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1

Assessing the Intensity of Urban Land Use Based on Radial Basis Function Network  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urban land intensive use is very important to China.Traditional intensity evalua- tion methods of land use is highly influenced by man's subjective impact,thus the evaluation result is not accurate enough. In this paper, Radial Basis Function Network (RBFN) was set up to assess the urban land intensive use.Ezhou Municipal in Hubei province was taken as a case study. The results

Weisheng Xu; Sheng Chang; Jiangfeng Li

2010-01-01

2

Challenges and opportunities in mapping land use intensity globally?  

PubMed Central

Future increases in land-based production will need to focus more on sustainably intensifying existing production systems. Unfortunately, our understanding of the global patterns of land use intensity is weak, partly because land use intensity is a complex, multidimensional term, and partly because we lack appropriate datasets to assess land use intensity across broad geographic extents. Here, we review the state of the art regarding approaches for mapping land use intensity and provide a comprehensive overview of available global-scale datasets on land use intensity. We also outline major challenges and opportunities for mapping land use intensity for cropland, grazing, and forestry systems, and identify key issues for future research.

Kuemmerle, Tobias; Erb, Karlheinz; Meyfroidt, Patrick; Muller, Daniel; Verburg, Peter H; Estel, Stephan; Haberl, Helmut; Hostert, Patrick; Jepsen, Martin R.; Kastner, Thomas; Levers, Christian; Lindner, Marcus; Plutzar, Christoph; Verkerk, Pieter Johannes; van der Zanden, Emma H; Reenberg, Anette

2013-01-01

3

Land Use Intensity Module: Land Use in Rural New Zealand Version 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

This document outlines the development of the dynamic functions and simple algorithms that make up the Land Use in Rural New Zealand (LURNZ) land-use intensity module. The module includes stocking rate functions for dairy, sheep, and beef livestock; fertiliser intensity functions for dairy and sheep\\/beef; and algorithms for the evolution of the age classes of the plantation forestry estate, and

Joanna Hendy; Suzi Kerr

2006-01-01

4

Using land use change trajectories to quantify the effects of urbanization on urban heat island  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper proposed a quantitative method of land use change trajectory, which means the succession among different land use types across time, to examine the effects of urbanization on an urban heat island (UHI). To accomplish this, multi-temporal images from Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper (TM) and Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) of Xiamen City in China from 1987 to 2007 were selected. First, the land use change trajectories were extracted based on the classified images from different years. Then the land surface temperatures (LST) were retrieved and the magnitudes of the UHI were evaluated using the UHI intensity (UHII) indicator. Finally, the indices of the contribution to UHI intensity (CUHII) were constructed and calculated to quantify the effects of each land use change trajectory on the UHI during urbanization. The results demonstrated that the land use change trajectories and CUHII are effective and useful in quantifying the effects of urbanization on UHI. In Xiamen City, a total of 2218 land use change trajectories were identified and 530 of them were the existing urban or urbanization trajectories. The UHII presents a trend of continuous increase from 0.83 °C in 1987 to 2.14 °C in 2007. With respect to the effects of urban growth on UHI, the contribution of existing urban area to UHI decreased during urbanization. Prior to 2007, the existing urban area of trajectory NO. 44444 had the most significant effect on UHI with the greatest CUHII, while the value has decreased from 55.00% in 1987 to 13.03% in 2007 because of the addition of new urbanized area. In 2007, the greatest CUHII was replaced by a trajectory from farmland to built-up area (NO. 22224) with the CUHII of 21.98%, followed by the existing urban area of trajectory NO. 44444 with the CUHII of 13.03%. These results provide not only a new methodology to assess the environmental effects of urbanization, but also decision-supports for the planning and management of cities.

Feng, Huihui; Zhao, Xiaofeng; Chen, Feng; Wu, Lichun

2014-02-01

5

Dynamism of Transportation and Land Use Interaction in Urban Context  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Transportation in urban areas is highly complex and the urban transport system is intricately linked with urban form and spatial structure. Urban transit is an important dimension of mobility, notably in high density areas. The spatial separation of human activities which creates the need for travel and goods transport is the underlying principle of transport analysis and forecasting. To understand the complex relationships between transportation and land use and to help the urban planning process, several models have been developed. Many theories, models are developed by different authors on land use and transportation interaction, which clearly indicate that change in land use transformation have a greater impact on transportation. Similarly, introducing new transportation facility or strengthening of existing transport facility makes an impact on the abutting land. In cities like Delhi, Navi Mumbai, Ahmedabad, introducing of new mass transport system or strengthening of existing transportation system had given greater impact on surrounding development. In this Paper the major theoretical approaches to explain the two-way interaction of land use and transport in metropolitan areas are summarized. The paper also reviews research on the two-way interaction between urban land use and transport, i.e. the location and mobility responses of private actors (households and firms, travelers) to changes in the urban land use and transport system at the urban regional level.

Pandya, Rajesh J.; Katti, B. K.

2012-10-01

6

Water Quality in Agricultural, Urban, and Mixed Land Use Watersheds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water quality and nonpoint source (NPS) pollution are important issues in many areas of the world, including the Inner Bluegrass Region of Kentucky where urban development is changing formerly rural watersheds into urban and mixed use watersheds. In watersheds where land use is mixed, the relative contributions of NPS pollution from rural and urban land uses can be difficult to separate. To better understand NPS pollution sources in mixed use watersheds, surface water samples were taken at three sites that varied in land use to examine the effect of land use on water quality. Within the group of three watersheds, one was predominately agriculture (Agricultural), one was predominately urban (Urban), and a third had relatively equal representation of both types of land uses (Mixed). Nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), total suspended solids (TSS), turbidity, pH, temperature, and streamflow were measured for one year. Comparisons are made among watersheds for concentration and fluxes of water quality parameters. Nitrate and orthophosphate concentrations were found to be significantly higher in the Agricultural watershed. Total suspended solids, turbidity, temperature, and pH, were found to be generally higher in the Urban and Mixed watersheds. No differences were found for streamflow (per unit area), total phosphorus, and ammonium concentrations among watersheds. Fluxes of orthophosphate were greater in the Agricultural watershed that in the Urban watershed while fluxes of TSS were greater in the Mixed watershed when compared to the Agricultural watershed. Fluxes of nitrate, ammonium, and total phosphorus did not vary among watersheds. It is apparent from the data that Agricultural land uses are generally a greater source of nutrients than the Urban land uses while Urban land uses are generally a greater source of suspended sediment.

Coulter, Chris B.; Kolka, Randy K.; Thompson, James A.

2004-12-01

7

Street centrality and land use intensity in Baton Rouge, Louisiana  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the relationship between street centrality and land use intensity in Baton Rouge, Louisiana. Street centrality is calibrated in terms of a node’s closeness, betweenness and straightness on the road network. Land use intensity is measured by population (residential) and employment (business) densities in census tracts, respectively and combined. Two GIS-based methods are used to transform data sets

Fahui Wang; Anzhelika Antipova; Sergio Porta

2011-01-01

8

Role of urban land use on mesoscale circulations and precipitation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A high resolution mesoscale meteorological model (MM5) was employed to study urban effects on rainfall over Oklahoma City, U.S.A. and Chennai, India. Numerical modeling results for Oklahoma City show that urban land use increases the daytime sensible heat flux while it decreases the latent heat flux over the city. Height of the level of free convection (LFC) is reduced by

Matthew Drennan Simpson

2006-01-01

9

Impact of urbanization and land-use change on climate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The most important anthropogenic influences on climate are the emission of greenhouse gases and changes in land use, such as urbanization and agriculture. But it has been difficult to separate these two influences because both tend to increase the daily mean surface temperature. The impact of urbanization has been estimated by comparing observations in cities with those in surrounding rural areas, but the results differ significantly depending on whether population data or satellite measurements of night light are used to classify urban and rural areas. Here we use the difference between trends in observed surface temperatures in the continental United States and the corresponding trends in a reconstruction of surface temperatures determined from a reanalysis of global weather over the past 50 years, which is insensitive to surface observations, to estimate the impact of land-use changes on surface warming. Our results suggest that half of the observed decrease in diurnal temperature range is due to urban and other land-use changes. Moreover, our estimate of 0.27°C mean surface warming per century due to land-use changes is at least twice as high as previous estimates based on urbanization alone.

Kalnay, Eugenia; Cai, Ming

2003-05-01

10

[Impacts of rail transit in Shanghai on its urban land use change].  

PubMed

By using the land use data interpreted with 1:50,000 color-infrared aerial photos of Shanghai collected in 1989 and 2005, and based on Geographic Information System (GIS) techniques, the impacts of urban rail transit (URT) development in Shanghai on its urban land use change was quantitatively analyzed, and a preliminary prediction of the land use change from 2010 to 2025 was made with Markov probability models. The results showed that the URT accelerated the land use change, particularly from an agricultural dominated natural landscape in 1989 to a high-value man-made urban landscape primarily composed of residence and public facilities. URT increased the land use rate in the study area. From 1989 to 2005, public facility land, green space, agriculture land, land for other uses (primarily used for construction), and water area changed greatly, with the greatest change rate of the land for other uses and the lowest one of water area. From 2010 to 2025, the areas and proportions of agriculture land and water area would keep on decreasing, while those of man-made landscapes including residence and public facilities would increase continuously. From the viewpoints of increasing land use rate and its gain, the present land use structure along Shanghai URT should be further regulated to improve the intensive and sustainable use of land resources. PMID:18839916

Li, Cheng; Li, Jun-Xiang; Li, Rong; Xu, Ming-Ce; Qin, Hai

2008-07-01

11

Mapping urban environmental noise: a land use regression method.  

PubMed

Forecasting and preventing urban noise pollution are major challenges in urban environmental management. Most existing efforts, including experiment-based models, statistical models, and noise mapping, however, have limited capacity to explain the association between urban growth and corresponding noise change. Therefore, these conventional methods can hardly forecast urban noise at a given outlook of development layout. This paper, for the first time, introduces a land use regression method, which has been applied for simulating urban air quality for a decade, to construct an urban noise model (LUNOS) in Dalian Municipality, Northwest China. The LUNOS model describes noise as a dependent variable of surrounding various land areas via a regressive function. The results suggest that a linear model performs better in fitting monitoring data, and there is no significant difference of the LUNOS's outputs when applied to different spatial scales. As the LUNOS facilitates a better understanding of the association between land use and urban environmental noise in comparison to conventional methods, it can be regarded as a promising tool for noise prediction for planning purposes and aid smart decision-making. PMID:21770380

Xie, Dan; Liu, Yi; Chen, Jining

2011-09-01

12

New Norms for Multiple Intensive Land-Use  

Microsoft Academic Search

Places of globalisation often turn out to be mono functional places. Airports, shopping malls and business districts seem to evolve towards privatised, controlled and regulated spaces. As a possible counterforce, the normative planning concept of multiple intensive land use is introduced in this paper: planning to create integrated spaces with a mixture of uses. The case study is the Amsterdam

Stan J. H. Majoor

2003-01-01

13

Minimizing land use and nitrogen intensity of bioenergy.  

PubMed

The environmental impacts of bioenergy products have received a great deal of attention. Life cycle analysis (LCA) is a widely accepted method to quantify the environmental impacts of products. Conducting comprehensive LCAs for every possible bioenergy alternative is difficult because of the sheer magnitude of potential biomass sources and energy end products. The scopes of LCAs are often simplified to compare multiple products on the basis of greenhouse gas emissions and net energy balances, and may neglect equally important considerations such as nitrogen and land use. This study determines the most desirable energy crops on the basis of nitrogen and land use. The theoretical minimum nitrogen and land use requirements of fourteen bioenergy feedstocks are evaluated. These results can help prioritize certain feedstock crops for more in-depth life cycle analyses and can be used to inform policies on dedicated energy crops. The results of the study indicate that sugar cane has the best nitrogen and land use profile of the analyzed feedstocks. Sugar cane is the largest contributor to bioenergy production worldwide and is an effective policy choice from a nutrient and land use perspective. Conversely, soybeans and rapeseed are the least effective biomass sources with respect to land use and nitrogen requirements, yet these crops are also used to meet biofuel production targets worldwide. These results indicate current energy policies either do not consider or undervalue nitrogen and land use impacts, which could lead to unsustainable recommendations. Interestingly, when both nitrogen and land intensity are taken into account, reasonably small differences are seen between the remainder of the analyzed feedstocks, indicating an inherent trade-off between energy yield and nitrogen impacts. PMID:20420363

Miller, Shelie A

2010-05-15

14

A hybrid model for analyzing urban land use change based on fuzzy reasoning and cellular automata  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urban land use change is composed of a series of distinctive mutual transformation process, which has a dominant trend to transfer from non-urban construction land to urban construction land. However, the land use transition is not a direct change process from a certain land-use type to another one in a narrow area, but has a gradual process range between any

Hao Wu; Yan Li; Qingqing Li; Xiaoling Chen

2009-01-01

15

Role of urban land use on mesoscale circulations and precipitation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A high resolution mesoscale meteorological model (MM5) was employed to study urban effects on rainfall over Oklahoma City, U.S.A. and Chennai, India. Numerical modeling results for Oklahoma City show that urban land use increases the daytime sensible heat flux while it decreases the latent heat flux over the city. Height of the level of free convection (LFC) is reduced by 100 hPa downwind of Oklahoma City because of increased vertical mixing. Increased friction over the city reduced the near surface wind speed by up to 30% as compared to that over the surrounding rural regions during the simulation period. Surface stress over an urban area is shown to increase convergence on the wind ward side of the city and decrease convergence on the lee side of the city. Simulated maximum vertical velocity associated with a line of thunderstorms is enhanced by 1.4 m s-1 by the urban effect of Oklahoma City. Increased rainfall amounts of 25 mm were simulated around 55 km downwind of Oklahoma City. Rainfall observations and numerical modeling results were used to investigate the impact of Chennai urban land use on the sea breeze circulation and rainfall amounts during the southwest monsoon. Simulated wind speeds show that the urban region of Chennai increases onshore flow associated with the sea breeze by 4.0 m s-1. Inland propagation of the sea breeze front is reduced over and immediately downwind of the city due to higher friction. During the research period, positive vertical velocity is enhanced along the leading edge of the sea breeze front by more than 1.0 m s-1 because of increased low-level convergence over the city. Rainfall amounts were increased up to 25 mm well inland due to urban effects. Observations indicate occurrence of rainfall over the city during late evening and nocturnal hours, possibly due to the interaction between receding sea breeze circulation and the urban heat island. This process could not be simulated due to possible deficiencies in the model physics.

Simpson, Matthew Drennan

16

Monitoring farmland loss and projecting the future land use of an urbanized watershed in Yogyakarta, Indonesia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study analyzes land use changes in Yogyakarta, Indonesia, specifically farmland loss, which has occurred as a result of rapid urbanization by employing remote sensing, GIS, and land use modeling techniques. Landsat images from 1992 and 2004 and ASTER Terralook images from 2009 were classified using a supervised classification to generate land use maps. Land use change was detected using

Partoyo; Rajendra Prasad Shrestha

2011-01-01

17

Are agricultural land-use models able to predict changes in land-use intensity?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Land-use and land-cover change research needs to pay more attention to processes of land-cover modification, and especially to agricultural land intensification. The objective of this paper is to review the different modelling approaches that have been used in land-use\\/land-cover change research from the perspective of their utility for the study and prediction of changes in land-use intensification. After clarifying the

E. F. Lambin; M. D. A Rounsevell; H. J Geist

2000-01-01

18

The ERTS-1 investigation (ER-600). Volume 5: ERTS-1 urban land use analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Urban Land Use Team conducted a year's investigation of ERTS-1 MSS data to determine the number of Land Use categories in the Houston, Texas, area. They discovered unusually low classification accuracies occurred when a spectrally complex urban scene was classified with extensive rural areas containing spectrally homogeneous features. Separate computer processing of only data in the urbanized area increased classification accuracies of certain urban land use categories. Even so, accuracies of urban landscape were in the 40-70 percent range compared to 70-90 percent for the land use categories containing more homogeneous features (agriculture, forest, water, etc.) in the nonurban areas.

Erb, R. B.

1974-01-01

19

Urban Land Use Decouples Plant-Herbivore-Parasitoid Interactions at Multiple Spatial Scales  

PubMed Central

Intense urban and agricultural development alters habitats, increases fragmentation, and may decouple trophic interactions if plants or animals cannot disperse to needed resources. Specialist insects represent a substantial proportion of global biodiversity and their fidelity to discrete microhabitats provides a powerful framework for investigating organismal responses to human land use. We sampled site occupancy and densities for two plant-herbivore-parasitoid systems from 250 sites across a 360 km2 urban/agricultural landscape to ask whether and how human development decouples interactions between trophic levels. We compared patterns of site occupancy, host plant density, herbivory and parasitism rates of insects at two trophic levels with respect to landcover at multiple spatial scales. Geospatial analyses were used to identify landcover characters predictive of insect distributions. We found that herbivorous insect densities were decoupled from host tree densities in urban landcover types at several spatial scales. This effect was amplified for the third trophic level in one of the two insect systems: despite being abundant regionally, a parasitoid species was absent from all urban/suburban landcover even where its herbivore host was common. Our results indicate that human land use patterns limit distributions of specialist insects. Dispersal constraints associated with urban built development are specifically implicated as a limiting factor.

Nelson, Amanda E.; Forbes, Andrew A.

2014-01-01

20

Gravel resources, urbanization, and future land use, Front Range Urban Corridor, Colorado  

USGS Publications Warehouse

An assessment of gravel needs in Front Range Urban Corridor markets to 2000 A.D., based on forecast population increases and urbanization, indicates that adequate resources to meet anticipated needs are potentially available, if future land use does not preclude their extraction. Because of urban encroachment onto gravel-bearing lands, this basic construction material is in short supply nationally and in the Front Range Urban Corridor. Longer hauls, increased prices, and use of alternatives, especially crushed rock aggregate, have resulted. An analysis of possible sequential land uses following gravel mining indicates that a desirable use is for 'real estate' ponds and small lakes. A method for computing gravel reserves, based on planimeter measurement of area of resource-bearing lands and statistical analysis of reliability of thickness and size distribution data, was developed to compute reserves in individual markets. A discussion of the qualitative 'usability' of these reserves is then made for the individual markets.

Soule, James M.; Fitch, Harold R.

1974-01-01

21

Using Geometrical, Textural, and Contextual Information of Land Parcels for Classification of Detailed Urban Land Use  

Microsoft Academic Search

Detailed urban land use data are important to government officials, researchers, and businesspeople for a variety of purposes. This article presents an approach to classifying detailed urban land use based on geometrical, textural, and contextual information of land parcels. An area of 6 by 14 km in Austin, Texas, with land parcel boundaries delineated by the Travis Central Appraisal District

Shuo-Sheng Wu; Xiaomin Qiu; E. Lynn Usery; Le Wang

2009-01-01

22

A zone-based approach to identifying urban land uses using nationally-available data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accurate identification of urban land use is essential for many applications in environmental study, ecological assessment, and urban planning, among other fields. However, because physical surfaces of land cover types are not necessarily related to their use and economic function, differentiating among thematically-detailed urban land uses (single-family residential, multi-family residential, commercial, industrial, etc.) using remotely-sensed imagery is a challenging task,

James A. Falcone

2010-01-01

23

Geographic Patterns of Land Use and Land Intensity  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper uses census-tract-level data from the Censo Agropecuario 1995-96 to map indicators ofcurrent land use and agricultural productivity across the Legal Amazon of Brazil. These data permitgeographical resolution about 10 times freer than afforded by municipio data used in previousstudies. The paper focuses on the extent and productivity of pasture, the dominant land use inAmaz6nia today.

Kenneth M. Chomitz; Timothy S. Thomas

24

City-wide relationships between green spaces, urban land use and topography  

Microsoft Academic Search

The growing proportion of human populations living in urban areas, and consequent trends of increasing urban expansion and\\u000a densification fuel a need to understand how urban form and land use affect environmental quality, including the availability\\u000a of urban green spaces. Here we use Sheffield as a case study of city-wide relationships between urban green space extent,\\u000a quality (vegetation cover and

Richard G. Davies; Olga Barbosa; Richard A. Fuller; Jamie Tratalos; Nicholas Burke; Daniel Lewis; Philip H. Warren; Kevin J. Gaston

2008-01-01

25

A hybrid model for analyzing urban land use change based on fuzzy reasoning and cellular automata  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Urban land use change is composed of a series of distinctive mutual transformation process, which has a dominant trend to transfer from non-urban construction land to urban construction land. However, the land use transition is not a direct change process from a certain land-use type to another one in a narrow area, but has a gradual process range between any two land use types in a wide region. In this paper, a hybrid model for analyzing urban land use change based on fuzzy reasoning and cellular automata is proposed to simulate the change process of land use type in the transition areas of urban and rural area. Then, four transition rules are discussed in detail based on the feature of land conversion behaviour in the contiguity areas of urban and rural area. An example of application research is experimented in Hankou Town through remote sensing imagines in 1993, 1998 and 2003. The results suggest that the first transition rule is more accurate than other three rules in the whole, by which the transition probability depends on by the edge pixels from 1993 to 1998. But different types of land use have own most compatible transition rule among those four rules.

Wu, Hao; Li, Yan; Li, Qingqing; Chen, Xiaoling

2009-10-01

26

A novel index of land use intensity for organic and conventional farming of Mediterranean cereal fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

The conservation of biodiversity in agro-ecosystems is closely related to land use. Intensive land use is considered to be\\u000a a major cause of biodiversity loss. Most studies addressing the effect of land use intensity on biodiversity have compared\\u000a organic and conventional systems. However, little is known about the heterogeneity of the management intensity within each\\u000a farming system. We hypothesise that

Laura Armengot; Laura José-María; José M. Blanco-Moreno; Montserrat Bassa; Lourdes Chamorro; F. Xavier Sans

27

EFFECTS OF LAND USE AND SEASON ON MICROORGANISM CONCENTRATIONS IN URBAN STORMWATER RUNOFF  

EPA Science Inventory

This study investigated differences in pathogen and indicator organism concentrations in stormwater runoff between different urban land uses and seasons. Stormwater samples collected from storm sewers draining small municipal separate storm sewer systems shown to be free of cros...

28

Quantifying uncertainty in remote sensing-based urban land-use mapping  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Land-use/land-cover information constitutes an important component in the calibration of many urban growth models. Typically, the model building involves a process of historic calibration based on time series of land-use maps. Medium-resolution satellite imagery is an interesting source for obtaining data on land-use change, yet inferring information on the use of urbanised spaces from these images is a challenging task that is subject to different types of uncertainty. Quantifying and reducing the uncertainties in land-use mapping and land-use change model parameter assessment are therefore crucial to improve the reliability of urban growth models relying on these data. In this paper, a remote sensing-based land-use mapping approach is adopted, consisting of two stages: (i) estimating impervious surface cover at sub-pixel level through linear regression unmixing and (ii) inferring urban land use from urban form using metrics describing the spatial structure of the built-up area, together with address data. The focus lies on quantifying the uncertainty involved in this approach. Both stages of the land-use mapping process are subjected to Monte Carlo simulation to assess their relative contribution to and their combined impact on the uncertainty in the derived land-use maps. The robustness to uncertainty of the land-use mapping strategy is addressed by comparing the most likely land-use maps obtained from the simulation with the original land-use map, obtained without taking uncertainty into account. The approach was applied on the Brussels-Capital Region and the central part of the Flanders region (Belgium), covering the city of Antwerp, using a time series of SPOT data for 1996, 2005 and 2012. Although the most likely land-use map obtained from the simulation is very similar to the original land-use map - indicating absence of bias in the mapping process - it is shown that the errors related to the impervious surface sub-pixel fraction estimation have a strong impact on the land-use map's uncertainty. Hence, uncertainties observed in the derived land-use maps should be taken into account when using these maps as an input for modelling of urban growth.

Cockx, Kasper; Van de Voorde, Tim; Canters, Frank

2014-09-01

29

URBAN MAPPING AND LAND USE CHARACTERISATION FOR RISK ASSESSMENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urban areas are subjected to many different types of hazards, which may be related to a variety of causes (geological, hydro- meteorological, biological, environmental, technological, etc). In order to assess the multi-hazard risk level of urban areas, and its spatial distribution, detailed information is required on the elements at risk, such as buildings, infrastructure, population, and economic activities. The use

Ajay K. Katuri; M. Ali Sharifi; Cees J. van Westen

30

Diversity and abundance of earthworms across an agricultural land-use intensity gradient  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understanding how communities of important soil invertebrates vary with land use may lead to the development of more sustainable land-use strategies. We assessed the abundance and species composition of earthworm communities across six replicated long-term experimental ecosystems that span a gradient in agricultural land-use intensity. The experimental systems include a conventional row-crop agricultural system, two lower-intensity row-crop systems (no-till and

Richard G. Smith; Claire P. McSwiney; A. Stuart Grandy; Pongthep Suwanwaree; Renate M. Snider; G. Philip Robertson

2008-01-01

31

The influence of agricultural land-use intensity on bryophyte species richness  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study is a quantitative approach to the estimation of bryophyte species richness in relation to land-use intensity at three spatial scales in highly cultivated areas. A total of 460 randomly selected habitats and their various substrates within 29 study sites were investigated with regard to their land-use intensity and their bryophyte species richness in an agricultural region of eastern

Harald Gustav Zechmeister; Dietmar Moser

2001-01-01

32

On the relationship between farmland biodiversity and land-use intensity in Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Worldwide agriculture is one of the main drivers of biodiversity decline. Effective conservation strategies depend on the type of relationship between biodiversity and land-use intensity, but to date the shape of this relationship is unknown. We linked plant species richness with nitrogen (N) input as an indicator of land-use intensity on 130 grasslands and 141 arable fields in six European

D. Kleijn; F. Kohler; A. Báldi; P. Batáry; E. D. Concepción; Y. Clough; M. Diaz; D. Gabriel; A. Holzschuh; E. Knop; E. J. P. Marshall; T. Tscharntke; J. Verhulst

2009-01-01

33

Land-use intensity affects range condition in arid to semi-arid Namibia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Range condition at sites of differing land-use intensity at a communal farm was assessed. Vegetation, soil and termite parameters were tested for their potential as indicators. The vegetation indicators did not discriminate between two sites of high and low land-use intensity. However, the soil fertility parameters provided interesting results. The phosphorus (P), nitrogen (N), organic carbon (OC), light fraction (LF),

J. Zeidler; S. Hanrahan; M. Scholes

2002-01-01

34

Urban land use, air toxics and public health: Assessing hazardous exposures at the neighborhood scale  

SciTech Connect

Land use data are increasingly understood as important indicators of potential environmental health risk in urban areas where micro-scale or neighborhood level hazard exposure data are not routinely collected. This paper aims to offer a method for estimating the distribution of air toxics in urban neighborhoods using land use information because actual air monitoring data rarely exist at this scale. Using Geographic Information System spatial modeling tools, we estimate air toxics concentrations across neighborhoods in New York City and statistically compare our model with the US Environmental Protection Agency's National Air Toxic Assessment and air monitoring data across three NYC neighborhoods. We conclude that land use data can act as a good proxy for estimating neighborhood scale air toxics, particularly in the absence of monitoring data. In addition, the paper suggests that land use data can expand the reach of environmental impact assessments that routinely exclude analyses of potential exposures to urban air toxics at the neighborhood scale.

Corburn, Jason [Columbia University, Graduate School of Architecture, Planning and Preservation and School of International and Public Affairs, 400 Avery Hall, 1172 Amsterdam Ave. New York, NY 10027 (United States)]. E-mail: jtc2105@columbia.edu

2007-03-15

35

The study on dynamic extraction of urban land use cover with remote sensing image based on AdaBoost algorithm  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In China, the contradiction of urban land use and cultivated land use is predominant, it's important to detect the urban land use cover for the guide of urban development. The primary problem of dynamic detecting on urban land use cover is how to get accurate classification of remote sensing data. Theoretically, if combining several low precision classifiers, a better classification result can be made and this paper introduces how to combine the low precision urban land use cover classifiers. We use CBERS (China-Brazil Earth Resources Satellite) remote sensing images of the year 2007 for Shanghai's urban land use cover. We adopt the AdaBoost combination classifier, which combines spectral feature information, texture structure information and improved Normalized Difference Built-up Index (NDBI) to improve the individual classification precision. The experiment results show that a notable improvement of classification precision of urban land use cover is achieved after using AdaBoost algorithm.

Li, Rui; Sun, Jiulin; Wang, Juanle; Zhu, Lijun; Liu, Rui

2009-10-01

36

Butterfly diversity and human land use: Species assemblages along an urban grandient  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the distribution and abundance of butterfly species across an urban gradient and concomitant changes in community structure by censusing the butterfly and skipper populations at 48 points within six sites near Palo Alto, California, USA (all former oak woodlands). These sites represent a gradient of urban land use running from relatively undisturbed to highly developed and include a

Robert B. Blair; Alan E. Launer

1997-01-01

37

Modeling the Effects of Land Use Change on the Water Temperature in Unregulated Urban Streams  

Microsoft Academic Search

Streams, in their natural state, are typically diverse and biologically productive environments. Streams subject to urbanization often experience degradation brought about by the cumulative effects of flow alteration, unsanitary discharge and channelization. One of the water quality parameters affected by urbanization is stream temperature. This study offers a model for predicting the impact of land use change on the temperature

Robert T. LeBlanc; Robert D. Brown; John E. FitzGibbon

1997-01-01

38

Urban land use: Remote sensing of ground-basin permeability  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A remote sensing analysis of the amount and type of permeable and impermeable surfaces overlying an urban recharge basin is discussed. An effective methodology for accurately generating this data as input to a safe yield study is detailed and compared to more conventional alternative approaches. The amount of area inventoried, approximately 10 sq. miles, should provide a reliable base against which automatic pattern recognition algorithms, currently under investigation for this task, can be evaluated. If successful, such approaches can significantly reduce the time and effort involved in obtaining permeability data, an important aspect of urban hydrology dynamics.

Tinney, L. R.; Jensen, J. R.; Estes, J. E.

1975-01-01

39

Agricultural and urban land use change analysis in Changping County, Beijing, using remote sensing and GIS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Urban growth is regarded as a necessary transitional stage for a sustainable economy, but uncontrolled or arbitrary urban growth rapidly consumes rural resources and causes environmental pollution, ecological deterioration. In this paper, we developed a remote sensing and GIS-based integrated approach to monitor and analyze agricultural and urban spatial land use and ecological landscape change characteristics. In the proposed approach, multi-temporal satellite images from 1995 to 2010 were selected and classified to obtain land cover and use spatial changes. And GIS was used to analyze variation tendency for land use and ecological landscape indices. Experiments were performed in the Changping County, north of Beijing to analyze rapid urbanization effects in the past two decades, especially during the Beijing 2008 Olympic Games. The results indicate that there has been a notable urban growth and a visible loss about 38.8% in cropland, meanwhile dominated landscape structures and patterns have greatly changed from agriculture to urban in the study area.

Guo, Meng; Huang, Xiaoxia; Li, Hongga; Li, Xia; Ming, An

40

Integrated Land Use, Transportation and Environmental Simulation: UrbanSim  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract: n for the Salt Lake City,Utah, region); and the Puget Sound Regional Council (Seattle, Washington, and other cities and suburbs inthe region). In the Salt Lake City region, UrbanSim played a central role in a lawsuit over a major highwayproject (the "Legacy Parkway"). The suit was settled out of court, with a central provision being anagreement by all parties

Alan Borning; Paul Waddell

2004-01-01

41

Urban and regional land use analysis: CARETS and Census Cities experiment package. [mapping land use climatology from MSS imagery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author has identified the following significant results. The arrival of the so-called energy crisis makes the portion of this experiment dealing with land use climatology of more immediate significance than before, since in addition to helping to understand the processes of climatic change associated with urbanization, the knowledge obtained may be useful in assigning an energy balance impact factor to proposed changes in land use in and around cities. Thermal maps derived from S-192 data are to be used as a measure of the energy being radiated into space from the mosaic of different surfaces in and around the city. While presenting excellent spatial sampling potential for a metropolitan area tests site, the Skylab data permit a very poor temporal sampling opportunity, owing to the large number of factors beyond the investigator's control that determine when data will be taken over a given test site. The strategy is to augment the thermal maps derived from S-192 with a modeling technique which enables the simulation of a number of components of the surface energy balance, calculated at regular time intervals throughout the day or year. Preliminary tests on the performance of the model are still underway, using airborne MSS data from NASA aircraft flights. Results look extremely promising.

Alexander, R. H. (principal investigator)

1973-01-01

42

Characterizing urbanization, and agricultural and conservation land-use change in Riverside County, California, USA.  

PubMed

Monitoring trends in urbanization and land use related to population growth and changing social and economic conditions is an important tool for developing in land use and habitat conservation policy. We analyzed urbanization and agricultural land-use change in Riverside County, California from 1984 to 2002, comparing maps every two years on the basis of aerial photographs. Matrix analysis combined with information theory was applied to study land type conversion. Results showed that the total area of "Urban and Built-Up Land" increased the most whereas total area of "Prime Farmland" decreased most. Land-use characterized as "Grazing Land,"Farmland of Local Importance," and "Farmland of Statewide Importance" also decreased. Mean patch size also decreased for "Grazing Land,"Water Area,"Other Land," and "Prime Farmland." The diversity of land types decreased dramatically after 1992. Urbanization patterns were different among three city groups (Riverside City, Coachella Valley, and Blythe), indicating the different times for "leapfrog" development in the three areas. Furthermore, the unpredictability and change in composition of land use increased after 1996 due to intensified urbanization. If the current driving forces continue, our model projects that in 2020 the area of "Urban and Built-Up Land" may increase between 25% and 39% in comparison with 2002. Percentages of most agricultural land types are projected to decrease, especially "Farmland of Local Importance,"Prime Farmland," and "Farmland of Statewide Importance." If the county's goal is to preserve agricultural lands and natural biodiversity, while maintaining sustainable development, current land-use policies and practices should be changed. This study demonstrates new useful methods for monitoring and detection of change of land-use processes. PMID:20586769

Chen, Xiongwen; Li, Bai-Lian; Allen, Michael F

2010-05-01

43

Monitoring the effects of land use/landcover changes on urban heat island  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Urban heat island effects are well known nowadays and observed in cities throughout the World. The main reason behind the effects of urban heat island (UHI) is the transformation of land use/ land cover, and this transformation is associated with UHI through different actions: i) removal of vegetated areas, ii) land reclamation from sea/river, iii) construction of new building as well as other concrete structures, and iv) industrial and domestic activity. In rapidly developing cities, urban heat island effects increases very hastily with the transformation of vegetated/ other types of areas into urban surface because of the increasing population as well as for economical activities. In this research the effect of land use/ land cover on urban heat island was investigated in two growing cities in Asia i.e. Singapore and Johor Bahru, (Malaysia) using 10 years data (from 1997 to 2010) from Landsat TM/ETM+. Multispectral visible band along with indices such as Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), Normalized Difference Build Index (NDBI), and Normalized Difference Bareness Index (NDBaI) were used for the classification of major land use/land cover types using Maximum Likelihood Classifiers. On the other hand, land surface temperature (LST) was estimated from thermal image using Land Surface Temperature algorithm. Emissivity correction was applied to the LST map using the emissivity values from the major land use/ land cover types, and validation of the UHI map was carried out using in situ data. Results of this research indicate that there is a strong relationship between the land use/land cover changes and UHI. Over this 10 years period, significant percentage of non-urban surface was decreased but urban heat surface was increased because of the rapid urbanization. With the increase of UHI effect it is expected that local urban climate has been modified and some heat related health problem has been exposed, so appropriate measure should be taken in order to reduce UHI effects as soon as possible.

Gee, Ong K.; Sarker, Md Latifur Rahman

2013-10-01

44

Study on coordination of land intensive use and urbanization in korla city  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urbanization is a necessary requirement and result for industrial development. The urban land intensive use is a natural way for urban development. Land use and urban development interacts. This paper selected the perspective of a reasonable quantitative evaluation of land intensive use and the comprehensive level of urbanization of Korla City, analyzing the relationship between the two systems. According to

Xin Tian; Xiaolei Zhang; Hongru Du

2011-01-01

45

Assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon input to urban wetlands in relation to adjacent land use  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in wetland surface sediments and adjacent land use was assessed in the Elizabeth River, VA, an urbanized sub-estuary of the Chesapeake Bay. Significant differences (p<0.05) in surface sediment PAH concentration between sites indicated adjacent land use had a substantial influence on PAH concentration in wetland sediments. Wetlands adjacent to parking lots and petroleum

K. L. Kimbrough; R. M. Dickhut

2006-01-01

46

Urban land use and ground water vulnerability in Washington, DC: Environmental equity by city ward  

SciTech Connect

The DC WRRC initiated a USGS-funded study on impacts of urban land use on the city's ground water. Its main objective is the development of pollution potential maps using available physical and land use data for the District of Columbia. A second goal is the design of a ground water protection strategy applicable to a heterogeneous urban setting. The multitude of data required for this project were compiled using a Geographic Information System (GIS). GIS maps show the four hydrogeologic settings, traditional land use categories, specific urban pollution sources, and management units. A coding matrix was developed to create a rating hierarchy of the pollution potential of various land use/pollution source combinations. Subsequent superposition with the ground water vulnerability map allowed the city-wide spatial assessment of land use impacts on ground water quality. Preliminary results can be displayed by voting ward and used to educate residents on environmental conditions. Field trips and technical notes coupled with exposure to new laws and historic maps can heighten public and political awareness of the ground water resource. A city-wide GIS based on voting wards can enhance understanding of the dynamic urban hydrologic cycle and thus aid in establishing environmental equity.

Schneider, J.; O'Conner, J.V.; Wade, C.; Chang, F.M. (Univ. of the District of Columbia, Washington, DC (United States))

1992-01-01

47

Urban and regional land use analysis: CARETS and Census Cities experiment package  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author has identified the following significant results. Areas of post 1970 and 1972 land use changes were identified solely from the Skylab imagery from comparisons with 1970 land use maps. Most land use changes identified involved transition from agriculture to single family residential land use. The second most prominent changes identified from the Skylab imagery were areas presently under construction. Post 1970 changes from Skylab were compared with the 1972 changes noted from the high altitude photographs. A good correlation existed between the change polygons mapped from Skylab and those mapped from the 1972 high altitude aerial photos. In addition, there were a number of instances where additional built-up land use not noted in the 1972 aerial photo as being developed were identified on the Skylab imagery. While these cases have not been documented by field observation, by correlating these areas with the appearance of similar land use areas whose identity has been determined, we can safely say that we have been able to map further occurrences of land use change beyond existing high altitude photo coverage from the Skylab imagery. It was concluded that Skylab data can be used to detect areas of land use change within an urban setting.

Alexander, R. H. (principal investigator); Milazzo, V. A.

1973-01-01

48

[Simulation and prediction of urban and rural settlement growth and land use change in Yingkou City].  

PubMed

Based on the 1988, 1992, 1997, 2000, and 2004 Landsat TM remote sensing data of Yingkou City, Liaoning Province, the urban and rural settlement growth and land use change in the city from 2005 to 2030 were simulated and predicted by using the SLEUTH urban growth and land use change model with six scenarios (current trend scenario, no protection scenario, moderate protection scenario, managed growth scenario, ecologically sustainable growth scenario, and regional and urban comprehensive planning scenario). The results showed that in the city, the increased area of urban and rural settlement growth from 1988 to 2004 was 14.93 km2, and the areas of water area, orchard, mine, and agricultural land changed greatly from 1997 to 2004. From 2005 to 2030, based on ecologically sustainable growth scenario, the urban and rural settlement growth would have a slow increase, and agricultural land and forestland would be better protected; under no protection scenario, the urban and rural settlement growth would have a rapid increase, and large area of agricultural land would be lost; under current trend scenario, the agricultural land loss would be similar to that under no protective scenario, but the loss pattern could be different; under moderate protection scenario and managed growth scenario, the agricultural land would have a smaller loss; while under regional and urban comprehensive planning scenario, the urban and rural settlement growth would be mainly distributed in urban development area and urban fringe. The SLEUTH model with different scenarios could simulate how the different land management policies affect urban and rural settlement growth and land use change, which would be instructive to the coordination of Chinese urban and rural settlement development and the socialist new rural reconstruction. PMID:18839915

Xi, Feng-Ming; He, Hong-Shi; Hu, Yuan-Man; Wu, Xiao-Qing; Bao, Li; Tian, Ying; Wang, Jin-Nian; Ma, Wen-Jun

2008-07-01

49

Are landscape complexity and farm specialisation related to land-use intensity of annual crop fields?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little is known about the predictive value of landscape complexity and farm specialisation for land-use intensity, although this is critical for regional agri–environmental schemes and conservation of biodiversity. Here, we analysed land-use intensity of annual crop fields of 30 farms in northern Germany that were located in 15 landscapes differing in structural complexity ranging from 65% non-crop habitats. The proportion

Indra Roschewitz; Carsten Thies; Teja Tscharntke

2005-01-01

50

Assessment of industrial land use intensity: A case study of Beijing economic-technological development area  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, great economic output of land has been achieved in economic-technological development areas in China, but\\u000a the intensity of land use in some of these areas is very low. The degree of the low intensity of land use needs to be evaluated.\\u000a The current method of comprehensive evaluation and grading by one index system has the limitations due

Daquan Huang; Wei Wan; Teqi Dai; Jinshe Liang

2011-01-01

51

Preliminary Analysis of the efficacy of Artificial neural Network (ANN) and Cellular Automaton (CA) based Land Use Models in Urban Land-Use Planning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This research provides an opportunity of collaboration between urban planners and modellers by providing a clear theoretical foundations on the two most widely used urban land use models, and assessing the effectiveness of applying the models in urban planning context. Understanding urban land cover change is an essential element for sustainable urban development as it affects ecological functioning in urban ecosystem. Rapid urbanization due to growing inclination of people to settle in urban areas has increased the complexities in predicting that at what shape and size cities will grow. The dynamic changes in the spatial pattern of urban landscapes has exposed the policy makers and environmental scientists to great challenge. But geographic science has grown in symmetry to the advancements in computer science. Models and tools are developed to support urban planning by analyzing the causes and consequences of land use changes and project the future. Of all the different types of land use models available in recent days, it has been found by researchers that the most frequently used models are Cellular Automaton (CA) and Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) models. But studies have demonstrated that the existing land use models have not been able to meet the needs of planners and policy makers. There are two primary causes identified behind this prologue. First, there is inadequate understanding of the fundamental theories and application of the models in urban planning context i.e., there is a gap in communication between modellers and urban planners. Second, the existing models exclude many key drivers in the process of simplification of the complex urban system that guide urban spatial pattern. Thus the models end up being effective in assessing the impacts of certain land use policies, but cannot contribute in new policy formulation. This paper is an attempt to increase the knowledge base of planners on the most frequently used land use model and also assess the relative effectiveness of the two models, ANN and CA, in urban planning. The questions that are addressed in this research are: a) What makes ANN models different from CA models?; b) Which model has higher accuracy in predicting future urban land use change?; and c) Are the models effective enough in guiding urban land use policies and strategies? The models that are used for this research are Multilayer Perceptron (MLP) and CA model, available in IDRISI Taiga. Since, the objective is to perform a comparative analysis and draw general inferences irrespective of specific urban policies, the availability of data was given more emphasis over the selection of particular location. Urban area in Massachusetts was chosen to conduct the study due to data availability. Extensive literature review was performed to understand the functionality of the two models. The models were applied to predict future changes and the accuracy assessment was performed using standard matrix. Inferences were drawn about the applicability of the models in urban planning context along with recommendations. This research will not only develop understanding of land use models among urban planners, but also will create an environment of coupled research between planners and modellers.

Harun, R.

2013-05-01

52

A zone-based approach to identifying urban land uses using nationally-available data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Accurate identification of urban land use is essential for many applications in environmental study, ecological assessment, and urban planning, among other fields. However, because physical surfaces of land cover types are not necessarily related to their use and economic function, differentiating among thematically-detailed urban land uses (single-family residential, multi-family residential, commercial, industrial, etc.) using remotely-sensed imagery is a challenging task, particularly over large areas. Because the process requires an interpretation of tone/color, size, shape, pattern, and neighborhood association elements within a scene, it has traditionally been accomplished via manual interpretation of aerial photography or high-resolution satellite imagery. Although success has been achieved for localized areas using various automated techniques based on high-spatial or high-spectral resolution data, few detailed (Anderson Level II equivalent or greater) urban land use mapping products have successfully been created via automated means for broad (multi-county or larger) areas, and no such product exists today for the United States. In this study I argue that by employing a zone-based approach it is feasible to map thematically-detailed urban land use classes over large areas using appropriate combinations of non-image based predictor data which are nationally and publicly available. The approach presented here uses U.S. Census block groups as the basic unit of geography, and predicts the percent of each of ten land use types---nine of them urban---for each block group based on a number of data sources, to include census data, nationally-available point locations of features from the USGS Geographic Names Information System, historical land cover, and metrics which characterize spatial pattern, context (e.g. distance to city centers or other features), and measures of spatial autocorrelation. The method was demonstrated over a four-county area surrounding the city of Boston. A generalized version of the method (six land use classes) was also developed and cross-validated among additional geographic settings: Atlanta, Los Angeles, and Providence. The results suggest that even with the thematically-detailed ten-class structure, it is feasible to map most urban land uses with reasonable accuracy at the block group scale, and results improve with class aggregation. When classified by predicted majority land use, 79% of block groups correctly matched the actual majority land use with the ten-class models. Six-class models typically performed well for the geographic area they were developed from, however models had mixed performance when transported to other geographic settings. Contextual variables, which characterized a block group's spatial relationship to city centers, transportation routes, and other amenities, were consistently strong predictors of most land uses, a result which corresponds to classic urban land use theory. The method and metrics derived here provide a prototype for mapping urban land uses from readily-available data over broader geographic areas than is generally practiced today using current image-based solutions.

Falcone, James A.

53

LAND USE SCANNER: An integrated GIS based model for long term projections of land use in urban and rural areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes the structure of the LAND USE SCANNER model, a GIS based model developed to generate spatial forecasts for various types of land use for a large number of grids. The model basically allocates land according to bid prices for various types of land use. The possibility of government intervention in land use is taken into account among others by adding aggregate constraints. The model includes all relevant land use types such as residential, industrial, agricultural, natural areas and water. The model is driven by sectoral models providing forecasts of aggregate land use in various land use categories. An application of the first version of the model is given for the Netherlands with some 200,000 grid cells. Further developments and refinements of the model are planned for the near future.

Hilferink, Maarten; Rietveld, Piet

54

Effects of Land Use and Urbanization on Water Resources. A Bibliography with Abstracts.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The NTISearch bibliography contains 79 selected abstracts of research reports retrieved using the NTIS on-line search system--NTISearch. Presented are general studies on the effects of land use and urbanization on water resources and water quality. Also i...

E. J. Lehmann

1973-01-01

55

Land use analysis of US urban areas using high-resolution imagery from Skylab  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author has identified the following significant results. The S-190B imagery from Skylab 3 permitted the detection of higher levels of land use detail than any satellite imagery previously evaluated using manual interpretation techniques. Resolution approaches that of 1:100,000 scale infrared aircraft photography, especially regarding urban areas. Nonurban areas are less distinct.

Gallagher, D. B. (principal investigator)

1975-01-01

56

LAND USE AND SEASONAL EFFECTS ON URBAN STORMWATER RUNOFF MICROORGANISM CONCENTRATIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

Stormwater samples collected from storm sewers draining small municipal separate storm sewer systems shown to be free of cross connections within an urban watershed dominated by a single land use were analyzed for pathogens (Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus) and i...

57

Urban travel CO 2 emissions and land use: A case study for Quebec City  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper examines the determinants of urban travel greenhouse gas emissions. Specifically, we examine the impact of individual and household socio-economic characteristics as well as the effect of land use and transit supply characteristics around the residence and work place. The analysis uses an activity-based longitudinal panel survey in the Quebec City region of Canada. We find that emissions vary

Philippe Barla; Luis F. Miranda-Moreno; Martin Lee-Gosselin

2011-01-01

58

Adjusting measured peak discharges from an urbanizing watershed to reflect a stationary land use signal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A procedure to adjust gauged streamflow data from watersheds urbanized during or after their gauging period is presented. The procedure adjusts streamflow to be representative of a fixed land use condition, which may reflect current or future development conditions. Our intent is to determine what an event resulting in a peak discharge in, for example, 1950 (i.e., before urbanization) would produce on the current urban watershed. While past approaches assumed uniform spatial and temporal changes in urbanization, this study focuses on the use of geographic information systems (GIS) based methodologies for precisely locating in space and time where land use change has occurred. This information is incorporated into a hydrologic model to simulate the change in discharge as a result of changing land use conditions. In this paper, we use historical aerial photographs, GIS linked tax-map data, and recent land use/land cover data to recreate the spatial development history of eight gauged watersheds in the Baltimore-Washington, D. C., metropolitan area. Using our procedure to determine discharge series representative of the current urban watersheds, we found that the increase of the adjusted 2-year discharge ranged from 16 to 70 percent compared with the measured annual maximum discharge series. For the 100-year discharge the adjusted values ranged from 0 to 47 percent greater than the measured values. Additionally, relationships between the increase in flood flows and four measures of urbanization (increase in urban land, decrease in forested land, increase in high-density development, and the spatial development pattern) are investigated for predicting the increase in flood flows for ungauged watersheds. Watersheds with the largest increases in flood flows typically had more extensive development in the areas far removed from the outlet. In contrast, watersheds with development located nearer to the outlet typically had the smallest increases in peak discharge.

Beighley, R. Edward; Moglen, Glenn E.

2003-04-01

59

ICCLP: An Inexact Chance-Constrained Linear Programming Model for Land-Use Management of Lake Areas in Urban Fringes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lake areas in urban fringes are under increasing urbanization pressure. Consequently, the conflict between rapid urban development\\u000a and the maintenance of water bodies in such areas urgently needs to be addressed. An inexact chance-constrained linear programming\\u000a (ICCLP) model for optimal land-use management of lake areas in urban fringes was developed. The ICCLP model was based on land-use\\u000a suitability assessment and

Yong Liu; Xiaosheng Qin; Huaicheng Guo; Feng Zhou; Jinfeng Wang; Xiaojian Lv; Guozhu Mao

2007-01-01

60

Preparation of urban land use inventories by machine-processing of ERTS MSS data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Spectral classes of urban phenomena identified from ERTS multispectral scanner data in Milwaukee included Surburban, Inner City, Industry, Grassy (open area), Road, Wooded Suburb, Water, Cloud, and Shadow. The Milwaukee spectral class statistics were used to classify the Chicago area, within the same ERTS frame, and similar results were achieved. In another ERTS frame, Marion County (Indianapolis) data were classified into similar classes. The Marion County ERTS study was supported by a land use classification of an area near downtown Indianapolis that utilized 12-band MSS data collected by aircraft from 3000 feet. The results of the ERTS analyses suggest that satellite data will be a useful tool for the urban planner for monitoring urban land use.

Todd, W.; Mausel, P. E.; Wenner, K. A.

1973-01-01

61

Preparation of urban land use inventories by machine processing of ERTS MSS data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Spectral classes of urban phenomena identified from Earth Resources Technology Satellite (ERTS) multispectral scanner data in Milwaukee included suburban inner city, industry, grassy (open area), road, wooded suburb, water cloud, and shadow. The Milwaukee spectral class statistics were used to classify the Chicago area, within the same ERTS frame, and similar results were achieved. In another ERTS frame, Marion County (Indianapolis) data were classified into similar classes. The Marion County ERTS study was supported by a land use classification of an area near downtown Indianapolis that utilized 12-band MSS data collected by aircraft from 3000 feet. The results of the ERTS analyses suggest that satellite data will be a useful tool for the urban planner for monitoring urban land use.

Todd, W.; Mausel, P. E.; Wenner, K. A.

1973-01-01

62

Structural change of agricultural land use intensity and its regional disparity in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on the data from the Cost-benefit Data of Farm Produce and the China Agricultural Yearbook, this paper divided the intensity\\u000a of cultivated land use into labor intensity and capital intensity, and then analyzed their temporal and spatial change at\\u000a both national and provincial levels between 1980 and 2006. The results showed that: (1) At the national level, labor intensity

Yuqi Chen; Xiubin Li; Yujun Tian; Minghong Tan

2009-01-01

63

Effects of land use on the cooling effect of green areas on surrounding urban areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The spatial distribution of the cooling effect of the green area on surrounding urban area in Nagoya, central Japan was examined by applying ASTER data. First, we clarified the correlation between surface temperature and land use in a green area. Second, we also examined the extent of the cooling effect of the green area on the surrounding urban area. Third, we extracted the land-use factors that significantly affect the extent of the cooling effect. Finally, we referred to new knowledge about the effect of terrain on the cooling effect. The surface temperature differed with land use in the green area. Surface temperatures for green areas were lower than those for other categories, except ponds. In green areas, the temperature in forest lands was lower than that in lawn and agricultural land, suggesting that the forest contributes strongly to the cooling effect of the green area. The surface temperature differences among the categories were small in October, compared to the other analysed days during summer. The extent of the cooling effect of the green area on the surrounding urban area averaged in all directions reached about 200m in the surrounding urban area from July to October. However, the surface temperature difference between the urban area and the green area decreased in October. This phenomenon indicated that the cooling effect of the green area was weaker during autumn than during summer. By examining the spatial distribution of the surface temperature, the cooling effect was shown to stretch in almost all directions of the urban area, and it appears unlikely that wind direction affected the extent of the cooling effect (Fig.1). The cooling effect of Heiwa Park was affected by the roads and buildings. Their effect on the cooling effect depended on their layout and size. It is desirable to have green areas scattered throughout an urban environment rather than concentrated at one spot because the cooling range of a single green area is limited to a few hundred metres. In addition to the land-use factor, it was found that terrain affected the cooling effect of a green area. The green area in the current study site is located on a hill, and the cold air generated over the green area was effectively advected downslope towards the surrounding urban area. The effect of the hill on the cooling effect had not been presumed, and they might be highly significant. Therefore, We suggest accounting for these results during the planning the layout of the urban block and the urban canyon to effectively use the cooling effect of an urban green area.

Hamada, S.; Tanaka, T.

2011-12-01

64

Land use intensity in grasslands: Changes in biodiversity, species composition and specialisation in flower visitor networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between resource availability and biodiversity of consumers has gained particular attention with the increasing loss of biodiversity. We evaluated resource availability on meadows of low intensity (low\\/unfertilised, mown once or twice per year) and meadows of high-intensity land use (high fertilisation, mown twice or thrice) before and after the first mowing in relation to network specialisation, species richness

Christiane Natalie Weiner; Michael Werner; Karl Eduard Linsenmair; Nico Blüthgen

2011-01-01

65

The emergence of urban land use patterns driven by dispersion and aggregation mechanisms.  

PubMed

We employ a cellular-automata to reconstruct the land use patterns of cities that we characterize by two measures of spatial heterogeneity: (a) a variant of spatial entropy, which measures the spread of residential, business, and industrial activity sectors, and (b) an index of dissimilarity, which quantifies the degree of spatial mixing of these land use activity parcels. A minimalist and bottom-up approach is adopted that utilizes a limited set of three parameters which represent the forces which determine the extent to which each of these sectors spatially aggregate into clusters. The dispersion degrees of the land uses are governed by a fixed pre-specified power-law distribution based on empirical observations in other cities. Our method is then used to reconstruct land use patterns for the city state of Singapore and a selection of North American cities. We demonstrate the emergence of land use patterns that exhibit comparable visual features to the actual city maps defining our case studies whilst sharing similar spatial characteristics. Our work provides a complementary approach to other measures of urban spatial structure that differentiate cities by their land use patterns resulting from bottom-up dispersion and aggregation processes. PMID:24386078

Decraene, James; Monterola, Christopher; Lee, Gary Kee Khoon; Hung, Terence Gih Guang; Batty, Michael

2013-01-01

66

Landscaping practices, land use patterns and stormwater quantity and quality in urban watersheds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Increasing quantity and decreasing quality of urban stormwater threatens biodiversity in local streams and reservoirs, jeopardizes water supplies, and ultimately contributes to estuarine eutrophication. To estimate the effects that present and alternative landscaping practices and land use patterns may have on urban stormwater quantity and quality, simulations of existing land use/land cover using the Regional Hydro-Ecologic Simulation System (RHESSys), a process-based surface hydrology and biogeochemistry model, were developed for watersheds in Baltimore, MD (as part of the Baltimore Ecosystem Study (BES) NSF Long-Term Ecological Research (LTER) site) and Durham, NC (as part of the NSF Urban Long-Term Research Area (ULTRA) program). The influence of land use patterns and landscaping practices on nutrient export in urban watersheds has been explored as part of the BES; this work has focused on improving our understanding of how residential landscaping practices (i.e. lawn fertilization rates) vary across land use and socioeconomic gradients. Elsewhere, others have explored the political ecology of residential landscaping practices - seeking to understand the economic, political, and cultural influences on the practice of high-input residential turf-grass management. Going forward, my research will synthesize and extend this prior work. Rather than pre-supposing predominant residential land use patterns and landscaping practices (i.e. lower-density periphery development incorporating high-input turf landscapes) alternate land use and landscaping scenarios (e.g. higher-density/transit-oriented development, rain gardens, vegetable gardens, native plant/xeriscaping) will be developed through interviews/focus groups with stakeholders (citizens, public officials, developers, non-profits). These scenarios will then be applied to the RHESSys models already developed for catchments in Baltimore and Durham. The modeled scenario results will be used to identify alternate land use patterns and landscaping practices that would: (1) help to reduce non-point sources of nutrient pollution in urban watersheds; and (2) be likely to gain public support. This research will inform sustainable development policy while furthering interdisciplinary research in the fields of planning and water resource management.

Miles, B.; Band, L. E.

2011-12-01

67

a Study of Urban Intensive Land Evaluating System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The contradiction of land supply and demand is becoming increasingly prominent in China. The increasing efficiency of land use is an important means to resolve the conflict. We propose a scientific approach for promoting the urban intensive land use. In this paper, an evaluation system of urban intensive land use is programmed. It is designed to change the manual way of collecting index data and building index system to a dynamical way. The system improves the efficiency and accuracy of the evaluation of urban intensive land use. It achieves intensive evaluation on three scales: macro-level, medium-level and micro-level. We build two data extraction methods. One is XML-based meta-data exchange method that obtains index data from the cadastral database. Another is data monitoring method that writes the index data to the evaluation database at real time. Database technologies are used to calculate index values and build index systems dynamically. GIS technologies are use to achieve three scales evaluation of urban intensive land use.

Jiang, L.; Gu, J.; Chen, X.; You, Y.; Tang, Q.

2012-07-01

68

Database design of urban land prices and intensive use  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper firstly studies the stratification and organization of the urban land prices and intensive use data, in order to design data model based on Geodatabase for the city land use and intensive use; Secondly, designs a four in one database structure for basic information database, analysis and evaluation databases, information release databases and meta-databases; finally, studies the database establishment

Xiwang Zhang; Jianfeng Liu

2010-01-01

69

Increasing land-use intensity decreases floral colour diversity of plant communities in temperate grasslands.  

PubMed

To preserve biodiversity and ecosystem functions in a globally changing world it is crucial to understand the effect of land use on ecosystem processes such as pollination. Floral colouration is known to be central in plant-pollinator interactions. To date, it is still unknown whether land use affects the colouration of flowering plant communities. To assess the effect of land use on the diversity and composition of flower colours in temperate grasslands, we collected data on the number of flowering plant species, blossom cover and flower reflectance spectra from 69 plant communities in two German regions, Schwäbische Alb (SA) and Hainich-Dün (HD). We analysed reflectance data of flower colours as they are perceived by honeybees and studied floral colour diversity based upon spectral loci of each flowering plant species in the Maxwell triangle. Before the first mowing, flower colour diversity decreased with increasing land-use intensity in SA, accompanied by a shift of mean flower colours of communities towards an increasing proportion of white blossom cover in both regions. By changing colour characteristics of grasslands, we suggest that increasing land-use intensity can affect the flower visitor fauna in terms of visitor behaviour and diversity. These changes may in turn influence plant reproduction in grassland plant communities. Our results indicate that land use is likely to affect communication processes between plants and flower visitors by altering flower colour traits. PMID:23568710

Binkenstein, Julia; Renoult, Julien P; Schaefer, H Martin

2013-10-01

70

Efficiency of Context-Based Attributes for Land-Use Classification of Urban Environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a study for the evaluation of the efficiency of context features in object-based land-use classification of urban environments using aerial high spatial resolution imagery and LiDAR data. Objects were defined by means of cartographic boundaries derived from the cadastral geospatial database. Objects are exhaustively described through different types of image derived features (i.e. spectral and texture), three-dimensional features computed from LiDAR data, and geometrical features describing the shape of each object. Additionally, the context of each object is described considering several aspects: adjacency, urban morphology, vegetation, and geometry. Adjacency between objects was characterized by features computed using the graph theory. Urban morphology features are related to the shape and size of neighbouring buildings, and are often related to their socio- economic function. The presence and density of vegetation are strongly related to the different urban typologies. Many of the contextual features are related to buildings, which are obtained by means of automatic building detection techniques. The meaning of the defined features, and their contribution to the classification accuracy were analyzed. The results showed that the inclusion of contextual features had a positive effect on land use classification of urban environments, increasing the overall accuracy around 4%, compared of using only the rest of features. The classification efficiency particularly increased in some classes, such as different typologies of suburban buildings, planned urban areas and historical areas.

Hermosilla Gómez, T.; Ruiz, L. A.; Recio, J. A.; Cambra López, M.

2011-09-01

71

Anthropogenic land uses elevate metal levels in stream water in an urbanizing watershed.  

PubMed

Land use/cover change is a dominant factor affecting surface water quality in rapidly developing areas of Asia. In this study we examined relationships between land use and instream metal loadings in a rapidly developing mixed land use watershed in southeastern China. Five developing subwatersheds and one forested reference site (head water) were instrumented with timing- and rainfall-triggered autosampler and instream loadings of anthropogenic metals (Cu, Zn, Pb, Cr, Cd, and Mn) were monitored from March 2012 to December 2013. Farm land and urban land were positively, and forest and green land were negatively associated with metal loadings (except Cr) in stream water. All developing sites had higher loadings than the reference head water site. Assessed by Chinese surface water quality standard (GB3830-2002), instream loadings of Cu and Zn occasionally exceeded the Class I thresholds at monitoring points within farmland dominated subwatersheds while Mn loadings were greater than the limit for drinking water sources at all monitoring points. Farm land use highly and positively contributed to statistical models of instream loadings of Cu, Zn, Cd, and Mn while urban land use was the dominant contributor to models of Pb and Cd loadings. Rainfall played a crucial role in metal loadings in stream water as a direct source (there were significant levels of Cu and Zn in rain water) and as a driver of watershed processes (loadings were higher in wet years and seasons). Urbanization effects on metal loadings in this watershed are likely to change rapidly with development in future years. Further monitoring to characterize these changes is clearly warranted and should help to develop plans to avoid conflicts between economic development and water quality degradation in this watershed and in watersheds throughout rapidly developing areas of Asia. PMID:24815555

Yu, Shen; Wu, Qian; Li, Qingliang; Gao, Jinbo; Lin, Qiaoying; Ma, Jun; Xu, Qiufang; Wu, Shengchun

2014-08-01

72

ICCLP: An Inexact Chance-Constrained Linear Programming Model for Land-Use Management of Lake Areas in Urban Fringes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lake areas in urban fringes are under increasing urbanization pressure. Consequently, the conflict between rapid urban development and the maintenance of water bodies in such areas urgently needs to be addressed. An inexact chance-constrained linear programming (ICCLP) model for optimal land-use management of lake areas in urban fringes was developed. The ICCLP model was based on land-use suitability assessment and land evaluation. The maximum net economic benefit (NEB) was selected as the objective of land-use allocation. The total environmental capacity (TEC) of water systems and the public financial investment (PFI) at different probability levels were considered key constraints. Other constraints included in the model were land-use suitability, governmental requirements on the ratios of various land-use types, and technical constraints. A case study implementing the system was performed for the lake area of Hanyang at the urban fringe of Wuhan, central China, based on our previous study on land-use suitability assessment. The Hanyang lake area is under significant urbanization pressure. A 15-year optimal model for land-use allocation is proposed during 2006 to 2020 to better protect the water system and to gain the maximum benefits of development. Sixteen constraints were set for the optimal model. The model results indicated that NEB was between 1.48 × 109 and 8.76 × 109 or between 3.98 × 109 and 16.7 × 109, depending on the different urban-expansion patterns and land demands. The changes in total developed area and the land-use structure were analyzed under different probabilities ( q i ) of TEC. Changes in q i resulted in different urban expansion patterns and demands on land, which were the direct result of the constraints imposed by TEC and PFI. The ICCLP model might help local authorities better understand and address complex land-use systems and develop optimal land-use management strategies that better balance urban expansion and grassland conservation.

Liu, Yong; Qin, Xiaosheng; Guo, Huaicheng; Zhou, Feng; Wang, Jinfeng; Lv, Xiaojian; Mao, Guozhu

2007-12-01

73

Solute Sourcing and Hydrologic Response to Monsoon Precipitation Along a Gradient of Urban Land Use  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Urban storm runoff in arid and semiarid areas is used as a potential groundwater recharge resource, but knowledge gaps remain in our understanding on the underlying hydrologic and biogeochemical processes that control the water quality of urban runoff. This study addresses this gap by evaluating how hydrologic and biogeochemical processes interact to produce distinct storm runoff chemistry. We hypothesized that transport processes dominate the solute chemistry of highly urbanized watersheds with large impervious cover; whereas biogeochemical reactions dominate solute responses in less urbanized watersheds with potentially more vegetation and longer flow paths. Utilizing automatic water samplers, we collected urban storm runoff from five distinct urban land use watersheds: 1) low density residential (least urbanized), 2) old medium density residential, 3) new medium density residential, 4) mixed land use and 5) commercial (most urbanized). We coupled a conservative tracer (chloride, Cl-) with stable isotope data (?D and ?18O) to infer physical and biogeochemical processes contributing to the solute chemistry observed. Solute response was similar in the least and most urbanized watersheds, which had the highest mean seasonal concentrations of Cl-, DOC, fecal indicator bacteria (E. coli), Na, Hg and Cu among others, and had the lowest As, Ca and Ni concentrations. The low density site exhibited weak seasonal chloride flushing, contrasting with the commercial site's stronger flushing response. Coupling of Cl-, ?D and ?18O data, and comparing it across sites demonstrates solute flushing and evapoconcentration in the commercial site as inferred by ?18O and ?D values that plot along an evaporation trend (from -34 to -24 ‰ ?D, and -5.3 to -3.5 ‰ ?18O) with increasing Cl- concentrations (from 1.8 to 7.4 mg L-1) during the runoff event. In contrast, high ?D values (-27 to -22 ‰) of runoff and a simultaneous decrease in Cl- concentrations (from 11.5 to 3.7 mg L-1) at the low density site suggest watershed solute retention despite runoff evaporation which should concentrate Cl-. Lower ?D values of runoff, closer to the meteoric water line, in the commercial site may indicate a shorter flow path when compared to the higher ?D values (more evaporated signature) in the low density site. Our study demonstrates that the urban storm runoff quality can not be predicted by land use alone, and supports the study's hypothesis of transport controls on solutes at the most urbanized sites, and flow path and biogeochemical controls at least impervious sites.

Gallo, E. L.; Brooks, P. D.; Lohse, K.; McIntosh, J.; McLain, J. E.; Meixner, T.

2008-12-01

74

Urban Land Intensive Utilization Appraisal  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main problems, such as evaluation index is not unified, standard worth evaluation is not unified and evaluation result is also not unified, are existing in the study of China's urban land intensive use evaluation. This paper aims to provide a new approach for the evaluation of China's urban land intensive use according to the problems above. In this paper,

Shang Tian-cheng; Li Xiangpeng; Liu Pei-hong; Liu Pei-jie

2009-01-01

75

Mercury in urban soils with various types of land use in Beijing, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mercury (Hg) concentration was investigated for 127 urban soil samples collected from business area (BA), classical garden (CG), culture and education area (CEA), public green space (PGS), residential area (RA) and roadside area (RSA) in Beijing. The median of Hg concentration in Beijing was 0.26 mg\\/kg. The value in CG was much higher than the other 5 types of land use,

Xi Chen; Xinghui Xia; Shan Wu; Fan Wang; Xuejun Guo

2010-01-01

76

Graph-Based Urban Land Use Mapping from High Resolution Satellite Images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Due to the dynamic character of urban land use (e.g. urban sprawl) there is a demand for frequent updates for monitoring, modeling, and controlling purposes. Urban land use is an added value that can be indirectly derived with the help of various properties of land cover classes that describe a certain area and create a distinguishable structure. The goal of this project is to extract land use (LU) classes out of a structure of land cover (LC) classes from high resolution Quickbird data and additional LiDAR building height models. The study area is Rostock, a German city with more than 200.000 inhabitants. To model the properties of urban land use a graph based approach is adapted from other disciplines (industrial image processing, medicine, informatics). A graph consists of nodes and edges while nodes describe the land cover and edges define the relationship of neighboring objects. To calculate the adjacency that describes which nodes are combined with an edge several distance ranges and building height properties are tested. Furthermore the information value of planar versus non-planar graph types is analyzed. After creating the graphs specific indices are computed that evaluate how compact or connected the graphs are. In this work several graph indices are explained and applied to training areas. Results show that the distance of buildings and building height are reliable indicators for LU-categories. The separability of LU-classes improves when properties of land cover classes and graph indices are combined to a LU-signature.

Walde, I.; Hese, S.; Berger, C.; Schmullius, C.

2012-07-01

77

Variations of Soil Lead in Different Land Uses Along the Urbanization Gradient in the Beijing Metropolitan Area  

PubMed Central

Understanding the spatial pattern of soil lead (Pb) levels is essential to protecting human health. Most previous studies have examined soil Pb distributions by either urbanization gradient or land-use type. Few studies, however, have examined both factors together. It remains unclear whether the impacts of land use on soil Pb levels are consistent along the urbanization gradient. To fill this gap, we investigated variations in soil Pb level under different land-use types along the urbanization gradient in Beijing, China. We classified the degree of urbanization as the urban core, transitional zone, or suburban area and the land-use type as industrial area, roadside, residential area, institutional area, road greenbelt, park, or forest. Our results showed that the range of soil Pb levels in Beijing is <1 mg/kg–292 mg/kg, with a mean of 22 mg/kg. Along the urbanization gradient, the mean soil Pb level increased from the suburban area to the urban core. Land-use types have an impact on soil Pb levels, however, when the degree of urbanization is considered, the impact from land use on soil Pb level was only significant in the transitional zone. Parks and road greenbelts were found to have lower soil Pb, primarily due to soil restoration. Roadside and residential areas were found to have higher soil Pb because of traffic emissions, leaded paint, and previous industrial contamination. In the urban core and suburban area, the soil Pb level showed no significant differences among various land-use types. Given the results of soil Pb in various land-use types, we suggest that future studies consider the urbanization gradient in which different land-use samples are located.

Mao, Qizheng; Huang, Ganlin; Ma, Keming; Sun, Zexiang

2014-01-01

78

[Spatial scale effect of urban land use landscape pattern in Shanghai City].  

PubMed

Based on geographic information system (GIS) and remote sensing (RS) techniques, the landscape classes of urban land use in Shanghai City were extracted from SPOT images with 5 m spatial resolution in 2002, and then, the classified data were applied to quantitatively explore the change patterns of several basic landscape metrics at different scales. The results indicated that landscape metrics were sensitive to grain- and extent variance. Urban landscape pattern was spatially dependent. In other words, different landscape metrics showed different responses to scale. The resolution of 40 m was an intrinsic observing scale for urban landscape in Shanghai City since landscape metrics showed random characteristics while the grain was less than 40 m. The extent of 24 km was a symbol scale in a series of extents, which was consistent with the boundary between urban built-up area and suburban area in Shanghai City. As a result, the extent of 12 km away from urban center would be an intrinsic handle scale for urban landscape in Shanghai City. However, due to the complexity of urban structure and asymmetry of urban spatial expansion, the intrinsic handle scale was not regular extent, and the square with size of 24 km was just an approximate intrinsic extent for Shanghai City. PMID:18333462

Xu, Li-Hua; Yue, Wen Ze; Cao, Yu

2007-12-01

79

The development and application of land use\\/land use intensity data from SPOT\\/VEGETATION and Census of Agriculture data  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this research is to develop the first Canada-wide, integrated land use\\/land cover database with supplemental land use intensity data within agricultural regions. We combined the 1998 growing season composite of Canada from processed SPOT4\\/Vegetation (VGT) data with thematically detailed, coarse resolution Census of Agriculture data from 1996. An enhanced, unsupervised classification procedure was applied to the VGT

Jeremy T. Kerr; Josef Cihlar

2002-01-01

80

Effects of landscape structure and land-use intensity on similarity of plant and animal communities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim Species richness in itself is not always sufficient to evaluate land management strategies for nature conservation. The exchange of species between local communities may be affected by landscape structure and land-use intensity. Thus, species turnover, and its inverse, community similarity, may be useful measures of landscape integrity from a diversity perspective. Location A European transect from France to Estonia.

Carsten F. Dormann; Oliver Schweiger; Isabel Augenstein; Debra Bailey; Regula Billeter; Geert de Blust; Riccardo DeFilippi; Mark Frenzel; Frederik Hendrickx; Felix Herzog; Stefan Klotz; Jaan Liira; Jean-Pierre Maelfait; Torsten Schmidt; Marjan Speelmans; Wingerden van W. K. R. E; Martin Zobel

2007-01-01

81

Land-use intensity modifies spatial distribution and function of soil microorganisms in grasslands  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the present study was to investigate whether land-use intensity (LUI) contributes to spatial variation in microbial abundance and function in grassland ecosystems. At one time point, three sites at low (unfertilized pastures), at intermediate (fertilized mown pastures) and at high (fertilized mown meadows) LUIs were selected in southern Germany. Within each of these nine grassland sites, 54

Doreen Berner; Sven Marhan; Daniel Keil; Christian Poll; André Schützenmeister; Hans-Peter Piepho; Ellen Kandeler

2011-01-01

82

Bayesian Network Structure Learning for Urban Land Use Classification from Landsat ETM+ and Ancillary Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recognizing urban information from the satellite imagery is problematic due to the diverse features and dynamic changes of urban landuse. The use of Landsat imagery for urban land use classification involves inherent uncertainty due to its spatial resolution and the low separability among land uses. To resolve the uncertainty problem, we investigated the performance of Bayesian networks to classify urban land use since Bayesian networks provide a quantitative way of handling uncertainty and have been successfully used in many areas. In this study, we developed the optimized networks for urban land use classification from Landsat ETM+ images of Marina del Rey area based on USGS land cover/use classification level III. The networks started from a tree structure based on mutual information between variables and added the links to improve accuracy. This methodology offers several advantages: (1) The network structure shows the dependency relationships between variables. The class node value can be predicted even with particular band information missing due to sensor system error. The missing information can be inferred from other dependent bands. (2) The network structure provides information of variables that are important for the classification, which is not available from conventional classification methods such as neural networks and maximum likelihood classification. In our case, for example, bands 1, 5 and 6 are the most important inputs in determining the land use of each pixel. (3) The networks can be reduced with those input variables important for classification. This minimizes the problem without considering all possible variables. We also examined the effect of incorporating ancillary data: geospatial information such as X and Y coordinate values of each pixel and DEM data, and vegetation indices such as NDVI and Tasseled Cap transformation. The results showed that the locational information improved overall accuracy (81%) and kappa coefficient (76%), and lowered the omission and commission errors compared with using only spectral data (accuracy 71%, kappa coefficient 62%). Incorporating DEM data did not significantly improve overall accuracy (74%) and kappa coefficient (66%) but lowered the omission and commission errors. Incorporating NDVI did not much improve the overall accuracy (72%) and k coefficient (65%). Including Tasseled Cap transformation reduced the accuracy (accuracy 70%, kappa 61%). Therefore, additional information from the DEM and vegetation indices was not useful as locational ancillary data.

Park, M.; Stenstrom, M. K.

2004-12-01

83

Monitoring and Predicting Land-use Changes and the Hydrology of the Urbanized Paochiao Watershed in Taiwan Using Remote Sensing Data, Urban Growth Models and a Hydrological Model  

PubMed Central

Monitoring and simulating urban sprawl and its effects on land-use patterns and hydrological processes in urbanized watersheds are essential in land-use and water-resource planning and management. This study applies a novel framework to the urban growth model Slope, Land use, Excluded land, Urban extent, Transportation, and Hillshading (SLEUTH) and land-use change with the Conversion of Land use and its Effects (CLUE-s) model using historical SPOT images to predict urban sprawl in the Paochiao watershed in Taipei County, Taiwan. The historical and predicted land-use data was input into Patch Analyst to obtain landscape metrics. This data was also input to the Generalized Watershed Loading Function (GWLF) model to analyze the effects of future urban sprawl on the land-use patterns and watershed hydrology. The landscape metrics of the historical SPOT images show that land-use patterns changed between 1990–2000. The SLEUTH model accurately simulated historical land-use patterns and urban sprawl in the Paochiao watershed, and simulated future clustered land-use patterns (2001–2025). The CLUE-s model also simulated land-use patterns for the same period and yielded historical trends in the metrics of land-use patterns. The land-use patterns predicted by the SLEUTH and CLUE-s models show the significant impact urban sprawl will have on land-use patterns in the Paochiao watershed. The historical and predicted land-use patterns in the watershed tended to fragment, had regular shapes and interspersion patterns, but were relatively less isolated in 2001–2025 and less interspersed from 2005–2025 compared with land-use pattern in 1990. During the study, the variability and magnitude of hydrological components based on the historical and predicted land-use patterns were cumulatively affected by urban sprawl in the watershed; specifically, surface runoff increased significantly by 22.0% and baseflow decreased by 18.0% during 1990–2025. The proposed approach is an effective means of enhancing land-use monitoring and management of urbanized watersheds.

Lin, Yu-Pin; Lin, Yun-Bin; Wang, Yen-Tan; Hong, Nien-Ming

2008-01-01

84

Regional disparity in the changes of agricultural land use intensity in China during 1980–2002  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on the cost-benefit data (1980–2002) of farm products and China Agriculture Yearbooks, this paper studies the regional\\u000a disparity in the changes of the agricultural land use in China during the period 1980–2002 from three aspects such as the\\u000a degree of intensity, the sown area and the abandoned farmland. The results show that: (1) The degree of intensity of land

Chengwu Liu; Xiubin Li

2006-01-01

85

Effects of urbanization on stream ecosystems along an agriculture-to-urban land-use gradient, Milwaukee to Green Bay, Wisconsin, 2003-2004  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In 2003 and 2004, 30 streams near Milwaukee and Green Bay, Wisconsin, were part of a national study by the U.S. Geological Survey to assess urbanization effects on physical, chemical, and biological characteristics along an agriculture-to-urban land-use gradient. A geographic information system was used to characterize natural landscape features that define the environmental setting and the degree of urbanization within each stream watershed. A combination of land cover, socioeconomic, and infrastructure variables were integrated into a multi-metric urban intensity index, scaled from 0 to 100, and assigned to each stream site to identify a gradient of urbanization within relatively homogeneous environmental settings. The 35 variables used to develop the final urban intensity index characterized the degree of urbanization and included road infrastructure (road area and road traffic index), 100-meter riparian land cover (percentage of impervious surface, shrubland, and agriculture), watershed land cover (percentage of impervious surface, developed/urban land, shrubland, and agriculture), and 26 socioeconomic variables (U.S. Census Bureau, 2001). Characteristics examined as part of this study included: habitat, hydrology, stream temperature, water chemistry (chloride, sulfate, nutrients, dissolved and particulate organic and inorganic carbon, pesticides, and suspended sediment), benthic algae, benthic invertebrates, and fish. Semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) were used to assess the potential for bioconcentration of hydrophobic organic contaminants (specifically polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, and organochlorine and pyrethroid insecticides) in biological membranes, such as the gills of fish. Physical habitat measurements reflective of channel enlargement, including bankfull channel size and bank erosion, increased with increasing urbanization within the watershed. In this study, percentage of riffles and streambed substrate size were more strongly related to local geologic setting, slope, watershed topography, and river-engineering practices than to urbanization. Historical local river-engineering features such as channelization, bank stabilization, and grade controls may have confounded relations among habitat characteristics and urbanization. A number of hydrologic-condition metrics (including flashiness and duration of high flow during pre- or post-ice periods) showed strong relations to the urban intensity index. Hydrologic-condition metrics cannot be used alone to predict habitat or geomorphic change. Chloride and SPMD measures of potential toxicity and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations showed the strongest positive correlations to urbanization including increases in road infrastructure, percentage of impervious surface in the watershed, urban land cover, and land-distribution related to urban land cover. This suggests that automobiles and the infrastructure required to support automobiles are a significant source of these compounds in this study area. Chloride in spring and summer showed a significant positive correlation with the urban intensity index; concentrations increased with increasing road infrastructure, urban land cover, and a number of landscape variables related to urbanization. Spring concentrations of sulfate, prometon, and diazinon correlated to fewer urban characteristics than chloride, including increases in road infrastructure, percentage of impervious surface, and urban land cover. Changes in biological communities correlated to the urban intensity index or individual urban-associated variables. Decreased percentages of pollution-sensitive diatoms and diatoms requiring high dissolved-oxygen saturation correlated to increases in the percentage of developed urban land, total impervious surface, stream flashiness, population density, road-area density, and decreases in the percentage of wetland in the watershed. Invertebrate taxa richness and Coleop

Richards, Kevin D.; Scudder, Barbara C.; Fitzpatrick, Faith A.; Steuer, Jeffery J.; Bell, Amanda H.; Peppler, Marie C.; Stewart, Jana S.; Harris, Mitchell A.

2010-01-01

86

Impact of Land-Use Intensity and Productivity on Bryophyte Diversity in Agricultural Grasslands  

PubMed Central

While bryophytes greatly contribute to plant diversity of semi-natural grasslands, little is known about the relationships between land-use intensity, productivity, and bryophyte diversity in these habitats. We recorded vascular plant and bryophyte vegetation in 85 agricultural used grasslands in two regions in northern and central Germany and gathered information on land-use intensity. To assess grassland productivity, we harvested aboveground vascular plant biomass and analyzed nutrient concentrations of N, P, K, Ca and Mg. Further we calculated mean Ellenberg indicator values of vascular plant vegetation. We tested for effects of land-use intensity and productivity on total bryophyte species richness and on the species richness of acrocarpous (small & erect) and pleurocarpous (creeping, including liverworts) growth forms separately. Bryophyte species were found in almost all studied grasslands, but species richness differed considerably between study regions in northern Germany (2.8 species per 16 m2) and central Germany (6.4 species per 16 m2) due environmental differences as well as land-use history. Increased fertilizer application, coinciding with high mowing frequency, reduced bryophyte species richness significantly. Accordingly, productivity estimates such as plant biomass and nitrogen concentration were strongly negatively related to bryophyte species richness, although productivity decreased only pleurocarpous species. Ellenberg indicator values for nutrients proved to be useful indicators of species richness and productivity. In conclusion, bryophyte composition was strongly dependent on productivity, with smaller bryophytes that were likely negatively affected by greater competition for light. Intensive land-use, however, can also indirectly decrease bryophyte species richness by promoting grassland productivity. Thus, increasing productivity is likely to cause a loss of bryophyte species and a decrease in species diversity.

Muller, Jorg; Klaus, Valentin H.; Kleinebecker, Till; Prati, Daniel; Holzel, Norbert; Fischer, Markus

2012-01-01

87

Additive effects of exotic plant abundance and land-use intensity on plant-pollinator interactions.  

PubMed

The continuing spread of exotic plants and increasing human land-use are two major drivers of global change threatening ecosystems, species and their interactions. Separate effects of these two drivers on plant-pollinator interactions have been thoroughly studied, but we still lack an understanding of combined and potential interactive effects. In a subtropical South African landscape, we studied 17 plant-pollinator networks along two gradients of relative abundance of exotics and land-use intensity. In general, pollinator visitation rates were lower on exotic plants than on native ones. Surprisingly, while visitation rates on native plants increased with relative abundance of exotics and land-use intensity, pollinator visitation on exotic plants decreased along the same gradients. There was a decrease in the specialization of plants on pollinators and vice versa with both drivers, regardless of plant origin. Decreases in pollinator specialization thereby seemed to be mediated by a species turnover towards habitat generalists. However, contrary to expectations, we detected no interactive effects between the two drivers. Our results suggest that exotic plants and land-use promote generalist plants and pollinators, while negatively affecting specialized plant-pollinator interactions. Weak integration and high specialization of exotic plants may have prevented interactive effects between exotic plants and land-use. Still, the additive effects of exotic plants and land-use on specialized plant-pollinator interactions would have been overlooked in a single-factor study. We therefore highlight the need to consider multiple drivers of global change in ecological research and conservation management. PMID:23817775

Grass, Ingo; Berens, Dana Gertrud; Peter, Franziska; Farwig, Nina

2013-11-01

88

Evaluation of land use/land cover datasets for urban watershed modeling  

SciTech Connect

Land use/land cover (LULC) data are a vital component for nonpoint source pollution modeling. Most watershed hydrology and pollutant loading models use, in some capacity, LULC information to generate runoff and pollutant loading estimates. Simple equation methods predict runoff and pollutant loads using runoff coefficients or pollutant export coefficients that are often correlated to LULC type. Complex models use input variables and parameters to represent watershed characteristics and pollutant buildup and washoff rates as a function of LULC type. Whether using simple or complex models an accurate LULC dataset with an appropriate spatial resolution and level of detail is paramount for reliable predictions. The study presented in this paper compared and evaluated several LULC dataset sources for application in urban environmental modeling. The commonly used USGS LULC datasets have coarser spatial resolution and lower levels of classification than other LULC datasets. In addition, the USGS datasets do not accurately represent the land use in areas that have undergone significant land use change during the past two decades. We performed a watershed modeling analysis of three urban catchments in Los Angeles, California, USA to investigate the relative difference in average annual runoff volumes and total suspended solids (TSS) loads when using the USGS LULC dataset versus using a more detailed and current LULC dataset. When the two LULC datasets were aggregated to the same land use categories, the relative differences in predicted average annual runoff volumes and TSS loads from the three catchments were 8 to 14% and 13 to 40%, respectively. The relative differences did not have a predictable relationship with catchment size.

Burian, S. J. (Steven J.); Brown, M. J. (Michael J.); McPherson, T. N. (Timothy N.)

2001-01-01

89

Land-Use Intensity Effects on Soil Organic Carbon Accumulation Rates and Mechanisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Restoring soil C pools by reducing land use intensity is a potentially high impact, rapidly deployable strategy for partially\\u000a offsetting atmospheric CO2 increases. However, rates of C accumulation and underlying mechanisms have rarely been determined for a range of managed\\u000a and successional ecosystems on the same soil type. We determined soil organic matter (SOM) fractions with the highest potential\\u000a for

A. Stuart Grandy; G. Philip Robertson

2007-01-01

90

The impact of urban planning on land use and land cover in Pudong of Shanghai, China.  

PubMed

Functional zones in cities constitute the most conspicuous components of newly developed urban area, and have been a hot spot for domestic and foreign investors in China, which not only show the expanse of urban space accompanied by the shifts both in landscape (from rural to urban) and land use (from less extensive to extensive), but also display the transformation of regional ecological functions. By using the theories and methods of landscape ecology, the structure of landscape and landscape ecological planning can be analyzed and evaluated for studying the urban functional zones' layout. In 1990, the Central Government of China declared to develop and open up Pudong New Area so as to promote economic development in Shanghai. Benefited from the advantages of Shanghai's location and economy, the government of Pudong New Area has successively built up 7 different functional zones over the past decade according to their functions and strategic goals. Based on the multi-spectral satellite imageries taken in 1990, 1997 and 2000, a landscape ecology analysis was carried out for Pudong New Area of Shanghai, supported by GIS technology. Green space (including croplands) and built-up area are the major factors considered in developing urban landscape. This paper was mainly concerned with the different spatial patterns and dynamic of green space, built-up areas and new buildings in different functional zones, influenced by different functional layouts and development strategies. The rapid urbanization in Pudong New Area resulted in a more homogeneous landscape. Agricultural landscape and suburban landscape were gradually replaced by urban landscape as the degree of urbanization increased. As consequence of urbanization in Pudong, not only built-up patches, but also newly-built patches and green patches merged into one large patch, which should be attributed to the construction policy of extensive green space as the urban development process in Pudong New Area. The shape of green area of 7 functional zones became more and more regular because of the horticultural needs in Shanghai urban planning. Some suggestions were finally made for the study of future urban planning and layout. PMID:12765263

Zhao, Bin; Nakagoshi, Nobukazu; Chen, Jia-kuan; Kong, Ling-yi

2003-03-01

91

A study on the spatial relationship between agricultural land use intensity and agro-climatic suitability in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes an index system to calculate the agricultural land use intensity of 30 provinces, autonomous regions, and municipalities in mainland China, and calculates the agro-climatic suitability by spatial interpolation. Based on this, by comparing the spatial relationship between them the obtained conclusions are as follows? ?1? In general, the agricultural land use intensity in Eastern China is higher

Y. A. N. Qun; X. U. Jianhua; Chen Gongde

2008-01-01

92

Urban heat island in Krakow, Poland: Land use versus land form interaction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Urban heat island is a well known feature of urban climate, related mainly to the changes in land use in urban areas and anthropogenic heat emission. However, the interaction between the land use and land form in urban areas and its impact on air temperature spatial patterns is much less known. Krakow is a medium size city located in southern Poland, in the valley of the Vistula River. The city is surrounded with convex land forms from three sides, with height differences up to 100 m. Built-up areas of the city can be found in both the valley bottom and on nearby slopes. Numerous studies completed after the Second World War (e.g. Hess 1974, Lewinska et al. 1982, Morawska-Horawska, Cebulak 1981) showed that the characteristic features of the climate of Krakow are e.g. frequent air temperature inversions, poor natural ventilation, large precipitation horizontal gradients. More recent research (e.g. Bokwa 2010) revealed e.g. a thermal asymmetry of the area. On the basis of 3-year (2009-2011) air temperature measurements in 21 points, completed with mobile measurements and analysis of available long-term series, it was proposed to define urban heat island separately in particular vertical zones of the city. Bokwa, A., 2010, Wieloletnie zmiany struktury mezoklimatu miasta na przykladzie Krakowa [Multi-annual changes of the urban mesoclimate structure (using an example of Kraków)], Institute of Geography and Spatial Management, Jagiellonian University, Kraków, 258 pp.; available on-line: http://www.geo.uj.edu.pl/publikacje.php?&lang=1&page=monografie&menu=3&id=000155 Hess M., 1974, Klimat Krakowa {Climate of Krakow], Folia Geogr., ser. Geogr.-Phys., 8, 45-102. Lewi?ska J., Bartosik J., Ba?cik J., Czerwieniec M., Zgud K., 1982, Wp?yw miasta na klimat lokalny (na przyk?adzie aglomeracji krakowskiej) [Impact of a city on the local climate using an example of Krakow], Inst. Kszta?t. ?rod., Warszawa. Morawska-Horawska M., Cebulak E., 1981, Badania pionowego zasi?gu miejskiej wyspy ciep?a nad Krakowem [Studies on vertical extent of urban heat island over Krakow], Folia Geogr., ser. Geogr.-Phys., 14, 43-50.

Bokwa, A.

2012-04-01

93

Significance of urban and agricultural land use for biocide and pesticide dynamics in surface waters.  

PubMed

Biocides and pesticides are designed to control the occurrence of unwanted organisms. From their point of application, these substances can be mobilized and transported to surface waters posing a threat to the aquatic environment. Historically, agricultural pesticides have received substantially more attention than biocidal compounds from urban use, despite being used in similar quantities. This study aims at improving our understanding of the influence of mixed urban and agricultural land use on the overall concentration dynamics of biocides and pesticides during rain events throughout the year. A comprehensive field study was conducted in a catchment within the Swiss plateau (25 km(2)). Four surface water sampling sites represented varying combinations of urban and agricultural sources. Additionally, the urban drainage system was studied by sampling the only wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) in the catchment, a combined sewer overflow (CSO), and a storm sewer (SS). High temporal resolution sampling was carried out during rain events from March to November 2007. The results, based on more than 600 samples analyzed for 23 substances, revealed distinct and complex concentration patterns for different compounds and sources. Five types of concentration patterns can be distinguished: a) compounds that showed elevated background concentrations throughout the year (e.g. diazinon >50 ng L(-1)), indicating a constant household source; b) compounds that showed elevated concentrations driven by rain events throughout the year (e.g. diuron 100-300 ng L(-1)), indicating a constant urban outdoor source such as facades; c) compounds with seasonal peak concentrations driven by rain events from urban and agricultural areas (e.g. mecoprop 1600 ng L(-1) and atrazine 2500 ng L(-1) respectively); d) compounds that showed unpredictably sharp peaks (e.g. atrazine 10,000 ng L(-1), diazinon 2500 ng L(-1)), which were most probably due to improper handling or even disposal of products; and finally, e) compounds that were used in high amounts but were not detected in surface waters (e.g. isothiazolinones). It can be safely concluded that in catchments of mixed land use, the contributions of biocide and pesticide inputs into surface waters from urban areas are at least as important as those from agricultural areas. PMID:20188390

Wittmer, I K; Bader, H-P; Scheidegger, R; Singer, H; Lück, A; Hanke, I; Carlsson, C; Stamm, C

2010-05-01

94

Monitoring the Evolving Land Use Patterns Using Remote Sensing.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The urbanization of Walnut Valley from 1953-71 prompted land use change from intensive von Thunen market-oriented patterns to extensive, disinvested, production-factor-minimized patterns. Shortrun, interim land use planning, has allowed agriculture to per...

D. R. Goehring

1971-01-01

95

Mapping of the CO2 and anthropogenic heat emission under spatially explicit urban land use scenarios  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The serious further efforts on CO2 and other green house gases emission reduction by global climate change mitigation remain as an urgent global issue to be solved. From the viewpoint of urban land use measures, the realization of low-carbon city is the key to change people’s behavior to reduce CO2 emission. In this respect, a lot of studies aimed at realizing low-carbon city are progressing on a number of fronts, including city planning and transportation planning. With respect to the low-carbon city, compact city is expected to reduce CO2 emission from transportation sector. Hence many studies have been conducted with scenario analysis considering modal share change, for instance, increase of public transportation use and reduction of trip length by car. On the other hand, it is important that CO2 emission from not only transportation sector but also residential sector can be reduced by a move from a detached house to a condominium, the change of family composition types and so on. In regard to residential sector, it has been founded that CO2 emission units differ among family composition types, for example, the single-person household emit more CO2 in general. From the viewpoint of an urban climate prediction, the possible range of future land use change should be recognized as the input parameters for the climate models. In addition to CO2 emission, the anthropogenic heat emission is also important as an input data of climate models in order to evaluate the social and economic impacts of urban land use change. The objective of this study is to demonstrate a compact city scenario and a dispersion scenario in Tokyo metropolitan area, which is the largest metropolitan area in the world, and to examine future climate change mitigation policies including land use for realization of low-carbon city. We have created two scenarios of population distribution by using an urban economic model. In these scenarios we have assumed extreme cases in order to show the possible range of future land use change. The first one is a compact city scenario and the second one is a dispersion scenario. In the compact city scenario, we assumed that commuting to work by cars would be prohibited. In the dispersion scenario, we assumed that all workers would work in their own houses and the time of commuting to work would be zero. The spatially explicit emissions are mapped by using Geographical Information System (GIS). As for the CO2 emission, this study focuses on the analysis of the tendency from the viewpoint of both direct and indirect emission. As a result, people would live in suburbs in the second scenario, and the emissions would increase. It is concluded that the results shows the importance of low-carbon city as compact city. Moreover, the anthropogenic heat emission estimated in this study can used as the input parameters for the climate models. The developed system can be used for analyzing the implications of urban planning and carbon management scenarios.

Nakamichi, K.; Yamagata, Y.; Seya, H.

2010-12-01

96

Land use trends during rapid urbanization of the City of Aydin, Turkey.  

PubMed

The favorable Turkish context for environmental legislation is undermined by a lack of public knowledge of the importance of sustainable development, a lack of coordination between experts in different professions and between government institutions, and a lack of the political will to make tough choices such as restricting the freedom of citizens to migrate to cities. This paper examines the specific implications of this context for the Aydin urban area in a rapidly urbanizing part of western Turkey. In the study area, urban and industrial areas both exhibited large proportional increases, largely at the expense of agricultural areas, and agricultural expansion occurred at the expense of natural areas. Compared to other areas of Turkey, the actual area of the increase was small, and the change for the study area as a whole was not striking because of the relatively recent history of urbanization and industrialization in Aydin. Nevertheless, the negative consequences of these changes may accelerate in the future if a strategy to control development and conversion of land use is not developed and implemented. PMID:17265112

Esbah, Hayriye

2007-04-01

97

Density of insect-pollinated grassland plants decreases with increasing surrounding land-use intensity.  

PubMed

Pollinator declines have raised concerns about the persistence of plant species that depend on insect pollination, in particular by bees, for their reproduction. The impact of pollinator declines remains unknown for species-rich plant communities found in temperate seminatural grasslands. We investigated effects of land-use intensity in the surrounding landscape on the distribution of plant traits related to insect pollination in 239 European seminatural grasslands. Increasing arable land use in the surrounding landscape consistently reduced the density of plants depending on bee and insect pollination. Similarly, the relative abundance of bee-pollination-dependent plants increased with higher proportions of non-arable agricultural land (e.g. permanent grassland). This was paralleled by an overall increase in bee abundance and diversity. By isolating the impact of the surrounding landscape from effects of local habitat quality, we show for the first time that grassland plants dependent on insect pollination are particularly susceptible to increasing land-use intensity in the landscape. PMID:25040328

Clough, Yann; Ekroos, Johan; Báldi, András; Batáry, Péter; Bommarco, Riccardo; Gross, Nicolas; Holzschuh, Andrea; Hopfenmüller, Sebastian; Knop, Eva; Kuussaari, Mikko; Lindborg, Regina; Marini, Lorenzo; Ockinger, Erik; Potts, Simon G; Pöyry, Juha; Roberts, Stuart Pm; Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf; Smith, Henrik G

2014-09-01

98

Tempo-Spatial Patterns of Land Use Changes and Urban Development in Globalizing China: A Study of Beijing  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the temporal and spatial changes in land use as a consequence of rapid urban development in the city of Beijing. Using a combination of techniques of remote sensing and GIS, the study identifies a substantial loss of plain dryland and a phenomenal expansion of urban construction land over the recent decade. Geographically, there is a clear shifting

Yichun Xie; Chuanglin Fang; George C. S. Lin; Hongmian Gong; Biao Qiao

2007-01-01

99

ICCLP: an inexact chance-constrained linear programming model for land-use management of lake areas in urban fringes.  

PubMed

Lake areas in urban fringes are under increasing urbanization pressure. Consequently, the conflict between rapid urban development and the maintenance of water bodies in such areas urgently needs to be addressed. An inexact chance-constrained linear programming (ICCLP) model for optimal land-use management of lake areas in urban fringes was developed. The ICCLP model was based on land-use suitability assessment and land evaluation. The maximum net economic benefit (NEB) was selected as the objective of land-use allocation. The total environmental capacity (TEC) of water systems and the public financial investment (PFI) at different probability levels were considered key constraints. Other constraints included in the model were land-use suitability, governmental requirements on the ratios of various land-use types, and technical constraints. A case study implementing the system was performed for the lake area of Hanyang at the urban fringe of Wuhan, central China, based on our previous study on land-use suitability assessment. The Hanyang lake area is under significant urbanization pressure. A 15-year optimal model for land-use allocation is proposed during 2006 to 2020 to better protect the water system and to gain the maximum benefits of development. Sixteen constraints were set for the optimal model. The model results indicated that NEB was between $1.48 x 10(9) and $8.76 x 10(9) or between $3.98 x 10(9) and $16.7 x 10(9), depending on the different urban-expansion patterns and land demands. The changes in total developed area and the land-use structure were analyzed under different probabilities (q ( i )) of TEC. Changes in q ( i ) resulted in different urban expansion patterns and demands on land, which were the direct result of the constraints imposed by TEC and PFI. The ICCLP model might help local authorities better understand and address complex land-use systems and develop optimal land-use management strategies that better balance urban expansion and grassland conservation. PMID:17768653

Liu, Yong; Qin, Xiaosheng; Guo, Huaicheng; Zhou, Feng; Wang, Jinfeng; Lv, Xiaojian; Mao, Guozhu

2007-12-01

100

Spatial and temporal analysis for urban and rural construction land use of Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei metropolis circle  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the high-speed urbanization in China today, the scale of urban and rural construction is expanding constantly. In this paper, with the help of remote sensing image processing software, Landsat TM and Spot4 remote sensing images from 1990-2006 were used to extract urban and rural construction land use information firstly. Then with literature, statistical yearbook and relevant information, GIS spatial

Li Xiaojuan; Lian Jian; Gong Huili; Sun Yonghua; Xu Hui

2009-01-01

101

Land Use Dynamics of the Fast-Growing Shanghai Metropolis, China (1979-2008) and its Implications for Land Use and Urban Planning Policy  

PubMed Central

Through the integrated approach of remote sensing and geographic information system (GIS) techniques, four Landsat TM/ETM+ imagery acquired during 1979 and 2008 were used to quantitatively characterize the patterns of land use and land cover change (LULC) and urban sprawl in the fast-growing Shanghai Metropolis, China. Results showed that, the urban/built-up area grew on average by 4,242.06 ha yr?1. Bare land grew by 1,594.66 ha yr?1 on average. In contrast, cropland decreased by 3,286.26 ha yr?1 on average, followed by forest and shrub, water, and tidal land, which decreased by 1,331.33 ha yr?1, 903.43 ha yr?1, and 315.72 ha yr?1 on average, respectively. As a result, during 1979 and 2008 approximately 83.83% of the newly urban/built-up land was converted from cropland (67.35%), forest and shrub (9.12%), water (4.80%), and tidal land (2.19%). Another significant change was the continuous increase in regular residents, which played a very important role in contributing to local population growth and increase in urban/built-up land. This can be explained with this city’s huge demand for investment and qualified labor since the latest industrial transformation. Moreover, with a decrease in cropland, the proportion of population engaged in farming decreased 13.84%. Therefore, significant socio-economic transformation occurred, and this would lead to new demand for land resources. However, due to very scarce land resources and overload of population in Shanghai, the drive to achieve economic goals at the loss of cropland, water, and the other lands is not sustainable. Future urban planning policy aiming at ensuring a win-win balance between sustainable land use and economic growth is urgently needed.

Zhang, Hao; Zhou, Li-Guo; Chen, Ming-Nan; Ma, Wei-Chun

2011-01-01

102

Effect of land use activities on PAH contamination in urban soils of Rawalpindi and Islamabad, Pakistan.  

PubMed

Urbanization can increase the vulnerability of soils to various types of contamination. Increased contamination of urban soils with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) could relate to increased number of petrol pump stations and mechanical workshops-a phenomenon that needs to be constantly monitored. This study was undertaken to explore the soil PAH levels in Rawalpindi and Islamabad urban areas in relation to land use activities. Composite soil samples from petrol pump stations and mechanical workshops (n?=?32) areas were evaluated for five PAHs--naphthalene, phenanthrene, pyrene, benzo[a]pyrene, and indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene-and compared with control area locations with minimum petroleum-related activity (n?=?16). Surface samples up to 3 cm depth were collected and extraction of analytes was carried out using n-hexane and dichloromethane. Prior to running the samples, standards (100 ?g ml(-1)) were run on HPLC to optimize signal to noise ratio using acetonitrile as mobile phase at a flow rate of 1.25 ml/min at 40 °C. Significant differences between petrol pump stations and mechanical workshop areas were observed for individual PAH as well as with control area soil samples. Naphthalene was found to be the most abundant PAH in soil, ranging from 2.47 to 24.36 mg kg(-1). Correlation between the benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) level in soil and the total PAH concentration (r?=?0.82, P?urban areas of Rawalpindi and Islamabad has direct relevance with land use for petroleum activity. We conclude that in order to reduce the soil PAH exposure in urban environment, petrol pumps and mechanical workshops must be shifted to less densely populated areas because of their role as important point sources for PAH emission. PMID:23595691

Ud Din, Ikhtiar; Rashid, Audil; Mahmood, Tariq; Khalid, Azeem

2013-10-01

103

Proliferation of nonconforming land uses in agricultural envelope of urban Hong Kong  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Until the late 1960s rural Hong Kong had an attractive rustic landscape and a small but active farming population. The recent widespread agricultural decline provided opportunities for urban-oriented activities to invade, mainly as open storage and workshops unsuitable in city areas. Rapid container-port expansion and cross-border China trade generate demands for cheap and accessible land for non-conforming uses (NCU). Rural development control and land-use planning are inherently weak, and formal provision for such uses is lacking. An unfavorable landmark court judgement allows landowners to degrade the countryside. The activities have caused acute environmental problems, telescoped into a small territory, including visual blight, pollution, drainage blockage, loss of wetland habitats, and increased flooding hazard. The distinction between urban and rural has been blurred in the destruction of the valuable countryside heritage. An interim legislative amendment fails to stop unauthorized conversion of farmland. In the long term, an integrated and comprehensive rural planning strategy to conserve inherent elements, as well as accommodating selected urban spillover in properly located and serviced sites, is needed.

Jim, C. Y.

1996-07-01

104

Effects of land-use type on urban groundwater quality, Seoul metropolitan city, Korea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The progressive degradation of urban groundwater becomes an important environmental problem encountered in South Korea. This study aims to examine the relationships between land-use type and groundwater quality in Seoul metropolitan city, based on the results of hydrogeochemical monitoring. For this purpose, land-use type was divided into five categories (green zone, housing, agricultural, traffic, and industrialized). The mean concentrations of TDS (total dissolved solids) effectively reflect the degree of anthropogenic contamination and increase in the following order: green zone (152.5 mg/l), then agricultural (380.7 mg/l) and housing (384.2 mg/l), then traffic (457.0 mg/l), and finally industrialized area (554.5 mg/l). Among major dissolved solutes, the concentrations of Na, Ca, Mg, HCO3, and Cl increase with increasing TDS. In case of Na and Ca, de-icing salts and sewage are considered as major contamination sources. The corrosion of cements may also increase Ca. Nitrate concentration is characteristically very high in housing and agricultural areas, reflecting the severe contamination from domestic sewage and fertilizer. Sulfate and magnesium are enriched in industrialized area, possibly due to their derivation from industrial facilities. Chlorine ion is considered to be derived from de-chlorination of hydrocarbons as well as de-icing salts. Bicarbonate also increases with increasing TDS, for which cement dissolution and oxidation of organics are considered as source materials. However, enhanced water-rock(or construction materials) interaction also may increase the bicarbonate, because acidic wastewater in urban area is very corrosive. Trace metals and organic compounds generally does not show any distinct pattern of regional variation. However, Fe, Mn, Ni, Se, Zn, TCE, and PCE tend to increase locally in industrialized area, whereas high concentrations of Br, Ni, and Cu are found in traffic area. The groundwaters with very high concentrations of Fe, Zn, and Mn are presumed to be affected from decrepit pipelines under inproper management. The correlation matrix between hydrochemical data and local land-use data was examined, based on the areal calculation of land use (road, building for housing and official work, industrial building, forest, and agricultural land) within a circular (radius = 500 m) around a well. The results show that the areal percentage of road correlates positively with the concentrations of TDS, Na, Ca, HCO3, Br, Mn, and Ni, whereas the areal percentage of industrial building correlates well with Mg, SO4, Fe, TCE, and PCE. The present study suggests that urban groundwaters in Seoul are strongly affected by anthropogenic sources and show a strong effect by local land-use characteristics. As an useful guideline for evaluating the groundwater quality, we have obtained background water quality criteria as follows: Na (10.8 mg/l), K (1.2 mg/l), Ca (19.9 mg/l), Mg (1.6 mg/l), NO3 (8.3 mg/l), Cl (9.0 mg/l), SO4 (12.9 mg/l), and HCO3 (54.8 mg/l).

Yu, S.; Yun, S.; Chae, G.; So, C.; Kweon, S.; Lee, P.

2001-12-01

105

Three-dimensional Woody Vegetation Structure across Different Land-use Types and -land-use Intensities in a Semi-arid Savanna  

Microsoft Academic Search

Factors influencing woody savanna vegetation structure across a land-use gradient of intensity (highly and lightly utilized communal rangeland) and type (national protected area, private game reserve and communal rangelands) were investigated. Small-footprint discrete return LiDAR data (1.12 m point spacing) from the Carnegie Airborne Observatory (CAO) `Alpha system' were used to measure three-dimensional vegetation structure across the different treatments. A

Jolene Fisher; Barend Erasmus; Edward Witkowski; Jan van Aardt; Gregory Asner; Ty Kennedy-Bowdoin; David Knapp; Ruth Emerson; James Jacobson; Renaud Mathieu; Konrad J. Wessels

2009-01-01

106

Mitigating Vadose Zone Nitrogen Transport Under Land Use Change and Urbanization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The discovery of large accumulations of nitrate within the vadose zones of many desert ecosystems coupled with land use change from urbanization in these areas may be having a detrimental effect on the ground water quality, often the source of public water supplies of these regions. Land use change can result in the initiation or increase in aquifer recharge (from over-irrigation, leaking pipes, wastewater discharge, etc.) and has the potential to mobilize the observed stores of accumulated nitrate in the vadose zone. This research focuses on mitigation options to reduce mobilization of nitrate in the vadose zone by stimulating denitrification reactions during transit through the vadose zone prior to reaching the underlying aquifers. Laboratory experiments using typical vadose zone materials from Spanish Springs, Nevada, conducted in 1 meter columns have been prepared with a nitrate rich soil layer (1000 ppm KNO3, labeled with 2% KNO3 - N15 isotopic tracer) designed to simulate a nitrate accumulation zone. All columns are irrigated with treated wastewater (effluent) at a rate of 0.5 cm/day to simulate excess irrigation of urbanized parklands. In addition to a control column, one column's irrigation is augmented with dextrose (C6H12O6) designed to provide sufficient carbon sources, when combined with higher water content, to promote microbial denitrification. A third column is treated with a compost and soil mixture at the surface of the soil to provide an alternative method of producing dissolved organic carbon to be advected with the infiltration to the nitrogen storage regions within the column. All columns are instrumented with volumetric water content probes, tensiometers, and soil solution samplers. Initial results from soil solution analysis indicate the possibility of nitrate reduction by as much as 50 % of the initial concentration, after only 14 days of residence time within the dextrose amended column. Analysis will be presented comparing the treatments as well as analysis of dissolved carbon and N-15 analysis of biological reduction.

Parratt, R. T.; Menon, M.; Tyler, S.; Kropf, C.

2008-12-01

107

Bayesian networks and agent-based modeling approach for urban land-use and population density change: a BNAS model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Land-use change models grounded in complexity theory such as agent-based models (ABMs) are increasingly being used to examine evolving urban systems. The objective of this study is to develop a spatial model that simulates land-use change under the influence of human land-use choice behavior. This is achieved by integrating the key physical and social drivers of land-use change using Bayesian networks (BNs) coupled with agent-based modeling. The BNAS model, integrated Bayesian network-based agent system, presented in this study uses geographic information systems, ABMs, BNs, and influence diagram principles to model population change on an irregular spatial structure. The model is parameterized with historical data and then used to simulate 20 years of future population and land-use change for the City of Surrey, British Columbia, Canada. The simulation results identify feasible new urban areas for development around the main transportation corridors. The obtained new development areas and the projected population trajectories with the“what-if” scenario capabilities can provide insights into urban planners for better and more informed land-use policy or decision-making processes.

Kocabas, Verda; Dragicevic, Suzana

2013-10-01

108

Microzonation in Urban Areas, Basic Element for Land-Use Planning, Risk Management and Sustainable Development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the results of microzonification of the natural hazards for different metropolitan areas and highlights the importance of integrating these results in urban planning. The cities that have been covered for the definition of danger in the state of Veracruz are: Orizaba, Veracruz and Xalapa, as part of the production of a Geological and Hydrometeorology Hazards Atlas for the state of Veracruz, financed by the Funds for the Prevention of Natural Disasters FOPREDEN and CONACYT. The general data of each metropolitan area was integrated in a geographic information system (GIS), obtaining different theme maps, and maps of dynamic characteristics of soils in each metropolitan area. For the planning of an urban area to aspire to promote sustainable development, it is essential to have a great deal of the details on the pertinent information and the most important is that that has to do with the degree of exposure to natural phenomena. In general, microzonation investigations consider all natural phenomena that could potentially affect an area of interest and hazard maps for each of potential hazards are prepared. With all the data collected and generated and fed into a SIG, models were generated which define the areas most threatened by earthquake, flood and landslide slopes. These results were compared with maps of the main features in the urban zones and a qualitative classification of areas of high to low hazard was established. It will have the basic elements of information for urban planning and land use. This information will be made available to the authorities and the general public through an Internet portal where people can download and view maps using free software available online.;

Torres Morales, G. F.; Dávalos Sotelo, R.; Castillo Aguilar, S.; Mora González, I.; Lermo Samaniego, J. F.; Rodriguez, M.; García Martínez, J.; Suárez, M. Leonardo; Hernández Juan, F.

2013-05-01

109

Rapid urban growth, land-use changes and air pollution in Santiago, Chile  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper is a contribution to the understanding of the topoclimatic and environmental geography of the basin where Santiago — one of the most polluted Latin American city - is located. In the first part, land-use change is analysed looking at the climatic transformation caused by the rapid transit from natural semiarid surface to urban areas. In the second part, seasonal weather and daily cycles of slope winds and the available ventilation are described trying to relate those patterns with the spatial distribution of air pollution. A combination of meteorological, geographical and cultural factors explain extreme air pollution events: meteorologically, Santiago is under permanent subsidence inversion layers. Geographically, the city is located in a closed basin surrounded by mountains. Culturally, the urban area has the highest population concentration (40% of the national total), industries (near 70% of the total) and vehicles, which are the main sources of smog. The urban and suburban transport system is based on a large number of buses (diesel) and private cars, both experiencing a rapid growth from the past few years. The city and specially the transport system generates high emissions of pollutant, but the natural semiarid deforested soils and slopes are also important sources. The local wind system can explain the differential spatial distribution on the concentration of air pollutants in the city and its periphery. In winter (rain season) concentrations of particulate matter are higher at the centre and the SW part of the city. The andean piedmont area (E part of the city) shows minimum values, suggesting major ventilation effects of slope and valley winds. Ozone exceeds air quality standards in summer (dry season) at all sites in the centre and periphery. However, the O 3-concentrations are higher on preferred residential areas located at the piedmont area (E part of the city), suggesting air pollution transport effects. Currently, there is no consideration of these local climatic features in the process of urban planning.

Romero, H.; Ihl, M.; Rivera, A.; Zalazar, P.; Azocar, P.

110

Land Use and Watersheds: Human Influence on Hydrology and Geomorphology in Urban and Forest Areas. Water Science and Application Series  

SciTech Connect

What is the effect of urbanization and forest use on hydrologic and geomorphic processes? How can we develop land use policies that minimize adverse impacts on ecosystems while sustaining biodiversity? Land Use and Watersheds: Human Influence on Hydrology and Geomorphology in Urban and Forest Areas addresses these issues and more. By featuring watersheds principally in the American Pacific Northwest, and the effects of timber harvesting and road construction on stream flow, sediment yield and landslide occurrence, scientists can advance their understanding of what constitutes appropriate management of environments with similar hydro-climatic-geomorphic settings worldwide.

Wigmosta, Mark S.; Burges, S J.

2001-10-01

111

Urban Growth in a Fragmented Landscape: Estimating the Relationship between Landscape Pattern and Urban Land Use Change in Germany, 2000-2006  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the highest priorities in the conservation and management of biodiversity, natural resources and other vital ecosystem services is the assessment of the mechanisms that drive urban land use change. Using key landscape indicators, this study addresses why urban land increased 6 percent overall in Germany from 2000-2006. Building on regional science and economic geography research, I develop a model of landscape change that integrates remotely sensed and other geospatial data, and socioeconomic data in a spatial autoregressive model to explain the variance in urban land use change observed in German kreise (counties) over the past decade. The results reveal three key landscape mechanisms that drive urban land use change across Germany, aligning with those observed in US studies: (1) the level of fragmentation, (2) the share of designated protected areas, and (3) the share of prime soil. First, as fragmentation of once continuous habitats in the landscape increases, extensive urban growth follows. Second, designated protected areas have the perverse effect of hastening urbanization in surrounding areas. Third, greater shares of prime, productive soil experienced less urban land take over the 6 year period, an effect that is stronger in the former East Germany, where the agricultural sector remains large. The results suggest that policy makers concentrate their conservation efforts on preexisting fragmented land with high shares of protected areas in Germany to effectively stem urban land take. Given that comparative studies of land use change are vital for the scientific community to grasp the wider global process of urbanization and coincident ecological impacts, the methodology employed here is easily exportable to land cover and land use research programs in other fields and geographic areas. Key words: Urban land use change, Ecosystem services, Landscape fragmentation, Remote sensing, Spatial regression models, GermanyOLS and Spatial Autoregressive Model Results N = 439; Standard error in ( ) . *p < .1, **p < .01, ***p < .001

Keller, R.

2013-12-01

112

Adaptation of Land-Use Demands to the Impact of Climate Change on the Hydrological Processes of an Urbanized Watershed  

PubMed Central

The adaptation of land-use patterns is an essential aspect of minimizing the inevitable impact of climate change at regional and local scales; for example, adapting watershed land-use patterns to mitigate the impact of climate change on a region’s hydrology. The objective of this study is to simulate and assess a region’s ability to adapt to hydrological changes by modifying land-use patterns in the Wu-Du watershed in northern Taiwan. A hydrological GWLF (Generalized Watershed Loading Functions) model is used to simulate three hydrological components, namely, runoff, groundwater and streamflow, based on various land-use scenarios under six global climate models. The land-use allocations are simulated by the CLUE-s model for the various development scenarios. The simulation results show that runoff and streamflow are strongly related to the precipitation levels predicted by different global climate models for the wet and dry seasons, but groundwater cycles are more related to land-use. The effects of climate change on groundwater and runoff can be mitigated by modifying current land-use patterns; and slowing the rate of urbanization would also reduce the impact of climate change on hydrological components. Thus, land-use adaptation on a local/regional scale provides an alternative way to reduce the impacts of global climate change on local hydrology.

Lin, Yu-Pin; Hong, Nien-Ming; Chiang, Li-Chi; Liu, Yen-Lan; Chu, Hone-Jay

2012-01-01

113

Analysing urban expansion and land use suitability for the city of Kahramanmara?, Turkey, and its surrounding region  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aimed at quantifying changes in urban area of the city of Kahramanmara? (K.Mara?) between 1948 and 2006, and analysing\\u000a suitability of existing land use (LU) to the land potential. Urban change information was derived from two black-white monoscopic\\u000a aerial photographs, and IKONOS and the QuickBird images acquired in 1948, 1985, 2000 and 2006, respectively. QuickBird image\\u000a and soil

Hakan Doygun; Hakan Alphan; Derya Ku?at Gurun

2008-01-01

114

Monitoring and predicting urban land use change applications of multi-resolution multi-temporal satellite data  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability to map and monitor the spatial extent of the built environment, and associated temporal changes, has important societal and economic relevance. Multitemporal satellite data now provide the potential for mapping and monitoring urban land use change, but require the development of accurate and repeatable techniques that can be extended to a broad range of conditions and environments. We

Scott J. Goetz; A. J. Smith; C. Jantz; R. K. Wright; S. D. Prince; M. E. Mazzacato; B. Melchior

2003-01-01

115

Changes in Collembola richness and diversity along a gradient of land-use intensity: a pan European study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changes in Collembola richness and diversity along a land-use intensity gradient were studied in eight European countries (Portugal, Spain, France, Switzerland, Hungary, UK, Ireland and Finland). In each country a set of six 1 km2 land-use units (LUUs) were selected forming a gradient ranging from natural forest to agricultural dominated landscapes, passing through mixed-use ones. In addition to data on

José Paulo Sousa; Thomas Bolger; Maria Manuela da Gama; Tuomas Lukkari; Jean-François Ponge; C. Simon; Georgy Traser; Adam J. Vanbergen; Aoife Brennan; Florence Dubs; E. Ivits; António Keating; Silvia Stofer; Allan D. Watt

2006-01-01

116

Disentangling the Relative Importance of Changes in Climate and Land-Use Intensity in Driving Recent Bird Population Trends  

PubMed Central

Threats to biodiversity resulting from habitat destruction and deterioration have been documented for many species, whilst climate change is regarded as increasingly impacting upon species' distribution and abundance. However, few studies have disentangled the relative importance of these two drivers in causing recent population declines. We quantify the relative importance of both processes by modelling annual variation in population growth of 18 farmland bird species in the UK as a function of measures of land-use intensity and weather. Modelled together, both had similar explanatory power in accounting for annual fluctuations in population growth. When these models were used to retrodict population trends for each species as a function of annual variation in land-use intensity and weather combined, and separately, retrodictions incorporating land-use intensity were more closely linked to observed population trends than retrodictions based only on weather, and closely matched the UK farmland bird index from 1970 onwards. Despite more stable land-use intensity in recent years, climate change (inferred from weather trends) has not overtaken land-use intensity as the dominant driver of bird populations.

Eglington, Sarah M.; Pearce-Higgins, James W.

2012-01-01

117

The second generation of the California urban futures model. Part 2: Specification and calibration results of the land-use change submodel  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, part 2 of a three-part series, we present the formal specification and calibration results of the land-use change component of the second-generation California urban futures model. The land-use change component consists of a series of nonordinal multinomial logit models of site-specific land-use changes. These models incorporate spatial measures (for example, mix of adjacent land uses, and proximity

J Landis; M Zhang

1998-01-01

118

Periphyton biomass and ecological stoichiometry in streams within an urban to rural land-use gradient  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the effects land use on biomass and ecological stoichiometry of periphyton in 36 streams in southeastern\\u000a New York State (USA). We quantified in-stream and land-use variables along a N–S land-use gradient at varying distances from\\u000a New York City (NYC). Streams draining different landscapes had fundamentally different physical, chemical, and biological\\u000a properties. Human population density significantly decreased (r = ?0.739;

Patrick J. O’Brien; John D. Wehr

2010-01-01

119

Variation in surface water-groundwater exchange with land use in an urban stream  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SummaryA suite of methods is being utilized in the Baltimore metropolitan area to develop an understanding of the interaction between groundwater and surface water at multiple space and time scales. As part of this effort, bromide tracer experiments were conducted over two 10-day periods in August 2007 and May 2008 along two sections (each approximately 900 m long) of Dead Run, a small urban stream located in Baltimore County, Maryland, to investigate the influence of distinct zones of riparian land cover on surface-subsurface exchange and transient storage under low and high baseflow conditions. Riparian land cover varied by reach along a gradient of land use spanning parkland, suburban/residential, commercial, institutional, and transportation, and included wooded, meadow, turf grass, and impervious cover. Under summer low baseflow conditions, surface water-groundwater exchange, defined by gross inflow and gross outflow, was larger and net inflow (gross inflow minus gross outflow) had greater spatial variability, than was observed under spring high baseflow conditions. In addition, the fraction of nominal travel time attributable to transient storage ( Fmed) was lower and was more spatially variable under high baseflow conditions than under low baseflow conditions. The influence of baseflow condition on surface water-ground water exchange and transient storage was most evident in the subreaches with the least riparian forest cover and these effects are attributed to a lack of shading in reaches with little riparian forest cover. We suggest that under summer low baseflow conditions, the lack of shading allowed excess in-channel vegetation growth which acted as a transient storage zone and a conduit for outflow (i.e. uptake and evapotranspiration). Under spring high baseflow conditions the transient storage capacity of the channel was reduced because there was little in-channel vegetation.

Ryan, Robert J.; Welty, Claire; Larson, Philip C.

2010-10-01

120

Defining land use intensity based on roadway level of service targets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditionally, master planners develop an initial land use scenario for an undeveloped site, which is then forwarded to transportation planners for modeling purposes. On the basis of travel demand forecast, several alternatives are provided to master planners and, accordingly, different land use proposals are examined until, finally, a preferred option is chosen. Such trial and error process is inherently cumbersome,

Hamid Iravani; Arash Mirhoseini; Maziar Rasoolzadeh

2011-01-01

121

Streamwater phosphorus and nitrogen across a gradient in rural–agricultural land use intensity  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides an overview of the impacts of rural land use on lowland streamwater phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N) concentrations and P loads and sources in lowland streams. Based on weekly water quality monitoring, the impacts of agriculture on streamwater P and N hydrochemistry were examined along a gradient of rural–agricultural land use, by monitoring three sets of ‘paired’

H. P. Jarvie; P. J. A. Withers; M. J. Bowes; E. J. Palmer-Felgate; D. M. Harper; K. Wasiak; P. Wasiak; R. A. Hodgkinson; A. Bates; C. Stoate; M. Neal; H. D. Wickham; S. A. Harman; L. K. Armstrong

2010-01-01

122

Hydrology and history: land use changes and ecological responses in an urban wetland  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impacts of changing land use on hydrology and dominant plant species from 1850–1990 were investigated in a palustrine wetland in southern Wisconsin, USA. Aerial photographs, historic maps and water levels of the area were used to determine changes in land use, wetland vegetation, and groundwater and surface flows over time. Piezometers and water table wells were monitored weekly for

C. R. Owen

1999-01-01

123

Spatial distribution of ultrafine particles in urban settings: A land use regression model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

BackgroundThe toxic effects of ultrafine particles (UFP) are a public health concern. However, epidemiological studies on the long term effects of UFP are limited due to lacking exposure models. Given the high spatial variation of UFP, the assignment of exposure levels in epidemiological studies requires a fine spatial scale. The aim of this study was to assess the performance of a short-term measurement protocol used at a large number of locations to derive a land use regression (LUR) model of the spatial variation of UFP in Girona, Spain. MethodsWe measured UFP for 15 min on the sidewalk of 644 participants' homes in 12 towns of Girona province (Spain). The measurements were done during non-rush traffic hours 9:15-12:45 and 15:15-16:45 during 32 days between June 15 and July 31, 2009. In parallel, we counted the number of vehicles driving in both directions. Measurements were repeated on a different day for a subset of 25 sites in Girona city. Potential predictor variables such as building density, distance to bus lines and land cover were derived using geographic information systems. We adjusted for temporal variation using daily mean NOx concentrations at a central monitor. Land use regression models for the entire area (Core model) and for individual towns were derived using a supervised forward selection algorithm. ResultsThe best predictors of UFP were traffic intensity, distance to nearest major crossroad, area of high density residential land and household density. The LUR Core model explained 36% of UFP total variation. Adding sampling date and hour of the day to the Core model increased the R2 to 51% without changing the regression slopes. Local models included predictor variables similar to those in the Core model, but performed better with an R2 of 50% in Girona city. Independent LUR models for the first and second measurements at the subset of sites with repetitions had R2's of about 47%. When the mean of the two measurements was used R2 improved to 72%. ConclusionsLUR models for UFP were developed, based on a highly cost-effective short-term monitoring campaign at a large number of sites, with fair performance. Complementing the approach with further strategies to address sources of temporal variation of UFP is likely to result in improved models as indicated by the good performance of the model based on the subset of sites with one repeated measurement. Our approach is promising for UFP and possibly for other PM components requiring active sampling.

Rivera, Marcela; Basagańa, Xavier; Aguilera, Inmaculada; Agis, David; Bouso, Laura; Foraster, Maria; Medina-Ramón, Mercedes; Pey, Jorge; Künzli, Nino; Hoek, Gerard

2012-07-01

124

Long-term effects of land use/land cover change on surface runoff in urban areas of Beijing, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objective of this paper is to present a case study to derive land use/land cover (LULC) maps and investigate the long-term effects of LULC change on surface runoff in the fast urbanizing Beijing city. The LULC maps were derived from Landsat TM/ETM+ imagery (acquired in 1992, 1999, 2006, and 2009) using support vector machine method. A long-term hydrologic impact assessment model was applied to assess the impact of LULC change on surface runoff. Results indicated that the selected study area experienced rapid urbanization from 1992 to 2009. Because of urbanization, from 1992 to 2009, modeled runoff increased 30% for the whole area and 35% for the urban portion. Our results also indicated that the runoff increase was highly correlated with urban expansion. A strong relationship (R2=0.849) was observed between the impervious surface percent and the modeled runoff depth in the study area. In addition, a strong positive relationship was observed between runoff increase and percentage of urban areas (R=0.997 for the whole area and R=0.930 for the urban portion). This research can provide a simple method for policy makers to assess potential hydrological impacts of future urban planning and development activities.

Sun, Zhongchang; Li, Xinwu; Fu, Wenxue; Li, Yingkui; Tang, Dongsheng

2014-01-01

125

Defining Densities for Urban Residential Texture, Through Land Use Classification, from Landsat TM Imagery: Case Study of Spanish Mediterranean Coast  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the recent epoch, there has been considerable debate about the urban development along the European Mediterranean area, also undertaken by the European Authorities, and in particular regarding the role of spatial planning in order to improve sustainable trends of land use. Great transformations along the Spanish Mediterranean coast have generated considerable changes in the traditional structure of the landscape, far from the typical model of Mediterranean cities, and the rapidity of these modern dynamics has been a significant impact on the spatial patterns, also associated with the expansion of urban connections through the whole territory. The increase of large peri-urban areas, sprawled on the territory, and caused by uncontrolled, uncoordinated and unplanned growth, inevitably has brought the cancellation of clearly identifiable boundaries between the city and the rural areas. Spatial analysis, within quantitative geography and linked to the emerging field of regional science, represents a synthesis of urban and regional economics that is consistent with the complex sciences which dominate the simulation of urban form and functions. Most urban models deal with the city in terms of the location of its economic and demographic activities, but there is also a move to link such models to urban morphologies (Batty 2008). According with these concepts, the investigation, also supported by the use of technologies such as remote sensing and GIS, aims to complement the spatial analysis of regional development dynamics by classifying urban structures and quantifying some of main characteristics based on morphological features.

Colaninno, N.; Roca, J.; Burns, M.; Alhaddad, B.

2012-07-01

126

Urban and regional land use analysis: CARETS and census cities experiment package  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author has identified the following significant results. The most significant finding has been the ability of the S-190B data to produce land use maps not far removed from the quality of high altitude aircraft photography generated maps.

Alexander, R. (principal investigator); Lins, H. F., Jr.

1974-01-01

127

VARIATION OF PATHOGEN DENSITIES IN URBAN STORMWATER RUNOFF WITH LAND USE  

EPA Science Inventory

Stormwater runoff samples were collected from outfalls draining small municipal separate storm sewer systems. The samples were collected from three land use areas (high-density residential, low-density residential, and landscaped commercial). The concentrations of organisms in ...

128

VARIATION OF PATHOGEN DENSITITES IN URBAN STORMWATER RUNOFF WITH LAND USE  

EPA Science Inventory

Stormwater runoff samples were collected from outfalls draining small municipal separate storm sewer systems. The samples were collected from three land use areas (high-density residential, low-density residential, and landscaped commercial). The concentrations of organisms in ...

129

Influence of variations in land use intensity on species diversity and abundance of small mammals in the Nama Karoo, Namibia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of the intensity of land use on small mammals in the ecoregion Nama Karoo, Namibia was investigated within the biodiversity programme BIOTA. Changes in species diversity and abundance were investigated across a fence separating heavily grazed communal and lightly grazed government owned rangeland. Assessing and monitoring of the small mammal populations were done seasonally from 2001-2003 on each

Anke Hoffmann; Ulrich Zeller

2005-01-01

130

Response of vascular epiphyte diversity to different land-use intensities in a neotropical montane wet forest  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although vascular epiphytes contribute substantially to the biodiversity of tropical montane forests, it is unclear how their diversity and community composition is affected by forest alteration. We studied the response of vascular epiphyte assemblages to different intensities of land-use in a montane wet forest of northeastern Ecuador: (1) unmanaged mature forest; (2) mature forest with mid- and understorey opened for

Mario L. Larrea; Florian A. Werner

2010-01-01

131

The legacy of land-use is revealed in the biogeochemistry of urban streams  

EPA Science Inventory

Urban streams are among the most profoundly impacted aquatic ecosystems, characterized by altered hydrology or burial, increased sediment input, and myriad pollutants. We present results from a series of urban stream studies that revealed unique geochemical and biochemical patte...

132

A technical review of urban land use - transportation models as tools for evaluating vehicle travel reduction strategies  

SciTech Connect

The continued growth of highway traffic in the United States has led to unwanted urban traffic congestion as well as to noticeable urban air quality problems. These problems include emissions covered by the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) and 1991 Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act (ISTEA), as well as carbon dioxide and related {open_quotes}greenhouse gas{close_quotes} emissions. Urban travel also creates a major demand for imported oil. Therefore, for economic as well as environmental reasons, transportation planning agencies at both the state and metropolitan area level are focussing a good deal of attention on urban travel reduction policies. Much discussed policy instruments include those that encourage fewer trip starts, shorter trip distances, shifts to higher-occupancy vehicles or to nonvehicular modes, and shifts in the timing of trips from the more to the less congested periods of the day or week. Some analysts have concluded that in order to bring about sustainable reductions in urban traffic volumes, significant changes will be necessary in the way our households and businesses engage in daily travel. Such changes are likely to involve changes in the ways we organize and use traffic-generating and-attracting land within our urban areas. The purpose of this review is to evaluate the ability of current analytic methods and models to support both the evaluation and possibly the design of such vehicle travel reduction strategies, including those strategies involving the reorganization and use of urban land. The review is organized into three sections. Section 1 describes the nature of the problem we are trying to model, Section 2 reviews the state of the art in operational urban land use-transportation simulation models, and Section 3 provides a critical assessment of such models as useful urban transportation planning tools. A number of areas are identified where further model development or testing is required.

Southworth, F.

1995-07-01

133

Interactions of land-use history and current ecology in a recovering “urban wildland”  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the highly disrupted nature of abandoned industrial sites, they have significant human and ecological value. Ecological recovery at such sites is determined by complex interactions between natural factors and anthropogenic influences. Here we describe the land-use history and ecology of a former industrial wasteland. The spatial and temporal distribution of human disturbance at the study site included early farming,

Andrew P. de Wet; Jonathan Richardson; Catherine Olympia

1998-01-01

134

Integrating Geospatial Technologies to Examine Urban Land Use Change: A Design Partnership  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes a design partnership that investigated how to integrate Google Earth, remotely sensed satellite and aerial imagery, with other instructional resources to investigate ground cover and land use in diverse middle school classrooms. Data analysis from the implementation study revealed that students acquired skills for…

Bodzin, Alec M.; Cirucci, Lori

2009-01-01

135

Testing Emerging Land Use Concepts in an Urbanizing Region. TDR: The Legality, The Economics, The Administration.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Transfer of Development Rights (TDR) has been offered as a panacea for a burgeoning number of land use problems such as the preservation of farm land, parks, landmarks and environmentally sensitive areas. TDR has even been billed as the successor to zonin...

R. D. Hennigan, R. M. L. Bellandi, B. H. Gorelick, D. Whitehead, S. A. Farricy

1977-01-01

136

Change detection of land use and land cover in an urban region with SPOT5 images and partial Lanczos extreme learning machine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Satellite remote sensing technology and the science associated with evaluation of land use and land cover (LULC) in an urban region makes use of the wide range images and algorithms. Improved land management capacity is critically dependent on real-time or near real-time monitoring of land-use\\/land cover change (LUCC) to the extent to which solutions to a whole host of urban\\/rural

Ni-Bin Chang; Min Han; Wei Yao; Liang-Chien Chen; Shiguo Xu

2010-01-01

137

Analysis of Urban-Rural Land-Use Change during 1995-2006 and Its Policy Dimensional Driving Forces in Chongqing, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyzes the urban-rural land-use change of Chongqing and its policy dimensional driving forces from 1995 to 2006, using high-resolution Landsat TM (Thematic Mapper) data of 1995, 2000 and 2006, and socio-economic data from both research institutes and government departments. The outcomes indicated that urban-rural land-use change in Chongqing can be characterized by two major trends: First, the non-agricultural

Hualou Long; Xiuqin Wu; Wenjie Wang; Guihua Dong

2008-01-01

138

The impacts of urbanization on air quality over the Pearl River Delta in winter: roles of urban land use and emission distribution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, ideal but realistic numerical experiments are performed to explore the relative effects of changes in land use and emission distribution on air quality in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region in winter. The experiments are accomplished using the Lagrangian particle transport and dispersion model FLEXPART coupled with the Weather Research and Forecasting model under different scenarios. Experiment results show that the maximum changes in daily mean air pollution concentration (as represented by SO2 concentration) caused by land use change alone reaches up to 2 × 10-6 g m-3, whereas changes in concentrations due to the anthropogenic emission distribution are characterized by a maximum value of 6 × 10-6 g m-3. Such results reflect that, although the impacts of land use change on air quality are non-negligible, the emission distribution exerts a more significant influence on air quality than land use change. This provides clear implications for policy makers to control urban air pollution over the PRD region, especially for the urban planning in spatial arrangements for reasonable emissions.

Chen, Bin; Yang, Shuai; Xu, Xiang-De; Zhang, Wei

2013-08-01

139

Assessment of soil sealing management responses, strategies, and targets toward ecologically sustainable urban land use management.  

PubMed

Soil sealing has negative impacts on ecosystem services since urban green and soil get lost. Although there is political commitment to stop further sealing, no reversal of this trend can be observed in Europe. This paper raises the questions (1) which strategies can be regarded as being efficient toward ecologically sustainable management of urban soil sealing and (2) who has competences and should take responsibility to steer soil sealing? The analyses are conducted in Germany. The assessment of strategies is carried out using indicators as part of a content analysis. Legal-planning, informal-planning, economic-fiscal, co-operative, and informational strategies are analyzed. Results show that there is a sufficient basis of strategies to secure urban ecosystem services by protecting urban green and reducing urban gray where microclimate regulation is a main target. However, soil sealing management lacks a spatial strategically overview as well as the consideration of services provided by fertile soils. PMID:24740623

Artmann, Martina

2014-05-01

140

Urban land use and geohazards in the Itanagar Capital city, Arunachal Pradesh, India: Need for geoethics in urban disaster resilience governance in a changing climate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The capital city, Itanagar, Arunachal Pradesh, India is exposed to the multiple geohazards as the city is located in the region which experiences extreme physical phenomenon due to changing climate in the tectonically active North-Eastern Himalayas. The geohazards in Itanagar includes landslides, floods, soil erosion and earthquakes. The high decadal growth rate of 111.36% in 1991-2001 census has brought in many challenges with respect to the capital city developmental planning. Due to rapid and haphazard growth in urban land use the people residing in the city are gradually becoming more vulnerable to the geohazards in the past decades. The city condition at present has raised issues of grave concern related to effective hazard management. It is observed that geoscientific approach is violated at many places in the urban developmental activities along the central spine, the National Highway-52A of the capital city. There is an urgent need of geoscientists to apprise the urban populace about land suitability and stability in terms of rock types, soil, slope, geomorphology, groundwater condition etc. and the vulnerability of the existing urban land use to landslides, flood, soil erosion and earthquakes. In this paper major issue, critical issues and elements at risk are discussed in the context of ethics in geohazard management and developmental planning for urban disaster resilience governance in a changing climate.

Acharjee, Swapna

2013-04-01

141

Detecting agricultural to urban land use change from multi-temporal MSS digital data. [Salt Lake County, Utah  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Conversion of agricultural land to a variety of urban uses is a major problem along the Wasatch Front, Utah. Although LANDSAT MSS data is a relatively coarse tool for discriminating categories of change in urban-size plots, its availability prompts a thorough test of its power to detect change. The procedures being applied to a test area in Salt Lake County, Utah, where the land conversion problem is acute are presented. The identity of land uses before and after conversion was determined and digital procedures for doing so were compared. Several algorithms were compared, utilizing both raw data and preprocessed data. Verification of results involved high quality color infrared photography and field observation. Two data sets were digitally registered, specific change categories internally identified in the software, results tabulated by computer, and change maps printed at 1:24,000 scale.

Ridd, M. K.; Merola, J. A.; Jaynes, R. A.

1983-01-01

142

Evaluation of Land Use Regression Models Used to Predict Air Quality Concentrations in an Urban Area  

EPA Science Inventory

Cohort studies designed to estimate human health effects of exposures to urban pollutants require accurate determination of ambient concentrations in order to minimize exposure misclassification errors. However, it is often difficult to collect concentration information at each s...

143

Land Use\\/Cover Changes in the rural-urban interaction of Xian Region, West China, using Lansat TM\\/ETM data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Landsat ETM\\/TM data and an artificial neural network (ANN) were applied to analyse the expanding of the city of Xian and land use\\/cover changing of its surrounding area between 2000 and 2003. Supervised classification and normalized difference barren index (NDBI) were used respectively to retrieve its urban boundary. Results showed that the urban area had increased by the rate of

Jiang Jian-Jun; Zhou Jie; Wu Hong-an; Zhang Hai-Long; Zhang Li

144

Litter decomposition and nitrogen mineralization in oak stands along an urban-rural land use gradient  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated litter mass loss and soil nitrogen (N)-transformation rates in oak stands along a 130-km, urban-rural transect originating in New York City to examine the relationship between changes in these parameters and previously documented differences in soil temperature, heavy metal and total salt concentrations, and soil biota. Reference litter from a rural site was placed in litterbags, and rates

Richard V. Pouyat; Mark J. McDonnell; Steward T. A. Pickett

1997-01-01

145

Effects of Land-Use Intensity in Tropical Agroforestry Systems on Coffee Flower-Visiting and Trap-Nesting Bees and Wasps  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tropical landscapes are dominated by agroecosystems, and most species that survive in forest rem- nants interact with these agroecosystems. The potential value of agroecosystems for aiding species survival is often ignored. Essential ecosystem services may suffer when functional groups such as pollinators and preda- tors are affected by land use. We used agroforestry systems differing in land-use intensity to examine

Alexandra-Maria Klein; Ingolf Steffan-Dewenter; Damayanti Buchori; Teja Tscharntke

2002-01-01

146

Nutrient concentrations and fibre contents of plant community biomass reflect species richness patterns along a broad range of land-use intensities among agricultural grasslands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understanding changes in biodiversity in agricultural landscapes in relation to land-use type and intensity is a major issue in current ecological research. In this context nutrient enrichment has been identified as a key mechanism inducing species loss in Central European grassland ecosystems. At the same time, insights into the linkage between agricultural land use and plant nutrient status are largely

Valentin H. Klaus; Till Kleinebecker; Norbert Hölzel; Nico Blüthgen; Steffen Boch; Jörg Müller; Stephanie A. Socher; Daniel Prati; Markus Fischer

2011-01-01

147

Automobile dependence in cities: An international comparison of urban transport and land use patterns with implications for sustainability  

SciTech Connect

Cities around the world are subject to increasing levels of environmental impact from dependence on the automobile. In the highly auto-dependent cities of the US and Australia, this is manifested in problems such as urban sprawl and its destruction of prime farming land and natural landscapes, photochemical smog that can be primarily attributed to auto emissions. On top of the more local impacts of the automobile, the global dimension should not be forgotten. Perhaps the two most pressing issues in this regard are the oil problem and the greenhouse problem. A comparison of global cities over the period 1980 to 1990 reveals large differences in automobile dependence with implications for the future sustainability of cities in different countries. This study explores some of the underlying land use, transport, and economic reasons for these different transport patterns. It briefly reviews what the sustainability agenda means for transport and land use patterns in cities and suggests a suite of targets or goals for sustainability by which cities might measure their current directions and plans.

Kenworthy, J.R.; Laube, F.B. [Murdoch Univ., Perth (Australia). Inst. for Science and Technology Policy] [Murdoch Univ., Perth (Australia). Inst. for Science and Technology Policy

1996-07-01

148

Streambed phosphorus in paired catchments with different agricultural land use intensity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stream-bed sediments from three paired catchments, each draining a lower agricultural intensity system and a higher agricultural intensity system, were analysed for (a) total P (TP), (b) bioavailable-P (Resin-P), (c) equilibrium phosphorus concentration (EPC0), and (d) degree of phosphorus saturation (DPS). The influence of agriculture on sediment P was explored within the context of other key variables that may control

Elizabeth J. Palmer-Felgate; Helen P. Jarvie; Paul J. A. Withers; Robert J. G. Mortimer; Michael D. Krom

2009-01-01

149

Census Cities experiment in urban change detection. [mapping of land use changes in San Francisco, Washington D.C., Phoenix, Tucson, Boston, New Haven, Cedar Rapids, and Pontiac  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author has identified the following significant results. Mapping of 1970 and 1972 land use from high-flight photography has been completed for all test sites: San Francisco, Washington, Phoenix, Tucson, Boston, New Haven, Cedar Rapids, and Pontiac. Area analysis of 1970 and 1972 land use has been completed for each of the mandatory urban areas. All 44 sections of the 1970 land use maps of the San Francisco test site have been officially released through USGS Open File at 1:62,500. Five thousand copies of the Washington one-sheet color 1970 land use map, census tract map, and point line identification map are being printed by USGS Publication Division. ERTS-1 imagery for each of the eight test sites is being received and analyzed. Color infrared photo enlargements at 1:100,000 of ERTS-1 MSS images of Phoenix taken on October 16, 1972 and May 2, 1973 are being analyzed to determine to what level land use and land use changes can be identified and to what extent the ERTS-1 imagery can be used in updating the 1970 aircraft photo-derived land use data base. Work is proceeding on the analysis of ERTS-1 imagery by computer manipulation of ERTS-1 MSS data in digital format. ERTS-1 CCT maps at 1:24,000 are being analyzed for two dates over Washington and Phoenix. Anniversary tape sets have been received at Purdue LARS for some additional urban test sites.

Wray, J. R. (principal investigator); Milazzo, V. A.

1974-01-01

150

Analysis of Urban-Rural Land-Use Change during 1995-2006 and Its Policy Dimensional Driving Forces in Chongqing, China  

PubMed Central

This paper analyzes the urban-rural land-use change of Chongqing and its policy dimensional driving forces from 1995 to 2006, using high-resolution Landsat TM (Thematic Mapper) data of 1995, 2000 and 2006, and socio-economic data from both research institutes and government departments. The outcomes indicated that urban-rural land-use change in Chongqing can be characterized by two major trends: First, the non-agricultural land increased substantially from 1995 to 2006, thus causing agricultural land especially farmland to decrease continuously. Second, the aggregation index of urban settlements and rural settlements shows that local urban-rural development experienced a process of changing from aggregation (1995-2000) to decentralization (2000-2006). Chongqing is a special area getting immersed in many important policies, which include the establishment of the municipality directly under the Central Government, the building of Three Gorges Dam Project, the Western China Development Program and the Grain-for-Green Programme, and bring about tremendous influences on its land-use change. By analyzing Chongqing's land-use change and its policy driving forces, some implications for its new policy of ‘Urban-rural Integrated Reform’ are obtained. That is more attentions need to be paid to curbing excessive and idle rural housing and consolidating rural construction land, and to laying out a scientific land-use plan for its rural areas taking such rural land-use issues as farmland occupation and rural housing land management into accounts, so as to coordinate and balance the urban-rural development.

Long, Hualou; Wu, Xiuqin; Wang, Wenjie; Dong, Guihua

2008-01-01

151

PHOSPHORUS RUNOFF FROM SMALL AGRICULTURAL CATCHMENTS UNDER DIFFERENT LAND USE INTENSITY  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study was carried out in the hydrologic year 2006 and comprised two small agri- cultural catchments in the Masurian Lakeland. Both catchments possessed very large wa- ter retention potential (presence of buffer zones and surface waters in the catchments) but they differed in the intensity of agricultural production. The study has demonstrated that the concentration of phosphorus in the

Andrzej Skwierawski; Katarzyna Sobczyńska-Wójcik

2008-01-01

152

Relationship between land-use intensity and species richness and abundance of birds in Hungary  

Microsoft Academic Search

When Hungary, together with nine other central and eastern European countries, enters the European Union in 2004 two major threats will arise to the birds inhabiting agricultural landscapes. Marginal agricultural land may be abandoned, while the remaining area may suffer from intensification. To assess the effects of these threats breeding birds were monitored in abandoned, extensively and intensively used vineyards

Jort Verhulst; András Báldi; David Kleijn

2004-01-01

153

Analysis of Land Use/Land Cover Changes Using Remote Sensing Data and GIS at an Urban Area, Tirupati, India  

PubMed Central

Land use/land cover (LU/LC) changes were determined in an urban area, Tirupati, from 1976 to 2003 by using Geographical Information Systems (GISs) and remote sensing technology. These studies were employed by using the Survey of India topographic map 57 O/6 and the remote sensing data of LISS III and PAN of IRS ID of 2003. The study area was classified into eight categories on the basis of field study, geographical conditions, and remote sensing data. The comparison of LU/LC in 1976 and 2003 derived from toposheet and satellite imagery interpretation indicates that there is a significant increase in built-up area, open forest, plantation, and other lands. It is also noted that substantial amount of agriculture land, water spread area, and dense forest area vanished during the period of study which may be due to rapid urbanization of the study area. No mining activities were found in the study area in 1976, but a small addition of mining land was found in 2003.

Mallupattu, Praveen Kumar; Sreenivasula Reddy, Jayarama Reddy

2013-01-01

154

Land use regression modeling of intra-urban residential variability in multiple traffic-related air pollutants  

PubMed Central

Background There is a growing body of literature linking GIS-based measures of traffic density to asthma and other respiratory outcomes. However, no consensus exists on which traffic indicators best capture variability in different pollutants or within different settings. As part of a study on childhood asthma etiology, we examined variability in outdoor concentrations of multiple traffic-related air pollutants within urban communities, using a range of GIS-based predictors and land use regression techniques. Methods We measured fine particulate matter (PM2.5), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and elemental carbon (EC) outside 44 homes representing a range of traffic densities and neighborhoods across Boston, Massachusetts and nearby communities. Multiple three to four-day average samples were collected at each home during winters and summers from 2003 to 2005. Traffic indicators were derived using Massachusetts Highway Department data and direct traffic counts. Multivariate regression analyses were performed separately for each pollutant, using traffic indicators, land use, meteorology, site characteristics, and central site concentrations. Results PM2.5 was strongly associated with the central site monitor (R2 = 0.68). Additional variability was explained by total roadway length within 100 m of the home, smoking or grilling near the monitor, and block-group population density (R2 = 0.76). EC showed greater spatial variability, especially during winter months, and was predicted by roadway length within 200 m of the home. The influence of traffic was greater under low wind speed conditions, and concentrations were lower during summer (R2 = 0.52). NO2 showed significant spatial variability, predicted by population density and roadway length within 50 m of the home, modified by site characteristics (obstruction), and with higher concentrations during summer (R2 = 0.56). Conclusion Each pollutant examined displayed somewhat different spatial patterns within urban neighborhoods, and were differently related to local traffic and meteorology. Our results indicate a need for multi-pollutant exposure modeling to disentangle causal agents in epidemiological studies, and further investigation of site-specific and meteorological modification of the traffic-concentration relationship in urban neighborhoods.

Clougherty, Jane E; Wright, Rosalind J; Baxter, Lisa K; Levy, Jonathan I

2008-01-01

155

Labor efficiency and intensity of land use in rice production: An example from Kalimantan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Boserup hypothesis contends that land-intensive systems of agriculture will be adopted only when high population density precludes the use of land-extensive methods. In the Kerayan District of East Kalimantan (Indonesia) the Lun Dayeh practice permanent-field rice cultivation despite very low human densities. An examination of the relative labor efficiencies of shifting and permanent-field agriculture in the Kerayan, as well

Christine Padoch

1985-01-01

156

Labor efficiency and intensity of land use in rice production: an example from Kalimantan  

SciTech Connect

The ''Boserup hypothesis'' contends that land-intensive systems of agriculture will be adopted only when high population density precludes the use of land-extensive methods. In the Kerayan District of East Kalimantan (Indonesia) the Lun Dayeh practice permanent-field rice cultivation despite very low human densities. An examination of the relative labor efficiencies of shifting and permanent-field agriculture in the Kerayan, as well as of local environmental and historical variables, explains why this ''anomalous'' situation exists. It is argued that since relative success in production of rice by shifting- and permanent-field irrigated methods depends on many natural and social conditions other than levels of population density, the ''environment-free'' Boserup hypothesis cannot adequately explain or predict the occurrence of particular forms of rice agriculture.

Padoch, C.

1986-09-01

157

Monitoring urban expansion and land use/land cover changes of Shanghai metropolitan area during the transitional economy (1979-2009) in China.  

PubMed

This study explored the spatio-temporal dynamics and evolution of land use/cover changes and urban expansion in Shanghai metropolitan area, China, during the transitional economy period (1979-2009) using multi-temporal satellite images and geographic information systems (GIS). A maximum likelihood supervised classification algorithm was employed to extract information from four landsat images, with the post-classification change detection technique and GIS-based spatial analysis methods used to detect land-use and land-cover (LULC) changes. The overall Kappa indices of land use/cover change maps ranged from 0.79 to 0.89. Results indicated that urbanization has accelerated at an unprecedented scale and rate during the study period, leading to a considerable reduction in the area of farmland and green land. Findings further revealed that water bodies and bare land increased, obviously due to large-scale coastal development after 2000. The direction of urban expansion was along a north-south axis from 1979 to 2000, but after 2000 this growth changed to spread from both the existing urban area and along transport routes in all directions. Urban expansion and subsequent LULC changes in Shanghai have largely been driven by policy reform, population growth, and economic development. Rapid urban expansion through clearing of vegetation has led to a wide range of eco-environmental degradation. PMID:20824336

Yin, Jie; Yin, Zhane; Zhong, Haidong; Xu, Shiyuan; Hu, Xiaomeng; Wang, Jun; Wu, Jianping

2011-06-01

158

Estimating windblown PM-10 emissions from vacant urban land using GIS.  

PubMed

This paper presents a Geographic Information Systems (GIS)-based methodology to estimate annual area-wide airborne particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of less than 10 microm (PM-10) emissions, and identify zones with high emissions in order to efficiently implement mitigation strategies. Application of the methodology is demonstrated using the land disposal boundary within Clark County, NV as the study area, which is currently classified as a non-attainment area by United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA). The estimated PM-10 emissions depend on the extent of disturbed vacant land area, undisturbed vacant land area, emission factors by soil group, and wind speeds. Portable wind tunnel field test data were used to estimate emission factors at 78 sites in the study area. Portable wind tunnel results were categorized by the wind speed range and the corresponding site soil group in order to estimate emission factors by soil group and the wind speed range. Wind speed data were obtained from the Clark County Health District's air quality monitoring stations. The proximal area over which the wind speeds are same is obtained by constructing "Thiessen" polygons around each wind speed monitoring station. PM-10 emissions were estimated as a function of the extent of disturbed vacant lands, the measured or estimated erodibility of the soil surfaces, and the intensity, duration and frequency of erosive wind events. PMID:16423454

Pulugurtha, Srinivas S; James, David

2006-04-30

159

Spatial Variations in the Relationships between Land Use and Water Quality across an Urbanization Gradient in the Watersheds of Northern Georgia, USA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A spatial statistical technique, Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR) is applied to study the spatial variations in the relationships between four land use indicators, including percentages of urban land, forest, agricultural land, and wetland, and eight water quality indicators including specific conductance (SC), dissolved oxygen, dissolved nutrients, and dissolved organic carbon, in the watersheds of northern Georgia, USA. The results show that GWR has better model performance than ordinary least squares regression (OLS) to analyze the relationships between land use and water quality. There are great spatial variations in the relationships affected by the urbanization level of watersheds. The relationships between urban land and SC are stronger in less-urbanized watersheds, while those between urban land and dissolved nutrients are stronger in highly-urbanized watersheds. Percentage of forest is an indicator of good water quality. Agricultural land is usually associated with good water quality in highly-urbanized watersheds, but might be related to water pollution in less-urbanized watersheds. This study confirms the results obtained from a similar study in eastern Massachusetts, and so suggest that GWR technique is a very useful tool in water environmental research and also has the potential to be applied to other fields of environmental studies and management in other regions.

Tu, Jun

2013-01-01

160

Spatial variations in the relationships between land use and water quality across an urbanization gradient in the watersheds of Northern Georgia, USA.  

PubMed

A spatial statistical technique, Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR) is applied to study the spatial variations in the relationships between four land use indicators, including percentages of urban land, forest, agricultural land, and wetland, and eight water quality indicators including specific conductance (SC), dissolved oxygen, dissolved nutrients, and dissolved organic carbon, in the watersheds of northern Georgia, USA. The results show that GWR has better model performance than ordinary least squares regression (OLS) to analyze the relationships between land use and water quality. There are great spatial variations in the relationships affected by the urbanization level of watersheds. The relationships between urban land and SC are stronger in less-urbanized watersheds, while those between urban land and dissolved nutrients are stronger in highly-urbanized watersheds. Percentage of forest is an indicator of good water quality. Agricultural land is usually associated with good water quality in highly-urbanized watersheds, but might be related to water pollution in less-urbanized watersheds. This study confirms the results obtained from a similar study in eastern Massachusetts, and so suggest that GWR technique is a very useful tool in water environmental research and also has the potential to be applied to other fields of environmental studies and management in other regions. PMID:21858555

Tu, Jun

2013-01-01

161

Effects of urban land-use change on streamflow and water quality in Oakland County, Michigan, 1970-2003, as inferred from urban gradient and temporal analysis  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Various adverse hydrologic effects on streams have been attributed to urban development and expanded impervious surface area, including increased high flows, decreased low flows, increased variability (commonly referred to as flashiness), nutrient enrichment, and increased dissolved solids concentrations. These effects are often observed through the use of urban-gradient studies, which compare hydrologic characteristics among watersheds with different levels of development. This technique is frequently applied when comparable prior data are not available for the watersheds of interest. During 1966 - 1970, and again during 2001 - 2003, the U.S. Geological Survey collected a series of low-flow water-chemistry samples. Streamflow-gaging stations were operated throughout the period from 1966-2003 as part of ongoing monitoring operations. This study compares these two water-quality data sets; tests the streamflow data for trends in high flows, low flows, and flashiness; and correlates 2000 land use with water-quality and streamflow data collected during the 2001 - 2003 study. Despite substantial change in land use during 1980 - 2000, with urban land covers replacing open space, forest, and agriculture, little evidence is found in the time-series data of alteration of the daily streamflow characteristics or nutrient enrichment in the study watersheds. However, a distinct shift is observable in chloride concentrations. Strong positive correlations exist across the urban gradient between development and increased peak flows as well as between development and increased flashiness. Correlations of water-quality data to development metrics show strong positive correlations with increased dissolved solids and salt content, as well as increased concentrations of fecal indicator bacteria (Eschericia coli). This apparent contradiction may be caused by the differences in the changes measured in each analysis. The change-through-time approach describes change from a fixed starting point of approximately 1970; the gradient approach describes the cumulative effect of all change up to approximately 2000. These findings indicate that although urbanization in Oakland County results in most of the effects observed in the literature, as evidenced in the gradient approach, relatively few of the anticipated effects have been observed during the past three decades. This relative stability despite rapid land-cover change may be related to efforts to mitigate the effects of development and a general decrease in the density of new residential development. It may also be related to external factors such as climate variability and reduced atmospheric deposition of specific chemicals.

Aichele, Stephen S.

2005-01-01

162

Urban land use and land cover classification using the neural-fuzzy inference approach with Formosat-2 data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a neural-fuzzy inference approach to identify the land use and land cover (LULC) patterns in large urban areas with the 8-meter resolution of multi-spectral images collected by Formosat-2 satellite. Texture and feature analyses support the retrieval of fuzzy rules in the context of data mining to discern the embedded LULC patterns via a neural-fuzzy inference approach. The case study for Taichung City in central Taiwan shows the application potential based on five LULC classes. With the aid of integrated fuzzy rules and a neural network model, the optimal weights associated with these achievable rules can be determined with phenomenological and theoretical implications. Through appropriate model training and validation stages with respect to a groundtruth data set, research findings clearly indicate that the proposed remote sensing technique can structure an improved screening and sequencing procedure when selecting rules for LULC classification. There is no limitation of using broad spectral bands for category separation by this method, such as the ability to reliably separate only a few (4-5) classes. This normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI)-based data mining technique has shown potential for LULC pattern recognition in different regions, and is not restricted to this sensor, location or date.

Chen, Ho-Wen; Chang, Ni-Bin; Yu, Ruey-Fang; Huang, Yi-Wen

2009-10-01

163

Remote Sensing of Urban Land Cover/Land Use Change, Surface Thermal Responses, and Potential Meteorological and Climate Change Impacts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

City growth influences the development of the urban heat island (UHI), but the effect that local meteorology has on the UHI is less well known. This paper presents some preliminary findings from a study that uses multitemporal Landsat TM and ASTER data to evaluate land cover/land use change (LULCC) over the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MFSC) and its Huntsville, AL metropolitan area. Landsat NLCD data for 1992 and 2001 have been used to evaluate LULCC for MSFC and the surrounding urban area. Land surface temperature (LST) and emissivity derived from NLCD data have also been analyzed to assess changes in these parameters in relation to LULCC. Additionally, LULCC, LST, and emissivity have been identified from ASTER data from 2001 and 2011 to provide a comparison with the 2001 NLCD and as a measure of current conditions within the study area. As anticipated, the multi-temporal NLCD and ASTER data show that significant changes have occurred in land covers, LST, and emissivity within and around MSFC. The patterns and arrangement of these changes, however, is significant because the juxtaposition of urban land covers within and outside of MSFC provides insight on what impacts at a local to regional scale, the inter-linkage of these changes potentially have on meteorology. To further analyze these interactions between LULCC, LST, and emissivity with the lower atmosphere, a network of eleven weather stations has been established across the MSFC property. These weather stations provide data at a 10 minute interval, and these data are uplinked for use by MSFC facilities operations and the National Weather Service. The weather data are also integrated within a larger network of meteorological stations across north Alabama. Given that the MSFC weather stations will operate for an extended period of time, they can be used to evaluate how the building of new structures, and changes in roadways, and green spaces as identified in the MSFC master plan for the future, will potentially affect land cover LSTs across the Center. Moreover, the weather stations will also provide baseline data for developing a better understanding of how localized weather factors, such as extreme rainfall and heat events, affect micrometeorology. These data can also be used to model the interrelationships between LSTs and meteorology on a longer term basis to help evaluate how changes in these parameters can be quantified from satellite data collected in the future. In turn, the overall integration of multi-temporal meteorological information with LULCC, and LST data for MSFC proper and the surrounding Huntsville urbanized area can provide a perspective on how urban land surface types affect the meteorology in the boundary layer and ultimately, the UHI. Additionally, data such as this can be used as a foundation for modeling how climate change will potentially impact local and regional meteorology and conversely, how urban LULCC can or will influence changes on climate over the north Alabama area.

Quattrochi, D. A.; Jedlovec, G.; Meyer, P. J.

2011-12-01

164

Changes in Land Use and Soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Land use change is one of the main drivers of many processes of environmental change, as it influences basic resources of the landscape including the soil. Poor land management can rapidly deteriorate vast amounts of land, which frequently becomes a major threat to rural subsistence in many developing countries. Conversely, impact of land use changes on soil also can occur so unnoticed that land managers hardly contemplate initiating ameliorative measures. Subsequently, changes in land use affect soil properties and processes at a variety of scales. For example, forest conversion to cropland and reduction of tillage intensity can prevail as main changes of land use in some regions, whereas abandon of agricultural fields can be a major concern in other regions. In non-agricultural context, changes of land use of major interest are driven by urbanization, landscaping, engineering, mining, contamination, etc. Disturbed soils are not necessarily lost to agriculture, forestry, amenity or other alternative uses. Knowledge and understanding of soil properties and processes ensures remediation or reclamation of disturbed or damaged soils. Therefore, we focus mainly on how soil properties and processes can be managed and controlled to mitigate the impact of changes in land use. Moreover, land use changes occur at different spatial and temporal scales. Currently, the most promising approaches to evaluate the complex interaction between land use and soil heterogeneity at various scales apply advanced statistical and mathematical methods.

Paz-González, A.; Tarquis, A.; de Abreu, C. A.; Olechko, K.; Sáa, A.; Gobin, A.; Gómez, J. A.; Kutilek, M.

2012-04-01

165

Effects of Urban Development on Water-Quality in the Piedmont of North Carolina-- The NAWQA Urban Land-Use Gradient Study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A study of urban basins located in the Piedmont of North Carolina is underway as part of the U. S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) to determine the relation between level of urban development and water quality. Data were collected from 30 basins on water chemistry (nutrient, pesticide, and ion concentrations), geomorphic and habitat characteristics, hydrologic stage, discharge, water temperature, pH, dissolved-oxygen concentration, specific conductance, benthic algae, invertebrate communities, and fish communities. Collection frequency for water chemistry ranged from 2 samples (at 20 sites) to 6 samples (at 10 sites). Biological data were collected in each basin twice. Investigation of the effects of urbanization on water quality must control for the effects of natural factors, while varying the degree of urbanization between study basins. A regional framework was used to control variability in natural factors that influence water-quality. The urban intensity in each basin was measured by using an index to integrate information on human influences. The Urban Index includes information about land cover, infrastructure, population, and socioeconomic characteristics. Sites were selected to represent the full gradient of undeveloped to fully urbanized basins. A preliminary review of the stream water-chemistry data indicates distinct relations between ionic composition and the Urban Index. Mean specific conductance was positively correlated with the Urban Index (Spearman correlation coefficient (r) = 0.77; 95-percent confidence limits (95CL) 0.61 - 0.93; probability (pr) <0.0001; N=30). Specific conductance ranged from 56 microsiemens (uS) at the least developed site to 607 uS at the most developed site. Dissolved sulfate (r=0.74; 95CL 0.57 - 0.91; pr <0.0001) and chloride (r=0.71; 95CL 0.52 - 0.90; pr <0.0001) were also positively correlated with the Urban Index. Sulfate ranged from 2.3 to 66 milligrams per liter (mg/L), and chloride ranged from 3.5 to 96 mg/L. Urban sources of sulfate include domestic sewage and emissions from the combustion of automotive and diesel fuels. Sources of chloride include sewage and road salting. pH was positively correlated with the Urban Index (r=0.60; 95CL 0.38 - 0.84; pr= 0.0005) with a range from 6.5 at the least urban site to 7.5 at the most urban site. The increase in pH may be due in part to conversion of organic forest soils to less acidic soils of urban lawns. The overall trend of increasing total dissolved nitrogen (r=0.46; 95CL 0.12 - 0.80; pr=0.0103) and nitrite plus nitrate (r=0.46; 95CL 0.09 - 0.83; pr=0.0109) concentrations, with increasing Urban Index may reflect sources such as sewage and lawn fertilizer use in the more urban basins. However, some of the least urban basins also had elevated nitrogen concentrations reflecting possible agricultural influences such as fertilizer use and animal waste. Total nitrogen concentration ranged from 0.31 to 14 mg/L. Unit-area stream discharge during low-flow periods was negatively correlated with the Urban Index (r= -0.56; 95CL -0.74 - -0.37; pr=0.0014). Reduced discharge with greater urban development may be a result of reduced infiltration caused by impervious surfaces. Unit discharge ranged from 0.47 to 2.27 cubic feet per second per square mile of drainage area.

Harned, D. A.; Cuffney, T. F.; Giddings, E. M.; McMahon, G.

2004-12-01

166

Maximum Urban Heat Island Intensity in Seoul.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The maximum urban heat island (UHI) intensity in Seoul, Korea, is investigated using data measured at two meteorological observatories (an urban site and a rural site) during the period of 1973-96. The average maximum UHI is weakest in summer and is strong in autumn and winter. Similar to previous studies for other cities, the maximum UHI intensity is more frequently observed in the nighttime than in the daytime, decreases with increasing wind speed, and is pronounced for clear skies. A multiple linear regression analysis is performed to relate the maximum UHI to meteorological elements. Four predictors considered in this study are the maximum UHI intensity for the previous day, wind speed, cloudiness, and relative humidity. The previous-day maximum UHI intensity is positively correlated with the maximum UHI, and the wind speed, cloudiness, and relative humidity are negatively correlated with the maximum UHI intensity. Among the four predictors, the previous-day maximum UHI intensity is the most important. The relative importance among the predictors varies depending on time of day and season. A three-layer back-propagation neural network model with the four predictors as input units is constructed to predict the maximum UHI intensity in Seoul, and its performance is compared with that of a multiple linear regression model. For all test datasets, the neural network model improves upon the regression model in predicting the maximum UHI intensity. The improvement of the neural network model upon the regression model is 6.3% for the unstratified test data, is higher in the daytime (6.1%) than in the nighttime (3.3%), and ranges from 0.8% in spring to 6.5% in winter.

Kim, Yeon-Hee; Baik, Jong-Jin

2002-06-01

167

Evaluation of land-use regression models used to predict air quality concentrations in an urban area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cohort studies designed to estimate human health effects of exposures to urban pollutants require accurate determination of ambient concentrations in order to minimize exposure misclassification errors. However, it is often difficult to collect concentration information at each study subject location. In the absence of complete subject-specific measurements, land-use regression (LUR) models have frequently been used for estimating individual levels of exposures to ambient air pollution. The LUR models, however, have several limitations mainly dealing with extensive monitoring data needs and challenges involved in their broader applicability to other locations. In contrast, air quality models can provide high-resolution source-concentration linkages for multiple pollutants, but require detailed emissions and meteorological information. In this study, first we predicted air quality concentrations of PM 2.5, NO x, and benzene in New Haven, CT using hybrid modeling techniques based on CMAQ and AERMOD model results. Next, we used these values as pseudo-observations to develop and evaluate the different LUR models built using alternative numbers of (training) sites (ranging from 25 to 285 locations out of the total 318 receptors). We then evaluated the fitted LUR models using various approaches, including: 1) internal "Leave-One-Out-Cross-Validation" (LOOCV) procedure within the "training" sites selected; and 2) "Hold-Out" evaluation procedure, where we set aside 33-293 tests sites as independent datasets for external model evaluation. LUR models appeared to perform well in the training datasets. However, when these LUR models were tested against independent hold out (test) datasets, their performance diminished considerably. Our results confirm the challenges facing the LUR community in attempting to fit empirical response surfaces to spatially- and temporally-varying pollution levels using LUR techniques that are site dependent. These results also illustrate the potential benefits of enhancing basic LUR models by utilizing air quality modeling tools or concepts in order to improve their reliability or transferability.

Johnson, Markey; Isakov, V.; Touma, J. S.; Mukerjee, S.; Özkaynak, H.

2010-09-01

168

Modeling concentration patterns of agricultural and urban micropollutants in surface waters in catchment of mixed land use  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Organic micropollutants detected in surface waters can originate from agricultural and urban sources. Depending on the use of the compounds, the temporal loss patterns vary substantially. Therefore models that simulate water quality in watersheds of mixed land use have to account for all relevant sources. We present here simulation results of a transport model that describes the dynamic of several biocidal compounds as well as the behaviour of human pharmaceuticals. The model consists of the sub-model Rexpo simulating the transfer of the compounds from the point of application to the stream in semi-lumped manner. The river sub-model, which is programmed in the Aquasim software, describes the fate of the compounds in the stream. Both sub-models are process-based. The Rexpo sub-model was calibrated at the scale of a small catchment of 25 km2, which is inhabited by about 12'000 people. Based on the resulting model parameters the loss dynamics of two herbicides (atrazine, isoproturon) and a compound of mixed urban and agricultural use (diuron) were predicted for two nested catchment of 212 and 1696 km2, respectively. The model output was compared to observed time-series of concentrations and loads obtained for the entire year 2009. Additionally, the fate of two pharmaceuticals with constant input (carbamazepine, diclofenac) was simulated for improving the understanding of possible degradation processes. The simulated loads and concentrations of the biocidal compounds differed by a factor of 2 to 3 from the observations. In general, the seasonal patterns were well captured by the model. However, a detailed analysis of the seasonality revealed substantial input uncertainty for the application of the compounds. The model results also demonstrated that for the dynamics of rain-driven losses of biocidal compounds the semi-lumped approach of the Rexpo sub-model was sufficient. Only for simulating the photolytic degradation of diclofenac in the stream the detailed representation of the routing in the stream was essential. Overall, the study demonstrated that the simulation of micropollutants at the watershed scale can be strongly hampered by input uncertainty regarding the use of the chemicals. Under such conditions the level of process-representation in the Rexpo sub-models is superfluous. For practical applications, one should address the question how to simply the approach while still maintaining the essential parts.

Stamm, C.; Scheidegger, R.; Bader, H. P.

2012-04-01

169

Exploring the effects of urban and agricultural land use on surface water chemistry, across a regional watershed, using multivariate statistics  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the influence of anthropogenic activity on surface water chemistry is investigated. Base flow samples from dominant land use streams in the Muskegon River Watershed, Michigan, USA, were analyzed for nutrients, major ions, and trace elements. Principal component and hierarchical cluster analysis were used to investigate the processes controlling the effects of land use on the biogeochemistry of

M. L. Fitzpatrick; D. T. Long; B. C. Pijanowski

2007-01-01

170

Project ATLANTA (ATlanta Land-use ANalysis: Temperature and Air quality): A Study of how the Urban Landscape Affects Meteorology and Air Quality Through Time  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is our intent through this investigation to help facilitate measures that can be Project ATLANTA (ATlanta Land-use ANalysis: applied to mitigate climatological or air quality Temperature and Air-quality) is a NASA Earth degradation, or to design alternate measures to sustain Observing System (EOS) Interdisciplinary Science or improve the overall urban environment in the future. investigation that seeks to observe, measure, model, and analyze how the rapid growth of the Atlanta. The primary objectives for this research effort are: 1) To In the last half of the 20th century, Atlanta, investigate and model the relationship between Atlanta Georgia has risen as the premier commercial, urban growth, land cover change, and the development industrial, and transportation urban area of the of the urban heat island phenomenon through time at southeastern United States. The rapid growth of the nested spatial scales from local to regional; 2) To Atlanta area, particularly within the last 25 years, has investigate and model the relationship between Atlanta made Atlanta one of the fastest growing metropolitan urban growth and land cover change on air quality areas in the United States. The population of the through time at nested spatial scales from local to Atlanta metropolitan area increased 27% between 1970 regional; and 3) To model the overall effects of urban and 1980, and 33% between 1980-1990 (Research development on surface energy budget characteristics Atlanta, Inc., 1993). Concomitant with this high rate of across the Atlanta urban landscape through time at population growth, has been an explosive growth in nested spatial scales from local to regional. Our key retail, industrial, commercial, and transportation goal is to derive a better scientific understanding of how services within the Atlanta region. This has resulted in land cover changes associated with urbanization in the tremendous land cover change dynamics within the Atlanta area, principally in transforming forest lands to metropolitan region, wherein urbanization has urban land covers through time, has, and will, effect consumed vast acreas of land adjacent to the city local and regional climate, surface energy flux, and air proper and has pushed the rural/urban fringe farther quality characteristics. Allied with this goal is the and farther away from the original Atlanta urban core. prospect that the results from this research can be An enormous transition of land from forest and applied by urban planners, environmental managers agriculture to urban land uses has occurred in the and other decision-makers, for determining how Atlanta area in the last 25 years, along with subsequent urbanization has impacted the climate and overall

Quattrochi, Dale A.; Luvall, Jeffrey C.; Estes, Maurice G.; Lo, C. P.; Kidder, Stanley Q.; Hafner, Jan; Taha, Haider; Bornstein, Robert D.; Gillies, Robert R.; Gallo, Kevin P.

1998-01-01

171

Monitoring land use/land cover transformations from 1945 to 2007 in two peri-urban mountainous areas of Athens metropolitan area, Greece.  

PubMed

The aims of this study were to map and analyze land use/land cover transitions and landscape changes in the Parnitha and Penteli mountains, which surround the Athens metropolitan area of Attica, Greece over a period of 62years. In order to quantify the changes between land categories through time, we computed the transition matrices for three distinct periods (1945-1960, 1960-1996, and 1996-2007), on the basis of available aerial photographs used to create multi-temporal maps. We identified systematic and stationary transitions with multi-level intensity analysis. Forest areas in Parnitha remained the dominant class of land cover throughout the 62years studied, while transitional woodlands and shrublands were the main classes involved in LULC transitions. Conversely, in Penteli, transitional woodlands, along with shrublands, dominated the study site. The annual rate of change was faster in the first and third time intervals, compared to the second (1960-1996) time interval, in both study areas. The category level analysis results indicated that in both sites annual crops avoided to gain while discontinuous urban fabric avoided to lose areas. At the transition level of analysis, similarities as well as distinct differences existed between the two areas. In both sites the gaining pattern of permanent crops with respect to annual crops and the gain of forest with respect to transitional woodland/shrublands were stationary across the three time intervals. Overall, we identified more systematic transitions and stationary processes in Penteli. We discussed these LULC changes and associated them with human interference (activity) and other major socio-economic developments that were simultaneously occurring in the area. The different patterns of change of the areas, despite their geographical proximity, throughout the period of analysis imply that site-specific studies are needed in order to comprehensively assess the driving forces and develop models of landscape transformation in Mediterranean areas. PMID:24858224

Mallinis, Giorgos; Koutsias, Nikos; Arianoutsou, Margarita

2014-08-15

172

Remote Observation of Phenological Variables across Aridity and Land Use Intensity Gradients in the Kalahari: Implications for Future Productivity and Dust Emission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aired lands globally are sensitive to land use and climate change. One of the premier locations to observe the effects of these is the Kalahari Transect, with its precipitation gradient on consistent sandy soils in Southern Africa. Climate projections for the region suggest changing aridity and therefore the Kalahari is an excellent proxy for studying the effects of climate change and land use in this and other savanna systems. In this region, in situ data is scarce and remote sensing is an effective tool for understanding the response of vegetation to climate and land use. Here, we use the enhanced vegetation index (EVI) to investigate changes in phenological variables across aridity and land use gradients throughout the Kalahari during the MODIS era. We show that the timing and amount of greening is clearly sensitive to both rainfall and grazing intensity. The implication of these differences under various land use and climate change scenarios will be discussed, both in terms of ecological productivity and function. In particular, we investigate the impact of these changes on dust production and export from the sandy soils of the region.

McNerney, L.; Okin, G. S.; D'Odorico, P.

2013-12-01

173

Impact of land-use intensity on evaporation and surface runoff : processes and parameters for Eastern Burkina Faso, West Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Land-use is one of the main factors affecting the hydrological cycle in the Volta river\\u000abasin, where two major projects (GLOWA-Volta and VinVal) are dealing with the\\u000aelaboration of a land-use planning and decision support system for sustainable\\u000aagricultural production and water resource management. Both projects, especially\\u000aGLOWA-Volta need information about the seasonal dynamics of the actual evaporation\\u000aand surface

F. Bagayoko

2006-01-01

174

A hybrid approach to urban land use\\/cover mapping using Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) images  

Microsoft Academic Search

A hybrid method that incorporates the advantages of supervised and unsupervised approaches as well as hard and soft classifications was proposed for mapping the land use\\/cover of the Atlanta metropolitan area using Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) data. The unsupervised ISODATA clustering method was initially used to segment the image into a large number of clusters of pixels.

C. P. Lo; Jinmu Choi

2004-01-01

175

The Influence of Synoptic Climatology on Urban Heat Island Intensity  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study describes the statistical properties of the urban heat island for a city under a variety of synoptic conditions during winter months. The relationships between urban heat island intensity and the identified atmospheric processes is investigated using a proposed heat island index. The urban heat island index (HII) is the difference in air temperature between a weather station located

Sean Michael Model

1992-01-01

176

The Application of Satellite-Derived, High-Resolution Land Use/Land Cover Data to Improve Urban Air Quality Model Forecasts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Local and state agencies are responsible for developing state implementation plans to meet National Ambient Air Quality Standards. Numerical models used for this purpose simulate the transport and transformation of criteria pollutants and their precursors. The specification of land use/land cover (LULC) plays an important role in controlling modeled surface meteorology and emissions. NASA researchers have worked with partners and Atlanta stakeholders to incorporate an improved high-resolution LULC dataset for the Atlanta area within their modeling system and to assess meteorological and air quality impacts of Urban Heat Island (UHI) mitigation strategies. The new LULC dataset provides a more accurate representation of land use, has the potential to improve model accuracy, and facilitates prediction of LULC changes. Use of the new LULC dataset for two summertime episodes improved meteorological forecasts, with an existing daytime cold bias of approx. equal to 3 C reduced by 30%. Model performance for ozone prediction did not show improvement. In addition, LULC changes due to Atlanta area urbanization were predicted through 2030, for which model simulations predict higher urban air temperatures. The incorporation of UHI mitigation strategies partially offset this warming trend. The data and modeling methods used are generally applicable to other U.S. cities.

Quattrochi, D. A.; Lapenta, W. M.; Crosson, W. L.; Estes, M. G., Jr.; Limaye, A.; Kahn, M.

2006-01-01

177

Land Use Change, 1970s (on Diskette).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Paired sample point data of land use change in 135 fast population growth, 36 cropland loss, and 20 cropland gain counties in the United States. Data cover 15 major land uses including agricultural, forest, urban, and wetlands.

1988-01-01

178

Assessing the effects of land use spatial structure on urban heat islands using HJ-1B remote sensing imagery in Wuhan, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Urban heat islands (UHIs) have attracted attention around the world because they profoundly affect biological diversity and human life. Assessing the effects of the spatial structure of land use on UHIs is essential to better understanding and improving the ecological consequences of urbanization. This paper presents the radius fractal dimension to quantify the spatial variation of different land use types around the hot centers. By integrating remote sensing images from the newly launched HJ-1B satellite system, vegetation indexes, landscape metrics and fractal dimension, the effects of land use patterns on the urban thermal environment in Wuhan were comprehensively explored. The vegetation indexes and landscape metrics of the HJ-1B and other remote sensing satellites were compared and analyzed to validate the performance of the HJ-1B. The results have showed that land surface temperature (LST) is negatively related to only positive normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) but to Fv across the entire range of values, which indicates that fractional vegetation (Fv) is an appropriate predictor of LST more than NDVI in forest areas. Furthermore, the mean LST is highly correlated with four class-based metrics and three landscape-based metrics, which suggests that the landscape composition and the spatial configuration both influence UHIs. All of them demonstrate that the HJ-1B satellite has a comparable capacity for UHI studies as other commonly used remote sensing satellites. The results of the fractal analysis show that the density of built-up areas sharply decreases from the hot centers to the edges of these areas, while the densities of water, forest and cropland increase. These relationships reveal that water, like forest and cropland, has a significant effect in mitigating UHIs in Wuhan due to its large spatial extent and homogeneous spatial distribution. These findings not only confirm the applicability and effectiveness of the HJ-1B satellite system for studying UHIs but also reveal the impacts of the spatial structure of land use on UHIs, which is helpful for improving the planning and management of the urban environment.

Wu, Hao; Ye, Lu-Ping; Shi, Wen-Zhong; Clarke, Keith C.

2014-10-01

179

Relation of Environmental characteristics to the composition of aquatic assemblages along a gradient of urban land use in New Jersey, 1996-98  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Community data from 36 watersheds were used to evaluate the response of fish, invertebrate, and algal assemblages in New Jersey streams to environmental characteristics along a gradient of urban land use that ranged from 3 to 96 percent. Aquatic assemblages were sampled at 36 sites during 1996-98, and more than 400 environmental attributes at multiple spatial scales were summarized. Data matrices were reduced to 43, 170, and 103 species of fish, invertebrates, and algae, respectively, by means of a predetermined joint frequency and relative abundance approach. White sucker (Catostomus commersoni) and Tessellated darter (Etheostoma olmstedi) were the most abundant fishes, accounting for more than 20 and 17 percent, respectively, of the mean abundance. Net-spinning caddisflies (Hydropsychidae) were the most commonly occurring benthic invertebrates and were found at all but one of the 36 sampling sites. Blue-green (for example, Calothrix sp. and Oscillatoria sp.) and green (for example, Protoderma viride) algae were the most widely distrib-uted algae; however, more than 81 percent of the algal taxa collected were diatoms. Principal-component and correlation analyses were used to reduce the dimensionality of the environmental data. Multiple linear regression analysis of extracted ordination axes then was used to develop models that expressed effects of increasing urban land use on the structure of aquatic assemblages. Significant environmental variables identified by using multiple linear regression analysis then were included in a direct gradient analysis. Partial canonical correspondence analysis of relativized abundance data was used to restrict further the effects of residual natural variability, and to identify relations among the environmental variables and the structure of fish, invertebrate, and algal assemblages along an urban land-use gradient. Results of this approach, combined with the results of the multiple linear regression analyses, were used to identify human population density (311-37,594 persons/km2), amount and type of impervious surface cover (0.12-1,350 km2), nutrient concentrations (for example, 0.01-0.29 mg/L of phosphorus), hydrologic instability (for example, 100-8,955 ft3/s for 2-year peak flow), the amount of forest and wetlands in a basin (0.01-6.25 km2), and substrate quality (0-87 percent cobble substrate) as variables that are highly correlated with aquatic-assemblage structure. Species distributions in ordination space clearly indicate that tolerant species are more abundant in the streams impaired by urbanization and sensitive taxa are more closely associated with the least impaired basins. The distinct differences in aquatic assemblages along the urban land-use gradient demonstrate the deleterious effects of urbanization on assemblage structure and indicate that conserving landscape attributes that mitigate anthropogenic influences (for example, stormwater-management practices emphasizing infiltration and preservation of existing forests, wetlands, and riparian corridors) will help to maintain the relative abundance of sensitive taxa. Complementary multiple linear regression models indicate that aquatic community indices were correlated with many of the anthropogenic factors that were found to be significant along the urban land-use gradient. These indices appear to be effective in differentiating the moderately and severely impaired streams from the minimally impaired streams. Evaluation of disturbance thresholds for aquatic assemblages indicates that moderate to severe impairment is detectable in New Jersey streams when impervious surface cover in the drainage basin reaches approximately 18 percent.

Kennen, Jonathan G.; Ayers, Mark A.

2002-01-01

180

The impact of land use — land cover changes due to urbanization on surface microclimate and hydrology: a satellite perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vegetation cover, surface moisture availability (wetness) and radiant surface temperature constitute microclimatic variables derivable from multi-spectral satellite imagery. In addition, fraction impervious surface cover and urban-induced surface runoff (RO) are obtainable from such imagery when it is combined with a conventional image classification. Using AVHRR and Landsat TM data, we illustrate how these parameters respond to urbanization with a case

Toby N. Carlson; S. Traci Arthur

2000-01-01

181

Do biodiversity patterns in Dutch wetland complexes relate to variation in urbanisation, intensity of agricultural land use or fragmentation?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Red list species densities of birds (maximally 22 km?2), and angiosperms (maximally 39 km?2) were used as biodiversity indicators in 21 larger complexes of wetlands across the Netherlands. Their covariability with\\u000a a range of indicators of human land use was assessed, including population, road and visitor density, area covered by agriculture,\\u000a open water, forest and residential housing. Data were collected on the

Jan E. Vermaat; Hasse Goosen; Nancy Omtzigt

2007-01-01

182

Do biodiversity patterns in Dutch wetland complexes relate to variation in urbanisation, intensity of agricultural land use or fragmentation?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Red list species densities of birds (maximally 22 km?2), and angiosperms (maximally 39 km?2) were used as biodiversity indicators in 21 larger complexes of wetlands across the Netherlands. Their covariability with\\u000a a range of indicators of human land use was assessed, including population, road and visitor density, area covered by agriculture,\\u000a open water, forest and residential housing. Data were collected on the

Jan E. Vermaat; Hasse Goosen; Nancy Omtzigt

183

Impact of land use intensity and temperature on the reproductive performance of Dactylis glomerata populations in the southeastern Alps  

Microsoft Academic Search

An understanding of the processes and environmental conditions governing spatial variation in reproductive performance of\\u000a plants can provide important information about the factors characterizing plant community structure and influencing fitness\\u000a in natural plant populations, especially in the context of climate and land use change. In this study, 60 mountain populations\\u000a of Dactylis glomerata distributed along a fertilization regime in varying

Matteo Dainese

2011-01-01

184

Application of satellite and GIS technologies for land-cover and land-use mapping at the rural-urban fringe - A case study  

SciTech Connect

SPOT HRV multispectral and panchromatic data were recorded and coregistered for a portion of the rural-urban fringe of Toronto, Canada. A two-stage digital analysis algorithm incorporating a spectral-class frequency-based contextual classification of eight land-cover and land-use classes resulted in an overall Kappa coefficient of 82.2 percent for training-area data and a Kappa coefficient of 70.3 percent for test-area data. A matrix-overlay analysis was then performed within the geographic information system (GIS) to combine the land-cover and land-use classes generated from the SPOT digital classification with zoning information for the area. The map that was produced has an estimated interpretation accuracy of 78 percent. Global Positioning System (GPS) data provided a positional reference for new road networks. These networks, in addition to the new land-cover and land-use map derived from the SPOT HRV data, provide an up-to-date synthesis of change conditions in the area. 51 refs.

Treitz, P.M.; Howarth, P.J.; Gong, Peng (Waterloo, University (Canada))

1992-04-01

185

Relation of urban land-use and dry-weather storm and snowmelt flow characteristics to stream-water quality, Shunganunga Creek basin, Topeka, Kansas  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Water-quality characteristics of streams draining Topeka, Kansas , and the Shunganunga Creek basin were investigated from October , 1979, through November 1981, to determine the effects of runoff from urban areas. Characteristics were determined at six sites and summarized statistically for three streamflow conditions-dry weather, storm, and snowmelt. Median concentrations of trace metals and nutrients were greater in storm streamflow than in dry-weather streamflow. Regression equations were developed to estimate median concentrations of total lead and zinc in storm streamflow from the percentage of drainage area in residential plus commercial land-use areas and from street density. Median concentrations of dissolved sodium, chloride, and solids were considerably greater in snowmelt streamflow than in dry-weather streamflow. Regression equations were also developed to estimate median concentrations of dissolved sodium, chloride, and solids from the summation of percentages of the drainage area in residential, commercial, and industrial land-use areas and from street density. Multiple-regression analysis relating storm-runoff volumes and average constituent concentrations to land-use and storm charactersitcs produced significant relations for storm-runoff volume, total lead, total zinc, and suspended sediment. (USGS)

Pope, L. M.; Bevans, H. E.

1984-01-01

186

Change detection of land use and land cover in an urban region with SPOT-5 images and partial Lanczos extreme learning machine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Satellite remote sensing technology and the science associated with evaluation of land use and land cover (LULC) in an urban region makes use of the wide range images and algorithms. Improved land management capacity is critically dependent on real-time or near real-time monitoring of land-use/land cover change (LUCC) to the extent to which solutions to a whole host of urban/rural interface development issues may be well managed promptly. Yet previous processing with LULC methods is often time-consuming, laborious, and tedious making the outputs unavailable within the required time window. This paper presents a new image classification approach based on a novel neural computing technique that is applied to identify the LULC patterns in a fast growing urban region with the aid of 2.5-meter resolution SPOT-5 image products. The classifier was constructed based on the partial Lanczos extreme learning machine (PL-ELM), which is a novel machine learning algorithm with fast learning speed and outstanding generalization performance. Since some different classes of LULC may be linked with similar spectral characteristics, texture features and vegetation indexes were extracted and included during the classification process to enhance the discernability. A validation procedure based on ground truth data and comparisons with some classic classifiers prove the credibility of the proposed PL-ELM classification approach in terms of the classification accuracy as well as the processing speed. A case study in Dalian Development Area (DDA) with the aid of the SPOT-5 satellite images collected in the year of 2003 and 2007 and PL-ELM fully supports the monitoring needs and aids in the rapid change detection with respect to both urban expansion and coastal land reclamations.

Chang, Ni-Bin; Han, Min; Yao, Wei; Chen, Liang-Chien; Xu, Shiguo

2010-11-01

187

The Land Use and Land Cover Dichotomy: A Comparison of Two Land Classification Systems in Support of Urban Earth Science Applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

One is likely to read the terms 'land use' and 'land cover' in the same sentence, yet these concepts have different origins and different applications. Land cover is typically analyzed by earth scientists working with remotely sensed images. Land use is typically studied by urban planners who must prescribe solutions that could prevent future problems. This apparent dichotomy has led to different classification systems for land-based data. The works of earth scientists and urban planning practitioners are beginning to come together in the field of spatial analysis and in their common use of new spatial analysis technology. In this context, the technology can stimulate a common 'language' that allows a broader sharing of ideas. The increasing amount of land use and land cover change challenges the various efforts to classify in ways that are efficient, effective, and agreeable to all groups of users. If land cover and land uses can be identified by remote methods using aerial photography and satellites, then these ways are more efficient than field surveys of the same area. New technology, such as high-resolution satellite sensors, and new methods, such as more refined algorithms for image interpretation, are providing refined data to better identify the actual cover and apparent use of land, thus effectiveness is improved. However, the closer together and the more vertical the land uses are, the more difficult the task of identification is, and the greater is the need to supplement remotely sensed data with field study (in situ). Thus, a number of land classification methods were developed in order to organize the greatly expanding volume of data on land characteristics in ways useful to different groups. This paper distinguishes two land based classification systems, one developed primarily for remotely sensed data, and the other, a more comprehensive system requiring in situ collection methods. The intent is to look at how the two systems developed and how they can work together so that land based information can be shared among different users and compared over time.

McAllister, William K.

2003-01-01

188

SMART GROWTH LAND USE PLANNING FOR A COMMUNITY AT THE RURAL URBAN INTERFACE UTILIZING STRUCTURED PUBLIC INVOLVEMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

A. Simpson County, KY is facing suburban growth pressure like many communities across the country at the rural urban interface. This presents opportunities and challenges to maintain community identity, build economic diversity, protect environmental resources, and imp...

189

A two-sector model of land use and deforestation: Funding urban development with a tax on urban and rural employment  

SciTech Connect

We model a small country with an urban manufacturing sector and a rural agricultural sector. Government taxes rural and urban employment to finance urban infrastructure which contributes to urban production. The manufacturing wage is fixed, leading to urban unemployment. Expansion of cultivated area involves deforestation at frontiers. An increment to urban infrastructure may draw resources into the city but a large enough addition to infrastructure may cause the tax rate to rise by more than urban labor productivity, which would exacerbate frontier deforestation. Improvement of rural transportation raises rural wages, reduces the urban unemployment rate, and extends the area under cultivation, causing deforestation; it also reduces the employment tax rate, which permits expansion of fixed-wage urban manufacturing. Such a wide, sectoral distribution of benefits may help explain the popularity of such policies despite their damage to frontier forest resources.

Jones, D.W.; O`Neill, R.V.

1992-07-17

190

Spatial distribution of pH and organic matter in urban soils and its implications on site-specific land uses in Xuzhou, China.  

PubMed

The spatial variation of soil pH and soil organic matter (SOM) in the urban area of Xuzhou, China, was investigated in this study. Conventional statistics, geostatistics, and a geographical information system (GIS) were used to produce spatial distribution maps and to provide information about land use types. A total of 172 soil samples were collected based on grid method in the study area. Soil pH ranged from 6.47 to 8.48, with an average of 7.62. SOM content was very variable, ranging from 3.51g/kg to 17.12g/kg, with an average of 8.26g/kg. Soil pH followed a normal distribution, while SOM followed a log-normal distribution. The results of semi-variograms indicated that soil pH and SOM had strong (21%) and moderate (44%) spatial dependence, respectively. The variogram model was spherical for soil pH and exponential for SOM. The spatial distribution maps were achieved using kriging interpolation. The high pH and high SOM tended to occur in the mixed forest land cover areas such as those in the southwestern part of the urban area, while the low values were found in the eastern and the northern parts, probably due to the effect of industrial and human activities. In the central urban area, the soil pH was low, but the SOM content was high, which is mainly attributed to the disturbance of regional resident activities and urban transportation. Furthermore, anthropogenic organic particles are possible sources of organic matter after entering the soil ecosystem in urban areas. These maps provide useful information for urban planning and environmental management. PMID:24841960

Mao, Yingming; Sang, Shuxun; Liu, Shiqi; Jia, Jinlong

2014-05-01

191

Stable Isotopes of N2O in a Large Canadian River Impacted by Agricultural and Urban Land Use  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

N2O is a potent greenhouse gas. Although denitrification is an important process in the global N cycle, N2O flux measurements from rivers worldwide are scarce. The two main processes producing N2O in rivers -- nitrification and denitrification -- result in N2O that is widely separated in isotopic signature. However, studies on the stable isotopes of N2O in rivers are almost non-existent. Here, we report the N2O fluxes and isotopic signatures in the Grand River, a large, heavily impacted river in southern Ontario. Land use in the basin is predominately agricultural and the river receives effluent from 26 wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). River samples were collected over a 28 hour period to capture diel variation, along the entire length of the river to capture changing land use and throughout the year to capture the seasonal variability. A dynamic model was used to correct the measured N2O values for the effects of atmospheric exchange. Isotopic analysis of both the NH4+ and the NO3- end members in the WWTP effluent and in the river allowed the determination of N2O production pathways. N2O is produced along the entire length of the river but N2O from denitrification increases dramatically in the river below WWTPs at night when dissolved oxygen is low and nitrification of NH4+ decreases.

Thuss, S. J.; Rosamond, M. S.; Schiff, S.; Venkiteswaran, J. J.; Elgood, R. J.

2009-05-01

192

Levels and patterns of fecal indicator bacteria in stormwater runoff from homogenous land use sites and urban watersheds.  

PubMed

Routine stormwater monitoring programs focus on quantification of average fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) concentration at the terminal watershed discharge point. While important for permit compliance, such monitoring provides little insight into relative bacteria levels from different land use types or the mechanisms that influence FIB concentrations. The goal of this study was to quantify the relative levels and flux patterns of Escherichia coli, enterococci, and total coliforms from representative land use (LU) types. Bacteria concentrations were measured over the entire storm duration from 8 different LU types over 13 storm events in 5 southern California watersheds during the 2000-2005 storm seasons. In addition, runoff samples were collected from 8 bottom of the watershed mass emission (ME) sites. Intra-storm and intra-season patterns were investigated in order to identify mechanisms that influence patterns of FIB concentrations. Mean FIB event mean concentrations (EMCs) at LU sites ranged from 10(3) to 10(5) MPN/100 mi. Recreational (horse stables) LU sites contributed significantly higher storm EMCs than other LU types. Early season storms repeatedly produced higher EMCs than comparably sized late season storms. For most storms sampled, the highest bacterial concentrations occurred during the early phases of stormwater runoff with peak concentrations usually preceding peak flow. PMID:21942193

Tiefenthaler, Liesl; Stein, Eric D; Schiff, Kenneth C

2011-06-01

193

Developing a framework to assess the water quality and quantity impacts of climate change, shifting land use, and urbanization in a Midwestern agricultural landscape  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dynamic hydrological processes play a critical role in the structure and functioning of agricultural watersheds undergoing urbanization. Developing a predictive understanding of the complex interaction between agricultural productivity, ecosystem health, water quality, urban development, and public policy requires an interdisciplinary effort that investigates the important biophysical and social processes of the system. Our research group has initiated such a framework that includes a coordinated program of integrated scenarios, model experiments to assess the effects of changing drivers on a broad set of ecosystem services, evaluations of governance and leverage points, outreach and public engagement, and information management. Our geographic focus is the Yahara River watershed in south-central Wisconsin, which is an exemplar of water-related issues in the Upper Midwest. This research addresses three specific questions. 1) How do different patterns of land use, land cover, land management, and water resources engineering practices affect the resilience and sensitivity of ecosystem services under a changing climate? 2) How can regional governance systems for water and land use be made more resilient and adaptive to meet diverse human needs? 3) In what ways are regional human-environment systems resilient and in what ways are they vulnerable to potential changes in climate and water resources? A comprehensive program of model experiments and biophysical measurements will be utilized to evaluate changes in five freshwater ecosystem services (flood regulation, groundwater recharge, surface water quality, groundwater quality, and lake recreation) and five related ecosystem services (food crop yields, bioenergy crop yields, carbon storage in soil, albedo, and terrestrial recreation). Novel additions to existing biophysical models will allow us to simulate all components of the hydrological cycle as well as agricultural productivity, nitrogen and phosphorus transport, and lake water quality. The integrated model will be validated using a comprehensive observational database that includes soil moisture, evapotranspiration, stomatal conductance, streamflow, stream and lake water quality, and crop yields and productivity. Integrated scenarios will be developed to synthesize decision-maker perspectives, alternative approaches to resource governance, plausible trends in demographic and economic drivers, and model projections under alternate climate and land use regimes to understand future conditions of the watershed and its ecosystem services. The quantitative data and integrated scenarios will then be linked to evaluate governance of water and land use.

Loheide, S. P.; Booth, E. G.; Kucharik, C. J.; Carpenter, S. R.; Gries, C.; Katt-Reinders, E.; Rissman, A. R.; Turner, M. G.

2011-12-01

194

Determination of the effects of temporal change in urban and agricultural land uses as seen in the example of the town of Akhisar, using remote sensing techniques.  

PubMed

Today, as a result of erratic and unplanned urbanization, towns are rapidly becoming a mass of concrete and town-dwellers are suffocated by their busy and stressful professional lives. They feel a need for places where they can find breathing-space in their free time. Green areas within towns are important spaces where townspeople are able to carry out recreational activities. These places form a link between townspeople and nature. The importance of urban green areas is increasing with every passing day due to their social, psychological, ecological, physical and economic functions and their impact on the quality of towns. In this study it has been attempted to demonstrate the pressures of urban development on agricultural land by determining the changing land use situation over the years in the district of Akhisar. In this research, an aerial photograph from year 1939 and satellite images of the town from the years 2000 and 2007 were used. Land use changes in the region were determined spatially. As a result of this study, which aims to determine in which direction urbanization is progressing in the district, the importance of town planning emerges. This study will be informative for the local authorities in their future town planning projects. With its flat and almost flat fertile arable land, the district of Akhisar occupies an important position within the province of Manisa. From the point of view of olive production the region is one of Turkey's important centres. Fifty-five percent of the olive production in the province of Manisa is realized in Akhisar. However, the results of the present study show that while agricultural areas comprised 2.5805 km(2) in 1939, these had diminished to 1.5146 km(2) in the year 2000 and had diminished to 1.0762 km(2) in the year 2007 and residential area (dense) 0.449 km(2) occupied in 1939, in the year 2000 this had risen to 1.9472 and 2.3238 km(2) in the year 2007. This planless urbanization in the study area has led to great losses of farmland. PMID:18404409

Gulgun, Bahriye; Yörük, Ismail; Turkyilmaz, Bahar; Bolca, Mustafa; Güne?, Asli

2009-03-01

195

A comparison between developed and developing countries in terms of urban land use change effects on nitrogen cycle: Paris and Săo Paulo metropolitan areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Urbanization is considered one of the most powerful and characteristic anthropogenic forces on Earth in the 21st century. Although, currently, cities occupy only about 2 percent of the Earth's land surface, they are home to over 50 percent of the world's population. While in cities of some developed countries, urban population might stabilize or even slightly decrease, its rate of growth in developing countries is faster than in the industrialized nations. Such increase is accompanied by growing energy production, increased food demand, expanding transportation and industrialization. Although agricultural production is by far the largest cause of the doubling in the amount of reactive nitrogen entering the biospheric cycle compared to pre-industrial conditions, nowadays more than half of the crops produced in rural areas are consumed in urban zones. Having in mind that there is a clear global trend towards urbanization and growing urban areas, the objective of this study was to compare major nitrogen fluxes between a mega city situated in a developing country (Săo Paulo Metropolitan Area - SPMA) in Brazil with one of the largest city of highly industrialized Europe (Paris Metropolitan Area - PMA). We make the first step in producing a detailed N mass balance for the SPMA and PMA in order to estimate the magnitude of major fluxes across the urban landscape and see how N cycling vary among urban system components. This effort may help to highlight differences between developing and developed areas and subsidize the formulation of public policies towards reduction of N related pollution of recipient systems. The N mass balance showed the SPMA as a net source of nitrogen, emitting in total about 93.5 Gg of N per year, or about 4750 g of N per capita. Most N inputs to the SPMA are directly related to food consumption, N in wastewater and landfills. These fluxes are quite amendable to management efforts to reduce N input to the receiver component of the urban ecosystem (rivers and soil). For example treated sewage effluent could be used as a source of N for some crops, especially vegetables. PMA is also a source of reactive nitrogen, emitting in total about 32 Gg of N per year, or about 3000 g of N per capita, being the major part attributed to the atmospheric emissions from transportation and energy. An important outcome of this study has been the identification of several key uncertainties regarding the N budget that require further research for either developed and developing regions studied. The following uncertainties of N cycling in an urban system need better understanding: the mechanisms of dry-deposition processes in urban systems with patchy vegetation; high NOx emissions and the increase in travel distance of smaller particles coming from modern engines; and complex patterns of air flow in the dense build-up areas. Urban soil N dynamics is very uncertain, while soil represents a major sink of N in natural ecosystems. Ultimately, the challenge is to integrate human choices and ecosystem dynamics into a multidisciplinary model of biogeochemical cycling in urban ecosystems, focusing as a first step on the quantitatively evaluating the mutual relationship between urban land-use changes and natural ecosystem from the standpoint of global N balance. To develop those schemes will require the construction of detailed ecosystem-level N balances, an in-depth understanding of the interplay of inputs, geographical and climatic factors, nonspecific management practices, and deliberate N management practices that control the fate of N in urban landscapes.

Nardoto, Gabriela; Svirejeva-Hopkin, Anastasia; Martinelli, Luiz Antonio

2010-05-01

196

An evaluation of machine processing techniques of ERTS-1 data for user applications. [urban land use and soil association mapping in Indiana  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A broad study is described to evaluate a set of machine analysis and processing techniques applied to ERTS-1 data. Based on the analysis results in urban land use analysis and soil association mapping together with previously reported results in general earth surface feature identification and crop species classification, a profile of general applicability of this procedure is beginning to emerge. Put in the hands of a user who knows well the information needed from the data and also is familiar with the region to be analyzed it appears that significantly useful information can be generated by these methods. When supported by preprocessing techniques such as the geometric correction and temporal registration capabilities, final products readily useable by user agencies appear possible. In parallel with application, through further research, there is much potential for further development of these techniques both with regard to providing higher performance and in new situations not yet studied.

Landgrebe, D.

1974-01-01

197

A method to analyse neighbourhood characteristics of land use patterns  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neighbourhood interactions between land use types are often included in the spatially explicit analysis of land use change. Especially in the context of urban growth, neighbourhood interactions are often addressed both in theories for urban development and in dynamic models of (urban) land use change. Neighbourhood interactions are one of the main driving factors in a large group of land

Peter H. Verburg; Ton C. M. De Nijs; Jan R. Ritsema Van Eck; Hans Visser; Kor De Jong

2004-01-01

198

Land use intensity and landscape complexity—Analysis of landscape characteristics in an agricultural region in Southern Sweden  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is generally recognised that agricultural intensification has lead to simplification of landscape structure, but it has not been clarified if this is a ubiquitous relationship. That is, it has been an open question whether agricultural intensity and landscape simplicity should be regarded as one single or as two separate dimensions. To evaluate this we analysed landscape data in 136

Anna S. Persson; Ola Olsson; Maj Rundlöf; Henrik G. Smith

2010-01-01

199

Linking Nocturnal Eddy Fluxes to Land Use-Land Cover in a Heterogeneous Landscape Surrounding the Urban-suburban Tower near Baltimore, Maryland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Anthropogenic activities in urban ecosystems represent the key driving force for local and regional climate change scenarios, producing the various pollutants that cause environmental change at the global scale: elevated carbon dioxide (CO2), increased ozone and nitrogen deposition, and elevated temperatures. Measurements of eddy fluxes in an urban-suburban landscape pose technical difficulties as sinks and sources of CO2 surrounding the tower are non-uniform. In a recent study, we stratified half-hourly values of eddy fluxes, i.e., carbon dioxide (Fco2), latent energy (LE), and sensible heat (H), according to wind sectors. Additionally, remotely sensed (spatial) data were stratified according to wind sectors around the Cub Hill tower near Baltimore, Maryland. We found that diurnal eddy fluxes were empirically dependent on remotely sensed metrics within the two-kilometer radius surrounding the tower. We hypothesized that nocturnal eddy fluxes, as stratified into wind sectors, will be similarly dependent on the land use-land cover (LULC). In the present study, we pooled the nocturnal half-hourly eddy fluxes during a 6-year period (2004-09) into a single data set, and stratified the data according to 24 wind sectors representing the wind direction during each half-hourly eddy flux measurement. We ask the following questions: 1) Are the nocturnal eddy fluxes inter-dependent with each other? 2) Do the average nocturnal eddy fluxes on a daily basis differ between wind sectors? 3) Which micrometeorological variables determine the differences in eddy fluxes between wind sectors? 4) Do differences in nocturnal eddy fluxes among wind sectors depend upon LULC? 5) Are the relationships between nocturnal eddy fluxes and LULC consistent during Winter, Spring, Summer, and Fall? and 6) How do these nocturnal urban-suburban eddy fluxes compare with the nocturnal eddy fluxes in a nearby mixed deciduous rural forest? Results from the data analyses will be presented and discussed.

Saliendra, N. Z.; Hom, J. L.; Pouyat, R.; Nowak, D.; Heisler, G. M.; Patterson, M.; Yesilonis, I.

2010-12-01

200

How do land use intensity, experimentally increased temperature and water level affect methane and nitrous oxide emissions from a drained fen peatland?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rewetting and extensification of peatlands is widely discussed and practiced to reduce losses of CO2 and N2O from drained peat soils. But rewetting is known to carry the risk of increased CH4 emissions. Up to now it is not completely clear how the predicted temperature increase in the face of climate change will alter the N2O and CH4 exchange of grasslands on drained peatland soils in the temperate zone. Therefore we investigated the effects of land use intensity, increased groundwater level, increased temperature and the combination of warming and increased groundwater level on CH4 and N2O exchange of two grassland sites (intensive and extensive grassland) in a drained fen peatland in southern Germany. We set up a factorial design on both land use types, on each three treatments, warming, increased water table level and the combination of warming and increased water table level as well as a control site were established. Temperature was manipulated with open-top chambers (OTCs) and water level manipulation was performed using a pumping system and sheet pile walls. The intensive grassland was cut three times in the year, the extensive grassland once in autumn 2011. Cattle slurry and mineral fertilizer (CAN) were deployed on the intensive grassland. Fluxes of CH4 and N2O were measured biweekly from December 2010 to January 2012 using opaque static closed chambers. The annual mean groundwater level (GWL) of the sites without water level manipulation was -41.5 cm b. g. and -30 cm b. g. at the water level manipulated sites on the intensive grassland. On the extensive grassland the GWL of the sites without water level manipulation was -32 cm b. g. and -21.5 cm b. g. at the water level manipulated sites. Air temperature in 0.2 m was increased in 2011 by 0.7 ° C at the treatments with OTCs on the intensive grassland and by 1.0 ° C at the treatments with OTCs on the extensive grassland respectively. The annual cumulative CH4 exchange ranged from 8.1 ± 3.8 kg C ha-1 yr-1 to 36.3 ± 8.6 kg C ha-1 yr-1on the extensive grassland and from -0.1 ± 0.3 kg C ha-1 yr-1 to 15.0 ± 1.9 kg C ha-1 yr-1 on the intensive grassland. The CH4 emissions of the treatments with increased water level on the intensive grassland were significantly higher compared to the control and warming sites. No significant differences could be observed between CH4 emissions of the treatments on the extensive grassland. However, we found a general significant relationship between CH4 fluxes, groundwater level and temperature. All sites on the intensive grassland show higher annual emissions of N2O compared to the sites on the extensive grassland. The annual cumulative N2O exchange ranged from 3.1 ± 0.5 kg N ha-1 yr-1 to 6.1 ± 0.4 kg N ha-1 yr-1on the intensive grassland and from 0.7 ± 0.1 kg N ha-1 yr-1 to 1.3 ± 0.2 kg N ha-1 yr-1 on the extensive grassland. Significant treatment effects could not be observed for N2O exchange on both land use types.

Heinichen, Jan; Eickenscheidt, Tim; Drösler, Matthias

2014-05-01

201

Ecosystems and Land Use Change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Land use is at the center of one of the most vexing challenges for the coming decades: to provide enough food, fiber and shelter for the world's population; raise the standard of living for the billion people currently below the poverty line; and simultaneously sustain the world's ecosystems for use by humans and other species. The intended consequence of cropland expansion, urban growth, and other land use changes is to satisfy demands from the increasing appetite of the world's population. Unintended consequences, however, can alter ecological processes and have far-reaching and long-term effects that potentially compromise the basic functioning of ecosystems. Recently, the scientific community has begun to confront such issues. Several national and international programs have been at the forefront of scientific enquiry on the causes and consequences of land use change, including: the Land Use and Land Cover Change Program of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, the Land Use program element in the interagency U.S. Climate Change Science Program, and the International Geosphere-Biosphere's Land Use and Cover Change (LUCC) core project. The result has been significant advances in understanding the complex socioeconomic, technological, and biophysical factors that drive land use change worldwide.

DeFries, Ruth S.; Asner, Gregory P.; Houghton, Richard A.

202

Global Consequences of Land Use  

Microsoft Academic Search

Land use has generally been considered a local environmental issue, but it is becoming a force of global importance. Worldwide changes to forests, farmlands, waterways, and air are being driven by the need to provide food, fiber, water, and shelter to more than six billion people. Global croplands, pastures, plantations, and urban areas have expanded in recent decades, accompanied by

Jonathan A. Foley; Ruth DeFries; Gregory P. Asner; Carol Barford; Gordon Bonan; Stephen R. Carpenter; F. Stuart Chapin; Michael T. Coe; Gretchen C. Daily; Holly K. Gibbs; Joseph H. Helkowski; Tracey Holloway; Erica A. Howard; Christopher J. Kucharik; Chad Monfreda; Jonathan A. Patz; I. Colin Prentice; Navin Ramankutty; Peter K. Snyder

2005-01-01

203

Land Use Planning after Earthquakes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The study identifies and analyzes factors in post-earthquake land use planning which can effectively reduce further earthquake risk in urban areas. Case studies are evaluated for earthquakes in San Fernando, Santa Rosa, Laguna Beach, and Alaska. A wide va...

G. G. Mader, M. L. Blair, R. L. Meehan, S. W. Bilodeau, W. E. Spangle

1980-01-01

204

Analysis of the effect of evergreen and deciduous trees on urban nitrogen dioxide levels in the U.S. using land-use regression  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nitrogen dioxide (NO2), an atmospheric pollutant generated primarily by anthropogenic combustion processes, is typically found at higher concentrations in urban areas compared to non-urbanized environments. Elevated NO2 levels have multiple ecosystem effects at different spatial scales. At the local scale, elevated levels affect human health directly and through the formation of secondary pollutants such as ozone and aerosols; at the regional scale secondary pollutants such as nitric acid and organic nitrates have deleterious effects on non-urbanized areas; and, at the global scale, nitrogen oxide emissions significantly alter the natural biogeochemical nitrogen cycle. As cities globally become larger and larger sources of nitrogen oxide emissions, it is important to assess possible mitigation strategies to reduce the impact of emissions locally, regionally and globally. In this study, we build a national land-use regression (LUR) model to compare the impacts of deciduous and evergreen trees on urban NO2 levels in the United States. We use the EPA monitoring network values of NO2 levels for 2006, the 2006 NLCD tree canopy data for deciduous and evergreen canopies, and the US Census Bureau's TIGER shapefiles for roads, railroads, impervious area & population density as proxies for NO2 sources on-road traffic, railroad traffic, off-road and area sources respectively. Our preliminary LUR model corroborates previous LUR studies showing that the presence of trees is associated with reduced urban NO2 levels. Additionally, our model indicates that deciduous and evergreen trees reduce NO2 to different extents, and that the amount of NO2 reduced varies seasonally. The model indicates that every square kilometer of deciduous canopy within a 2km buffer is associated with a reduction in ambient NO2 levels of 0.64 ppb in summer and 0.46ppb in winter. Similarly, every square kilometer of evergreen tree canopy within a 2 km buffer is associated with a reduction in ambient NO2 by 0.53 ppb in summer and 0.84 ppb in winter. Thus, the model indicates that deciduous trees are associated with a 30% smaller reduction in NO2 in winter as compared to summer, while evergreens are associated with a 60% increase in the reduction of NO2 in winter, for every square kilometer of deciduous or evergreen canopy within a 2 km buffer. Leaf- and local canopy-level studies have shown that trees are a sink for urban NO2 through deposition as well as stomatal and cuticular uptake. The winter time versus summer time effects suggest that leaf-level deposition may not be the only uptake mechanism and points to the need for a more holistic analysis of tree and canopy-level deposition for urban air pollution models. Since deposition velocities for NO2 vary by tree species, the reduction may also vary by species. These findings have implications for designing cities to reduce the impact of air pollution.

Rao, M.; George, L. A.

2012-12-01

205

Influence of fipronil compounds and rice-cultivation land-use intensity on macroinvertebrate communities in streams of southwestern Louisiana, USA  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Laboratory tests of fipronil and its degradation products have revealed acute lethal toxicity at very low concentrations (LC50) of <0.5 ??g/L to selected aquatic macroinvertebrates. In streams draining basins with intensive rice cultivation in southwestern Louisiana, USA, concentrations of fipronil compounds were an order of magnitude larger than the LC50. The abundance (?? = -0.64; p = 0.015) and taxa richness (r2 = 0.515, p < 0.005) of macroinvertebrate communities declined significantly with increases in concentrations of fipronil compounds and rice-cultivation land-use intensity. Macroinvertebrate community tolerance scores increased linearly (r2 = 0.442, p < 0.005) with increases in the percentage of rice cultivation in the basins, indicating increasingly degraded stream conditions. Similarly, macroinvertebrate community-tolerance scores increased rapidly as fipronil concentrations approached about 1 ??g/L. Pesticide toxicity index determinations indicated that aquatic macroinvertebrates respond to a gradient of fipronil compounds in water although stream size and habitat cannot be ruled out as contributing influences.

Mize, S. V.; Porter, S. D.; Demcheck, D. K.

2008-01-01

206

The Effects of Changes in Land Cover/Land Use on Nutrient Loadings to the Chesapeake Bay Estuary Using Forecasts of Future Urbanization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effects of short-term and projected long-term changes in spatially explicit land cover/land use (LC/LU) on nutrient loadings (total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) in kg/ha/yr) were studied in the Chesapeake Bay watershed (164,000 km2) estuary. Version 3.0 of the USGS Chesapeake Bay's SPAtially Referenced Regressions on Watershed Attributes (SPARROW) model was implemented for the widely studied Patuxent River Basin in Maryland. Probabilities of LC change were estimated using projections of impervious surface locations at the LANDSAT (30m) scale and the Slope, Land use, Exclusion, Urban extent, Transportation, and Hillshade (SLEUTH) model for three development scenarios: current trends, smart growth, and ecologically sustainable to the Year 2030. Six Maryland Hydrologic Unit Code (HUC)-11 watersheds (three within and three outside of the basin) with verified (published) TN/TP nutrient loadings based on Year 2000 data from the Maryland Department of Natural Resources (DNR) were analyzed to see how they compared with the aggregated smaller catchments estimate of TN/TP that were contained within the larger boundaries of the HUC-11 watersheds and based on Year 2000 LC/LC and imperviousness data. The aggregated SPARROW TN always overpredicted the published values, whereas the SPARROW TP underpredicted the published DNR TP in three watersheds and overpredicted the DNR in the others. TN R2 = 0.90, whereas TP R2 = 0.69 in comparing DNR with SPARROW. Since the regression results just reported are only potential nutrient loadings for catchments independent of any other processes based on the model TN/TP general equations, when allowed to run in the true nonlinear structure of the SPARROW models that account for stream/catchment connectivity and water/land chemistry, even better nutrient estimates should able to be purported over larger watersheds throughout the Chesapeake Bay. In addition, TN/TP loadings from 85 of the smaller SPARROW reach catchments associated with the basin were developed for Years 1997, 2000, and the 2030 three scenarios. Early results show that TN, especially in the lower tidal stretches of the basin, have increased in the short-term (Year 1997 to 2000), would get progressively worse under the current trends, and would improve gradually under smart growth and ecological sustainable. The 1997 and 2000 TP estimates were quite similar, however under current trends; TP would increase throughout the middle/lower portions of the basin, before becoming progressive lower under smart growth to ecologically sustainable.

Prince, S.; Roberts, A. D.

2006-12-01

207

Study of the impact of land use and hydrogeological settings on the shallow groundwater quality in a peri-urban area of Kampala, Uganda.  

PubMed

A study to assess the impacts of land use and hydrogeological characteristics on the shallow groundwater in one of Kampala's peri-urban areas (Bwaise III Parish) was undertaken for a period of 19 months. Water quality monitoring was carried out for 16 installed wells and one operational protected spring to ascertain the seasonal variation. The aspects of hydrogeological setting investigated in the study were the subsurface unconsolidated material characteristics (stratigraphy, lithology, hydraulic conductivity, porosity and chemical content), seasonal groundwater depths and spring discharge, topography and rainfall of the area. Both laboratory and field measurements were carried out to determine the soil and water characteristics. Field surveys were also undertaken to identify and locate the various land use activities that may potentially pollute. The results demonstrate that the water table in the area responds rapidly to short rains (48 h) due to the pervious (10(-5)-10(-3) ms(-1)) and shallow (<1 mbgl) vadose zone, which consists of foreign material (due to reclamation). This anthropogenically influenced vadose zone has a limited contaminant attenuation capacity resulting in water quality deterioration following the rains. There is widespread contamination of the groundwater with high organic (up to 370 mgTKN/l and 779 mgNO-3/l), thermotolerant coliforms (TTCs) and faecal streptococci (FS) (median values as high as 126E3 cfu/100 ml and 154E3 cfu/100 ml respectively) and total phosphorus (up to 13 mg/l) levels originating from multiple sources of contamination. These include animal rearing, solid waste dumping, pit latrine construction and greywater/stormwater disposal in unlined channels leading to increased localised microbial (faecal) and organic (TKN/NO-3) contamination during the rains. The spring discharge (range 1.22-1.48 m3/h) with high nitrate levels (median values of 117 and 129 mg/l in the wet and dry seasons) did not vary significantly with season (p=0.087) suggesting that this source is fed by regional base flow. However, the microbial quality deterioration observed in the spring discharge after a rain event (median values of 815TTCs cfu /100 ml and 433 FS cfu/100 ml) was attributed to the poor maintenance of the protection structure. Identification and selection of appropriate management solutions for the protection of shallow groundwater in informal settlements should not only be based on water quality problems and the causal physical characteristics as demonstrated by this study, but also institutional and socio-economic factors. PMID:17512037

Kulabako, N R; Nalubega, M; Thunvik, R

2007-08-01

208

An evaluation on land intensive use in urbanized region a case of Chengdu Xindu  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urbanization is the key to solve the problem of urban-rural dual structure. In the process of current urbanization acceleration development, it has great practical significance to evaluate the saving and intensive utilization level of land resource in urbanization area and discuss on the improvement measures of its land intensive use level. This paper, selecting typical regional -Xindu area of Chengdu

Song Liu; You Zhou; Wenkuan Chen; Xuanzi Wei

2011-01-01

209

Norfolk and environs: A land use perspective  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Norfolk-Portsmouth Standard Metropolitan Statistical Area (SMSA) in southeastern Virginia was the site of intensive testing of a number of land resources assessment methods, built around the availability of remotely sensed data from the Earth Resources Technology Satellite (ERTS-I), later renamed LANDSAT I. The Norfolk tests were part of a larger experiment known as the Central Atlantic Regional Ecological Test Site (CARETS), designed to test the extent to which LANDSAT and associated high-altitude aircraft data could be used as cost-effective inputs to a regional land use information system. The Norfolk SMSA contains a variety of land uses typical of the urbanized eastern seaboard, along with typical associated problems: rapid urbanization; heavy recreational, commercial, and residential demands on fragile beaches and coastal marsh environments; industrial, transportation, and governmental land and water uses impacting on residential and agricultural areas; drainage and land stability difficulties affecting construction and other uses; and increasing difficulties in maintaining satisfactory air and water quality.

Alexander, Robert H.; Buzzanell, Peter J.; Fitzpatrick, Katherine A.; Lins, Harry F., Jr.; McGinty, Herbert K., III

1975-01-01

210

Land-use history and management intensity as drivers of spatial variability in soil greenhouse gas fluxes in a poplar bioenergy plantation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bioenergy crops are considered to be carbon-neutral because biomass combustion releases only carbon which has previously been extracted from the atmosphere by the plants. However, during crop growth, a significant amount of the greenhouse gases (GHG) CO2, CH4 and N2O can be produced by soil microorganisms and released to the atmosphere. Depending on crop type and management intensity, soil GHG fluxes might be so substantial that bioenergy crops could overall emit more GHG than the same amount of fossil fuels. The present knowledge about soil GHG fluxes from bioenergy crops is not sufficient to accurately quantify them. This is especially true for short rotation woody crops (SRWC) which might become more important in the future because they have a relatively high GHG mitigation potential. However, before pursuing the use of SRWC plantations for carbon sequestration and fossil fuel replacement, it is necessary to accurately assess their uptake and release of all major GHG to prevent the unconscious widespread deployment of unsustainable cultivation practices. The aim of this project is to identify drivers of spatial variability in soil GHG fluxes in a poplar SRWC plantation with special emphasis on the legacy effect of former land-use. The plantation has been established partly on former pasture and partly on former cropland, offering the unique opportunity to study soil GHG flux dynamics with respect to their dependency on former land-use type under identical climate and management conditions. The plantation is currently in its fifth vegetation season and in the first year of its third rotation. Simultaneous monitoring of soil CO2, CH4 and N2O fluxes will take place with a custom-made automated chamber system throughout the entire third rotation (three years) accompanied by soil gas concentration profile measurements. In parallel, community composition of functional groups of soil microorganisms (denitrifiers, ammonia oxidizers, methanogens) and total soil microbial biomass will be quantified at different developmental stages of the poplar plantation as well as in adjacent long-established and newly converted agricultural fields. The microbial community data will give a quantitative overview of the spatial variability of these functional groups in a highly patterned agricultural landscape and new insights into the effect of different types of disturbance events (e.g. land-use change, harvest) on the composition of functional groups of soil microorganisms and the time duration of possible acclimation effects. In combination with the soil GHG flux dataset, this research will result in new significant insights into the importance of environmental controls versus microbial community composition for soil GHG flux dynamics in bioenergy crops. The interpretation of the data will be aided by a vast database containing information on ecosystem GHG fluxes, soil CO2 fluxes, above-ground and below-ground biomass development, as well as groundwater chemistry, which has been collected since the establishment of the plantation in 2010 in the POPFULL project (http://webh01.ua.ac.be/popfull/). Funding from ERC Advanced Grant agreement (# 233366) POPFULL under the EC 7th Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013), from the Flemish Hercules Foundation as Infrastructure contract # ZW09-06, and from the Methusalem Programme of the Flemish Government.

Görres, Carolyn-Monika; Ceulemans, Reinhart

2014-05-01

211

Remote Sensing Application to Land Use Classification in a Rapidly Changing Agricultural/Urban Area: City of Virginia Beach, Virginia. Ph.D. Thesis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Remote sensing data on computer-compatible tapes of LANDSAT 1 multispectral scanner imager were analyzed to generate a land use map of the City of Virginia Beach. All four bands were used in both the supervised and unsupervised approaches with the LAYSYS software system. Color IR imagery of a U-2 flight of the same area was also digitized and two sample areas were analyzed via the unsupervised approach. The relationships between the mapped land use and the soils of the area were investigated. A land use land cover map at a scale of 1:24,000 was obtained from the supervised analysis of LANDSAT 1 data. It was concluded that machine analysis of remote sensing data to produce land use maps was feasible; that the LAYSYS software system was usable for this purpose; and that the machine analysis was capable of extracting detailed information from the relatively small scale LANDSAT data in a much shorter time without compromising accuracy.

Odenyo, V. A. O.

1975-01-01

212

Application of remote sensing and GIS to the study of land use\\/cover change and urbanization expansion in Basrah province, southern Iraq  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, land use\\/cover dynamic change has become a key subject that needs to be dealt with in the study of global\\u000a environmental change. In this paper, remote sensing and geographic information systems (GIS) are integrated to monitor, map,\\u000a and quantify the land use\\/cover change in the southern part of Iraq (Basrah Province was taken as a case) by

A. S. Hadeel; Mushtak T. Jabbar; Xiaoling Chen

2009-01-01

213

Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal communities in sub-Saharan savannas of Benin, West Africa, as affected by agricultural land use intensity and ecological zone.  

PubMed

The rapid decline of soil fertility of cultivated lands in the sub-Saharan savannas of West Africa is considered to be the main cause of the increasingly severe constraints of food production. The soils in this tropical area are highly fragile, and crop yields are limited by characteristically low levels of available phosphorus. Under such preconditions, the multiple benefits of the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis are likely to play a pivotal role for maintaining natural soil fertility by enhancing plant nutrient use efficiency, plant health, and stabilization of a favorable soil structure. Thus, it is important to explore the impact of the commonly applied farming practices on the native AM fungal community. In the present study, we determined the AM fungal species composition in three ecological zones differing by an increasingly prolonged dry season from South to North, from the Southern Guinea Savanna (SG), to the Northern Guinea Savanna (NG), to the Sudan Savanna (SU). In each zone, four "natural" and four "cultivated" sites were selected. "Natural" sites were three natural forest savannas (at least 25-30 years old) and a long-term fallow (6-7 years old). "Cultivated" sites comprised a field with yam (Dioscorea spp.) established during the first year after forest clearance, a field under mixed cropping with maize (Zea mays) and peanut (Arachis hypogaea), a field under peanut, and a field under cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) which was the most intensively managed crop. Soil samples were collected towards the end of the wet season in each zone. AM fungal spores were extracted and morphologically identified. Soil subsamples were used to inoculate AM fungal trap cultures using Stylosanthes guianensis and Brachiaria humidicola as host plants to monitor AM root colonization and spore formation over 10 and 24 months, respectively. A total of 60 AM fungal species were detected, with only seven species sporulating in the trap cultures. Spore density and species richness were generally higher in the natural savannas and under yam than at the other cultivated sites and lowest under the intensively managed cotton. In the fallows, species richness was intermediate, indicating that the high richness of the natural savannas was not restored. Surprisingly, higher species richness was observed in the SU than in the SG and NG, mainly due to a high proportion of species in the Gigasporaceae, Acaulosporaceae, and Glomeraceae. We conclude that the West African savannas contain a high natural AM fungal species richness, but that this natural richness is significantly affected by the common agricultural land use practices and appears not to be quickly restored by fallow. PMID:18386078

Tchabi, Atti; Coyne, Danny; Hountondji, Fabien; Lawouin, Louis; Wiemken, Andres; Oehl, Fritz

2008-04-01

214

An integrated multi-criteria scenario evaluation web tool for participatory land-use planning in urbanized areas: The Ecosystem Portfolio Model  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Land-use land-cover change is one of the most important and direct drivers of changes in ecosystem functions and services. Given the complexity of the decision-making, there is a need for Internet-based decision support systems with scenario evaluation capabilities to help planners, resource managers and communities visualize, compare and consider trade-offs among the many values at stake in land use planning. This article presents details on an Ecosystem Portfolio Model (EPM) prototype that integrates ecological, socio-economic information and associated values of relevance to decision-makers and stakeholders. The EPM uses a multi-criteria scenario evaluation framework, Geographic Information Systems (GIS) analysis and spatially-explicit land-use/land-cover change-sensitive models to characterize changes in important land-cover related ecosystem values related to ecosystem services and functions, land parcel prices, and community quality-of-life (QoL) metrics. Parameters in the underlying models can be modified through the interface, allowing users in a facilitated group setting to explore simultaneously issues of scientific uncertainty and divergence in the preferences of stakeholders. One application of the South Florida EPM prototype reported in this article shows the modeled changes (which are significant) in aggregate ecological value, landscape patterns and fragmentation, biodiversity potential and ecological restoration potential for current land uses compared to the 2050 land-use scenario. Ongoing refinements to EPM, and future work especially in regard to modifiable sea level rise scenarios are also discussed.

Labiosa, Bill; Forney, William M.; Hearn, Paul P.; Hogan, Dianna M.; Strong, David R.; Swain, Eric D.; Esnard, Ann-Margaret; Mitsova-Boneva, D.; Bernknopf, R.; Pearlstine, Leonard; Gladwin, Hugh

2013-01-01

215

Land use planning  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The organization, objectives, and accomplishments of the panel on Land Use Planning are reported. Technology developments, and projected developments are discussed along with anticipated information requirements. The issues for users, recommended remote sensing programs, and space systems are presented. It was found that remote sensing systems are useful in future land use planning. It is recommended that a change detection system for monitoring land use and critical environmental areas be developed by 1979.

1975-01-01

216

Land use management in Minnesota  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author has identified the following significant results. Preliminary analysis of bulk imagery suggests that the forty-acre data cell used in the Minnesota Land Management Information Systems (MLMIS) can be utilized in interpretation of ERTS-1 data. High quality bulk images of the Twin Cities metropolitan area suggest that detail in urban land use patterns is much greater than originally anticipated. This implies a greater work effort in this area than was planned. Furthermore, the forest classes of land use can also be usefully divided into subcategories. Preliminary analysis of one rather low quality image also indicates that subclasses of wetlands can be identified. Prospects are bright for improving the potential detail that ERTS-1 can contribute to MLMIS.

Sizer, J. E. (principal investigator)

1972-01-01

217

Global Consequences of Land Use  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Land use has generally been considered a local environmental issue, but it is becoming a force of global importance. Worldwide changes to forests, farmlands, waterways, and air are being driven by the need to provide food, fiber, water, and shelter to more than six billion people. Global croplands, pastures, plantations, and urban areas have expanded in recent decades, accompanied by large increases in energy, water, and fertilizer consumption, along with considerable losses of biodiversity. Such changes in land use have enabled humans to appropriate an increasing share of the planet's resources, but they also potentially undermine the capacity of ecosystems to sustain food production, maintain freshwater and forest resources, regulate climate and air quality, and ameliorate infectious diseases. We face the challenge of managing trade-offs between immediate human needs and maintaining the capacity of the biosphere to provide goods and services in the long term.

Foley, Jonathan A.; DeFries, Ruth; Asner, Gregory P.; Barford, Carol; Bonan, Gordon; Carpenter, Stephen R.; Chapin, F. Stuart; Coe, Michael T.; Daily, Gretchen C.; Gibbs, Holly K.; Helkowski, Joseph H.; Holloway, Tracey; Howard, Erica A.; Kucharik, Christopher J.; Monfreda, Chad; Patz, Jonathan A.; Prentice, I. Colin; Ramankutty, Navin; Snyder, Peter K.

2005-07-01

218

Bus Transit and Land Use: Illuminating the Interaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Abstract Abstract Abstract Attracting people to public transit in urban areas has proven to be a difficult task indeed. Recent research on the transportation-land use connection has suggested that transit use can be increased through transit-friendly land use planning. While significant evidence exists that a relationship between land use and transit is appar- ent, the exact nature of the

Andy Johnson

219

Can we measure ecological sustainability? Landscape pattern as an indicator for naturalness and land use intensity at regional, national and European level  

Microsoft Academic Search

European landscapes have been shaped over the centuries by processes related to human land use, which are reflected in regionally distinct landscape patterns. Since landscape pattern has been linked to biodiversity and other ecological values of the landscapes, this paper explores landscape pattern as a tool for ecological sustainability assessments at the regional (Austrian Cultural Landscapes), national (Austria) and European

Christa Renetzeder; Stefan Schindler; Johannes Peterseil; Martin A. Prinz; Sander Mücher; Thomas Wrbka

2010-01-01

220

MODELLING AND UNDERSTANDING MULTI-TEMPORAL LAND USE CHANGES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understanding temporal urban growth is very crucial to the interpretation of urban morphology and a key challenge for the study of rapid urbanization in contemporary China. Previous land use change modelling approaches only consider the spatial complexity that may be indicated by spatial dependence and landscape fragmentation, ignoring the temporal complexity inherent in the process of urban growth. Multi-temporality is

Jianquan Cheng

221

A Comparison of Natural and Urban Characteristics and the Development of Urban Intensity Indices Across Six Geographic Settings  

USGS Publications Warehouse

As part of the U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Assessment Program, the effects of urbanization on stream ecosystems have been intensively investigated in six metropolitan areas in the United States. Approximately 30 watersheds in each area, ranging in size from 4 to 560 square kilometers (median is 50 square kilometers), and spanning a development gradient from very low to very high urbanization, were examined near Atlanta, Georgia; Raleigh, North Carolina; Denver, Colorado; Dallas-Fort Worth, Texas; Portland, Oregon; and Milwaukee-Green Bay, Wisconsin. These six studies are a continuation of three previous studies in Boston, Massachusetts; Birmingham, Alabama; and Salt Lake City, Utah. In each study, geographic information system data for approximately 300 variables were assembled to (a) characterize the environmental settings of the areas and (b) establish a consistent multimetric urban intensity index based on locally important land-cover, infrastructure, and socioeconomic variables. This paper describes the key features of urbanization and the urban intensity index for the study watersheds within each area, how they differ across study areas, and the relation between the environmental setting and the characteristics of urbanization. A number of features of urbanization were identified that correlated very strongly to population density in every study area. Of these, road density had the least variability across diverse geographic settings and most closely matched the multimetric nature of the urban intensity index. A common urban intensity index was derived that ranks watersheds across all six study areas. Differences in local natural settings and urban geography were challenging in (a) identifying consistent urban gradients in individual study areas and (b) creating a common urban intensity index that matched the site scores of the local urban intensity index in all areas. It is intended that the descriptions of the similarities and differences in urbanization and environmental settings across these study areas will provide a foundation for understanding and interpreting the effects of urbanization on stream ecosystems in the studies being conducted as part of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program.

Falcone, James; Stewart, Jana; Sobieszczyk, Steven; Dupree, Jean; McMahon, Gerard; Buell, Gary

2007-01-01

222

Urban Heat Island Connections to Neighborhood Microclimates in Phoenix, Arizona: Defining the Influences of Land Use and Social Variables on Temperature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phoenix, AZ is known to have an urban heat island that significantly increases minimum and maximum temperatures, which continue to climb as the city grows and becomes denser. We present a study that investigates \\

L. C. Prashad; W. L. Stefanov; A. Brazel; S. Harlan

2003-01-01

223

Energy-Intensive Urban Growth and the Quality of Life. Field Test Version.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This module seeks to develop teachers' awareness and understanding of the problems of energy-intensive urban growth and its impact on quality-of-life. It seeks to develop understanding of the city as a system; understanding of quality-of-life as applied to the urban ecosystem; and skills in studying and planning for quality urban settings. It also…

Aaron, Cathy; And Others

224

Micro-Level Land Use Impacts of Bioconversion.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Implementation of the land intensive bio-energy technologies will involve actions that will impact existing land use at the local level. Due to the differences in crop type, yield per acre, existing land use conditions, and agricultural practices througho...

V. K. B. Parsons

1980-01-01

225

RESEARCH FOR MANAGING URBAN WATERSHED MICROBIAL CONTAMINATION (PROJECT 1: MANAGING URBAN WATERSHED PATHOGEN CONTAMINATION: 2. EFFECT OF LAND USE AND SEASON ON MICROORGANISM CONCENTRATION ON URBAN STORMWATER RUNOFF; 3. MICROORGANISM DIE-OFF RATES UNDER VARIOUS CONDITIONS.  

EPA Science Inventory

The Water Supply and Water Resources Division (WSWRD) developed a document entitled Managing Urban Watershed Pathogen Contamination (EPA 600/R-03/111). This document provides information to support specific steps of the total maximum daily load (TMDL) process for meeting water q...

226

Land-use Leakage  

SciTech Connect

Leakage occurs whenever actions to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions in one part of the world unleash countervailing forces elsewhere in the world so that reductions in global emissions are less than emissions mitigation in the mitigating region. While many researchers have examined the concept of industrial leakage, land-use policies can also result in leakage. We show that land-use leakage is potentially as large as or larger than industrial leakage. We identify two potential land-use leakage drivers, land-use policies and bioenergy. We distinguish between these two pathways and run numerical experiments for each. We also show that the land-use policy environment exerts a powerful influence on leakage and that under some policy designs leakage can be negative. International “offsets” are a potential mechanism to communicate emissions mitigation beyond the borders of emissions mitigating regions, but in a stabilization regime designed to limit radiative forcing to 3.7 2/m2, this also implies greater emissions mitigation commitments on the part of mitigating regions.

Calvin, Katherine V.; Edmonds, James A.; Clarke, Leon E.; Bond-Lamberty, Benjamin; Kim, Son H.; Wise, Marshall A.; Thomson, Allison M.; Kyle, G. Page

2009-12-01

227

Land Use. Ag Ed Environmental Education Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Land use is the subject of the student resource unit to be used with high school vocational agriculture students. Uses of the land in an urban environment, suburban environment, rural environment (as cropland, forest, and others), recreation and parks, and other environments are described. The supply of and demand for land is discussed.…

Tulloch, Rodney W.

228

Ecologically based municipal land use planning  

SciTech Connect

The book presents compelling evidence and sound arguments that make the case for sound land use policies that will reduce sprawl. The book provides easily understood solutions for municipal land planners dealing with urban sprawl; discusses ecological resources; emphasizes the use of new environmental indicators; and includes the use of the Geographic Information System (GIS) to problem solving.

Honachefsky, W.B.

2000-07-01

229

Land Use in Saskatchewan.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Information on land use in Saskatchewan is provided in this updated report by the Policy, Planning, and Research Branch of Saskatchewan Environment. Chapter I discusses the physical, economic, and cultural geography of Saskatchewan and traces the history of settlement in this province. Chapter II provides information on the province's resource…

Saskatchewan Dept. of the Environment, Regina. Public Information and Education Branch.

230

Land use and mapping  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This summary is divided into two basic sections-one dealing with land use classification and delineation, and the other dealing with mapping. The term land use classification is used in respect to the actual use of land rather than land capability, land suitability, or the potential use of land. The classification of actual use of the land, as defined by man's activities that are related to the land, may be only inferred, rather than directly interpreted, in the case of the identification and classification of some surface features or vegetation cover types. Also, in the case of some surface features or vegetational cover types, the specific activity involving man's use of the land may not be designated in a four-level classification system until level 3 or level 4 is reached. Most investigations employed or implied a hierarchial land use classification scheme with more than two levels, but mainly addressed themselves to classifying and delineating surface features (land use) that would fall in the first two levels of a three- or four-level hierarchial scheme. Although not all investigators used a hierarchial classification scheme or concurred with the idea (computer-implemented classifications with digital data are not conducive to a hierarchial classification approach), the classification system proposed by the U.S. Department of the Interior is used as reference.

Joyce, A. T.

1974-01-01

231

Urban and regional land use analysis: CARETS and Census Cities experiment package. [Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, District of Columbia, Washington, California  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author has identified the following significant results. A number of likely applications and follow-on analyses are suggested by the census cities evaluation of ERTS-1 and Skylab data. Some of these applications are: (1) estimate water use requirements; (2) define urban expansion; (3) document the pattern of residential development and assess quality of residential environment: (4) project future population densities, and estimate changes in population distribution between censuses; (5) assess environmental impact resulting from gradual as well as catastrophic changes.

Alexander, R. (principal investigator); Lins, H. F., Jr.; Wray, J. R.

1974-01-01

232

Urban land use/land cover mapping with high-resolution SAR imagery by integrating support vector machines into object-based analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper investigates the capability of high-resolution SAR data for urban landuse/land-cover mapping by integrating support vector machines (SVMs) into object-based analysis. Five-date RADARSAT fine-beam C-HH SAR images with a pixel spacing of 6.25 meter were acquired over the rural-urban fringe of the Great Toronto Area (GTA) during May to August in 2002. First, the SAR images were segmented using multi-resolution segmentation algorithm and two segmentation levels were created. Next, a range of spectral, shape and texture features were selected and calculated for all image objects on both levels. The objects on the lower level then inherited features of their super objects. In this way, the objects on the lower level received detailed descriptions about their neighbours and contexts. Finally, SVM classifiers were used to classify the image objects on the lower level based on the selected features. For training the SVM, sample image objects on the lower level were used. One-against-one approach was chosen to apply SVM to multiclass classification of SAR images in this research. The results show that the proposed method can achieve a high accuracy for the classification of high-resolution SAR images over urban areas.

Hu, Hongtao; Ban, Yifang

2008-10-01

233

Evaluation on land intensive use based on the sustainable development theory in Tianjin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The contradiction between the presences of extensively use of urban land and the existence of tight supply and excess demand for land becomes more and more fierce. Consequently, how to improve the intensively use of urban land becomes a hotspot. Based on definition of sustainable and intensive use of urban land and the fact of land using in Tianjin, this

Liming Xia; Shuping Chen

2010-01-01

234

Land use and energy  

SciTech Connect

This report provides estimates of the amount of land required by past and future energy development in the United States and examines major federal legislation that regulates the impact of energy facilities on land use. An example of one land use issue associated with energy development - the potential conflict between surface mining and agriculture - is illustrated by describing the actual and projected changes in land use caused by coal mining in western Indiana. Energy activities addressed in the report include extraction of coal, oil, natural gas, uranium, oil shale, and geothermal steam; uranium processing; preparation of synfuels from coal; oil refineries; fossil-fuel, nuclear, and hydro-electric power plants; biomass energy farms; and disposal of solid wastes generated during combustion of fossil fuels. Approximately 1.1 to 3.3 x 10/sup 6/ acres were devoted to these activities in the United States in 1975. As much as 1.8 to 2.0 x 10/sup 6/ additional acres could be required by 1990 for new, nonbiomass energy development. The production of grain for fuel ethanol could require an additional 16.9 to 55.7 x 10/sup 6/ acres by 1990. Federal laws that directly or indirectly regulate the land-use impacts of energy facilities include the National Environmental Protection Act, Clean Air Act, Federal Water Pollution Control Act, Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act, and Coastal Zone Management Act. The major provisions of these acts, other relevant federal regulations, and similar state and local regulatons are described in this report. Federal legislation relating to air quality, water quality, and the management of public lands has the greatest potential to influence the location and timing of future energy development in the United States.

Robeck, K.E.; Ballou, S.W.; South, D.W.; Davis, M.J.; Chiu, S.Y.; Baker, J.E.; Dauzvardis, P.A.; Garvey, D.B.; Torpy, M.F.

1980-07-01

235

Application of IKONOS image and BP model to evaluate potential of urban land intensive use  

Microsoft Academic Search

The evaluation index system of urban land intensive use potential is built with IKONOS remote sensing data as the main data source. Based on this, quantitative evaluation model of land intensive use potential is constructed through BP neural network method. This model is applied to evaluate the potential of land intensive use in Shijiazhuang. It has been proved that this

Li Wang; Zheng Niu; Jun Yin; Jinguo Yuan

2006-01-01

236

Effects of bioenergy crop cultivation on earthworm communities—A comparative study of perennial ( Miscanthus) and annual crops with consideration of graded land-use intensity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Energy crops are of growing importance in agriculture worldwide. This field study aimed to investigate earthworm communities of different intensively cultivated soils during a 2-year period, with special emphasis on annual and perennial energy crops like rapeseed, maize, and Miscanthus. These were compared with cereals, grassland, and fallow sites. Distribution patterns of earthworm abundance, species, and ecological categories were analysed

Daniel Felten; Christoph Emmerling

2011-01-01

237

Long-term water monitoring in two Mediterranean lagoons as an indicator of land-use changes and intense precipitation events (Adra, Southeastern Spain)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During recent historical times the Adra river delta, a detrital coastal aquifer of nearly 32 km 2 located in a semi-arid, mountainous area of SE Spain, has undergone different changes caused by human activity. Within this context, both the river dynamics in the plain and the geomorphology of the coastline have at various times resulted in the formation of small lagoons. At present only two small (<0.5 km 2) lagoons exist, at the eastern edge of the aquifer, which, although closely surrounded by commercial market-garden greenhouses, are protected under international agreements. During the last 30 years of the twentieth century traditional agricultural irrigation techniques have undergone significant changes to improve their efficiency. Surface-water resources in the Adra river basin are regulated via the Beninar reservoir. In addition, the use of groundwater is increasing progressively. Both these factors affect the recharge of the coastal aquifer. To monitor these changes measurements of electrical conductivity and water level fluctuations have been recorded in these lagoons for the last 35 years (1975-2010). A comparison of the hydrochemical characteristics of the water in the lagoons and of the surrounding groundwater from 2003 to 2010 shows marked differences induced by the different hydrological dynamics in each lagoon, as well as by the hydrogeological impact of changes in land use in the delta. The increase in water demand is a consequence of the extension of irrigated areas from the fluvio-deltaic plain to its slopes, originally occupied by unirrigated crops. A reduction in irrigation return-flow is linked to the use of new irrigation techniques. These modifications affect both the recharge regime of the aquifer and its water quality. Moreover, extreme precipitation events, which are characteristic of Mediterranean semi-arid environments, can affect the lagoons' hydrological dynamics to a considerable extent. One such example is the unusually rainy period from January to March 2010 (>600 mm). This event, along with other effects, has dramatically lowered the salinity of the water in both lagoons. This case study reveals the extreme vulnerability of deltaic environments and also how lagoons can reflect anthropogenic changes over the whole river basin.

Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Miguel; Benavente, José; Alcalá, Francisco J.; Paracuellos, Mariano

2011-02-01

238

Land use change and human health  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Disease emergence events have been documented following several types of land use change. This chapter reviews several health-relevant land use changes recognized today, including: 1) urbanization and urban sprawl; 2) water projects and agricultural development; 3) road construction and deforestation in the tropics; and 4) regeneration of temperate forests. Because habitat or climatic change substantially affects intermediate invertebrate hosts involved in many prevalent diseases, this chapter provides a basic description of vector-borne disease biology as a foundation for analyzing the effects of land use change. Urban sprawl poses health challenges stemming from heat waves exacerbated by the "urban heat island" effect, as well as from water contamination due to expanses of impervious road and concrete surfaces. Dams, irrigation and agricultural development have long been associated with diseases such as schistosomiasis and filariasis. Better management methods are required to address the trade-offs between expanded food production and altered habitats promoting deadly diseases. Deforestation can increase the nature and number of breeding sites for vector-borne diseases, such as malaria and onchocerciasis. Human host and disease vector interaction further increases risk, as can a change in arthropod-vector species composition.

Patz, Jonathan A.; Norris, Douglas E.

239

IDAHO LAND USE  

EPA Science Inventory

Use groupings are: Surface gravity irrigation, Sprinkler irrigation, Dryland agriculture, Rangeland, Forest, Exposed rock, Riparian, Urban, Water. Easily incorporated into maps at the region to watershed level. Too coarse for site-scale applications. Scale: 1:500,000. Major ...

240

Fragmentation In Land-Use Planning and Control.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Fragmented land-use controls have contributed to unwholesome competition between the parts of urban areas and have prevented planners from giving attention to needs that could help bind communities together. The pattern of single-function Federal and stat...

J. G. Coke J. J. Gargan

1969-01-01

241

Influence of fipronil compounds and rice-cultivation land-use intensity on macroinvertebrate communities in streams of southwestern Louisiana, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laboratory tests of fipronil and its degradation products have revealed acute lethal toxicity at very low concentrations (LC50) of <0.5?g\\/L to selected aquatic macroinvertebrates. In streams draining basins with intensive rice cultivation in southwestern Louisiana, USA, concentrations of fipronil compounds were an order of magnitude larger than the LC50. The abundance (?=?0.64; p=0.015) and taxa richness (r2=0.515, p<0.005) of macroinvertebrate

Scott V. Mize; Stephen D. Porter; Dennis K. Demcheck

2008-01-01

242

Remote sensing, land use, and demography - A look at people through their effects on the land  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Relevant causes of failure by the remote sensing community in the urban scene are analyzed. The reasons for the insignificant role of remote sensing in urban land use data collection are called the law of realism, the incompatibility of remote sensing and urban management system data formats is termed the law of nominal/ordinal systems compatibility, and the land use/population correlation dilemma is referred to as the law of missing persons. The study summarizes the three laws of urban land use information for which violations, avoidance, or ignorance have caused the decline of present remote sensing research. Particular attention is given to the rationale for urban land use information and for remote sensing. It is shown that remote sensing of urban land uses compatible with the three laws can be effectively developed by realizing the 10 percent contribution of remote sensing to urban land use planning data collection.

Paul, C. K.; Landini, A. J.

1976-01-01

243

Maximum urban heat island intensity in a medium-sized coastal Mediterranean city  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper studies the maximum intensity of the urban heat island (UHI) that develops in Volos urban area, a medium-sized\\u000a coastal city in central Greece. The maximum temperature difference between the city center and a suburb is 3.4°C and 3.1°C\\u000a during winter and summer, respectively, while during both seasons the average maximum UHI intensity is 2.0°C. The UHI usually\\u000a starts

Dimitris K. Papanastasiou; Constantinos Kittas

2011-01-01

244

Development and Applications of a Comprehensive Land Use Classification and Map for the US.  

PubMed

Land cover maps reasonably depict areas that are strongly converted by human activities, but typically are unable to resolve low-density but widespread development patterns. Data products specifically designed to resolve land uses complement land cover datasets and likely improve our ability to understand the extent and complexity of human modification. Methods for developing a comprehensive land use classification system are described, and a map of land use for the conterminous United States is presented to reveal what we are doing on the land. The comprehensive, detailed and high-resolution dataset was developed through spatial analysis of nearly two-dozen publicly-available, national spatial datasets - predominately based on census housing, employment, and infrastructure, as well as land cover from satellite imagery. This effort resulted in 79 land use classes that fit within five main land use groups: built-up, production, recreation, conservation, and water. Key findings from this study are that built-up areas occupy 13.6% of mainland US, but that the majority of this occurs as low-density exurban/rural residential (9.1% of the US), while more intensive built-up land uses occupy 4.5%. For every acre of urban and suburban residential land, there are 0.13 commercial, 0.07 industrial, 0.48 institutional, and 0.29 acres of interstates/highways. This database can be used to address a variety of natural resource applications, and I provide three examples here: an entropy index of the diversity of land uses for smart-growth planning, a power-law scaling of metropolitan area population to developed footprint, and identifying potential conflict areas by delineating the urban interface. PMID:24728210

Theobald, David M

2014-01-01

245

Development and Applications of a Comprehensive Land Use Classification and Map for the US  

PubMed Central

Land cover maps reasonably depict areas that are strongly converted by human activities, but typically are unable to resolve low-density but widespread development patterns. Data products specifically designed to resolve land uses complement land cover datasets and likely improve our ability to understand the extent and complexity of human modification. Methods for developing a comprehensive land use classification system are described, and a map of land use for the conterminous United States is presented to reveal what we are doing on the land. The comprehensive, detailed and high-resolution dataset was developed through spatial analysis of nearly two-dozen publicly-available, national spatial datasets – predominately based on census housing, employment, and infrastructure, as well as land cover from satellite imagery. This effort resulted in 79 land use classes that fit within five main land use groups: built-up, production, recreation, conservation, and water. Key findings from this study are that built-up areas occupy 13.6% of mainland US, but that the majority of this occurs as low-density exurban/rural residential (9.1% of the US), while more intensive built-up land uses occupy 4.5%. For every acre of urban and suburban residential land, there are 0.13 commercial, 0.07 industrial, 0.48 institutional, and 0.29 acres of interstates/highways. This database can be used to address a variety of natural resource applications, and I provide three examples here: an entropy index of the diversity of land uses for smart-growth planning, a power-law scaling of metropolitan area population to developed footprint, and identifying potential conflict areas by delineating the urban interface.

Theobald, David M.

2014-01-01

246

Analysis of urban land use in the megacity of Dhaka, Bangladesh: Roof-top detection in the context of assessing solar photovoltaic potential  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The megacity of Dhaka, Bangladesh is considered to be one of the world’s fastest growing urban centers. With nearly 14 million people Dhaka currently faces tremendous power crisis. The available power supply of Dhaka Megacity is currently 1000-1200 MW against the maximum demand of nearly 2000 MW. The objective of this study is to classify land cover of Dhaka to locate roof-top areas which are adequate for solar photovoltaic applications. Usually this task is performed with additional building-heights data. With lack of that, we present an object-based classification approach which is based on high resolution Quickbird data only. Extensive formal buildings in Dhaka mostly have flat roof-tops made from concrete which are well suited for PV applications. The classification is focused to detect these ‘Bright Roof-Tops’ to assess a lower limit for potential PV areas. With that conservative approach bright roof-top areas of 10.554 km2 out of the city’s 134.282 km2 could be found. The overall classification accuracy is 0.918, the producer’s accuracy of ‘Bright Roof-Tops’ is 0.833. Preliminary result of the PhD work of Humayun Kabir indicates that the application of only 75 Wp stand-alone solar modules on these available bright roof-tops can generate nearly 1,000 MW of electricity. The application of solar modules with high capacity (i.e., >200 Wp) preferably through grid-connected PV systems can substantially meet-up the city’s power demand, although several techno-economic and socio-political factors are certainly involved.

Jaegermeyr, J.; Kabir, H.; Endlicher, W.

2009-12-01

247

Land Use Plan, Brentwood, Tennessee.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report contains written and mapped recommendations for future land use based upon survey and analysis of land use, land capability, and area economic-demographic projections fitted within a framework of local community development objectives and land ...

1972-01-01

248

Modeling enzootic raccoon rabies from land use patterns - Georgia (USA) 2006-2010  

PubMed Central

We analyzed how land-use patterns and changes in urbanization influence reported rabid raccoons in Georgia from 2006 - 2010.  Using Geographical Information Systems and rabies surveillance data, multivariate analysis was conducted on 15 land-use variables that included natural topography, agricultural development, and urbanization to model positive raccoon rabies cases while controlling for potential raccoon submission bias associated with higher human population densities.  Low intensity residential development was positively associated with reported rabid raccoons while a negative association was found with evergreen forest.  Evergreen forests may offer a barrier effect where resources are low and raccoon populations are not supported.  Areas with pure stands of upland evergreen forest might be utilized in baiting strategies for oral rabies vaccination programs where fewer or no baits may be needed.  Their use as a barrier should be considered carefully in a cost-effective strategy for oral rabies vaccination (ORV) programs to contain the western spread of this important zoonotic disease.

Duke, John E.

2014-01-01

249

Scaling the land use system  

Microsoft Academic Search

IntroductionThere is a growing demand for quantitative information on actual land use\\/land cover and their future changes in space and time. Particularly during the last decade, land use and land cover change have become important issues. Besides local and direct effects like loss of biodiversity through deforestation or soil degradation through unsustainable land use, increasing importance is given to the

K. Kok

2001-01-01

250

Land use of northern megalopolis from ERTS-1 imagery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author has identified the following significant results. The preliminary map of land use of Rhode Island is believed to be the first urban-type land use map ever made from satellite imagery, and its preparation a significant scientific result for ERTS-1. Eight categories of land use were differentiated at a scale of 1:250,000 including 3 categories of residential area: single family and multiple/mixed urban types, plus a residential and open space rural one. This compares favorably with RB-57 mapping experience in which, mapping at 1:120,000 from photography taken from 60,000 feet, 11 basic categories of land use were discriminated. From ERTS, the urban cores of cities down to 7,000 population, and commercial and industrial sites down to 800 feet square, were consistently discriminated.

Simpson, R. B. (principal investigator)

1972-01-01

251

The potential for hail and intense rainfall enhancement over urban areas: improving urban extreme weather risk assessment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Urban communities and their infrastructure are particularly vulnerable to the impacts of organized thunderstorm systems. Current models of urban extreme weather risk do not fully represent the complexity of the hydrometeorological processes involved, particularly in relation to intense convective precipitation and severe weather. Hail is a severe thunderstorm hazard that can be extremely damaging to property (especially automobiles, buildings and agriculture) over and in proximity to urban environments. This study identifies some of the mechanisms that future generations of catastrophe models should consider incorporating in their representation of hydrometeorlogical hazards in urban areas. In addition, such information could help to inform planning policy and improve urban resilience to extreme events. Evidence is provided that urban environments, through the existence of high-rise buildings and densely build-up areas, but also through air-pollution (aerosols) can potentially lead to an enhancement of both flooding and hail. Conclusions are drawn from two separate studies over the heavily urbanized corridor of the northeastern United States but could be expanded to apply to other urban areas. Observational and modelling (Weather Research and Forecasting - WRF) analyses of an extreme thunderstorm over the Baltimore, Maryland metropolitan area on 7 July 2004 provided evidence that the urban canopy redistributed heavy rainfall and convergence centres in the vicinity of the urban environment. Modelling analyses suggest that convective rainfall around the urban core was increased by about 30% due to the heterogeneities of land surface processes associated with the city of Baltimore. Chesapeake Bay also played an important role in rainfall distribution by acting as a divergence zone for northerly winds. Cloud-to-ground lightning analyses show that the city of Baltimore and the Chesapeake Bay combined played a role in the distribution of lightning in the periphery of the urban core. Detailed modelling analyses (WRF-Chem) of a series of convective storms over the New York City metropolitan area, suggest that under certain meteorological conditions, increased concentrations of aerosols can lead to better organization of convection, higher vertical velocities and significantly increased convective rainfall accumulations. Higher vertical velocities were more widespread and reached deeper atmospheric levels when meteorological conditions were favourable, under increased aerosol concentrations. Areas that are downstream of sources of aerosols (i.e. New York City) are more prone to experience convective enhancement.

Ntelekos, A. A.; Smith, J. A.; Krajewski, W. F.; Foote, M.

2009-04-01

252

Change in agricultural land use constrains adaptation of national wildlife refuges to climate change  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Land-use change around protected areas limits their ability to conserve biodiversity by altering ecological processes such as natural hydrologic and disturbance regimes, facilitating species invasions, and interfering with dispersal of organisms. This paper informs USA National Wildlife Refuge System conservation planning by predicting future land-use change on lands within 25 km distance of 461 refuges in the USA using an econometric model. The model contained two differing policy scenarios, namely a ‘business-as-usual’ scenario and a ‘pro-agriculture’ scenario. Regardless of scenario, by 2051, forest cover and urban land use were predicted to increase around refuges, while the extent of range and pasture was predicted to decrease; cropland use decreased under the business-as-usual scenario, but increased under the pro-agriculture scenario. Increasing agricultural land value under the pro-agriculture scenario slowed an expected increase in forest around refuges, and doubled the rate of range and pasture loss. Intensity of land-use change on lands surrounding refuges differed by regions. Regional differences among scenarios revealed that an understanding of regional and local land-use dynamics and management options was an essential requirement to effectively manage these conserved lands. Such knowledge is particularly important given the predicted need to adapt to a changing global climate.

Hamilton, Christopher M.; Thogmartin, Wayne E.; Radeloff, Volker C.; Plantinga, Andrew J.; Heglund, Patricia J.; Martinuzzi, Sebastian; Pidgeon, Anna M.

2014-01-01

253

Land Use Intensity Controls Actinobacterial Community Structure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Actinobacteria are major producers of secondary metabolites; however, it is unclear how they are distributed in the environment.\\u000a DNA was extracted from forest, pasture and cultivated soils, street sediments (dust and material in place), and sediments\\u000a affected by animal activity (e.g. guano, vermicompost) and characterised with two actinobacterial and a bacterial-specific\\u000a 16S rDNA primer set. Amplicons (140\\/156) generated with the

Patrick Hill; Václav Krišt?fek; Lubbert Dijkhuizen; Christopher Boddy; David Kroetsch; Jan Dirk van Elsas

2011-01-01

254

[Spatiotemporal characteristics of urban land expansion in central area of Shanghai, China].  

PubMed

Using the high spatial resolution (2.5 m) color-infrared aerial photos acquired in 1989, 1994, 2000 and 2005, this paper analyzed the spatiotemporal characteristics of rapid urban expansion in central Shanghai with urban expansion intensity index and gradient analysis. Results showed that urban land use in Shanghai increased rapidly in a "pancake" style during the study period, and the anisotropic urban expansion moved the urban center 2.62 km toward southwest. The urban land use expansion intensity doubled and showed a rural-urban gradient. The most intensive urban expansion zone fell in the rural-urban transition zone, indicating the dominance of peripheral expansion as the primary urban expansion mode in Shanghai. However, the urban land use intensity decreased with time at the urban center. The primary driving forces of urban expansion included support from government policies and decision-making, enhanced economic activities, societal fixed assets investment, urban infrastructure investment, extension of transportation routes, as well as increase in urban population. PMID:24697062

Hu, Han-Wen; Wei, Ben-Sheng; Shen, Xing-Hua; Li, Jun-Xiang

2013-12-01

255

Land use in the northern Coachella Valley  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Satellite imagery has proved to have great utility for monitoring land use change and as a data source for regional planning. In California, open space desert resources are under severe pressure to serve as a source for recreational gratification to individuals living in the heavily populated southern coastal plain. Concern for these sensitive arid environments has been expressed by both federal and state agencies. The northern half of the Coachella Valley has historically served as a focal point for weekend recreational activity and second homes. Since demand in this area has remained high, land use change from rural to urban residential has been occurring continuously since 1968. This area of rapid change is an ideal site to illustrate the utility of satellite imagery as a data source for planning information, and has served as the areal focus of this investigation.

Bale, J. B.; Bowden, L. W.

1973-01-01

256

Land use regression model for ultrafine particles in Amsterdam.  

PubMed

There are currently no epidemiological studies on health effects of long-term exposure to ultrafine particles (UFP), largely because data on spatial exposure contrasts for UFP is lacking. The objective of this study was to develop a land use regression (LUR) model for UFP in the city of Amsterdam. Total particle number concentrations (PNC), PM10, PM2.5, and its soot content were measured directly outside 50 homes spread over the city of Amsterdam. Each home was measured during one week. Continuous measurements at a central urban background site were used to adjust the average concentration for temporal variation. Predictor variables (traffic, address density, land use) were obtained using geographic information systems. A model including the product of traffic intensity and the inverse distance to the nearest road squared, address density, and location near the port explained 67% of the variability in measured PNC. LUR models for PM2.5, soot, and coarse particles (PM10, PM2.5) explained 57%, 76%, and 37% of the variability in measured concentrations. Predictions from the PNC model correlated highly with predictions from LUR models for PM2.5, soot, and coarse particles. A LUR model for PNC has been developed, with similar validity as previous models for more commonly measured pollutants. PMID:21158386

Hoek, Gerard; Beelen, Rob; Kos, Gerard; Dijkema, Marieke; van der Zee, Saskia C; Fischer, Paul H; Brunekreef, Bert

2011-01-15

257

How Will America Grow? A Citizen Guide to Land-Use Planning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Citizens are encouraged to learn about and become involved in land use and growth issues in their communities. Intended as a follow-up of an earlier report by the Committee's Task Force on Land Use and Urban Growth which outlined philosophical, legal, and policy aspects of land-use planning, the document suggests planning guidelines for citizen…

Citizens Advisory Committee on Environmental Quality.

258

VON THÜNEN AND URBAN SPRAWL  

Microsoft Academic Search

In explaining agricultural patterns near urban areas, Von Thünen's theory is generally applicable where the primary force determining the pattern is transport cost to the market. When this is the case, the pattern of agricultural land use is one of decreasing intensity with distance from the city. Von Thünen's theory still applies in underdeveloped parts of the world, but his

ROBERT SINCLAIR

1967-01-01

259

New methods to assess severity and likelihood of urban flood risk from intense rainfall  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Flooding from intense local rainfall can contribute a significant proportion of total damages and losses experienced, particularly in urban areas, where sewerage overcharging, localised river flooding, and overland flow, can conspire to cause significant loss potential to concentrations of assets and populations. Events such as the Summer 2007 floods in the UK have shown that there is a significant risk to key urban centres. However, current approaches to the quantitative assessment of flood risk, and the estimation of the potential frequency and severity of events, poorly represent flood risk from intense, localised rainfall. This causes problems not only for insurers and reinsurers, but also for urban planners, local authorities and emergency services where assessment of localised impacts from intense rainfall flooding form a key component of risk assessment needs. The localised nature of pluvial flooding, and the importance of complex terrain, drainage and pathways in determining water ponding within urban areas, makes the modelling of urban pluvial flood risk particularly problematic. Current approaches, usually through statistical means, or simple flood risk ‘maps' based on conventional topographic information, provide some information to assist risk decisions, but lack the level of detail necessary for accurate representation of the flood extents and depths in relation to the properties and other assets exposed. New techniques including ground based lasers-canner (LIDAR) provide a potential source for ultra-high resolution (centimetre) terrain information, which can be incorporated within urban scale hydrological-hydraulic model to provide appropriate resolution flood models. The corresponding development of new, efficient hydraulic models [Paul, Tim to add a bit here] with the ability to handle the high spatial and temporal resolutions required of urban flood provides a new modelling environment with which to tackle urban flood risk assessment, including the construction of appropriate probabilistic flood models. This paper will describe new research being undertaken to assess the practicality of ultra-high resolution, ground based laser-scanner data for flood modelling in urban centres, using new hydraulic propagation methods to determine the feasibility of such data to be applied within stochastic event models. Results from the collection of ‘point cloud' data collected from a mobile terrestrial laser-scanner system in a key urban centre, combined with appropriate datasets, will be summarized here and an initial assessment of the potential for the use of such data in stochastic event sets will be made. Conclusions are drawn from comparisons with previous studies and underlying DEM products of similar resolutions in terms of computational time, flood extent and flood depth. Based on the above, the study provides some current recommendations on the most appropriate resolution of input data for urban hydraulic modelling.

Fewtrell, Tim; Foote, Matt; Bates, Paul; Ntelekos, Alexandros

2010-05-01

260

Temperature trends and Urban Heat Island intensity mapping of the Las Vegas valley area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Modified urban climate regions that are warmer than rural areas at night are referred to as Urban Heat Islands or UHI. Islands of warmer air over a city can be 12 degrees Celsius greater than the surrounding cooler air. The exponential growth in Las Vegas for the last two decades provides an opportunity to detect gradual temperature changes influenced by an increasing presence of urban materials. This thesis compares ground based thermometric observations and satellite based remote sensing temperature observations to identify temperature trends and UHI areas caused by urban development. Analysis of temperature trends between 2000 and 2010 at ground weather stations has revealed a general cooling trend in the Las Vegas region. Results show that urban development accompanied by increased vegetation has a cooling effect in arid climates. Analysis of long term temperature trends at McCarran and Nellis weather stations show 2.4 K and 1.2 K rise in temperature over the last 60 years. The ground weather station temperature data is related to the land surface temperature images from the Landsat Thematic Mapper to estimate and evaluate urban heat island intensity for Las Vegas. Results show that spatial and temporal trends of temperature are related to the gradual change in urban landcover. UHI are mainly observed at the airport and in the industrial areas. This research provides useful insight into the temporal behavior of the Las Vegas area.

Black, Adam Leland

261

Land use of northern megalopolis from ERTS-1 imagery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author has identified the following significant results. A color-coded urban-type land use map of the three northern megalopolitan states of Massachusetts, Connecticut, and Rhode Island has been completed from ERTS-1 images. A computer data bank containing 11 categories of land use for the entire area by 1/4-square-kilometer cells is 80% completed. When completed, the data bank will permit the investigation to proceed to brief analytical studies for completion of the study.

Simpson, R. B. (principal investigator)

1973-01-01

262

Synthesis of China's land use in the past 300 years  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

China's land use has undergone many changes over the past 300 years due to the significant transformations caused by natural and human factors and their impact on regional climate and the environment. This comprehensive review of recent state-of-the-art studies of China's land-use changes during that period concentrates on cropland, forest, grassland and urban areas. While most small-scale studies have reconstructed information from historical archive data and focused on a specific time period, large-scale studies have tended to rely on inverse modeling techniques to interpret land-use change dynamics based on remote-sensing data for example, the global land-use products of the History Database of the Global Environment (HYDE) and Center for Sustainability and the Global Environment (SAGE) datasets. All studies have shown that the cropland areas in China increased between 1700 and 1950, although they indicate different magnitudes and rates. A decrease in forest coverage was also reported in all studies. Little information was available on urban and grassland areas over the same period. Rapid urbanization in China has been particularly evident in the past 50 years. Meanwhile, spatially explicit reconstructions of historical land-use change in China since 1700 remain highly uncertain due to the lack of reliable data. Extensive work on primary data collection is required, including land-use records and drivers for future change.

Miao, Lijuan; Zhu, Feng; He, Bin; Ferrat, Marion; Liu, Qiang; Cao, Xue; Cui, Xuefeng

2013-01-01

263

High resolution scenarios of land-use and land-cover change for the conterminous United States  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe a series of high resolution maps of past and projected changes in land use and land cover (LULC) for the conterminous United States for the period 1992 to 2100. Four scenarios from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's (IPCC) Special Report on Emission Scenarios (SRES) were used to create annual maps showing spatially explicit change in 15 LULC classes at a spatial resolution of 250 meters. A modular land-use modeling approach was utilized with distinct demand and spatial allocation components. To quantify demand for future LULC change (i.e. the quantity of changes in land use and land cover classes), a scenario downscaling model was developed to extend global scenarios from the IPCC to hierarchically nested ecoregions of the U.S. The Forecasting Scenarios (FORE-SCE) land use model was then employed to allocate scenario demand on the landscape. Both models were parameterized at the ecoregion scale and relied extensively on land use histories and expert knowledge. Results reveal large differences across IPCC-SRES scenarios. Scenarios prioritizing economic development over environmental protection result in the highest rates of LULC change, particularly in regions with extensive forest management, large urban areas, and/or large investments in agricultural land. Scenarios where environmental protection is emphasized result in slower rates of change and less intensity in regional land use patterns.

Sleeter, B. M.; Sohl, T. L.; Bouchard, M. A.; Reker, R. R.; Sayler, K.; Sleeter, R.; Soulard, C. E.; Wilson, T. S.

2012-12-01

264

Land use as an environmental science  

SciTech Connect

The usefulness of a parcel of land is directly dependent upon its accessibility; the costs of the preparation, development and use of the site; its biological and mineral resources including water; and/or its aesthetic qualities. It is inversely related to the number of alternative available parcels and to the presence of nuisance-generating qualities of nearby parcels. All of these and other factors are either consciously or subconsciously considered in the evaluation of profit or advantage to be gained from a parcel and, therefore, in the perception of its value. In general, land-use function and intensity are proportional to value. For these reasons, an analysis of the patterns of land use in terms of function and intensity promises an expression of the relative importance of the various environmental factors as they are perceived in the market place. It offers an operational approach to the integration of a complex of environmental conditions. 39 references, 2 figures.

Peltier, L.C.

1981-07-01

265

Development of Evaluation on Urban Land Intensive Use System Based on the Distributional Structure of Client\\/Serve  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study is to develop an information system for evaluation of urban land Intensive use, so as to make the evaluating processes modeled and automated. Evaluation of Intensive urban land (EIUL) is considers as research object, and the methods and index system of EIUL is confirmed. To deal with the problems and the shortages of EIUL, this

Pan Hongyi; Gu Jirong; He Wei; Jiang Guiguo

2012-01-01

266

Modeling land-use change  

SciTech Connect

Tropical land-use change is generally considered to be the greatest net contributor of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere after fossil-fuel burning. However, estimates vary widely, with one major cause of variation being that terrestrial ecosystems are both a source and a sink for carbon. This article describes two spatially explicit models which simulate rates and patterns of tropical land-use change: GEOMOD1, based on intuitive assumptions about how people develop land over time, and GEOMOD2, based on a statistical analysis of how people have actually used the land. The models more closely estimate the connections between atmospheric carbon dioxide, deforestation, and other land use changes.

NONE

1995-12-31

267

Influences of upland and riparian land use patterns on stream biotic integrity  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We explored land use, fish assemblage structure, and stream habitat associations in 20 catchments in Opequon Creek watershed, West Virginia. The purpose was to determine the relative importance of urban and agriculture land use on stream biotic integrity, and to evaluate the spatial scale (i.e., whole-catchment vs riparian buffer) at which land use effects were most pronounced. We found that index of biological integrity (IBI) scores were strongly associated with extent of urban land use in individual catchments. Sites that received ratings of poor or very poor based on IBI scores had > 7% of urban land use in their respective catchments. Habitat correlations suggested that urban land use disrupted flow regime, reduced water quality, and altered stream channels. In contrast, we found no meaningful relationship between agricultural land use and IBI at either whole-catchment or riparian scales despite strong correlations between percent agriculture and several important stream habitat measures, including nitrate concentrations, proportion of fine sediments in riffles, and the abundance of fish cover. We also found that variation in gradient (channel slope) influenced responses of fish assemblages to land use. Urban land use was more disruptive to biological integrity in catchments with steeper channel slopes. Based on comparisons of our results in the topographically diverse Opequon Creek watershed with results from watersheds in flatter terrains, we hypothesize that the potential for riparian forests to mitigate effects of deleterious land uses in upland portions of the watershed is inversely related to gradient.

Snyder, C. D.; Young, J. A.; Villella, R.; Lemarie, D. P.

2003-01-01

268

Agriculture adjustment, land-use transition and protected areas in Northwestern Argentina.  

PubMed

Land-use change is the main component of regional environmental change, while protected areas represent a direct land use policy to prevent its potentially negative effects on biodiversity and environmental services. We combined an analysis of trends in land use and human demography with trends in creation of protected areas during the last three decades in northwestern Argentina, a subtropical region including a wide range of environments. The eighty nine administrative analysis units of the region were classified into four ecological groups based on their percentage of cover by the six eco-regions of the study area: (1) "Dry valleys"; dominated by Middle-elevation deserts; (2) "Highlands", dominated by High-elevation alpine zones and plateaus; (3) "Humid ecosystems", dominated by Foggy grasslands and Humid forests, and (4) "Dry forests". Between 1970 and 2002, human population became concentrated in urban areas and land use trends varied greatly among the four ecological groups. Agricultural area decreased in the Highlands and increased in the other regions, particularly in the Dry forests. Domestic animals decreased in Humid ecosystems, Highlands and the Dry valleys; and remained constant in the Dry forests. Several protected areas were created, but most of them were established in regions undergoing a decreasing intensity of land use. Overall, the analysis shows that agricultural production is becoming concentrated in the areas more suitable for modern agriculture while marginal agriculture areas and, particularly, extensive grazing are decreasing. The creation of protected areas reflects the decreasing opportunity costs of marginal areas and is failing to protect the eco-regions most threatened by current land-use trends. PMID:18439743

Izquierdo, Andrea E; Grau, H Ricardo

2009-02-01

269

Distribution patterns and sources of metals and PAHs in an intensely urbanized area: The Acerra-Pomigliano-Marigliano conurbation (Italy)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main objective of the URGE (URban GEochemistry) project is to define, map and interpretate the geochemical baseline patterns of potentially harmful elements and compounds in the soils of 12 european urban areas using shared procedures for both sampling and analytical techniques. In Italy, in the framework of the URGE project, the north-eastern sector of the Napoli metropolitan area, namely the Acerra-Pomigliano-Marigliano conurbation, has undergone a geochemical characterization based on 145 soil samples collected over an area of 90 sq km. This area has been selected on the basis of the results obtained from previous regional studies [1, 2, 3] and because of the presence on its territory of an historical industrial settlement (formerly devoted to plastic materials and synthetic fibres production) which was partly dismantled and party converted to a power plant fuelled by palm oil. Furthermore, in March 2009 also an incinerator came into operation in the northern sector of the study area. The main objective of the study carried out for the Acerra-Pomigliano-Marigliano conurbation was to define the local geochemical baselines for both 53 elements (among which the toxic ones) and some organic compounds, including PAHs and OCPs. The study also aimed at supporting epidemiological researches at local scale and at establishing a record of the actual environmental conditions to evaluate the future impact of the incinerator on both the territory and the public health. Results obtained showed that Pb, Zn and V exceed the trigger limits established by the Italian Environmental law (D.Lgs. 152/2006) especially in correspondence with the most densely populated areas of the conurbation and where the traffic load is higher (Road junctions and fast lanes). Furthermore, most of the soils collected in the surroundings of the urbanized areas resulted to be generally enriched in Cu, Co, Cd, Be, Ni and P suggesting the presence of a relevant influence on their chemistry of an agricultural intensive land use. PAHs distribution pattern showed anomalous values across the whole study area. Especially, Benzo[a]pyrene values exceeds the trigger limits established by the Italian Environmental law (D.Lgs. 152/2006) in most of the analyzed soils and the diagnostic ratios calculated among several PAHs compounds suggested that the biomass burning in the rural sector of the study area could be a relevant source of pollution. The palm oil fuelled power plant in the northern sector of Acerra could not be excluded as a source of PAHs in the environment. [1] Albanese et al (2007) JGE 93, 21-34. [2] Cicchella et al (2008) GEEA 8 (1), 19-29. [3] De Vivo et al (2006) Aracne Editrice, Roma. 324 pp.

Albanese, Stefano; Lima, Annamaria; Rezza, Carmela; Ferullo, Giampiero; De Vivo, Benedetto; Chen, Wei; Qi, Shihua

2014-05-01

270

Land Use and Public Health  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site provides an overview of how public and private land use and development affect environmental and human health. Special topics include hazardous waste sites such as Superfund sites and "brownfields," sprawl and transportation issues, development of antibiotic resistance in humans due to antibiotic use on farm animals, and how land use can contaminate surface waters. The site also features links to current news and related resources and organizations.

Responsibility, Physicians F.; Envirohealthaction

271

Trenton, Tennessee. Population, Economy, Land Use Survey, Land Use Standards, Land Use Analysis and Plan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

After a brief introduction, the site characteristics are discussed. The population trends, characteristics, change, projections and distribution are analyzed to aid the community in planning services and future land use requirements. The local economy is ...

1972-01-01

272

Automatic land use classification using Skylab S-192 multispectral data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Investigation of the accuracy attainable in automatic land use classification using 13 bands of multispectral data from the Skylab S-192 scanner. Classification to levels containing seven urban classes, five agricultural, and three water classes is shown to be achievable. With 17 classes, a classification accuracy of 72% was obtained. A wide spectral range, including the thermal band, appears to be most useful for distinguishing urban classes. Agricultural and water classes can be separated using spectral bands covering the visible to far IR.

Kirvida, L.; Cheung, M.

1974-01-01

273

Leaf breakdown in streams differing in catchment land use  

USGS Publications Warehouse

1. The impact of changes in land use on stream ecosystem function is poorly understood. We studied leaf breakdown, a fundamental process of stream ecosystems, in streams that represent a range of catchment land use in the Piedmont physiographic province of the south-eastern United States. 2. We placed bags of chalk maple (Acer barbatum) leaves in similar-sized streams in 12 catchments of differing dominant land use: four forested, three agricultural, two suburban and three urban catchments. We measured leaf mass, invertebrate abundance and fungal biomass in leaf bags over time. 3. Leaves decayed significantly faster in agricultural (0.0465 day-1) and urban (0.0474 day-1) streams than in suburban (0.0173 day-1) and forested (0.0100 day-1) streams. Additionally, breakdown rates in the agricultural and urban streams were among the fastest reported for deciduous leaves in any stream. Nutrient concentrations in agricultural streams were significantly higher than in any other land-use type. Fungal biomass associated with leaves was significantly lower in urban streams; while shredder abundance in leaf bags was significantly higher in forested and agricultural streams than in suburban and urban streams. Storm runoff was significantly higher in urban and suburban catchments that had higher impervious surface cover than forested or agricultural catchments. 4. We propose that processes accelerating leaf breakdown in agricultural and urban streams were not the same: faster breakdown in agricultural streams was due to increased biological activity as a result of nutrient enrichment, whereas faster breakdown in urban streams was a result of physical fragmentation resulting from higher storm runoff. ?? 2006 The Authors.

Paul, M. J.; Meyer, J. L.; Couch, C. A.

2006-01-01

274

Urban change detection using coherence and intensity characteristics of multi-temporal SAR imagery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Change detection using multi-temporal SAR images is one of the most important applications of remote sensing technology. A new method for unsupervised change detection in urban area with multi-temporal SAR images is proposed in this paper. The method operates in two steps: change measures computation and unsupervised 2-D thresholding. In the first step, two change measures, backscattering intensity variation and

M. He; X. F. He

2009-01-01

275

Research of land use change in the Pearl River Delta  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on five series of TM images, the quantity and spatial feature changes of land use in Pearl River Delta region during the period of 1985 to 2005 were analyzed quantitatively with the support of RS and GIS technology. The results showed a significant increase in the area of urban and rural construction land and a decrease of arable land,

Yang Jian; Lin Kui; Yang Dayong; Zhao Kunrong

2010-01-01

276

Impact of land use changes on surface warming in China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Land use changes such as urbanization, agriculture, pasturing, deforestation, desertification and irrigation can change the land surface heat flux directly, and also change the atmospheric circulation indirectly, and therefore affect the local temperature. But it is difficult to separate their effects from climate trends such as greenhouse-gas effects. Comparing the decadal trends of the observation station data with those of the NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis (NNR) data provides a good method to separate the effects because the NNR is insensitive to land surface changes. The effects of urbanization and other land use changes over China are estimated by using the difference between the station and the NNR surface temperature trends. Our results show that urbanization and other land use changes may contribute to the observed 0.12°C (10yr)-1 increase for daily mean surface temperature, and the 0.20°C (10yr)-1 and 0.03°C (10 yr)-1 increases for the daily minimum and maximum surface temperatures, respectively. The urban heat island effect and the effects of other land-use changes may also play an important role in the diurnal temperature range change. The spatial pattern of the differences in trends shows a marked heterogeneity. The land surface degradation such as deforestation and desertification due to human activities over northern China, and rapidly-developed urbanization over southern China, may have mostly contributed to the increases at stations north of about 38°N and in Southeast China, respectively. Furthermore, the vegetation cover increase due to irrigation and fertilization may have contributed to the decreasing trend of surface temperature over the lower Yellow River Basin. The study illustrates the possible impacts of land use changes on surface temperature over China.

Zhang, Jingyong; Dong, Wenjie; Wu, Lingyun; Wei, Jiangfeng; Chen, Peiyan; Lee, Dong-Kyou

2005-06-01

277

Remote sensing. [land use mapping  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Various imaging techniques are outlined for use in mapping, land use, and land management in Mexico. Among the techniques discussed are pattern recognition and photographic processing. The utilization of information from remote sensing devices on satellites are studied. Multispectral band scanners are examined and software, hardware, and other program requirements are surveyed.

Jinich, A.

1979-01-01

278

Minnesota's Land Use Planning Process.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The goals for Minnesota's land use planning process are described in the State Planning Agency's Overall Program Design and the biennual budget of other state agencies. They represent broad statements of what is to be achieved in major functional and coor...

1978-01-01

279

Land use planning in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

India was the first country to provide for the protection and improvement of environment in its constitution. Land use planning (LUP) or siting of industries has been taken up at the State and Central (Federal) levels over the last few decades. LUP is critical for all types of industries and new residential colonies, but is especially so for the chemical

J. P. Gupta

2006-01-01

280

Preliminary evaluations of regional ground-water quality in relation to land use  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Preliminary results from New York, New Jersey, Connecticut, Florida, Nebraska, and Colorado indicate that regional ground-water quality has been affected by human activities. The frequencies of detection of volatile organic compounds and some trace elements were larger in ground water underlying urban or industrial areas in comparison to undeveloped areas. Ground water in agricultural areas generally had larger concentrations of nitrate and an increased frequency of detection of pesticides. Effects of human activities on water quality increased as the intensity of urbanization or irrigation increased. Ground-water pumpage, waste-water discharges into a stream that is hydraulically connected to an alluvial aquifer, and consumptive use of ground water affected the ground-water quality in one study area to a greater extent than land-use practices. -from Authors

Cain, D.; Helsel, D. R.; Ragone, S. E.

1989-01-01

281

Variability of atmospheric pesticide concentrations between urban and rural areas during intensive pesticide application  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Intensive pesticide use leads to the contamination of water, soil and atmosphere. Atmospheric transport is responsible for pesticide dispersal over long distances. In this study, we evaluate the local dispersal of pesticides from agricultural to urban areas. For this purpose, three high-volume samplers, each equipped with a glass fiber filter and XAD-2 resin for the sampling of particulate and gas phase have been placed in a south-west transect (predominant wind direction) characteristic of rural and urban areas. The urban site (Strasbourg centre) is situated in the middle of two rural sites. Samples were taken simultaneously at three sites during pesticide treatments in autumn and spring 2002-2003. Sampling took place for 24 h at a flow rate of 10-15 m 3 h -1. The pesticides studied were those commonly used in the Alsace region for all crops (maize, cereal, vines …). Many of the pesticides analysed in atmospheric samples were not detected or observed very episodically at very low concentrations. For metolachlor, alachlor, trifluralin, atrazine and diflufenican, higher concentrations were observed, essentially during the application of these compounds. Moreover, some "spraying peaks" were observed for alachlor in the south rural site (near crops) at a level of 31 ng m -3 on 16-17 May 2003. These results show site and time dependence of atmospheric contamination by pesticides. A limited dispersal was also observed especially in the urban area during the application periods of pesticides.

Scheyer, Anne; Morville, Stéphane; Mirabel, Philippe; Millet, Maurice

282

Influence of land use on the quantity and quality of runoff along Israel's coastal strip  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study presents an analysis of the quantity and quality of urban runoff from various land uses by remote-sensing and GIS technology coupled with hydrological and chemical monitoring. The study areas were located in the cities of Herzliya and Ra'anana, in Israel's coastal plain, where extensive urbanization has taken place over the last 30 years. Land uses in urban basins were analyzed; rain and runoff were measured and sampled at measurement stations representing different land uses (residential, industrial, commercial, roads, gas station). The aim was to analyze land uses by different remote-sensing and GIS techniques, to evaluate the quality and quantity of urban storm water from various land uses, and to verify a method for predicting the impact of urban land uses on quantity and quality of urban storm water. The quality of urban storm water from residential areas was generally very high, and the water is suitable for reuse or direct recharge into the local aquifer. In light of the serious state of the Israeli water sector and the large amounts of unused runoff produced by Israel's cities, together with the high quality of urban storm water drained from the residential areas, it is important to exploit this water source

Goldshleger, Naftaly; Asaf, Lior; Maor, Alon; Garzuzi, Jamil Jamil

2013-04-01

283

Spatiotemporal trends of terrestrial vegetation activity along the urban development intensity gradient in China's 32 major cities.  

PubMed

Terrestrial vegetation plays many pivotal roles in urban systems. However, the impacts of urbanization on vegetation are poorly understood. Here we examined the spatiotemporal trends of the vegetation activity measured by MODIS Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) along Urban Development Intensity (UDI) gradient in 32 major Chinese cities from 2000 to 2012. We also proposed to use a new set of concepts (i.e., actual, theoretical, and positive urbanization effects) to better understand and quantify the impacts of urbanization on vegetation activities. Results showed that the EVI decreased significantly along a rising UDI for 28 of 32 cities (p<0.05) in linear, convex or concave form, signifying the urbanization impacts on vegetation varied across cities and UDI zones within a city. Further, the actual urbanization effects were much weaker than the theoretical estimates because of the offsetting positive effects generated by multiple urban environmental and anthropogenic factors. Examining the relative changes of EVI in various UDI zones against that in the rural area (?EVI), which effectively removed the effects of climate variability, demonstrated that ?EVI decreased markedly from 2000 to 2012 for about three-quarters of the cities in the exurban (0.05urban (0.5urban core (0.75urban and urban core of many cities could primarily be attributed to the importance of positive effects derived from the urban environment and the improvement of management and maintenance of urban green space. More work is needed to quantify mechanistically the detailed negative and positive effects of urban environmental factors and management practices on vegetation activities. PMID:24829041

Zhou, Decheng; Zhao, Shuqing; Liu, Shuguang; Zhang, Liangxia

2014-08-01

284

Planning and developing a prehospital mobile intensive care system in an urban setting.  

PubMed Central

A suggested model for the development of an urban based prehospital emergency care system is described. Factors considered in the planning and development include: 1) demand for services, projected and actual; 2) analysis of costs; 3) design and maintenance of the delivery system; and 4) establishment of the evaluation mechanisms. Over one year's experience and 1,144 mobile intensive care unit (MICU) calls in a densely populated urban setting with over 500,000 persons are reported. During the peak 8-hour period, predetermined dispatch categories were employed to activate one MICU operating in conjunction with three conventional ambulances. This partial conversion imparted MICU capability to the entire system at an 11 per cent increase in the ambulance budget. MICU calls averaged 4.5 per 8-hour peak shift and took 45 minutes each.

Pascarelli, E F; Katz, I B

1978-01-01

285

Derivation of Nationally Consistent Indices Representing Urban Intensity Within and Across Nine Metropolitan Areas of the Conterminous United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Two nationally consistent multimetric indices of urban intensity were developed to support studies of the effects of urbanization on streams in nine metropolitan areas of the conterminous United States: Atlanta, Georgia; Birmingham, Alabama; Boston, Massachusetts; Dallas-Fort Worth, Texas; Denver, Colorado; Milwaukee-Green Bay, Wisconsin; Portland, Oregon; Raleigh, North Carolina; and Salt Lake City, Utah. These studies were conducted as a part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program. These urban intensity indices were used to define gradients of urbanization and to interpret biological, physical, and chemical changes along these gradients. Ninety census, land-cover, and infrastructure variables obtained from nationally available databases were evaluated. Only variables that exhibited a strong and consistent linear relation with 2000 population density were considered for use in the indices. Housing-unit density (HUDEN), percentage of basin area in developed land (P_NLCD1_2), and road density (ROADDEN) were selected as the best representatives of census, land-cover, and infrastructure variables. The metropolitan area national urban intensity index (MA-NUII) was scaled to represent urban intensity within each metropolitan area and ranged from 0 (little or no urban) to 100 (maximum urban) for sites within each metropolitan area. The national urban intensity index (NUII) was scaled to represent urban intensity across all nine metropolitan areas and ranged from 0 to 100 for all sites. The rates at which HUDEN, P_NLCD1_2, and ROADDEN changed with changes in population density varied among metropolitan areas. Therefore, these variables were adjusted to obtain a more uniform rate of response across metropolitan areas in the derivation of the NUII. The NUII indicated that maximum levels of urban intensity occurred in the West and Midwest rather than in the East primarily because small inner-city streams in eastern metropolitan areas are buried and converted to storm drains or sewers and because of higher density development in the Western and Central United States. The national indices (MA-NUII, NUII) were compared to indices that were derived independently for each metropolitan area (MA-UII) based on variables that were of local interest. The MA-UIIs, which were based on 5 to 40 variables, tended to overestimate urban intensity relative to the national indices particularly when the MA-UII was composed of large numbers of variables that were not linearly related to population density as in Denver, Dallas-Fort Worth, and Milwaukee-Green Bay.

Cuffney, Thomas F.; Falcone, James A.

2009-01-01

286

Analysis and simulation of land-use change in the central Arizona - Phoenix region, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

To understand how urbanization has transformed the desert landscape in the central Arizona - Phoenix region of the United States, we conducted a series of spatial analyses of the land-use pattern from 1912-1995. The results of the spatial analysis show that the extent of urban area has increased exponentially for the past 83 years, and this urban expansion is correlated

G. Darrel Jenerette; Jianguo Wu

2001-01-01

287

Land Use Analysis, Vigo County Area, Indiana.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The study concentrates upon 1960-1971 land use data. It provides the resources required to analyze the areas land usage and to develop a land use plan. This study concerns general land use trends and compilation and development of land use data relating t...

J. Sheehan

1972-01-01

288

Some findings on the applications of ERTS and Skylab imagery for metropolitan land use analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author has identified the following significant results. Work undertaken on a three-sensor land use data evaluation for a portion of the Phoenix area is reported. Analyses between land use data generated from 1970 high altitude photography and that detectable from ERTS and Skylab, especially in terms of changes in land use indicate that ERTS and Skylab imagery can be used effectively to detect and identify areas of post-1970 land use change, especially those documenting urban expansion at the rural-urban fringe. Significant preliminary findings on the utility of ERTS and Skylab data for metropolitan land use analysis, substantiated by evaluation with 1970 and 1972 ground control land use data are reported.

Alexander, R. H. (principal investigator); Milazzo, V. A.

1974-01-01

289

Land Use, Residential Density, and Walking  

PubMed Central

Background The neighborhood environment may play a role in encouraging sedentary patterns, especially for middle-aged and older adults. Purpose Associations between walking and neighborhood population density, retail availability, and land use distribution were examined using data from a cohort of adults aged 45 to 84 years old. Methods Data from a multi-ethnic sample of 5529 adult residents of Baltimore MD, Chicago IL, Forsyth County NC, Los Angeles CA, New York NY, and St. Paul MN, enrolled in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis in 2000–2002 were linked to secondary land use and population data. Participant reports of access to destinations and stores and objective measures of the percentage of land area in parcels devoted to retail land uses, the population divided by land area in parcels, and the mixture of uses for areas within 200m of each participant's residence were examined. Multinomial logistic regression was used to investigate associations of self-reported and objective neighborhood characteristics with walking. All analyses were conducted in 2008 and 2009. Results After adjustment for individual-level characteristics and neighborhood connectivity, higher density, greater land area devoted to retail uses, and self-reported measures of proximity of destinations and ease of walking to places were each related to walking. In models including all land use measures, population density was positively associated with walking to places and with walking for exercise for more than 90 min/wk both relative to no walking. Availability of retail was associated with walking to places relative to not walking, having a more proportional mix of land uses was associated with walking for exercise for more than 90 min/wk, while self-reported ease of access to places was related to higher levels of exercise walking both relative to not walking. Conclusions Residential density and the presence of retail uses are related to various walking behaviors. Efforts to increase walking may benefit from attention to the intensity and type of land development.

Rodriguez, Daniel A.; Evenson, Kelly R.; Diez Roux, Ana V.; Brines, Shannon J.

2009-01-01

290

DYNAMICS OF LAND-USE AND LAND-COVER CHANGE IN TROPICAL REGIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

We highlight the complexity of land-use\\/cover change and propose a framework for a more general understanding of the issue, with emphasis on tropical regions. The review summarizes recent estimates on changes in cropland, agricultural intensification, tropical deforestation, pasture expansion, and urbanization and identifies the still unmeasured land-cover changes. Climate-driven land-cover modifications interact with land-use changes. Land-use change is driven by

Eric F. Lambin; Helmut J. Geist; Erika Lepers

2003-01-01

291

Risk-based Modeling to Develop Zoning Criteria for Land-use Near Canadian Airports  

Microsoft Academic Search

Land development in the vicinity of airports often leads to land-use that can attract birds that are hazardous to aviation operations. For this reason, certain forms of land-use have traditionally been discouraged within prescribed distances of Canadian airports. However, this often leads to an unrealistic prohibition of land-use in the vicinity of airports located in urban settings. Furthermore, it is

Rolph A. Davis; Terry Kelly; Richard Sowden; Bruce MacKinnon

2003-01-01

292

Evaluation of Urban Land Intensive Use Based on Analytic Hierarchy Process - A Case of Zhongxiang City, Hubei Province, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Taking Zhongxiang City, Hubei Province, China as an example, evaluation index system of urban land intensive use is established from four aspects of land economic benefit, land utilization degree, investment intensity, and sustainable utilization. Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) is used to determine the weight of evaluation index in research region. Taking the index numerical value of Hubei Province as the

Xinmao Luo; Hongwei He; Xinli Ke

2009-01-01

293

The use of LiDAR-derived high-resolution DSM and intensity data to support modelling of urban flooding  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper addresses the issue of a detailed representation of an urban catchment in terms of hydraulic and hydrologic attributes. Modelling of urban flooding requires a detailed knowledge of urban surface characteristics. The advancement in spatial data acquisition technology such as airborne LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) has greatly facilitated the collection of high-resolution topographic information. While the use of the LiDAR-derived Digital Surface Model (DSM) has gained popularity over the last few years as input data for a flood simulation model, the use of LiDAR intensity data has remained largely unexplored in this regard. LiDAR intensity data are acquired along with elevation data during the data collection mission by an aircraft. The practice of using of just aerial images with RGB (Red, Green and Blue) wavebands is often incapable of identifying types of surface under the shadow. On the other hand, LiDAR intensity data can provide surface information independent of sunlight conditions. The focus of this study is the use of intensity data in combination with aerial images to accurately map pervious and impervious urban areas. This study presents an Object-Based Image Analysis (OBIA) framework for detecting urban land cover types, mainly pervious and impervious surfaces in order to improve the rainfall-runoff modelling. Finally, this study shows the application of highresolution DSM and land cover maps to flood simulation software in order to visualize the depth and extent of urban flooding phenomena.

Aktaruzzaman, Md.; Schmitt, Theo G.

2011-10-01

294

Applications of Skylab data to land use and climatological analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author has identified the following significant results. Skylab study in Central Atlantic Regional Ecological Test Site encompassed two separate but related tasks: (1) evaluation of photographic sensors S190A and B as sources of land use data for planning and managing land resources in major metropolitan regions, and (2) evaluation of the multispectral scanner S192 used in conjunction with associated data and analytical techniques as a data source on urban climates and the surface energy balance. Photographs from the Skylab S190B earth terrain camera were of greatest interest in the land use analysis task; they were of sufficiently high resolution to identify and map many level 2 and 3 land use categories. After being corrected to allow for atmosphere effects, output from thermal and visible bands of the S192 was employed in constructing computer map plots of albedo and surface temperature.

Alexander, R. H. (principal investigator); Lewis, J. E., Jr.; Lins, H. F., Jr.; Jenner, C. B.; Outcalt, S. I.; Pease, R. W.

1976-01-01

295

Forecasting land use change and its environmental impact at a watershed scale  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urban expansion is a major driving force altering local and regional hydrology and increasing non-point source (NPS) pollution. To explore these environmental consequences of urbanization, land use change was forecast, and long-term runoff and NPS pollution were assessed in the Muskegon River watershed, located on the eastern coast of Lake Michigan. A land use change model, LTM, and a web-based

Z. Tang; B. A. Engel; B. C. Pijanowski; K. J. Lima

296

Aerosol accumulation intensity and composition variations under different weather conditions in urban environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the last decade aerosol (PM10, PM2.5) mass and composition measurements were done in different urban environments - parallel street canyons, industrial sites and at the background level in Riga, Latvia. Effect of meteorological parameters on the accumulation and ventilation intensity was investigated in order to understand microclimatological parameters affecting aerosol pollution level and chemical composition changes. In comparison to industrial sites (shipping activities, bulk cargo, oil and naphtha processing), urban street canyon aerosol mass concentration was significantly higher, for PM10 number of daily limit exceedances are higher by factor 3.4 - 3.9 in street canyons. Exceedances of PM2.5 annual limits were identified only in street canyons as well. Precipitation intensity, wind speed, days with mist highly correlates with aerosol concentration; in average during the year about 1 - 2 % presence of calm wind days, 20 - 30 days with mist facilitate accumulation of aerosols and mitigating growing of secondary aerosols. It has been assessed that about 25 % of daily exceedances in street canyons are connected with sea salt/street sanding factor. Strong dependency of wind speed and direction were identified in winter time - low winds (0.4 - 1.7 m/s) blowing from south, south-east (cross section of the street) contributing to PM10 concentrations over 100 - 150 ug/m3. Seasonal differences in aerosol concentrations were identified as a result of recombination of direct source impact, specific meteorological and synoptical conditions during the period from January until April when usually dominates extremely high aerosol concentrations. While aerosol mass concentration levels in monitoring sites significantly differs, concentrations of heavy metals (Pb, Ni, Cd, and As) are almost at the same level, even more - concentration of Cd for some years was higher in industrial area where main pollution is caused by oil processing and storage, heavy traffic activities and transportation by rail. The type of prevailing secondary aerosol formation was estimated by linear regression analysis which shows NOx prevalence in street canyons and urban background and SO2 associated reactions in industrial sites. Linear regression of traffic intensity in connection with aerosol pollution level shows domination of exhaust emissions during traffic jams and resuspension intensity during middle of the week.

Steinberga, Iveta; Bikshe, Janis; Eindorfa, Aiva

2014-05-01

297

Objective method for classifying air masses: an application to the analysis of Buenos Aires’ (Argentina) urban heat island intensity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  ¶During recent years, numerous studies have examined the Buenos Aires urban climate, but the relationship between large-scale\\u000a weather conditions and the Buenos Aires urban heat island (UHI) intensity has not been studied. The goal of this paper is\\u000a to apply an objective synoptic climatological method to identify homogeneous air masses or weather types affecting Buenos\\u000a Aires during winter, and to

R. A. Bejarán; I. A. Camilloni

2003-01-01

298

Estimating Demand for Industrial and Commercial Land Use Given Economic Forecasts  

PubMed Central

Current developments in the field of land use modelling point towards greater level of spatial and thematic resolution and the possibility to model large geographical extents. Improvements are taking place as computational capabilities increase and socioeconomic and environmental data are produced with sufficient detail. Integrated approaches to land use modelling rely on the development of interfaces with specialized models from fields like economy, hydrology, and agriculture. Impact assessment of scenarios/policies at various geographical scales can particularly benefit from these advances. A comprehensive land use modelling framework includes necessarily both the estimation of the quantity and the spatial allocation of land uses within a given timeframe. In this paper, we seek to establish straightforward methods to estimate demand for industrial and commercial land uses that can be used in the context of land use modelling, in particular for applications at continental scale, where the unavailability of data is often a major constraint. We propose a set of approaches based on ‘land use intensity’ measures indicating the amount of economic output per existing areal unit of land use. A base model was designed to estimate land demand based on regional-specific land use intensities; in addition, variants accounting for sectoral differences in land use intensity were introduced. A validation was carried out for a set of European countries by estimating land use for 2006 and comparing it to observations. The models’ results were compared with estimations generated using the ‘null model’ (no land use change) and simple trend extrapolations. Results indicate that the proposed approaches clearly outperformed the ‘null model’, but did not consistently outperform the linear extrapolation. An uncertainty analysis further revealed that the models’ performances are particularly sensitive to the quality of the input land use data. In addition, unknown future trends of regional land use intensity widen considerably the uncertainty bands of the predictions.

Batista e Silva, Filipe; Koomen, Eric; Diogo, Vasco; Lavalle, Carlo

2014-01-01

299

Sustainable land use evaluation spatialization analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discussed about the process and method of sustainable land use spatialization. Divide the indicator into statistical indicator and geospatial indicator. Take Guyuan County, Kangbao County and Zhangbei County in Bashang region of Hebei province, China as examples, build a sustainable land use evaluation indicator. Evaluate the sustainable land use in Bashang region in 2003; the result can describe

Bin Zhao; Jia-cun Li; Wen-ji Zhao

2010-01-01

300

Land use planning in India.  

PubMed

India was the first country to provide for the protection and improvement of environment in its constitution. Land use planning (LUP) or siting of industries has been taken up at the State and Central (Federal) levels over the last few decades. LUP is critical for all types of industries and new residential colonies, but is especially so for the chemical industries. With the experience gained, more coherence in LUP policies is emerging. A few prominent cases of siting of industry, some mixed with public outcry, that have affected the policies are noted in the text. Various factors which affect LUP in India are: population density, infrastructure (roads, power, communication, etc.), level of industrialization in different parts, need for creation of jobs, eco-sensitive regions, tribal regions, historical monuments, etc. This paper discusses the current scene in India and the near future aspects. PMID:16111811

Gupta, J P

2006-03-31

301

Land use change suppresses precipitation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A feedback loop between regional scale deforestation and climate change was investigated in an experiment using novel, small size airborne platforms and instrument setups. Experiments were performed in a worldwide unique natural laboratory in Western Australia, characterized by two adjacent homogeneous observation areas with distinctly different land use characteristics. Conversion of several ten thousand square km of forests into agricultural land began more than a century ago. Changes in albedo, surface roughness, the soil water budget and the planetary boundary layer evolved over decades. Besides different meteorology, we found a significant up to now overlooked source of aerosol over the agriculture area. The enhanced number of cloud condensation nuclei is coupled through the hydrological groundwater cycle with deforestation. Modification of surface properties and aerosol number concentrations are key factors for the observed reduction of precipitation. The results document the importance of aerosol indirect effects on climate due to nanometer size biogenic aerosol and human impact on aerosol sources.

Junkermann, W.; Hacker, J.; Lyons, T.; Nair, U.

2009-09-01

302

Land use change suppresses precipitation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A feedback loop between regional scale deforestation and climate change was investigated in an experiment using novel, small size airborne platforms and instrument setups. Experiments were performed in a worldwide unique natural laboratory in Western Australia, characterized by two adjacent homogeneous observation areas with distinctly different land use characteristics. Conversion of several ten thousand square km of forests into agricultural land began more than a century ago. Changes in albedo and surface roughness and the water budget of soil and the planetary boundary layer evolved over decades. Besides different meteorology we found a significant up to now overseen source of aerosol over the agriculture. The enhanced number of cloud condensation nuclei is coupled through the hydrological groundwater cycle with deforestation. Modification of surface properties and aerosol number concentrations are key factors for the observed reduction of precipitation. The results document the importance of aerosol indirect effects on climate due to nanometer size biogenic aerosol and human impact on aerosol sources.

Junkermann, W.; Hacker, J.; Lyons, T.; Nair, U.

2009-05-01

303

Adjustment of Peak Streamflows of a Tropical River for Urbanization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Peak runoff from a catchment is influenced by many factors such as intensity and duration of rainfall, catchment topography, catchment shape, land use and other variables. For a particular catchment, landuse change and other human activitie s will alter the characteristic of catchment hydrograph. Problem statement: As a result of urbanization, the magnitude of floo ds occurring in a catchment

Ata Amini; Thamer Mohammad Ali; Abdul Halim B Ghazali; Bujang Kim Huat

2009-01-01

304

Quantifying the impact of land-use changes at the event and seasonal time scale using a process-oriented catchment model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For optimal protection and integrated management of water resources, it is essential to quantify the impact of land-use change on hydrological regimes at various scales. Using the process-based catchment model TACD (tracer aided catchment model, distributed) two land-use scenarios were analysed for the rural and mountainous Dreisam basin (258 km2): (i) an increase in urban area from 2.5% to 5%) and (2) a change in a natural land-use to a different kind of forest. The first scenario was executed using the land-use change modelling kit LUCK, which takes into account the topology of land-use patterns in their true positions. The TACD model simulated all hydrological processes both spatially and temporally (200 m x 200 m grid, hourly mode). For this study, physically-based modules for interception and evapotranspiration (Penman and Monteith approach) were introduced. The model was applied to the Dreisam basin with minimal calibration. Both an independent validation period and discharge in four nested sub-basins were modelled well without recalibration. Evapotranspiration patterns were simulated, successfully, both temporally and spatially. Increased urbanisation had an insignificant effect on the modelled single events and on the yearly water balance. Simulations of discharge from forest assuming natural land-use conditions indicated an increase in transpiration, a decrease in groundwater recharge and, consequently, in groundwater discharge (-15%), in surface water discharge (-4%), and in flood peaks (-22.7% and -7.3% for convective and advective floods, respectively). Land-use impact was also investigated by applying rainfall scenarios of different durations (12, 24, 48, and 72 hours), magnitudes (recurrence intervals of 1, 5, and 10 years) and distributions of rainfall intensity, i.e. maximum intensity at the beginning, middle or end of the event. Clearly, the intensity distribution has a greater influence on the simulated events than different land use scenarios. This indicated the importance of careful determination of the temporal intensity distribution for flood peak predictions. The use of the process-based model enabled analysis of the altered composition of internal runoff components. This demonstrated the potentially significant local effects of land-use change on flood runoff and water quality.

Ott, B.; Uhlenbrook, S.

305

32 CFR 256.8 - Land use compatibility guidelines for accident potential.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...production and extraction and open land: Agriculture 10 Yes...designation for compatible land use is to be...but excludes feedlots and intensive animal husbandry. 11 Includes feedlots and intensive animal...

2010-07-01

306

32 CFR 256.8 - Land use compatibility guidelines for accident potential.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...production and extraction and open land: Agriculture 10 Yes...designation for compatible land use is to be...but excludes feedlots and intensive animal husbandry. 11 Includes feedlots and intensive animal...

2009-07-01

307

Agricultural land-use mapping using very high resolution satellite images in Canary Islands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Crop maps are a basic tool for rural planning and a way to asses the impact of politics and infrastructures in the rural environment. Thus, they must be accurate and updated. Because of the small size of the land fields in Canary Islands, until now the crop maps have been made by means of an intense and expensive field work. The tiny crop terraces do not allow the use of traditional medium-size resolution satellite images. The launch of several satellites with sub-meter spatial resolutions in the last years provides an opportunity to update land use maps in these fragmented areas. SATELMAC is a project financed by the PCT-MAC 2007-2013 (FEDER funds). One of the main objectives of this project is to develop a methodology that allows the use of very high resolution satellite images to automate as much as possible the updating of agricultural land use maps. The study was carried out in 3 different areas of the two main islands of the Canarian Archipelago, Tenerife and Gran Canaria. The total area is about 550 km2 , which includes both urban and rural areas. Multitemporal images from Geo-Eye 1 were acquired during a whole agricultural season to extract information about annual and perennial crops. The work includes a detailed geographic correction of the images and dealing with many adverse factors like cloud shadows, variability of atmospheric conditions and the heterogeneity of the land uses within the study area. Different classification methods, including traditional pixel-based methods and object-oriented approach, were compared in order to obtain the best accuracy. An intensive field work was carried out to obtain the ground truth, which is the base for the classification procedures and the validation of the results. The final results will be integrated into a cadastral vector layer.

Labrador Garcia, Mauricio; Arbelo, Manuel; Evora Brondo, Juan Antonio; Hernandez-Leal, Pedro A.; Alonso-Benito, Alfonso

308

Assessing the distribution of volatile organic compounds using land use regression in Sarnia, \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Land use regression (LUR) modelling is proposed as a promising approach to meet some of the challenges of assessing the intra-urban spatial variability of ambient air pollutants in urban and industrial settings. However, most of the LUR models to date have focused on nitrogen oxides and particulate matter. This study aimed at developing LUR models to predict BTEX (benzene,

Dominic Odwa Atari; Isaac N. Luginaah

2009-01-01

309

Nested High Resolution Modeling of the Impact of Urbanization on Regional Climate in Three Vast Urban Agglomerations in China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model coupled to the Urban Canopy Model (UCM) is employed to simulate the impact of urbanization on the regional climate over three vast city agglomerations in China. Based on high resolution land use and land cover data, two scenarios are designed to represent the non-urban and current urban land use distributions. By comparing the results of two nested, high resolution numerical experiments, the spatial and temporal changes on surface air temperature, heat stress index, surface energy budget and precipitation due to urbanization are analyzed and quantified. Urban expansion increases the surface air temperature in urban areas by about 1? and this climatic forcing of urbanization on temperature is more pronounced in summer and nighttime than other seasons and daytime. The heat stress intensity, which reflects the combined effects of temperature and humidity, is enhanced by about 0.5 units in urban areas. The regional incoming solar radiation increases after urban expansion, which may be caused by the reduction of cloud fraction. The increased temperature and roughness of the urban surface lead to enhanced convergence. Meanwhile, the planetary boundary layer is deepened and water vapor is mixed more evenly in the lower atmosphere. The deficit of water vapor leads to less convective available potential energy and more convective inhibition energy. Finally, these combined effects may reduce the rainfall amount over urban area mainly in summer and change the regional precipitation pattern to a certain extent.

Wang, Jun; Feng, Jinming; Yan, Zhongwei; Hu, Yonghong; Jia, Gensuo

2013-04-01

310

The effects of land use change on the numerical modeling of regional climate and watershed runoff in the Great Lakes region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Between 1895 and 1920 average air temperatures in the Midwest and United States declined by an amount similar to the increase observed from 1920 to 2000. The period 1895 to 1920 was also marked by land use changes from native forest and grassland to cropland. The investigation of a link between land use changes and climatic variability is the focus of this study. A mesoscale atmospheric model (MM5) was coupled with a puddle-modified Biosphere-Atmosphere Transfer Scheme (BATS) to model the regional climate. Verification simulations showed the BATS-modified MM5 was superior to the original MM5 in the prediction of surface water runoff and precipitation magnitude and distribution. To assess the effect of land use change on the summer climate of the Great Lakes region, four-month numerical experiments were completed using two land use scenarios, pre-settlement (1850) and current (1995). The results showed a significant modeled surface air temperature decrease in the latter period due to a repartitioning of the upward surface energy flux from sensible heat to evaporation. The modeled precipitation change was complex and appeared to be influenced very little by local land use change. However, there appeared to be a consistent modification of synoptic systems throughout the pre-settlement domain, with cold fronts and associated closed lows moving faster and isolated cold fronts moving more slowly. Clear, coherent mesoscale circulations formed over regions of abrupt, altered land use as expected due to surface heating but appear to have little effect on local precipitation. To assess the effects of future land use and climate change on the Huron River watershed, the BATS was further modified to include urban land use. The output from a global climate model was used to drive this version of the BATS. The simulations showed that the ten-year surface runoff would increase 28.9 inches from a current land use and climate scenario to a future land use and climate scenario. Factor separation analysis showed that 58% of this runoff increase would occur because of changing climate induced by higher intensity precipitation. The remainder of the increase was predominately due to forecasted land use changes.

Barlage, Michael Jon

2001-12-01

311

An analysis of urban thermal characteristics and associated land cover in Tampa Bay and Las Vegas using Landsat satellite data  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Remote sensing data from both Landsat 5 and Landsat 7 systems were utilized to assess urban area thermal characteristics in Tampa Bay watershed of west-central Florida, and the Las Vegas valley of southern Nevada. To quantitatively determine urban land use extents and development densities, sub-pixel impervious surface areas were mapped for both areas. The urban-rural boundaries and urban development densities were defined by selecting certain imperviousness threshold values and Landsat thermal bands were used to investigate urban surface thermal patterns. Analysis results suggest that urban surface thermal characteristics and patterns can be identified through qualitatively based urban land use and development density data. Results show the urban area of the Tampa Bay watershed has a daytime heating effect (heat-source), whereas the urban surface in Las Vegas has a daytime cooling effect (heat-sink). These thermal effects strongly correlated with urban development densities where higher percent imperviousness is usually associated with higher surface temperature. Using vegetation canopy coverage information, the spatial and temporal distributions of urban impervious surface and associated thermal characteristics are demonstrated to be very useful sources in quantifying urban land use, development intensity, and urban thermal patterns. ?? 2006 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Xian, G.; Crane, M.

2006-01-01

312

Long-term effects of changing land use practices on surface water quality in a coastal river and lagoonal estuary.  

PubMed

The watershed of the Neuse River, a major tributary of the largest lagoonal estuary on the U.S. mainland, has sustained rapid growth of human and swine populations. This study integrated a decade of available land cover and water quality data to examine relationships between land use changes and surface water quality. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) analysis was used to characterize 26 subbasins throughout the watershed for changes in land use during 1992-2001, considering urban, agricultural (cropland, animal as pasture, and densities of confined animal feed operations [CAFOs]), forested, grassland, and wetland categories and numbers of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). GIS was also used together with longitudinal regression analysis to identify specific land use characteristics that influenced surface water quality. Total phosphorus concentrations were significantly higher during summer in subbasins with high densities of WWTPs and CAFOs. Nitrate was significantly higher during winter in subbasins with high numbers of WWTPs, and organic nitrogen was higher in subbasins with higher agricultural coverage, especially with high coverage of pastures fertilized with animal manure. Ammonium concentrations were elevated after high precipitation. Overall, wastewater discharges in the upper, increasingly urbanized Neuse basin and intensive swine agriculture in the lower basin have been the highest contributors of nitrogen and phosphorus to receiving surface waters. Although nonpoint sources have been emphasized in the eutrophication of rivers and estuaries such as the Neuse, point sources continue to be major nutrient contributors in watersheds sustaining increasing human population growth. The described correlation and regression analyses represent a rapid, reliable method to relate land use patterns to water quality, and they can be adapted to watersheds in any region. PMID:19597872

Rothenberger, Meghan B; Burkholder, JoAnn M; Brownie, Cavell

2009-09-01

313

Long-Term Effects of Changing Land Use Practices on Surface Water Quality in a Coastal River and Lagoonal Estuary  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The watershed of the Neuse River, a major tributary of the largest lagoonal estuary on the U.S. mainland, has sustained rapid growth of human and swine populations. This study integrated a decade of available land cover and water quality data to examine relationships between land use changes and surface water quality. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) analysis was used to characterize 26 subbasins throughout the watershed for changes in land use during 1992-2001, considering urban, agricultural (cropland, animal as pasture, and densities of confined animal feed operations [CAFOs]), forested, grassland, and wetland categories and numbers of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). GIS was also used together with longitudinal regression analysis to identify specific land use characteristics that influenced surface water quality. Total phosphorus concentrations were significantly higher during summer in subbasins with high densities of WWTPs and CAFOs. Nitrate was significantly higher during winter in subbasins with high numbers of WWTPs, and organic nitrogen was higher in subbasins with higher agricultural coverage, especially with high coverage of pastures fertilized with animal manure. Ammonium concentrations were elevated after high precipitation. Overall, wastewater discharges in the upper, increasingly urbanized Neuse basin and intensive swine agriculture in the lower basin have been the highest contributors of nitrogen and phosphorus to receiving surface waters. Although nonpoint sources have been emphasized in the eutrophication of rivers and estuaries such as the Neuse, point sources continue to be major nutrient contributors in watersheds sustaining increasing human population growth. The described correlation and regression analyses represent a rapid, reliable method to relate land use patterns to water quality, and they can be adapted to watersheds in any region.

Rothenberger, Meghan B.; Burkholder, Joann M.; Brownie, Cavell

2009-09-01

314

Integrated climate/land use/hydrological change scenarios for assessing threats to ecosystem services on California rangelands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In California there are over 18 million acres of rangelands in the Central Valley and the interior Coast Range, most of which are privately owned and managed for livestock production. Ranches provide extensive wildlife habitat and generate multiple ecosystem services that carry considerable market and non-market values. These rangelands are under pressure from urbanization and conversion to intensive agriculture, as well as from climate change that can alter the flow of these services. To understand the coupled and isolated impacts of land use and climate change on rangeland ecosystem services, we developed six spatially explicit (250 m) coupled climate/land use/hydrological change scenarios for the Central Valley and oak woodland regions of California consistent with three IPCC emission scenarios - A2, A1B and B1. Three land use land cover (LULC) change scenarios were each integrated with two downscaled global climate models (GCMs) (a warm, wet future and a hot, dry future) and related hydrologic data. We used these scenarios to quantify wildlife habitat, water supply (recharge potential and streamflow) and carbon sequestration on rangelands and to conduct an economic analysis associated with changes in these benefits. The USGS FOREcasting SCEnarios of land-use change model (FORE-SCE), which runs dynamically with downscaled GCM outputs, was used to generate maps of yearly LULC change for each scenario from 2006 to 2100. We used the USGS Basin Characterization Model (BCM), a regional water balance model, to generate change in runoff, recharge, and stream discharge based on land use change and climate change. Metrics derived from model outputs were generated at the landscape scale and for six case-study watersheds. At the landscape scale, over a quarter of the million acres set aside for conservation in the B1 scenario would otherwise be converted to agriculture in the A2 scenario, where temperatures increase by up to 4.5 °C compared to 1.3 °C in the B1 scenario. A comparison of two watersheds - Alameda Creek, an urbanized watershed, and Upper Stony Creek, impacted by intensified agriculture, demonstrates the relative contribution of urbanization and climate change to water supply. In Upper Stony Creek, where 24% of grassland is converted to agriculture in the A1B scenario, a hotter, dryer 4-year time period could lead to a 40% reduction in streamflow compared to present day. In Alameda Creek, for the same scenario, 47% of grassland is converted to urbanized lands and streamflow may increase by 11%, resulting in a recharge:runoff ratio of 0.26; though if urbanization does not take place, streamflow could decrease by 64% and the recharge:runoff ratio would be 1.2. Model outputs quantify the impact of urbanization on water supply and show the importance of soil storage capacity. Scenarios have applications for climate-smart conservation and land use planning by identifying outcomes associated with coupled future land use scenarios and more variable and extreme potential future climates.

Byrd, K. B.; Flint, L. E.; Casey, C. F.; Alvarez, P.; Sleeter, B. M.; Sohl, T.

2013-12-01

315

Remote sensing applied to land-use studies in Wyoming  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Impending development of Wyoming's vast fuel resources requires a quick and efficient method of land use inventory and evaluation. Preliminary evaluations of ERTS-1 imagery have shown that physiographic and land use inventory maps can be compiled by using a combination of visual and automated interpretation techniques. Test studies in the Powder River Basin showed that ERTS image interpretations can provide much of the needed physiographic and land use information. Water impoundments as small as one acre were detected and water bodies larger than five acres could be mapped and their acreage estimated. Flood plains and irrigated lands were successfully mapped, and some individual crops were identified and mapped. Coniferous and deciduous trees were mapped separately using color additive analysis on the ERTS multispectral imagery. Gross soil distinctions were made with the ERTS imagery, and were found to be closely related to the bedrock geology. Several broad unstable areas were identified. These were related to specific geologic and slope conditions and generally extended through large regions. Some new oil fields and all large open-cut coal mines were mapped. The most difficult task accomplished was that of mapping urban areas. Work in the urban areas provides a striking example of snow enhancement and the detail available from a snow enhanced image.

Breckenridge, R. M.; Marrs, R. W.; Murphy, D. J.

1973-01-01

316

Pollutant export from various land uses in the upper Neuse River Basin.  

PubMed

Because of the relatively high variability of pollutant export from urban land uses, a significant number of monitoring studies, including data from many storms, are needed to adequately characterize export from urban land uses. Pollutant runoff from six small drainage areas with different land uses was monitored for at least 20 storm events over the course of more than 1 year. The land uses included single-family residential, golf course, industrial, dairy cow pasture, construction site, and wooded site. Average event mean concentrations and total annual load were computed for nitrogen forms, total phosphorus, and sediment from the land uses. Annual total nitrogen export was greatest for the construction land use during the house-building phase, followed closely by the residential and golf course land uses. Total phosphorus export was greatest for the golf course site followed by the pasture and residential land uses. Sediment export was greatest for the construction site during the rough grading phase, which averaged more than 10 times more sediment export than any of the other sites. To estimate export from a multiuse urban watershed, total nitrogen, phosphorus, and sediment export from the residential, golf course, and construction sites were averaged. The average total nitrogen, phosphorus, and sediment export from the three land uses was, respectively, 269, 302, and 256% greater than the corresponding exports from the wooded site, which was considered similar to the predevelopment land use. Additionally, analyses of rainfall samples indicated that a considerable portion of the nitrogen export from these sites likely comes from nitrogen in rainfall. PMID:11995863

Line, Daniel E; White, Nancy M; Osmond, Deanna L; Jennings, Gregory D; Mojonnier, Carolyn B

2002-01-01

317

The impact of future land use scenarios on runoff volumes in the Muskegon River Watershed.  

PubMed

In this article we compared the response of surface water runoff to a storm event for different rates of urbanization, reforestation and riparian buffer setbacks across forty subwatersheds of the Muskegon River Watershed located in Michigan, USA. We also made these comparisons for several forecasted and one historical land use scenarios (over 140 years). Future land use scenarios to 2040 for forest regrowth, urbanization rates and stream setbacks were developed using the Land Transformation Model (LTM). Historical land use information, from 1900 at 5-year time step intervals, was created using a Backcast land use change model configured using artificial neural network and driven by agriculture and housing census information. We show that (1) controlling the rate of development is the most effective policy option to reduce runoff; (2) establishing setbacks along the mainstem are not as effective as controlling urban growth; (3) reforestation can abate some of the runoff effects from urban growth but not all; (4) land use patterns of the 1970s produced the least amount of runoff in most cases in the Muskegon River Watershed when compared to land use maps from 1900 to 2040; and, (5) future land use patterns here not always lead to increased (worse) runoff than the past. We found that while ten of the subwatersheds contained futures that were worse than any past land use configuration, twenty-five (62.5%) of the subwatersheds produced the greatest amount of runoff in 1900, shortly after the entire watershed was clear-cut. One third (14/40) of the subwatersheds contained the minimum amount of runoff in the 1960s and 1970s, a period when forest amounts were greatest and urban amounts relatively small. PMID:20700591

Ray, Deepak K; Duckles, Jonah M; Pijanowski, Bryan C

2010-09-01

318

The Impact of Future Land Use Scenarios on Runoff Volumes in the Muskegon River Watershed  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this article we compared the response of surface water runoff to a storm event for different rates of urbanization, reforestation and riparian buffer setbacks across forty subwatersheds of the Muskegon River Watershed located in Michigan, USA. We also made these comparisons for several forecasted and one historical land use scenarios (over 140 years). Future land use scenarios to 2040 for forest regrowth, urbanization rates and stream setbacks were developed using the Land Transformation Model (LTM). Historical land use information, from 1900 at 5-year time step intervals, was created using a Backcast land use change model configured using artificial neural network and driven by agriculture and housing census information. We show that (1) controlling the rate of development is the most effective policy option to reduce runoff; (2) establishing setbacks along the mainstem are not as effective as controlling urban growth; (3) reforestation can abate some of the runoff effects from urban growth but not all; (4) land use patterns of the 1970s produced the least amount of runoff in most cases in the Muskegon River Watershed when compared to land use maps from 1900 to 2040; and, (5) future land use patterns here not always lead to increased (worse) runoff than the past. We found that while ten of the subwatersheds contained futures that were worse than any past land use configuration, twenty-five (62.5%) of the subwatersheds produced the greatest amount of runoff in 1900, shortly after the entire watershed was clear-cut. One third (14/40) of the subwatersheds contained the minimum amount of runoff in the 1960s and 1970s, a period when forest amounts were greatest and urban amounts relatively small.

Ray, Deepak K.; Duckles, Jonah M.; Pijanowski, Bryan C.

2010-09-01

319

Forecasting relative impacts of land use on anadromous fish habitat to guide conservation planning.  

PubMed

Land use change can adversely affect water quality and freshwater ecosystems, yet our ability to predict how systems will respond to different land uses, particularly rural-residential development, is limited by data availability and our understanding of biophysical thresholds. In this study, we use spatially explicit parcel-level data to examine the influence of land use (including urban, rural-residential, and vineyard) on salmon spawning substrate quality in tributaries of the Russian River in California. We develop a land use change model to forecast the probability of losses in high-quality spawning habitat and recommend priority areas for incentive-based land conservation efforts. Ordinal logistic regression results indicate that all three land use types were negatively associated with spawning substrate quality, with urban development having the largest marginal impact. For two reasons, however, forecasted rural-residential and vineyard development have much larger influences on decreasing spawning substrate quality relative to urban development. First, the land use change model estimates 10 times greater land use conversion to both rural-residential and vineyard compared to urban. Second, forecasted urban development is concentrated in the most developed watersheds, which already have poor spawning substrate quality, such that the marginal response to future urban development is less significant. To meet the goals of protecting salmonid spawning habitat and optimizing investments in salmon recovery, we suggest investing in watersheds where future rural-residential development and vineyards threaten high-quality fish habitat, rather than the most developed watersheds, where land values are higher. PMID:18488609

Lohse, Kathleen A; Newburn, David A; Opperman, Jeff J; Merenlender, Adina M

2008-03-01

320

Nested high-resolution modeling of the impact of urbanization on regional climate in three vast urban agglomerations in China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, the Weather Research and Forecasting Model, coupled to the Urban Canopy Model, is employed to simulate the impact of urbanization on the regional climate over three vast city agglomerations in China. Based on high-resolution land use and land cover data, two scenarios are designed to represent the nonurban and current urban land use distributions. By comparing the results of two nested, high-resolution numerical experiments, the spatial and temporal changes on surface air temperature, heat stress index, surface energy budget, and precipitation due to urbanization are analyzed and quantified. Urban expansion increases the surface air temperature in urban areas by about 1°C, and this climatic forcing of urbanization on temperature is more pronounced in summer and nighttime than other seasons and daytime. The heat stress intensity, which reflects the combined effects of temperature and humidity, is enhanced by about 0.5 units in urban areas. The regional incoming solar radiation increases after urban expansion, which may be caused by the reduction of cloud fraction. The increased temperature and roughness of the urban surface lead to enhanced convergence. Meanwhile, the planetary boundary layer is deepened, and water vapor is mixed more evenly in the lower atmosphere. The deficit of water vapor leads to less convective available potential energy and more convective inhibition energy. Finally, these combined effects may reduce the rainfall amount over urban areas, mainly in summer, and change the regional precipitation pattern to a certain extent.

Wang, Jun; Feng, Jinming; Yan, Zhongwei; Hu, Yonghong; Jia, Gensuo

2011-11-01

321

Nested high-resolution modeling of the impact of urbanization on regional climate in three vast urban agglomerations in China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, the Weather Research and Forecasting Model, coupled to the Urban Canopy Model, is employed to simulate the impact of urbanization on the regional climate over three vast city agglomerations in China. Based on high-resolution land use and land cover data, two scenarios are designed to represent the nonurban and current urban land use distributions. By comparing the results of two nested, high-resolution numerical experiments, the spatial and temporal changes on surface air temperature, heat stress index, surface energy budget, and precipitation due to urbanization are analyzed and quantified. Urban expansion increases the surface air temperature in urban areas by about 1°C, and this climatic forcing of urbanization on temperature is more pronounced in summer and nighttime than other seasons and daytime. The heat stress intensity, which reflects the combined effects of temperature and humidity, is enhanced by about 0.5 units in urban areas. The regional incoming solar radiation increases after urban expansion, which may be caused by the reduction of cloud fraction. The increased temperature and roughness of the urban surface lead to enhanced convergence. Meanwhile, the planetary boundary layer is deepened, and water vapor is mixed more evenly in the lower atmosphere. The deficit of water vapor leads to less convective available potential energy and more convective inhibition energy. Finally, these combined effects may reduce the rainfall amount over urban areas, mainly in summer, and change the regional precipitation pattern to a certain extent.

Wang, Jun; Feng, Jinming; Yan, Zhongwei; Hu, Yonghong; Jia, Gensuo

2012-11-01

322

The control of land-use patterns for stormwater management at multiple spatial scales.  

PubMed

While most research about the relationship between land use and watershed hydrological output has focused primarily on land-use types and their impact on hydrological processes, the relationship between characteristics of land-use patterns (such as pattern fragmentation, connectivity, and coherence) and hydrological processes has not been well examined. Using historical stormwater data, this study evaluates the hydrological effects of different land-use scenarios in the Qing-shui watershed in Beijing, China, at a variety of spatial scales. This study demonstrates that planning and managing land-use patterns can significantly reduce runoff under different scales, particularly for small storm events. In contrast to other aspects of land-use structure characteristics, such as the shape complexity of land-use patches, fragmented level of the patches of land-use types appear as dominant drivers of runoff. The results of the study suggest that land-use pattern management should be an important component of Best Management Practices to reduce the impacts of urbanization on natural hydrological processes. PMID:23271048

Zhang, Ge; Guhathakurta, Subhro; Dai, Gang; Wu, Lingying; Yan, Lijiao

2013-03-01

323

Land Use and Marriage Timing in Nepal  

Microsoft Academic Search

I examine the relationship between patterns of land use and marriage timing in the Chitwan Valley, a rural area in south-central Nepal. In this setting, I conceptualize a relevant dimension of land use as the portion of land in each neighborhood devoted to agriculture. Using discrete-time event history models, I examine the relationship between the proportion of land devoted to

Scott T. Yabiku

2006-01-01

324

[Land Use Unit, Edmonds School District.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This interdisciplinary program, developed for secondary students, contains 18 land use activities that can either be used directly in, or as a supplement to, curriculum in Science, Biology, Horticulture, Mathematics, Social Studies, English, Industrial Arts and Physical Education. The topics to be investigated include: land use simulation games,…

Edmonds School District 15, Lynnwood, WA.

325

Land Use Management for Solid Waste Programs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author discusses the problems of solid waste disposal and examines various land use management techniques. These include the land use plan, zoning, regionalization, land utilities, and interim use. Information concerning solid waste processing site zoning and analysis is given. Bibliography included. (MA)

Brown, Sanford M., Jr.

1974-01-01

326

Simulation of water quality with the application of system dynamics model for population and land-use changes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water quality is degraded due to urbanization because it causes population growth and land-use changes in a watershed. These\\u000a changes are usually simulated using a linear equation; however, in reality, population and land use are very closely related.\\u000a A watershed system dynamics model (WSD model) was developed in the simulation of the relation among population, land use (paddy\\u000a fields, upland

Tasuku Kato

2005-01-01

327

The Impact of Future Land Use Scenarios on Runoff Volumes in the Muskegon River Watershed  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article we compared the response of surface water runoff to a storm event for different rates of urbanization, reforestation\\u000a and riparian buffer setbacks across forty subwatersheds of the Muskegon River Watershed located in Michigan, USA. We also\\u000a made these comparisons for several forecasted and one historical land use scenarios (over 140 years). Future land use scenarios\\u000a to 2040 for

Deepak K. Ray; Jonah M. Duckles; Bryan C. Pijanowski

2010-01-01

328

DYNAMIC CHANGE OF LAND USE STRUCTURE IN HAIKOU BY REMOTE SENSING AND GIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

By interpretating TM imagery in 1986,1996 and 2000, the land use structure change in Haikou city was gotten.The cultivated land? water? unused land and forest was converted into the urban? rural settlement and construction land.The land use source and destination was analyzed by conversion matrix.The natural landscape such as forest and water was disturbed by the human activities and the

Tian Guangjin; Liu Jiyuan; Zhang Zengxiang

329

Land Use Associations with Distributions of Declining Native Fishes in the Upper Colorado River Basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The upper Colorado River basin contains one of the most imperiled fish faunas in North America. Anthropogenic land use and nonnative species impacts are considered among the top reasons for imperilment. We determined the association of anthropogenic land use intensity (road density, percentage of converted land, and oil and gas well density), relative abundance of nonnative white suckers Catostomus commersonii

Daniel C. Dauwalter; Seth J. Wenger; Kevin R. Gelwicks; Kurt A. Fesenmyer

2011-01-01

330

Metro Rail Red Line MOS-2 Corridor Land Use Analysis and Joint Development Potential.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Land use patterns and opportunities to reshape land use intensities in areas surrounding the nine transit stations in the Minimum Operating Segment, Phase 2 (MOS-2) of the Metro Red Line Rail Transit Project was studied. The primary objective of the study...

I. N. Taylor

1992-01-01

331

Automatic photointerpretation for land use management in Minnesota  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author has identified the following significant results. The Minnesota Iron Range area was selected as one of the land use areas to be evaluated. Six classes were selected: (1) hardwood; (2) conifer; (3) water (including in mines); (4) mines, tailings and wet areas; (5) open area; and (6) urban. Initial classification results show a correct classification of 70.1 to 95.4% for the six classes. This is extremely good. It can be further improved since there were some incorrect classifications in the ground truth.

Swanlund, G. D. (principal investigator); Pile, D. R.

1973-01-01

332

Application of spatial features to satellite land-use analysis. [spectral signature variations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A Level I land-use analysis of selected training areas of the Colorado Front Range was carried out using digital ERTS-A satellite imagery. Level I land-use categories included urban, agriculture (irrigated and dryland farming), rangeland, and forests. The spatial variations in spectral response for these land-use classes were analyzed using discrete two-dimensional Fourier transforms to isolate and extract spatial features. Analysis was performed on ERTS frame 1352-17134 (July 10, 1973) and frame number 1388-17131 (August 15, 1973). On training sets, spatial features yielded 80 to 100 percent classification accuracies with commission errors ranging from 0 to 20 percent.

Smith, J.; Hornung, R.; Berry, J.

1975-01-01

333

Differences in Nutrient Sources Caused by Variations in Monsoon Strength and Land Use\\/Land Cover, Middle Rio Grande, NM  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synoptic sampling of the Middle Rio Grande (MRG) in central New Mexico was conducted each year during August from 2001 through 2006. Land use in the basin includes a large urban area around Albuquerque, agricultural areas, and rangeland. Because the Rio Grande is a highly managed river, the affects of land use and land cover on water quality are associated

G. P. Oelsner; P. D. Brooks; J. F. Hogan

2006-01-01

334

Land use\\/cover changes between 1990 and 2000 based on remote sensing and GIS in Pearl River Delta, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent decades, land use\\/cover change and its consequences have been an important aspect of geography, ecology, environment science and global change. The Pearl River Delta lying on the mouth of the Pearl River, South China, is an important ecostone between sea and river, terrestrial and hydrology. Since 1990, Land use\\/cover has changed greatly due to the rapid urbanization in

Zhiliang Chen; Xulong Liu; Xiaochun Peng; Zhencheng Xu; Zhifeng Wu

2008-01-01

335

Health input into land use planning experiences in a land use program.  

PubMed Central

The experiences of a health professional in a land use program in a California County are described: providing health input into the land use planning process by counseling elected and appointed government officials, individual developers, and citizen groups; interpreting existing standards and evaluating proposed ordinances and land use proposals. The significance of such input and the need for guiding standards are emphasized.

Kaplan, O B

1978-01-01

336

Introduction to Land Use Decision Making Kit and Economics of Land Use. [2 Units].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Included in this set of materials are two units: (1) Introduction to Land Use Decision Making Kit, and (2) Economics of Land Use. Each unit includes student guide sheets, reference material, and tape script. A set of 35mm slides and audiotapes are usually used with the materials. The introductory unit provides an overview of land use and suggested…

Haakonsen, Harry O., Ed.; Schaefer, Larry, Ed.

337

Refining 1970's Land-Use Data With 1990 Population Data to Indicate New Residential Development  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A procedure using a geographic information system was developed to define urban land use representative of the 1990's by overlaying U.S. Bureau of the Census 1990 population density at the block group level on 1970's digital land-use data from 1:250,000-and 1: 100,000scale maps. Any area having a population density of 1,000 or more people per square mile is re-classified as "urban" land use in the derivative product. The procedure was applied to 20 study units of the National Water-Quality Assessment program to provide what are considered reasonable indications of urbanization that has occurred since the 1970's.

Hitt, Kerie J.

1994-01-01

338

Inconsistent definitions of "urban" result in different conclusions about the size of urban carbon and nitrogen stocks.  

PubMed

There is conflicting evidence about the importance of urban soils and vegetation in regional C budgets that is caused, in part, by inconsistent definitions of "urban" land use. We quantified urban ecosystem contributions to C stocks in the Boston (Massachusetts, USA) Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) using several alternative urban definitions. Development altered aboveground and belowground C and N stocks, and the sign and magnitude of these changes varied by land use and development intensity. Aboveground biomass (live trees, dbh > or = 5 cm) for the MSA was 7.2 +/- 0.4 kg C/m2 (mean +/- SE), reflecting a high proportion of forest cover. Vegetation C was highest in forest (11.6 +/- 0.5 kg C/m2), followed by residential (4.6 +/- 0.5 kg C/m2), and then other developed (2.0 +/- 0.4 kg C/m2) land uses. Soil C (0-10 cm depth) followed the same pattern of decreasing C concentration from forest, to residential, to other developed land uses (4.1 +/- 0.1, 4.0 +/- 0.2, and 3.3 +/- 0.2 kg C/m2, respectively). Within a land use type, urban areas (which we defined as > 25% impervious surface area [ISA] within a 1-km(2) moving window) generally contained less vegetation C, but slightly more soil C, than nonurban areas. Soil N concentrations were higher in urban areas than nonurban areas of the same land use type, except for residential areas, which had similarly high soil N concentrations. When we compared our definition of urban to other commonly used urban extents (U.S. Census Bureau, Global Rural-Urban Mapping Project [GRUMP], and the MSA itself), we found that urban soil (1 m depth) and vegetation C stocks spanned a wide range, from 14.4 +/- 0.8 to 54.5 +/- 3.4 Tg C and from 4.2 +/- 0.4 to 27.3 +/- 3.2 Tg C, respectively. Conclusions about the importance of urban soils and vegetation to regional C and N stocks are very sensitive to the definition of urban used by the investigators. Urban areas, regardless of definition, are rapidly expanding in their extent; a systematic understanding of how our development patterns influence ecosystems is necessary to inform future development choices. PMID:22645829

Raciti, Steve M; Hutyra, Lucy R; Rao, Preeti; Finzi, Adrien C

2012-04-01

339

Understanding the global land-use marketplace  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over 7 billion humans inhabit Earth and our population increases by more than a hundred per minute. Satisfying the resource demands of seven-plus billion people whilst sustaining the Earth System is a delicate balancing act. We need to balance resource use with regenerative capacity and this balance must avoid tipping points beyond which return and recovery are impossible. Tipping points in the physical, biogeochemical and ecological components of the Earth System have all been proposed - adding the global land-use marketplace to such a list may not be obvious but it undeniably deserves attention. The land is where most humans live most of the time. It meets most food, fuel, freshwater and fibre requirements and shapes Earth's climate. As land is essentially a finite resource this leads to intense competition. Monetizing land resources is nothing new. Choice of agricultural practice has long been governed in part by economics. But in recent years monetization has extended to include new dimensions such as carbon trading and biodiversity offsetting. Our land-use marketplace now has to optimise food, fibre and fuel production whilst maintaining and enhancing land's role as a carbon sink, a hydrologic reservoir and a support for biological diversity. International (and national) environmental policies aim to find a balance between such competing uses. These policies call for accurate, accountable and timely evidence concerning how, when and where land resources are changing. In 2013 the European Space Agency will launch the first of the Copernicus programme's Earth Observing Sentinel satellites. These technologically advanced systems are matched to data acquisition and processing strategies that should provide scientific evidence concerning the land on an unprecedented scale. This paper provides one vision of how Earth science will benefit from the Sentinels and their associated services and how this science will subsequently inform and shape policies, especially those linked to Multilateral Environmental Agreements. Examples will show how the science can promote transparency and good governance, help build knowledge-bases, capacity and markets and illustrates how Copernicus services and the Sentinels are an important component of EU international co-operation.

Belward, Alan

2013-04-01

340

Western Land Use Trends and Policy: Implications for Water Resources.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Part I, 'Land Use and Land Use Policy', discusses what is 'land use' and 'land cover', land use theory, the land use policy regime, and some environmental protection policy cases. Part II, 'General Land Use Trends: Global, National, and Western U.S.,' con...

W. E. Riebsame J. Wescoat P. Morrisette

1997-01-01

341

Shallow ground-water quality beneath a major urban center: Denver, Colorado, USA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A survey of the chemical quality of ground water in the unconsolidated alluvial aquifer beneath a major urban center (Denver, Colorado, USA) was performed in 1993 with the objective of characterizing the quality of shallow ground-water in the urban area and relating water quality to land use. Thirty randomly selected alluvial wells were each sampled once for a broad range of dissolved constituents. The urban land use at each well site was sub-classified into one of three land-use settings: residential, commercial, and industrial. Shallow ground-water quality was highly variable in the urban area and the variability could be related to these land-use setting classifications. Sulfate (SO 4) was the predominant anion in most samples from the residential and commercial land-use settings, whereas bicarbonate (HCO 3) was the predominant anion in samples from the industrial land-use setting, indicating a possible shift in redox conditions associated with land use. Only three of 30 samples had nitrate concentrations that exceeded the US national drinking-water standard of 10 mg l -1 as nitrogen, indicating that nitrate contamination of shallow ground water may not be a serious problem in this urban area. However, the highest median nitrate concentration (4.2 mg l -1) was in samples from the residential setting, where fertilizer application is assumed to be most intense. Twenty-seven of 30 samples had detectable pesticides and nine of 82 analyzed pesticide compounds were detected at low concentrations, indicating that pesticides are widely distributed in shallow ground water in this urban area. Although the highest median total pesticide concentration (0.17 ?g l -) was in the commercial setting, the herbicides prometon and atrazine were found in each land-use setting. Similarly, 25 of 29 samples analyzed had detectable volatile organic compounds (VOCs) indicating these compounds are also widely distributed in this urban area. The total VOC concentrations in sampled wells ranged from nondetectable to 23 442 ?g l -. Widespread detections and occasionally high concentrations point to VOCs as the major anthropogenic ground-water impact in this urban environment. Generally, the highest VOC concentrations occurred in samples from the industrial setting. The most frequently detected VOC was the gasoline additive methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE, in 23 of 29 wells). Results from this study indicate that the quality of shallow ground water in major urban areas can be related to land-use settings. Moreover, some VOCs and pesitides may be widely distributed at low concentrations in shallow ground water throughout major urban areas. As a result, the differentiation between point and non-point sources for these compounds in urban areas may be difficult.

Bruce, Breton W.; McMahon, Peter B.

1996-11-01

342

URBAN FACTORS AND THE INTENSITY OF HEAT ISLAND IN THE CITY OF CHENNAI  

Microsoft Academic Search

Creation of cities leads to the removal of natural landscape with built up spaces, parking lots, roads etc, through highly reflective materials, affecting the local climate in a dramatic scale. The climatic changes in the urban areas are often characterized by increase in air temperatures and are termed as the Urban Heat Island Effect (UHIE). Major factors contributing to the

Monsingh D. Devadas; Lilly Rose A

343

Spatio-temporal patterns of land use change along the Bohai Rim in China during 1985–2005  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on TM image data and other survey materials, this paper analyzed the spatiotemporal patterns of land use change in the\\u000a Bohai Rim during 1985–2005. The findings of this study are summarized as follows: (1) Land use pattern changed dramatically\\u000a during 1985–2005. Industrial and residential land in urban and rural areas increased by 643,946 hm2, of which urban construction land

Liying Guo; Daolong Wang; Jianjun Qiu; Ligang Wang; Yu Liu

2009-01-01

344

CARETS: A prototype regional environmental information system. Volume 2, parts A and B: Norfolk and environs; a land use perspective  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author has identified the following significant results. The Norfolk-Portsmouth metropolitan statistical area in southeastern Virginia was the site of intensive testing of a number of land resources assessment methods. Land use and land cover data at three levels of detail were derived by manual image interpretation from both aircraft and satellite sources and used to characterize the 1,766 sq km (682 sq mi) area from the perspective of its various resource-related activities and problems. Measurements at level 1 from 1:100, 000 scale maps revealed 42 percent of the test area (excluding bays and estuaries) to be forest, 28 percent agriculture, 23 percent urban and built-up, 4 percent nonforested wetlands, and 2 percent water. At the same scale and level of detail, 10 percent of the area underwent change from one land use category to another in the period 1959-70, 62 percent of which involved the relatively irreversible change from forest or agriculture to urban uses.

Alexander, R. H. (principal investigator); Buzzanell, P. J.; Fitzpatrick, K. A.; Lins, H. F., Jr.; Mcginty, H. K., III

1975-01-01

345

Modeling biofuel expansion effects on land use change dynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Increasing demand for crop-based biofuels, in addition to other human drivers of land use, induces direct and indirect land use changes (LUC). Our system dynamics tool is intended to complement existing LUC modeling approaches and to improve the understanding of global LUC drivers and dynamics by allowing examination of global LUC under diverse scenarios and varying model assumptions. We report on a small subset of such analyses. This model provides insights into the drivers and dynamic interactions of LUC (e.g., dietary choices and biofuel policy) and is not intended to assert improvement in numerical results relative to other works. Demand for food commodities are mostly met in high food and high crop-based biofuel demand scenarios, but cropland must expand substantially. Meeting roughly 25% of global transportation fuel demand by 2050 with biofuels requires >2 times the land used to meet food demands under a presumed 40% increase in per capita food demand. In comparison, the high food demand scenario requires greater pastureland for meat production, leading to larger overall expansion into forest and grassland. Our results indicate that, in all scenarios, there is a potential for supply shortfalls, and associated upward pressure on prices, of food commodities requiring higher land use intensity (e.g., beef) which biofuels could exacerbate.

Warner, Ethan; Inman, Daniel; Kunstman, Benjamin; Bush, Brian; Vimmerstedt, Laura; Peterson, Steve; Macknick, Jordan; Zhang, Yimin

2013-03-01

346

An analysis of metropolitan land-use by machine processing of earth resources technology satellite data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A successful application of state-of-the-art remote sensing technology in classifying an urban area into its broad land use classes is reported. This research proves that numerous urban features are amenable to classification using ERTS multispectral data automatically processed by computer. Furthermore, such automatic data processing (ADP) techniques permit areal analysis on an unprecedented scale with a minimum expenditure of time. Also, classification results obtained using ADP procedures are consistent, comparable, and replicable. The results of classification are compared with the proposed U. S. G. S. land use classification system in order to determine the level of classification that is feasible to obtain through ERTS analysis of metropolitan areas.

Mausel, P. W.; Todd, W. J.; Baumgardner, M. F.

1976-01-01

347

Land use classification utilizing remote multispectral scanner data and computer analysis techniques  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An airborne multispectral scanner was used to collect the visible and reflective infrared data. A small subdivision near Lafayette, Indiana was selected as the test site for the urban land use study. Multispectral scanner data were collected over the subdivision on May 1, 1970 from an altitude of 915 meters. The data were collected in twelve wavelength bands from 0.40 to 1.00 micrometers by the scanner. The results indicated that computer analysis of multispectral data can be very accurate in classifying and estimating the natural and man-made materials that characterize land uses in an urban scene.

Leblanc, P. N.; Johannsen, C. J.; Yanner, J. E.

1973-01-01

348

Mapping Global Urban Extent and Intensity for Environmental Monitoring and Modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The human dimensions of global environmental change have received increased attention in policy, decision- making, research, and even the media. However, the influence of urban areas in global change processes is still often assumed to be negligible. Although local environmental conditions such as the urban heat island effect are well-documented, little or no work has focused on cross-scale interactions, or the ways in which local urban processes cumulatively impact global changes. Given the rapid rates of rural-urban migration, economic development and urban spatial expansion, it is becoming increasingly clear that the `ecological footprint' of cities may play a critical role in environmental changes at regional and global scales. Our understanding of the cumulative impacts of urban areas on natural systems has been limited foremost by a lack of reliable, accurate data on current urban form and extent at the global scale. The data sets that have emerged to fill this gap (LandScan, GRUMP, nighttime lights) suffer from a number of limitations that prevent widespread use. Building on our early efforts with MODIS data, our current work focuses on: (1) completing a new, validated map of global urban extent; and (2) developing methods to estimate the subpixel fraction of impervious surface, vegetation, and other land cover types within urbanized areas using coarse resolution satellite imagery. For the first task, a technique called boosting is used to improve classification accuracy and provides a means to integrate 500 m resolution MODIS data with ancillary data sources. For the second task, we present an approach for estimating percent cover that relies on continuous training data for a full range of city types. These exemplars are used as inputs to fuzzy neural network and regression tree algorithms to predict fractional amounts of land cover types with increased accuracy. Preliminary results for a global sample of 100 cities (which vary in population size, level of economic development, and spatial extent) show good agreement with the expected morphology in each region.

Schneider, A.; Friedl, M. A.

2007-05-01

349

Land-use/land-cover drives variation in the specific inherent optical properties of estuaries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Land-use/land-cover change impacts the exports of biogeochemically active constituents to estuaries. Specific inherent optical properties (SIOPs) are directly related to the composition of optically active water constituent in estuaries, and are important inputs for semi-analytical ocean color remote sensing algorithms. Studying the relationship between land-use/land-cover and SIOPs may help us to better understand how land-use/land-cover change affects the biological properties in the estuaries, and assist to optimize and tune local ocean color remote sensing algorithms for water quality retrieval. Using data from six estuaries on the northeast coast of the Gulf of Mexico, the relationships between land-use/land-cover and SIOPs were analyzed in this study. The results showed that land-use/land-cover change significantly affected the SIOPs in the six systems. Changing vegetation (Evergreen+Wetland) cover to developed land cover (Urban+Agriculture) decreased specific phytoplankton absorption (a*ph), but increased the slope of absorption spectral from detrital particles (Sd) and chromophoric dissolved organic matter (Sg). These trends indicated that land-use/land-cover change significantly influenced the phytoplankton cell size distribution, organic particle concentration, and the ratio of dissolved organic matter to dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DOC/DIN) in these systems by enhancing the nutrient loading and organic matter transport. The strong relationships between SIOPs and land-use/land-cover implied that the variation of SIOPs may be predictable in different systems with knowledge of land-use/land-cover.

Le, C.; Lehrter, J. C.; Schaeffer, B. A.; Hu, C.

2013-12-01

350

Economic-based projections of future land use in the conterminous United States under alternative policy scenarios.  

PubMed

Land-use change significantly contributes to biodiversity loss, invasive species spread, changes in biogeochemical cycles, and the loss of ecosystem services. Planning for a sustainable future requires a thorough understanding of expected land use at the fine spatial scales relevant for modeling many ecological processes and at dimensions appropriate for regional or national-level policy making. Our goal was to construct and parameterize an econometric model of land-use change to project future land use to the year 2051 at a fine spatial scale across the conterminous United States under several alternative land-use policy scenarios. We parameterized the econometric model of land-use change with the National Resource Inventory (NRI) 1992 and 1997 land-use data for 844 000 sample points. Land-use transitions were estimated for five land-use classes (cropland, pasture, range, forest, and urban). We predicted land-use change under four scenarios: business-as-usual, afforestation, removal of agricultural subsidies, and increased urban rents. Our results for the business-as-usual scenario showed widespread changes in land use, affecting 36% of the land area of the conterminous United States, with large increases in urban land (79%) and forest (7%), and declines in cropland (-16%) and pasture (-13%). Areas with particularly high rates of land-use change included the larger Chicago area, parts of the Pacific Northwest, and the Central Valley of California. However, while land-use change was substantial, differences in results among the four scenarios were relatively minor. The only scenario that was markedly different was the afforestation scenario, which resulted in an increase of forest area that was twice as high as the business-as-usual scenario. Land-use policies can affect trends, but only so much. The basic economic and demographic factors shaping land-use changes in the United States are powerful, and even fairly dramatic policy changes, showed only moderate deviations from the business-as-usual scenario. Given the magnitude of predicted land-use change, any attempts to identify a sustainable future or to predict the effects of climate change will have to take likely land-use changes into account. Econometric models that can simulate land-use change for broad areas with fine resolution are necessary to predict trends in ecosystem service provision and biodiversity persistence. PMID:22645830

Radeloff, V C; Nelson, E; Plantinga, A J; Lewis, D J; Helmers, D; Lawler, J J; Withey, J C; Beaudry, F; Martinuzzi, S; Butsic, V; Lonsdorf, E; White, D; Polasky, S

2012-04-01

351

Mixed land-use planning on the periphery of large Asian cities: the case of Nonthaburi Province, Thailand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Throughout Asia, rapid and uncontrolled urbanization has created serious environmental problems, and the development of sustainable\\u000a urban–rural planning methods is of critical importance. To improve our understanding of mixed urban–rural land uses and provide\\u000a future practical visions for regional planning, we conducted a case study of the urban fringe of the Bangkok Metropolitan\\u000a Region, Thailand. After identifying local irrigation districts

Yuji HaraAi HiramatsuRyo Honda; Ai Hiramatsu; Ryo Honda; Makiko Sekiyama; Hirotaka Matsuda

2010-01-01

352

Integrating life-cycle environmental and economic assessment with transportation and land use planning.  

PubMed

The environmental outcomes of urban form changes should couple life-cycle and behavioral assessment methods to better understand urban sustainability policy outcomes. Using Phoenix, Arizona light rail as a case study, an integrated transportation and land use life-cycle assessment (ITLU-LCA) framework is developed to assess the changes to energy consumption and air emissions from transit-oriented neighborhood designs. Residential travel, commercial travel, and building energy use are included and the framework integrates household behavior change assessment to explore the environmental and economic outcomes of policies that affect infrastructure. The results show that upfront environmental and economic investments are needed (through more energy-intense building materials for high-density structures) to produce long run benefits in reduced building energy use and automobile travel. The annualized life-cycle benefits of transit-oriented developments in Phoenix can range from 1.7 to 230 Gg CO2e depending on the aggressiveness of residential density. Midpoint impact stressors for respiratory effects and photochemical smog formation are also assessed and can be reduced by 1.2-170 Mg PM10e and 41-5200 Mg O3e annually. These benefits will come at an additional construction cost of up to $410 million resulting in a cost of avoided CO2e at $16-29 and household cost savings. PMID:24053574

Chester, Mikhail V; Nahlik, Matthew J; Fraser, Andrew M; Kimball, Mindy A; Garikapati, Venu M

2013-11-01

353

Land use changes contribute to climate extremes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Temperature extremes such as severe heat waves and cold spells are likely to occur more frequently in a warming climate as carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations rise. But land use change, such as clearing forests for agriculture, also has a large impact on extreme temperature events. To determine the relative contribution of the two effects, Avila et al. ran simulations using a climate model coupled to a sophisticated land surface model. They found that land use changes can have a significant effect on temperature extreme indices. On regional scales, land use changes in some cases amplified the effects of increased CO2 concentrations, while land use changes in other cases masked their effects. In some regions, the effects of land use changes on temperature extremes were similar in magnitude to those of doubling CO2. The authors conclude that land use changes are a major source of human influence on the climate. (Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres, doi:10.1029/2011JD016382, 2012)

Balcerak, Ernie

2012-04-01

354

Intensive Survey of Rural and Urban Activities Impacting Water and Coastal Resources.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Rural and urban activities affecting water and coastal resources in the Dominican Republic are surveyed in the report. Initial sections inventory the country's natural resources (waters, soils, forests, agricultural lands, and rangelands) and coastal reso...

M. Webb U. Locher

1991-01-01

355

A landscape-scale study of land use and parent material effects on soil organic carbon and total nitrogen in the Konya Basin, Turkey  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In ecosystems where intensive farming and grazing have been occurring for millennia, there is poor understanding of how present-day soil biogeochemical properties relate to factors associated with soil parent materials (e.g. texture, mineralogy), and the net effects of long-term land use practices. Soil organic carbon (SOC) and total soil nitrogen (TN) are important for their roles in maintaining soil structure, moisture, fertility and contributing to carbon sequestration. Our research used a state factor approach (Jenny 1981) to study effects of soil parent materials and land use practices on SOC, TN, and other properties across thirty-five sites in the Konya Basin, an arid region in south-central Turkey farmed and grazed for over 8,000 years. This project is one of the first to study land use impacts on soils at a landscape scale (500 km2) in south-central Turkey, and incorporate geospatial data (e.g. a satellite imagery-derived land cover map we developed) to aid selection of field sites. Focusing on the plough layer (0-25cm) in two depth intervals, we compared effects of agriculture, orchard cultivation and grazing land use practices and clay-loam alluvial, sandy-loam volcanic and lacustrine clay soils on soil properties using standard least squares regression analyses. SOC and TN depended strongly on parent materials, but not on land use. Averaged across both depth intervals, alluvial soil SOC and TN concentrations (19.4 ± 1.32 Mg/ha SOC, 2.86 ± 1.23 Mg/ha TN) were higher and significantly different than lacustrine (9.72 ± 3.01 Mg/ha SOC, 1.57 ± 0.69 Mg/ha TN) and volcanic soil concentrations (7.40 ± 1.72 Mg/ha SOC, 1.02 ± 0.35 Mg/ha TN). Land use significantly affected SOC and TN on alluvial soils, but not on volcanic or lacustrine soils. Our results demonstrate the potential for land use to have different effects on different soils in this region. Our data on SOC, TN and other soil properties illustrate patterns in regional SOC and TN variability not shown by previous modeling or soil survey efforts. We provide baseline information on SOC and TN that can inform benchmarks for future soil monitoring and land use planning in an arid region that is likely to be highly impacted by future climatic changes, agricultural intensification and urban development. Our results suggest the importance of accounting for soil physical properties, and land use effects that are dependent on soil parent materials in future efforts to model or account for SOC and TN in similar ancient agricultural landscapes.

Mayes, M. T.; Marin-Spiotta, E.; Ozdogan, M.; Erdogan, M. A.

2011-12-01

356

Reconnecting cities to the biosphere: stewardship of green infrastructure and urban ecosystem services.  

PubMed

Within-city green infrastructure can offer opportunities and new contexts for people to become stewards of ecosystem services. We analyze cities as social-ecological systems, synthesize the literature, and provide examples from more than 15 years of research in the Stockholm urban region, Sweden. The social-ecological approach spans from investigating ecosystem properties to the social frameworks and personal values that drive and shape human interactions with nature. Key findings demonstrate that urban ecosystem services are generated by social-ecological systems and that local stewards are critically important. However, land-use planning and management seldom account for their role in the generation of urban ecosystem services. While the small scale patchwork of land uses in cities stimulates intense interactions across borders much focus is still on individual patches. The results highlight the importance and complexity of stewardship of urban biodiversity and ecosystem services and of the planning and governance of urban green infrastructure. PMID:24740616

Andersson, Erik; Barthel, Stephan; Borgström, Sara; Colding, Johan; Elmqvist, Thomas; Folke, Carl; Gren, Ĺsa

2014-05-01

357

Diversity of benthic biofilms along a land use gradient in tropical headwater streams, puerto rico.  

PubMed

The properties of freshwater ecosystems can be altered, directly or indirectly, by different land uses (e.g., urbanization and agriculture). Streams heavily influenced by high nutrient concentrations associated with agriculture or urbanization may present conditions that can be intolerable for many aquatic species such as macroinvertebrates and fishes. However, information with respect to how benthic microbial communities may respond to changes in stream ecosystem properties in relation to agricultural or urban land uses is limited, in particular for tropical ecosystems. In this study, diversity of benthic biofilms was evaluated in 16 streams along a gradient of land use at the Turabo watershed in Puerto Rico using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism. Diversity indices and community structure descriptors (species richness, Shannon diversity, dominance and evenness) were calculated for both bacteria and eukaryotes for each stream. Diversity of both groups, bacteria and eukaryotes, did not show a consistent pattern with land use, since it could be high or low at streams dominated by different land uses. This suggests that diversity of biofilms may be more related to site-specific conditions rather than watershed scale factors. To assess this contention, the relationship between biofilm diversity and reach-scale parameters (i.e., nutrient concentrations, canopy cover, conductivity, and dissolved oxygen) was determined using the Akaike Information Criterion (AICc) for small sample size. Results indicated that nitrate was the variable that best explained variations in biofilm diversity. Since nitrate concentrations tend to increase with urban land use, our results suggest that urbanization may indeed increase microbial diversity indirectly by increasing nutrients in stream water. PMID:24643714

Burgos-Caraballo, Sofía; Cantrell, Sharon A; Ramírez, Alonso

2014-07-01

358

Nitrate stable isotopes: Tools for determining nitrate sources among different land uses in the Mississippi River Basin  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A study was conducted to determine whether NO3- stable isotopes (??15N and ??18O), at natural abundance levels, could discriminate among NO3- sources from sites with different land uses at the basin scale. Water samples were collected from 24 sites in the Mississippi River Basin from five land-use categories: (1) large river basins (>34 590 km2) draining multiple land uses and smaller basins in which the predominant land use was (2) urban (3) undeveloped, (4) crops, or (5) crops and livestock. Our data suggest that riverine nitrates from different land uses have overlapping but moderately distinct isotopic signatures. ??18O data were critical in showing abrupt changes in NO3- source with discharge. The isotopic values of large rivers resembled crop sites, sites with livestock tended to have ??15N values characteristic of manure, and urban sites tended to have high ??18O values characteristic of atmospheric nitrate.

Chang, C. C. Y.; Kendall, C.; Silva, S. R.; Battaglin, W. A.; Campbell, D. H.

2002-01-01

359

Evaluation of pollutant build-up and wash-off from selected land uses at the Port of Brisbane, Australia.  

PubMed

The quality of stormwater runoff from seaports can be an important source of pollution to the marine environment. Currently, little knowledge exists with regards to the pollutant generation capacity specific to seaports as they do not necessarily compare well with conventional urban land use. The research project focussed on the assessment of pollutant build-up and wash-off. The study was undertaken using rainfall simulation and small impervious plots for different port land uses with the results obtained compared to typical urban land uses. The study outcomes confirmed that the Port land uses exhibit comparatively lower pollutant concentrations. However, the pollutant characteristics varied across different land uses. Hence, the provision of stereotypical water quality improvement measures could be of limited value. Particle size < 150microm was predominant in suspended solids. Therefore, if suspended solids are targeted as the surrogate parameter for water quality improvement, this particle size range needs to be removed. PMID:18986659

Goonetilleke, Ashantha; Egodawatta, Prasanna; Kitchen, Brad

2009-02-01

360

Generalized probabilistic seimsic hazard estimates in terms of macroseismic intensity as a tool for risk assessment in urban areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of macroseismic intensity to parameterize earthquakes effects allows a direct link of hazard assessment with risk estimates in urban areas. This is particularly true in most of European countries where long lasting documentary history is available about the effects of past earthquakes. This is why the use of the computational code SASHA (Site Approach to Seismic Hazard Assessment), on purpose developed for a coherent probabilistic analysis of intensity data locally available (site seismic histories) to provided hazard estimates in terms of intensity by taking into account the specific nature of intensity (ordinal, discrete, finite in range, site-dependent) and relevant uncertainty (completeness, ill-definition of the oldest earthquakes, etc.), resulted of specific interest in the frame of the EU research project UPStratMAFA "Urban Disaster Prevention Strategies Using MAcroseismic Fields and FAult Sources" (Grant Agreement n. 230301/2011/613486/SUB/A5). In order to extend the application of this approach to sites and countries where local seismic histories are relatively poor, a new implementation of the code was provided, allowing to include in the hazard assessment information coming from different branches (historical studies, seismological instrumental information and numerical simulations). In particular, macroseismic information related to the seismic history locally documented, that represents the bulk of the considered information, can be integrated with "virtual" intensities deduced from epicentral data (via earthquake-specific probabilistic attenuation relationships) and "simulated" intensities deduced via physical/stochastic simulations from data concerning seismogenic faults activated during past earthquakes. This allows a more complete reconstruction of local seismic history and also reducing uncertainty affecting macroseismic data relative to older earthquakes. Results of some applications of the new release of the SASHA code will be described.

Albarello, Dario; D'Amico, Vera; Rotondi, Renata; Varini, Elsa; Zonno, Gaetano

2013-04-01

361

Land-use planning of Minoo Island, Iran, towards sustainable land-use management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Land-use planning is one aspect of sustainable development that determines the integrity of socioeconomic and ecological nuance. Land evaluation is an approach to sustainable land-use planning, which predicts the capability of the land-use system. This means that a specific land area should be under specific use, considering certain factors and characteristics of the land and its location. In other words,

Sara Kaffashi; Mandana Yavari

2011-01-01

362

ASSESSING THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN AQUATIC INDICATORS, LAND USE, AND WATER QUALITY IN FIVE METROPOLITAN AREAS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urbanization has been defined as an increase in human habitation, combined with increased per capita consumption and extensive modification of the landscape (McDonnell and Pickett, 1990). Changes in the landscape, especially urbanization, are known to affect aquatic communities (e.g., Wang et al., 1997; Scott et al., 1986; Klein, 1979). In this study, we relate the land use\\/cover classification data between

MING CHANG; CARY A. ROBERTS; ERIC C. SPRAGUE; JONATHAN G. KENNEN

363

Land-use planning in the Valencian Mediterranean Region: Using LUPIS to generate issue relevant plans  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Valencian Mediterranean Region is one of the most dynamic regions of Spain in terms of industrial–urban development, population growth and agrarian activity. Consequently, land-use conflicts (agrarian usesvs. industrial–urban uses vs. conservation uses) and environmental issues (surface and underground water pollution, soil and air pollution, soil erosion and salinisation, landscape degradation and deterioration of areas of high conservation value) are

L. Recatalá; J. R. Ive; I. A. Baird; J. Sánchez

2000-01-01

364

An innovative land use regression model incorporating meteorology for exposure analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The advent of spatial analysis and geographic information systems (GIS) has led to studies of chronic exposure and health effects based on the rationale that intra-urban variations in ambient air pollution concentrations are as great as inter-urban differences. Such studies typically rely on local spatial covariates (e.g., traffic, land use type) derived from circular areas (buffers) to predict concentrations\\/exposures at

Jason G. Su; Michael Brauer; Bruce Ainslie; Douw Steyn; Timothy Larson; Michael Buzzelli

2008-01-01

365

Effects of intensive urbanization on the intrusion of shallow groundwater into deep groundwater: examples from Bangkok and Jakarta.  

PubMed

Asian megacities have severe pollution problems in both coastal and urban areas. In addition, the groundwater potential has decreased and land subsidence has occurred because of intensive groundwater pumping in urban areas. To prevent the adverse effects of urbanization on groundwater quality, it is necessary to confirm the changes in groundwater flow and contaminant transport caused by urbanization. We examined the effects of urbanization on contaminant transport in groundwater. The research areas were located around Bangkok, Thailand, and Jakarta, Indonesia, cities with populations of approximately 8 and 12 million, respectively. Each metropolitan city is located on a river delta and is adjacent to a bay. We measured the water level and collected water samples at boreholes at multiple depths (100 to 200 m) in 2004 and 2006 in Bangkok and Jakarta, respectively. The current hydraulic potential is below sea level in both cities because of prior excess abstraction of groundwater. As a result, the direction of groundwater flow is now downward in the coastal area. The Cl(-) concentration and delta(18)O distributions in groundwater suggest that the decline in hydraulic potential has caused the intrusion of seawater and shallow groundwater into deep groundwater. Concentrations of Mn and NO3(-)-N in groundwater suggest the intrusion of these contaminants from shallow to deep aquifers with downward groundwater flow and implies an accumulation of contaminants in deep aquifers. Therefore, it is important to recognize the possibility of future contaminant transport with the discharge of deep groundwater into the sea after the recovery of groundwater potential in the coastal areas. PMID:18804843

Onodera, Shin-ichi; Saito, Mitsuyo; Sawano, Misa; Hosono, Takahiro; Taniguchi, Makoto; Shimada, Jun; Umezawa, Yu; Lubis, Rachmat Fajar; Buapeng, Somkid; Delinom, Robert

2008-10-15

366

Erratum to "Effects of intensive urbanization on the intrusion of shallow groundwater into deep groundwater: examples from Bangkok and Jakarta".  

PubMed

Asian megacities have severe pollution problems in both coastal and urban areas. In addition, the groundwater potential has decreased and land subsidence has occurred because of intensive groundwater pumping in urban areas. To prevent the adverse effects of urbanization on groundwater quality, it is necessary to confirm the changes in groundwater flow and contaminant transport caused by urbanization. We examined the effects of urbanization on contaminant transport in groundwater. The research areas were located around Bangkok, Thailand, and Jakarta, Indonesia, cities with populations of approximately 8 and 12 million, respectively. Each metropolitan city is located on a river delta and is adjacent to a bay. We measured the water level and collected water samples at boreholes at multiple depths (100 to 200 m) in 2004 and 2006 in Bangkok and Jakarta, respectively. The current hydraulic potential is below sea level in both cities because of prior excess abstraction of groundwater. As a result, the direction of groundwater flow is now downward in the coastal area. The Cl- concentration and delta18O distributions in groundwater suggest that the decline in hydraulic potential has caused the intrusion of seawater and shallow groundwater into deep groundwater. Concentrations of Mn and NO3--N in groundwater suggest the intrusion of these contaminants from shallow to deep aquifers with downward groundwater flow and implies an accumulation of contaminants in deep aquifers. Therefore, it is important to recognize the possibility of future contaminant transport with the discharge of deep groundwater into the sea after the recovery of groundwater potential in the coastal areas. PMID:19437605

Onodera, Shin-ichi; Saito, Mitsuyo; Sawano, Misa; Hosono, Takahiro; Taniguchi, Makoto; Shimada, Jun; Umezawa, Yu; Lubis, Rachmat Fajar; Buapeng, Somkid; Delinom, Robert

2009-04-15

367

Spatial autocorrelation in multi-scale land use models  

Microsoft Academic Search

In several land use models statistical methods are being used to analyse spatial data. Land use drivers that best describe land use patterns quantitatively are often selected through (logistic) regression analysis. A problem using conventional statistical methods, like (logistic) regression, in spatial land use analysis is that these methods assume the data to be statistically independent. But, spatial land use

K. P. Overmars; G. H. J. de Koning; A. Veldkamp

2003-01-01

368

Combined Impact of Spatial Scale, Land Use, and Climate on Streamflow and Water Quality  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Human activities such as urban development and intensification of agriculture change landscape profoundly and pervasively. Recognition of the strong association between land use and water quality, and between human health and clean water, has increasingly focused attention on the relationships between catchment characteristics and water quality. While most previous studies that relate water quality to land use are based on small-scale experiments, further studies are required at a wider range of spatial scale to further our understanding. In addition, very little work has addressed the dynamics of nutrient fluxes at both different spatial and temporal scales. Consequently the issue of scale in understanding nutrient behavior has been poorly addressed, particularly so for spatial scale. Therefore, this study addresses the impact of spatial scale along with land use and climate impact on water quality for 50 different catchments around the world. These catchments have a wide range of spatial scales (21 - 1.8 x 1012 m2), land uses (i.e. urban, agricultural, forest, etc.), and climates (i.e. arid, semi-arid, temperate, tropical, etc.). Specific research questions addressed are: (1) How does spatial scale affect water quality (specifically nitrogen yield)? (2) How do land use and climate affect nitrogen yield? and (3) How do land use and climate interact with spatial scale to affect nitrogen yield? First, investigating the positive co-linearity between nitrogen yield and corresponding discharge for each catchment, results demonstrate that smaller catchments have larger slopes (nitrogen yield versus discharge, herein N yield rate) and this rate decreases as catchment area increases. Second, examining the land use effect on N yield rate indicate that highly perturbed catchments (urban and agricultural) often have higher N yield rate compared to less perturbed catchments (forest and pasture) while climate tends to affect nitrogen yield rather than N yield rate. Third, a complicated interaction among scale, land use, and climate seems to affect N yield and that combined effect could go in the same direction causing an increase in N yield or in opposite directions resulting in a decrease in N yield, for instance, a small (scale) urban or agricultural (land use) catchment in a temperate (climate) region has notably higher N yield compared to a big minimally perturbed catchment in an arid region. Finally and importantly, our results indicate that degree of perturbation and -to some extent- land use of a region could be acceptably predicted on the bases of only a few measurements of discharge and corresponding N concentration measurements at a certain point (e.g. outlet of a catchment).

Al-lafta, H. S.; Gallo, E.; Meixner, T.

2011-12-01

369

The land Gini coefficient and its application for land use structure analysis in China.  

PubMed

We introduce the Gini coefficient to assess the rationality of land use structure. The rapid transformation of land use in China provides a typical case for land use structure analysis. In this study, a land Gini coefficient (LGC) analysis tool was developed. The land use structure rationality was analyzed and evaluated based on statistical data for China between 1996 and 2008. The results show: (1)The LGC of three major land use types-farmland, built-up land and unused land-was smaller when the four economic districts were considered as assessment units instead of the provinces. Therefore, the LGC is spatially dependent; if the calculation unit expands, then the LGC decreases, and this relationship does not change with time. Additionally, land use activities in different provinces of a single district differed greatly. (2) At the national level, the LGC of the three main land use types indicated that during the 13 years analyzed, the farmland and unused land were evenly distributed across China. However, the built-up land distribution was relatively or absolutely unequal and highlights the rapid urbanization in China. (3) Trends in the distribution of the three major land use types are very different. At the national level, when using a district as the calculation unit, the LGC of the three main land use types increased, and their distribution became increasingly concentrated. However, when a province was used as the calculation unit, the LGC of the farmland increased, while the LGC of the built-up and unused land decreased. These findings indicate that the distribution of the farmland became increasingly concentrated, while the built-up land and unused land became increasingly uniform. (4) The LGC analysis method of land use structure based on geographic information systems (GIS) is flexible and convenient. PMID:24130764

Zheng, Xinqi; Xia, Tian; Yang, Xin; Yuan, Tao; Hu, Yecui

2013-01-01

370

Characterization of salinity and selenium loading and land-use change in Montrose Arroyo, western Colorado, from 1992 to 2010  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Salinity and selenium are naturally occurring and perva-sive in the lower Gunnison River Basin of Colorado, includ-ing the watershed of Montrose Arroyo. Although some of the salinity and selenium loading in the Montrose Arroyo study area is from natural sources, additional loading has resulted from the introduction of intensive irrigation in the water-shed. With increasing land-use change and the conversion from irrigated agricultural to urban land, land managers and stakeholders need information about the long-term effects of land-use change on salinity and selenium loading. In response to the need to advance salinity and selenium science, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Bureau of Reclamation, Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Forum, and Colorado River Water Conservation District, developed a study to characterize salinity and selenium loading and how salinity and selenium sources may relate to land-use change in Montrose Arroyo. This report characterizes changes in salinity and selenium loading to Montrose Arroyo from March 1992 to February 2010 and the magnitude of land-use change between unirrigated desert, irrigated agricultural, and urban land-use/land-cover types, and discusses how the respective loads may relate to land-use change. Montrose Arroyo is an approximately 8-square-mile watershed in Montrose County in western Colorado. Salinity and selenium were studied in Montrose Arroyo in a 2001 study as part of a salinity- and selenium-control lateral project. The robust nature of the historical dataset indicated that Montrose Arroyo was a prime watershed for a follow-up study. Two sites from the 2001 study were used to monitor salinity and selenium loads in Montrose Arroyo in the follow-up study. Over the period of 2 water years and respective irrigation seasons (2008-2010), 27 water-quality samples were collected and streamflow measurements were made at the historical sites MA2 and MA4. Salinity and selenium concen-trations, loads, and streamflow were compared between the pre-lateral-project and post-growth periods and between the post-lateral-project and post-growth periods. No significant differences in streamflow, salinity (concen-tration and load), or selenium (concentration and load) were found at MA4 between the pre-lateral project and post-growth periods or between the post-lateral-project and post-growth periods. The statistical analysis indicated no significant dif-ferences in streamflow or salinity (both concentration and load) between the pre-lateral-project and post-growth periods or between the post-lateral-project and post-growth periods at MA2; however, selenium concentrations and loads were significantly greater between the pre-lateral-project and post-growth periods and between the post-lateral-project and post-growth periods at MA2. Land-use change between MA4 and MA2 may have contributed to the determined differences in selenium values, but the specific mechanisms causing the increases between periods are unknown. The size of the urbanized area in Montrose Arroyo was quantified for 1993, 2002, and 2009 by using a geographic information system (GIS) with imagery from the specified years. The greatest change in land use from 1993 to 2009 was the increase of urban land due to conversion from irrigated agricultural land. The conversion of previously unirrigated desert to urban land or irrigated agriculture could become more common if urbanization and development expands into the eastern part of the watershed because a majority of the un-urbanized land in eastern Montrose Arroyo is unirrigated desert. By applying GIS to the City of Montrose 2008 com-prehensive growth plan, it was estimated that approximately 786 acres of previously irrigated agricultural land will be converted to urban land and 689 acres of unirrigated desert will be converted to urban land under the plan scenario. New development on previously unirrigated land in shale areas would likely increase the potential for mobilization of sele-nium and salinity from new sources to Montrose Arroyo and the Lower Gunnis

Moore, Jennifer L.

2011-01-01

371

Land use in the Paraiba Valley through remotely sensed data. [Brazil  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A methodology for land use survey was developed and land use modification rates were determined using LANDSAT imagery of the Paraiba Valley (state of Sao Paulo). Both visual and automatic interpretation methods were employed to analyze seven land use classes: urban area, industrial area, bare soil, cultivated area, pastureland, reforestation and natural vegetation. By means of visual interpretation, little spectral differences are observed among those classes. The automatic classification of LANDSAT MSS data using maximum likelihood algorithm shows a 39% average error of omission and a 3.4% error of inclusion for the seven classes. The complexity of land uses in the study area, the large spectral variations of analyzed classes, and the low resolution of LANDSAT data influenced the classification results.

Dejesusparada, N. (principal investigator); Lombardo, M. A.; Novo, E. M. L. D.; Niero, M.; Foresti, C.

1980-01-01

372

Land use inventory of Salt Lake County, Utah from color infrared aerial photography 1982  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The preparation of land use maps of Salt Lake County, Utah from high altitude color infrared photography is described. The primary purpose of the maps is to aid in the assessment of the effects of urban development on the agricultural land base and water resources. The first stage of map production was to determine the categories of land use/land cover and the mapping unit detail. The highest level of interpretive detail was given to the land use categories found in the agricultural or urbanized portions of the county; these areas are of primary interest with regard to the consumptive use of water from surface streams and wells. A slightly lower level of mapping detail was given to wetland environments; areas to which water is not purposely diverted by man but which have a high consumptive rate of water use. Photos were interpreted on the basis of color, tone, texture, and pattern, together with features of the topographic, hydrologic, and ecological context.

Price, K. P.; Willie, R. D.; Wheeler, D. J.; Ridd, M. K.

1983-01-01

373

Selecting reasonable future land use scenarios  

SciTech Connect

This paper examines a process to help select the most reasonable future land use scenario for hazardous waste and/or low-level radioactive waste disposal sites. The process involves evaluating future land use scenarios ab applying selected criteria currently used by commercial mortgage companies to determine the feasibility of obtaining a loan for purchasing such land. The basis for the process is that only land use activities for which a loan can be obtained well be considered. To examine the process, a low-level radioactive waste site, the Radioactive Waste Management Complex at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, is used as an example. The authors suggest that the process is a very precise, comprehensive, and systematic approach for determining reasonable future use of land. Implementing such a process will help enhance the planning, decisionmaking, safe management, and cleanup of present and future disposal facilities.

Allred, W.E.; Smith, R.W.

1995-12-31

374

Projected land-use change impacts on ecosystem services in the United States.  

PubMed

Providing food, timber, energy, housing, and other goods and services, while maintaining ecosystem functions and biodiversity that underpin their sustainable supply, is one of the great challenges of our time. Understanding the drivers of land-use change and how policies can alter land-use change will be critical to meeting this challenge. Here we project land-use change in the contiguous United States to 2051 under two plausible baseline trajectories of economic conditions to illustrate how differences in underlying market forces can have large impacts on land-use with cascading effects on ecosystem services and wildlife habitat. We project a large increase in croplands (28.2 million ha) under a scenario with high crop demand mirroring conditions starting in 2007, compared with a loss of cropland (11.2 million ha) mirroring conditions in the 1990s. Projected land-use changes result in increases in carbon storage, timber production, food production from increased yields, and >10% decreases in habitat for 25% of modeled species. We also analyze policy alternatives designed to encourage forest cover and natural landscapes and reduce urban expansion. Although these policy scenarios modify baseline land-use patterns, they do not reverse powerful underlying trends. Policy interventions need to be aggressive to significantly alter underlying land-use change trends and shift the trajectory of ecosystem service provision. PMID:24799685

Lawler, Joshua J; Lewis, David J; Nelson, Erik; Plantinga, Andrew J; Polasky, Stephen; Withey, John C; Helmers, David P; Martinuzzi, Sebastián; Pennington, Derric; Radeloff, Volker C

2014-05-20

375

Land use surveys by means of automatic interpretation of LANDSAT system data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Analyses for seven land-use classes are presented. The classes are: urban area, industrial area, bare soil, cultivated area, pastureland, reforestation, and natural vegetation. The automatic classification of LANDSAT MSS data using a maximum likelihood algorithm shows a 39% average error of emission and a 3.45 error of commission for the seven classes.

Dejesusparada, N. (principal investigator); Lombardo, M. A.; Novo, E. M. L. D.; Niero, M.; Foresti, C.

1981-01-01

376

Heterogeneity and differentiation of the tree florain three major land uses in Guangzhou City, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The tree flora of humid-tropical Guangzhou city in south China was studied to understand its composition and variations. Aerial photographs identified three major urban-forest types in three land uses: institutional, park and roadside. Data on 115 064 trees in 246 species were statistically analyzed. Park and roadside areas have lower species richness than institutional forest. Park habitat has re- latively

C. Y. Jim

2002-01-01

377

Reading the Energy Meter on Development. The Interaction of Land Use and Energy Conservation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study, through a case study approach, has documented on a national basis the crucial role that urban design and land use planning have towards achieving meaningful energy conservation. With a set of study areas representative of present and future de...

1976-01-01

378

Land use land cover change and atmospheric feedback: Impact on regional water resources  

Microsoft Academic Search

Land Use and Land Cover (LULC) change, such as conversion of natural vegetation into agricultural land and urbanization, is a major global change phenomenon. Between 1700 and 2000, the global extent of natural vegetation has decreased by 45%, and agricultural land area has increased five fold. LULC change impacts hydrology by changing regional climate (temperature and precipitation) and land surface

Sanjiv Kumar

2011-01-01

379

Interaction between land use and climate variability amplifies stream nitrate export  

EPA Science Inventory

We investigated regional effects of urban land use change on nitrate concentrations in approximately 1,000 small streams in Maryland, U.S.A. during record drought and wet years in 2001-2003. We also investigated changes in nitrate-N export during the same time period in 8 intens...

380

Projecting Global Land-Use Change and Its Effect on Ecosystem Service Provision and Biodiversity with Simple Models  

PubMed Central

Background As the global human population grows and its consumption patterns change, additional land will be needed for living space and agricultural production. A critical question facing global society is how to meet growing human demands for living space, food, fuel, and other materials while sustaining ecosystem services and biodiversity [1]. Methodology/Principal Findings We spatially allocate two scenarios of 2000 to 2015 global areal change in urban land and cropland at the grid cell-level and measure the impact of this change on the provision of ecosystem services and biodiversity. The models and techniques used to spatially allocate