

2013-10-01

102

Mitigating Vadose Zone Nitrogen Transport Under Land Use Change and Urbanization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The discovery of large accumulations of nitrate within the vadose zones of many desert ecosystems coupled with land use change from urbanization in these areas may be having a detrimental effect on the ground water quality, often the source of public water supplies of these regions. Land use change can result in the initiation or increase in aquifer recharge (from over-irrigation, leaking pipes, wastewater discharge, etc.) and has the potential to mobilize the observed stores of accumulated nitrate in the vadose zone. This research focuses on mitigation options to reduce mobilization of nitrate in the vadose zone by stimulating denitrification reactions during transit through the vadose zone prior to reaching the underlying aquifers. Laboratory experiments using typical vadose zone materials from Spanish Springs, Nevada, conducted in 1 meter columns have been prepared with a nitrate rich soil layer (1000 ppm KNO3, labeled with 2% KNO3 - N15 isotopic tracer) designed to simulate a nitrate accumulation zone. All columns are irrigated with treated wastewater (effluent) at a rate of 0.5 cm/day to simulate excess irrigation of urbanized parklands. In addition to a control column, one column's irrigation is augmented with dextrose (C6H12O6) designed to provide sufficient carbon sources, when combined with higher water content, to promote microbial denitrification. A third column is treated with a compost and soil mixture at the surface of the soil to provide an alternative method of producing dissolved organic carbon to be advected with the infiltration to the nitrogen storage regions within the column. All columns are instrumented with volumetric water content probes, tensiometers, and soil solution samplers. Initial results from soil solution analysis indicate the possibility of nitrate reduction by as much as 50 % of the initial concentration, after only 14 days of residence time within the dextrose amended column. Analysis will be presented comparing the treatments as well as analysis of dissolved carbon and N-15 analysis of biological reduction.

Parratt, R. T.; Menon, M.; Tyler, S.; Kropf, C.

2008-12-01

103

Adaptation of land-use demands to the impact of climate change on the hydrological processes of an urbanized watershed.  

PubMed

The adaptation of land-use patterns is an essential aspect of minimizing the inevitable impact of climate change at regional and local scales; for example, adapting watershed land-use patterns to mitigate the impact of climate change on a region's hydrology. The objective of this study is to simulate and assess a region's ability to adapt to hydrological changes by modifying land-use patterns in the Wu-Du watershed in northern Taiwan. A hydrological GWLF (Generalized Watershed Loading Functions) model is used to simulate three hydrological components, namely, runoff, groundwater and streamflow, based on various land-use scenarios under six global climate models. The land-use allocations are simulated by the CLUE-s model for the various development scenarios. The simulation results show that runoff and streamflow are strongly related to the precipitation levels predicted by different global climate models for the wet and dry seasons, but groundwater cycles are more related to land-use. The effects of climate change on groundwater and runoff can be mitigated by modifying current land-use patterns; and slowing the rate of urbanization would also reduce the impact of climate change on hydrological components. Thus, land-use adaptation on a local/regional scale provides an alternative way to reduce the impacts of global climate change on local hydrology. PMID:23202833

Lin, Yu-Pin; Hong, Nien-Ming; Chiang, Li-Chi; Liu, Yen-Lan; Chu, Hone-Jay

2012-11-12

104

Rapid urban growth, land-use changes and air pollution in Santiago, Chile  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper is a contribution to the understanding of the topoclimatic and environmental geography of the basin where Santiago — one of the most polluted Latin American city - is located. In the first part, land-use change is analysed looking at the climatic transformation caused by the rapid transit from natural semiarid surface to urban areas. In the second part, seasonal weather and daily cycles of slope winds and the available ventilation are described trying to relate those patterns with the spatial distribution of air pollution. A combination of meteorological, geographical and cultural factors explain extreme air pollution events: meteorologically, Santiago is under permanent subsidence inversion layers. Geographically, the city is located in a closed basin surrounded by mountains. Culturally, the urban area has the highest population concentration (40% of the national total), industries (near 70% of the total) and vehicles, which are the main sources of smog. The urban and suburban transport system is based on a large number of buses (diesel) and private cars, both experiencing a rapid growth from the past few years. The city and specially the transport system generates high emissions of pollutant, but the natural semiarid deforested soils and slopes are also important sources. The local wind system can explain the differential spatial distribution on the concentration of air pollutants in the city and its periphery. In winter (rain season) concentrations of particulate matter are higher at the centre and the SW part of the city. The andean piedmont area (E part of the city) shows minimum values, suggesting major ventilation effects of slope and valley winds. Ozone exceeds air quality standards in summer (dry season) at all sites in the centre and periphery. However, the O 3-concentrations are higher on preferred residential areas located at the piedmont area (E part of the city), suggesting air pollution transport effects. Currently, there is no consideration of these local climatic features in the process of urban planning.

Romero, H.; Ihl, M.; Rivera, A.; Zalazar, P.; Azocar, P.

105

Land Use and Watersheds: Human Influence on Hydrology and Geomorphology in Urban and Forest Areas. Water Science and Application Series  

SciTech Connect

What is the effect of urbanization and forest use on hydrologic and geomorphic processes? How can we develop land use policies that minimize adverse impacts on ecosystems while sustaining biodiversity? Land Use and Watersheds: Human Influence on Hydrology and Geomorphology in Urban and Forest Areas addresses these issues and more. By featuring watersheds principally in the American Pacific Northwest, and the effects of timber harvesting and road construction on stream flow, sediment yield and landslide occurrence, scientists can advance their understanding of what constitutes appropriate management of environments with similar hydro-climatic-geomorphic settings worldwide.

Wigmosta, Mark S.; Burges, S J.

2001-10-01

106

Evaluating Spatial Patterns of Land Use and urban Heat Island in The Fast Growing Metropolitan Shanghai, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Remotely sensed data (Landsat TM5) were used to quantitatively characterize the patterns of land use and urban heat island (UHI) in the fast growing Metropolitan Shanghai, China. Results showed that, with dramatic change in land use and land cover driven by substantial economic growth since the 1990s, rapid expansion of the urbanized and urbanizing areas occurred at regional level during 1997 and 2004. Similarly, both the extent and magnitude of UHI in Shanghai have undergone a significant increase, though some newly emerging cooling patches were detected in the central urban area. On small and meso scales, a significant spatial patterning was present in UHI as indicated by land surface temperature (LST). Moreover, based on the satellite images, the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI), Normalized Difference Bareness Index (NDBaI), and Normalized Difference Build-up Index (NDBI) were produced to explore the relationship between land use and UHI effect. Although these indices were effective in characterizing the spatial and temporal patterns of UHI, there were some unexplainable factors due to the complexity in ecological process. As a whole, it can be predicted that the ongoing urban sprawl in the satellite towns will adversely cause a long term effect on regional atmospheric environment. Keywords Spatial pattern; Urban heat island (UHI); Land surface temperature (LST);urban sprawl ;Shanghai; China.

Zhang, H.; Ma, W.; Li, J.; Wang, X.

2007-12-01

107

Examination of Land Use Models, Emphasizing UrbanSim, TELUM, and Suitability Analysis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This work provides integrated transportation land use modeling guidance to practitioners in Texas regions of all sizes. The research team synthesized existing land use modeling experiences from MPOs across the country, examined the compatibility of TELUMs...

A. Anjomani B. Zhou J. Duthie K. Kockelman K. P. Kunapareddychinna S. Marepally S. K. Kakaraparthi

2008-01-01

108

An object-based multisensoral approach for the derivation of urban land use structures in the city of Rostock, Germany  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present work is part of the Enviland-2 research project, which investigates the synergism between radar- and optical satellite data for ENVIronment and LAND use applications. The urban work package of Enviland aims at the combined analysis of RapidEye and TerraSAR-X data for the parameterization of different urban land use structures. This study focuses on the development of a transferable, object-based rule set for the derivation of urban land use structures at block level. The data base consists of RapidEye and TerraSAR-X imagery, as well as height information of a LiDAR nDSM (normalized Digital Surface Model) and object boundaries of ATKIS (Official Topographic Cartographic Information System) vector data for a study area in the city of Rostock, Germany. The classification of various land cover units forms the basis of the analysis. Therefore, an object-based land cover classification is implemented that uses feature level fusion to combine the information of all available input data. Besides spectral values also shape and context features are employed to characterize and extract specific land cover objects as indicators for the prevalent land use. The different land use structures are then determined by typical combinations and constellations of the extracted land use indicators and land cover proportions. Accuracy assessment is done by utilizing the available ATKIS information. From this analysis the land use structure classes residential, industrial/commercial, other built-up, allotments, sports facility, forest, grassland, other green spaces, squares/parking areas and water are distinguished with an overall accuracy of 63.2 %.

Lindner, Martin; Hese, Sören; Berger, Christian; Schmullius, Christiane

2011-10-01

109

Evaluation of land-use regression models used to predict air quality concentrations in an urban area  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cohort studies designed to estimate human health effects of exposures to urban pollutants require accurate determination of ambient concentrations in order to minimize exposure misclassification errors. However, it is often difficult to collect concentration information at each study subject location. In the absence of complete subject-specific measurements, land-use regression (LUR) models have frequently been used for estimating individual levels of

Markey Johnson; V. Isakov; J. S. Touma; S. Mukerjee; H. Özkaynak

2010-01-01

110

Land development, land use, and urban sprawl in Puerto Rico integrating remote sensing and population census data  

Microsoft Academic Search

The island of Puerto Rico has both a high population density and a long history of ineffective land use planning. This study integrates geospatial technology and population census data to understand how people use and develop the lands. We define three new regions for Puerto Rico: Urban (16%), Densely Populated Rural (36%), and Sparsely Populated Rural (48%). Eleven percent of

Sebastián Martinuzzi; William A. Gould; Olga M. Ramos González

2007-01-01

111

Land use considerations in reducing oil and grease in urban stormwater runoff  

SciTech Connect

The input of oil and grease (hydrocarbons) to San Francisco Bay from the local drainage areas is described. Results of two earlier experimentally based studies were used to develop the parameters for a material balance model for the entire San Francisco Bay local drainage area. Land use data and growth scenarios were determined from census data and local government projections. Total oil and grease emissions are estimated for several scenarios, including growth until the year 2,000. Present emissions from urban runoff appear to be slightly less than point source emissions. For the anticipated growth occurring over the next 15 years, the model predicts an 8 yr 15% increase in oil and grease emissions depending on the rainfall conditions. Techniques designed to limit the release of oil and grease from commercial/industrial areas, which have a disproportionate impact on oil and grease loading in the Bay area, offer more promise than traditional control measures which work best for a uniform flow. Reducing sporadically high discharges to the watershed can result in major decreases in overall loading. 27 refs., 2 figs., 7 tabs.

Silverman, G.S.; Stenstrom, M.S.; Fam, S. (Bowling Green State Univ., OH (USA))

1989-01-01

112

Disentangling the relative importance of changes in climate and land-use intensity in driving recent bird population trends.  

PubMed

Threats to biodiversity resulting from habitat destruction and deterioration have been documented for many species, whilst climate change is regarded as increasingly impacting upon species' distribution and abundance. However, few studies have disentangled the relative importance of these two drivers in causing recent population declines. We quantify the relative importance of both processes by modelling annual variation in population growth of 18 farmland bird species in the UK as a function of measures of land-use intensity and weather. Modelled together, both had similar explanatory power in accounting for annual fluctuations in population growth. When these models were used to retrodict population trends for each species as a function of annual variation in land-use intensity and weather combined, and separately, retrodictions incorporating land-use intensity were more closely linked to observed population trends than retrodictions based only on weather, and closely matched the UK farmland bird index from 1970 onwards. Despite more stable land-use intensity in recent years, climate change (inferred from weather trends) has not overtaken land-use intensity as the dominant driver of bird populations. PMID:22479304

Eglington, Sarah M; Pearce-Higgins, James W

2012-03-30

113

Associations between land use and Perkinsus marinus infection of eastern oysters in a high salinity, partially urbanized estuary  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Infection levels of eastern oysters by the unicellular pathogen Perkinsus marinus have been associated with anthropogenic influences in laboratory studies. However, these relationships have been difficult to investigate in the field because anthropogenic inputs are often associated with natural influences such as freshwater inflow, which can also affect infection levels. We addressed P. marinus-land use associations using field-collected data from Murrells Inlet, South Carolina, USA, a developed, coastal estuary with relatively minor freshwater inputs. Ten oysters from each of 30 reefs were sampled quarterly in each of 2 years. Distances to nearest urbanized land class and to nearest stormwater outfall were measured via both tidal creeks and an elaboration of Euclidean distance. As the forms of any associations between oyster infection and distance to urbanization were unknown a priori, we used data from the first and second years of the study as exploratory and confirmatory datasets, respectively. With one exception, quarterly land use associations identified using the exploratory dataset were not confirmed using the confirmatory dataset. The exception was an association between the prevalence of moderate to high infection levels in winter and decreasing distance to nearest urban land use. Given that the study design appeared adequate to detect effects inferred from the exploratory dataset, these results suggest that effects of land use gradients were largely insubstantial or were ephemeral with duration less than 3 months. ?? 2008 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

Gray, B. R.; Bushek, D.; Wanzer, Drane, J.; Porter, D.

2009-01-01

114

Periphyton biomass and ecological stoichiometry in streams within an urban to rural land-use gradient  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the effects land use on biomass and ecological stoichiometry of periphyton in 36 streams in southeastern\\u000a New York State (USA). We quantified in-stream and land-use variables along a N–S land-use gradient at varying distances from\\u000a New York City (NYC). Streams draining different landscapes had fundamentally different physical, chemical, and biological\\u000a properties. Human population density significantly decreased (r = ?0.739;

Patrick J. O’Brien; John D. Wehr

2010-01-01

115

Prediction of Land use change in urbanization control districts using neural network - A Case Study of Regional Hub City in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Land use is changeable in the urban area, depending upon the economical mechanism of market. The controlled urbanization area is made a region where the urbanization should be controlled by the city planning and zoning act. However, in the zone, there are also many areas where form regulation of the building is looser than the urbanization zone which should form

Yoshitaka Kajita; Satoshi Toi; Hiroshi Tatsumi

2005-01-01

116

KH-series satellite imagery and Landsat MSS data fusion in support of assessing urban land use growth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multi-temporal land use data, circa 1990 and 2000, have been analyzed an our urban growth model which identifies three levels of the urban extent - the impervious surface, the urbanized area, and the urban footprint - to account for the differing degrees of open space degradation associated with the city. The model also generates metrics such as cohesion, proximity, population densities, average openness, open space contiguity, and depth which quantify spatial characteristics that are indicative of urban sprawl. We plan on expanding this time-series further, and for additional cities, with mid-decadal, gap-filled Landsat ETM data, as well as resolution-enhanced Landsat MSS data from the 19070's. The cities used in this pilot project consisted of: (a) Kigali, Rwanda; (b) Portland, Oregon; (c) Tacoma, Washington; and (d) Plock, Poland. Based on research done in this project, complemented by results from other efforts, the Ehlers data fusion approach was used in the resolution enhancement of Landsat MSS imagery. In this paper, using Portland and Kigali as the principal examples, we discuss the procedures by which (a) the KH-series declassified military intelligence imagery was geometrically-corrected and registered to Landsat data, (b) the Ehlers Fusion of the KH-data with Landsat MSS, (c) the derivation of 1970's urban land use information, and (d) the calculation of select urban growth metrics. This paper illustrates the power of leveraging the high resolution of the military reconnaissance imagery with the multispectral information contained in the vintage Landsat MSS data in historical land use analyses.

Civco, Daniel; Chabaeva, Anna; Parent, Jason

2009-09-01

117

The effect of local land use regulations on urban development in the Western United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper estimates the effect of local land use regulations on land development in five western states of the United States (California, Idaho, Nevada, Oregon, and Washington). Results suggest that local land use regulations reduced the total supply of developed land by 10% in the five western states between 1982 and 1997, with the largest percent reduction in Washington (13.0%),

JunJie Wu; Seong-Hoon Cho

2007-01-01

118

Land use dynamics within an urbanizing non-metropolitan county in New York State (USA)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Land use\\/land cover data for fifteen minor civil divisions (MCDs) in Ulster County, New York (USA) were interpreted from 1968 and 1985 aerial photographs. These data were combined with ancillary physiographic and demographic data as raster layers within a computerized geographic information system (GIS). Class to class changes in land use\\/land cover were quantified for a study area approximately 30

James A. LaGro Jr; Stephen D. DeGloria

1992-01-01

119

Hydrology and history: land use changes and ecological responses in an urban wetland  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impacts of changing land use on hydrology and dominant plant species from 1850–1990 were investigated in a palustrine wetland in southern Wisconsin, USA. Aerial photographs, historic maps and water levels of the area were used to determine changes in land use, wetland vegetation, and groundwater and surface flows over time. Piezometers and water table wells were monitored weekly for

C. R. Owen

1999-01-01

120

Utility of an Automated Geocoding System for Urban Land Use Analysis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report examines the traditional land use analysis approach common to public planning agencies and compares it with an automated approach facilitated by automated geocoding systems. The study has two objectives: (1) to provide an understanding of the d...

R. J. Crawford

1967-01-01

121

VARIATIONS OF MICROORGANISM CONCENTRATIONS IN URBAN STORMWATER RUNOFF WITH LAND USE AND SEASONS  

EPA Science Inventory

Stormwater runoff samples were collected from outfalls draining small municipal separate storm sewer systems. The samples were collected from three different land use areas based on local designation (high-density residential, low-density residential, and landscaped commercial)....

122

A Statistical Assessment of the Impact of Agricultural Land Use Intensity on Regional Surface Water Quality at Multiple Scales  

PubMed Central

Understanding the effects of intensive agricultural land use activities on water resources is essential for natural resource management and environmental improvement. In this paper, multi-scale nested watersheds were delineated and the relationships between two representative water quality indexes and agricultural land use intensity were assessed and quantified for the year 2000 using multi-scale regression analysis. The results show that the log-transformed nitrate-nitrogen (NO3-N) index exhibited a relationship with chemical fertilizer input intensity and several natural factors, including soil loss, rainfall and sunlight at the first order watershed scale, while permanganate index (CODMn) had a positive relationship with another two input intensities of pesticides and agricultural plastic mulch and organic manure at the fifth order watershed scale. The first order watershed and the fifth order watershed were considered as the watershed adaptive response units for NO3-N and CODMn, respectively. The adjustment of agricultural input and its intensity may be carried out inside the individual watershed adaptive response unit. The multiple linear regression model demonstrated the cause-and-effect relationship between agricultural land use intensity and stream water quality at multiple scales, which is an important factor for the maintenance of stream water quality.

Zhang, Weiwei; Li, Hong; Sun, Danfeng; Zhou, Liandi

2012-01-01

123

Variation in Stormwater Characteristics Depending on Urban Land Uses Using Remote Sensing and GIS in Conjunction to HydroChemical Monitoring  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urban Hydrology has attracted growing attention in the last decades due to the environmental implications resulting from the expansion of built-up areas. Understanding stormwater characteristics and potential can be beneficial in contributing to sustainable urban water resources management. Studying stormwater in relation to the various urban land uses (residential ,industrial, roods, parking areas ,etc) using remote sensing and GIS coupled

L. Asaf; N. Goldshlger; E. Ben Dor; S. Filin; M. Shoshany

2008-01-01

124

Using remote sensing and GIS to analyze land use\\/cover change and urban expansion in Xining City of Qinghai province, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four dates Landsat MSS, TM and ETM+ images together with historical topographic maps, land use maps were used to analyze and quantify the temporal dynamics and spatial pattern of land use\\/cover changes and identify the urban expansion in Xining city, northwest China. The results indicated that from 1977 to 2007, the areas of cultivated land, grassland and unused land decreased

Xiaohong Gao; Shichao Feng; Jian Kang; Guoliang Wu; Lifeng Guo; Chan Zou; Junjun Yang; Yanjiao Zhang

2011-01-01

125

INTENSITY VALUE ANALYSIS AND THE CRIMINOGENIC EFFECTS OF LAND USE FEATURES ON LOCAL CRIME PATTERNS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research has shown that crime tends to cluster around certain categories of land uses; for example, assaults group around bars and thefts and vandalism gather in neighborhoods bordering high schools and shopping centers. Environmental criminology explains the criminogenic propensities of these places as the result of increased crime opportunities and activities that attract higher numbers of potential offenders. Current methodologies

Eric S. McCord

126

AFRICAN BUFFALO RESPONSES TO RISKS AND BOUNDARIES IN HUNTING, AGRICULTURE, NATIONAL PARKS, & URBAN LAND USES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Buffalo herds were radiotracked in Southern Africa through four land use types ( LUTs) to see whether movements, much more extensive than the same species demonstrates in East Africa, were for resource acquisition or risk avoidance, and if selection was occurring at any scale. Potential costs (risks) to buffalo herds in each LUT included predation by humans and lions, and

Graham I. H. Kerley

127

Variation of microorganism concentrations in urban stormwater runoff with land use and seasons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stormwater runoff samples were collected from outfalls draining small municipal separate storm sewer systems. The samples were collected from three different land use areas based on local designation (high-density residential, low-density residential and landscaped commercial). The concentrations of microorganisms in the stormwater runoff were found to be similar in magnitude to, but less variable than, those reported in the stormwater

Ariamalar Selvakumar; Michael Borst

2006-01-01

128

Analysis of Urban-Rural Land-Use Change during 1995-2006 and Its Policy Dimensional Driving Forces in Chongqing, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyzes the urban-rural land-use change of Chongqing and its policy dimensional driving forces from 1995 to 2006, using high-resolution Landsat TM (Thematic Mapper) data of 1995, 2000 and 2006, and socio-economic data from both research institutes and government departments. The outcomes indicated that urban-rural land-use change in Chongqing can be characterized by two major trends: First, the non-agricultural

Hualou Long; Xiuqin Wu; Wenjie Wang; Guihua Dong

2008-01-01

129

A technical review of urban land use - transportation models as tools for evaluating vehicle travel reduction strategies  

SciTech Connect

The continued growth of highway traffic in the United States has led to unwanted urban traffic congestion as well as to noticeable urban air quality problems. These problems include emissions covered by the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) and 1991 Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act (ISTEA), as well as carbon dioxide and related {open_quotes}greenhouse gas{close_quotes} emissions. Urban travel also creates a major demand for imported oil. Therefore, for economic as well as environmental reasons, transportation planning agencies at both the state and metropolitan area level are focussing a good deal of attention on urban travel reduction policies. Much discussed policy instruments include those that encourage fewer trip starts, shorter trip distances, shifts to higher-occupancy vehicles or to nonvehicular modes, and shifts in the timing of trips from the more to the less congested periods of the day or week. Some analysts have concluded that in order to bring about sustainable reductions in urban traffic volumes, significant changes will be necessary in the way our households and businesses engage in daily travel. Such changes are likely to involve changes in the ways we organize and use traffic-generating and-attracting land within our urban areas. The purpose of this review is to evaluate the ability of current analytic methods and models to support both the evaluation and possibly the design of such vehicle travel reduction strategies, including those strategies involving the reorganization and use of urban land. The review is organized into three sections. Section 1 describes the nature of the problem we are trying to model, Section 2 reviews the state of the art in operational urban land use-transportation simulation models, and Section 3 provides a critical assessment of such models as useful urban transportation planning tools. A number of areas are identified where further model development or testing is required.

Southworth, F.

1995-07-01

130

On the intensity and type transition of land use at the basin scale using RS/GIS: a case study of the Hanjiang River Basin.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study is to investigate the land use intensity and land use change type at the basin scale in the middle and lower reaches of the Hanjiang River Basin (in Hubei Province, China) by combining the Landsat TM images in 1995 and 2000 with the land use database (in scale 1:10,000) and relative data. In this study, the basic data is acquired from the interpretation of remote sensing (RS) images. The intensity of land use and the rate of change in double-directions of land use dynamics are calculated with the support of software ARC/INFO. The intensity of land use is indicated by the intensity coefficient of land use, and the transition of land use types is quantified as the rate of change in double-direction of land use types and also expressed as the transition matrix of land use types. The results are expressed in space by Geographic Information System (GIS) software. Results of this study show that (1) the intensity of land use is high in the study region, the intensity coefficients of land use in 1995 and 2000 are 260.025 and 290.526, respectively, and the intensity of development and utilization of land is trend to increscent; and (2) the rate of land use change in double directions in the whole study region is 0.52 with great spatial variation and the differentiation of land use types. In the differentiation of land use types, the unutilized land (with the rate to 4.391) is developed fast, the grassland (with 2.836) and water area (with 1.664) are disturbed severely, and these changes will influence the eco-environment in the Hanjiang River Basin and all the Yangtze Basin. The rates of the farmland and the woodland are 0.424 and 0.344, respectively, meaning that the fundamentals of regional human-environmental system are relative stable. With this study, we can conclude that (1) the patterns of land use are increasingly changing in the study region, the environmental impacts are escalated on this stage, and the further outcomes are destined to change the stability of the regional human-environmental system; and (2) the most useful method to study the present land use and its change is through the use of the RS/GIS with the land use database (in scale 1:10,000). PMID:19096910

Yu, Guangming; Zeng, Qun; Yang, Shan; Hu, Limei; Lin, Xiaowei; Che, Yi; Zheng, Yuge

2010-01-01

131

The impacts of urbanization on air quality over the Pearl River Delta in winter: roles of urban land use and emission distribution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, ideal but realistic numerical experiments are performed to explore the relative effects of changes in land use and emission distribution on air quality in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region in winter. The experiments are accomplished using the Lagrangian particle transport and dispersion model FLEXPART coupled with the Weather Research and Forecasting model under different scenarios. Experiment results show that the maximum changes in daily mean air pollution concentration (as represented by SO2 concentration) caused by land use change alone reaches up to 2 × 10-6 g m-3, whereas changes in concentrations due to the anthropogenic emission distribution are characterized by a maximum value of 6 × 10-6 g m-3. Such results reflect that, although the impacts of land use change on air quality are non-negligible, the emission distribution exerts a more significant influence on air quality than land use change. This provides clear implications for policy makers to control urban air pollution over the PRD region, especially for the urban planning in spatial arrangements for reasonable emissions.

Chen, Bin; Yang, Shuai; Xu, Xiang-De; Zhang, Wei

2013-08-01

132

The presence and impact of environmental lead in passerine birds along an urban to rural land use gradient.  

PubMed

Contamination of wetlands by lead shot and lead fishing weights has generated a tremendous amount of research into the impact of lead poisoning on wildlife. Less well known are the potential threats to wildlife posed by lead contaminants still prevalent in urban environments. Despite a U.S. federal ban on lead-based paint and gasoline in 1978 and 1986, respectively, lead residue is still prevalent at hazardous levels in urban and suburban environments and may present a health concern for people and wildlife, particularly birds. We quantified soil lead content in residential properties across a rural-to-urban land-use gradient in the metropolitan Washington, D.C. area and then assessed the impact of lead contamination on body condition in adult and nestling passerine birds at the same sites. Soil lead concentration was significantly higher in urban sites compared to rural sites. Accordingly, adult and nestling birds captured in urban sites had significantly higher blood lead concentrations than their rural counterparts. However, only gray catbird nestlings exhibited lower body condition as a result of lead contamination. Birds continue to breed in urban habitats despite numerous negative attributes to these environments including light, noise, pedestrian and toxic contaminants, such as lead. These sites often contain habitat that appears suitable for roosting, nesting, and foraging and thus may act as an ecological trap for breeding birds because breeding success is often negatively associated with increasing urbanization. Lead contamination is one more feature of urbanization that birds and other wildlife must face in an increasingly developed world. PMID:17549547

Roux, Karin E; Marra, Peter P

2007-06-01

133

Effect of land use and urbanization on hydrochemistry and contamination of groundwater from Taejon area, Korea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Taejon Metropolitan City located in the central part of South Korea has grown and urbanized rapidly. The city depends heavily on groundwater as a water resource. Because of ubiquitous pollution sources, the quality and contamination have become important issues for the urban groundwater supply. This study has investigated the chemical characteristics and the contamination of groundwater in relation to land

Chan Ho Jeong

2001-01-01

134

WATERSHED AND LAND USE–BASED SOURCES OF TRACE METALS IN URBAN STORM WATER  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trace metal contributions in urban storm water are of concern to environmental managers because of their potential impacts on ambient receiving waters. The mechanisms and processes that influence temporal and spatial patterns of trace metal loading in urban storm water, however, are not well understood. The goals of the present study were to quantify trace metal event mean concentration (EMC),

Liesl L. Tiefenthaler; Eric D. Stein; Kenneth C. Schiff

2008-01-01

135

Urban land use and geohazards in the Itanagar Capital city, Arunachal Pradesh, India: Need for geoethics in urban disaster resilience governance in a changing climate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The capital city, Itanagar, Arunachal Pradesh, India is exposed to the multiple geohazards as the city is located in the region which experiences extreme physical phenomenon due to changing climate in the tectonically active North-Eastern Himalayas. The geohazards in Itanagar includes landslides, floods, soil erosion and earthquakes. The high decadal growth rate of 111.36% in 1991-2001 census has brought in many challenges with respect to the capital city developmental planning. Due to rapid and haphazard growth in urban land use the people residing in the city are gradually becoming more vulnerable to the geohazards in the past decades. The city condition at present has raised issues of grave concern related to effective hazard management. It is observed that geoscientific approach is violated at many places in the urban developmental activities along the central spine, the National Highway-52A of the capital city. There is an urgent need of geoscientists to apprise the urban populace about land suitability and stability in terms of rock types, soil, slope, geomorphology, groundwater condition etc. and the vulnerability of the existing urban land use to landslides, flood, soil erosion and earthquakes. In this paper major issue, critical issues and elements at risk are discussed in the context of ethics in geohazard management and developmental planning for urban disaster resilience governance in a changing climate.

Acharjee, Swapna

2013-04-01

136

SEDIMENT SOURCES IN AN URBANIZING, MIXED LAND-USE WATERSHED. (R825284)  

EPA Science Inventory

Abstract The Issaquah Creek watershed is a rapidly urbanizing watershed of 144 km2 in western Washington, where sediment aggradation of the main channel and delivery of fine sediment into a large downstream lake have raised increasingly frequent concern...

137

Evaluation of Land Use Regression Models Used to Predict Air Quality Concentrations in an Urban Area  

EPA Science Inventory

Cohort studies designed to estimate human health effects of exposures to urban pollutants require accurate determination of ambient concentrations in order to minimize exposure misclassification errors. However, it is often difficult to collect concentration information at each s...

138

Petroleum hydrocarbons in urban runoff from a commercial land use area  

SciTech Connect

A project was embarked on to determine the relationship of hydrocarbon load to both total rainfall and land, and to measure the concentration of hydrocarbons and SS in runoff as a function of time during a storm. With this data, it would be possible to calculate the loading of hydrocarbons in runoff into Narragansett Bay and to provide relationships that could be useful in predictive models for application to other locations. This paper presents data from the results of studies at one land use area, a commercial shopping mall.

Hoffman, E.J.; Latimer, J.S.; Mills, G.L.; Quinn, J.G.

1982-11-01

139

Land Use\\/Cover Changes in the rural-urban interaction of Xian Region, West China, using Lansat TM\\/ETM data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Landsat ETM\\/TM data and an artificial neural network (ANN) were applied to analyse the expanding of the city of Xian and land use\\/cover changing of its surrounding area between 2000 and 2003. Supervised classification and normalized difference barren index (NDBI) were used respectively to retrieve its urban boundary. Results showed that the urban area had increased by the rate of

Jiang Jian-Jun; Zhou Jie; Wu Hong-an; Zhang Hai-Long; Zhang Li

140

On the intensity and type transition of land use at the basin scale using RS\\/GIS: a case study of the Hanjiang River Basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study is to investigate the land use intensity and land use change type at the basin scale in the middle\\u000a and lower reaches of the Hanjiang River Basin (in Hubei Province, China) by combining the Landsat TM images in 1995 and 2000\\u000a with the land use database (in scale 1:10,000) and relative data. In this study,

Guangming Yu; Qun Zeng; Shan Yang; Limei Hu; Xiaowei Lin; Yi Che; Yuge Zheng

2010-01-01

141

An Integrated Urban Land Use and Transportation Demand Model Based on Lowry Linage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Here, we concentrate on the equilibrium modeling of Integrated Land Use and Transportation Demand Model (ILUTDM). We propose two combined sub models to involve in the ILUTDM: 1- residential activity location choices, trip distribution, mode choices and route choices, 2-employment location choices, trip distribution, mode choices and route choices. In the both combined sub models is assumed each individual minimize his or her travel cost and maximize his or her living or service utility. The joint choice of the residential or the employment location and transportation destination and mode of the two sub models is formulated as a nested multinomial logit model. We reformulate the combined sub models as an Equivalent Minimization Problem (EMP). The Evans algorithm may be applied to the EMP, in purpose of a realistic application within a reasonable time period. Finally, we develop an ILUTDM that contains the economic-base mechanism, the proposed combined sub models and the constraint procedure and their interactions.

Zargari, Shahriar A.; Araghi, Morteza

142

Deer-vehicle collisions, deer density, and land use in Iowa's urban deer herd management zones  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many states are striving to keep their deer population to a sustainable and controllable level, while maximizing public safety. In Iowa, measures to control the deer population include annual deer hunts and special deer herd management plans in urban areas. While these plans may in effect reduce the deer population, traffic safety in these areas has not been fully assessed.

Konstantina Gkritza; Michael Baird; Zachary N. Hans

2010-01-01

143

Effects of Land-Use Intensity in Tropical Agroforestry Systems on Coffee Flower-Visiting and Trap-Nesting Bees and Wasps  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tropical landscapes are dominated by agroecosystems, and most species that survive in forest rem- nants interact with these agroecosystems. The potential value of agroecosystems for aiding species survival is often ignored. Essential ecosystem services may suffer when functional groups such as pollinators and preda- tors are affected by land use. We used agroforestry systems differing in land-use intensity to examine

Alexandra-Maria Klein; Ingolf Steffan-Dewenter; Damayanti Buchori; Teja Tscharntke

2002-01-01

144

Analysis of Land Use Change and Urbanization in the Kucukcekmece Water Basin (Istanbul, Turkey) with Temporal Satellite Data using Remote Sensing and GIS  

PubMed Central

Accurate and timely information about land use and land cover (LULC) and its changes in urban areas are crucial for urban land management decision-making, ecosystem monitoring and urban planning. Also, monitoring and representation of urban sprawl and its effects on the LULC patterns and hydrological processes of an urbanized watershed is an essential part of water resource planning and management. This paper presents an image analysis study using multi temporal digital satellite imagery of LULC and changes in the Kucukcekmece Watershed (Metropolitan Istanbul, Turkey) from 1992 to 2006. The Kucukcekmece Basin includes portions of the Kucukcekmece District within the municipality of Istanbul so it faces a dramatic urbanization. An urban monitoring analysis approach was first used to implement a land cover classification. A change detection method controlled with ground truth information was then used to determine changes in land cover. During the study period, the variability and magnitude of hydrological components based on land-use patterns were cumulatively influenced by urban sprawl in the watershed. The proposed approach, which uses a combination of Remote Sensing (RS) and Geographical Information System (GIS) techniques, is an effective tool that enhances land-use monitoring, planning, and management of urbanized watersheds.

Coskun, H. Gonca; Alganci, Ugur; Usta, Gokce

2008-01-01

145

Effects of urbanization and land use on fish communities in Valley Creek watershed, Chester County, Pennsylvania  

Microsoft Academic Search

Valley Creek watershed, located in southeastern Pennsylvania, is a small, fourth-order stream that empties into the Schuylkill\\u000a River at Valley Forge National Historic Park, thirty-five kilometers northwest of Philadelphia. The 64 km2 watershed has been under extreme urbanization pressure over the past 30 years, resulting in rapidly increasing impervious\\u000a surface cover and decreasing open space. The purpose of this study

Luanne Y. Steffy; Susan S. Kilham

2006-01-01

146

Litter decomposition and nitrogen mineralization in oak stands along an urban-rural land use gradient  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated litter mass loss and soil nitrogen (N)-transformation rates in oak stands along a 130-km, urban-rural transect originating in New York City to examine the relationship between changes in these parameters and previously documented differences in soil temperature, heavy metal and total salt concentrations, and soil biota. Reference litter from a rural site was placed in litterbags, and rates

Richard V. Pouyat; Mark J. McDonnell; Steward T. A. Pickett

1997-01-01

147

Urban spatial development and land use in Beijing: Implications from London’s experiences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Beijing is facing a huge challenge to manage the growth of its built-up area whilst also retaining both productive arable\\u000a land and land for conservation purposes in order to simultaneously realize the three aims of economic development, protecting\\u000a arable land and generating environmental improvements. Meanwhile, London, as a world city with more than 200 years of industrialization\\u000a and urbanization, has

Minghong Tan; M. Robinson Guy; Xiubin Li

2011-01-01

148

Detecting land-use/land-cover change in rural-urban fringe areas using extended change-vector analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Detecting land-use/land-cover (LULC) changes in rural-urban fringe areas (RUFAs) timely and accurately using satellite imagery is essential for land-use planning and management in China. Although traditional spectral-based change-vector analysis (CVA) can effectively detect LULC change in many cases, it encounters difficulties in RUFAs because of deficiencies in the spectral information of satellite images. To detect LULC changes in RUFAs effectively, this paper proposes an extended CVA approach that incorporates textural change information into the traditional spectral-based CVA. The extended CVA was applied to three different pilot RUFAs in China with different remotely sensed data, including Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM), China-Brazil Earth Resources Satellite (CBERS) and Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS) images. The results demonstrated the improvement of the extended CVA compared to the traditional spectral-based CVA with the overall accuracy increased between 4.66% and 8.00% and the kappa coefficient increased between 0.10 and 0.15, respectively. The advantage of the extended CVA lies in its integration of both spectral and textural change information to detect LULC changes, allowing for effective discrimination of LULC changes that are spectrally similar but texturally different in RUFAs. The extended CVA has great potential to be widely used for LULC-change detection in RUFAs, which are often heterogeneous and fragmental in nature, with rich textural information.

He, Chunyang; Wei, Anni; Shi, Peijun; Zhang, Qiaofeng; Zhao, Yuanyuan

2011-08-01

149

Automobile dependence in cities: An international comparison of urban transport and land use patterns with implications for sustainability  

SciTech Connect

Cities around the world are subject to increasing levels of environmental impact from dependence on the automobile. In the highly auto-dependent cities of the US and Australia, this is manifested in problems such as urban sprawl and its destruction of prime farming land and natural landscapes, photochemical smog that can be primarily attributed to auto emissions. On top of the more local impacts of the automobile, the global dimension should not be forgotten. Perhaps the two most pressing issues in this regard are the oil problem and the greenhouse problem. A comparison of global cities over the period 1980 to 1990 reveals large differences in automobile dependence with implications for the future sustainability of cities in different countries. This study explores some of the underlying land use, transport, and economic reasons for these different transport patterns. It briefly reviews what the sustainability agenda means for transport and land use patterns in cities and suggests a suite of targets or goals for sustainability by which cities might measure their current directions and plans.

Kenworthy, J.R.; Laube, F.B. [Murdoch Univ., Perth (Australia). Inst. for Science and Technology Policy

1996-07-01

150

Variation of microorganism concentrations in urban stormwater runoff with land use and seasons.  

PubMed

Stormwater runoff samples were collected from outfalls draining small municipal separate storm sewer systems. The samples were collected from three different land use areas based on local designation (high-density residential, low-density residential and landscaped commercial). The concentrations of microorganisms in the stormwater runoff were found to be similar in magnitude to, but less variable than, those reported in the stormwater National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) database. Microorganism concentrations from high-density residential areas were higher than those associated with low-density residential and landscaped commercial areas. Since the outfalls were free of sanitary wastewater cross-connections, the major sources of microorganisms to the stormwater runoff were most likely from the feces of domestic animals and wildlife. Concentrations of microorganisms were significantly affected by the season during which the samples were collected. The lowest concentrations were observed during winter except for Staphylococcus aureus. The Pearson correlation coefficients among different indicators showed weak linear relationships and the relationships were statistically significant. However, the relationships between indicators and pathogens were poorly correlated and were not statistically significant, suggesting the use of indicators as evidence of the presence of pathogens is not appropriate. Further, the correlation between the concentration of the traditionally monitored indicators (total coliforms and fecal coliforms) and the suggested substitutes (enterococci and E. coli) is weak, but statistically significant, suggesting that historical time series will be only a qualitative indicator of impaired waters under the revised criteria for recreational water quality by the US EPA. PMID:16604843

Selvakumar, Ariamalar; Borst, Michael

2006-03-01

151

Relationship between land-use intensity and species richness and abundance of birds in Hungary  

Microsoft Academic Search

When Hungary, together with nine other central and eastern European countries, enters the European Union in 2004 two major threats will arise to the birds inhabiting agricultural landscapes. Marginal agricultural land may be abandoned, while the remaining area may suffer from intensification. To assess the effects of these threats breeding birds were monitored in abandoned, extensively and intensively used vineyards

Jort Verhulst; András Báldi; David Kleijn

2004-01-01

152

Analysis of land use/land cover changes using remote sensing data and GIS at an urban area, Tirupati, India.  

PubMed

Land use/land cover (LU/LC) changes were determined in an urban area, Tirupati, from 1976 to 2003 by using Geographical Information Systems (GISs) and remote sensing technology. These studies were employed by using the Survey of India topographic map 57 O/6 and the remote sensing data of LISS III and PAN of IRS ID of 2003. The study area was classified into eight categories on the basis of field study, geographical conditions, and remote sensing data. The comparison of LU/LC in 1976 and 2003 derived from toposheet and satellite imagery interpretation indicates that there is a significant increase in built-up area, open forest, plantation, and other lands. It is also noted that substantial amount of agriculture land, water spread area, and dense forest area vanished during the period of study which may be due to rapid urbanization of the study area. No mining activities were found in the study area in 1976, but a small addition of mining land was found in 2003. PMID:23781152

Mallupattu, Praveen Kumar; Sreenivasula Reddy, Jayarama Reddy

2013-05-28

153

Analysis of Land Use/Land Cover Changes Using Remote Sensing Data and GIS at an Urban Area, Tirupati, India  

PubMed Central

Land use/land cover (LU/LC) changes were determined in an urban area, Tirupati, from 1976 to 2003 by using Geographical Information Systems (GISs) and remote sensing technology. These studies were employed by using the Survey of India topographic map 57 O/6 and the remote sensing data of LISS III and PAN of IRS ID of 2003. The study area was classified into eight categories on the basis of field study, geographical conditions, and remote sensing data. The comparison of LU/LC in 1976 and 2003 derived from toposheet and satellite imagery interpretation indicates that there is a significant increase in built-up area, open forest, plantation, and other lands. It is also noted that substantial amount of agriculture land, water spread area, and dense forest area vanished during the period of study which may be due to rapid urbanization of the study area. No mining activities were found in the study area in 1976, but a small addition of mining land was found in 2003.

Mallupattu, Praveen Kumar; Sreenivasula Reddy, Jayarama Reddy

2013-01-01

154

Land use regression modeling of intra-urban residential variability in multiple traffic-related air pollutants  

PubMed Central

Background There is a growing body of literature linking GIS-based measures of traffic density to asthma and other respiratory outcomes. However, no consensus exists on which traffic indicators best capture variability in different pollutants or within different settings. As part of a study on childhood asthma etiology, we examined variability in outdoor concentrations of multiple traffic-related air pollutants within urban communities, using a range of GIS-based predictors and land use regression techniques. Methods We measured fine particulate matter (PM2.5), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and elemental carbon (EC) outside 44 homes representing a range of traffic densities and neighborhoods across Boston, Massachusetts and nearby communities. Multiple three to four-day average samples were collected at each home during winters and summers from 2003 to 2005. Traffic indicators were derived using Massachusetts Highway Department data and direct traffic counts. Multivariate regression analyses were performed separately for each pollutant, using traffic indicators, land use, meteorology, site characteristics, and central site concentrations. Results PM2.5 was strongly associated with the central site monitor (R2 = 0.68). Additional variability was explained by total roadway length within 100 m of the home, smoking or grilling near the monitor, and block-group population density (R2 = 0.76). EC showed greater spatial variability, especially during winter months, and was predicted by roadway length within 200 m of the home. The influence of traffic was greater under low wind speed conditions, and concentrations were lower during summer (R2 = 0.52). NO2 showed significant spatial variability, predicted by population density and roadway length within 50 m of the home, modified by site characteristics (obstruction), and with higher concentrations during summer (R2 = 0.56). Conclusion Each pollutant examined displayed somewhat different spatial patterns within urban neighborhoods, and were differently related to local traffic and meteorology. Our results indicate a need for multi-pollutant exposure modeling to disentangle causal agents in epidemiological studies, and further investigation of site-specific and meteorological modification of the traffic-concentration relationship in urban neighborhoods.

Clougherty, Jane E; Wright, Rosalind J; Baxter, Lisa K; Levy, Jonathan I

2008-01-01

155

Dissolved organic carbon and nitrogen in urban and rural watersheds of south-central Texas: land use and land management influences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and nitrogen (DON) concentrations were quantified in urban and rural watersheds located in\\u000a central Texas, USA between 2007 and 2008. The proportion of urban land use ranged from 6 to 100% in our 12 study watersheds\\u000a which included nine watersheds without waste water treatment plants (WWTP) and three watersheds sampled downstream of a WWTP.\\u000a Annual mean

J. A. Aitkenhead-Peterson; M. K. Steele; N. Nahar; K. Santhy

2009-01-01

156

Changes in Land Use and Soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Land use change is one of the main drivers of many processes of environmental change, as it influences basic resources of the landscape including the soil. Poor land management can rapidly deteriorate vast amounts of land, which frequently becomes a major threat to rural subsistence in many developing countries. Conversely, impact of land use changes on soil also can occur so unnoticed that land managers hardly contemplate initiating ameliorative measures. Subsequently, changes in land use affect soil properties and processes at a variety of scales. For example, forest conversion to cropland and reduction of tillage intensity can prevail as main changes of land use in some regions, whereas abandon of agricultural fields can be a major concern in other regions. In non-agricultural context, changes of land use of major interest are driven by urbanization, landscaping, engineering, mining, contamination, etc. Disturbed soils are not necessarily lost to agriculture, forestry, amenity or other alternative uses. Knowledge and understanding of soil properties and processes ensures remediation or reclamation of disturbed or damaged soils. Therefore, we focus mainly on how soil properties and processes can be managed and controlled to mitigate the impact of changes in land use. Moreover, land use changes occur at different spatial and temporal scales. Currently, the most promising approaches to evaluate the complex interaction between land use and soil heterogeneity at various scales apply advanced statistical and mathematical methods.

Paz-González, A.; Tarquis, A.; de Abreu, C. A.; Olechko, K.; Sáa, A.; Gobin, A.; Gómez, J. A.; Kutilek, M.

2012-04-01

157

Forest fire indicators and mercury deposition in an intense land use change region in the Brazilian Amazon (Alta Floresta, MT).  

PubMed

Black carbon, charcoal and mercury fluxes were measured from sediment cores taken in an artificial water dam in an intense land use change area in the Alta Floresta district in the Brazilian Amazon, in order to characterize the differences in the evolution of human occupation patterns in the region during the last 18 years. A positive correlation between the black carbon and charcoal particle fluxes and the evolution of the Brazilian gross domestic production (GDP) was observed. Mercury fluxes showed a positive correlation with gold production and exhibited a distinct evolution pattern when compared to in relation to the forest fires indicators and Brazilian GDP. The fluxes of forest fires markers showed an increase in deforestation activities in the region after 1993. Mercury deposition showed a substantial decrease after 1994. The patterns of distribution in both forest fires tracers and gold mining tracers indicate substitution of the regional economic model. It also marked different antropogenic impact type in the ecosystem. PMID:12109477

Cordeiro, R C; Turcq, B; Ribeiro, M G; Lacerda, L D; Capitâneo, J; da Silva, A Oliveira; Sifeddine, A; Turcq, P M

2002-07-01

158

Catchment export of carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus across an agro-urban land use gradient, Swan-Canning River system, southwestern Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coastal regions in many regions of the world are under increasing pressure from the expansion of agriculture and urbanization associated with elevated N and P loading and eutrophication of coastal estuaries. I compared how mixed land use catchments deliver dissolved and particulate forms of C, N, and P in streamflow to the Swan-Canning estuary that bisects Perth, Western Australia. Dissolved

Kevin C. Petrone

2010-01-01

159

Urban land-use allocation in a Mediterranean ecotone: Habitat Heterogeneity Model incorporated in a GIS using a multi-criteria mechanism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urban land-use allocation in areas of transition (ecotones) is a complex task due to tensions between the need to develop residential and industrial areas and the wish to preserve high biodiversity and heterogeneous landscapes. This controversy is especially enhanced in a small and dense country like Israel, where efforts to achieve sustainable development are faced with difficulties typical of sensitive

Tal Svoray; Tsafra Bannet

2005-01-01

160

Mobile monitoring of particle light absorption coefficient in an urban area as a basis for land use regression.  

PubMed

Land use regression (LUR) is used to map spatial variability in air pollutant concentrations for risk assessment epidemiology, and air quality management. Conventional LUR requires long-term measurements at multiple locations, so application to particulate matter has been limited. Here we use mobile monitoring to characterize spatial variability in black carbon concentrations for LUR modeling. A particle soot absorption photometer in a moving vehicle was used to measure the absorption coefficient (sigma(ap)) during summertime periods of peak afternoon traffic at 39 locations. LUR was used to model the mean and 25th, 50th, 75th, and 90th percentile values of the distribution of 10 s measurements at each location. Model performance (measured by R2) was higher for the 25th and 50th percentiles (0.72 and 0.68, respectively) than for the mean, 75th and 90th percentiles (0.51, 0.55, and 0.54, respectively). Performance was similar to that reported for conventional LUR models of NO2 and NO in this region (116 sites) and better than that for mean sigma(ap) from fixed-location samplers (25 sites). Models of the mean, 75th, and 90th percentiles favored predictors describing truck, rather than total, traffic. This approach is applicable to other urban areas to facilitate the development of LUR models for particulate matter. PMID:19673250

Larson, Timothy; Henderson, Sarah B; Brauer, Michael

2009-07-01

161

Rapid change detection of land use in urban regions with the aid of pseudo-variant features  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Traditional change detection of land use and land cover using multitemporal satellite optical imaging sensors requires two essential steps: 1. normalization of images acquired on different dates by unchanged pixels and 2. detection of changed areas from normalized images by rapid change measurements. In image normalization, finding the unchanged pixels by extracting the pseudo-invariant features has been a widely adopted approach. Rapid change detection analyses are known as useful methods in a wide field of applications, such as disaster management and urban land management, in which multitemporal satellite imageries of the same area taken at two or more different time steps are compared in a rapid fashion over the time horizon to identify changes. The challenge, however, is to find a proper reference basis for detecting changes in a rapid fashion while maintaining a reasonable computational load. In response to the acute need for rapid change detection, this study proposes an innovative method to identify a set of pseudo-variant features (PVFs) corresponding to changed pixels via a fast search algorithm. Once PVFs are found, they may be employed as a reference basis to detect the changed objects at the ground level. The experimental results show that the proposed PVFs method can offer a quality reference basis for detecting changes based on multitemporal satellite imageries in a rapid fashion to meet various managerial goals in the field.

Chen, Chi-Farn; Chang, Li-Yu

2012-01-01

162

Effects of Urban Development on Water-Quality in the Piedmont of North Carolina-- The NAWQA Urban Land-Use Gradient Study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A study of urban basins located in the Piedmont of North Carolina is underway as part of the U. S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) to determine the relation between level of urban development and water quality. Data were collected from 30 basins on water chemistry (nutrient, pesticide, and ion concentrations), geomorphic and habitat characteristics, hydrologic stage, discharge, water temperature, pH, dissolved-oxygen concentration, specific conductance, benthic algae, invertebrate communities, and fish communities. Collection frequency for water chemistry ranged from 2 samples (at 20 sites) to 6 samples (at 10 sites). Biological data were collected in each basin twice. Investigation of the effects of urbanization on water quality must control for the effects of natural factors, while varying the degree of urbanization between study basins. A regional framework was used to control variability in natural factors that influence water-quality. The urban intensity in each basin was measured by using an index to integrate information on human influences. The Urban Index includes information about land cover, infrastructure, population, and socioeconomic characteristics. Sites were selected to represent the full gradient of undeveloped to fully urbanized basins. A preliminary review of the stream water-chemistry data indicates distinct relations between ionic composition and the Urban Index. Mean specific conductance was positively correlated with the Urban Index (Spearman correlation coefficient (r) = 0.77; 95-percent confidence limits (95CL) 0.61 - 0.93; probability (pr) <0.0001; N=30). Specific conductance ranged from 56 microsiemens (uS) at the least developed site to 607 uS at the most developed site. Dissolved sulfate (r=0.74; 95CL 0.57 - 0.91; pr <0.0001) and chloride (r=0.71; 95CL 0.52 - 0.90; pr <0.0001) were also positively correlated with the Urban Index. Sulfate ranged from 2.3 to 66 milligrams per liter (mg/L), and chloride ranged from 3.5 to 96 mg/L. Urban sources of sulfate include domestic sewage and emissions from the combustion of automotive and diesel fuels. Sources of chloride include sewage and road salting. pH was positively correlated with the Urban Index (r=0.60; 95CL 0.38 - 0.84; pr= 0.0005) with a range from 6.5 at the least urban site to 7.5 at the most urban site. The increase in pH may be due in part to conversion of organic forest soils to less acidic soils of urban lawns. The overall trend of increasing total dissolved nitrogen (r=0.46; 95CL 0.12 - 0.80; pr=0.0103) and nitrite plus nitrate (r=0.46; 95CL 0.09 - 0.83; pr=0.0109) concentrations, with increasing Urban Index may reflect sources such as sewage and lawn fertilizer use in the more urban basins. However, some of the least urban basins also had elevated nitrogen concentrations reflecting possible agricultural influences such as fertilizer use and animal waste. Total nitrogen concentration ranged from 0.31 to 14 mg/L. Unit-area stream discharge during low-flow periods was negatively correlated with the Urban Index (r= -0.56; 95CL -0.74 - -0.37; pr=0.0014). Reduced discharge with greater urban development may be a result of reduced infiltration caused by impervious surfaces. Unit discharge ranged from 0.47 to 2.27 cubic feet per second per square mile of drainage area.

Harned, D. A.; Cuffney, T. F.; Giddings, E. M.; McMahon, G.

2004-12-01

163

Impact of changes in rainfall intensity, land use pattern and management practice on sediment output of agricultural loess catchments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The emission of nutrients and pollutants from agricultural land via erosion is a serious threat to surface waters. For planning and managing the sustainable use of water resources information on sediment bound nutrient and pollutant emissions are required. Within the framework of a research project in a rural catchment the process based model CATFLOW-SED which permits the simulation of specific events as well as long term processes of water and sediment transport was developed. The detachment rate of sediment particles from the soil matrix is quantified using an optimized approach for loess soils, based on the correlation of the attacking forces of rainfall and surface runoff to the erosion rate. The amount of detached soil particles depends on the erosion resistance which is an empirical soil parameter. Sediment transport capacity is modelled for various grain size fractions using the equation of ENGELUND & HANSEN (1967). It is assumed, that detachment and transport on loess soils are not size selective. On the other hand, the deposition rate of a grain size fraction depends on the sinking velocity and therefore this process is highly size selective. The model results on sediment input for each grain size fraction could be coupled with nutrient and pollutant contents of the specific fractions allowing the quantification of nutrient and pollutant emissions into surface waters. CATFLOW-SED was validated for the database of the 3.5 km² Weiherbach catchment located within a loess region of Southwest Germany at various scales (irrigation experiments, hillslope, catchment). The variation between modeled and observed erosion rates of the irrigation experiments was high due to the stochastic variability of natural landscapes on small scales. On the catchment scale the erosion resistance for the homogenous loess soils mainly depends on the land use category and the management practice. So for the hillslope and catchment scale the model results were in good agreement with observed sediment loads of large erosion events. Following these results, various scenarios regarding changes of rainfall intensity, land use pattern and management practice were modelled. The rainfall intensity of erosion events was increased about 1-3 % to simulate the impact of heavier thunder storms expected for the future in Southern Germany. It could be shown, that surface runoff increased about 15-22 % and sediment output of the catchment about 29-34 % due to the high non linearity of the underlying processes pointing out the increasing importance of erosion protection measures. The sediment output of the largest observed erosion event was varied by a factor of 0.6-1.3 when the given percentage of land use categories was rearranged in a "best case" and a "worst case" scenario. For the management practice scenario a reduction of 50-90 % of sediment output was achieved for reduced tillage and mulching. Each landscape is characterized by specific processes and factors of influence. These relationships can only be measured and examined at small scale. It was shown that the model CATFLOW-SED is a tool for drawing up the interrelationships within an agricultural loess catchment allowing conclusions to be drawn about comparable loess areas.

Scherer, U.; Zehe, E.; Träbing, K.

2009-04-01

164

Evaluation of land-use regression models used to predict air quality concentrations in an urban area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cohort studies designed to estimate human health effects of exposures to urban pollutants require accurate determination of ambient concentrations in order to minimize exposure misclassification errors. However, it is often difficult to collect concentration information at each study subject location. In the absence of complete subject-specific measurements, land-use regression (LUR) models have frequently been used for estimating individual levels of exposures to ambient air pollution. The LUR models, however, have several limitations mainly dealing with extensive monitoring data needs and challenges involved in their broader applicability to other locations. In contrast, air quality models can provide high-resolution source-concentration linkages for multiple pollutants, but require detailed emissions and meteorological information. In this study, first we predicted air quality concentrations of PM 2.5, NO x, and benzene in New Haven, CT using hybrid modeling techniques based on CMAQ and AERMOD model results. Next, we used these values as pseudo-observations to develop and evaluate the different LUR models built using alternative numbers of (training) sites (ranging from 25 to 285 locations out of the total 318 receptors). We then evaluated the fitted LUR models using various approaches, including: 1) internal "Leave-One-Out-Cross-Validation" (LOOCV) procedure within the "training" sites selected; and 2) "Hold-Out" evaluation procedure, where we set aside 33-293 tests sites as independent datasets for external model evaluation. LUR models appeared to perform well in the training datasets. However, when these LUR models were tested against independent hold out (test) datasets, their performance diminished considerably. Our results confirm the challenges facing the LUR community in attempting to fit empirical response surfaces to spatially- and temporally-varying pollution levels using LUR techniques that are site dependent. These results also illustrate the potential benefits of enhancing basic LUR models by utilizing air quality modeling tools or concepts in order to improve their reliability or transferability.

Johnson, Markey; Isakov, V.; Touma, J. S.; Mukerjee, S.; Özkaynak, H.

2010-09-01

165

Land use/land cover change and urban expansion during 1983-2008 in the coastal area of Dakshina Kannada district, South India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Urban settlements in developing countries are, at present, growing five times as fast as those in developed countries. This paper presents the urban expansion and land use/land cover changes in the fast urbanizing coastal area of the Dakshina Kannada district in Karnataka state, South India, during the years 1983-2008 as a case study. Six Indian Remote Sensing (IRS) satellite images were used in the present work. Supervised classification was carried out using maximum likelihood algorithm. The overall accuracy of the classification varied from 79% to 86.6%, and the kappa statistics varied from 0.761 to 0.850. The results indicate that the urban/built-up area in the study area has almost tripled during the study period. During the same time, the population has increased by 215%. The major driving forces for the urbanization were the enhanced economic activity due to the port and industrialization in the area. The urban/built-up area is projected to increase to 381 km2 and the population in the study area is expected to reach 2.68 million by the year 2028. Urban growth prediction helps urban planners and policymakers provide better infrastructure services to a huge number of new urban residents.

Bhagyanagar, Rajagopal; Kawal, Babita M.; Dwarakish, Gowdagere S.; Surathkal, Shrihari

2012-01-01

166

Application of satellite and GIS technologies for land-cover and land-use mapping at the rural-urban fringe - A case study  

Microsoft Academic Search

SPOT HRV multispectral and panchromatic data were recorded and coregistered for a portion of the rural-urban fringe of Toronto, Canada. A two-stage digital analysis algorithm incorporating a spectral-class frequency-based contextual classification of eight land-cover and land-use classes resulted in an overall Kappa coefficient of 82.2 percent for training-area data and a Kappa coefficient of 70.3 percent for test-area data. A

P. M. Treitz; P. J. Howarth; Peng Gong

1992-01-01

167

Developing and comparing optimal and empirical land-use models for the development of an urbanized watershed forest in Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study is to demonstrate the utility of optimal spatial models for modeling specific spatial patterns to facilitate rational land-use planning of a watershed in northern Taiwan. Optimization was implemented using simulated annealing in a spatial pattern optimization model (OLPSIM), and developments predicted by the drivers of past land-use changes were modeled with the CLUE-s model. The

Yu-Pin Lin; Peter H. Verburg; Chi-Ru Chang; Horng-Yng Chen; Min-Hua Chen

2009-01-01

168

Use of remotely sensed data for analysis of land-use change in a highly urbanized district of mega city, Istanbul.  

PubMed

The study forms an example on monitoring and understanding urban dynamics by using remotely sensed data. The selected region is a rapidly urbanizing district of the mega city Istanbul, Gaziosmanpasa, whose population has almost doubled between years 1990 and 2000. The significance of this district besides its urban sprawl is that 61% of its land lies within the boundaries of an important drinking water reservoir watershed of the mega city, the Alibeykoy Reservoir. The land-use/cover changes that has occurred in the years of 1987 and 2001 are analyzed by utilizing a variety of data sources including satellite images (Landsat TM image of September 1987 and Landsat ETM+ image of May 2001), aerial photographs, orthophoto maps, standard 1:25000 scale topographic maps, and various thematic maps together with ground survey. Land-use changes are analyzed on the basis of protection zones of the reservoir watershed and the conversion of bare land and forests to settlements are clearly observed despite the national regulation on watershed protection. The decline of forests within the protection zones was from 69% to 63.6% whereas the increase in settlements was from 0.8% to 3.9%. The associated impact of establishing new residential sites with insufficient infrastructure is then linked with the water quality of the reservoir that has already reached to Class III characteristics regarding the recently revised national legislation stating that any class exceeding Class II cannot be used as a drinking water supply that in turn, had consequences on regulating the water services such as upgrading the existing water treatment plant. The paper aims to help the managers, decision-makers and urban planners by informing them of the past and current land-use/cover changes, to influence the cessation of illegal urbanization through suitable decision-making and environmental policy that adhere to sustainable resource use. PMID:16849146

Musaoglu, Nebiye; Gurel, Melike; Ulugtekin, Necla; Tanik, Aysegul; Seker, Dursun Zafer

2006-01-01

169

Determination of impact of urbanization on agricultural land and wetland land use in Balçovas' delta by remote sensing and GIS technique.  

PubMed

Because of their intense vegetation and the fact that they include areas of coastline, deltas situated in the vicinity of big cities are areas of greet attraction for people who wish to get away from in a crowded city. However, deltas, with their fertile soil and unique flora and fauna, need to be protected. In order for the use of such areas to be planned in a sustainable way by local authorities, there is a need for detailed data about these regions. In this study, the changes in land use of the Balçova Delta, which is to the immediate west of Turkey's third largest city Izmir, from 1957 up to the present day, were investigated. In the study, using aerial photographs taken in 1957, 1976 and 1995 and an IKONOS satellite image from the year 2005, the natural and cultural characteristics of the region and changes in the coastline were determined spatially. Through this study, which aimed to reveal the characteristics of the areas of land already lost as well as the types of land use in the Balçova delta and to determine geographically the remaining areas in need of protection, local authorities were provided with the required data support. Balçova consists of flat and fertile wetland with mainly citrus-fruit orchards and flower-producing green houses. The marsh and lagoon system situated in the coastal areas of the delta provides a habitat for wild life, in particular birds. In the Balçova Delta, which provides feeding and resting for migratory birds, freshwater sources are of vital importance for fauna and flora. The settlement area, which in 1957 was 182 ha, increased 11-fold up to the year 2005 when it reached 2,141 ha. On the other hand, great losses were determined in farming land, olive groves, forest and in the marsh and lagoon system. This unsystematic and rapid urbanization occurring in the study region is not only causing the loss of important agricultural land and wetland, but also lasting water and soil pollution. PMID:17180418

Bolca, Mustafa; Turkyilmaz, Bahar; Kurucu, Yusuf; Altinbas, Unal; Esetlili, M Tolga; Gulgun, Bahriye

2006-12-16

170

SAR applications in human settlement detection, population estimation and urban land use pattern analysis: a status report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over 70 percent of the population of the world's developed countries live in urbanized areas. In developing countries migration to urban areas is continuing at an increasing rate. Detection and analysis of settlement patterns, estimating population, and monitoring population migration in a timely manner are requisite to accurately assess the impact of human activities on the environment. Monitoring urban land

Floyd M. Henderson; Zong-Guo Xia

1997-01-01

171

The urban heat island intensity in Hefei City  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The urban heat island is a phenomenon that the atmosphere temperature of the sky of the city near the ground is higher than the one outside the city, and it has business with the land use. Based on the Mono-window algorithm, the urban surface temperature of two imagines is retrieved by using of the Landsat TM data. The urban temperature is divided into five classes according to the mean-standard deviation, in which the first two classes are considered as the urban heat island. The geostatistics is used to analyze the change tend of the urban heat island and its centre of gravity. Then the images are extracted through a multi-step hierarchical classification method. Based on ArcGIS, the relationship of the land use and the surface temperature is analyzed. And the results show that the area of urban heat island increases and the trend of island expansion changes. The temperatures of different types land use are different and change as time goes by.

Zha, Liangsong; Wang, Yingying; Wang, Xinyuan

2009-09-01

172

Evaluating the effect of land use land cover change in a rapidly urbanizing semi-arid watershed on estuarine freshwater inflows  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Estuarine freshwater inflows along with their associated nutrient and metal delivery are influenced by the land use/land cover (LULC) and water management practices in the contributing watershed. This study evaluates the effect of rapid urbanization in the San Antonio River Watershed on the amount of freshwater inflow reaching the San Antonio-Guadalupe estuary on the Gulf Coast of Texas. Remotely sensed data from satellite imagery provided a source of reliable data for land use classification and land cover change analysis; while long time series of the geophysical signals of stream flow and precipitation provided the data needed to assess change in flow in the watershed. LULC was determined using LANDSAT (5 TM and 7 ETM) satellite images over 20 years (1985-2003). The LANDSAT images were classified using an ENVI. ISODATA classification scheme. Changes were quantified in terms of the urban expansion that had occurred in past 20 years using an urban index. Streamflow was analyzed using 20 years (1985-2004) of average daily discharge obtained from the USGS gauging station (08188500) closest to the headwaters of the estuary. Baseflow and storm flow were partitioned from total flow using a universally used baseflow separation technique. Precipitation data was obtained from an NCDC station in the watershed. Preliminary results indicate that the most significant change in land use over the 20 year period was an increase in the total amount of impervious area in the watershed. This increase in impervious area was accompanied by an increase in both total streamflow and in baseflow over the same period. The investigation did not show a significant change in total annual precipitation from 1990 to 2004. This suggests that the increase in streamflow was more influenced by LULC than climate change. One explanation for the increase in baseflow may be an increase in return flows resulting from an increase in the total number of wastewater treatment plants in the watershed.

Sahoo, D.; Smith, P.; Popescu, S.

2006-12-01

173

Relation of Environmental characteristics to the composition of aquatic assemblages along a gradient of urban land use in New Jersey, 1996-98  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Community data from 36 watersheds were used to evaluate the response of fish, invertebrate, and algal assemblages in New Jersey streams to environmental characteristics along a gradient of urban land use that ranged from 3 to 96 percent. Aquatic assemblages were sampled at 36 sites during 1996-98, and more than 400 environmental attributes at multiple spatial scales were summarized. Data matrices were reduced to 43, 170, and 103 species of fish, invertebrates, and algae, respectively, by means of a predetermined joint frequency and relative abundance approach. White sucker (Catostomus commersoni) and Tessellated darter (Etheostoma olmstedi) were the most abundant fishes, accounting for more than 20 and 17 percent, respectively, of the mean abundance. Net-spinning caddisflies (Hydropsychidae) were the most commonly occurring benthic invertebrates and were found at all but one of the 36 sampling sites. Blue-green (for example, Calothrix sp. and Oscillatoria sp.) and green (for example, Protoderma viride) algae were the most widely distrib-uted algae; however, more than 81 percent of the algal taxa collected were diatoms. Principal-component and correlation analyses were used to reduce the dimensionality of the environmental data. Multiple linear regression analysis of extracted ordination axes then was used to develop models that expressed effects of increasing urban land use on the structure of aquatic assemblages. Significant environmental variables identified by using multiple linear regression analysis then were included in a direct gradient analysis. Partial canonical correspondence analysis of relativized abundance data was used to restrict further the effects of residual natural variability, and to identify relations among the environmental variables and the structure of fish, invertebrate, and algal assemblages along an urban land-use gradient. Results of this approach, combined with the results of the multiple linear regression analyses, were used to identify human population density (311-37,594 persons/km2), amount and type of impervious surface cover (0.12-1,350 km2), nutrient concentrations (for example, 0.01-0.29 mg/L of phosphorus), hydrologic instability (for example, 100-8,955 ft3/s for 2-year peak flow), the amount of forest and wetlands in a basin (0.01-6.25 km2), and substrate quality (0-87 percent cobble substrate) as variables that are highly correlated with aquatic-assemblage structure. Species distributions in ordination space clearly indicate that tolerant species are more abundant in the streams impaired by urbanization and sensitive taxa are more closely associated with the least impaired basins. The distinct differences in aquatic assemblages along the urban land-use gradient demonstrate the deleterious effects of urbanization on assemblage structure and indicate that conserving landscape attributes that mitigate anthropogenic influences (for example, stormwater-management practices emphasizing infiltration and preservation of existing forests, wetlands, and riparian corridors) will help to maintain the relative abundance of sensitive taxa. Complementary multiple linear regression models indicate that aquatic community indices were correlated with many of the anthropogenic factors that were found to be significant along the urban land-use gradient. These indices appear to be effective in differentiating the moderately and severely impaired streams from the minimally impaired streams. Evaluation of disturbance thresholds for aquatic assemblages indicates that moderate to severe impairment is detectable in New Jersey streams when impervious surface cover in the drainage basin reaches approximately 18 percent.

Kennen, Jonathan G.; Ayers, Mark A.

2002-01-01

174

Do biodiversity patterns in Dutch wetland complexes relate to variation in urbanisation, intensity of agricultural land use or fragmentation?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Red list species densities of birds (maximally 22 km?2), and angiosperms (maximally 39 km?2) were used as biodiversity indicators in 21 larger complexes of wetlands across the Netherlands. Their covariability with\\u000a a range of indicators of human land use was assessed, including population, road and visitor density, area covered by agriculture,\\u000a open water, forest and residential housing. Data were collected on the

Jan E. Vermaat; Hasse Goosen; Nancy Omtzigt

2007-01-01

175

Do biodiversity patterns in Dutch wetland complexes relate to variation in urbanisation, intensity of agricultural land use or fragmentation?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Red list species densities of birds (maximally 22 km?2), and angiosperms (maximally 39 km?2) were used as biodiversity indicators in 21 larger complexes of wetlands across the Netherlands. Their covariability with\\u000a a range of indicators of human land use was assessed, including population, road and visitor density, area covered by agriculture,\\u000a open water, forest and residential housing. Data were collected on the

Jan E. Vermaat; Hasse Goosen; Nancy Omtzigt

176

Controls on mass loss and nitrogen dynamics of oak leaf litter along an urban-rural land-use gradient  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using reciprocal leaf litter transplants, we investigated the effects of contrasting environments (urban vs. rural) and intraspecific variations in oak leaf litter quality on mass loss rates and nitrogen (N) dynamics along an urban-rural gradient in the New York City metropolitan area. Differences in earthworm abundances and temperature had previously been documented in the stands along this gradient. Red oak

Richard V. Pouyat; Margaret M. Carreiro

2003-01-01

177

Nutrients and suspended solids in dry weather and storm flows from a tropical catchment with various proportions of rural and urban land use.  

PubMed

The results of an investigation characterizing the nutrients and suspended solids contained in stormwater from Kranji Catchment in Singapore are reported in this paper. Stormwater samples were collected from 4 locations and analyzed for the following eleven analytes: TOC, DOC, TN, TDN, NH(4)(+), NO(2)(-)+NO(3)(-) (NO(x)), TP, TDP, OP, SiO(2) and TSS. Stormwater was sampled from catchments with various proportions of rural and urban land use, including forested areas, grassed areas, agricultural and residential and commercial areas. The event mean concentrations (EMCs) of nutrients and TSS from sampling stations which have agricultural land use activities upstream were found to be higher. Comparison of site EMCs (SMCs) with published data showed that the SMCs of the nutrients and TSS are generally higher than SMCs reported for forested areas but lower than published SMCs for urban areas. Positive correlations (p<5%) were found between loading and peak flow at locations most impacted by ubanisation or agricultural activities. Correlation between loading and rainfall variables was less distinct. EMC was found to correlate less with rainfall and flow variables compared to pollutant loading. Unlike loading, no consistent pattern exists linking EMC to any particular storm or flow variable in any of the catchments. Lastly, positive correlations were obtained between the particulate forms of nitrogen and phosphorus and TSS. PMID:19660849

Chua, Lloyd H C; Lo, Edmond Y M; Shuy, E B; Tan, Stephen B K

2009-08-05

178

SPATIAL ANALYSIS OF AIR POLLUTION AND DEVELOPMENT OF A LAND-USE REGRESSION ( LUR ) MODEL IN AN URBAN AIRSHED  

EPA Science Inventory

The Detroit Children's Health Study is an epidemiologic study examining associations between chronic ambient environmental exposures to gaseous air pollutants and respiratory health outcomes among elementary school-age children in an urban airshed. The exposure component of this...

179

Developing a framework to assess the water quality and quantity impacts of climate change, shifting land use, and urbanization in a Midwestern agricultural landscape  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dynamic hydrological processes play a critical role in the structure and functioning of agricultural watersheds undergoing urbanization. Developing a predictive understanding of the complex interaction between agricultural productivity, ecosystem health, water quality, urban development, and public policy requires an interdisciplinary effort that investigates the important biophysical and social processes of the system. Our research group has initiated such a framework that includes a coordinated program of integrated scenarios, model experiments to assess the effects of changing drivers on a broad set of ecosystem services, evaluations of governance and leverage points, outreach and public engagement, and information management. Our geographic focus is the Yahara River watershed in south-central Wisconsin, which is an exemplar of water-related issues in the Upper Midwest. This research addresses three specific questions. 1) How do different patterns of land use, land cover, land management, and water resources engineering practices affect the resilience and sensitivity of ecosystem services under a changing climate? 2) How can regional governance systems for water and land use be made more resilient and adaptive to meet diverse human needs? 3) In what ways are regional human-environment systems resilient and in what ways are they vulnerable to potential changes in climate and water resources? A comprehensive program of model experiments and biophysical measurements will be utilized to evaluate changes in five freshwater ecosystem services (flood regulation, groundwater recharge, surface water quality, groundwater quality, and lake recreation) and five related ecosystem services (food crop yields, bioenergy crop yields, carbon storage in soil, albedo, and terrestrial recreation). Novel additions to existing biophysical models will allow us to simulate all components of the hydrological cycle as well as agricultural productivity, nitrogen and phosphorus transport, and lake water quality. The integrated model will be validated using a comprehensive observational database that includes soil moisture, evapotranspiration, stomatal conductance, streamflow, stream and lake water quality, and crop yields and productivity. Integrated scenarios will be developed to synthesize decision-maker perspectives, alternative approaches to resource governance, plausible trends in demographic and economic drivers, and model projections under alternate climate and land use regimes to understand future conditions of the watershed and its ecosystem services. The quantitative data and integrated scenarios will then be linked to evaluate governance of water and land use.

Loheide, S. P.; Booth, E. G.; Kucharik, C. J.; Carpenter, S. R.; Gries, C.; Katt-Reinders, E.; Rissman, A. R.; Turner, M. G.

2011-12-01

180

Fish assemblage responses to urban intensity gradients in contrasting metropolitan areas: Birmingham, Alabama and Boston, Massachusetts  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We examined fish assemblage responses to urban intensify gradients in two contrasting metropolitan areas: Birmingham, Alabama (BIR) and Boston, Massachusetts (BOS). Urbanization was quantified by using an urban intensity index (UII) that included multiple stream buffers and basin land uses, human population density, and road density variables. We evaluated fish assemblage responses by using species richness metrics and detrended correspondence analyses (DCA). Fish species richness metrics included total fish species richness, and percentages of endemic species richness, alien species, and fluvial specialist species. Fish species richness decreased significantly with increasing urbanization in BIR (r = -0.82, P = 0.001) and BOS (r = -0.48, P = 0.008). Percentages of endemic species richness decreased significantly with increasing urbanization only in BIR (r = - 0.71, P = 0.001), whereas percentages of fluvial specialist species decreased significantly with increasing urbanization only in BOS (r = -0.56, P = 0.002). Our DCA results for BIR indicate that highly urbanized fish assemblages are composed primarily of largescale stoneroller Campostoma oligolepis, largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides, and creek chub Semotilus atromaculatus, whereas the highly urbanized fish assemblages in BOS are dominated by yellow perch Perca flavescens, bluegill Lefomis macrochirus, yellow bullhead Ameiurus natalis, largemouth bass, pumpkinseed L. gibbosus, brown bullhead A. nebulosus, and redfin pickerel Esox americanus. Differences in fish assemblage responses to urbanization between the two areas appear to be related to differences in nutrient enrichment, habitat alterations, and invasive species. Because species richness can increase or decrease with increasing urbanization, a general response model is not applicable. Instead, response models based on species' life histories, behavior, and autecologies offer greater potential for understanding fish assemblage responses to urbanization. ?? 2005 by the American Fisheries Society.

Meador, M. R.; Coles, J. F.; Zappia, H.

2005-01-01

181

Land use effects on water quality in the urban agglomeration of Cuiabá and Várzea Grande, Mato Grosso State, central Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates the relationship between spatial patterns of water quality and land occupation in the cities of Cuiabá and Várzea Grande, Mato Grosso state, Brazil, applying Geographic Information System (GIS) techniques and Polynomial Redundancy Analysis. The results show a strong relationship between water quality and population density, urbanization rate and regionalized low water runoff. Higher treatment rates improve oxygenation

Peter Zeilhofer; Eliana Beatriz Nunes Rondon Lima; Gilson Alberto Rosa Lima

2010-01-01

182

Facing the Urban Challenge: Reimagining Land Use in America's Distressed Older Cities--The Federal Policy Role  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The end of World War II heralded an era of urban disinvestment in the United States. While some cities began to rebound in the 1990s with population and economic growth, others--including large cities like Detroit, Cleveland, and St. Louis as well as many smaller cities and towns--did not, and have continued to decline. As these communities…

Mallach, Alan

2010-01-01

183

Catchment export of carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus across an agro-urban land use gradient, Swan-Canning River system, southwestern Australia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coastal regions in many regions of the world are under increasing pressure from the expansion of agriculture and urbanization associated with elevated N and P loading and eutrophication of coastal estuaries. I compared how mixed land use catchments deliver dissolved and particulate forms of C, N, and P in streamflow to the Swan-Canning estuary that bisects Perth, Western Australia. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) composed the majority of the total C and N load, particulate C and N fluxes were minor, and P fluxes were evenly split between soluble reactive phosphorus and particulate/organic P. In contrast to current biogeochemical theory, DON export was dominant in urban and agricultural catchments in the low-gradient environment of the Swan Coastal Plain, whereas NO3 export was a greater factor in higher-gradient, forested catchments on the urban fringe. This trend suggests that hydrologic conditions that supported coastal wetlands prior to human development may still promote DON mobilization as well as dissolved inorganic nitrogen loss along hydrologic flow paths. Substantial variability in export of C, N, and P across catchments highlights the unique hydrologic properties of Australian catchments. Areal C, N, and P export was significantly related to catchment runoff which was lowest in a catchment with inland drainage, but greatest in urban catchments with impervious surfaces and shallow groundwater. The effective delivery of DOC and DON to aquatic ecosystems in urbanizing coastal catchments underscores the importance of restoration efforts that address hydrologic retention as well as the source and bioavailability of dissolved organic matter.

Petrone, Kevin C.

2010-03-01

184

A comparison between developed and developing countries in terms of urban land use change effects on nitrogen cycle: Paris and São Paulo metropolitan areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Urbanization is considered one of the most powerful and characteristic anthropogenic forces on Earth in the 21st century. Although, currently, cities occupy only about 2 percent of the Earth's land surface, they are home to over 50 percent of the world's population. While in cities of some developed countries, urban population might stabilize or even slightly decrease, its rate of growth in developing countries is faster than in the industrialized nations. Such increase is accompanied by growing energy production, increased food demand, expanding transportation and industrialization. Although agricultural production is by far the largest cause of the doubling in the amount of reactive nitrogen entering the biospheric cycle compared to pre-industrial conditions, nowadays more than half of the crops produced in rural areas are consumed in urban zones. Having in mind that there is a clear global trend towards urbanization and growing urban areas, the objective of this study was to compare major nitrogen fluxes between a mega city situated in a developing country (São Paulo Metropolitan Area - SPMA) in Brazil with one of the largest city of highly industrialized Europe (Paris Metropolitan Area - PMA). We make the first step in producing a detailed N mass balance for the SPMA and PMA in order to estimate the magnitude of major fluxes across the urban landscape and see how N cycling vary among urban system components. This effort may help to highlight differences between developing and developed areas and subsidize the formulation of public policies towards reduction of N related pollution of recipient systems. The N mass balance showed the SPMA as a net source of nitrogen, emitting in total about 93.5 Gg of N per year, or about 4750 g of N per capita. Most N inputs to the SPMA are directly related to food consumption, N in wastewater and landfills. These fluxes are quite amendable to management efforts to reduce N input to the receiver component of the urban ecosystem (rivers and soil). For example treated sewage effluent could be used as a source of N for some crops, especially vegetables. PMA is also a source of reactive nitrogen, emitting in total about 32 Gg of N per year, or about 3000 g of N per capita, being the major part attributed to the atmospheric emissions from transportation and energy. An important outcome of this study has been the identification of several key uncertainties regarding the N budget that require further research for either developed and developing regions studied. The following uncertainties of N cycling in an urban system need better understanding: the mechanisms of dry-deposition processes in urban systems with patchy vegetation; high NOx emissions and the increase in travel distance of smaller particles coming from modern engines; and complex patterns of air flow in the dense build-up areas. Urban soil N dynamics is very uncertain, while soil represents a major sink of N in natural ecosystems. Ultimately, the challenge is to integrate human choices and ecosystem dynamics into a multidisciplinary model of biogeochemical cycling in urban ecosystems, focusing as a first step on the quantitatively evaluating the mutual relationship between urban land-use changes and natural ecosystem from the standpoint of global N balance. To develop those schemes will require the construction of detailed ecosystem-level N balances, an in-depth understanding of the interplay of inputs, geographical and climatic factors, nonspecific management practices, and deliberate N management practices that control the fate of N in urban landscapes.

Nardoto, Gabriela; Svirejeva-Hopkin, Anastasia; Martinelli, Luiz Antonio

2010-05-01

185

Multi-scale texture analysis for urban land use/cover classification using high spatial resolution satellite data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An approach of the multi-scale texture classification for urban land cover /use using high-spatial resolution satellite imagery was proposed in this paper, in which the decision tree classifier was employed. The comparison with the band to be extraction was performed for three images. The grey-level co-occurrence matrix was adopted to calculate texture values of twenty windows. The J-M distance was used to optimize the texture scales for the eight classes of land cover /use. It was founded that maximum J-M distance appears in the window 15×15 for broadleaf-evergreen, conifer, 27×27 for grass land, 47×47 for bare soil, 67×67 for building and water, respectively. The experimental results showed that overall accuracy with multi-scale texture was 81.7% for eight urban types. The comparison with both the single scale texture and original spectrum showed that the overall accuracy of multi-scale texture was higher than ~6% of the single scale texture and ~11% of the original spectrum respectively. The results also indicate that multi-scale texture method is more accurate and reasonable with real world, and can reduce the "salt-and-pepper" effect. This is achieved by the proposed method, in which the classification with optimization the texture scales is of the most critical value for mapping urban land cover/use using high spatial resolution satellite image.

Zhang, Youjing; Chen, Liang; Yu, Bing

2007-08-01

186

Characterization of potential larval habitats for Anopheles mosquitoes in relation to urban land-use in Malindi, Kenya  

PubMed Central

Background This study characterized Anopheles mosquito larval habitats in relation to ecological attributes about the habitat and community-level drainage potential, and investigated whether agricultural activities within or around urban households increased the probability of water body occurrence. Malindi, a city on the coast of Kenya, was mapped using global positioning system (GPS) technology, and a geographic information system (GIS) was used to overlay a measured grid, which served as a sampling frame. Grid cells were stratified according to the level of drainage in the area, and 50 cells were randomly selected for the study. Cross-sectional household and entomological surveys were conducted during November and December 2002 within the 50 grid cells. Chi-square analysis was used to test whether water bodies differed fundamentally between well and poorly drained areas, and multi-level logistic regression was used to test whether household-level agricultural activity increased the probability of water body occurrence in the grid cell. Results Interviews were conducted with one adult in 629 households. A total of 29 water bodies were identified within the sampled areas. This study found that characteristics of water bodies were fundamentally the same in well and poorly drained areas. This study also demonstrated that household-level urban agriculture was not associated with the occurrence of water bodies in the grid cell, after controlling for potential confounders associated with distance to the city center, drainage, access to resources, and population density. Conclusions Household-level urban agricultural activity may be less important than the other types of human perturbation in terms of mosquito larval habitat creation. The fact that many larvae were coming from few sites, and few sites in general were found under relatively dry conditions suggests that mosquito habitat reduction is a reasonable and attainable goal in Malindi.

Keating, Joseph; Macintyre, Kate; Mbogo, Charles M; Githure, John I; Beier, John C

2004-01-01

187

Intensity and delimitation of the night Urban Surface Heat Island over the Paris metropolitan area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Urban Heat Island is one of the main factors of the urban climate. Known for a long time, it corresponds to a temperature differential between urban and rural areas surrounding and was defined firstly from the temperatures measured in the conventional network weather stations or by mobile measurements. In the present study, we used the daily night MODIS Land Surface Temperature (LST) product at 1 km resolution and during the years 2002-2011 in order to investigate the Urban Surface Heat Island (USHI) over the Paris metropolitan area (around 14 millions inhabitants, about 150 km from east to west and a little less from north to south). We calculated and used LST anomalies for the selected nights (clear sky) to overcome the seasonal and daily variations. The objective of this study is to propose a delimitation of USHI and study the relationship between the observed data points in the 9 weather stations of Météo France network and the surface temperatures of the satellite MODIS pixels. The different synthetic images, obtained from the mean, median of all the dates selected and a principal component analysis (PCA), show clearly high surface temperatures over dense urban areas and a strong decrease (around 9°C) from the center of Paris to about 30 km. Beyond the assessment of its intensity, the night USHI is defined by the Pettitt test performed on transects in all directions and shows logically the influence of topography and land use (dense urban areas vs. forest or agricultural areas).

Madelin, M.; Beltrando, G.; Sakhy, A.

2012-04-01

188

Relation of urban land-use and dry-weather, storm, and snowmelt flow characteristics to stream-water quality, Shunganunga Creek basin, Topeka, Kansas  

SciTech Connect

An investigation was conducted to provide the data and interpretation necessary to determine the effects of runoff from urban areas on the water quality characteristics of receiving streams. Water quality characteristics for three streamflow conditions were determined: (1) dry weather stream-flow - a combination of base flow and point source contributions, (2) storm streamflow - mainly provided by overland runoff from storms, and (3) snowmelt streamflow - mainly provided by overland runoff from snowmelt. Median concentrations of trace metals and nutrients were larger in storm streamflow than in dry weather streamflow. Median concentrations of total lead and zinc were largest in storm streamflow from the more urban basins. Median concentrations of dissolved sodium, chloride, and solids in snowmelt streamflow at all study sites averaged 218% larger for dissolved sodium, 296% larger for dissolved chloride, and 71% larger for dissolved solids relative to median concentrations in dry weather streamflow. Multiple correlation and regression analysis relating storm runoff volumes and average constituent concentrations to land use and storm characteristics produced significant relations for storm runoff volume, total lead, total zinc, and suspended sediment. 21 refs., 17 figs., 11 tabs.

Pope, L.M.; Bevans, H.E.

1987-01-01

189

Urban Heat Island Connections to Neighborhood Microclimates in Phoenix, Arizona: Defining the Influences of Land Use and Social Variables on Temperature  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Phoenix, AZ is known to have an urban heat island that significantly increases minimum and maximum temperatures, which continue to climb as the city grows and becomes denser. We present a study that investigates "neighborhood" scale (1 square km) microclimate and its potential connections to the regional heat island. The purpose of our study is to: 1) identify social factors/ behaviors that influence temperature on a neighborhood scale and relate fluctuations to the overall heat island; 2) determine the effect of land use on temperature at the neighborhood and regional scales; 3) evaluate a range of thermal infrared (TIR) remotely sensed (RS) data and compare the RS surface temperatures to air temperature. Neighborhoods in both the urban core and fringe were delineated within Phoenix for our study. The neighborhoods represent a range of income levels and ethnicities. Daytime TIR data from Landsat sensors (TM, ETM+) and the airborne MASTER sensor were used to obtain surface temperatures for the neighborhoods. Nighttime surface temperature data were obtained from the ASTER sensor. Vegetation indices (SAVI) were created from Landsat and MASTER imagery. Climate monitors installed in each neighborhood recorded air temperature and dew point readings every 5 minutes. Land use was obtained from an expert systems classification of Landsat imagery and from aerial photos. Our results indicate surface temperatures correlate strongly with air temperatures. The 12.5m/pixel MASTER and 30m/pixel Landsat thermal data can highlight surface temperature gradients within a neighborhood while nighttime ASTER data provides better mean surface temperature discrimination between neighborhoods, and allows for quantification of local diurnal temperature variation. Neighborhoods with a low mean income, high percentage of Hispanics, and low educational attainment are significantly hotter than their high-income, non-Hispanic, highly educated counterparts. Urban core neighborhoods with high income also correlate strongly with high amounts of vegetation (R= -.637) and have significantly lower surface and air temperatures than regional heat island models predict. This suggests that neighborhoods with the means to alter their environments with vegetation can also produce more amenable microclimates. Conversely, neighborhoods with a high area percentage of concrete, asphalt roadways, and built materials exhibit a strong positive correlation with increased surface and air temperature.

Prashad, L. C.; Stefanov, W. L.; Brazel, A.; Harlan, S.

2003-12-01

190

Monitoring Changes in Land Use  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Besides big cities strongly effected by industrialization and urbanization, many areas in the suburbs are not exceptional cases. Apart from advantages brought by the development process such as economic growth and social life improvement, they are deeply under pressure between two trends: development and conservation; economic interests and environmental protection and cultural values. Agricultural land uses for different purpose

THU Trinh; Thi Hoai

191

Linking Nocturnal Eddy Fluxes to Land Use-Land Cover in a Heterogeneous Landscape Surrounding the Urban-suburban Tower near Baltimore, Maryland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Anthropogenic activities in urban ecosystems represent the key driving force for local and regional climate change scenarios, producing the various pollutants that cause environmental change at the global scale: elevated carbon dioxide (CO2), increased ozone and nitrogen deposition, and elevated temperatures. Measurements of eddy fluxes in an urban-suburban landscape pose technical difficulties as sinks and sources of CO2 surrounding the tower are non-uniform. In a recent study, we stratified half-hourly values of eddy fluxes, i.e., carbon dioxide (Fco2), latent energy (LE), and sensible heat (H), according to wind sectors. Additionally, remotely sensed (spatial) data were stratified according to wind sectors around the Cub Hill tower near Baltimore, Maryland. We found that diurnal eddy fluxes were empirically dependent on remotely sensed metrics within the two-kilometer radius surrounding the tower. We hypothesized that nocturnal eddy fluxes, as stratified into wind sectors, will be similarly dependent on the land use-land cover (LULC). In the present study, we pooled the nocturnal half-hourly eddy fluxes during a 6-year period (2004-09) into a single data set, and stratified the data according to 24 wind sectors representing the wind direction during each half-hourly eddy flux measurement. We ask the following questions: 1) Are the nocturnal eddy fluxes inter-dependent with each other? 2) Do the average nocturnal eddy fluxes on a daily basis differ between wind sectors? 3) Which micrometeorological variables determine the differences in eddy fluxes between wind sectors? 4) Do differences in nocturnal eddy fluxes among wind sectors depend upon LULC? 5) Are the relationships between nocturnal eddy fluxes and LULC consistent during Winter, Spring, Summer, and Fall? and 6) How do these nocturnal urban-suburban eddy fluxes compare with the nocturnal eddy fluxes in a nearby mixed deciduous rural forest? Results from the data analyses will be presented and discussed.

Saliendra, N. Z.; Hom, J. L.; Pouyat, R.; Nowak, D.; Heisler, G. M.; Patterson, M.; Yesilonis, I.

2010-12-01

192

The effects of changes in land cover and land use on nutrient loadings to the Chesapeake Bay using forecasts of urbanization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation examined the effects of land cover and land use (LC/LU) change on nutrient loadings (mass for a specified time) to the Chesapeake Bay, after future projections of urbanization were applied. This was accomplished by quantifying the comprehensive impacts of landscape on nutrients throughout the watershed. In order to quantify forecasted impacts of future development and LC/LU change, the current (2000) effects of landscape composition and configuration on total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) were examined. The effects of cover types were examined not only at catchment scales, but within riparian stream buffer to quantify the effects of spatial arrangement. Using the SPAtially Referenced Regressions On Watershed Attributes (SPARROW) model, several compositional and configurational metrics at both scales were significantly (p value ? 0.05) correlated to nutrient genesis and transport and helped estimate loadings to the Chesapeake Bay with slightly better accuracy and precision. Remotely sensed forecasts of future (2030) urbanization were integrated into SPARROWusing these metrics to project TN and TP loadings into the future. After estimation of these metrics and other LC/LU-based sources, it was found that overall nutrient transport to the Chesapeake Bay will decrease due to agricultural land losses and fertilizer reductions. Although point and non-point source urban loadings increased in the watershed, these gains were not enough to negate decreased agricultural impacts. In catchments forecasted to undergo urban sprawl conditions by 2030, the response of TN locally generated within catchments varied. The forecasted placement of smaller patches of development within agricultural lands of higher nutrient production was correlated to projected losses. However, shifting forecasted growth onto or adjacent to existing development, not agricultural lands, resulted in projected gains. This indicated the importance of forecasted spatial arrangement to projected TN runoff from the watershed. In conclusion, comprehensive landscape analysis resulted in differences in simulations of current and future nutrient loadings to the Chesapeake Bay, as a result of urbanization and LC/LU change. With eutrophication from excess nutrients being the primary challenge to the estuary, information gained from the estimation of these effects could improve the future management and regulation of the Chesapeake Bay.

Roberts, Allen Derrick

193

THE LAND USE ANALYSIS IN NICOLINA CATCHMENT'S AREA USING G.I.S TECHNIQUES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Land use, as a part of the geo-economic system has important structural variations over a short period of time. The Nicolina hydrographic bas in is intensely modified by the urban pressure of nearby city of Iai. This pressure has become more and more intense i n the last decade as a result of growing constructed area towa rds the \\

Oana Mihaela Stoleriu; Adina Mosnegutu

194

Assessment of land use impacts on the natural environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Goal, Scope and Background  Land use is an economic activity that generates large benefits for human society. One side effect, however, is that it has\\u000a caused many environmental problems throughout history and still does today. Biodiversity, in particular, has been negatively\\u000a influenced by intensive agriculture, forestry and the increase in urban areas and infrastructure. Integrated assessment such\\u000a as Life Cycle Assessment

Thomas Koellner; Roland W. Scholz

2008-01-01

195

Influence of fipronil compounds and rice-cultivation land-use intensity on macroinvertebrate communities in streams of southwestern Louisiana, USA.  

PubMed

Laboratory tests of fipronil and its degradation products have revealed acute lethal toxicity at very low concentrations (LC50) of <0.5 microg/L to selected aquatic macroinvertebrates. In streams draining basins with intensive rice cultivation in southwestern Louisiana, USA, concentrations of fipronil compounds were an order of magnitude larger than the LC50. The abundance (rho=-0.64; p=0.015) and taxa richness (r2=0.515, p<0.005) of macroinvertebrate communities declined significantly with increases in concentrations of fipronil compounds and rice-cultivation land-use intensity. Macroinvertebrate community tolerance scores increased linearly (r2=0.442, p<0.005) with increases in the percentage of rice cultivation in the basins, indicating increasingly degraded stream conditions. Similarly, macroinvertebrate community-tolerance scores increased rapidly as fipronil concentrations approached about 1 microg/L. Pesticide toxicity index determinations indicated that aquatic macroinvertebrates respond to a gradient of fipronil compounds in water although stream size and habitat cannot be ruled out as contributing influences. PMID:17706328

Mize, Scott V; Porter, Stephen D; Demcheck, Dennis K

2007-08-13

196

Study of the impact of land use and hydrogeological settings on the shallow groundwater quality in a peri-urban area of Kampala, Uganda.  

PubMed

A study to assess the impacts of land use and hydrogeological characteristics on the shallow groundwater in one of Kampala's peri-urban areas (Bwaise III Parish) was undertaken for a period of 19 months. Water quality monitoring was carried out for 16 installed wells and one operational protected spring to ascertain the seasonal variation. The aspects of hydrogeological setting investigated in the study were the subsurface unconsolidated material characteristics (stratigraphy, lithology, hydraulic conductivity, porosity and chemical content), seasonal groundwater depths and spring discharge, topography and rainfall of the area. Both laboratory and field measurements were carried out to determine the soil and water characteristics. Field surveys were also undertaken to identify and locate the various land use activities that may potentially pollute. The results demonstrate that the water table in the area responds rapidly to short rains (48 h) due to the pervious (10(-5)-10(-3) ms(-1)) and shallow (<1 mbgl) vadose zone, which consists of foreign material (due to reclamation). This anthropogenically influenced vadose zone has a limited contaminant attenuation capacity resulting in water quality deterioration following the rains. There is widespread contamination of the groundwater with high organic (up to 370 mgTKN/l and 779 mgNO-3/l), thermotolerant coliforms (TTCs) and faecal streptococci (FS) (median values as high as 126E3 cfu/100 ml and 154E3 cfu/100 ml respectively) and total phosphorus (up to 13 mg/l) levels originating from multiple sources of contamination. These include animal rearing, solid waste dumping, pit latrine construction and greywater/stormwater disposal in unlined channels leading to increased localised microbial (faecal) and organic (TKN/NO-3) contamination during the rains. The spring discharge (range 1.22-1.48 m3/h) with high nitrate levels (median values of 117 and 129 mg/l in the wet and dry seasons) did not vary significantly with season (p=0.087) suggesting that this source is fed by regional base flow. However, the microbial quality deterioration observed in the spring discharge after a rain event (median values of 815TTCs cfu /100 ml and 433 FS cfu/100 ml) was attributed to the poor maintenance of the protection structure. Identification and selection of appropriate management solutions for the protection of shallow groundwater in informal settlements should not only be based on water quality problems and the causal physical characteristics as demonstrated by this study, but also institutional and socio-economic factors. PMID:17512037

Kulabako, N R; Nalubega, M; Thunvik, R

2007-05-23

197

The Effects of Changes in Land Cover/Land Use on Nutrient Loadings to the Chesapeake Bay Estuary Using Forecasts of Future Urbanization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effects of short-term and projected long-term changes in spatially explicit land cover/land use (LC/LU) on nutrient loadings (total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) in kg/ha/yr) were studied in the Chesapeake Bay watershed (164,000 km2) estuary. Version 3.0 of the USGS Chesapeake Bay's SPAtially Referenced Regressions on Watershed Attributes (SPARROW) model was implemented for the widely studied Patuxent River Basin in Maryland. Probabilities of LC change were estimated using projections of impervious surface locations at the LANDSAT (30m) scale and the Slope, Land use, Exclusion, Urban extent, Transportation, and Hillshade (SLEUTH) model for three development scenarios: current trends, smart growth, and ecologically sustainable to the Year 2030. Six Maryland Hydrologic Unit Code (HUC)-11 watersheds (three within and three outside of the basin) with verified (published) TN/TP nutrient loadings based on Year 2000 data from the Maryland Department of Natural Resources (DNR) were analyzed to see how they compared with the aggregated smaller catchments estimate of TN/TP that were contained within the larger boundaries of the HUC-11 watersheds and based on Year 2000 LC/LC and imperviousness data. The aggregated SPARROW TN always overpredicted the published values, whereas the SPARROW TP underpredicted the published DNR TP in three watersheds and overpredicted the DNR in the others. TN R2 = 0.90, whereas TP R2 = 0.69 in comparing DNR with SPARROW. Since the regression results just reported are only potential nutrient loadings for catchments independent of any other processes based on the model TN/TP general equations, when allowed to run in the true nonlinear structure of the SPARROW models that account for stream/catchment connectivity and water/land chemistry, even better nutrient estimates should able to be purported over larger watersheds throughout the Chesapeake Bay. In addition, TN/TP loadings from 85 of the smaller SPARROW reach catchments associated with the basin were developed for Years 1997, 2000, and the 2030 three scenarios. Early results show that TN, especially in the lower tidal stretches of the basin, have increased in the short-term (Year 1997 to 2000), would get progressively worse under the current trends, and would improve gradually under smart growth and ecological sustainable. The 1997 and 2000 TP estimates were quite similar, however under current trends; TP would increase throughout the middle/lower portions of the basin, before becoming progressive lower under smart growth to ecologically sustainable.

Prince, S.; Roberts, A. D.

2006-12-01

198

Regulating Controversial Land Uses  

Microsoft Academic Search

While the definition of what may constitute a controversial land use differs from community to community, the bottom line is that land use controls have been attempting to regulate these uses since the advent of zoning (and through nuisance law before that). When regulating many types of controversial land uses, constitutional issues may come into play and federal and state

Patricia E. Salkin

2011-01-01

199

Changes in Land Use Intensity Within the Don and Dnieper River Basins Following the Collapse of the Soviet Union as Revealed by Spatio-temporal Trend Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We analyzed changes in trends of land surface phenology (LSP) within two major river basins in Western Eurasia. The basins of Don and Dnieper Rivers extend over 862,000 ha and include 17% of the impounded water surface area in the former Soviet Union. Major changes in agricultural practices occurring after 1991 led to some time drastic reductions in the cultivated area receiving fertilizers and the amount of water consumed for irrigation in addition to other macro-indicators of agricultural sector land use intensity. Image time series analysis can localize the extent, direction, and intensity of changes during the 1990s. Using vegetation index data from the AVHRR PAL and GIMMS datasets from 1982-1988 (Soviet period) and 1995-2000 (post-Soviet period) coupled with contemporary land cover maps from MODIS, we identified the spatial extent of temporal trends and assess their significance using seasonal Mann-Kendall tests adjusted for first-order autocorrelation. Roughly 90% of croplands and forested land in Dnieper Basin exhibited no significant trends during the Soviet period. The Don Basin had more significant positive trends during the Soviet period than the Dnieper Basin. There was a substantial disagreement between datasets on the extent of significant positive trends in Don croplands (35% for GIMMS vs. 8% for PAL) and in Don forests during Soviet period (38% for GIMMS vs. 27% for PAL). Although very little area in either basins showed significant negative trends during the Soviet period, substantial areas fell under significant negative trends during the post-Soviet period. We also found major disagreement on extent of significant negative trends in Don forests during post-Soviet period (6% for GIMMS vs. 24% for PAL). Even though, there are some significant disagreements between the datasets, there is no evidence of a consistent bias in the change analysis. Changes in irrigation water use may account for some of the changes in trend direction.

Kovalskyy, V.; Henebry, G.

2007-12-01

200

An intensive field study on CO2, CH4, and N2O emissions from soils at four land-use types in Sumatra, Indonesia  

Microsoft Academic Search

We measured gas fluxes of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and nitrous oxide (N2O) from the soil surface to the atmosphere under various land uses in Sumatra, Indonesia, from September 1997. Four land-use types, i.e., old-growth forest, logged-over forest, burned site after logging, and rubber plantation site, were selected. One logged-over forest was clear-cut and burned in the middle of

Shigehiro Ishizuka; Haruo Tsuruta; Daniel Murdiyarso

2002-01-01

201

Application of remote sensing and GIS to the study of land use\\/cover change and urbanization expansion in Basrah province, southern Iraq  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, land use\\/cover dynamic change has become a key subject that needs to be dealt with in the study of global\\u000a environmental change. In this paper, remote sensing and geographic information systems (GIS) are integrated to monitor, map,\\u000a and quantify the land use\\/cover change in the southern part of Iraq (Basrah Province was taken as a case) by

A. S. Hadeel; Mushtak T. Jabbar; Xiaoling Chen

2009-01-01

202

Numerical Modelling of Urban Heat-Island Intensity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A three-dimensional, non-hydrostatic, high-resolution numerical model was used toanalyse urban heat-island (UHI) intensity in an idealised but realistic configuration.The urban area was 20 km square and lay on flat land at about latitude 50° Nin a maritime climate. In the model the urban area was represented by anomalies ofalbedo, anthropogenic heat flux, emissivity, roughness length, sky-view factor (SVF),surface resistance to evaporation (SRE) and thermal inertia. A control simulationincluded all these factors and the resultant UHI structure, energetics and intensitywere validated against observations. The results also compared favourably withearlier simulations.A series of experiments was conducted in which successively one of the anomaliesthat represented the urban area was omitted from the control simulation so as toprovide the basis for an assessment of its effect. In daytime the individual effectsdue to albedo, anthropogenic heat, emissivity, SVF and thermal inertia ranged from0.2 to 0.8 °C. In common with albedo, anthropogenic heat, emissivity andSVF, the SRE aided the formation of a UHI; it was also the most important factorin increasing its intensity. The roughness length had the opposite effect. At nightemissivity, roughness length, SVF and SRE had effects ranging from 0.3 to0.75 °C, but the largest effect (2 °C) was due to the anthropogenicheat. These results showed a difference in the causes of daytime and nighttime UHIs.In daytime the roughness length and SRE were the most important factors affectingUHI intensity; at night the anthropogenic heat was the most important. The simulationssuggested that the size of the urban area had a minimal effect on UHI intensity.

Atkinson, B. W.

203

Use of Remotely Sensed Data for Analysis of Land-Use Change in a Highly Urbanized District of Mega City, Istanbul  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study forms an example on monitoring and understanding urban dynamics by using remotely sensed data. The selected region is a rapidly urbanizing district of the mega city Istanbul, Gaziosmanpasa, whose population has almost doubled between years 1990 and 2000. The significance of this district besides its urban sprawl is that 61% of its land lies within the boundaries of

NEBIYE MUSAOGLU; MELIKE GUREL; NECLA ULUGTEKIN; AYSEGUL TANIK; DURSUN ZAFER SEKER

2006-01-01

204

Optimal Land Use and the Allocation of Endogenous Amenities  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores the implications, from a public sector economics point of view, of combining welfare assessments concerning land use in urban and environmental economics respectively. Urban economics has a long tradition in determining the optimal allocation of land (or space) as a consumption good, while land use issues in environmental economics are predominantly rooted in hedonic pricing as a

Wilbert Grevers; Anne Veen Van Der

2006-01-01

205

Summary of data pertaining to land use, rainfall, dryfall, stream discharge, and storm runoff collected as part of a study of the effects of urban runoff on Rapid Creek, Rapid City area, South Dakota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The objectives of a 3-year study of urban runoff in the Rapid City area of South Dakota were to characterize the effects of urban runoff from rainfall on the water quality of Rapid Creek, and to evaluate the effects of the runoff on the existing cold-water fishery. In order to meet these objectives, it was necessary to obtain detailed data pertaining to land use, rainfall, dryfall, stream discharge, and storm runoff. This report describes the rationale behind the data collection program, describes the methods used to collect and analyze the data, and presents the data collected and summarized during the study. Six watersheds were investigated, ranging in size from 1 ,610 to 20,990 acres. Water quality data from 6 sites for about 30 rainstorms that occurred between June 1980 and July 1982 are presented. (USGS)

Goddard, K. E.; Lockner, T. K.; Harms, L. L.; Smith, M. H.

1989-01-01

206

Land-use Leakage  

SciTech Connect

Leakage occurs whenever actions to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions in one part of the world unleash countervailing forces elsewhere in the world so that reductions in global emissions are less than emissions mitigation in the mitigating region. While many researchers have examined the concept of industrial leakage, land-use policies can also result in leakage. We show that land-use leakage is potentially as large as or larger than industrial leakage. We identify two potential land-use leakage drivers, land-use policies and bioenergy. We distinguish between these two pathways and run numerical experiments for each. We also show that the land-use policy environment exerts a powerful influence on leakage and that under some policy designs leakage can be negative. International “offsets” are a potential mechanism to communicate emissions mitigation beyond the borders of emissions mitigating regions, but in a stabilization regime designed to limit radiative forcing to 3.7 2/m2, this also implies greater emissions mitigation commitments on the part of mitigating regions.

Calvin, Katherine V.; Edmonds, James A.; Clarke, Leon E.; Bond-Lamberty, Benjamin; Kim, Son H.; Wise, Marshall A.; Thomson, Allison M.; Kyle, G. Page

2009-12-01

207

An intensive field study on CO2, CH4, and N2O emissions from soils at four land-use types in Sumatra, Indonesia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We measured gas fluxes of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and nitrous oxide (N2O) from the soil surface to the atmosphere under various land uses in Sumatra, Indonesia, from September 1997. Four land-use types, i.e., old-growth forest, logged-over forest, burned site after logging, and rubber plantation site, were selected. One logged-over forest was clear-cut and burned in the middle of the experiment. An incubation experiment was also performed to measure the potential of these three gases' emissions by using intact soil cores. The ranges of flux for 1 year for CO2, CH4, and N2O were 51.3-93.7 mg C m-2 h-1, -21.2-4.2 ?g C m-2 h-1, and 0.74-26.34 ?g N m-2 h-1, respectively. The N2O and CO2 fluxes were among the smallest values in all tropical regions. Clear-cutting and burning of residual trees after logging caused an increase in N2O emissions. N2O emissions correlated highly with the nitrification rate at 0-10 cm soil layer (R2 = 0.7834, p < 0.01). CH4 fluxes correlated with the clay content of 0-10 cm soil layer (R2 = 0.6071, p < 0.15). The results of flux measurements and core incubation strongly suggest that the regeneration of vegetation reduces the impact of land-use/cover changes on trace gas emissions.

Ishizuka, Shigehiro; Tsuruta, Haruo; Murdiyarso, Daniel

2002-09-01

208

Urban Heat Island Connections to Neighborhood Microclimates in Phoenix, Arizona: Defining the Influences of Land Use and Social Variables on Temperature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phoenix, AZ is known to have an urban heat island that significantly increases minimum and maximum temperatures, which continue to climb as the city grows and becomes denser. We present a study that investigates \\

L. C. Prashad; W. L. Stefanov; A. Brazel; S. Harlan

2003-01-01

209

Benthic communities of streams related to different land uses in a hydrographic basin in southern Brazil.  

PubMed

Different land uses affect the characteristics of a hydrographic basin, reflected in the river water quality, and consequently affecting the aquatic biota. The benthic community closely reflects the alterations caused by different human activities. In this study, the effects of different land uses were evaluated by analysis of the benthic community structure in streams with urban, agricultural and pasturage influences, as well as areas in better-conserved regions. The abiotic parameters showed distinct seasonal variability, which did not occur with the benthic organisms. A degradation gradient was observed among the study sites, in the headwaters-agriculture-pasture-urban direction. By the CCA its possible to observe that the density of organisms tended to increase along this gradient, whereas richness, diversity, evenness, and EPT families decreased. The most intense effects of land use on the benthic community composition, richness, and diversity were observed in urban areas (F (1,4) = 16.0, p = 0.01; F (1,4) = 8.97, p = 0.04; respectively). In conclusion a trend in the benthic community is observed in to predict alterations caused for the different land uses, mainly, when the source point pollution, as the case of urban area. PMID:18843547

Hepp, Luiz Ubiratan; Santos, Sandro

2008-10-09

210

Ecologically based municipal land use planning  

SciTech Connect

The book presents compelling evidence and sound arguments that make the case for sound land use policies that will reduce sprawl. The book provides easily understood solutions for municipal land planners dealing with urban sprawl; discusses ecological resources; emphasizes the use of new environmental indicators; and includes the use of the Geographic Information System (GIS) to problem solving.

Honachefsky, W.B.

2000-07-01

211

Land Use and Nitrogen  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson students explore the impacts of concentrated development and sprawl on water quality and land use. The concept of a watershed is introduced, along with information on basins and tributaries and the impacts of growth and nitrogen loading. The students are able to develop a plan to reduce nitrogen runoff to a targeted level. Several handouts and maps are included.

212

Aquarius Land Use Plan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The statement identifies and evaluates the probable effects of implementing the proposed land use plan and alternative to this plan for the Aquarius Planning Unit, Dixie National Forest, Utah. The Planning Unit covers an area of 252,000 acres of National ...

1973-01-01

213

The implementation of land use and relief height data in predicting the evolution of the atmospheric boundary-layer within the urban environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is vitally important to understand the structure of the atmospheric boundary-layer within the urban environment and the local rural surroundings. Within the local environment the structure of the earth's boundary-layer is highly turbulent and diffusive, with distinctive inner and outer regions. The flow in the inner region is mainly influenced by the physical characteristics of the terrain, such as

S. D. Wright; Lionel Elliott; David B. Ingham

2002-01-01

214

Energy and land use  

SciTech Connect

This report addresses the land use impacts of past and future energy development and summarizes the major federal and state legislation which influences the potential land use impacts of energy facilities and can thus influence the locations and timing of energy development. In addition, this report describes and presents the data which are used to measure, and in some cases, predict the potential conflicts between energy development and alternative uses of the nation's land resources. The topics section of this report is divided into three parts. The first part describes the myriad of federal, state and local legislation which have a direct or indirect impact upon the use of land for energy development. The second part addresses the potential land use impacts associated with the extraction, conversion and combustion of energy resources, as well as the disposal of wastes generated by these processes. The third part discusses the conflicts that might arise between agriculture and energy development as projected under a number of DOE mid-term (1990) energy supply and demand scenarios.

Not Available

1981-12-01

215

Determination of the effects of temporal change in urban and agricultural land uses as seen in the example of the town of Akhisar, using remote sensing techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

Today, as a result of erratic and unplanned urbanization, towns are rapidly becoming a mass of concrete and town-dwellers\\u000a are suffocated by their busy and stressful professional lives. They feel a need for places where they can find breathing-space\\u000a in their free time. Green areas within towns are important spaces where townspeople are able to carry out recreational activities.\\u000a These

Bahriye Gulgun; ?smail Yörük; Bahar Turkyilmaz; Mustafa Bolca; Asl? Güne?

2009-01-01

216

Three decades of land use variations in Mexico City  

Microsoft Academic Search

Uncontrolled urbanization is one of the most important problems of our changing world. Land use change evaluation is an important tool in planning further development in populated areas. This paper reports the results of an investigation on integration of remote sensing and geographic information systems (GIS) to detect urban growth. Here, we attempt to determine urban area growth in the

2009-01-01

217

The potential for hail and intense rainfall enhancement over urban areas: improving urban extreme weather risk assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urban communities and their infrastructure are particularly vulnerable to the impacts of organized thunderstorm systems. Current models of urban extreme weather risk do not fully represent the complexity of the hydrometeorological processes involved, particularly in relation to intense convective precipitation and severe weather. Hail is a severe thunderstorm hazard that can be extremely damaging to property (especially automobiles, buildings and

A. A. Ntelekos; J. A. Smith; W. F. Krajewski; M. Foote

2009-01-01

218

A Revised Land Use Plan for Easley, South Carolina.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The study examines the rapidly changing urban environment of the Easley Planning Area and determines the implications of this growth on the Land Use Plan prepared 1970 and on the future of Easley. The analysis considers an existing land use update, revise...

1973-01-01

219

Land use change and human health  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Disease emergence events have been documented following several types of land use change. This chapter reviews several health-relevant land use changes recognized today, including: 1) urbanization and urban sprawl; 2) water projects and agricultural development; 3) road construction and deforestation in the tropics; and 4) regeneration of temperate forests. Because habitat or climatic change substantially affects intermediate invertebrate hosts involved in many prevalent diseases, this chapter provides a basic description of vector-borne disease biology as a foundation for analyzing the effects of land use change. Urban sprawl poses health challenges stemming from heat waves exacerbated by the "urban heat island" effect, as well as from water contamination due to expanses of impervious road and concrete surfaces. Dams, irrigation and agricultural development have long been associated with diseases such as schistosomiasis and filariasis. Better management methods are required to address the trade-offs between expanded food production and altered habitats promoting deadly diseases. Deforestation can increase the nature and number of breeding sites for vector-borne diseases, such as malaria and onchocerciasis. Human host and disease vector interaction further increases risk, as can a change in arthropod-vector species composition.

Patz, Jonathan A.; Norris, Douglas E.

220

Land Use Plan, Brentwood, Tennessee.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report contains written and mapped recommendations for future land use based upon survey and analysis of land use, land capability, and area economic-demographic projections fitted within a framework of local community development objectives and land ...

1972-01-01

221

Determination of Impact of Urbanization on Agricultural Land and Wetland Land Use in Balçovas’ Delta by Remote Sensing and GIS Technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because of their intense vegetation and the fact that they include areas of coastline, deltas situated in the vicinity of\\u000a big cities are areas of greet attraction for people who wish to get away from in a crowded city. However, deltas, with their\\u000a fertile soil and unique flora and fauna, need to be protected. In order for the use of

Mustafa Bolca; Bahar Turkyilmaz; Yusuf Kurucu; Unal Altinbas; M. Tolga Esetlili; Bahriye Gulgun

2007-01-01

222

Scaling the land use system  

Microsoft Academic Search

IntroductionThere is a growing demand for quantitative information on actual land use\\/land cover and their future changes in space and time. Particularly during the last decade, land use and land cover change have become important issues. Besides local and direct effects like loss of biodiversity through deforestation or soil degradation through unsustainable land use, increasing importance is given to the

K. Kok

2001-01-01

223

Indirect land use change and biofuel policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biofuel debates often focus heavily on carbon emissions, with parties arguing for (or against) biofuels solely on the basis of whether the greenhouse gas emissions of biofuels are less than (or greater than) those of gasoline. Recent studies argue that land use change leads to significant greenhouse gas emissions, making some biofuels more carbon intensive than gasoline. We argue that

Matthew Kocoloski; W. Michael Griffin; H. Scott Matthews

2009-01-01

224

Modelling the impacts of coastal hazards on land-use development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Approximately 10% of the world's population live in close proximity to the coast and are potentially susceptible to tropical or extra-tropical storm-surge events. These events will be exacerbated by projected sea-level rise (SLR) in the 21st century. Accelerated SLR is one of the more certain impacts of global warming and can have major effects on humans and ecosystems. Of particular vulnerability are densely populated coastal urban centres containing globally important commercial resources, with assets in the billions USD. Moreover, the rates of growth of coastal populations, which are reported to be growing faster than the global means, are leading to increased human exposure to coastal hazards. Consequently, potential impacts of coastal hazards can be significant in the future and will depend on various factors but actual impacts can be considerably reduced by appropriate human decisions on coastal land-use management. At the regional scale, it is therefore necessary to identify which coastal areas are vulnerable to these events and explore potential long-term responses reflected in land usage. Land-use change modelling is a technique which has been extensively used in recent years for studying the processes and mechanisms that govern the evolution of land use and which can potentially provide valuable information related to the future coastal development of regions that are vulnerable to physical forcings. Although studies have utilized land-use classification maps to determine the impact of sea-level rise, few use land-use projections to make these assessments, and none have considered adaptive behaviour of coastal dwellers exposed to hazards. In this study a land-use change model, which is based on artificial neural networks (ANN), was employed for predicting coastal urban and agricultural development. The model uses as inputs a series of spatial layers, which include information on population distribution, transportation networks, existing urban centres, and which are assumed as proxies for the natural, environmental and socio-economic parameters that drive the development of land use. Furthermore, using projected sea-level rise estimates, tropical storm surge maps, and tropical storm records rule sets are constructed, whereby frequently flooded urban residents may employ adaptive spatial behaviour leading to the abandonment of exposed land and migration to more suitable areas. In this context, different responses of residents to frequent flooding are explored and the impact of these responses to future land-use development is assessed. The model has been applied to the region of south Florida, USA, which is heavily impacted by tropical storm-surge events and is particularly vulnerable to sea-level rise. A large number of simulations were performed exploring the evolution of land use in the next 100 years under different scenarios of possible increases in hurricane intensity, and local relative sea-level rise. Furthermore, various rule sets were employed reflecting urban residents' willingness to migrate based on the intensity and frequency of flooding and the availability of economic resources to rebuild. The results of this application are expected to give insights into the response, in terms of land-use development, of the natural and socio-economic system to these hazards and thus to provide useful information for land-use planning at regional scale.

Ramirez, J.; Vafeidis, A. T.

2009-04-01

225

Maximum urban heat island intensity in a medium-sized coastal Mediterranean city  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper studies the maximum intensity of the urban heat island (UHI) that develops in Volos urban area, a medium-sized\\u000a coastal city in central Greece. The maximum temperature difference between the city center and a suburb is 3.4°C and 3.1°C\\u000a during winter and summer, respectively, while during both seasons the average maximum UHI intensity is 2.0°C. The UHI usually\\u000a starts

Dimitris K. Papanastasiou; Constantinos Kittas

2011-01-01

226

Assessing land use impacts on flood processes in complex terrain by using GIS and modeling approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

A distributed hydrologic modeling and GIS approach is applied for the assessment of land use impact in the Steinsel sub-basin, Alzette, Grand-Duchy of Luxembourg. The assessment focuses on the runoff contributions from different land use classes and the potential impact of land use changes on runoff generation. The results show that the direct runoff from urban areas is dominant for

Y. B. Liu; F. De; L. Hoffmannb Smedta; L. Pfister

227

Assessing land use impacts on flood processes in complex terrain by using GIS and modeling approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

A distributed hydrologic modeling and GIS approach is applied for the assessment of land use impact in the Steinsel sub-basin, Alzette, Grand-Duchy of Luxembourg. The assessment focuses on the runoff contributions from different land use classes and the potential impact of land use changes on runoff generation. The results show that the direct runoff from urban areas is dominant for

Y. B. Liu; F. De Smedt; L. Hoffmann; L. Pfister

2005-01-01

228

How Will America Grow? A Citizen Guide to Land-Use Planning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Citizens are encouraged to learn about and become involved in land use and growth issues in their communities. Intended as a follow-up of an earlier report by the Committee's Task Force on Land Use and Urban Growth which outlined philosophical, legal, and policy aspects of land-use planning, the document suggests planning guidelines for citizen…

Citizens Advisory Committee on Environmental Quality.

229

Effects of land use data on dry deposition in a regional photochemical model for eastern Texas.  

PubMed

Land use data are among the inputs used to determine dry deposition velocities for photochemical grid models such as the Comprehensive Air Quality Model with extensions (CAMx) that is currently used for attainment demonstrations and air quality planning by the state of Texas. The sensitivity of dry deposition and O3 mixing ratios to land use classification was investigated by comparing predictions based on default U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) land use data to predictions based on recently compiled land use data that were collected to improve biogenic emissions estimates. Dry deposition of O3 decreased throughout much of eastern Texas, especially in urban areas, with the new land use data. Predicted 1-hr averaged O3 mixing ratios with the new land use data were as much as 11 ppbv greater and 6 ppbv less than predictions based on USGS land use data during the late afternoon. In addition, the area with peak O3 mixing ratios in excess of 100 ppbv increased significantly in urban areas when deposition velocities were calculated based on the new land use data. Finally, more detailed data on land use within urban areas resulted in peak changes in O3 mixing ratios of approximately 2 ppbv. These results indicate the importance of establishing accurate, internally consistent land use data for photochemical modeling in urban areas in Texas. They also indicate the need for field validation of deposition rates in areas experiencing changing land use patterns, such as during urban reforestation programs or residential and commercial development. PMID:11518295

McDonald-Buller, E; Wiedinmyer, C; Kimura, Y; Allen, D

2001-08-01

230

Dyersburg Land Use Plan Report 5.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report contains an introduction to land use data application; a projection of land use data and quantities, together with a comparison of projected and estimated future land use requirements; supporting analysis, and the recommended land use plan. (Au...

1969-01-01

231

Change of atmospheric condition in an urbanized area of Japan from the viewpoint of rainfall intensity.  

PubMed

The atmospheric condition in an urbanized area of Japan was examined from the viewpoint of a 14-year trend in the rainfall intensity. To cancel the wide-area meteorological phenomena such as a typhoon and a front, the rainfall datasets obtained not only in an urban area but also in a rural area was studied. The rainfall datasets collected on a 0.5 mm rainfall basis was used. The rainfall intensity dominantly increased in urban area, while that in rural area neither increased nor decreased. An increasing trend was clearly observed for rainfall with precipitation amounts of 5 and 10 mm. Rainfall with precipitation amounts of 15 and 20 mm showed neither an increasing nor a decreasing trend. The results of this study show that there is a high probability of a connection between the urbanization and the change of rainfall intensity. PMID:18259887

Aikawa, Masahide; Hiraki, Takatoshi; Eiho, Jiro

2008-02-08

232

Land use and the coastal zone  

Microsoft Academic Search

Future changes in land use in the coastal zone will be dominated by the effects of climate change. The major effect of climate change on the coastal zone will be due to increasing sea level which, in combination with possible increases in the frequency and intensity of storms, will bring about:•change in patterns of erosion and sedimentation•increased risk of flooding•change

David Hadley

2009-01-01

233

The Impact of Misclassification in Land Use Maps in the Prediction of Landscape Dynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Land use maps are widely used in modeling land use change, urban sprawl, and for other landscape related studies. A misclassification\\u000a confusion matrix for land use maps is usually provided as a measure of their quality and uncertainty. However, this very important\\u000a information is rarely considered in land use map based studies, especially in modeling landscape dynamics. Ignoring uncertainty\\u000a of

Shoufan Fang; George Gertner; Guangxing Wang; Alan Anderson

2006-01-01

234

Life Cycle Impact assessment of land use based on the hemeroby concept  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact category ‘land use’ describes in the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology the environmental impacts of occupying,\\u000a reshaping and managing land for human purposes. Land use can either be the long-term use of land (e.g. for arable farming)\\u000a or changing the type of land use (e.g. from natural to urban area). The impact category ‘land use’ comprises those environmental

Frank Brentrup; Jürgen Küsters; Joachim Lammel; Hermann Kuhlmann

2002-01-01

235

The potential for hail and intense rainfall enhancement over urban areas: improving urban extreme weather risk assessment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Urban communities and their infrastructure are particularly vulnerable to the impacts of organized thunderstorm systems. Current models of urban extreme weather risk do not fully represent the complexity of the hydrometeorological processes involved, particularly in relation to intense convective precipitation and severe weather. Hail is a severe thunderstorm hazard that can be extremely damaging to property (especially automobiles, buildings and agriculture) over and in proximity to urban environments. This study identifies some of the mechanisms that future generations of catastrophe models should consider incorporating in their representation of hydrometeorlogical hazards in urban areas. In addition, such information could help to inform planning policy and improve urban resilience to extreme events. Evidence is provided that urban environments, through the existence of high-rise buildings and densely build-up areas, but also through air-pollution (aerosols) can potentially lead to an enhancement of both flooding and hail. Conclusions are drawn from two separate studies over the heavily urbanized corridor of the northeastern United States but could be expanded to apply to other urban areas. Observational and modelling (Weather Research and Forecasting - WRF) analyses of an extreme thunderstorm over the Baltimore, Maryland metropolitan area on 7 July 2004 provided evidence that the urban canopy redistributed heavy rainfall and convergence centres in the vicinity of the urban environment. Modelling analyses suggest that convective rainfall around the urban core was increased by about 30% due to the heterogeneities of land surface processes associated with the city of Baltimore. Chesapeake Bay also played an important role in rainfall distribution by acting as a divergence zone for northerly winds. Cloud-to-ground lightning analyses show that the city of Baltimore and the Chesapeake Bay combined played a role in the distribution of lightning in the periphery of the urban core. Detailed modelling analyses (WRF-Chem) of a series of convective storms over the New York City metropolitan area, suggest that under certain meteorological conditions, increased concentrations of aerosols can lead to better organization of convection, higher vertical velocities and significantly increased convective rainfall accumulations. Higher vertical velocities were more widespread and reached deeper atmospheric levels when meteorological conditions were favourable, under increased aerosol concentrations. Areas that are downstream of sources of aerosols (i.e. New York City) are more prone to experience convective enhancement.

Ntelekos, A. A.; Smith, J. A.; Krajewski, W. F.; Foote, M.

2009-04-01

236

Modeling land-use change  

SciTech Connect

Tropical land-use change is generally considered to be the greatest net contributor of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere after fossil-fuel burning. However, estimates vary widely, with one major cause of variation being that terrestrial ecosystems are both a source and a sink for carbon. This article describes two spatially explicit models which simulate rates and patterns of tropical land-use change: GEOMOD1, based on intuitive assumptions about how people develop land over time, and GEOMOD2, based on a statistical analysis of how people have actually used the land. The models more closely estimate the connections between atmospheric carbon dioxide, deforestation, and other land use changes.

NONE

1995-12-31

237

Comparison of methods for land-use classification incorporating remote sensing and GIS inputs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the last few decades, dramatic land-use changes have occurred throughout Israel. Previously-grazed areas have been afforested, converted to irrigated or rain-fed agriculture, turned into natural reserves, often used as large military training sites, converted to rural and urban settlements, or left unused. Land-use maps provided by the Israeli governmental are more detailed for agricultural and urban land-use classes than

Offer Rozenstein; Arnon Karnieli

2011-01-01

238

Land Use Change Around Nature Reserves: Implications for Sustaining Biodiversity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effects of land use change outside of reserves on biodiversity within reserves is not well studied. This paper draws on research from Yellowstone, East Africa, Yucatan, Borneo, and Wolong, China to examine land use effects on nature reserves. Objectives are: quantify rates of change in land use around reserves; examine consequences for biodiversity within the context of specific ecological mechanisms; and draw implications for regional management. Within each of the study regions, semi-natural habitats around nature reserves have been converted to agricultural, rural residential, or urban land uses. Rates vary from 0.2-0.4 %/yr in Yucatan, to 9.5 %/yr in Borneo. Such land use changes may be important because nature reserves are often parts of larger ecosystems that are defined by flows in energy, materials, and organisms. Land use outside of reserves may disrupt these flows and alter biodiversity within reserves. Ecological mechanisms that connect biodiversity to these land use changes include habitat size, ecological flows, crucial habitats, and edge effects. For example, the effective size of the East African study area has been reduced by 45% by human activities. Based on the species area relationship, this reduction in habitat area will lead to a loss of 14% of bird and mammal species. A major conclusion is that the viability of nature reserves can best be ensured by managing them in the context of the surrounding region. Knowledge of the ecological mechanisms by which land use influences nature reserves provides design criteria for this regional management.

Hansen, A. J.; Defries, R.; Curran, L.; Liu, J.; Reid, R.; Turner, B.

2004-12-01

239

VON THÜNEN AND URBAN SPRAWL  

Microsoft Academic Search

In explaining agricultural patterns near urban areas, Von Thünen's theory is generally applicable where the primary force determining the pattern is transport cost to the market. When this is the case, the pattern of agricultural land use is one of decreasing intensity with distance from the city. Von Thünen's theory still applies in underdeveloped parts of the world, but his

ROBERT SINCLAIR

1967-01-01

240

Land-Use Change Trends in the Interior Lowland Ecoregion  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report describes land-cover trends in the Interior River Lowland ecoregion, located primarily in southern Illinois and includes the confluence areas of the Mississippi, Missouri, Ohio, Illinois, and Wabash Rivers, and their tributaries. Land-cover change statistics were tabulated from forty 10 kilometers (km) by 10-km multi-spectral remote-sensing sample areas collected from 1973 to 2000 and classified into nine primary land-cover categories. The results indicated stable land use. Agricultural land use increased, but acreage was lost to urbanization, especially in the St. Louis area. Recreational and conservation land uses are underrepresented relative to population demand. Findings were comparable to results of other land use research.

Varanka, Dalia E.; Shaver, David K.

2007-01-01

241

New methods to assess severity and likelihood of urban flood risk from intense rainfall  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Flooding from intense local rainfall can contribute a significant proportion of total damages and losses experienced, particularly in urban areas, where sewerage overcharging, localised river flooding, and overland flow, can conspire to cause significant loss potential to concentrations of assets and populations. Events such as the Summer 2007 floods in the UK have shown that there is a significant risk to key urban centres. However, current approaches to the quantitative assessment of flood risk, and the estimation of the potential frequency and severity of events, poorly represent flood risk from intense, localised rainfall. This causes problems not only for insurers and reinsurers, but also for urban planners, local authorities and emergency services where assessment of localised impacts from intense rainfall flooding form a key component of risk assessment needs. The localised nature of pluvial flooding, and the importance of complex terrain, drainage and pathways in determining water ponding within urban areas, makes the modelling of urban pluvial flood risk particularly problematic. Current approaches, usually through statistical means, or simple flood risk ‘maps' based on conventional topographic information, provide some information to assist risk decisions, but lack the level of detail necessary for accurate representation of the flood extents and depths in relation to the properties and other assets exposed. New techniques including ground based lasers-canner (LIDAR) provide a potential source for ultra-high resolution (centimetre) terrain information, which can be incorporated within urban scale hydrological-hydraulic model to provide appropriate resolution flood models. The corresponding development of new, efficient hydraulic models [Paul, Tim to add a bit here] with the ability to handle the high spatial and temporal resolutions required of urban flood provides a new modelling environment with which to tackle urban flood risk assessment, including the construction of appropriate probabilistic flood models. This paper will describe new research being undertaken to assess the practicality of ultra-high resolution, ground based laser-scanner data for flood modelling in urban centres, using new hydraulic propagation methods to determine the feasibility of such data to be applied within stochastic event models. Results from the collection of ‘point cloud' data collected from a mobile terrestrial laser-scanner system in a key urban centre, combined with appropriate datasets, will be summarized here and an initial assessment of the potential for the use of such data in stochastic event sets will be made. Conclusions are drawn from comparisons with previous studies and underlying DEM products of similar resolutions in terms of computational time, flood extent and flood depth. Based on the above, the study provides some current recommendations on the most appropriate resolution of input data for urban hydraulic modelling.

Fewtrell, Tim; Foote, Matt; Bates, Paul; Ntelekos, Alexandros

2010-05-01

242

The Biogeohydroclimatology of Land Use  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When John Donne wrote his Meditation XVII, which includes the famous"No man is an island" passage, he was thinking about connections between people; no human being is isolated from another. Donne might just as well have been writing about the science of land use, however. What happens on one plot of land clearly affects what happens on another, whether downhill, downstream, or downwind. I will explore the consequences of land use for mass and energy fluxes, focusing on pasture, crop, and forest transitions in the Americas. I'll discuss my own work, some work of collaborators, and a few examples from the literature. No man is an island.

Jackson, R. B.

2008-05-01

243

A quantitative analysis of urban growth and associated thermal characteristics using Landsat satellite data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Urbanization transforms the natural landscape to anthropogenic urban land use and changes surface physical characteristics. Accurate information on the extent of urban growth and its impacts on environment are of great interest for diverse purposes. As a result, increased research interest is being directed to the mapping and monitoring of urban land use using remote sensing techniques. However, there are many challenges in deriving urban extent and development densities quantitatively. This study utilized remote sensing data of Landsat TM/ETM+ to assess urban sprawl and its thermal characteristics in Changsha of central China. A new approach was proposed for quantitatively determining urban land use extents and development densities. Firstly, impervious surface areas were mapped by integrating spectral index derived from remotely sensed data. Then, the urban land extents and development densities were identified by using moving window calculation and selecting certain threshold values. The urban surface thermal patterns were investigated using Landsat thermal band. Analysis results suggest that urban extent and development density and surface thermal characteristics and patterns can be identified through qualitatively based remotely sensed index and land surface temperature. Results show the built-up area and urban development densities have increased significantly in Changsha city since 1990s. The differences of urban development densities correspond to thermal effects where higher percent imperviousness is usually associated with higher surface temperature. Remotely sensed index and land surface temperature are demonstrated to be very useful sources in quantifying urban land use extent, development intensity, and urban thermal patterns.

Zeng, Yongnain; Zhang, Honghui; Zou, Bin; Li, Hua

2008-10-01

244

Biodiversity across a Rural Land-Use Gradient  

Microsoft Academic Search

Private lands in the American West are undergoing a land-use conversion from agriculture to ex- urban development, although little is known about the ecological consequences of this change. Some nongov- ernmental organizations are working with ranchers to keep their lands out of development and in ranching, ostensibly because they believe biodiversity is better protected on ranches than on exurban developments.

Jeremy D. Maestas; Richard L. Knight; Wendell C. Gilgert

2003-01-01

245

Application of Skylab EREP Data for Land Use Management.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The author has identified the following significant results. The 1.09-1.19 micron band proved to be very valuable for discriminating a variety of land use categories, including agriculture, forest, and urban classes. The 1.55-1.75 micron band proved very ...

D. S. Simonett

1976-01-01

246

MINDING OUR BUSINESS SUMMER PROGRAM: AN INTENSIVE ENTREPRENEURSHIP EXPERIENCE FOR URBAN PREADOLESCENTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Minding Our Business Summer Program (MOBSP) provides the opportunity to urban preadolescents to start and run a business during the summer months. Students participate in 12 days of intensive training in entrepreneurship at the host university. The experiential component involves merchandise trips, mentor support sessions, and community market fairs where students run their businesses. This paper evaluates the short-term

Sigfredo Hernandez

247

Indirect land use change and biofuel policy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biofuel debates often focus heavily on carbon emissions, with parties arguing for (or against) biofuels solely on the basis of whether the greenhouse gas emissions of biofuels are less than (or greater than) those of gasoline. Recent studies argue that land use change leads to significant greenhouse gas emissions, making some biofuels more carbon intensive than gasoline. We argue that evaluating the suitability and utility of biofuels or any alternative energy source within the limited framework of plus and minus carbon emissions is too narrow an approach. Biofuels have numerous impacts, and policy makers should seek compromises rather than relying solely on carbon emissions to determine policy. Here, we estimate that cellulosic ethanol, despite having potentially higher life cycle CO2 emissions (including from land use) than gasoline, would still be cost-effective at a CO2 price of 80 per ton or less, well above estimated CO2 mitigation costs for many alternatives. As an example of the broader approach to biofuel policy, we suggest the possibility of using the potential cost reductions of cellulosic ethanol relative to gasoline to balance out additional carbon emissions resulting from indirect land use change as an example of ways in which policies could be used to arrive at workable solutions.

Kocoloski, Matthew; Griffin, W. Michael; Matthews, H. Scott

2009-09-01

248

Assessing land-use effects on water quality, in-stream habitat, riparian ecosystems and biodiversity in Patagonian northwest streams.  

PubMed

Changes in land-use practices have affected the integrity and quality of water resources worldwide. In Patagonia there is a strong concern about the ecological status of surface waters because these changes are rapidly occurring in the region. To test the hypothesis that greater intensity of land-use will have negative effects on water quality, stream habitat and biodiversity we assessed benthic macroinvertebrates, riparian/littoral invertebrates, fish and birds from the riparian corridor and environmental variables of 15 rivers (Patagonia) subjected to a gradient of land-use practices (non-managed native forest, managed native forest, pine plantations, pasture, urbanization). A total of 158 macroinvertebrate taxa, 105 riparian/littoral invertebrate taxa, 5 fish species, 34 bird species, and 15 aquatic plant species, were recorded considering all sites. Urban land-use produced the most significant changes in streams including physical features, conductivity, nutrients, habitat condition, riparian quality and invertebrate metrics. Pasture and managed native forest sites appeared in an intermediate situation. The highest values of fish and bird abundance and diversity were observed at disturbed sites; this might be explained by the opportunistic behavior displayed by these communities which let them take advantage of increased trophic resources in these environments. As expected, non-managed native forest sites showed the highest integrity of ecological conditions and also great biodiversity of benthic communities. Macroinvertebrate metrics that reflected good water quality were positively related to forest land cover and negatively related to urban and pasture land cover. However, by offering stream edge areas, pasture sites still supported rich communities of riparian/littoral invertebrates, increasing overall biodiversity. Macroinvertebrates were good indicators of land-use impact and water quality conditions and resulted useful tools to early alert of disturbances in streams. Fish and birds having a greater ability of dispersion and capacity to move quickly from disturbances would reflect changes at a higher scale. PMID:21094515

Miserendino, María Laura; Casaux, Ricardo; Archangelsky, Miguel; Di Prinzio, Cecilia Yanina; Brand, Cecilia; Kutschker, Adriana Mabel

2010-11-20

249

Land use and biodiversity relationships  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationships between land use and biodiversity are fundamental to understanding the links between people and their environment. Biodiversity can be measured in many ways. The concept covers not only the overall richness of species present in a particular area but also the diversity of genotypes, functional groups, communities, habitats and ecosystems there. As a result, the relationships between biodiversity

Roy Haines-Young

2009-01-01

250

Coordinating Transportation and Land Use  

Microsoft Academic Search

In June 2004, a group of transportation professionals participated in a series of site visits on transportation and growth. The objectives of the visits were to identify factors leading to successful practices in transportation-land use integration, to investigate key challenges and how agencies have worked to overcome these challenges, and to disseminate these findings to a broader audience. This article

Christopher D Porter

2006-01-01

251

Impact of land use changes on surface warming in China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Land use changes such as urbanization, agriculture, pasturing, deforestation, desertification and irrigation can change the land surface heat flux directly, and also change the atmospheric circulation indirectly, and therefore affect the local temperature. But it is difficult to separate their effects from climate trends such as greenhouse-gas effects. Comparing the decadal trends of the observation station data with those of the NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis (NNR) data provides a good method to separate the effects because the NNR is insensitive to land surface changes. The effects of urbanization and other land use changes over China are estimated by using the difference between the station and the NNR surface temperature trends. Our results show that urbanization and other land use changes may contribute to the observed 0.12°C (10yr)-1 increase for daily mean surface temperature, and the 0.20°C (10yr)-1 and 0.03°C (10 yr)-1 increases for the daily minimum and maximum surface temperatures, respectively. The urban heat island effect and the effects of other land-use changes may also play an important role in the diurnal temperature range change. The spatial pattern of the differences in trends shows a marked heterogeneity. The land surface degradation such as deforestation and desertification due to human activities over northern China, and rapidly-developed urbanization over southern China, may have mostly contributed to the increases at stations north of about 38°N and in Southeast China, respectively. Furthermore, the vegetation cover increase due to irrigation and fertilization may have contributed to the decreasing trend of surface temperature over the lower Yellow River Basin. The study illustrates the possible impacts of land use changes on surface temperature over China.

Zhang, Jingyong; Dong, Wenjie; Wu, Lingyun; Wei, Jiangfeng; Chen, Peiyan; Lee, Dong-Kyou

2005-06-01

252

Preliminary evaluations of regional ground-water quality in relation to land use  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Preliminary results from New York, New Jersey, Connecticut, Florida, Nebraska, and Colorado indicate that regional ground-water quality has been affected by human activities. The frequencies of detection of volatile organic compounds and some trace elements were larger in ground water underlying urban or industrial areas in comparison to undeveloped areas. Ground water in agricultural areas generally had larger concentrations of nitrate and an increased frequency of detection of pesticides. Effects of human activities on water quality increased as the intensity of urbanization or irrigation increased. Ground-water pumpage, waste-water discharges into a stream that is hydraulically connected to an alluvial aquifer, and consumptive use of ground water affected the ground-water quality in one study area to a greater extent than land-use practices. -from Authors

Cain, D.; Helsel, D. R.; Ragone, S. E.

1989-01-01

253

UK land use and soil carbon sequestration  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review explores the role of land use and land use change as a determinant of the soil's ability to sequester and store carbon in the UK. Over 95 percent of the UK land carbon stock is located in soils which are subjected to a range of land uses and global changes. Land use change can result in rapid soil

N. J. Ostle; P. E. Levy; C. D. Evans; P. Smith

2009-01-01

254

Evaluating the impacts of land use changes on hydrologic responses in the agricultural regions of Michigan and Wisconsin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydrologic fluxes in the Great Lakes region have been altered relative to pre-settlement conditions in response to major land use changes during the past 150 yr. Land surface characteristics and processes including leaf area index, roughness, albedo, soil moisture, and rates of momentum, energy and water vapor exchange are strongly influenced by land use. Changes in land use including urbanization

A. P. Nejadhashemi; B. J. Wardynski; J. D. Munoz

2011-01-01

255

LULUs: locally unwanted land uses  

Microsoft Academic Search

A LULU is a locally unwanted land use. It may be an old-age home or a nuclear-waste-disposal site. People need it but do not want to live next to it. Some characteristics LULUs have in common are: opposition (more or less organized), costs to the neighborhood (real or perceived), support from conservatives for LULUs of the right, support from liberals

Popper

1983-01-01

256

Analysis and simulation of land-use change in the central Arizona - Phoenix region, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

To understand how urbanization has transformed the desert landscape in the central Arizona - Phoenix region of the United States, we conducted a series of spatial analyses of the land-use pattern from 1912-1995. The results of the spatial analysis show that the extent of urban area has increased exponentially for the past 83 years, and this urban expansion is correlated

G. Darrel Jenerette; Jianguo Wu

2001-01-01

257

A system dynamics model for the sustainable land use planning and development  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper applies a system dynamics model for the sustainable land use and urban development in Hong Kong. The model is used to test the outcomes of development policy scenarios and make forecasts. It consists of five sub-systems including population, economy, housing, transport and urban\\/developed land, respectively. Two distinctively different development schemes concerning urban population density are simulated by the

Qiping Shen; Qing Chen; Bo-sin Tang; Stanley Yeung; Yucun Hu; Gordon Cheung

2009-01-01

258

Effects of land use on water quality and aquatic biota of three North Carolina Piedmont streams  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three streams in the Piedmont ecoregion of North Carolina were studied to evaluate the effect of land use (forested, agricultural, urban) on water quality and aquatic biota. In comparison with the forested stream, there were few changes in water quality at the agricultural and urban streams. Suspended-sediment yield was greatest for the urban catchment and least at the forested catchment.

David R. Lenat; J. Kent Crawford

1994-01-01

259

Occurrence and Bioavailability of Pyrethroids in a Mixed Land Use Watershed  

Microsoft Academic Search

The shift in land use patterns within many urban areas has the potential to influence the magnitude and nature of nonpoint-source pollution. The presence of pyrethroid insecticides in urban surface streams is of particular concern due to the broad spectrum toxicity of pyrethroids to aquatic organisms and the widespread use of pyrethroid products for agricultural and urban pest control. Sediment

R. Budd; S. Bondarenko; D. Haver; J. Kabashima; J. Gan

2007-01-01

260

Land?use planning in ‘one country, two systems’: Hong Kong, Guangzhou and Shenzhen  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper studies the political economy of urban governance and land?use planning mechanisms in the ‘one country, two systems’ of mainland China and the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (SAR). It is argued that the market economy of Hong Kong had, over the years as a British colony, established an efficiently?run regulatory system of land?use planning. The current land?use planning

Mee Kam Ng

1999-01-01

261

Land Use Change in NW Arkansas: Implications for Runoff Potential on the West Fork Watershed  

Microsoft Academic Search

Northwest Arkansas is rated as one of the top 10 fastest growing metropolitan areas in the U.S. This urban growth has resulted in a rapid change in land use\\/land cover patterns over the last 30 years. Land use\\/land cover in turn affects weather patterns, extreme weather events, rainfall runoff and water quality. This paper evaluates the changes in land use

M. D. Leh; S. G. Bajwa

2007-01-01

262

Impacts of Land-Use Change on Streamflows in the Damansara Watershed, Malaysia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Land-use change has significant impacts on hydrologic processes at the watershed level. In this study, hydrologic models and\\u000a spatial data were used to assess the effects of land-use changes and predict the effects of two future land-use scenarios\\u000a on the flood regime of the Damansara Watershed. Due to urban growth, the Damansara Watershed has seen increasing streamflows\\u000a and experienced occasional

Ata Amini; Thamer Mohammad Ali; Abdul Halim B. Ghazali; Azlan A. Aziz; Shatirah Mohd. Akib

263

Spatial and temporal variability of urban heat island intensity in Brno (Czech Republic)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Detailed air temperature measurements from a network of 14 stations distributed in urbanized area of Brno, Czech Republic (380 ths. inhabitants, complex terrain) are analyzed with the aim to describe spatial and temporal variability in atmospheric Urban Heat Island (UHI). Each station environment was characterized with a set of parameters such as altitude, Sky View Factor (SVF), amount of vegetation (NDVI) and density of buildings (DENS) in station's neighborhood. Temperature measurements made in 10 min. intervals from a set of 64 calm and sunny days (DJF-6, MAM-26, JJA-21, SON-11) made between March 2010-May 2011 were used to characterize each station with several air temperature characteristics. Difference between temperature measurement at individual station and average temperature measurements of rural stations was used as a simple measure of UHI intensity. We found that in all seasons UHI clearly develops during night hours and also around noon while in morning and evening hours the temperature differences between urban and rural stations are close to zero. Maximum UHI intensity (about 2.5°C) appears in summer midday, typical UHI intensities in night hours reach 1.0-1.5°C in all seasons. From correlation analysis it follows that independent variables (SVF, NDVI, DENS) significantly correlate with minimum temperature (Tmin) and UHI intensity (?T) and altogether they explain about 60% of ?T. Spatial variability of UHI intensity is compared with Land Surface Temperature fields derived for Brno region from thermal satellite imagery. We demonstrate that the highest LST values typically occur in industrial and commercial areas, which contribute significantly to UHI intensity.

Dobrovolný, P.; Šezní?ková, L.; Krahula, L.

2012-04-01

264

Impact of past and possible future land use changes on the hydrological behaviour of the Northern German lowland `Hunte' river  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Changing hydrological behaviour of catchments can be driven by several different influencing factors: e.g., climate change, water management and land use change. While changes in climate and water management directly affect the water cycle be changes in regional forcing (e.g., precipitation, radiation) and local management of surface and subsurface waters, the impact of land use changes on catchment hydrology is much more complex to assess as it results from regionally distributed local changes. Therefore, spatially distributed and process based hydrological catchment models are required for assessing the impacts of spatially distributed land use changes. The Hunte catchment in Lower Saxony is part of an intensively agriculturally used landscape in Northwest Germany. Pasture and cropland are dominating land uses, while surface sealing increases due to urban sprawl. As the catchment is dominated by agricultural landuse mostly, it can be expected that European and national policy as well as the agroeconomic development can strongly effect the land use distribution in future. Therefore, in this study, the effect of historical and projected land use changes on the catchment hydrological behaviour is assessed the process based catchment model WASIM-ETH (Schulla). WASIM-ETH has been applied to observed land use data sets (CORINE data) and projected land use scenarios (based on Ewert et al., 2005; Rounsevell et al., 2005) for the mesoscale catchment of the Hunte river in order to quantify the sensitivity with respect to land use change. The results of the study show that historical land use changes have almost no impact on the catchment hydrological processes in Northwest Germany. Simulated water balances and runoff hydrographs are almost identical, driving the model with different input data sets based on the CORINE data set. Differences are small compared to trends identified in the discharge data of the Hunte and Weser rivers. However, in relation to the ability of WASIM-ETH to reproduce the present water flows in the Hunte catchment (model uncertainty), the sensitivity of WASIM-ETH with respect to simulated water flows for the land use scenarios is significant. Therefore, this presentation on the one hand analyses the difficulties of process based hydrological models to reproduce the water flows of intensively used and regulated lowland catchments, but on the other hand also demonstrates the significance of effects of potential future land use changes on regional catchment water balances. Ewert, F., Rounsevell, M.D.A., Reginster, I., Metzger, M., Leemans, R.,2005. Future scenarios of European agricultural land use. I. Estimating changes in crop productivity. Agric. Ecosyst. Environ. 107, 101-116. Rounsevell,M.D.A., Ewert, F., Reginster, I., Leemans, R., Carter, T.R., 2005. Future scenarios of European agricultural land use. II. Projecting changes in cropland and grassland. Agric. Ecosyst. Environ. 107, 117-135.

Bormann, H.; Elfert, S.

2009-04-01

265

Integration of multi-scale stakes in governance by applying companion modelling to land use foresight  

Microsoft Academic Search

Decentralization of land use governance creates new challenges for participatory approaches, including the involvement of highly diverse participants and the search for coherence among multiple regulations. In France, the 2000 law of Urban Reform and Solidarity (\\

W. Daré; M. Anton; G. Leclerc

2009-01-01

266

Land use/cover changes between 1990 and 2000 based on remote sensing and GIS in Pearl River Delta, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent decades, land use/cover change and its consequences have been an important aspect of geography, ecology, environment science and global change. The Pearl River Delta lying on the mouth of the Pearl River, South China, is an important ecostone between sea and river, terrestrial and hydrology. Since 1990, Land use/cover has changed greatly due to the rapid urbanization in the Pearl River Delta. Farmland area decreases 1414.75km2 from 13504.1 km2 to 12089.35 km2, the proportion to total land area decreases from 32.82% to 29.35%. Forestland area decreases 904.26 km2 between 1990 and 2000. Built land area increases rapidly, in 1990, the area of built land is 1849.60 km2, while in 2000, the built land area reaches 4427.03 km2, and the increased area is 2577.43 km2. The area of water land, idle land and wetland decrease 55.72 km2, 141.47km2 and 14.12 km2 respectively. The transition intension of LUCC is unprecedented, about 25.26% area of total Farmland has involved in this conversion, among this conversion, the change area of farmland converts to built land, water land, forestland, wetland, idle land are 1876.40 km2, 1175.61 km2, 315.83 km2, 31.13 km2 and 12.01 km2, respectively, the immigrated area is 3410.98 km2, and emigrated area is 1994.82 km2, most of those land use area loss convert into built land. The immigrated area of other land use to built land in turn is: Farmland >water land >forestland > wetland >idle land, and emigrated area of built land to other land use in turn is as: Farmland>forestland>water land> wetland>idle land. Idle land change intension reaches 80%.The dynamic index indicates that these cities (eg. Zhongshan) are associated with the most land use/cover change process. The cities of Jiangmen, Zhaoqing and Huizhou have lower values of the index. These changes coincide with the land use conversion process, which can reflect the urban and economic development.

Chen, Zhiliang; Liu, Xulong; Peng, Xiaochun; Xu, Zhencheng; Wu, Zhifeng

2008-10-01

267

Influence of Land-use on the Fitness of Anopheles gambiae, the Principal Vector of Malaria in Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Urbanization often results in profound environmental alterations that may promote the transmission of malaria. Though, land-use practices in urban areas have been linked with proliferations of suitable larval breeding habitats of malaria vectors, no attempt has been made to systematically investigate the influence of land-use practices on malaria transmission in Nigeria. Objectives: To elucidate the influence of land-use practices

268

Modeling environmental impacts of urban expansion: a systematic method for dealing with uncertainties.  

PubMed

In a rapidly transitioning China, urban land use has changed dramatically, both spatially and in terms of magnitude; these changes have significantly affected the natural environment. This paper reports the development of an Integrated Environmental Assessment of Urban Land Use Change (IEA-ULUC) model, which combines cellular automata, scenario analysis, and stochastic spatial sampling with the goal of exploring urban land-use change, related environmental impacts, and various uncertainties. By applying the IEA-ULUC model to a new urban development area in Dalian in northeastern China, the evolution of spatial patterns from 1986 to 2005 was examined to identify key driving forces affecting the changing trajectories of local land use. Using these results, future urban land use in the period 2005-2020 was projected for four scenarios of economic development and land-use planning regulation. A stochastic sampling process was implemented to generate industrial land distributions for each land expansion scenario. Finally, domestic and industrial water pollution loads to the ocean were estimated, and the environmental impacts of each scenario are discussed. The results showed that the four urban expansion scenarios could lead to considerable differences in environmental responses. In principle, urban expansion scenarios along the intercity transportation rail/roadways could have higher negative environmental impacts than cluster-developing scenarios, while faster economic growth could more intensely aggravate the environment than in the moderate growth scenarios. PMID:22775401

Liu, Yi; Yang, Sheng; Chen, Jining

2012-07-20

269

Database Development of Land Use Characteristics along Major U.S. Highways  

SciTech Connect

The major objective of the effort reported here is to develop methods to measure transportation land use at the national level (i.e., how much land and what types of lands are used by transportation systems) and to track changes over time. Data for transportation-related land use are important for environmental analysis, climate change studies, transportation-land use interaction research, policy decisions related to urban sprawl, and more. Transportation systems have direct effects on the environment through modification of vegetation, impacts on wildlife habitats, changes in local climate and alternation of drainage patterns (U.S. DOT/BTS, 1996; U.S. DOT/BTS, 1998; U.S. EPA, 1999; Maggi, 1994; Verhoef, 1994). However, without accurate and complete land use data, it is extremely difficult to study and evaluate these effects. Transportation systems also induce land use changes. Such indirect effects, while not the subject of this study, may be more significant than the direct land-use impacts of transportation infrastructure. Establishing an inventory of transportation infrastructure and adjacent land use and maintaining the inventory over time is an important first step towards understanding the full range of interactions between transportation and land use. While current and historic land use data are essential for investigating the relationships between transportation and land use, so far, no technological or institutional mechanisms have been established to systematically collect such data at the national level. The lack of long-term planning in land use data acquisition can be a major setback for future research in transportation land use studies. Land use data also play a key role in the understanding of problems related to urban sprawl and in policy decisions in dealing with these problems.

Xiong, D

2000-06-06

270

Micro-level land use impacts of bioconversion  

SciTech Connect

The energy crisis has prompted research and development of renewable energy sources, among which are the bioconversion technologies. Crops, crop residues, manure and other organic wastes are potential sources of liquid, solid and gaseous fuels. These feedstocks originate on the farm or in the forest and therefore are land intensive. Implementation of the bioconversion technologies will involve actions which will impact existing land use patterns. Because of differences in crop type, yield per acre, existing land use conditions and agricultural practices, an aggregated national approach to the assessment of land use is not sufficient. If energy policy regarding bioconversion is to be successful, then it must be sensitive to micro-level information. This paper demonstrates the land use assessment work at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) in support of the Department of Energy's Technical Assessment of Solar Energy Program, (TASE). Local Biomass potential, existing and use and potential land use impacts from bio-energy implementation for three of the fifteen counties selected for the TASE study will be presented. The methodology creased for the evaluation is useful in determining the biomass potential for any community or county, and in identifying regional differences inherent in the trade-offs between existing land use and energy production.

Parsons, V.

1980-01-01

271

Impact of Recent Land Use Changes in the Great Plains  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the last fifty years there has been substantial changes in agricultural land use practices and loss of agricultural land due to urbanization in the Great Plains. The major changes in land use include expansion of irrigated agriculture during the 1960's and 1970's, changes in dryland tillage practices, use of improved crop varieties, and increases in the amount of fertilizer applied to both dryland and irrigated crops. Selected regions like the Front Range of Colorado have experienced large population growth and a resulting decrease in agricultural land area and increased irrigated lawn area. The Daycent ecosystem model was used to simulate the impact of these land use changes on total system carbon and trace gas fluxes. We will highlight recent model results for the urban and rural regions in Eastern Colorado. Model results suggest that adding 4 million ha of irrigated land since the 1960's has resulted in a net carbon storage of 0.43 Tg C and a dramatic increase( 3 to 4 times higher compared to dryland agriculture ) in N2O soil emissions. Conversion agricultural land to urban lawns ( > 40000. Ha ) since the 1950's has resulted in a significant storage of carbon in the soil and a dramatic increase in NO3 leaching and N2O soil emissions ( 3 to 10 times higher compared to natural grasslands and dryland agriculture ). Results for the simulated historical changes in the net green house budgets for selected counties in Colorado will also be presented.

Parton, W. J.; Gutmann, M. P.; Ojima, D.

2004-12-01

272

32 CFR 256.8 - Land use compatibility guidelines for accident potential.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...production and extraction and open land: Agriculture 10 Yes...designation for compatible land use is to be...but excludes feedlots and intensive animal husbandry. 11 Includes feedlots and intensive animal...

2010-07-01

273

32 CFR 256.8 - Land use compatibility guidelines for accident potential.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...production and extraction and open land: Agriculture 10 Yes...designation for compatible land use is to be...but excludes feedlots and intensive animal husbandry. 11 Includes feedlots and intensive animal...

2009-07-01

274

Ecological influence and pathways of land use in sagebrush  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Land use in sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) landscapes influences all sage-grouse (Centrocer-cus spp.) populations in western North America. Croplands and the network of irrigation canals cover 230,000 km2 and indirectly influence up to 77% of the Sage-Grouse Conservation Area and 73% of sagebrush land cover by subsidizing synanthropic predators on sage-grouse. Urbanization and the demands of human population growth have created an extensive network of con-necting infrastructure that is expanding its influence on sagebrush landscapes. Over 2,500 km2 are now covered by interstate highways and paved roads; when secondary roads are included, 15% of the Sage-Grouse Conservation Area and 5% of existing sagebrush habitats are 2.5 km from roads. Density of secondary roads often exceeds 5 km/km2, resulting in widespread motorized access for recreation, creating extensive travel corridors for management actions and resource development, subsidizing predators adapted to human presence, and facilitating spread of exotic or invasive plants. Sagebrush lands also are being used for their wilderness and recreation values, including off highway vehicle use. Approximately 12,000,000 animal use months (AUM amount of forage to support one livestock unit per month) are permitted for grazing livestock on public lands in the western states. Direct effects of grazing on sage-grouse populations or sagebrush landscapes are not possible to assess from current data. However, management of lands grazed by livestock has influenced sagebrush ecosystems by vegetation treatments to increase forage and reduce sagebrush and other plant species unpalatable to livestock. Fences (2 km/km2 in some regions), roads, and water developments to manage livestock movements further modify the landscape. Oil and gas development influences 8% of the sagebrush habitats with the highest intensities occurring in the eastern range of sage-grouse; 20% of the sagebrush distribution is indirectly influenced in the Great Plains, Wyoming Basin, and Colorado Plateau SMZs. Energy development physically removes habitat to construct well pads, roads, power lines, and pipelines; indirect effects include habitat fragmentation, soil disturbance, and facilitation of exotic plant and animal spread. More recent development of alternative energy, such as wind and geothermal, creates infrastructure in new regions of the sage-grouse distribution. Land use will continue to be a dominant stressor on sage-brush systems; its individual and cumulative effects will challenge long-term conservation of sage-grouse populations.

Knick, Steven T.; Hanser, Steven E.; Miller, Richard F.; Pyke, David A.; Wisdom, Michael J.; Finn, Sean P.; Rinkes, E. Thomas; Henny, Charles J.

2011-01-01

275

The urban market of Açaí fruit ( Euterpe oleracea Mart.) and rural land use change: Ethnographic insights into the role of price and land tenure constraining agricultural choices in the Amazon estuary  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the recent development of the açaí fruit economy in regional Amazonian urban markets (as a staple food) and more recently among national and international consumers (as a fashion food) and the consequences for agroforestry intensification by Caboclo communities in the Amazon estuary. The paper is based on long-term ethnographic research and field experiments; the açaí fruit economy

Eduardo S. Brondízio; Carolina A. M. Safar; Andréa D. Siqueira

2002-01-01

276

Friend or Foe? Urbanization and the Biosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The environmental influence of urban areas is still often assumed to be negligible at global scales. Although local environmental conditions such as the urban heat island effect are well-documented, surprisingly little work has focused on cross-scale interactions, or the ways in which local urban processes cumulatively impact global changes. Given the rapid rates of rural-urban migration, economic development and urban spatial expansion, improved systems for measuring, monitoring and modeling the global environmental impacts of cities should receive far greater scientific attention. This presentation will summarize urban environmental issues and impacts at local, regional and global scales and introduce the fundamental concepts and tools needed to measure and respond to these problems. Newly available datasets for the distribution and intensity of urban land use will be introduced, demonstrating the importance of clearly defining 'urbanized' land for empirical studies at the global scale. The negative environmental impacts of urban development will be compared with the often over-looked "positives" of urban growth from a global environmental perspective. Progress in understanding and forecasting the global impacts of urban areas will require systematic global urban research designs that treat cities as urban systems, anthropogenic biomes and urban ecoregions. The challenges and opportunities of global environmental research on urban areas have important implications not only for current research but also for educating the next generation of earth system scientists.

Schneider, A.

2008-12-01

277

Controls on the chemical and isotopic compositions of urban stormwater in a semiarid zone  

Microsoft Academic Search

The temporal variations in the chemical and isotopic compositions of urban stormwater under different land uses, and their dependence on physical parameters such as precipitation intensity, stormwater discharge, cumulative stormwater volumes and the size of the drainage area, were investigated in the coastal city of Ashdod, Israel. During 2000\\/2001 and 2001\\/2002, 46 stormwater events were intensively monitored for precipitation distribution

L. Asaf; R. Nativ; D. Shain; M. Hassan; S. Geyer

2004-01-01

278

Controls on the chemical and isotopic compositions of urban stormwater in a semiarid zone  

Microsoft Academic Search

The temporal variations in the chemical and isotopic compositions of urban stormwater under different land uses, and their dependence on physical parameters such as precipitation intensity, stormwater discharge, cumulative stormwater volumes and the size of the drainage area, were investigated in the coastal city of Ashdod, Israel. During 2000\\/2001 and 2001\\/2002, 39 stormwater events were intensively monitored for precipitation distribution

L. Asaf; R. Nativ; D. Shain; M. Hassan; S. Geyer

2003-01-01

279

Long-Term Effects of Changing Land Use Practices on Surface Water Quality in a Coastal River and Lagoonal Estuary  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The watershed of the Neuse River, a major tributary of the largest lagoonal estuary on the U.S. mainland, has sustained rapid growth of human and swine populations. This study integrated a decade of available land cover and water quality data to examine relationships between land use changes and surface water quality. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) analysis was used to characterize 26 subbasins throughout the watershed for changes in land use during 1992-2001, considering urban, agricultural (cropland, animal as pasture, and densities of confined animal feed operations [CAFOs]), forested, grassland, and wetland categories and numbers of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). GIS was also used together with longitudinal regression analysis to identify specific land use characteristics that influenced surface water quality. Total phosphorus concentrations were significantly higher during summer in subbasins with high densities of WWTPs and CAFOs. Nitrate was significantly higher during winter in subbasins with high numbers of WWTPs, and organic nitrogen was higher in subbasins with higher agricultural coverage, especially with high coverage of pastures fertilized with animal manure. Ammonium concentrations were elevated after high precipitation. Overall, wastewater discharges in the upper, increasingly urbanized Neuse basin and intensive swine agriculture in the lower basin have been the highest contributors of nitrogen and phosphorus to receiving surface waters. Although nonpoint sources have been emphasized in the eutrophication of rivers and estuaries such as the Neuse, point sources continue to be major nutrient contributors in watersheds sustaining increasing human population growth. The described correlation and regression analyses represent a rapid, reliable method to relate land use patterns to water quality, and they can be adapted to watersheds in any region.

Rothenberger, Meghan B.; Burkholder, Joann M.; Brownie, Cavell

2009-09-01

280

Long-term effects of changing land use practices on surface water quality in a coastal river and lagoonal estuary.  

PubMed

The watershed of the Neuse River, a major tributary of the largest lagoonal estuary on the U.S. mainland, has sustained rapid growth of human and swine populations. This study integrated a decade of available land cover and water quality data to examine relationships between land use changes and surface water quality. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) analysis was used to characterize 26 subbasins throughout the watershed for changes in land use during 1992-2001, considering urban, agricultural (cropland, animal as pasture, and densities of confined animal feed operations [CAFOs]), forested, grassland, and wetland categories and numbers of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). GIS was also used together with longitudinal regression analysis to identify specific land use characteristics that influenced surface water quality. Total phosphorus concentrations were significantly higher during summer in subbasins with high densities of WWTPs and CAFOs. Nitrate was significantly higher during winter in subbasins with high numbers of WWTPs, and organic nitrogen was higher in subbasins with higher agricultural coverage, especially with high coverage of pastures fertilized with animal manure. Ammonium concentrations were elevated after high precipitation. Overall, wastewater discharges in the upper, increasingly urbanized Neuse basin and intensive swine agriculture in the lower basin have been the highest contributors of nitrogen and phosphorus to receiving surface waters. Although nonpoint sources have been emphasized in the eutrophication of rivers and estuaries such as the Neuse, point sources continue to be major nutrient contributors in watersheds sustaining increasing human population growth. The described correlation and regression analyses represent a rapid, reliable method to relate land use patterns to water quality, and they can be adapted to watersheds in any region. PMID:19597872

Rothenberger, Meghan B; Burkholder, JoAnn M; Brownie, Cavell

2009-07-14

281

Pollutant export from various land uses in the upper Neuse River Basin.  

PubMed

Because of the relatively high variability of pollutant export from urban land uses, a significant number of monitoring studies, including data from many storms, are needed to adequately characterize export from urban land uses. Pollutant runoff from six small drainage areas with different land uses was monitored for at least 20 storm events over the course of more than 1 year. The land uses included single-family residential, golf course, industrial, dairy cow pasture, construction site, and wooded site. Average event mean concentrations and total annual load were computed for nitrogen forms, total phosphorus, and sediment from the land uses. Annual total nitrogen export was greatest for the construction land use during the house-building phase, followed closely by the residential and golf course land uses. Total phosphorus export was greatest for the golf course site followed by the pasture and residential land uses. Sediment export was greatest for the construction site during the rough grading phase, which averaged more than 10 times more sediment export than any of the other sites. To estimate export from a multiuse urban watershed, total nitrogen, phosphorus, and sediment export from the residential, golf course, and construction sites were averaged. The average total nitrogen, phosphorus, and sediment export from the three land uses was, respectively, 269, 302, and 256% greater than the corresponding exports from the wooded site, which was considered similar to the predevelopment land use. Additionally, analyses of rainfall samples indicated that a considerable portion of the nitrogen export from these sites likely comes from nitrogen in rainfall. PMID:11995863

Line, Daniel E; White, Nancy M; Osmond, Deanna L; Jennings, Gregory D; Mojonnier, Carolyn B

282

Current and Future Land Use around a Nationwide Protected Area Network  

PubMed Central

Land-use change around protected areas can reduce their effective size and limit their ability to conserve biodiversity because land-use change alters ecological processes and the ability of organisms to move freely among protected areas. The goal of our analysis was to inform conservation planning efforts for a nationwide network of protected lands by predicting future land use change. We evaluated the relative effect of three economic policy scenarios on land use surrounding the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service's National Wildlife Refuges. We predicted changes for three land-use classes (forest/range, crop/pasture, and urban) by 2051. Our results showed an increase in forest/range lands (by 1.9% to 4.7% depending on the scenario), a decrease in crop/pasture between 15.2% and 23.1%, and a substantial increase in urban land use between 28.5% and 57.0%. The magnitude of land-use change differed strongly among different USFWS administrative regions, with the most change in the Upper Midwestern US (approximately 30%), and the Southeastern and Northeastern US (25%), and the rest of the U.S. between 15 and 20%. Among our scenarios, changes in land use were similar, with the exception of our “restricted-urban-growth” scenario, which resulted in noticeably different rates of change. This demonstrates that it will likely be difficult to influence land-use change patterns with national policies and that understanding regional land-use dynamics is critical for effective management and planning of protected lands throughout the U.S.

Hamilton, Christopher M.; Martinuzzi, Sebastian; Plantinga, Andrew J.; Radeloff, Volker C.; Lewis, David J.; Thogmartin, Wayne E.; Heglund, Patricia J.; Pidgeon, Anna M.

2013-01-01

283

Dynamic study of land-use in Yining City  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Based on models of land-use, the paper analyzes urban sprawl from the macroscopic to the micro level, predicts the demand for construction land in the city expansion, and presents the law between total amount of urban land demand and urban space expansion. Then by combining the data with current urban land and natural resources round the city, the paper appraises the rationality of the developed-land which will have changed their use-nature, to appraisal the feasibility and utilization ratio of the undeveloped land and nature resource which will be developed in nearly future, find out the irrationality that may appear in the urban space expanding, thus restrain through planning and policy. With the rapid develop of western regions in recent years, different with the eastern coastal zone; the western city is beginning its own urbanization process. Yili Prefecture, as the window of the development of western regions, is expected to see fast development within a few years. Meanwhile, to Yili Prefecture, the topographical ground form condition is complicated, the natural resources is extremely abundant, once it is destroyed will cause irretrievable losses. Under this background, how to handle the relation between city's development and natural environment and resources well, taking the urban development path that can be constant becomes the important subject that we can't avoid. So this paper uses linear regression mode and dynamics, offer valuable reference for smooth development of the city.

Wang, Jiangping; Wei, Lu

2009-10-01

284

Adjustment of Peak Streamflows of a Tropical River for Urbanization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Peak runoff from a catchment is influenced by many factors such as intensity and duration of rainfall, catchment topography, catchment shape, land use and other variables. For a particular catchment, landuse change and other human activitie s will alter the characteristic of catchment hydrograph. Problem statement: As a result of urbanization, the magnitude of floo ds occurring in a catchment

Ata Amini; Thamer Mohammad Ali; Abdul Halim B Ghazali; Bujang Kim Huat

2009-01-01

285

Assessment of land use impact on biodiversity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Goal, Scope and Background  Land use and changes in land use have a significant impact on biodiversity. Still, there is no agreed upon methodology for\\u000a how this impact should be assessed and included in LCA. This paper presents a methodology for including land use impact on\\u000a biodiversity in Life Cycle Impact Assessment and provides a case example from forestry operations in

Ottar Michelsen

2008-01-01

286

Land use system evaluation: Concepts and methodology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analysis of land use systems can be conveniently performed through partial analyses of the bio-physical and the socio-economic sub-systems, followed by their integration. The place of land use practices in both sub-systems is discussed and a format for the description of the bio-physical components of land use practices is proposed. This new operation sequence approach is a deviation from the

T. J. Stomph; L. O. Fresco; H. van Keulen

1994-01-01

287

Analysis of Characteristics of Spatio-temporal Evolution of Land Use in Inhabited Islands of Pearl River Estuary  

Microsoft Academic Search

Under the support of the remote sensing and geographical information system (GIS) techniques, we acquire the land use data in 1990 and 2008 regarding 6 inhabited islands, namely Longxue Island, Hengmen Island, Weiyuan Island, Oi'ao Island, Hengqin Island and Gaolan Island in Pearl River Estuary . By using dynamic degree of land use, land use change intensity, relative change rate

Tao Li; Yi Gao; Xiao-min Li; Tuan-jie Li; Xiao-ming Li; Qin Yang

2011-01-01

288

Land-Use History as Long-Term BroadScale Disturbance: Regional Forest Dynamics in Central New England  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human land-use activities differ from natural disturbance processes and may elicit novel biotic responses and disrupt existing\\u000a biotic-environmental relationships. The widespread prevalence of land use requires that human activity be addressed as a fundamental\\u000a ecological process and that lessons from investigations of land-use history be applied to landscape conservation and management.\\u000a Changes in the intensity of land use and extent

David R. Foster; Glenn Motzkin; Benjamin Slater

1998-01-01

289

Effects of Precipitation and Land Use on Storm Runoff  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Storm-runoff quantity and quality were studied in three watersheds located near St. Paul in Ramsey County, Minnesota, from April 15 through September 15 of 1984, 1985, and 1986 to qualitatively determine the effects of precipitation and selected land uses on storm runoff. In respect to precipitation effects, differences in storm-runoff quantity between years in an urban watershed that lacks wetlands appear to be related to the average storm size (amount of precipitation) during the study period of each year. In contrast, the differences in storm-runoff quantity from watersheds that contain wetlands appear to be related to total precipitation during study period of each year. In respect to land use, the differences in storm-runoff quantity appear to be related to the amounts of impervious and wetland area. The watershed that contains the largest amount of impervious area and smallest amount of wetland area has the largest amount of storm runoff.

Brown, R. G.

1988-01-01

290

Are extreme rainfall intensities more frequent? Analysis of trends in rainfall patterns relevant to urban drainage systems.  

PubMed

The fact that climate change is affecting the intensity and frequency of rainfall is well accepted in the scientific community. This is backed by a multitude of reports on the basis of daily rainfall series analysis; however, little research is available for short duration intensities. Due to its significant influence on the behaviour of urban drainage, it is critical to investigate the changes in short duration rainfall intensities. In this study different intensities relevant for the urban drainage and the total rainfall per rain event are analysed. The trend is investigated using the Mann-Kendall test. The rainfall series analysed are from the alpine region Tyrol. The results present differences depending on the duration of the intensity and the series considered, however an increase in the number of extreme events is detectable for short durations for the most series. PMID:19448312

De Toffol, S; Laghari, A N; Rauch, W

2009-01-01

291

ASSESSING RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN HUMAN LAND USES AND THE DECLINE OF NATIVE MUSSELS, FISH, AND MACROINVERTEBRATES IN THE CLINCH AND POWELL RIVER WATERSHED, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

activity (analysis of variance (ANOVA), p , 0.05). Limited analyses in two other subwatersheds suggested that urban and agricultural land uses within a specified riparian corridor were more related to mussel species richness and fish IBI than land uses in entire catchments. Based on land uses within a riparian corridor of 200 m 3 2 km for each biological site

Jerome M. Diamond; David W. Bressler; Victor B. Serveiss

2002-01-01

292

PLACES: A Tool For Sustainable Land Use  

EPA Science Inventory

Rapid development of the human made environment to meet human needs and expand the economy is largely responsible for environmental losses. Because all land uses will incrementally and cumulatively degrade ecosystems that sustain human life, site-level land use decisions must ac...

293

Land Use and Marriage Timing in Nepal  

Microsoft Academic Search

I examine the relationship between patterns of land use and marriage timing in the Chitwan Valley, a rural area in south-central Nepal. In this setting, I conceptualize a relevant dimension of land use as the portion of land in each neighborhood devoted to agriculture. Using discrete-time event history models, I examine the relationship between the proportion of land devoted to

Scott T. Yabiku

2006-01-01

294

Sustainable land use and agricultural soil  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sustainable land use is the management of the natural environment and the built environment to conserve the resources that help to sustain the current human population of the area and that of future generations. This concept of sustainable land use requires an analysis of the existing resources, the...

295

Land Use Management for Solid Waste Programs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The author discusses the problems of solid waste disposal and examines various land use management techniques. These include the land use plan, zoning, regionalization, land utilities, and interim use. Information concerning solid waste processing site zoning and analysis is given. Bibliography included. (MA)|

Brown, Sanford M., Jr.

1974-01-01

296

The welfare economics of land use planning  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an empirical methodology for the evaluation of the benefits and costs of land use planning. The technique is applied in the context of the Town and Country Planning System of the UK, and examines the gross and net benefits of land use regulation and their distribution across income groups. The results show that the welfare and distributional

Paul Cheshire; Stephen Sheppard

2002-01-01

297

Coastal Ecosystems and Agricultural Land Use: New Challenges on California's Central Coast  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article uses the Central Coast region of California as a case study to examine the challenges of protecting coastal ecosystems near areas of intensive agricultural production. Coastal water quality and biodiversity are greatly impacted by regional land use. Agricultural land use can have significant impacts on water quality through erosion and the runoff of agricultural chemicals. While the Central

Diana Stuart

2010-01-01

298

Metro Rail Red Line MOS-2 Corridor Land Use Analysis and Joint Development Potential.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Land use patterns and opportunities to reshape land use intensities in areas surrounding the nine transit stations in the Minimum Operating Segment, Phase 2 (MOS-2) of the Metro Red Line Rail Transit Project was studied. The primary objective of the study...

I. N. Taylor

1992-01-01

299

Land use change in a biofuels hotspot: The case of Iowa, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study looks at the land use impact of the biofuels expansion on both the intensive and extensive margin, and its environmental consequences. We link economic, geographical and environmental models by using spatially explicit common units of analysis and use remote sensing crop cover maps and digitized soils data as inputs. Land use changes are predicted via economic analysis of

Silvia Secchi; Lyubov A. Kurkalova; Philip W. Gassman; Chad E. Hart

2011-01-01

300

An analysis of urban thermal characteristics and associated land cover in Tampa Bay and Las Vegas using Landsat satellite data  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Remote sensing data from both Landsat 5 and Landsat 7 systems were utilized to assess urban area thermal characteristics in Tampa Bay watershed of west-central Florida, and the Las Vegas valley of southern Nevada. To quantitatively determine urban land use extents and development densities, sub-pixel impervious surface areas were mapped for both areas. The urban-rural boundaries and urban development densities were defined by selecting certain imperviousness threshold values and Landsat thermal bands were used to investigate urban surface thermal patterns. Analysis results suggest that urban surface thermal characteristics and patterns can be identified through qualitatively based urban land use and development density data. Results show the urban area of the Tampa Bay watershed has a daytime heating effect (heat-source), whereas the urban surface in Las Vegas has a daytime cooling effect (heat-sink). These thermal effects strongly correlated with urban development densities where higher percent imperviousness is usually associated with higher surface temperature. Using vegetation canopy coverage information, the spatial and temporal distributions of urban impervious surface and associated thermal characteristics are demonstrated to be very useful sources in quantifying urban land use, development intensity, and urban thermal patterns. ?? 2006 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Xian, G.; Crane, M.

2006-01-01

301

Rhea County, Tennessee: Population Study, Economic Study, Existing Land Use Analysis, Land Use Plan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The document contains analyses of the population, economy, and land use. County goals and standards of development are defined, population and labor force projections are developed, and a land use plan was prepared.

1973-01-01

302

Modelling Urban Sustainabilty  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the EU research project PROPOLIS (Planning and Research of Policies for Land Use and Transport for Increasing Urban Sustainability) is to assess urban strategies and to demonstrate their long-term effect in European cities. To reach this goal, a comprehensive framework of methodologies including integrated land use, transport and environmental models as well as indicator, evaluation and presentation

Klaus Spiekermann; Michael Wegener

2003-01-01

303

Local regulation and land-use change: The effects of wetlands bylaws in Massachusetts  

Microsoft Academic Search

As urban areas across the U.S. grow, open-space lands providing wildlife habitat and ecosystem services are lost to development. In response, many communities have experimented with local regulations to encourage land conservation, but little is known about their effects on land-use change or housing supply. Wetlands protection bylaws are a potentially important and highly controversial form of local land-use regulation

Katharine R. E. Sims; Jenny Schuetz

2009-01-01

304

Benthic communities of streams related to different land uses in a hydrographic basin in southern Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Different land uses affect the characteristics of a hydrographic basin, reflected in the river water quality, and consequently\\u000a affecting the aquatic biota. The benthic community closely reflects the alterations caused by different human activities.\\u000a In this study, the effects of different land uses were evaluated by analysis of the benthic community structure in streams\\u000a with urban, agricultural and pasturage influences,

Luiz Ubiratan Hepp; Sandro Santos

2009-01-01

305

Level and intensity of objectively assessed physical activity among pregnant women from urban Ethiopia  

PubMed Central

Background Women in low-income countries are generally considered to have a high physical workload which is sustained during pregnancy. Although most previous studies have been based on questionnaires a recent meta-analysis of doubly labeled water data has raised questions about the actual amount of physical activity performed. In this study we report objectively assessed levels of physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness and muscular fitness among pregnant urban Ethiopian women, and their association with demographic characteristics and anthropometric measures. Methods Physical activity was measured for seven consecutive days in 304 women using a combined uniaxial accelerometer and heart rate sensor. Activity energy expenditure was determined using a group calibration in a branched equation model framework. Type and duration of activities were reported using a 24-hour physical activity recall and grip strength was assessed using a dynamometer. Results Median (interquartile-range, IQR) activity energy expenditure was 31.1 (23.7-42.0) kJ/kg/day corresponding to a median (IQR) physical activity level of 1.46 (1.39-1.58). Median (IQR) time in sedentary, light, and moderate-to-vigorous intensity was 1100 (999–1175), 303 (223–374) and 40 (22–69) min/day, respectively. Mean (standard deviation) sleeping heart rate was 73.6 (8.0) beats/min and grip strength was 21.6 (4.5) kg. Activity energy expenditure was 14% higher for every 10 cm2 difference in arm muscle area and 10% lower for every 10 cm2 difference in arm fat area and 10-week difference in gestational age. Conclusion The level and intensity of physical activity among pregnant women from urban Ethiopia is low compared to non-pregnant women from other low income countries as well as pregnant European women from high-income countries.

2012-01-01

306

Land use change analysis in the Zhujiang Delta of China using satellite remote sensing, GIS and stochastic modelling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rapid land use change has taken place in many coastal regions of China such as the Zhujiang Delta over the past two decades due to accelerated industrialization and urbanization. In this paper, land use change dynamics were investigated by the combined use of satellite remote sensing, geographic information systems (GIS), and stochastic modelling technologies. The results indicated that there has

Qihao Weng

2002-01-01

307

Relationships between land use and stream invertebrate community structure in a South Island, New Zealand, coastal stream catchment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Macroinvertebrate community composition was compared across streams draining catchments dominated by either native bush, agricultural or urban land uses within the Water of Leith stream catchment near Dunedin, New Zealand. Land use was associated with differences in taxon richness and faunal composition of communities present in each stream. The mean abundance levels of Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera were highest in

Matthew J. Hall; Gerard P. Closs; Ralph H. Riley

2001-01-01

308

Response of ecological storage and conservation to land use transformation: A case study of a mining town in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rapid land use transformation shaped by agriculture, industrialization and population urbanization has a great influence on ecological environment. Based on theory of ecosystem service functions, this study aims at revealing the response of ecological storage and conservation to each unit area of land use transformation. Taking Cishan Town, a mining town in China, as a case study, this paper estimates

Jianjun Zhang; Meichen Fu; Jin Tao; Ying Huang; Ferri P. Hassani; Zhongke Bai

2010-01-01

309

Modeling biofuel expansion effects on land use change dynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Increasing demand for crop-based biofuels, in addition to other human drivers of land use, induces direct and indirect land use changes (LUC). Our system dynamics tool is intended to complement existing LUC modeling approaches and to improve the understanding of global LUC drivers and dynamics by allowing examination of global LUC under diverse scenarios and varying model assumptions. We report on a small subset of such analyses. This model provides insights into the drivers and dynamic interactions of LUC (e.g., dietary choices and biofuel policy) and is not intended to assert improvement in numerical results relative to other works. Demand for food commodities are mostly met in high food and high crop-based biofuel demand scenarios, but cropland must expand substantially. Meeting roughly 25% of global transportation fuel demand by 2050 with biofuels requires >2 times the land used to meet food demands under a presumed 40% increase in per capita food demand. In comparison, the high food demand scenario requires greater pastureland for meat production, leading to larger overall expansion into forest and grassland. Our results indicate that, in all scenarios, there is a potential for supply shortfalls, and associated upward pressure on prices, of food commodities requiring higher land use intensity (e.g., beef) which biofuels could exacerbate.

Warner, Ethan; Inman, Daniel; Kunstman, Benjamin; Bush, Brian; Vimmerstedt, Laura; Peterson, Steve; Macknick, Jordan; Zhang, Yimin

2013-03-01

310

A GIS and Remote Sensing-based Analysis of Land Use Change Using the Asymmetric Relation Analysis Method: A Case Study from the City of Hangzhou, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urbanization has been an important component of land use and land cover change. Quantifying land use patterns and their changes\\u000a is essential for monitoring and assessing the impact of urbanization. Data on existing and changing land use provide crucial\\u000a clues for future development. Combining the application of remote sensing with geographic information systems (GIS) data,\\u000a this study accomplishes (i) the creation

J. Wang; Q. Cheng; J. Chen

2011-01-01

311

Relative impacts of climate and land use changes on future flood damage along River Meuse in Wallonia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate change is expected to increase flood hazard across most of Europe, both in terms of peak discharge intensity and frequency. Consequently, managing flood risk will remain an issue of primary importance for decades to come. Flood risk depends on territories' flood hazard and vulnerability. Beside climate change, land use evolution is thus a key influencing factor on flood risk. The aim of this research is to quantify the relative influence of climate and land use changes on flood damage evolution during the 21st century. The study focuses on River Meuse in Wallonia for a 100-year flood. A scenario-based approach was used to model land use evolution. Nine urbanization scenarios for 2100 were developed: three of them assume a "current tend" land use evolution, characterized by urban sprawl, while six others assume a sustainable spatial planning, leading to an increase in density of residential areas as well as an increase in urban functions diversity. A study commissioned by the EU has estimated a 30 % increase in the 100-year discharge for River Meuse by the year 2100. Inundation modeling was conducted for the present day 100-year flood (HQ100) and for a discharge HQ100 + 30%, using the model Wolf 2D and a 5m grid resolution Digital Elevation Model (Ernst et al. 2009). Based on five different damage curves related to land use categories, the relative damage was deduced from the computed inundation maps. Finally, specific prices were associated to each land use category and allowed assessing absolute damages, which were subsequently aggregated to obtain a damage value for each of the 19 municipalities crossed by River Meuse. Results show that flood damage is estimated to increase by 540 to 630 % between 2009 and 2100, reaching 2.1 to 2.4 billion Euros in 2100. These increases mainly involve municipalities downstream of a point where the floodplain width becomes significantly larger. The city of Liège, which is protected against a 100-year flood in the present situation, would undergo about 450 million Euros damage for a 100-year flood in the 2100, i.e. in-between 21% and 25 % of the whole damage increase. The influence of climate is three to eight times higher than the effect of land use change according to the land use evolution scenarios considered. Nevertheless, these two factors have a comparable influence on seven municipalities. Consequently, although a careful spatial planning would not considerably reduce the overall flood damage at the level of the Walloon part of the Meuse Valley, more sustainable spatial planning could efficiently reduce future flood damage at the level of several most critical municipalities. Reference Ernst, J, Dewals, B, Detrembleur, S, Archambeau, P, Erpicum, S, & Pirotton, M. (2010). Micro-scale flood risk analysis based on detailed 2D hydraulic modelling and high resolution geographic data. Natural Hazards, 55(2), 181-209.

Beckers, A.; Detrembleur, S.; Dewals, B. J.; Gouverneur, L.; Dujardin, S.; Archambeau, P.; Erpicum, S.; Pirotton, M.

2012-04-01

312

Economic-based projections of future land use in the conterminous United States under alternative policy scenarios.  

PubMed

Land-use change significantly contributes to biodiversity loss, invasive species spread, changes in biogeochemical cycles, and the loss of ecosystem services. Planning for a sustainable future requires a thorough understanding of expected land use at the fine spatial scales relevant for modeling many ecological processes and at dimensions appropriate for regional or national-level policy making. Our goal was to construct and parameterize an econometric model of land-use change to project future land use to the year 2051 at a fine spatial scale across the conterminous United States under several alternative land-use policy scenarios. We parameterized the econometric model of land-use change with the National Resource Inventory (NRI) 1992 and 1997 land-use data for 844 000 sample points. Land-use transitions were estimated for five land-use classes (cropland, pasture, range, forest, and urban). We predicted land-use change under four scenarios: business-as-usual, afforestation, removal of agricultural subsidies, and increased urban rents. Our results for the business-as-usual scenario showed widespread changes in land use, affecting 36% of the land area of the conterminous United States, with large increases in urban land (79%) and forest (7%), and declines in cropland (-16%) and pasture (-13%). Areas with particularly high rates of land-use change included the larger Chicago area, parts of the Pacific Northwest, and the Central Valley of California. However, while land-use change was substantial, differences in results among the four scenarios were relatively minor. The only scenario that was markedly different was the afforestation scenario, which resulted in an increase of forest area that was twice as high as the business-as-usual scenario. Land-use policies can affect trends, but only so much. The basic economic and demographic factors shaping land-use changes in the United States are powerful, and even fairly dramatic policy changes, showed only moderate deviations from the business-as-usual scenario. Given the magnitude of predicted land-use change, any attempts to identify a sustainable future or to predict the effects of climate change will have to take likely land-use changes into account. Econometric models that can simulate land-use change for broad areas with fine resolution are necessary to predict trends in ecosystem service provision and biodiversity persistence. PMID:22645830

Radeloff, V C; Nelson, E; Plantinga, A J; Lewis, D J; Helmers, D; Lawler, J J; Withey, J C; Beaudry, F; Martinuzzi, S; Butsic, V; Lonsdorf, E; White, D; Polasky, S

2012-04-01

313

Nested high-resolution modeling of the impact of urbanization on regional climate in three vast urban agglomerations in China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, the Weather Research and Forecasting Model, coupled to the Urban Canopy Model, is employed to simulate the impact of urbanization on the regional climate over three vast city agglomerations in China. Based on high-resolution land use and land cover data, two scenarios are designed to represent the nonurban and current urban land use distributions. By comparing the results of two nested, high-resolution numerical experiments, the spatial and temporal changes on surface air temperature, heat stress index, surface energy budget, and precipitation due to urbanization are analyzed and quantified. Urban expansion increases the surface air temperature in urban areas by about 1°C, and this climatic forcing of urbanization on temperature is more pronounced in summer and nighttime than other seasons and daytime. The heat stress intensity, which reflects the combined effects of temperature and humidity, is enhanced by about 0.5 units in urban areas. The regional incoming solar radiation increases after urban expansion, which may be caused by the reduction of cloud fraction. The increased temperature and roughness of the urban surface lead to enhanced convergence. Meanwhile, the planetary boundary layer is deepened, and water vapor is mixed more evenly in the lower atmosphere. The deficit of water vapor leads to less convective available potential energy and more convective inhibition energy. Finally, these combined effects may reduce the rainfall amount over urban areas, mainly in summer, and change the regional precipitation pattern to a certain extent.

Wang, Jun; Feng, Jinming; Yan, Zhongwei; Hu, Yonghong; Jia, Gensuo

2012-11-01

314

Camden County Land Use Update, 1986.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

During the 1980 planning process, the county adopted a set of general goals concerning Resource Protection, Resource Production, and Economic and Community Development. The information contained in the 1980 Land Use Plan provided the starting point for th...

1988-01-01

315

Agriculture, land use, and commercial biomass energy  

SciTech Connect

In this paper we have considered commercial biomass energy in the context of overall agriculture and land-use change. We have described a model of energy, agriculture, and land-use and employed that model to examine the implications of commercial biomass energy or both energy sector and land-use change carbon emissions. In general we find that the introduction of biomass energy has a negative effect on the extent of unmanaged ecosystems. Commercial biomass introduces a major new land use which raises land rental rates, and provides an incentive to bring more land into production, increasing the rate of incursion into unmanaged ecosystems. But while the emergence of a commercial biomass industry may increase land-use change emissions, the overall effect is strongly to reduce total anthropogenic carbon emissions. Further, the higher the rate of commercial biomass energy productivity, the lower net emissions. Higher commercial biomass energy productivity, while leading to higher land-use change emissions, has a far stronger effect on fossil fuel carbon emissions. Highly productive and inexpensive commercial biomass energy technologies appear to have a substantial depressing effect on total anthropogenic carbon emissions, though their introduction raises the rental rate on land, providing incentives for greater rates of deforestation than in the reference case.

Edmonds, J.A.; Wise, M.A.; Sands, R.D.; Brown, R.A.; Kheshgi, H.

1996-06-01

316

[Land use pattern and its dynamic changes in Amur tiger distribution region].  

PubMed

Land use and land cover change has been the primary cause for the habitat loss and fragmentation in the distribution region of Amur tiger (Panthera tigris altaica). Based on the spatiotemporal changes of land use and land cover in the distribution region, as well as their effects on the population dynamics of Amur tiger, this paper analyzed the development process and its characteristics of the main land use types (agricultural land, forest land, and construction land) in this region, with the land use change history being divided chronically into three distinctive periods, i.e., ancient times (prior to 1860), modern times (1860-1949), and contemporary times (after 1949). The results showed that the sporadic land use in ancient times had no significant effects on the survival of Amur tiger, while the extensive and intensive land use after the 1860s was mainly responsible for the decrease of Amur tiger population and its living space. Since 1949, the Amur tiger distribution region has been divided into two parts, i.e., Northeast China and Russia Far East. The differences in land use pattern, policy, and intensity between these two parts led to different survival status of Amur tiger. The key driving forces for the land use change in Amur tiger distribution region were human population increase, policy change, and increased productivity. PMID:19637615

Li, Zhong-wen; Wu, Jian-guo; Kou, Xiao-jun; Tian, Yu; Wang, Tian-ming; Mu, Pu; Ge, Jian-ping

2009-03-01

317

Effects of land use on water quality of the Fountain Creek alluvial aquifer, east-central Colorado  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Water-quality data were collected from the Fountain Creek alluvial aquifer in 1988 and 1989 as part of the Toxic-Waste Ground-Water Contamination Program. These data indicate that dissolved solids, most major ions, fluoride, ammonium, boron, lithium, selenium, and strontium were more concentrated in the agricultural land-use area than in the upgradient urban land-use area. Nitrate and phosphate had significantly larger concentrations, and volatile organic compounds had significantly greater detection frequencies in the urban land-use area.

Chafin, Daniel T.

1996-01-01

318

Longitudinal changes in biota along four New Zealand streams: Declines and improvements in stream health related to land use  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied four streams in southern New Zealand in 2002 to document downstream changes in water quality, habitat, and stream biota in relation to land use. Two streams were in catchments that had increasing intensity of agricultural development downstream from relatively pristine headwaters. A third stream had the most intense land use in the headwaters and a riparian corridor of

Dev K. Niyogi; Mark Koren; Chris J. Arbuckle; Colin R. Townsend

2007-01-01

319

Mixed land-use planning on the periphery of large Asian cities: the case of Nonthaburi Province, Thailand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Throughout Asia, rapid and uncontrolled urbanization has created serious environmental problems, and the development of sustainable\\u000a urban–rural planning methods is of critical importance. To improve our understanding of mixed urban–rural land uses and provide\\u000a future practical visions for regional planning, we conducted a case study of the urban fringe of the Bangkok Metropolitan\\u000a Region, Thailand. After identifying local irrigation districts

Yuji HaraAi HiramatsuRyo Honda; Ai Hiramatsu; Ryo Honda; Makiko Sekiyama; Hirotaka Matsuda

2010-01-01

320

Land-use planning of Minoo Island, Iran, towards sustainable land-use management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Land-use planning is one aspect of sustainable development that determines the integrity of socioeconomic and ecological nuance. Land evaluation is an approach to sustainable land-use planning, which predicts the capability of the land-use system. This means that a specific land area should be under specific use, considering certain factors and characteristics of the land and its location. In other words,

Sara Kaffashi; Mandana Yavari

2011-01-01

321

The Land Gini Coefficient and Its Application for Land Use Structure Analysis in China  

PubMed Central

We introduce the Gini coefficient to assess the rationality of land use structure. The rapid transformation of land use in China provides a typical case for land use structure analysis. In this study, a land Gini coefficient (LGC) analysis tool was developed. The land use structure rationality was analyzed and evaluated based on statistical data for China between 1996 and 2008. The results show: (1)The LGC of three major land use types–farmland, built-up land and unused land–was smaller when the four economic districts were considered as assessment units instead of the provinces. Therefore, the LGC is spatially dependent; if the calculation unit expands, then the LGC decreases, and this relationship does not change with time. Additionally, land use activities in different provinces of a single district differed greatly. (2) At the national level, the LGC of the three main land use types indicated that during the 13 years analyzed, the farmland and unused land were evenly distributed across China. However, the built-up land distribution was relatively or absolutely unequal and highlights the rapid urbanization in China. (3) Trends in the distribution of the three major land use types are very different. At the national level, when using a district as the calculation unit, the LGC of the three main land use types increased, and their distribution became increasingly concentrated. However, when a province was used as the calculation unit, the LGC of the farmland increased, while the LGC of the built-up and unused land decreased. These findings indicate that the distribution of the farmland became increasingly concentrated, while the built-up land and unused land became increasingly uniform. (4) The LGC analysis method of land use structure based on geographic information systems (GIS) is flexible and convenient.

Zheng, Xinqi; Xia, Tian; Yang, Xin; Yuan, Tao; Hu, Yecui

2013-01-01

322

The land gini coefficient and its application for land use structure analysis in china.  

PubMed

We introduce the Gini coefficient to assess the rationality of land use structure. The rapid transformation of land use in China provides a typical case for land use structure analysis. In this study, a land Gini coefficient (LGC) analysis tool was developed. The land use structure rationality was analyzed and evaluated based on statistical data for China between 1996 and 2008. The results show: (1)The LGC of three major land use types-farmland, built-up land and unused land-was smaller when the four economic districts were considered as assessment units instead of the provinces. Therefore, the LGC is spatially dependent; if the calculation unit expands, then the LGC decreases, and this relationship does not change with time. Additionally, land use activities in different provinces of a single district differed greatly. (2) At the national level, the LGC of the three main land use types indicated that during the 13 years analyzed, the farmland and unused land were evenly distributed across China. However, the built-up land distribution was relatively or absolutely unequal and highlights the rapid urbanization in China. (3) Trends in the distribution of the three major land use types are very different. At the national level, when using a district as the calculation unit, the LGC of the three main land use types increased, and their distribution became increasingly concentrated. However, when a province was used as the calculation unit, the LGC of the farmland increased, while the LGC of the built-up and unused land decreased. These findings indicate that the distribution of the farmland became increasingly concentrated, while the built-up land and unused land became increasingly uniform. (4) The LGC analysis method of land use structure based on geographic information systems (GIS) is flexible and convenient. PMID:24130764

Zheng, Xinqi; Xia, Tian; Yang, Xin; Yuan, Tao; Hu, Yecui

2013-10-09

323

Forests and competing land uses in Kenya  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Indigenous forests in Kenya, as in other developing countries, are under heavy pressure from competing agricultural land uses and from unsustainable cutting. The problem in Kenya is compounded by high population growth rates and an agriculturally based economy, which, even with efforts to control birth rates and industrialize, will persist into the next century. Both ecological and economic consequences of these pressures need to be considered in land-use decision making for land and forest management to be effective. This paper presents one way to combine ecological and economic considerations. The status of principal forest areas in Kenya is summarized and competing land uses compared on the basis of ecological functions and economic analysis. Replacement uses do not match the ecological functions of forest, although established stands of tree crops (forest plantations, fuel wood, tea) can have roughly comparable effects on soil and water resources. Indigenous forests have high, although difficult to estimate, economic benefits from tourism and protection of downstream agricultural productivity. Economic returns from competing land uses range widely, with tea having the highest and fuel wood plantations having returns comparable to some annual crops and dairying. Consideration of ecological and economic factors together suggests some trade-offs for improving land allocation decisions and several management opportunities for increasing benefits or reducing costs from particular land uses. The evaluation also suggests a general strategy for forest land management in Kenya.

Allaway, James; Cox, Pamela M. J.

1989-03-01

324

Combined Impact of Spatial Scale, Land Use, and Climate on Streamflow and Water Quality  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Human activities such as urban development and intensification of agriculture change landscape profoundly and pervasively. Recognition of the strong association between land use and water quality, and between human health and clean water, has increasingly focused attention on the relationships between catchment characteristics and water quality. While most previous studies that relate water quality to land use are based on small-scale experiments, further studies are required at a wider range of spatial scale to further our understanding. In addition, very little work has addressed the dynamics of nutrient fluxes at both different spatial and temporal scales. Consequently the issue of scale in understanding nutrient behavior has been poorly addressed, particularly so for spatial scale. Therefore, this study addresses the impact of spatial scale along with land use and climate impact on water quality for 50 different catchments around the world. These catchments have a wide range of spatial scales (21 - 1.8 x 1012 m2), land uses (i.e. urban, agricultural, forest, etc.), and climates (i.e. arid, semi-arid, temperate, tropical, etc.). Specific research questions addressed are: (1) How does spatial scale affect water quality (specifically nitrogen yield)? (2) How do land use and climate affect nitrogen yield? and (3) How do land use and climate interact with spatial scale to affect nitrogen yield? First, investigating the positive co-linearity between nitrogen yield and corresponding discharge for each catchment, results demonstrate that smaller catchments have larger slopes (nitrogen yield versus discharge, herein N yield rate) and this rate decreases as catchment area increases. Second, examining the land use effect on N yield rate indicate that highly perturbed catchments (urban and agricultural) often have higher N yield rate compared to less perturbed catchments (forest and pasture) while climate tends to affect nitrogen yield rather than N yield rate. Third, a complicated interaction among scale, land use, and climate seems to affect N yield and that combined effect could go in the same direction causing an increase in N yield or in opposite directions resulting in a decrease in N yield, for instance, a small (scale) urban or agricultural (land use) catchment in a temperate (climate) region has notably higher N yield compared to a big minimally perturbed catchment in an arid region. Finally and importantly, our results indicate that degree of perturbation and -to some extent- land use of a region could be acceptably predicted on the bases of only a few measurements of discharge and corresponding N concentration measurements at a certain point (e.g. outlet of a catchment).

Al-lafta, H. S.; Gallo, E.; Meixner, T.

2011-12-01

325

Accumulation of Carbon and Nitrogen in Residential Soils with Different Land-Use Histories  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urban areas are growing in size and importance; however, we are only beginning to understand how the process of urbanization\\u000a influences ecosystem dynamics. In particular, there have been few assessments of how the land-use history and age of residential\\u000a soils influence carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) pools and fluxes, especially at depth. In this study, we used 1-m soil cores

Steve M. Raciti; Peter M. Groffman; Jennifer C. Jenkins; Richard V. Pouyat; Timothy J. Fahey; Steward T. A. Pickett; Mary L. Cadenasso

2011-01-01

326

Analyzing simulated patterns of land use change  

SciTech Connect

Land use change is one of major factors affecting global environmental conditions. Modeling land use change requires combining spatially-explicit ecological information with socioeconomic factors. A modeling system is being developed that integrates sub-models of human colonization with submodels of ecological interactions to estimate patterns and rates of deforestation under different immigration and land management scenarios. The model projects maps of land use change that can be compared to remote sensing measures using spatial statistics. The simulation modeling system is being applied to the Brazilian state of Rondonia where deforestation has increased at a faster rate over the past two decades than anywhere else in the world. The model projections suggest that land management can both reduce carbon release and improve the length of time farmers are able to remain on the land. The model provides a tool to evaluate the spatial and temporal implications of various land management options.

Dale, V.H.; O'Neill, R.V.; Southworth, F. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Loureiro, F. (Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States))

1992-01-01

327

Analyzing simulated patterns of land use change  

SciTech Connect

Land use change is one of major factors affecting global environmental conditions. Modeling land use change requires combining spatially-explicit ecological information with socioeconomic factors. A modeling system is being developed that integrates sub-models of human colonization with submodels of ecological interactions to estimate patterns and rates of deforestation under different immigration and land management scenarios. The model projects maps of land use change that can be compared to remote sensing measures using spatial statistics. The simulation modeling system is being applied to the Brazilian state of Rondonia where deforestation has increased at a faster rate over the past two decades than anywhere else in the world. The model projections suggest that land management can both reduce carbon release and improve the length of time farmers are able to remain on the land. The model provides a tool to evaluate the spatial and temporal implications of various land management options.

Dale, V.H.; O`Neill, R.V.; Southworth, F. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Loureiro, F. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States)

1992-07-01

328

Stream Biodiversity: The Ghost of Land Use Past  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of past land use on the present-day diversity of stream invertebrates and fish was investigated by comparing watersheds with different land-use history. Whole watershed land use in the 1950s was the best predictor of present-day diversity, whereas riparian land use and watershed land use in the 1990s were comparatively poor indicators. Our findings indicate that past land-use activity,

J. S. Harding; E. F. Benfield; P. V. Bolstad; G. S. Helfman; E. B. D. Jones

1998-01-01

329

Characterization of salinity and selenium loading and land-use change in Montrose Arroyo, western Colorado, from 1992 to 2010  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Salinity and selenium are naturally occurring and perva-sive in the lower Gunnison River Basin of Colorado, includ-ing the watershed of Montrose Arroyo. Although some of the salinity and selenium loading in the Montrose Arroyo study area is from natural sources, additional loading has resulted from the introduction of intensive irrigation in the water-shed. With increasing land-use change and the conversion from irrigated agricultural to urban land, land managers and stakeholders need information about the long-term effects of land-use change on salinity and selenium loading. In response to the need to advance salinity and selenium science, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Bureau of Reclamation, Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Forum, and Colorado River Water Conservation District, developed a study to characterize salinity and selenium loading and how salinity and selenium sources may relate to land-use change in Montrose Arroyo. This report characterizes changes in salinity and selenium loading to Montrose Arroyo from March 1992 to February 2010 and the magnitude of land-use change between unirrigated desert, irrigated agricultural, and urban land-use/land-cover types, and discusses how the respective loads may relate to land-use change. Montrose Arroyo is an approximately 8-square-mile watershed in Montrose County in western Colorado. Salinity and selenium were studied in Montrose Arroyo in a 2001 study as part of a salinity- and selenium-control lateral project. The robust nature of the historical dataset indicated that Montrose Arroyo was a prime watershed for a follow-up study. Two sites from the 2001 study were used to monitor salinity and selenium loads in Montrose Arroyo in the follow-up study. Over the period of 2 water years and respective irrigation seasons (2008-2010), 27 water-quality samples were collected and streamflow measurements were made at the historical sites MA2 and MA4. Salinity and selenium concen-trations, loads, and streamflow were compared between the pre-lateral-project and post-growth periods and between the post-lateral-project and post-growth periods. No significant differences in streamflow, salinity (concen-tration and load), or selenium (concentration and load) were found at MA4 between the pre-lateral project and post-growth periods or between the post-lateral-project and post-growth periods. The statistical analysis indicated no significant dif-ferences in streamflow or salinity (both concentration and load) between the pre-lateral-project and post-growth periods or between the post-lateral-project and post-growth periods at MA2; however, selenium concentrations and loads were significantly greater between the pre-lateral-project and post-growth periods and between the post-lateral-project and post-growth periods at MA2. Land-use change between MA4 and MA2 may have contributed to the determined differences in selenium values, but the specific mechanisms causing the increases between periods are unknown. The size of the urbanized area in Montrose Arroyo was quantified for 1993, 2002, and 2009 by using a geographic information system (GIS) with imagery from the specified years. The greatest change in land use from 1993 to 2009 was the increase of urban land due to conversion from irrigated agricultural land. The conversion of previously unirrigated desert to urban land or irrigated agriculture could become more common if urbanization and development expands into the eastern part of the watershed because a majority of the un-urbanized land in eastern Montrose Arroyo is unirrigated desert. By applying GIS to the City of Montrose 2008 com-prehensive growth plan, it was estimated that approximately 786 acres of previously irrigated agricultural land will be converted to urban land and 689 acres of unirrigated desert will be converted to urban land under the plan scenario. New development on previously unirrigated land in shale areas would likely increase the potential for mobilization of sele-nium and salinity from new sources to Montrose Arroyo and the Lower Gunnis

Moore, Jennifer L.

2011-01-01

330

Land use and management in PR China: problems and strategies.  

PubMed

The conflict between population and land in China results from high population density, declining availability of arable land, decrease in cropland, overgrazing, inability to afford imported grain, and expansion of land use for urbanization. Unwise decisions have been made. These decisions have resulted in land degradation, soil erosion, deforestation, degradation of grasslands, waste of land for freight storage or waste disposal due to low grain prices, and nonagricultural constructions on croplands. Ineffective land management problems are identified as: 1) the lack of an economic means of guiding land use and land is not valued; the lack of any mechanism to ensure economic land use including public lands which are not accounted for with rent; 2) the lack of integration of departments into the decision making structure and too many departments making decisions about the same land; 3) the lack of choice in land use which results in higher government departments being unaware of local conditions, and the lack of appropriate investment which results in short-term exploitation; and 4) surveys are inadequate for decision making. The strategies suggested for improvement in land use management include low resources expenditure in production and appropriate goods consumption. The goal is to sustain subsistence with gradual improvement through development. Land resources must be conserved and the environment protected. The solutions to depend on food imports or reduce the nutritional level deny the equally plausible solution to generate a higher level of input. The profit motive and scientific agricultural practices could accomplish this end. Reclamation for cropland is possible for 8 million hectares of wasteland in wide areas in Sanjiang Plain and 3.4 million hectares in small pockets in Eastern Monsoon China. Traditional agriculture must be transformed and an optimum scale of land operation established. Land tenure reform is necessary. Regional conditions must prevail as the guiding principles. Several implementation strategies are suggested: controlling population growth and establishing a balance between expenditure and land productivity, expanding and conserving forest areas, increasing agricultural investment, reforming land tenure, adjusting land product prices, strengthening land administration, developing other industries, and reforming economic and political systems. PMID:12317717

Cai, Y

1990-10-01

331

Influence of land use\\/cover change on land surface temperature of Laizhou Bay Plain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many costal regions in China are confronted with challenging problems of limited land resources and increasing population. Saline lands, tidelands and wetlands have been enclosed for agricultural land uses and urbanization buffer zones under a series of reclamation programs. A combined approach of remote sensing (RS) and geographical information system (GIS) was used in this study to identify the impact

Jicai Ning; Zhiqiang Gao; Zulu Zhang; Zijun Li

2007-01-01

332

Effects of Human Land Use on Western Burrowing Owl Foraging and Activity Budgets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Western Burrowing Owls (Athene cunicularia hypugaea) often live in close proximity to humans, yet their behavioral responses to anthropogenic land use are largely unknown. We compared the diurnal foraging and activity budgets of adult male Burrowing Owls during the breeding seasons of 2004 and 2005 at three urban and three rural sites in northwestern Texas. The owls (N 5 17

Erica D. Chipman; Nancy E. McIntyre; Richard E. Strauss; Mark C. Wallace; James D. Ray; Clint W. Boal

2008-01-01

333

Effects of land use changes on streamflow generation in the Rhine basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hydrological regime of the Rhine basin is expected to shift from a combined snowmelt-rainfall regime to a more rainfall-dominated regime because of climate change, leading to more extreme flood peaks and low flows. Land use changes may reinforce the effects of this shift through urbanization or may counteract them through, for example, afforestation. In this study, we investigate the

R. T. W. L. Hurkmans; W. Terink; R. Uijlenhoet; E. J. Moors; P. A. Troch; P. H. Verburg

2009-01-01

334

Land Use Land Cover Change in the U.S. Great Lakes Basin 1992 to 2001  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pace of Land Use\\/Land Cover (LULC) change in the Great Lakes, particularly in urban and suburban areas, far exceeds that predicted by population growth alone. Thus, quantification of LULC and change through time may be a key factor in understanding the near-shore ecology of this system. The work described in this paper is part of a larger effort called

Peter T. Wolter; Carol A. Johnston; Gerald J. Niemi

2006-01-01

335

Linking land use with household vehicle emissions in the central puget sound: methodological framework and findings  

Microsoft Academic Search

A leading cause of air pollution in many urban regions is mobile source emissions that are largely attributable to household vehicle travel. While household travel patterns have been previously related with land use in the literature (Crane, R., 1996. Journal of the American Planning Association 62 (1, Winter); Cervero, R. and Kockelman, C., 1997. Transportation Research Part D 2 (3),

Lawrence D. Frank; Brian Stone Jr.; William Bachman

2000-01-01

336

Land-use planning: One geologist's viewpoint  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Planning for the best use of land and its resources should take fully into consideration the long-term consequences of each type of use in order to stretch out most beneficially the well-being of society in the future, and to protect the integrity of the land and its biota. Three kinds of land-use can be distinguished for planning purposes. Reversible land-use leaves the land, after use, essentially as it was before; little or no man-induced modification remains. An example of reversible use in the United States is the designation of certain public lands as Wilderness. Terminal land-use commits the land to a chosen particular use, and any attempt at reversal requires either time-scales that are long compared with the expected lifespan of the social and political institution, or a commitment of resources that is too high for society to consider worth bearing. Examples of terminal land-use are location of metropolises and sites of toxic and/or radioactive waste disposals; by its nature the list grows monotonically. A current source of some social tension arises from the fact that Wilderness designation appears to assign a terminal-use status by legislative fiat, whereas in fact the land is being used reversibly. In between these two extremes of reversible and terminal land-use, the bulk of land-use is sequential, in which each use of land changes its potentials and configurations, and these changes are mainly irreversible. One goal of geologic input to land-use planning is to identify the various pathways along which a given land may be used, in order to extract the greatest benefit to society with the least harm to the land and its life. The proposed planning format consists of identification of (1) types of land, (2) types of use, (3) nature of consumption of resources when (2) acts upon (1), (4) identification of alternative pathways of land recovery to the original or some new state, and (5) due consideration of potentials for future use. Some consumptions are tangible; others, such as consumption of future options, are not. However, all must be considered in deciding how the land should be used, and both internal and environmental costs need to be included in the planning. Predictive methodology for land-use planning and for estimations of uncertainties must be developed to allow for the needs and consequences of both land-use and land recovery. Hardin (1968) spoke of the tragedy of the commons; White (1967) discussed the constraints of the western cultural heritage on our attitude towards our land and its resources. Land-use presents an archetype of the problem of the commons; only by community awareness of the dire consequences of the latent tragedy can effective societal action begin for the stewardship of the commons. Land-use decisions involve value judgement and are problems without technical solutions; but they require technical input, and earth scientists have a major role to play in both providing the input and in pointing out the implications of alternative decisions. ?? 1983.

Zen, E. -a.

1983-01-01

337

Projecting Global Land-Use Change and Its Effect on Ecosystem Service Provision and Biodiversity with Simple Models  

PubMed Central

Background As the global human population grows and its consumption patterns change, additional land will be needed for living space and agricultural production. A critical question facing global society is how to meet growing human demands for living space, food, fuel, and other materials while sustaining ecosystem services and biodiversity [1]. Methodology/Principal Findings We spatially allocate two scenarios of 2000 to 2015 global areal change in urban land and cropland at the grid cell-level and measure the impact of this change on the provision of ecosystem services and biodiversity. The models and techniques used to spatially allocate land-use/land-cover (LULC) change and evaluate its impact on ecosystems are relatively simple and transparent [2]. The difference in the magnitude and pattern of cropland expansion across the two scenarios engenders different tradeoffs among crop production, provision of species habitat, and other important ecosystem services such as biomass carbon storage. For example, in one scenario, 5.2 grams of carbon stored in biomass is released for every additional calorie of crop produced across the globe; under the other scenario this tradeoff rate is 13.7. By comparing scenarios and their impacts we can begin to identify the global pattern of cropland and irrigation development that is significant enough to meet future food needs but has less of an impact on ecosystem service and habitat provision. Conclusions/Significance Urban area and croplands will expand in the future to meet human needs for living space, livelihoods, and food. In order to jointly provide desired levels of urban land, food production, and ecosystem service and species habitat provision the global society will have to become much more strategic in its allocation of intensively managed land uses. Here we illustrate a method for quickly and transparently evaluating the performance of potential global futures.

Nelson, Erik; Sander, Heather; Hawthorne, Peter; Conte, Marc; Ennaanay, Driss; Wolny, Stacie; Manson, Steven; Polasky, Stephen

2010-01-01

338

Regional decline of an iconic amphibian associated with elevation, land-use change, and invasive species.  

PubMed

Ecological theory predicts that species with restricted geographic ranges will have the highest probability of extinction, but species with extensive distributions and high population densities can also exhibit widespread population losses. In the western United States populations of northern leopard frogs (Lithobates pipiens)-historically one of the most widespread frogs in North America-have declined dramatically in abundance and geographic distribution. To assess the status of leopard frogs in Colorado and evaluate causes of decline, we coupled statewide surveys of 196 historically occupied sites with intensive sampling of 274 wetlands stratified by land use. We used an information-theoretic approach to evaluate the contributions of factors at multiple spatial extents in explaining the contemporary distribution of leopard frogs. Our results indicate leopard frogs have declined in Colorado, but this decline was regionally variable. The lowest proportion of occupied wetlands occurred in eastern Colorado (2-28%), coincident with urban development and colonization by non-native bullfrogs (Lithobates catesbeianus). Variables at several spatial extents explained observed leopard frog distributional patterns. In low-elevation wetlands introduced fishes, bullfrogs, and urbanization or suburbanization associated negatively with leopard frog occurrence, whereas wetland area was positively associated with occurrence. Leopard frogs were more abundant and widespread west of the Continental Divide, where urban development and bullfrog abundance were low. Although the pathogenic chytrid Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) was not selected in our best-supported models, the nearly complete extirpation of leopard frogs from montane wetlands could reflect the individual or interactive effects of Bd and climate patterns. Our results highlight the importance of considering multiple, competing hypotheses to explain species declines, particularly when implicated factors operate at different spatial extents. PMID:21342266

Johnson, Pieter T J; McKenzie, Valerie J; Peterson, Anna C; Kerby, Jacob L; Brown, Jennifer; Blaustein, Andrew R; Jackson, Tina

2011-02-22

339

Effect of Land-Use Patterns on Total Nitrogen Concentration in the Upstream Regions of the Haihe River Basin, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nutrient loading into rivers is generally increased by human-induced land-use changes and can lead to increased surface water pollution. Understanding the extent to which land-use patterns influence nutrient loading is critical to the development of best-management practices aimed at water-quality improvement. In this study, we investigated total nitrogen (total N) concentration as a function of land-use patterns and compared the relative significance of the identified land-use variables for 26 upstream watersheds of the Haihe River basin. Seven land-use intensity and nine landscape complexity variables were selected to form the land-use pattern metrics on the landscape scale. After analyzing the significance of the land-use pattern metrics, we obtained five dominant principal components: human-induced land-use intensity, landscape patch-area complexity, area-weighted landscape patch-shape complexity, forest and grassland area, and landscape patch-shape complexity. A linear regression model with a stepwise selection protocol was used to identify an optimal set of land-use pattern predictors. The resulting contributions to the total N concentration were 50% (human-induced land-use intensity), 23.13% (landscape patch-shape complexity), 14.38% (forest and grassland area), and 12.50% (landscape patch-area complexity), respectively. The regression model using land-use measurements can explain 87% of total N variability in the upstream regions of Haihe River. The results indicated that human-related land-use factors, such as residential areas, population, and road density, had the most significant effect on N concentration. The agricultural area (30.1% of the study region) was not found to be significantly correlated with total N concentration due to little irrigative farmland and rainfall. Results of the study could help us understand the implications of potential land-use changes that often occur as a result of the rapid development in China.

Sun, Ranhao; Chen, Liding; Chen, Wenlin; Ji, Yuhe

2013-01-01

340

Mapping Global Urban Extent and Intensity for Environmental Monitoring and Modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

The human dimensions of global environmental change have received increased attention in policy, decision- making, research, and even the media. However, the influence of urban areas in global change processes is still often assumed to be negligible. Although local environmental conditions such as the urban heat island effect are well-documented, little or no work has focused on cross-scale interactions, or

A. Schneider; M. A. Friedl

2007-01-01

341

Journal of Land Use and Environmental Law  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Journal is published twice a year by the Journal of Land Use & Environmental Law at the Florida State University College of Law. (ISSN 0892-4480) Articles are indexed in Environmental Periodicals Bibliography and are also available on both Westlaw

2007-02-07

342

Yankee Lands: A Land Use Curriculum Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In response to issues surrounding the acquisition and planning of Pisgah State Park, New Hampshire, the Antioch/New England Graduate School has produced this set of activities related to land use decisions. Contained are learning experiences designed to help students appreciate New England's natural and cultural history in order to encourage a…

Antioch/New England Graduate School, Keene, NH.

343

Current Research in Land Use Impact Assessment  

EPA Science Inventory

There is a continuing debate on how to best evaluate land use impacts within the LCA framework. While this problem is spatially and temporally complex, recent advances in tool development are providing options to allow a GIS-based analysis of various ecosystem services given the...

344

Future Land Use Plan: Orion Township, Michigan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Orion Township Future Land Use Plan is the culmination of two years of study by the Orion Township Planning Commission. Inventory for the Township indicated a large amount of the developed land as residential (27.9%). Basic problems areas were noted a...

1970-01-01

345

Land Use Baseline Report Savannah River Site  

SciTech Connect

This document is to serve as a resource for Savannah River Site managers, planners, and SRS stakeholders by providing a general description of the site and land-use factors important to future use decisions and plans. The intent of this document is to be comprehensive in its review of SRS and the surrounding area.

Noah, J.C.

1995-06-29

346

Community Context, Land Use, and First Birth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article examines the influence of community context and land use on the monthly odds of first birth in a society in the midst of dramatic fertility transition. The theoretical framework guiding our work predicts that proximity to nonfamily services should delay first births by creating opportunities for competing nonfamily activities and…

Ghimire, Dirgha J.; Axinn, William G.

2010-01-01

347

Land use regulation and new construction  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the relationship between land use regulation and residential construction. We characterize regulations as either adding explicit costs, uncertainty, or delays to the development process. The theoretical framework suggests that the effects on new construction vary by the type of regulation. Using quarterly data from a panel of 44 U.S. metropolitan areas between 1985 and 1996, we find

Christopher J. Mayer; C. Tsuriel Somerville

2000-01-01

348

Land Use History of North America  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This book describes the historical and ongoing changes in land use and land cover for several regions around the U.S. Issues which are addressed include the types of changes that are occurring now and how fast they are occurring; a comparison of these changes with those in the past; and the consequences for future environmental quality and the habitability of the planet.

349

Land Use Plan, Saluda County, South Carolina.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report presents a plan for future land use in Saluda County, S.C. It is based upon analyses of physical and socio-economic determinants which are expected to influence development in the county between now and 1990. The report suggests programs for im...

1973-01-01

350

Principal land use changes anticipated in Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Major changes in land use may be anticipated in Europe in the decades to come as a result of technological, socio-economic and political developments as well as global environmental change. The type and effects of these changes will strongly depend on policy decisions which are governed, amongst others, by: (i) an increasing agricultural productivity; (ii) an increasing realization of the

J. Bouma; G. Varallyay; N. H. Batjes

1998-01-01

351

Land Use Interpretation in Flood Damage Estimation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This thesis examines the role of geographic land use interpretation in flood damage estimation. Sample flood data were drawn from the 1998 flood event along San Francisquito Creek in northern Santa Clara County, California. Spatial flood data for the event were collected from the Santa Clara Valley Water District (the District); depth-damage factors and the flood damage equations were both

Sharon Michelle Metzler

2011-01-01

352

Social Organization, Population, and Land Use*  

PubMed Central

We present a new approach to the investigation of human influences on environmental change that explicitly adds consideration of social organization. This approach identifies social organization as an influence on the environment that is independent of population size, affluence, and technology. The framework we present also identifies population events, such as births, that are likely to influence environmental outcomes beyond the consequences of population size. The theoretical framework we construct explains that explicit attention to social organization is necessary for micro-level investigation of the population-environment relationship because social organization influences both. We use newly available longitudinal, multilevel, mixed-method measures of local land use changes, local population dynamics, and social organization from the Nepalese Himalayas to provide empirical tests of this new framework. These tests reveal that measures of change in social organization are strongly associated with measures of change in land use, and that the association is independent of common measures of population size, affluence, and technology. Also, local birth events shape local land use changes and key proximate determinants of land use change. Together the empirical results demonstrate key new scientific opportunities arising from the approach we present.

Axinn, William G.; Ghimire, Dirgha J.

2011-01-01

353

Community Context, Land Use, and First Birth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines the influence of community context and land use on the monthly odds of first birth in a society in the midst of dramatic fertility transition. The theoretical framework guiding our work predicts that proximity to nonfamily services should delay first births by creating opportunities for competing nonfamily activities and…

Ghimire, Dirgha J.; Axinn, William G.

2010-01-01

354

Coastal land use control in Sweden  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several states in the United States recently adopted some form of special control over coastal land use, stimulated in part by the federal Coastal Zone Management Act of 1972. Under the act 30 states are eligible for grants to assist them in developing and administering such controls.Such controls have been greatly expanded, in Sweden, by recent amendments to existing legislation

Richard G. Hildreth

1975-01-01

355

Inter-regional comparison of land-use effects on stream metabolism  

USGS Publications Warehouse

1. Rates of whole-system metabolism (production and respiration) are fundamental indicators of ecosystem structure and function. Although first-order, proximal controls are well understood, assessments of the interactions between proximal controls and distal controls, such as land use and geographic region, are lacking. Thus, the influence of land use on stream metabolism across geographic regions is unknown. Further, there is limited understanding of how land use may alter variability in ecosystem metabolism across regions.2. Stream metabolism was measured in nine streams in each of eight regions (n = 72) across the United States and Puerto Rico. In each region, three streams were selected from a range of three land uses: agriculturally influenced, urban-influenced, and reference streams. Stream metabolism was estimated from diel changes in dissolved oxygen concentrations in each stream reach with correction for reaeration and groundwater input.3. Gross primary production (GPP) was highest in regions with little riparian vegetation (sagebrush steppe in Wyoming, desert shrub in Arizona/New Mexico) and lowest in forested regions (North Carolina, Oregon). In contrast, ecosystem respiration (ER) varied both within and among regions. Reference streams had significantly lower rates of GPP than urban or agriculturally influenced streams.4. GPP was positively correlated with photosynthetically active radiation and autotrophic biomass. Multiple regression models compared using Akaike's information criterion (AIC) indicated GPP increased with water column ammonium and the fraction of the catchment in urban and reference land-use categories. Multiple regression models also identified velocity, temperature, nitrate, ammonium, dissolved organic carbon, GPP, coarse benthic organic matter, fine benthic organic matter and the fraction of all land-use categories in the catchment as regulators of ER.5. Structural equation modelling indicated significant distal as well as proximal control pathways including a direct effect of land-use on GPP as well as SRP, DIN, and PAR effects on GPP; GPP effects on autotrophic biomass, organic matter, and ER; and organic matter effects on ER.6. Overall, consideration of the data separated by land-use categories showed reduced inter-regional variability in rates of metabolism, indicating that the influence of agricultural and urban land use can obscure regional differences in stream metabolism. ?? 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Bernot, M. J.; Sobota, D. J.; Hall, R. O.; Mulholland, P. J.; Dodds, W. K.; Webster, J. R.; Tank, J. L.; Ashkenas, L. R.; Cooper, L. W.; Dahm, C. N.; Gregory, S. V.; Grimm, N. B.; Hamilton, S. K.; Johnson, S. L.; McDowell, W. H.; Meyer, J. L.; Peterson, B.; Poole, G. C.; Maurice, Valett, H. M.; Arango, C.; Beaulieu, J. J.; Burgin, A. J.; Crenshaw, C.; Helton, A. M.; Johnson, L.; Merriam, J.; Niederlehner, B. R.; O'Brien, J. M.; Potter, J. D.; Sheibley, R. W.; Thomas, S. M.; Wilson, K.

2010-01-01

356

Comparison of empirical methods for building agent-based models in land use science  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of agent-based models (ABMs) for investigating land-use science questions has been increasing dramatically over the last decade. Modelers have moved from ‘proofs of existence’ toy models to case-specific, multi-scaled, multi-actor, and data-intensive models of land-use and land-cover change. An international workshop, titled ‘Multi-Agent Modeling and Collaborative Planning—Method2Method Workshop’, was held in Bonn in 2005 in order to bring

Derek T. Robinson; Daniel G. Brown; Dawn C. Parker; Pepijn Schreinemachers; Marco A. Janssen; Marco Huigen; Heidi Wittmer; Nick Gotts; Panomsak Promburom; Elena Irwin; Thomas Berger; Franz Gatzweiler; Cécile Barnaud

2007-01-01

357

Modelling policies for urban sustainability  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the EU research project PROPOLIS (Planning and Research of Policies for Land Use and Transport for Increasing Urban Sustainability) is to assess urban strategies and to demonstrate their long-term effect in European cities. To reach this goal, a comprehensive framework of methodologies including integrated land use, transport and environmental modelling as well as indicator, evaluation and presentation

Kari Lautso; Klaus Spiekermann; Michael Wegener

2002-01-01

358

Mapping Global Urban Extent and Intensity for Environmental Monitoring and Modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The human dimensions of global environmental change have received increased attention in policy, decision- making, research, and even the media. However, the influence of urban areas in global change processes is still often assumed to be negligible. Although local environmental conditions such as the urban heat island effect are well-documented, little or no work has focused on cross-scale interactions, or the ways in which local urban processes cumulatively impact global changes. Given the rapid rates of rural-urban migration, economic development and urban spatial expansion, it is becoming increasingly clear that the `ecological footprint' of cities may play a critical role in environmental changes at regional and global scales. Our understanding of the cumulative impacts of urban areas on natural systems has been limited foremost by a lack of reliable, accurate data on current urban form and extent at the global scale. The data sets that have emerged to fill this gap (LandScan, GRUMP, nighttime lights) suffer from a number of limitations that prevent widespread use. Building on our early efforts with MODIS data, our current work focuses on: (1) completing a new, validated map of global urban extent; and (2) developing methods to estimate the subpixel fraction of impervious surface, vegetation, and other land cover types within urbanized areas using coarse resolution satellite imagery. For the first task, a technique called boosting is used to improve classification accuracy and provides a means to integrate 500 m resolution MODIS data with ancillary data sources. For the second task, we present an approach for estimating percent cover that relies on continuous training data for a full range of city types. These exemplars are used as inputs to fuzzy neural network and regression tree algorithms to predict fractional amounts of land cover types with increased accuracy. Preliminary results for a global sample of 100 cities (which vary in population size, level of economic development, and spatial extent) show good agreement with the expected morphology in each region.

Schneider, A.; Friedl, M. A.

2007-05-01

359

Land use change analysis of Beykoz-Istanbul by means of satellite images and GIS.  

PubMed

Management and planning of the natural environment requires spatially accurate and timely information on land use patterns. With repetitive satellite coverage, the rapid evolution of computer technology and the integration of satellite and spatial data, the development of land use applications have become ubiquitous. The integration of Remote Sensing (RS) and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) has been widely applied and recognized as a powerful and effective tool in detecting land use change in urban areas. This paper presents the land use change analysis of the Beykoz region, which is the second largest administrative district of Istanbul. Land use changes and their impacts are monitored using Landsat (MSS - TM) and Spot 5 satellite data in the period of 1975-2001. The independent classification of each satellite image was used as a change analysis method and the resulting images were analyzed with GIS techniques. The results showed that forest area of Beykoz decreased from 80.55% to 70.5% between 1975 and 1984 and during the 1984-2001 periods, the forested area decreased from 70.5% to 68.86% and the urban growth rate was 4.65%. PMID:16114639

Musaoglu, N; Coskun, M; Kocabas, V

2005-01-01

360

Study of diffuse source pollution management for land use and drainage system planning.  

PubMed

This study aims to clarify the mass balance of pollutants during both dry periods and storm events and to discuss the effects of some strategies such as pollutant removal, land use planning and new drainage systems by simulation. Three subjects are discussed in this paper. First, the amount of pollutants entering Lake Biwa from an urban area have been roughly estimated by using data collected by the local government. Second, many additional samples were collected from road surfaces, house roofs and parking lots to consider the role of land use in pollutant runoff. Third, some ongoing BMP projects in an urban area are introduced. As a result, some ideas on how to solve the problem of diffuse pollution in urban areas have been obtained. PMID:11724489

Yamada, K; Funaki, T; Honda, S; Sugihara, M

2001-01-01

361

Responses of physical, chemical, and biological indicators of water quality to a gradient of agricultural land use in the Yakima River Basin, Washington  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The condition of 25 stream sites in the Yakima River Basin, Washington, were assessed by the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program. Multimetric condition indices were developed and used to rank sites on the basis of physical, chemical, and biological characteristics. These indices showed that sites in the Cascades and Eastern Cascades ecoregions were largely unimpaired. In contrast, all but two sites in the Columbia Basin ecoregion were impaired, some severely. Agriculture (nutrients and pesticides) was the primary factor associated with impairment and all impaired sites were characterized by multiple indicators of impairment. All indices of biological condition (fish, invertebrates, and algae) declined as agricultural intensity increased. The response exhibited by invertebrates and algae suggested a threshold response with conditions declining precipitously at relatively low levels of agricultural intensity and little response at moderate to high levels of agricultural intensity. This pattern of response suggests that the success of mitigation will vary depending upon where on the response curve the mitigation is undertaken. Because the form of the community condition response is critical to effective water-quality management, the National Water-Quality Assessment Program is conducting studies to examine the response of biota to gradients of land-use intensity and the relevance of these responses to water-quality management. These land-use gradient pilot studies will be conducted in several urban areas starting in 1999.

Cuffney, T. F.; Meador, M. R.; Porter, S. D.; Gurtz, M. E.

2000-01-01

362

[Land use pattern of Dalian City, Liaoning Province of Northeast China based on CA-Markov model and multi-objective optimization].  

PubMed

Based on the land use/cover maps of 1990, 2000, and 2010, topographic factors, and geographic elements, a CA-Markov model consisting of Markov transition matrix, multi-criteria evaluation, and cellular automata was developed to simulate the change trends of the future land use and landscape patterns of Dalian, Liaoning Province. The future land use pattern of Dalian was optimally allocated by the method of fuzzy multi-objective programming, based on the characters of land use structure, society, economy, and natural environment. The results indicated that in 1990-2010, the rapid development of Dalian showed the characteristics of the continued expansion of urban area and the reduction of cropland and woodland area. With the present speed of urban development, the landscape pattern and land use cover would have a great change, and the landscape fragmentation would be exacerbated. To optimize the land use structure could meet the demand of the future sustainable development of Dalian. PMID:24066554

Hu, Xue-Li; Xu, Ling; Zhang, Shu-Shen

2013-06-01

363

Determining land use changes by radar-optic fused images and monitoring its environmental impacts in Edremit region of western Turkey.  

PubMed

Rapid and unplanned urbanization and industrialization are the main reasons of environmental problems. If urban growth is not based on resource sustainability criteria and urban plans are not applied, natural and human resources are damaged dramatically. In this study, land use change and urban expansion in Edremit region of Turkey is determined by means of remote sensing techniques between 1971 and 2002. To improve the accuracy of land use/cover maps, the contribution of SAR images to optic images in defining land cover types was investigated. To determine the situation of land use/cover types in 2002 accurately, Landsat-5 images and Radarsat-1 images were fused, and the land use/cover types were defined from the fused images. Comparisons with the ground truth reveal that land use maps generated using the fuse technique are improved about 6% with an accuracy of 81.20%. To define land use types and urban expansion, screen digitizing and classification methods were used. The results of the study indicate that the urban areas have been increased 1,826 ha across the agricultural fields which are in land use capability classes of I and II, and significant environmental changes such as land degradation and degeneration of ground water quality occurred. PMID:18437516

Balik Sanli, Fusun; Kurucu, Yusuf; Esetlili, Mustafa Tolga

2008-04-24

364

Dynamics of land use\\/cover changes and the analysis of landscape fragmentation in Dhaka Metropolitan, Bangladesh  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rapid urban expansion due to large scale land use\\/cover change, particularly in developing countries becomes a matter of concern\\u000a since urbanization drives environmental change at multiple scales. Dhaka, the capital of Bangladesh, has been experienced\\u000a break-neck urban growth in the last few decades that resulted many adverse impacts on the environment. This paper was an attempt\\u000a to document spatio-temporal pattern

Ashraf M. Dewan; Yasushi Yamaguchi

365

Three very high resolution optical images for land use mapping of a suburban catchment: input to distributed hydrological models  

Microsoft Academic Search

Keywords : land cover mapping, very high resolution, remote sensing processing techniques, object oriented approach, distributed hydrological model, peri-urban area Urbanization and other modifications of land use affect the hydrological cycle of suburban catchments. In order to quantify these impacts, the AVuPUR project (Assessing the Vulnerability of Peri-Urban Rivers) is currently developing a distributed hydrological model that includes anthropogenic features.

Christine Jacqueminet; Saïda Kermadi; Kristell Michel; Sonja Jankowfsky; Isabelle Braud; Flora Branger; David Beal; Matthieu Gagnage

2010-01-01

366

Modeling and assessing land-use and hydrological processes to future land-use and climate change scenarios in watershed land-use planning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effective information regarding environmental responses to future land-use and climate change scenarios provides useful support\\u000a for decision making in land use planning, management and policies. This study developed an approach for modeling and examining\\u000a the impacts of future land-use and climate change scenarios on streamflow, surface runoff and groundwater discharge using\\u000a an empirical land-use change model, a watershed hydrological model

Yu-Pin Lin; Nien-Ming Hong; Pei-Jung Wu; Chien-Ju Lin

2007-01-01

367

Evaluation of Nonpoint-Source Contamination, Wisconsin; Land-Use and Best-Management-Practices Inventory, Selected Streamwater-Quality Data, Urban-Watershed Quality Assurance and Quality Control, Constituent Loads in Rural Streams, and Snowmelt-Runoff Analysis, Water Year 1994  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The objective of the watershed-management evaluation monitoring program in Wisconsin is to evaluate the effectiveness of best-management practices (BMP) for controlling nonpoint-source contamination in rural and urban watersheds. This report is an annual summary of the data collected for the program by the U.S Geological Survey and a report of the results of several different detailed analyses of the data. A land-use and BMP inventory is ongoing for 12 evaluation monitoring projects to track the sources of nonpoint-source pollution in each watershed and to document implementation of BMP's that may cause changes in the water quality of streams. Updated information is gathered each year, mapped, and stored in a geographic-information-system data base. Summaries of data collected during water years 1989-94 are presented. A water year is the period beginning October 1 and ending September 30; the water year is designated by the calendar year in which it ends. Suspended-sediment and total-phosphorus data (storm loads and annual loads) are summarized for eight rural sites. For all sites, the annual suspended-sediment or suspended-solids load for water year 1993 exceeded the average for the period of data collection; the minimum annual loads were transported in water year 1991 or 1992. Continuous dissolved-oxygen data were collected at seven rural sites during water year 1994. Data for water years 1990-93 are summarized and plotted in terms of percentage of time that a particular concentration is equaled or exceeded. Dissolved-oxygen concentrations in four streams were less than 9 mg/L at least 50 percent of the time, a condition that fails to meet suggested criterion for coldwater streams. The dissolved-oxygen probability curve for one of the coldwater streams is markedly different than the curves for the other streams, perhaps because of differences in aquatic biomass. Blank quality-assurance samples were collected at two of the urban evaluation monitoring sites to isolate contamination in the sample bottle, the automatic sampler and splitter, and the filtration system. Significant contamination caused excessive concentrations of dissolved chloride, alkalinity, and biochemical oxygen demand. The level of contamination may be large enough to affect data for water samples in which these analytes are present at low concentration. Further investigation is being done to determine the source of contamination and take measures to minimize its effect on the sampling. A preliminary regression analysis was done for the rural sites using data collected during water years 1989-93. Loads of suspended solids and total phosphorus in stormflow were regressed against various precipitation-related measures. The results indicate that, for most sites, changes in constituent load on the order of 40 to 50 percent could be detected with a statistical test. For two sites, the change would have to be 60 to 70 percent to be detected. A detailed comparison of snowmelt runoff and rainfall stormflow in urban and rural areas was done using data collected during water years 1985-93. For the rural sites where statistically significant differences were found between constituent loads in snowmelt and storm runoff, the loads of suspended solids and total phosphorus in snowmelt runoff were greater than those in storm runoff. For the urban sites where statistically significant differences were found between snowmelt and storm runoff, the loads of suspended solids and total phosphorus in storm runoff were greater than those in snowmelt runoff. The importance of including snowmelt runoff in designing and analyzing the effects of BMP's on streamwater quality, particularly in rural areas, is emphasized by these results.

Walker, J. F.; Graczyk, D. J.; Corsi, S. R.; Owens, D. W.; Wierl, J. A.

1995-01-01

368

The South Dakota Land Use Inventory System  

Microsoft Academic Search

All levels of government share the need for natural resource information. Remote Sensing and computer technology can provide a cost effective means of collecting, analyzing, and synthesizing some of this data.\\u000aOne of the principal areas where remotely sensed data is being applied in governmental natural resource planning is in the generation of land use, or more precisely, land cover

Paul A. Tessar

1975-01-01

369

Generalized probabilistic seimsic hazard estimates in terms of macroseismic intensity as a tool for risk assessment in urban areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of macroseismic intensity to parameterize earthquakes effects allows a direct link of hazard assessment with risk estimates in urban areas. This is particularly true in most of European countries where long lasting documentary history is available about the effects of past earthquakes. This is why the use of the computational code SASHA (Site Approach to Seismic Hazard Assessment), on purpose developed for a coherent probabilistic analysis of intensity data locally available (site seismic histories) to provided hazard estimates in terms of intensity by taking into account the specific nature of intensity (ordinal, discrete, finite in range, site-dependent) and relevant uncertainty (completeness, ill-definition of the oldest earthquakes, etc.), resulted of specific interest in the frame of the EU research project UPStratMAFA "Urban Disaster Prevention Strategies Using MAcroseismic Fields and FAult Sources" (Grant Agreement n. 230301/2011/613486/SUB/A5). In order to extend the application of this approach to sites and countries where local seismic histories are relatively poor, a new implementation of the code was provided, allowing to include in the hazard assessment information coming from different branches (historical studies, seismological instrumental information and numerical simulations). In particular, macroseismic information related to the seismic history locally documented, that represents the bulk of the considered information, can be integrated with "virtual" intensities deduced from epicentral data (via earthquake-specific probabilistic attenuation relationships) and "simulated" intensities deduced via physical/stochastic simulations from data concerning seismogenic faults activated during past earthquakes. This allows a more complete reconstruction of local seismic history and also reducing uncertainty affecting macroseismic data relative to older earthquakes. Results of some applications of the new release of the SASHA code will be described.

Albarello, Dario; D'Amico, Vera; Rotondi, Renata; Varini, Elsa; Zonno, Gaetano

2013-04-01

370

Wild bee pollinators provide the majority of crop visitation across land-use gradients in New Jersey and Pennsylvania, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary 1. Concern about a global decline in wild pollinators has increased interest in how pollinators are affected by human land use, and how this, in turn, affects crop pollination. 2. We measured wild bee visitation to four summer vegetable crops, and investigated associations between flower visitation rates and land-use intensity at local and landscape scales. We studied 29 farms

Rachael Winfree; Neal M. Williams; Hannah Gaines; John S. Ascher; Claire Kremen

2008-01-01

371

The Center for Land Use Interpretation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Founded in 1994, the Center for Land Use Interpretation (CLUI) is a research organization "interested in understanding the nature and extent of human interaction with the earth's surface." To this end, CLUI has adopted a multidisciplinary approach to engaging themselves with its mission and actively produces a number of exhibits on land use themes. The site contains information about visiting the center's headquarters in Los Angeles, and a complete archive of the in-house newsletter, Lay of the Land. Visitors will want to take a look at the ongoing programs and projects, which include tours, information on the residency program for landscape interpreters, and the rather creative extrapolative projects. The definitive highlight of the site is the online CLUI Land Use Database which allows users to search an interactive map of the United States or perform a keyword search to look for sites that are unusual and exemplary throughout the country. Each listing generally contains a brief description, some type of visual documentation, and external website links where available.

372

Carbon density and anthropogenic land-use influences on net land-use change emissions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We examine historical and future land-use emissions using a simple mechanistic carbon-cycle model with regional and ecosystem specific parameterizations. We use the latest gridded data for historical and future land-use changes, which includes estimates for the impact of forest harvesting and secondary forest regrowth. Our central estimate of net terrestrial land-use change emissions, exclusive of climate-carbon feedbacks, is 250 GtC over the last 300 yr. This estimate is most sensitive to assumptions for preindustrial forest and soil carbon densities. We also find that land-use change emissions estimates are sensitive to the treatment of crop and pasture lands. These sensitivities also translate into differences in future terrestrial uptake in the RCP (representative concentration pathway) 4.5 land-use scenario. The estimate of future uptake obtained here is smaller than the native values from the GCAM (Global Change Assessment Model) integrated assessment model result due to lower net reforestation in the RCP4.5 gridded land-use data product.

Smith, S. J.; Rothwell, A.

2013-10-01

373

Changes of Ecosystems and Societies on the Mongolian Plateau: Coupled Regulations of Land Use and Changing Climate (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The semi-arid region of the NEESPI domain on the Mongolian plateau lies within the jurisdictions of two governments, with similar geographical settings but contrasting socioeconomic systems - Inner Mongolia (IM) of China and Mongolia (MG). With respect to future temperatures and precipitation, this already water-limited region will experience: (1) a warming trend above the global warming mean (3.3°C by 2100), (2) longer, more intense, and more frequent summer heat waves, (3) altered summer and winter precipitation patterns, and (4) more extreme precipitation events, likely due to the combination of high latitude and altitude. The climate records in IM showed trends of warmer and drier conditions in the region. The annual daily mean, maximum, and minimum temperature increased whereas the diurnal temperature range decreased. On the decadal scale, the warming and drying trends were more significant in the last 30 years than the preceding 20 years. From land use perspective, the dominant land cover, grassland and barren, 0.47 and 0.27 million km2 respectively (41.21 and 23.58%) have increased proportionally. Cropland and urban land use also increased to 0.15 million km2 and 2197 km2 respectively (13.10% and 0.19 %). However, the results further indicated increases in both the homogeneity and fragmentation of the landscape. Increasing homogeneity was mainly related with the reduction in minority cover types such as such as savanna, forests and permanent wetlands and increasing cohesion, aggregation index and clumpy indices. The combined changes play the central role in determining species distribution and ecosystem function such as water and carbon. Our team is organized to examine and model the interactive changes of the natural and human systems at different temporal and spatial scales for use in recommending plans to increase the success of ecosystem and human adaptation to the changing climate and land use on the plateau.

Chen, J.; John, R.; Lu, N.; Wilske, B.; Shao, C.; Li, L.; Zhen, L.

2009-12-01

374

Development of a dynamic strategy planning theory and system for sustainable river basin land use management.  

PubMed

Land use management is central to government planning for sustainable development. The main purpose of this study is to develop a novel strategy planning theory and system to assist responsible authorities in obtaining alternatives of sustainable top river basin land use management. The concepts and theory of system analysis, driving force-state-response (DSR) framework, and system dynamics are used to establish the DSR dynamic strategy planning procedure in this work. The integrated management of the land, water, and air resources of a river basin system is considered in the procedure. Two modified land use management procedures combined with the DSR dynamic strategy planning procedure are developed in this work. Based on the DSR dynamic strategy planning procedure, the sustainable river basin land use management DSR dynamic decision support system (SRBLUM-DSRD-DSS) is developed by using the Vensim, MS Excel, ArcView, and Visual Basic software. The concepts of object-orientation are used to develop the system dynamic optimization and simulation models of SRBLUM-DSRD-DSS. Based on the modified land use management procedures, SRBLUM-DSRD-DSS is used to assist decision makers in generating the land use plans of the Nankan river basin in Taoyuan County of Taiwan. Since the decisions of land, water and air resources management are still made at different agencies, the land use management system should be modified based on the innovational procedure to implement the management strategy developed in this work. The results show that the modified land use management procedures can be a guidance for the governments in modifying the systems and regulation of urban and regional plans in Taiwan. PMID:15993679

Chen, Ching-Ho; Liu, Wei-Lin; Liaw, Shu-Liang; Yu, Chien-Hwa

2005-06-15

375

Sustainable Land Use For Lakes Basins  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since some years, diffuse sources of agrochemicals have become a high relevance issue for environment safety. Lake Vico basin (Central Italy, about 60 km northern to Rome) is an optimal site to investigate this problem. In fact, it is clear the increasing of lake trophic state, due to agricultural diffuse nutrient sources, above all phosphorus. This territory needs a plan for Best Management Practices (BMPs) and model approach is fundamental to assess them. In particular, it is necessary to evaluate phosphorus export zones that more contribute to environmental concerns, to plan related BMPs and to evaluate their effectiveness. P export from a lake basin can be considered the impact (load) of land use on the water body and it is the starting point for the evaluation of lake trophic state (Vollenweider, 1976) and water quality status, also in recent European regulations (the 152/1999 Italian law and connected CE/60/2000). Methods to evaluate P load are various: - consider simple export coefficients only depending on land use (Reckhow et al., 1980) or also on some synthetic indices of hydrological characteristics (Frink, 1991). This approach has the advantage of easy application, but, necessarily, cannot interpret specific reality and environment -anthropogenic complexity, typical of diffuse sources problems. In consequence, it is not sufficiently detailed to evaluate BMPs incidence. - Apply field scale, simulation models, such as GLEAMS, which has the advantage to be enough detailed to interpret environment -anthropogenic complexity, but it involves a small area (it is a field scale model). - Apply basin scale models, such as SWAT, which has the advantage of wide area involvement, joined to a good detail. But it is necessary a high quantity of data and parameters in awide area (often not available in real cases), that means to introduce new uncertainty factors. In this paper, the three approaches are compared and discussed from the point of view of the P load from the basin to the lake, consequence of the land use. It is then proposed a new method to evaluate P load on the lake, more simply to apply (its simplicity is comparable with export coefficients methods), but much more detailed, because the detail comes from the application of a field scale model, which allows to highlight the effects of land use and to plan the BMPs, their allocation and effectiveness, i.e. to plan a sustainable land use.

Leone, A.; Porto, A. Lo; Benigni, G.; Ripa, M. N.

376

Forecasting Space-Time Land Use Change in the Paochiao Watershed of Taiwan Using Demand Estimation and Empirical Simulation Approaches  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This study applies two empirical approaches such as logistic regression, and artificial network (ANN) to combine Conversion\\u000a of Land Use and its Effects (CLUE-s) model to predict urban sprawl in the Paochiao watershed in Taipei County, Taiwan. The\\u000a current investigation projected land-use dynamics for the next twenty years using demand prediction models such as the Markov\\u000a chain and cellular automata

Hone-Jay Chu; Yu-Pin Lin; Chen-Fa Wu

2010-01-01

377

Development and application of multi-proxy indices of land use change for riparian soils in southern New England, USA.  

PubMed

Understanding the effects of land use on riparian systems is dependent upon the development of methodologies to recognize changes in sedimentation related to shifts in land use. Land use trends in southern New England consist of shifts from forested precolonial conditions, to colonial and agrarian land uses, and toward modern industrial-urban landscapes. The goals of this study were to develop a set of stratigraphic indices that reflect these land use periods and to illustrate their applications. Twenty-four riparian sites from first- and second-order watersheds were chosen for study. Soil morphological features, such as buried surface horizons (layers), were useful to identify periods of watershed instability. The presence of human artifacts and increases in heavy metal concentration above background levels, were also effective indicators of industrial-urban land use periods. Increases and peak abundance of non-arboreal weed pollen (Ambrosia) were identified as stratigraphic markers indicative of agricultural land uses. Twelve 14C dates from riparian soils indicated that the rise in non-arboreal pollen corresponds to the start of regional deforestation (AD 1749 +/- 56 cal yr; mean +/- 2 SD) and peak non-arboreal pollen concentration corresponds to maximum agricultural land use (AD 1820 +/- 51 cal yr). These indices were applied to elucidate the impact of land use on riparian sedimentation and soil carbon (C) dynamics. This analysis indicated that the majority of sediment and soil organic carbon (SOC) stored in regional riparian soils is of postcolonial origins. Mean net sedimentation rates increased -100-fold during postcolonial time periods, and net SOC sequestration rates showed an approximate 200-fold increase since precolonial times. These results suggest that headwater riparian zones have acted as an effective sink for alluvial sediment and SOC associated with postcolonial land use. PMID:22611849

Ricker, M C; Donohue, S W; Stolt, M H; Zavada, M S

2012-03-01

378

Comparison of NO(x) fluxes measured by eddy covariance to emission inventories and land use.  

PubMed

Uncertainty in emission inventories remains a critical limitation of air quality modeling and management. Using eddy covariance, we measured surface-atmosphere exchange fluxes of nitrogen oxides (NO(x)) at the neighborhood scale at 13 sites in the Norfolk, Virginia area to estimate emissions, to evaluate official inventories, and to quantify relationships between emissions and land use. Average daytime fluxes ranged from 0.4 ?g m(-2) s(-1) at a site near open water to 9.5 ?g m(-2) s(-1) at a site dominated by vehicle traffic. NO(x) fluxes were correlated with both road density and medium- plus high-intensity development, confirming that both motor vehicles and sources associated with development are responsible for NO(x) emissions in urban areas. Spatially averaged NO(x) fluxes measured by eddy covariance agreed to within 3% with the National Emission Inventory (NEI) but were 2.8 times higher than those in the corresponding grid cell of an emission inventory developed for air quality modeling. These average fluxes were 4.6, 4.5, and 1.7 ?g m(-2) s(-1), respectively. Uncertainty in the inventories appears to be dominated by the nonroad mobile source category. It is especially important to know NO(x) emissions accurately because in certain photochemical regimes, reducing NO(x) emissions can exacerbate secondary pollutant formation. PMID:23316911

Marr, Linsey C; Moore, Tim O; Klapmeyer, Michael E; Killar, Myles B

2013-01-30

379

Modelling Land Use Changes of Suburban Area with Geographic Cellular Model and GIS: A Case Study in Minhang District of Shanghai, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because of its strong ability in capture the nature of complex systems, cellular automata (CA) have been widely used to simulate suburban land use changes and urban pattern evolution. Driving forces impacting suburban land use changes could be derived from the multi-temporal remotely sensed imageries to retrieve the transition rules of geographic CA (geo-CA). With the images of two stages

Feng Yongjiu; Han Zhen

2009-01-01

380

Local and Long-Distance Effects of Land Use Change on Nutrient Levels in Streams and Rivers of the Conterminous United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Determining the effects of land use change (e.g. urbanization, deforestation) on water quality at large spatial scales has been difficult because water quality measurements in large rivers with heterogeneous basins show the integrated effects of multiple factors. Moreover, the observed effects of land use changes on water quality in small homogeneous stream basins may not be indicative of downstream effects

R. A. Smith; R. B. Alexander; G. E. Schwarz

2003-01-01

381

Microsimulation of Urban Development and Location Choices: Design and Implementation of UrbanSim  

Microsoft Academic Search

UrbanSim is a new urban simulation model, developed over the past several years, which is now operational in three urban areas in the United States. The model system is designed to address emerging needs to better coordinate transportation and land use planning as a result of recognition of the strong interactions between land use and transportation, increasing pressure from federal

P. Waddell; A. Borning; M. Noth; N. Freier; M. Becke; G. Ulfarsson

2003-01-01

382

Developing a top-down land-use management procedure for fish habitat enhancement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Land-use change can influence stream ecosystem and alter instream physical, chemical and biological habitat. For example, urbanization usually contributes to increasing sediment loadings to streams and inappropriate agricultural management results in degradation of stream water quality. Watershed model is an effective way to forecast the watershed response to different land-use change scenarios. We developed a top-down approach from the watershed scale to the microscale by combining the habitat model, land-use change model and watershed hydrological model. This approach can assist land-use planner to make optimal decisions with fish habitat enhancement. The study was conducted in Datuan Stream, located in Tamsui District, New Taipei City and the target species is monk goby (Sicyopterus japonicus). The spatially explicit land-use change model, CLUE-s was first applied to project several future land-use scenarios and the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was then applied to simulate streamflow for different land-use scenarios. The simulated streamflow were used as input data for simulating river habitat, where Habitat Suitability Analysis is one of the most important processes. The relationship between target species and multiple environmental factors of habitat was first developed using the Habitat suitability index (HSI). In this study, we used fish presence probabilities for each velocity and water depth to establish different HSI functions under 4 flow conditions (slack, riffle, pool and run) using genetic programming (GP). The physical habitat model, River 2D, was then applied to simulate the river section and calculate weighted usable area (WUA). Based on the WUA results for different land-use scenarios, we further evaluated the relationships between WUA and land-use/landscape patterns using a spatial pattern analysis program, Fragstats. The results showed that by using the habitat model for classified flows, the habitat suitability curve which reflects different activities of fish (ex: spawning, preying) is more practical. Moreover, the proposed land-use management procedure can be useful for future land-use planning with fish habitat conservation.

Chiang, Li-Chi; Lin, Yu-Pin; Wu, Chen-Huan

2013-04-01

383

Evaluating Global Land-use Change Scenario: Carbon Emission in RCP Scenarios and its Effects on Climate Response  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In CMIP5 experiments, new emissions scenarios for GCMs and Earth System Models (ESMs) have been constructed as Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) by a community effort of Integrated Assessment Modeling (IAM) groups. In RCP scenarios, regional land-use scenarios have been depicted based on the socio-economic assumption of IAMs, and also downscaled spatially explicit land-use maps from the regional scenarios are prepared. In the land-use harmonization project, integrated gridded land-use transition data for the past and future time period has been developed from the reconstruction based on HYDE 3 agricultural data and FAO wood harvest data, and the future land-use scenarios from IAMs. These gridded land-use dataset are used as a forcing of some ESMs participating to the CMIP5 experiments, to assess the biogeochemical and biogeophysical effects of land-use and land cover change in the climate change simulation. In this study, global net CO2 emissions from land-use change for RCP scenarios are evaluated with an offline terrestrial biogeochemical model, VISIT (Vegetation Integrative SImulation Tool). Also the emissions are evaluated with coupled ESM, MIROC-ESM following the LUCID-CMIP5 protocol to see the effect of land-use and land cover change on climate response. Using the model output, consistency of the land-use change CO2 emission scenarios provided by RCPs are evaluated in terms of effect of CO2 fertilization, climate change, and land-use transition itself including the effect of biomass crops production with CCS. We find that a land-use scenario with decreased agricultural land-use intensity such as RCP 6.0 shows possibility of further absorption of CO2 through the climate-carbon feedback, and cooling effect through both biogeochemical and biogeophysical effects.

Kato, E.; Kawamiya, M.

2011-12-01

384

Developing Land-use, Land Cover Maps for the Arroyo Colorado Study Area for 2001 and 2008  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Arroyo Colorado watershed in South Texas consists primarily of agriculture, grasslands, scrub, and urban development. Based on published land-use/land cover (LULC) maps from 2001, this study aims to develop maps using Landsat 5TM imagery to produce an Anderson Level 2 classification of the watershed for 2001 and 2008. Achieving high accuracy is the greatest challenge to developing useful maps. In addition to the confusion matrix to assess the overall accuracy of each map, close visual inspection is required to ensure the best classification results. The spectral variation among vegetated fields from pasture to grassland to shrubs to light urban development is too small for the classification algorithms to accurately develop a clear difference between these classes. Overall accuracy achieved for each year is greater than 80%. Using change detection methods to identify land-use changes during the study period reveals an increase of urban development and a decrease in the amount of land used for agriculture.

Perez, T.; Xie, H.; Sun, A. Y.; Osidele, O.

2011-12-01

385

Maximum Nighttime Urban Heat Island (UHI) Intensity Simulation by Integrating Remotely Sensed Data and Meteorological Observations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Remote sensing of the urban heat island (UHI) effect has been conducted largely through simple correlation and regression between the UHI's spatial variations and surface characteristics. Few studies have examined the surface UHI from a temporal perspective and related it with climatic and meteorological factors. By selecting the city of Beijing, China, as the study area, the purpose of this

Ji Zhou; Yunhao Chen; Jinfei Wang; Wenfeng Zhan

2011-01-01

386

Evaluation of the impact of land use changes on rainfall-runoff processes and sediments transport  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many parts of the world have been experiencing population growth and an increase of socio-economic welfare over the last decades. These changes implied increasing human concentration infrastructures in confined areas. As a result, there is a worldwide tendency for cities to sprawl towards rural areas. This implies changes to land use and to landscape patterns within catchments. Deforestation, decreasing of agricultural areas and urbanization will have important consequences on hydrological processes, which makes catchments particularly sensible to natural hazards like floods, especially in small urbanizing catchments. Land use change processes can influence hydrological processes (e.g. evapo-transpiration reduction, limitation of infiltration capacity due to the increase of impervious surfaces), leading to the concentration of water fluxes downstream, increasing river runoff, enhanced peak flows and accelerated transport of pollutants and sediments from urban areas. Forecasting the sign and magnitude of the impacts of land use changes on rainfall-runoff process is the main goal of the present work. Hydrological changes can modify soil erosion rates, which will affect nutrients relocation and water quality (Blake et al. 2003). This study is based on field work performed at a small urbanized catchment located in central Portugal: Ribeira dos Covões. Rainfall-runoff relationships were assessed in forested and deforested areas, agricultural areas, including tilled and abandoned areas, and in built-up areas where, as a result of urban sprawl, the soil suffers drastic changes on its cover and properties. The study was performed at the plot scale (0.15 m2), trough rainfall simulations: rain intensity 43±3 mm h-1. Christiansen coefficient was 83±6%. The experiments were done during one hour to achieve a stable runoff generation. During the experiment, soil moisture content was assessed every minute, and runoff volume was measured all 15 minutes after it starts. To characterize the different land uses and the different plots, some soil properties were measured: slope, soil cover, soil organic content (0-2 and 2-5 cm depth), soil moisture content before the experiment (0-2, 2-4 and 5-7 cm depth), water repellence, texture, bulk density, soil resistance to torsion and penetration. The amount of sediments coming out with runoff where also measured, along with its organic content. The experiments revealed a very high infiltration capacity, always exceeding rainfall intensity in agriculture areas. A few differences were found in forest and deforested areas, where runoff was in the 30-37% range. The higher values presented by deforested areas might be the result of soil water repellence properties and the increase amount of litter layer overlaying the mineral soil, as a result of clear-felling. In fact, eucalyptus bark tends to concentrate rainfall, which could explain the later runoff start (10 minutes after the rainfall simulation start, by contrast with the 4 minutes observed at forest areas). Deforested plots also showed a longer runoff period, ended 12 minutes after the rainfall simulation end. The highest runoff volumes were found in construction areas. They varied between 45% and 40% of total rainfall, in a sandy soil and in a clay soil, respectively. Despite the lower amount of runoff found in clay soil, the surface was crusted, which promote preferential water flows, explaining the later runoff start (after 9 minutes of rain) comparing with flat areas (3 minutes). In clay soils the soil moisture content at the end of the experiments varied between 31% and 36% (v/v), while in sandy soils they were lower (14% - 24%). Forest areas promote a lower erosion rate: 4.6 g h-1 m-2, while deforested areas have erosion rates twice as high (9.8 g h-1 m-2), despite a higher litter accumulation. This is thought to be a consequence of mechanic intervention. In highly disturbed areas, such as the construction sites, where runoff rates are high, erosion rates can be as high as 91.8 g h-1 m-2 in flat areas (

Ferreira, C. S. S.; Ferreira, A. J. D.; Magalhães, M. C.; Coelho, C. O. A.; Nunes, J. P.; de Lima, J. L. M. P.

2009-04-01

387

Land-Use Analysis and Simulated Effects of Land-Use Change and Aggregate Mining on Groundwater Flow in the South Platte River Valley, Brighton to Fort Lupton, Colorado  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Land use in the South Platte River valley between the cities of Brighton and Fort Lupton, Colo., is undergoing change as urban areas expand, and the extent of aggregate mining in the Brighton-Fort Lupton area is increasing as the demand for aggregate grows in response to urban development. To improve understanding of land-use change and the potential effects of land-use change and aggregate mining on groundwater flow, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the cities of Brighton and Fort Lupton, analyzed socioeconomic and land-use trends and constructed a numerical groundwater flow model of the South Platte alluvial aquifer in the Brighton-Fort Lupton area. The numerical groundwater flow model was used to simulate (1) steady-state hydrologic effects of predicted land-use conditions in 2020 and 2040, (2) transient cumulative hydrologic effects of the potential extent of reclaimed aggregate pits in 2020 and 2040, (3) transient hydrologic effects of actively dewatered aggregate pits, and (4) effects of different hypothetical pit spacings and configurations on groundwater levels. The SLEUTH (Slope, Land cover, Exclusion, Urbanization, Transportation, and Hillshade) urban-growth modeling program was used to predict the extent of urban area in 2020 and 2040. Wetlands in the Brighton-Fort Lupton area were mapped as part of the study, and mapped wetland locations and areas of riparian herbaceous vegetation previously mapped by the Colorado Division of Wildlife were compared to simulation results to indicate areas where wetlands or riparian herbaceous vegetation might be affected by groundwater-level changes resulting from land-use change or aggregate mining. Analysis of land-use conditions in 1957, 1977, and 2000 indicated that the general distribution of irrigated land and non-irrigated land remained similar from 1957 to 2000, but both land uses decreased as urban area increased. Urban area increased about 165 percent from 1957 to 1977 and about 56 percent from 1977 to 2000 with most urban growth occurring east of Brighton and Fort Lupton and along major transportation corridors. Land-use conditions in 2020 and 2040 predicted by the SLEUTH modeling program indicated urban growth will continue to develop primarily east of Brighton and Fort Lupton and along major transportation routes, but substantial urban growth also is predicted south and west of Brighton. Steady-state simulations of the hydrologic effects of predicted land-use conditions in 2020 and 2040 indicated groundwater levels declined less than 2 feet relative to simulated groundwater levels in 2000. Groundwater levels declined most where irrigated land was converted to urban area and least where non-irrigated land was converted to urban area. Simulated groundwater-level declines resulting from land-use conditions in 2020 and 2040 are not predicted to substantially affect wetlands or riparian herbaceous vegetation in the study area because the declines are small and wetlands and riparian herbaceous vegetation generally are not located where simulated declines occur. See Report PDF for unabridged abstract.

Arnold, L.R.; Mladinich, C.S.; Langer, W.H.; Daniels, J.S.

2010-01-01

388

Community Context, Land Use and First Birth  

PubMed Central

This paper examines the influence of community context and land use on the monthly odds of first birth in a society in the midst of dramatic fertility transition. The theoretical framework guiding our work predicts that proximity to non-family services should delay first births by creating opportunities for competing non-family activities and spreading new ideas that change expectations about family life. On the other hand, living in agricultural settings that provide opportunities for higher returns to the child labor should speed first births. We use a longitudinal, multilevel, mixed-method data from the Nepalese Himalayas to test these predictions. The empirical results reveal that non-family services during childhood and during early adulthood both have important independent influences on the odds of first birth. Also, as predicted, a high density of agricultural land use affects the odds of first births in the opposite direction, speeding first births. This clear pattern of contrasting effects provides important new evidence of the contextual dynamics that produce watershed changes in post-marital birth timing.

Ghimire, Dirgha J.; Axinn, William G.

2010-01-01

389

Population, Behavioural and Physiological Responses of an Urban Population of Black Swans to an Intense Annual Noise Event  

PubMed Central

Wild animals in urban environments are exposed to a broad range of human activities that have the potential to disturb their life history and behaviour. Wildlife responses to disturbance can range from emigration to modified behaviour, or elevated stress, but these responses are rarely evaluated in concert. We simultaneously examined population, behavioural and hormonal responses of an urban population of black swans Cygnus atratus before, during and after an annual disturbance event involving large crowds and intense noise, the Australian Formula One Grand Prix. Black swan population numbers were lowest one week before the event and rose gradually over the course of the study, peaking after the event, suggesting that the disturbance does not trigger mass emigration. We also found no difference in the proportion of time spent on key behaviours such as locomotion, foraging, resting or self-maintenance over the course of the study. However, basal and capture stress-induced corticosterone levels showed significant variation, consistent with a modest physiological response. Basal plasma corticosterone levels were highest before the event and decreased over the course of the study. Capture-induced stress levels peaked during the Grand Prix and then also declined over the remainder of the study. Our results suggest that even intensely noisy and apparently disruptive events may have relatively low measurable short-term impact on population numbers, behaviour or physiology in urban populations with apparently high tolerance to anthropogenic disturbance. Nevertheless, the potential long-term impact of such disturbance on reproductive success, individual fitness and population health will need to be carefully evaluated.

Payne, Catherine J.; Jessop, Tim S.; Guay, Patrick-Jean; Johnstone, Michele; Feore, Megan; Mulder, Raoul A.

2012-01-01

390

Patterns of Land Use Change around a Large Reservoir.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

By examining the spatial patterns of land use changes around a reservoir planners may anticipate windfall profits to landowners, improve environmental quality control, guide the land use planning of surrounding communities, and project future demands for ...

B. R. Prebble L. D. James D. M. Soule

1969-01-01

391

Existing Land Use Survey and Analysis for Effingham County, Georgia.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Existing Land Use Survey and Analysis in text and map form documents the various land uses within Effingham County. The inventory will serve as a basis to perform the additional comprehensive planning requirements to continue the planning process.

1973-01-01

392

25 CFR 168.10 - Conservation and land use provisions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 2009-04-01 false Conservation and land use provisions. 168.10 Section 168...GRAZING REGULATIONS FOR THE HOPI PARTITIONED LANDS AREA § 168.10 Conservation and land use provisions. Grazing...

2009-04-01

393

25 CFR 168.10 - Conservation and land use provisions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Conservation and land use provisions. 168.10 Section 168...GRAZING REGULATIONS FOR THE HOPI PARTITIONED LANDS AREA § 168.10 Conservation and land use provisions. Grazing...

2010-04-01

394

25 CFR 168.10 - Conservation and land use provisions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Conservation and land use provisions. 168.10 Section 168...GRAZING REGULATIONS FOR THE HOPI PARTITIONED LANDS AREA § 168.10 Conservation and land use provisions. Grazing...

2013-04-01

395

The Watershed Planning System: A Tool for Integrated Land Use Management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The challenge in Maryland and across the nation is allowing economic growth while protecting our environment. Maryland's Smart Growth policies provide a strong foundation for conserving resource land, minimizing nutrient loadings from new development, and revitalizing our urban/suburban communities. To assist local governments and communities, MDP has developed the Watershed Planning System (WPS). It is an analytical tool to conduct watershed-based assessments of the impacts of current and alternative programs and policies on land and water resources. The WPS consists of two GIS-based models, the Growth Management Simulation, and the Pollution Simulation Management models. The Growth Management Simulation Model estimates changes in land uses by watershed as a function of population and household projections, as well as state and county policies, regulations, and programs. The model allows evaluation of different future land use scenarios by changing assumptions associated with comprehensive plans and zoning, subdivision, and environmental regulations through which plans are implemented. The Pollution Simulation Management model evaluates the effects of pollution management alternatives on current land use and future land use conditions. The output provides a basis for selecting a feasible mix of management alternatives that can be implemented through program changes, such as: comprehensive plans, soil conservation and water quality plans, nutrient management programs, zoning and subdivision programs, and sensitive area protection programs, and through implementation of best management practices. The WPS has been applied in the 13 counties, Anne Arundel, Calvert, Charles, Howard, Montgomery, Prince George's, St. Mary's, Worcester, Cecil, Wicomico, Frederick, Carroll, and Harford, to address a variety of land use management, resource conservation, and pollution control objectives. In addition, the model has been used to produce statewide 2020 land use projections essential for sound land use planning.

Weller, D. G.

2002-05-01

396

Forecasting the Effects of Land-Use Change on Forest Rodents in Indiana  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Forest cover in the upper Wabash River basin in Indiana was fragmented due to agricultural conversion beginning more than 175 years ago. Currently, urban expansion is an important driver of land-use change in the basin. A land transformation model was applied to the basin to forecast land use from 2000 to 2020. We assessed the effect of this projected land-use change scenario on five forest rodent species at three scales: using occupancy models at the patch level, proportional occupancy models at the landscape level, and ecologically scaled landscape indices to assess the change in connectivity at the watershed level. At the patch and landscape scales, occupancy models had low predictability but suggest that gray squirrels are most susceptible to land-use change. At the watershed scale, declines in connectivity did not correspond with the decline of forest. This study highlights the importance of map resolution and consideration of matrix elements in constructing forecast models. Unforeseen drivers of land use, such as changing economic incentives, may also have important ramifications.

Rizkalla, Carol E.; Swihart, Robert K.

2009-11-01

397

Monitoring and Modeling Land Use Dynamics in a Watershed Using Spatial Techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Temporal land use and land cover changes are main reasons of excessive effects on changes in ecological and hydrological characteristics of a watershed. These effects occurred as pollution of the environment and deterioration of habitats in the watersheds. When the land use changes occur slowly, the watersheds' ecology could adapt itself against these changes. On the other hand, a rapid land use changes mostly resulted with extreme damage which cannot be tolerated by watershed ecology. It is not easy to follow the temporal behavior of the land use/cover changes with conventional methods. This situation is mainly because of lack of available and updated data and unsuitable data organization in state departments, deviation from original master plans or secondary unintended effects usually not registered in official documents. In this study a combination of GIS and Remote Sensing are used to monitor land use/cover changes in selected area. Remote sensing is an effective technique for monitoring the direct (man-made) and indirect (man-caused) changes on land and water resources for decades. GIS is also an efficient tool for analyze of any kind of spatial data which come from different data sources such as remotely sensed data and tabular data. In this study, Koycegiz watershed located at the western Mediterranean coast of Turkey has been selected as the study area. The area of the watershed is approximately 1000 km2 and more than one third of this area is an environmental protection zone. Effects of increased agriculture and urbanization on the watershed were monitored by using the land use/cover information derived from remotely sensed data belongs to different time periods from the year 1984 to present. Remotely sensed data obtained from the different years were classified into five main land use classes which are agricultural areas, forestry, settlements, meadows-pastures and wetlands. GIS analyses are used to detect the temporal changes in land use/cover. Different interpolation techniques of GIS also used to predict the data belongs to years which the remotely sensed data is unavailable. Then this generated data used to produce land use/cover maps belongs to watershed. Finally, a yearly set of land use/cover maps were produced. This data can also be used for estimating the direction of possible changes in the future. These kinds of data could also be used to quantify the temporal changes on land and water resources.

Alganci, U.; Erturk, A.; Seker, D. Z.; Tanik, A.; Sertel, E.

2011-12-01

398

The need for simultaneous evaluation of ecosystem services and land use change  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We are living in a period of massive global change. This rate of change may be almost without precedent in geologic history (1). Even the most remote areas of the planet are influenced by human activities. Modern landscapes have been highly modified to accommodate a growing human population that the United Nations has forecast to peak at 9.1 billion by 2050. Over this past century, reliance on services from ecosystems has increased significantly and, over past decades, sustainability of our modern, intensively managed ecosystems has been a topic of serious international concern (1). Numerous papers addressing a particular land-use change effect on specific ecosystem services have recently been published. For example, there is currently great interest in increasing biofuel production to achieve energy inde- pendence goals and recent papers have independently focused attention on impacts of land-use change on single ecosystem services such as carbon sequestration (2) and many others (e.g., water availability, biodiversity, pollination). However, land-use change clearly affects myriad ecosystem services simultaneously. Hence, a broader perspective and context is needed to evaluate and understand interrelated affects on multiple ecosystem services, especially as we strive for the goal of sustainably managing global ecosystems. Similarly, land uses affect ecosystem services synergistically; single land-use evaluations may be misleading because the overall impact on an ecosystem is not evaluated. A more holistic approach would provide a means and framework to characterize how land-use change affects provisioning of goods and services of complete ecosystems.

Euliss, Ned H., Jr.; Smith, Loren M.; Liu, Shuguang; Feng, Min; Mushet, David M.; Auch, Roger F.; Loveland, Thomas R.

2010-01-01

399

Organic carbon stocks in Mediterranean soil types under different land uses (Southern Spain)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil C sequestration through changes in land use and management is one of the sustainable and long-term strategies to mitigate climate change. This research explores and quantifies the role of soil and land use as determinants of the ability of soils to store C along Mediterranean systems. Detailed studies of soil organic C (SOC) dynamics are necessary in order to identify factors determining fluctuations and intensity of changes. In this study, SOC contents from different soil and land use types have been investigated in Andalusia (S Spain). We have used soil information from different databases, as well as land use digital maps, climate databases and digital elevation models. The average SOC content for each soil control section (0-25, 25-50 and 50-75 cm) was determined and SOC stocks were calculated for each combination of soil and land use type, using soil and land cover maps. The total organic C stock in soils of Andalusia is 415 Tg for the upper 75 cm, with average values ranging from 15.9 Mg C ha-1 (Solonchaks under "arable land") to 107.6 Mg C ha-1 (Fluvisols from "wetlands"). Up to 55% of SOC accumulates in the top 25 cm of soil (229.7 Tg). This research constitutes a preliminary assessment for modelling SOC stock under scenarios of land use and climate change.

Muñoz-Rojas, M.; Jordán, A.; Zavala, L. M.; De la Rosa, D.; Abd-Elmabod, S. K.; Anaya-Romero, M.

2012-08-01

400

Organic carbon stocks in Mediterranean soil types under different land uses (Southern Spain)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil C sequestration through changes in land use and management is one of the sustainable and long-term strategies to mitigate climate change. This research explores and quantifies the role of soil and land use as determinants of the ability of soils to store C along Mediterranean systems. Detailed studies of soil organic C (SOC) dynamics are necessary in order to identify factors determining fluctuations and intensity of changes. In this study, SOC contents from different soil and land use types have been investigated in Andalusia (Southern Spain). We have used soil information from different databases, as well as land use digital maps, climate databases and digital elevation models. The average SOC content for each soil control section (0-25, 25-50 and 50-75 cm) was determined and SOC stocks were calculated for each combination of soil and land use type, using soil and land cover maps. The total organic C stocks in soils of Andalusia is 415 Tg for the upper 75 cm, with average values ranging from 15.9 Mg C ha-1 (Solonchaks under "arable land") to 107.6 Mg C ha-1 (Fluvisols from "wetlands"). Up to 55% of SOC accumulates in the top 25 cm of soil (229.7 Tg). This research constitutes a preliminary assessment for modelling SOC stock under scenarios of land use and climate change.

Muñoz-Rojas, M.; Jordán, A.; Zavala, L. M.; De la Rosa, D.; Abd-Elmabod, S. K.; Anaya-Romero, M.

2012-11-01